Sample records for anomalies suggest potential

  1. Scalar potential model of the Pioneer Anomaly

    E-print Network

    Hodge, J C

    2006-01-01

    The unexplained sunward acceleration $a_\\mathrm{P}$ of the Pioneer 10 (P10) and the Pioneer 11 (P11) spacecraft remains a mystery. A scalar potential model (SPM) that derived from considerations of galaxy clusters, of redshift, and of H{\\scriptsize{I}} rotation curves of spiral galaxies is applied to the Pioneer Anomaly. Matter is posited to warp the scalar potential $\\rho$ field. The gradient of the $\\rho$ field produces a force on matter and light. The changing $\\rho$ along the light path causes the Pioneer Anomaly. The SPM is consistent with the general value of $a_\\mathrm{P}$, with the annual periodicity, with the differing $a_\\mathrm{P}$ between the spacecraft, with the slowly declining $a_\\mathrm{P}$, with the low value of $a_\\mathrm{P}$ immediately before the P11's Saturn encounter, with the high uncertainty in the value of $a_\\mathrm{P}$ obtained during and after the P11's Saturn encounter, and with the cosmological connection suggested by $a_\\mathrm{P} \\approx cH_\\mathrm{o}$. The effect of the $\\rho$...

  2. Revisiting Gravitational Anomalies and a Potential Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Murad

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational anomalies require investigation and resolution to understand the space environment if man is to travel beyond trans-lunar or trans-Mars region. This paper will provide a framework for further and more detailed evaluations. These anomalies include, a slight change in the sun's gravitational attraction observed by two Pioneer probes based upon trajectory deviations detected after being in flight for over

  3. Waterlike thermodynamic anomalies in a repulsive-shoulder potential system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribova, N. V.; Fomin, Yu. D.; Frenkel, Daan; Ryzhov, V. N.

    2009-05-01

    We report a computer-simulation study of the equilibrium phase diagram of a three-dimensional system of particles with a repulsive-shoulder potential. The phase diagram was obtained using free-energy calculations. At low temperatures, we observe a number of distinct crystal phases. We show that at certain values of the potential parameters the system exhibits the waterlike thermodynamic anomalies: a density anomaly and a diffusion anomaly. The anomalies disappear with increasing the repulsive step width: more precisely, their locations move to the region where the crystalline phase is stable.

  4. Revisiting Gravitational Anomalies and a Potential Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Murad

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational anomalies require investigation and resolution to understand the space environment if man is to travel beyond trans-lunar or trans-Mars region. This paper will provide a framework for further and more detailed evaluations. These anomalies include, a slight change in the sun’s gravitational attraction observed by two Pioneer probes based upon trajectory deviations detected after being in flight for over

  5. Thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural anomalies for shoulderlike potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraz, Ney M.; Salcedo, Evy; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2009-09-01

    Using molecular dynamic simulations we study a family of continuous core-softened potentials consisting of a hard core, a shoulder at closest distances, and an attractive well at further distance. The repulsive shoulder and the well distances represent two length scales. We show that if the first scale, the shoulder, is repulsive or has a small well, the potential has a region in the pressure-temperature phase diagram with density, diffusion, and structural anomalies. However, if the closest scale becomes a deep well, the regions in the pressure-temperature phase diagram where the three anomalies are present shrink and disappear. This result helps in defining two length scales potentials that exhibit anomalies.

  6. Spectral action, Weyl anomaly and the Higgs-Dilaton potential

    E-print Network

    A. A. Andrianov; M. A. Kurkov; Fedele Lizzi

    2011-06-16

    We show how the bosonic spectral action emerges from the fermionic action by the renormalization group flow in the presence of a dilaton and the Weyl anomaly. The induced action comes out to be basically the Chamseddine-Connes spectral action introduced in the context of noncommutative geometry. The entire spectral action describes gauge and Higgs fields coupled with gravity. We then consider the effective potential and show, that it has the desired features of a broken and an unbroken phase, with the roll down.

  7. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    2014-05-01

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  8. Correlation of seismic and petrologic thermometers suggests deep thermal anomalies beneath hotspots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna M. Courtier; Matthew G. Jackson; Jesse F. Lawrence; Zhengrong Wang; Cin-Ty Aeolus Lee; Ralf Halama; Jessica M. Warren; Rhea Workman; Wenbo Xu; Marc M. Hirschmann; Angela M. Larson; Stan R. Hart; Carolina Lithgow-Bertelloni; Lars Stixrude; Wang-Ping Chen

    2007-01-01

    A fundamental question regarding the dynamics of mantle convection is whether some intraplate volcanic centers, known as “hotspots,” are the surface manifestations of hot, narrow, thermally driven upwellings, or plumes, rising from the lower mantle. Shown here is a global negative correlation between the thickness of the mantle transition zone (near 410–660 km depth) and petrologically determined potential temperatures of mid-ocean

  9. ORIGINAL PAPER A synopsis of suggested approaches to address potential

    E-print Network

    Gutiérrez, R.J.

    between Barred Owls (Strix varia) and Spotted Owls (S. occidentalis) Joseph B. Buchanan Æ R. J. Gutie in Spotted Owl populations over the last three decades has been the invasion of Barred Owls (Strix varia Strix varia Introduction Invasive species have the potential to disrupt or degrade ecosystems, community

  10. Organized convection ahead of a potential vorticity anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Geraint; Antonescu, Bogdan; Schultz, David; Dearden, Chris

    2015-04-01

    We present a case study of a convective band that intensified ahead of an upper level trough on September 16 2011, distinguishing the role of the upper-level potential vorticity anomaly from that of low-level forcing. The event occurred during an Intensive Observing Period of two field campaigns, providing the study with detailed measurements from the UK's FAAM research aircraft together with intensive ground-based observations. The WRF model, initialized with ECMWF analyses, was able to simulate the observed structure of the band very well, allowing its development to be analyzed in detail. The band intensified as the result of the merger of two convergence lines which originated in a frontal structure over the Atlantic the previous day, with its morphology influenced by two upper-level features: the remnants of a tropopause fold which capped convection over the south of the band, and a reduction in upper tropospheric static stability over the north of the band which enabled the convection to reach the tropopause. The cause of the band was therefore the low-level forcing (lift) which was manifest as a sharp line of veering wind below 2 km. Accurate forecasting of events such as this require such small-scale boundary-layer features to be accurately captured in the model analyses.

  11. LAAS Study of Slow-Moving Ionosphere Anomalies and Their Potential Impacts

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    LAAS Study of Slow-Moving Ionosphere Anomalies and Their Potential Impacts Ming Luo, Sam Pullen by several severe ionosphere storms that have occurred in recent years, research has been done to studying. In previous work [1-5], it was found that such ionosphere anomalies can threaten LAAS users under extreme

  12. Transient self-potential anomalies associated with recent lava flows at Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Runion Island, Indian Ocean)

    E-print Network

    Duputel, Zacharie

    Transient self-potential anomalies associated with recent lava flows at Piton de la Fournaise-potential streaming potential thermoelectric potential lava flow Piton de la Fournaise Self-potential signals describe transient self-potential anomalies observed over recent (lava flows at Piton de la

  13. Structure order, local potentials, and physical anomalies of water ice

    E-print Network

    Chang Q Sun

    2014-07-11

    Hydrogen-bond forms a pair of asymmetric, coupled, H-bridged oscillators with ultra-short-range interactions and memory. hydrogen bond cooperative relaxation and the associated binding electron entrapment and nonbonding electron polarization discriminate water and ice from other usual materials in the physical anomalies. As a strongly correlated fluctuating system, water prefers the statistically mean of tetrahedrally-coordinated structure with a supersolid skin that is elastic, polarized, ice like, hydrophobic, with 3/4 density.

  14. Moist Potential Vorticity Anomaly with Heat and Mass Forcings in Torrential Rain Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shou-Ting; Lei, Ting; Zhou, Yu-Shu

    2002-06-01

    The moist potential vorticity (MPV) equation is derived from complete atmospheric dynamic equations with both heat and mass forcings, with which the impermeability theorem of the ``MPV substance'' is proven. It is clarified that both heat and mass forcings induced by the intensive precipitation in torrential rain systems can lead to the MPV anomaly. The MPV substance anomaly is a dynamical tracer for tracking a torrential rain system.

  15. EVAREST - Evaluation of geological models by joint interpretation of potential field anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skiba, Peter; Gabriel, Gerald; Krawczyk, CharLotte M.

    2014-05-01

    Structural geological models are often based on the integration of different geophysical datasets. During the last years an increasing interest in the potential field methods, i.e. gravimetry and magnetic, can be observed, even though data acquisition can cause considerable costs and logistic effort. Therefore, the specific advantages and disadvantages of the different methods were analyzed. In a case study, which was conducted in cooperation with RWE Dea and which is located in northern Germany, it was studied to which level of detail gravity and magnetic anomalies can be interpreted jointly by 3D forward modelling. Special attention was paid to the individual residuals, i.e. those parts of the gravity and magnetic anomalies which could not be interpreted satisfactorily by the joint structural / physical model. In a subsequent stage of the workflow this information was analyzed individually for each dataset to improve the geological interpretation and to identify and localize the sources of the anomalies in more detail. For the discussed study several potential field datasets of different resolution were available, which were first analyzed by means of field transformation. While the gravity anomalies are mainly related to the occurrence of salt structures, the magnetic anomalies seem to be controlled by deep structures, most probably by the magnetic basement. Some local magnetic anomalies with amplitudes of less than 10 nT can be related to the rim synclines of the salt structures as well as to buried Pleistocene subglacial valleys. 3D forward models, constrained by existing structural information and rock physical data, have shown that, e.g., a common fitting of both anomaly fields is not possible if homogenous densities and magnetizations are assigned to the different lithological units and while considering the geometry of the source bodies to be the same for both potential field anomalies. To explain the magnetic anomalies a more detailed differentiation of the source bodies in terms of thin layers is required, while for the interpretation of the gravity anomalies vertical density gradients must be considered for specific lithologies. Furthermore, from the magnetic anomalies ideas about the maximum depth of source bodies can be derived.

  16. Developing Global Climate Anomalies Suggest Potential Disease Risks For 2006 – 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate has a demonstrated impact on infectious diseases and increased disease transmission has been linked to the El Niño/southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. The Climate Prediction Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has recently issued an unscheduled El Niño advisory,...

  17. Effect of attractive interactions on the water-like anomalies of a core-softened model potential

    SciTech Connect

    Pant, Shashank [Department of Chemical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research-Kolkata, Mohanpur-741252 (India)] [Department of Chemical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research-Kolkata, Mohanpur-741252 (India); Gera, Tarun [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi, New Delhi, 110016 (India)] [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi, New Delhi, 110016 (India); Choudhury, Niharendu, E-mail: nihcho@barc.gov.in, E-mail: niharc2002@yahoo.com [Theoretical Chemistry Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India)] [Theoretical Chemistry Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

    2013-12-28

    It is now well established that water-like anomalies can be reproduced by a spherically symmetric potential with two length scales, popularly known as core-softened potential. In the present study we aim to investigate the effect of attractive interactions among the particles in a model fluid interacting with core-softened potential on the existence and location of various water-like anomalies in the temperature-pressure plane. We employ extensive molecular dynamic simulations to study anomalous nature of various order parameters and properties under isothermal compression. Order map analyses have also been done for all the potentials. We observe that all the systems with varying depth of attractive wells show structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic anomalies. As many of the previous studies involving model water and a class of core softened potentials have concluded that the structural anomaly region encloses the diffusion anomaly region, which in turn, encloses the density anomaly region, the same pattern has also been observed in the present study for the systems with less depth of attractive well. For the systems with deeper attractive well, we observe that the diffusion anomaly region shifts toward higher densities and is not always enclosed by the structural anomaly region. Also, density anomaly region is not completely enclosed by diffusion anomaly region in this case.

  18. Spherical harmonic expansions of the Earth's gravitational potential to degree 360 using 30' mean anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Cruz, Jaime Y.

    1986-01-01

    Two potential coefficient fields that are complete to degree and order 360 have been computed. One field (OSU86E) excludes geophysically predicted anomalies while the other (OSU86F) includes such anomalies. These fields were computed using a set of 30' mean gravity anomalies derived from satellite altimetry in the ocean areas and from land measurements in North America, Europe, Australia, Japan and a few other areas. Where no 30' data existed, 1 deg x 1 deg mean anomaly estimates were used if available. No rigorous combination of satellite and terrestrial data was carried out. Instead advantage was taken of the adjusted anomalies and potential coefficients from a rigorous combination of the GEML2' potential coefficient set and 1 deg x 1 deg mean gravity anomalies. The two new fields were computed using a quadrature procedure with de-smoothing factors. The spectra of the new fields agree well with the spectra of the fields with 1 deg x 1 deg data out to degree 180. Above degree 180 the new fields have more power. The fields have been tested through comparison of Doppler station geoid undulations with undulations from various geopotential models. The agreement between the two types of undulations is approximately + or - 1.6 m. The use of a 360 field over a 180 field does not significantly improve the comparison. Instead it allows the comparison to be done at some stations where high frequency effects are important. In addition maps made in areas of high frequency information (such as trench areas) clearly reveal the signal in the new fields from degree 181 to 360.

  19. Detecting and modeling persistent self-potential anomalies from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. L. McKague; E. Kansa; P. W. Kasameyer

    1992-01-01

    Self-potential anomalies are naturally occurring, nearly stationary electric fields that are detected by measuring the potential difference between two points on (or in) the ground. SP anomalies arise from a number of causes: principally electrochemical reactions, and heat and fluid flows. SP is routinely used to locate mineral deposits, geothermal systems, and zones of seepage. This paper is a progress

  20. Event-related potentials and syntactic anomaly: Evidence of anomaly detection during the perception of continuous speech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Osterhout; Phillip J. Holcomb

    1993-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 13 scalp electrodes while subjects listened to sentences containing syntactic ambiguities. Words that were inconsistent with the “preferred” sentence structure elicited a positive-going wave (the P600 effect), similar to that elicited by such words during reading (Osterhout & Holcomb, 1992). These results suggest that (1) ERPs recorded during the comprehension of spoken sentences

  1. On the origins of self-potential (SP) anomalies induced by water injections into geothermal reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathieu Darnet; Alexis Maineult; Guy Marquis

    2004-01-01

    Stimulated fluid flow in geothermal reservoirs can produce surface Self-Potential (SP) anomalies of several mV. A commonly accepted interpretation involves the activation of electrokinetic processes. However we can not rule out electrochemical or electrothermal processes generated by the differences in chemical composition and temperature between the in-situ and injected fluids. We analyzed the relative contribution of electrokinetic, electrochemical and electrothermal

  2. Hazard potential ranking of hazardous waste landfill sites and risk of congenital anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Vrijheid, M; Dolk, H; Armstrong, B; Boschi, G; Busby, A; Jorgensen, T; Pointer, P

    2002-01-01

    Background: A 33% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies has been found among residents near hazardous waste landfill sites in a European collaborative study (EUROHAZCON). Aims: To develop and evaluate an expert panel scoring method of the hazard potential of EUROHAZCON landfill sites, and to investigate whether sites classified as posing a greater potential hazard are those with a greater risk of congenital anomaly among nearby residents relative to more distant residents. Methods: A total of 1270 cases of congenital anomaly and 2308 non-malformed control births were selected in 14 study areas around 20 landfill sites. An expert panel of four landfill specialists scored each site in three categories—overall, water, and air hazard—based on readily available, documented data on site characteristics. Tertiles of the average ranking scores defined low, medium, and high hazard sites. Calculation of odds ratios was based on distance of residence from the sites, comparing a 0–3 km "proximate" with a 3–7 km "distant" zone. Results: Agreement between experts measured by intraclass correlation coefficients was 0.50, 0.44, and 0.20 for overall, water, and air hazard before a consensus meeting and 0.60, 0.56, and 0.53 respectively after this meeting. There was no evidence for a trend of increasing odds ratios with increasing overall hazard or air hazard. For non-chromosomal anomalies, odds ratios by water hazard category showed an increasing trend of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.06) from 0.79 in the low hazard category, 1.43 in the medium, to 1.60 in the high water hazard category. Conclusions: There is little evidence for a relation between risk of congenital anomaly in proximate relative to distant zones and hazard potential of landfill sites as classified by the expert panel, but without external validation of the hazard potential scoring method interpretation is difficult. Potential misclassification of sites may have reduced our ability to detect any true dose–response effect. PMID:12409536

  3. SUGGESTIONS FOR COLLECTION AND REPORTING OF CHEMOSENSORY (OLFACTORY) EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemosensory event-related potentials hold great promise for furthering understanding of the olfactory system and the processing of olfactory information. ollection of this type of data has been difficult and suggestions are presented to aid investigators new to this field. ugges...

  4. Processes affecting the stratification-induced potential energy anomaly on the Skagit Bay tidal flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, V.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Ralston, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    On the Skagit Bay tidal flats, the stratification resulting from the buoyancy input of the Skagit River is modulated by tides with a 4 m range. Here, field observations and Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) simulations are used to evaluate the terms in the equation governing the temporal evolution of the stratification-induced potential energy anomaly (?) (Burchard and Hofmeister, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 77(4), 2008). Profiles of water density (range of 1000 to 1028 kg/m3) and velocity (up to 0.6 m/s) were measured at locations separated by roughly 600 m over a 4 by 4 km region of the flats (0.5 to 2.5 m mean water depth) for 56 days from early July (river discharge of 570 m3s-1) until late August 2009 (discharge of 140 m3s-1). The FVCOM grid of Skagit Bay and surrounding basins is forced with surface winds from a regional wind model, observed river discharge, and water level based on tidal harmonics and observed low-frequency variability. The model bathymetry incorporates numerous data sources including acoustic and LIDAR surveys performed during summer 2009. Temporal changes in ? may result from tidal straining (an effect of sheared flows and horizontally varying water density) of the depth-averaged and vertically-dependent densities, along- and across-flat advection, vertical advection, surface and bottom buoyancy fluxes, mixing, changes in water depth, and turbulent transport. FVCOM simulations suggest that the horizontal and vertical resolutions of the observations are sufficient to examine the relative importance of the terms in the equation for ?. Preliminary results suggest that temporal changes in ? primarily are owing to cross-flat tidal straining of the depth-averaged density, cross-flat advection, changing water depth, and mixing. However, model results suggest that the relative importance of the terms depends on proximity to the main river channel, river discharge, and tidal range (e.g., spring versus neap tides). Funded by ONR, NSF, and NSSEFF.

  5. Sharing of Potential Nest Sites by Etheostoma olmstedi Males Suggests Mutual Tolerance in an Alloparental Species

    PubMed Central

    Stiver, Kelly A.; Wolff, Stephen H.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

    2013-01-01

    When reproductive competitors tolerate or cooperate with one another, they may gain particular benefits, such as collectively guarding resources or attracting mates. Shared resources may be those essential to reproduction, such as a breeding site or nest. Using the tessellated darter, a species where males but not females compete over potential nest sites, we examined site use and sharing under controlled conditions of differing competitor density. Sharing was observed even when competitor density was low and individuals could have each occupied a potential nest site without same-sex sharing. Males were more likely to share a nest site with one other when the difference in size between them was larger rather than smaller. There was no evidence that female sharing was dependent on their relative size. Fish were generally more likely to use and share larger sites, in accordance with the greater relative surface area they offered. We discuss how one or both sharing males may potentially benefit, and how male sharing of potential nest sites could relate to female mating preferences. Tessellated darter males are known to provide alloparental care for eggs but this occurs without any social contact between the alloparent and the genetic father of the young. Thus, the suggestion that they may also share sites and maintain social contact with reproductive competitors highlights the importance of increased focus on the potential complexity of reproductive systems. PMID:23468853

  6. Event-related potential evidence suggesting voters remember political events that never happened

    PubMed Central

    Federmeier, Kara D.; Gonsalves, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Voters tend to misattribute issue positions to political candidates that are consistent with their partisan affiliation, even though these candidates have never explicitly stated or endorsed such stances. The prevailing explanation in political science is that voters misattribute candidates’ issue positions because they use their political knowledge to make educated but incorrect guesses. We suggest that voter errors can also stem from a different source: false memories. The current study examined event-related potential (ERP) responses to misattributed and accurately remembered candidate issue information. We report here that ERP responses to misattributed information can elicit memory signals similar to that of correctly remembered old information—a pattern consistent with a false memory rather than educated guessing interpretation of these misattributions. These results suggest that some types of voter misinformation about candidates may be harder to correct than previously thought. PMID:23202775

  7. NEURODEVELOPMENT. Shared regulatory programs suggest retention of blastula-stage potential in neural crest cells.

    PubMed

    Buitrago-Delgado, Elsy; Nordin, Kara; Rao, Anjali; Geary, Lauren; LaBonne, Carole

    2015-06-19

    Neural crest cells, which are specific to vertebrates, arise in the ectoderm but can generate cell types that are typically categorized as mesodermal. This broad developmental potential persists past the time when most ectoderm-derived cells become lineage-restricted. The ability of neural crest to contribute mesodermal derivatives to the bauplan has raised questions about how this apparent gain in potential is achieved. Here, we describe shared molecular underpinnings of potency in neural crest and blastula cells. We show that in Xenopus, key neural crest regulatory factors are also expressed in blastula animal pole cells and promote pluripotency in both cell types. We suggest that neural crest cells may have evolved as a consequence of a subset of blastula cells retaining activity of the regulatory network underlying pluripotency. PMID:25931449

  8. Impacts of cloud-induced mass forcing on the development of moist potential vorticity anomaly during torrential rains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shouting; Zhou, Yushu; Cui, Xiaopeng; Dai, Guoping

    2004-12-01

    The impacts of cloud-induced mass forcing on the development of the moist potential vorticity (MPV) anomaly associated with torrential rains are investigated by using NCEP/NCAR 1° × 1° data. The MPV tendency equation with the cloud-induced mass forcing is derived, and applied to the torrential rain event over the Changjiang River-Huaihe River Valleys during 26 30 June 1999. The result shows that positive anomalies are located mainly between 850 hPa and 500 hPa, while the maximum MPV, maximum positive tendency of the MPV, and maximum surface rainfall are nearly collocated. The cloud-induced mass forcing contributes to the positive tendency of the moist potential vorticity anomaly. The results indicate that the MPV may be used to track the propagation of rain systems for operational applications.

  9. Simulation of the flyby anomaly by means of an empirical asymmetric gravitational potential with definite spatial orientation

    E-print Network

    Busack, Hans-Juergen

    2007-01-01

    All anomalous velocity increases until now observed during the Earth flybys of the spacecrafts Galileo, NEAR, Rosetta, Cassini and Messenger have been correctly calculated by computer simulation using an asymmetric potential term in addition to the Newtonian potential. The specific characteristic of this term is the lack of coupling to the rotation of the Earth or to the direction of other gravitational sources such as the Sun or Moon. Instead, the asymmetry is oriented in the direction of the Earth's motion within an assumed unique reference frame. With this assumption, the simulation results of the Earth flybys Galileo1, NEAR, Rosetta1 and Cassini hit the observed nominal values, while for the flybys Galileo2 and Messenger, which for different reasons are measured with uncertain anomaly values, the simulated anomalies are within plausible ranges. Furthermore, the shape of the simulated anomaly curve is in qualitative agreement with the measured Doppler residuals immediately following the perigee of the firs...

  10. Sexual and postmating reproductive isolation between allopatric Drosophila montana populations suggest speciation potential

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Widely distributed species with populations adapted to different environmental conditions can provide valuable opportunities for tracing the onset of reproductive incompatibilities and their role in the speciation process. Drosophila montana, a D. virilis group species found in high latitude boreal forests in Nearctic and Palearctic regions around the globe, could be an excellent model system for studying the early stages of speciation, as a wealth of information concerning this species' ecology, mating system, life history, genetics and phylogeography is available. However, reproductive barriers between populations have hereto not been investigated. Results We report both pre- and postmating barriers to reproduction between flies from European (Finnish) and North American (Canadian) populations of Drosophila montana. Using a series of mate-choice designs, we show that flies from these two populations mate assortatively (i.e., exhibit significant sexual isolation) while emphasizing the importance of experimental design in these kinds of studies. We also assessed potential postmating isolation by quantifying egg and progeny production in intra- and interpopulation crosses and show a significant one-way reduction in progeny production, affecting both male and female offspring equally. Conclusion We provide evidence that allopatric D. montana populations exhibit reproductive isolation and we discuss the potential mechanisms involved. Our data emphasize the importance of experimental design in studies on premating isolation between recently diverged taxa and suggest that postmating barriers may be due to postcopulatory-prezygotic mechanisms. D. montana populations seem to be evolving multiple barriers to gene flow in allopatry and our study lays the groundwork for future investigations of the genetic and phenotypic mechanisms underlying these barriers. PMID:21396136

  11. A suggested procedure for resolving an anomaly in least-squares data analysis known as ``Peelle`s Pertinent Puzzle`` and the general implications for nuclear data evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Satoshi [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Modern nuclear-data evaluation methodology is based largely on statistical inference, with the least-squares technique being chosen most often to generate best estimates for physical quantities and their uncertainties. It has been observed that those least-squares evaluations which employ covariance matrices based on absolute errors that are derived directly from the reported experimental data often tend to produce results which appear to be too low. This anomaly is discussed briefly in this report, and a procedure for resolving it is suggested. The method involves employing data uncertainties which are derived from errors expressed in percent. These percent errors are used, in conjunction with reasonable a priori estimates for the quantities to be evaluated, to derive the covariance matrices which are required for applications of the least-squares procedure. This approach appears to lead to more rational weighting of the experimental data and, thus, to more realistic evaluated results than are obtained when the errors are based on the actual data. The procedure is very straightforward when only one parameter must be estimated. However, for those evaluation exercises involving more than one parameter, this technique demands that a priori estimates be provided at the outset for all of the parameters in question. Then, the least-squares method is applied iteratively to produce a sequence of sets of estimated values which are anticipated to convergence toward a particular set of parameters which one then designates as the ``best`` evaluated results from the exercise. It is found that convergence usually occurs very rapidly when the a priori estimates approximate the final solution reasonably well.

  12. A suggested procedure for resolving an anomaly in least-squares data analysis known as Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle'' and the general implications for nuclear data evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Satoshi (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States) Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)); Smith, D.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Modern nuclear-data evaluation methodology is based largely on statistical inference, with the least-squares technique being chosen most often to generate best estimates for physical quantities and their uncertainties. It has been observed that those least-squares evaluations which employ covariance matrices based on absolute errors that are derived directly from the reported experimental data often tend to produce results which appear to be too low. This anomaly is discussed briefly in this report, and a procedure for resolving it is suggested. The method involves employing data uncertainties which are derived from errors expressed in percent. These percent errors are used, in conjunction with reasonable a priori estimates for the quantities to be evaluated, to derive the covariance matrices which are required for applications of the least-squares procedure. This approach appears to lead to more rational weighting of the experimental data and, thus, to more realistic evaluated results than are obtained when the errors are based on the actual data. The procedure is very straightforward when only one parameter must be estimated. However, for those evaluation exercises involving more than one parameter, this technique demands that a priori estimates be provided at the outset for all of the parameters in question. Then, the least-squares method is applied iteratively to produce a sequence of sets of estimated values which are anticipated to convergence toward a particular set of parameters which one then designates as the best'' evaluated results from the exercise. It is found that convergence usually occurs very rapidly when the a priori estimates approximate the final solution reasonably well.

  13. Seasonal Coral Skeletal 87Sr/86Sr Anomaly As A New Potential Proxy Of Tracing Water Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Gallet, S.; Chiang, H.; Lin, I.; Chang, C.; Chen, Y.; Shen, C.

    2008-12-01

    Coral skeletal 87Sr/86Sr anomaly is proposed to be as a potential proxy of distinguishing water masses, especially in the coastal regime. A seasonal 87Sr/86Sr record for 1992-2002 from a living coral Porites head, collected in Nanwan Bay, southernmost Taiwan (21°55'N, 12°47'E), is presented, which is done by using multi-collector inductively coupled mass spectrometry with standard bracketing methods. 87Sr/86Sr ratio ranges from 0.709172-0.709180 in winters and 0.709171- 0.709203 in summers. Two features, a seasonal change of 4-40 ppm and interannual summer differences of 40-50 ppm, are discovered. By checking corresponding Sr/Ca and ?18O values, the possibility of thermal effect and fresh water income can be both ruled out. Two possible controlling factors therefore are supposed to explain above annual Sr isotope fluctuation: horizontal mixing of different water masses, and perpendicular water column flow. It suggests that the 87Sr/86Sr ratio recorded in coral skeleton may serve as a new potential proxy to decipher different water end members for further understanding modern and past ocean circulations.

  14. A least-squares minimisation approach to depth determination from numerical second horizontal self-potential anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    El-Sayed Mohamed Abdelrahman; Khalid Soliman; Khalid Sayed Essa; Eid Ragab Abo-Ezz; Tarek Mohamed El-Araby

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a least-squares minimisation approach to determine the depth of a buried structure from numerical second horizontal derivative anomalies obtained from self-potential (SP) data using filters of successive window lengths. The method is based on using a relationship between the depth and a combination of observations at symmetric points with respect to the coordinate of the projection of

  15. Bilateral growth-related protein expression suggests a transient increase in regenerative potential following brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Emery, D L; Raghupathi, R; Saatman, K E; Fischer, I; Grady, M S; McIntosh, T K

    2000-08-28

    The potential of mature central nervous system (CNS) neurons to regenerate after injury represents a fundamental issue in neurobiology. The regional expression of proteins associated with axonal elongation, such as microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B), its phosphorylated isoform (MAP1B-P), growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43), and polysialylated neural cell-adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), was examined using immunohistochemistry from 24 hours to 2 months following lateral fluid percussion brain injury of moderate severity (2.4-2.6 atmospheres) in anesthetized rats. Uninjured (control) rats were subjected to anesthesia and surgery without injury or were subjected to anesthesia alone. Within the site of maximal injury, only increases in MAP1B and MAP1B-P were observed. Increased immunoreactivity was observed bilaterally for all growth-related proteins that were evaluated. By 24 hours postinjury, MAP1B and MAP1B-P increased within the cortex (P < 0.01) and the hippocampus (P < 0.001), whereas MAP1B-P also was elevated in the thalamus (P < 0.05). Within the dentate gyrus, increased immunoreactivity was observed for all proteins examined. By 48 hours postinjury, GAP-43 was elevated bilaterally within the inner molecular layers of the dentate gyrus (P < 0.005) and within the stratum lacunosum moleculare (P < 0.01), the stratum radiatum (P < 0. 005), and the stratum oriens (P < 0.05) of the hippocampus. Increased numbers of PSA-NCAM-labeled neurons were observed in the granule cell layers of the dentate gyrus from 48 hours through 2 weeks postinjury (P < 0.0005). The bilateral nature of increased expression of growth-related proteins differs from unilateral patterns of neuronal degeneration previously characterized for the lateral fluid-percussion model of brain injury. Taken together, these results suggest the existence of a temporary posttraumatic state in which the CNS may have increased regenerative potential. Enhancement of such a response may be one therapeutic strategy in treating CNS injury. PMID:10906717

  16. Resilient RTN Fast Spiking in Kv3.1 Null Mice Suggests Redundancy in the Action Potential Repolarization Mechanism

    E-print Network

    Huguenard, John R.

    Resilient RTN Fast Spiking in Kv3.1 Null Mice Suggests Redundancy in the Action Potential in the action potential repolarization mechanism. J Neu- rophysiol 87: 1303­1310, 2002; 10.1152/jn.00556-frequency trains of brief action potentials, with little adaptation. Studies in recombinant systems have shown

  17. Changes in Paired-Pulse Facilitation Suggest Presynaptic Involvement in Long-Term Potentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul E. Schulz; Erik P. Cook; Daniel Johnston

    1994-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a use-dependent form of synaptic plasticity that is of great interest as a potential cellular substrate underlying memory. It is important to de- termine the pre- and\\/or postsynaptic locus of LTP expres- sion in order to study its underlying mechanisms. Despite intensive investigation, however, its locus of expression re- mains uncertain. It has been hypothesized that

  18. Dependence of the 0.7 anomaly on the curvature of the potential barrier in quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. W.; Al-Taie, H.; Lesage, A. A. J.; Sfigakis, F.; See, P.; Griffiths, J. P.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Hamilton, A. R.; Kelly, M. J.; Smith, C. G.

    2015-06-01

    Ninety-eight one-dimensional channels defined using split gates fabricated on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure are measured during one cooldown at 1.4 K. The devices are arranged in an array on a single chip and are individually addressed using a multiplexing technique. The anomalous conductance feature known as the "0.7 structure" is studied using statistical techniques. The ensemble of data shows that the 0.7 anomaly becomes more pronounced and occurs at lower values as the curvature of the potential barrier in the transport direction decreases. This corresponds to an increase in the effective length of the device. The 0.7 anomaly is not strongly influenced by other properties of the conductance related to density. The curvature of the potential barrier appears to be the primary factor governing the shape of the 0.7 structure at a given T and B .

  19. Evaluating transience of a potential geothermal heat flux anomaly beneath a tributary ice stream of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSanto, J. B.; Blankenship, D. D.; Young, D. A.; Lavier, L. L.; Choi, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Amundsen Sea Embayment of the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) is currently one of the most rapidly changing sectors of a continental ice sheet. As a marine ice sheet, the WAIS is in a potentially unstable configuration. In addition to known active volcanoes such as Mt. Takahe and Mt. Murphy, subglacial volcanic activity has been identified using ice layer drawdown anomalies. Drawdown anomalies are features identifiable by a characteristic radar signature and represent significant loss of basal ice. We identify several features with the geometry of drawdown anomalies in the Thwaites Glacier along an ice stream tributary near Mt. Takahe. By modeling the flow of ice along the ice stream, we assess the hypothesis that these drawdown anomalies are a coherent feature caused by basal melt that is consistent with subglacial volcanic activity. The melt rate is then used to determine the spatial and temporal variations of geothermal heat flux in the region. We discuss these variations in the context of their geologic, morphologic and glaciologic setting and their implications for local volcanism and its impact on ice flow.

  20. Seasonal growth potential of rare lake water bacteria suggest their disproportional contribution to carbon fluxes.

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, Stefan M; Pernthaler, Jakob; Posch, Thomas; Salcher, Michaela M

    2015-03-01

    We studied the seasonal growth potential of opportunistic bacterial populations in Lake Zurich (Switzerland) by a series of grazer-free dilution culture assays. Pronounced shifts in the composition of the bacterial assemblages were observed within one doubling of total cell numbers, from initially abundant Actinobacteria to other fast-growing microbial lineages. Small populations with growth potentials far above community average were detected throughout the year with striking seasonal differences in their respective taxonomic affiliations. Members of Cytophaga-Flavobacteria (CF) were disproportionally proliferating only during phytoplankton blooms in spring and summer, while Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria showed superior growth at all other occasions. Growth rates of Alphaproteobacteria and esp. Sphingomonadaceae were significantly correlated to water temperatures and were far above community average in summer. Within the genus Flavobacterium, two species-like populations showed a tendency for fast growth in most experiments, while four others were exclusively proliferating either during a spring or during a summer phytoplankton bloom. Their high growth potentials but low in situ abundances hint at a tight control by bacterivorous grazers and at a consequently accelerated carbon flux to higher trophic levels. PMID:24903166

  1. Global accuracy estimates of point and mean undulation differences obtained from gravity disturbances, gravity anomalies and potential coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jekeli, C.

    1979-01-01

    Through the method of truncation functions, the oceanic geoid undulation is divided into two constituents: an inner zone contribution expressed as an integral of surface gravity disturbances over a spherical cap; and an outer zone contribution derived from a finite set of potential harmonic coefficients. Global, average error estimates are formulated for undulation differences, thereby providing accuracies for a relative geoid. The error analysis focuses on the outer zone contribution for which the potential coefficient errors are modeled. The method of computing undulations based on gravity disturbance data for the inner zone is compared to the similar, conventional method which presupposes gravity anomaly data within this zone.

  2. A least-squares minimisation approach to depth determination from numerical second horizontal self-potential anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrahman, El-Sayed Mohamed; Soliman, Khalid; Essa, Khalid Sayed; Abo-Ezz, Eid Ragab; El-Araby, Tarek Mohamed

    2009-06-01

    This paper develops a least-squares minimisation approach to determine the depth of a buried structure from numerical second horizontal derivative anomalies obtained from self-potential (SP) data using filters of successive window lengths. The method is based on using a relationship between the depth and a combination of observations at symmetric points with respect to the coordinate of the projection of the centre of the source in the plane of the measurement points with a free parameter (graticule spacing). The problem of depth determination from second derivative SP anomalies has been transformed into the problem of finding a solution to a non-linear equation of the form f(z)=0. Formulas have been derived for horizontal cylinders, spheres, and vertical cylinders. Procedures are also formulated to determine the electric dipole moment and the polarization angle. The proposed method was tested on synthetic noisy and real SP data. In the case of the synthetic data, the least-squares method determined the correct depths of the sources. In the case of practical data (SP anomalies over a sulfide ore deposit, Sariyer, Turkey and over a Malachite Mine, Jefferson County, Colorado, USA), the estimated depths of the buried structures are in good agreement with the results obtained from drilling and surface geology.

  3. Simulation Suggests That Medical Group Mergers Won’t Undermine The Potential Utility Of Health Information Exchanges

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Eric C.; Volk, Lynn A.; Szolovits, Peter; Salzberg, Claudia A.; Simon, Steven R.; Bates, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial resources are being invested in health information exchanges (HIE), community-based consortia that enable independent health-care organizations to exchange clinical data. However, under pressure to form accountable care organizations, medical groups may merge and support private HIE, reducing the potential utility of community HIEs. Simulations of “care transitions” based on data from 10 Massachusetts communities suggest that mergers would have to be considerable to substantially reduce the potential utility of an HIE. Nonetheless, simulations also suggest that HIEs will need to recruit a large proportion of the medical groups in a community, as hospitals and the largest groups account for only 10 to 20% of care transitions in communities. PMID:22392665

  4. ISHM Anomaly Lexicon for Rocket Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Buchanan, Aubri; Hensarling, Paula L.; Morris, Jonathan; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Jorge F.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a comprehensive capability. An ISHM system must detect anomalies, identify causes of such anomalies, predict future anomalies, help identify consequences of anomalies for example, suggested mitigation steps. The system should also provide users with appropriate navigation tools to facilitate the flow of information into and out of the ISHM system. Central to the ability of the ISHM to detect anomalies is a clearly defined catalog of anomalies. Further, this lexicon of anomalies must be organized in ways that make it accessible to a suite of tools used to manage the data, information and knowledge (DIaK) associated with a system. In particular, it is critical to ensure that there is optimal mapping between target anomalies and the algorithms associated with their detection. During the early development of our ISHM architecture and approach, it became clear that a lexicon of anomalies would be important to the development of critical anomaly detection algorithms. In our work in the rocket engine test environment at John C. Stennis Space Center, we have access to a repository of discrepancy reports (DRs) that are generated in response to squawks identified during post-test data analysis. The DR is the tool used to document anomalies and the methods used to resolve the issue. These DRs have been generated for many different tests and for all test stands. The result is that they represent a comprehensive summary of the anomalies associated with rocket engine testing. Fig. 1 illustrates some of the data that can be extracted from a DR. Such information includes affected transducer channels, narrative description of the observed anomaly, and the steps used to correct the problem. The primary goal of the anomaly lexicon development efforts we have undertaken is to create a lexicon that could be used in support of an associated health assessment database system (HADS) co-development effort. There are a number of significant byproducts of the anomaly lexicon compilation effort. For example, (1) Allows determination of the frequency distribution of anomalies to help identify those with the potential for high return on investment if included in automated detection as part of an ISHM system, (2) Availability of a regular lexicon could provide the base anomaly name choices to help maintain consistency in the DR collection process, and (3) Although developed for the rocket engine test environment, most of the anomalies are not specific to rocket testing, and thus can be reused in other applications.

  5. SST Anomalies + Wind Anomalies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Greg Shirah

    2003-02-03

    Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and sea surface wind anomalies show the development of the 2002-2003 El Nino based on data from NASAs Aqua and QuikSCAT spacecraft. The wind data has been processed using the Variational Analysis Method (VAM).

  6. Potential teratogenicity of methimazole: exposure of zebrafish embryos to methimazole causes similar developmental anomalies to human methimazole embryopathy.

    PubMed

    Komoike, Yuta; Matsuoka, Masato; Kosaki, Kenjiro

    2013-06-01

    While methimazole (MMI) is widely used in the therapy for hyperthyroidism, several groups have reported that maternal exposure to MMI results in a variety of congenital anomalies, including choanal and esophageal atresia, iridic and retinal coloboma, and delayed neurodevelopment. Thus, adverse effects of maternal exposure to MMI on fetal development have long been suggested; however, direct evidence for the teratogenicity of MMI has not been presented. Therefore, we studied the effects of MMI on early development by using zebrafish as a model organism. The fertilized eggs of zebrafish were collected immediately after spawning and grown in egg culture water containing MMI at various concentrations. External observation of the embryos revealed that exposure to high concentrations of MMI resulted in loss of pigmentation, hypoplastic hindbrain, turbid tissue in the forebrain, swelling of the notochord, and curly trunk. Furthermore, these effects occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Precise observation of the serial cross-sections of MMI-exposed embryos elucidated delayed development and hypoplasia of the whole brain and spinal cord, narrowing of the pharynx and esophagus, severe disruption of the retina, and aberrant structure of the notochord. These neuronal, pharyngeal, esophageal, and retinal anomalous morphologies have a direct analogy to the congenital anomalies observed in children exposed to MMI in utero. Here, we show the teratogenic effects of MMI on the development of zebrafish and provide the first experimental evidence for the connection between exposure to MMI and human MMI embryopathy. PMID:23630110

  7. On the potential of extratropical SST anomalies for improving climate predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arun; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Skill for initialized decadal predictions for atmospheric and terrestrial variability is posited to reside in successful prediction of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) associated with the low-frequency modes of coupled ocean-atmosphere variability, for example, Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) or Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). So far, assessments of the skill of atmospheric and terrestrial variability in decadal predictions, however, have not been encouraging. Similarly, in the context of seasonal climate variability, teleconnections between SSTs associated with PDO and AMO and terrestrial climate have also been noted, but the same SST information used in predictive mode has failed to demonstrate convincing gains in skill. Are these results an artifact of model biases, or more a consequence of some fundamental property of coupled evolution of ocean-atmosphere system in extratropical latitudes, and the manner in which extratropical SST anomalies modulate (or constrain) atmospheric variability? Based on revisiting an analysis of a simple model that replicates the essential characteristics of coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction in extratropical latitudes, it is demonstrated that lack of additional skill in predicting atmospheric and terrestrial variability is more a consequence of fundamental characteristics of coupled evolution of ocean-atmosphere system. The results based on simple models are also substantiated following an analysis of a set of seasonal hindcasts with a fully coupled model.

  8. Efficacy of very fast simulated annealing global optimization method for interpretation of self-potential anomaly by different forward formulation over 2D inclined sheet type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, A.; Sharma, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    Self-Potential anomaly is an important geophysical technique that measures the electrical potential due natural source of current in the Earth's subsurface. An inclined sheet type model is a very familiar structure associated with mineralization, fault plane, groundwater flow and many other geological features which exhibits self potential anomaly. A number of linearized and global inversion approaches have been developed for the interpretation of SP anomaly over different structures for various purposes. Mathematical expression to compute the forward response over a two-dimensional dipping sheet type structures can be described in three different ways using five variables in each case. Complexities in the inversion using three different forward approaches are different. Interpretation of self-potential anomaly using very fast simulated annealing global optimization has been developed in the present study which yielded a new insight about the uncertainty and equivalence in model parameters. Interpretation of the measured data yields the location of the causative body, depth to the top, extension, dip and quality of the causative body. In the present study, a comparative performance of three different forward approaches in the interpretation of self-potential anomaly is performed to assess the efficacy of the each approach in resolving the possible ambiguity. Even though each forward formulation yields the same forward response but optimization of different sets of variable using different forward problems poses different kinds of ambiguity in the interpretation. Performance of the three approaches in optimization has been compared and it is observed that out of three methods, one approach is best and suitable for this kind of study. Our VFSA approach has been tested on synthetic, noisy and field data for three different methods to show the efficacy and suitability of the best method. It is important to use the forward problem in the optimization that yields the best result without any ambiguity and smaller uncertainty. Keywords: SP anomaly, inclined sheet, 2D structure, forward problems, VFSA Optimization,

  9. Constraints on lithospheric structure from satellite potential field data: Africa and Asia. Analysis and interpretation of MAGSAT anomalies over North Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Crustal anomaly detection with MAGSAT data is frustrated by the inherent resolving power of the data and by contamination from the external and core fields. The quality of the data might be tested by modeling specific tectonic features which produce anomalies that fall within the proposed resolution and crustal amplitude capabilities of the MAGSAT fields. To test this hypothesis, the north African hotspots associated with Ahaggar, Tibestia and Darfur have been modeled as magnetic induction anomalies due solely to shallower depth to the Curie isotherm surface beneath these features. The MAGSAT data were reduced by subtracting the external and core fields to isolate the scalar and vertical component crustal signals. The predicted model magnetic signal arising from the surface topography of the uplift and the Curie isotherm surface was calculated at MAGSAT altitudes by the Fourier transform technique modified to allow for variable magnetization. In summary it is suggested that the region beneath Ahaggar is associated with a strong thermal anomaly and the predicted anomaly best fits the associated MAGSAT anomaly if the African plate is moving in a northeasterly direction.

  10. 1 Estimating aquifer hydraulic properties from the inversion of surface 2 Streaming Potential (SP) anomalies

    E-print Network

    Sailhac, Pascal

    1 Estimating aquifer hydraulic properties from the inversion of surface 2 Streaming Potential (SP with the geometry of the water table. It follows that 11 SP measurements can be used to estimate aquifer hydraulic and found that we 14 are able to estimate the hydraulic conductivity and the depth 15 and the thickness

  11. Analysis of potential field anomalies in Pasinler-Horasan basin, Eastern Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenan Gelisli; Nafiz Maden

    This study was carried out in the Pasinler-Horasan basin (Eastern Turkey), where sedimentary rocks of the Neotectonic period (from Eocene up to present day) outcrop and exhibit considerable oil and coal potential. This basin extends approximately in the E-W direction, is surrounded by the Pontides to the north and the Bitlis Mountains to the south and its basement is of

  12. Differences between discontinuous and continuous soft-core attractive potentials: The appearance of density anomaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giancarlo Franzese; Departament de Fisica Fonamental; Facultat de Fisica

    2007-01-01

    Soft-core attractive potentials can give rise to a phase diagram with three fluid phases at different densities (gas, low-density liquid and high-density liquid), separated by first order phase transition lines ending in critical points. Experiments show a phase diagram with these features for phosphorous and triphenyl phosphite. Liquid–liquid phase transition could be relevant for water, silica, liquid metals, colloids and

  13. Potential hazards from structural and gravitational anomalies within sedimentary basins of northwest Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. P.; Wolf, L. W.; Blakely, R. J.; Sherrod, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents preliminary models based on new and existing gravity and magnetic data for two regions in the Puget Sound, Washington, area: the Bellingham basin and the Muckleshoot basin. The principle goals of the project are to determine whether and how faults mapped outside of these basins continue beneath their thick sedimentary cover. In the Bellingham basin, cross-sectional models focus on the Drayton-Harbor magnetic lineament and the Birch Bay fault. Late Holocene displacements have been observed along these structures along the western Washington coast, and analyses of magnetic data and Lidar data suggest that these faults extend eastward into the basin. Preliminary models are consistent with the inland continuation of the Birch Bay fault towards Bellingham. The new gravity data also suggest that the Bellingham basin may consist of smaller subbasins, rather than one large basin, as previously mapped. In the Muckleshoot basin, cross-sectional models focus on the possible connection of the east-trending Tacoma fault (west of the basin) and the northwest-trending White River fault, mapped to the east of the Muckleshoot basin. A connection between these two fault systems would have significant implications for hazard estimates in terms of the length and size of these seismogenic structures.

  14. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 “Bunker C” fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ? log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels. PMID:26111162

  15. Event-related potentials suggest early interaction between syntax and semantics during on-line sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Palolahti, Maria; Leino, Sakari; Jokela, Markus; Kopra, Kreetta; Paavilainen, Petri

    2005-08-26

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate interaction between syntactic parsing and semantic integration processes during a visual sentence comprehension task. The linguistic stimuli were Finnish five-word sentences containing morphosyntactic and/or semantic violations. Single morphosyntactic violations evoked left anterior negativity (LAN) and P600 components. Single semantic violations elicited a robust N400 effect over the left hemisphere. A later and weaker N400-like response was also observed in the right hemisphere, left-right hemispheric latency difference being 40 ms. Combined morphosyntactic and semantic violations elicited a P600 component and a negative ERP component within the latency range of the LAN and N400 components. Further analysis of these ERP effects provided evidence for early processual interaction between syntax and semantics during on-line sentence comprehension. The hemispheric distribution of the LAN and N400 components was taken to suggest lateralization of initial morphosyntactic parsing and semantic integration processes to the left hemisphere. In contrast, the later syntax-related P600 component was observed as being more pronounced over the posterior areas of the right hemisphere. PMID:15894426

  16. High-Throughput Sequencing of miRNAs Reveals a Tissue Signature in Gastric Cancer and Suggests Novel Potential Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Darnet, Sylvain; Moreira, Fabiano C; Hamoy, Igor G; Burbano, Rommel; Khayat, André; Cruz, Aline; Magalhães, Leandro; Silva, Artur; Santos, Sidney; Demachki, Samia; Assumpção, Monica; Assumpção, Paulo; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer has a high incidence and mortality rate worldwide; however, the use of biomarkers for its clinical diagnosis remains limited. The microRNAs (miRNAs) are biomarkers with the potential to identify the risk and prognosis as well as therapeutic targets. We performed the ultradeep miRnomes sequencing of gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric antrum without tumor samples. We observed that a small set of those samples were responsible for approximately 80% of the total miRNAs expression, which might represent a miRNA tissue signature. Additionally, we identified seven miRNAs exhibiting significant differences, and, of these, hsa-miR-135b and hsa-miR-29c were able to discriminate antrum without tumor from gastric cancer regardless of the histological type. These findings were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed that hsa-miR-135b and hsa-miR-29c are potential gastric adenocarcinoma occurrence biomarkers with the ability to identify individuals at a higher risk of developing this cancer, and could even be used as therapeutic targets to allow individualized clinical management. PMID:26157332

  17. Hydrodynamics with Triangle Anomalies

    E-print Network

    Dam T. Son; Piotr Surowka

    2009-07-13

    We consider the hydrodynamic regime of theories with quantum anomalies for global currents. We show that a hitherto discarded term in the conserve current is not only allowed by symmetries, but is in fact required by triangle anomalies and the second law of thermodynamics. This term leads to a number of new effects, one of which is chiral separation in a rotating fluid at nonzero chemical potential. The new kinetic coefficients can be expressed, in a unique fashion, through the anomalies coefficients and the equation of state. We briefly discuss the relevance of this new hydrodynamic term for physical situations, including heavy ion collisions.

  18. Hydrodynamics with Triangle Anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Dam T. [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1550 (United States); Surowka, Piotr [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States); Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-11-06

    We consider the hydrodynamic regime of theories with quantum anomalies for global currents. We show that a hitherto discarded term in the conserved current is not only allowed by symmetries, but is in fact required by triangle anomalies and the second law of thermodynamics. This term leads to a number of new effects, one of which is chiral separation in a rotating fluid at nonzero chemical potential. The new kinetic coefficients can be expressed, in a unique fashion, through the anomaly coefficients and the equation of state. We briefly discuss the relevance of this new hydrodynamic term for physical situations, including heavy-ion collisions.

  19. Genomic Alterations in Biliary Atresia Suggests Region of Potential Disease Susceptibility in 2q37.3

    PubMed Central

    Leyva-Vega, Melissa; Gerfen, Jennifer; Thiel, Brian D.; Jurkiewicz, Dorota; Rand, Elizabeth B.; Pawlowska, Joanna; Kaminska, Diana; Russo, Pierre; Gai, Xiaowu; Krantz, Ian D.; Kamath, Binita M.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Haber, Barbara A.; Spinner, Nancy B.

    2010-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive, idiopathic obliteration of the extrahepatic biliary system occurring exclusively in the neonatal period. It is the most common disease leading to liver transplantation in children. The etiology of BA is unknown, although infectious, immune and genetic causes have been suggested. While the recurrence of BA in families is not common, there are more than 30 multiplex families reported and an underlying genetic susceptibility has been hypothesized. We screened a cohort of 35 BA patients for genomic alterations that might confer susceptibility to BA. DNA was genotyped on the Illumina Quad550 platform, which analyzes over 550,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genomic deletions and duplications. Areas of increased and decreased copy number were compared to those found in control populations. In order to identify regions that could serve as susceptibility factors for BA, we searched for regions that were found in BA patients, but not in controls. We identified two unrelated BA patients with overlapping heterozygous deletions of 2q37.3. Patient 1 had a 1.76 Mb (280 SNP), heterozygous deletion containing thirty genes. Patient 2 had a 5.87 Mb (1,346 SNP) heterozygous deletion containing fifty-five genes. The overlapping 1.76 Mb deletion on chromosome 2q37.3 from 240,936,900 to 242,692,820 constitutes the critical region and the genes within this region could be candidates for susceptibility to BA. PMID:20358598

  20. Early data suggest new protocol to risk-stratify chest pain patients, potentially preserving resources without compromising safety.

    PubMed

    2015-05-01

    Early data from the study of a new protocol suggest there may be a more efficient way to risk-stratify patients presenting to the ED with chest pain so that lower-risk patients can be safely discharged rather face longer hospital stays and expensive tests. The approach, dubbed the HEART Pathway, involves using the HEART score, a clinical decision tool developed in the Netherlands, along with slight modifications including a second blood test for troponin levels. Experts say that the United States spends $10 to $13 billion per year for workups on chest pain patients when fewer than 10% are actually having an acute coronary syndrome. In a single-center randomized controlled trial, investigators found that when compared to usual care, use of the HEART Pathway resulted in 12% fewer cardiac tests, shorter lengths-of-stay, and 21% more early discharges. No patients in either group experienced a major cardiac complication within 30 days of their ED visit. Larger studies of the HEART Pathway approach are being implemented with more robust findings expected within a year. PMID:25932495

  1. Network analysis suggests a potentially ‘evil' alliance of opportunistic pathogens inhibited by a cooperative network in human milk bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan; Guan, Qiong; Ye, Chengxi; Zhang, Chengchen; Foster, James A.; Forney, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    The critical importance of human milk to infants and even human civilization has been well established. Yet our understanding of the milk microbiome has been limited to cataloguing OTUs and computation of community diversity. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report on the bacterial interactions within the milk microbiome. To bridge this gap, we reconstructed a milk bacterial community network based on Hunt et al. Our analysis revealed that the milk microbiome network consists of two disconnected sub-networks. One sub-network is a fully connected complete graph consisting of seven genera as nodes and all of its pair-wise interactions among the bacteria are facilitative or cooperative. In contrast, the interactions in the other sub-network of eight nodes are mixed but dominantly cooperative. Somewhat surprisingly, the only ‘non-cooperative' nodes in the second sub-network are mutually cooperative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium that include some opportunistic pathogens. This potentially ‘evil' alliance between Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium could be inhibited by the remaining nodes that cooperate with one another in the second sub-network. We postulate that the ‘confrontation' between the ‘evil' alliance and ‘benign' alliance and the shifting balance between them may be responsible for dysbiosis of the milk microbiome that permits mastitis. PMID:25651890

  2. Network analysis suggests a potentially 'evil' alliance of opportunistic pathogens inhibited by a cooperative network in human milk bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Sam Ma, Zhanshan; Guan, Qiong; Ye, Chengxi; Zhang, Chengchen; Foster, James A; Forney, Larry J

    2015-01-01

    The critical importance of human milk to infants and even human civilization has been well established. Yet our understanding of the milk microbiome has been limited to cataloguing OTUs and computation of community diversity. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report on the bacterial interactions within the milk microbiome. To bridge this gap, we reconstructed a milk bacterial community network based on Hunt et al. Our analysis revealed that the milk microbiome network consists of two disconnected sub-networks. One sub-network is a fully connected complete graph consisting of seven genera as nodes and all of its pair-wise interactions among the bacteria are facilitative or cooperative. In contrast, the interactions in the other sub-network of eight nodes are mixed but dominantly cooperative. Somewhat surprisingly, the only 'non-cooperative' nodes in the second sub-network are mutually cooperative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium that include some opportunistic pathogens. This potentially 'evil' alliance between Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium could be inhibited by the remaining nodes that cooperate with one another in the second sub-network. We postulate that the 'confrontation' between the 'evil' alliance and 'benign' alliance and the shifting balance between them may be responsible for dysbiosis of the milk microbiome that permits mastitis. PMID:25651890

  3. Microtopography of the eye surface of the crab Carcinus maenas: an atomic force microscope study suggesting a possible antifouling potential

    PubMed Central

    Greco, G.; Lanero, T. Svaldo; Torrassa, S.; Young, R.; Vassalli, M.; Cavaliere, A.; Rolandi, R.; Pelucchi, E.; Faimali, M.; Davenport, J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine biofouling causes problems for technologies based on the sea, including ships, power plants and marine sensors. Several antifouling techniques have been applied to marine sensors, but most of these methodologies are environmentally unfriendly or ineffective. Bioinspiration, seeking guidance from natural solutions, is a promising approach to antifouling. Here, the eye of the green crab Carcinus maenas was regarded as a marine sensor model and its surface characterized by means of atomic force microscopy. Engineered surface micro- and nanotopography is a new mechanism found to limit biofouling, promising an effective solution with much reduced environmental impact. Besides giving a new insight into the morphology of C. maenas eye and its characterization, our study indicates that the eye surface probably has antifouling/fouling-release potential. Furthermore, the topographical features of the surface may influence the wettability properties of the structure and its interaction with organic molecules. Results indicate that the eye surface micro- and nanotopography may lead to bioinspired solutions to antifouling protection. PMID:23635491

  4. Microtopography of the eye surface of the crab Carcinus maenas: an atomic force microscope study suggesting a possible antifouling potential.

    PubMed

    Greco, G; Lanero, T Svaldo; Torrassa, S; Young, R; Vassalli, M; Cavaliere, A; Rolandi, R; Pelucchi, E; Faimali, M; Davenport, J

    2013-07-01

    Marine biofouling causes problems for technologies based on the sea, including ships, power plants and marine sensors. Several antifouling techniques have been applied to marine sensors, but most of these methodologies are environmentally unfriendly or ineffective. Bioinspiration, seeking guidance from natural solutions, is a promising approach to antifouling. Here, the eye of the green crab Carcinus maenas was regarded as a marine sensor model and its surface characterized by means of atomic force microscopy. Engineered surface micro- and nanotopography is a new mechanism found to limit biofouling, promising an effective solution with much reduced environmental impact. Besides giving a new insight into the morphology of C. maenas eye and its characterization, our study indicates that the eye surface probably has antifouling/fouling-release potential. Furthermore, the topographical features of the surface may influence the wettability properties of the structure and its interaction with organic molecules. Results indicate that the eye surface micro- and nanotopography may lead to bioinspired solutions to antifouling protection. PMID:23635491

  5. Combined analyses of kinship and FST suggest potential drivers of chaotic genetic patchiness in high gene-flow populations

    PubMed Central

    Iacchei, Matthew; Ben-Horin, Tal; Selkoe, Kimberly A; Bird, Christopher E; García-Rodríguez, Francisco J; Toonen, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    We combine kinship estimates with traditional F-statistics to explain contemporary drivers of population genetic differentiation despite high gene flow. We investigate range-wide population genetic structure of the California spiny (or red rock) lobster (Panulirus interruptus) and find slight, but significant global population differentiation in mtDNA (?ST = 0.006, P = 0.001; Dest_Chao = 0.025) and seven nuclear microsatellites (FST = 0.004, P < 0.001; Dest_Chao = 0.03), despite the species’ 240- to 330-day pelagic larval duration. Significant population structure does not correlate with distance between sampling locations, and pairwise FST between adjacent sites often exceeds that among geographically distant locations. This result would typically be interpreted as unexplainable, chaotic genetic patchiness. However, kinship levels differ significantly among sites (pseudo-F16,988 = 1.39, P = 0.001), and ten of 17 sample sites have significantly greater numbers of kin than expected by chance (P < 0.05). Moreover, a higher proportion of kin within sites strongly correlates with greater genetic differentiation among sites (Dest_Chao, R2 = 0.66, P < 0.005). Sites with elevated mean kinship were geographically proximate to regions of high upwelling intensity (R2 = 0.41, P = 0.0009). These results indicate that P. interruptus does not maintain a single homogenous population, despite extreme dispersal potential. Instead, these lobsters appear to either have substantial localized recruitment or maintain planktonic larval cohesiveness whereby siblings more likely settle together than disperse across sites. More broadly, our results contribute to a growing number of studies showing that low FST and high family structure across populations can coexist, illuminating the foundations of cryptic genetic patterns and the nature of marine dispersal. PMID:23802550

  6. Applying species-tree analyses to deep phylogenetic histories: challenges and potential suggested from a survey of empirical phylogenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Hayley C; Knowles, L Lacey

    2015-02-01

    Coalescent-based methods for species-tree estimation are becoming a dominant approach for reconstructing species histories from multi-locus data, with most of the studies examining these methodologies focused on recently diverged species. However, deeper phylogenies, such as the datasets that comprise many Tree of Life (ToL) studies, also exhibit gene-tree discordance. This discord may also arise from the stochastic sorting of gene lineages during the speciation process (i.e., reflecting the random coalescence of gene lineages in ancestral populations). It remains unknown whether guidelines regarding methodologies and numbers of loci established by simulation studies at shallow tree depths translate into accurate species relationships for deeper phylogenetic histories. We address this knowledge gap and specifically identify the challenges and limitations of species-tree methods that account for coalescent variance for deeper phylogenies. Using simulated data with characteristics informed by empirical studies, we evaluate both the accuracy of estimated species trees and the characteristics associated with recalcitrant nodes, with a specific focus on whether coalescent variance is generally responsible for the lack of resolution. By determining the proportion of coalescent genealogies that support a particular node, we demonstrate that (1) species-tree methods account for coalescent variance at deep nodes and (2) mutational variance - not gene-tree discord arising from the coalescent - posed the primary challenge for accurate reconstruction across the tree. For example, many nodes were accurately resolved despite predicted discord from the random coalescence of gene lineages and nodes with poor support were distributed across a range of depths (i.e., they were not restricted to a particular recent divergences). Given their broad taxonomic scope and large sampling of taxa, deep level phylogenies pose several potential methodological complications including difficulties with MCMC convergence and estimation of requisite population genetic parameters for coalescent-based approaches. Despite these difficulties, the findings generally support the utility of species-tree analyses for the estimation of species relationships throughout the ToL. We discuss strategies for successful application of species-tree approaches to deep phylogenies. PMID:25450097

  7. Bangui Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.

    2004-01-01

    Bangui anomaly is the name given to one of the Earth s largest crustal magnetic anomalies and the largest over the African continent. It covers two-thirds of the Central African Republic and therefore the name derives from the capitol city-Bangui that is also near the center of this feature. From surface magnetic survey data Godivier and Le Donche (1962) were the first to describe this anomaly. Subsequently high-altitude world magnetic surveying by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (Project Magnet) recorded a greater than 1000 nT dipolar, peak-to-trough anomaly with the major portion being negative (figure 1). Satellite observations (Cosmos 49) were first reported in 1964, these revealed a 40nT anomaly at 350 km altitude. Subsequently the higher altitude (417-499km) POGO (Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Observatory) satellite data recorded peak-to-trough anomalies of 20 nT these data were added to Cosmos 49 measurements by Regan et al. (1975) for a regional satellite altitude map. In October 1979, with the launch of Magsat, a satellite designed to measure crustal magnetic anomalies, a more uniform satellite altitude magnetic map was obtained. These data, computed at 375 km altitude recorded a -22 nT anomaly (figure 2). This elliptically shaped anomaly is approximately 760 by 1000 km and is centered at 6%, 18%. The Bangui anomaly is composed of three segments; there are two positive anomalies lobes north and south of a large central negative field. This displays the classic pattern of a magnetic anomalous body being magnetized by induction in a zero inclination field. This is not surprising since the magnetic equator passes near the center of this body.

  8. Water: Thermodynamic and Dynamic Anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, Marcia C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-04-19

    While the majority of fluids contract upon cooling, water expands when cooled below T = 4 deg. C at atmospheric pressure. This effect is called density anomaly. Besides the density anomaly, there are more than 60 other anomalies known for water. Diffusivity is one of them. For normal liquids the diffusion coefficient decreases under compression. However, experimental results have shown that for water at temperatures below approximately 10 deg. C, the diffusion coefficient increases under compression and has a maximum. The temperature of maximum density line, inside which the density anomaly occurs, and the line of maximum in diffusivity are located in the same region of the pressure-temperature phase diagram of water. We show how simulations for water also show thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies. These anomalies are then demonstrated to be related to two length scales effective potential.

  9. Classical Trace Anomaly

    E-print Network

    M. Farhoudi

    2005-11-03

    We seek an analogy of the mathematical form of the alternative form of Einstein's field equations for Lovelock's field equations. We find that the price for this analogy is to accept the existence of the trace anomaly of the energy-momentum tensor even in classical treatments. As an example, we take this analogy to any generic second order Lagrangian and exactly derive the trace anomaly relation suggested by Duff. This indicates that an intrinsic reason for the existence of such a relation should perhaps be, classically, somehow related to the covariance of the form of Einstein's equations.

  10. Depth of principal mass anomalies contributing to the earth's geoidal undulations and gravity anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl Bowin

    1983-01-01

    To help decipher the distribution of the principal mass anomalies within the earth, an analysis is made of the earth's potential field by simultaneously considering both gravity and geoid anomalies. Ancillary knowledge about the earth from astronomical, angular momentum, seismological, and plate tectonic studies aids in deciding between deep or broad shallow?mass anomalies as the causative source of certain potential

  11. Local gravity anomalies produced by dislocation sources.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Dilatancy, in general, does not correspond to the absence of a free air anomaly, as might be suggested by the special case of a spherical source of dilatation. For two-dimensional models a cylindrical source of dilatation produces no free air gravity anomaly, dip-slip faulting produces no Bouguer anomaly, and open cracks produce a Bouguer anomaly equal to that which would be produced had the material within the crack been mined out without deforming the solid. -from Author

  12. DOWN'S ANOMALY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

    BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

  13. Mass Anomalies on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.; Jacobson, R. A.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Palguta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Radio Doppler data from two Ganymede encounters (G1 and G2) on the first two orbits in the Galileo mission have been analyzed previously for gravity information . For a satellite in hydrostatic equilibrium, its gravitational field can be modeled adequately by a truncated spherical harmonic series of degree two. However, a fourth degree field is required in order to fit the second Galileo flyby (G2). This need for a higher degree field strongly suggests that Ganymede s gravitational field is perturbed by a gravity anomaly near the G2 closest approach point (79.29 latitude, 123.68 west longitude). In fact, a plot of the Doppler residuals , after removal of the best-fit model for the zero degree term (GM) and the second degree moments (J2 and C22), suggests that if an anomaly exists, it is located downtrack of the closest approach point, closer to the equator.

  14. An Efficient Cache-Based Access Anomaly Detection Scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Lyul Min; Jong-Deok Choi

    1991-01-01

    One of the important issues in parallel program debugging is an efficient detection ofaccess anomalies caused by uncoordinated access to shared variables. On-the-fly detection of access anomalies has the major advantage that it reports only actual anomalies during execution while static analysis methods report all the potential anomalies, many of which cannot actually materialize during execution. It also has the

  15. Yukawa Textures and Anomalies

    E-print Network

    Pierre Binetruy; Pierre Ramond

    1994-12-29

    We augment the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with a gauged family-dependent $U(1)$ to reproduce Yukawa textures compatible with experiment. In the simplest model with one extra chiral electroweak singlet field, acceptable textures require this $U(1)$ to be anomalous. The cancellation of its anomalies by a generic Green-Schwarz mechanism requires $\\sin^2\\theta_w=3/8$ at the string scale, suggesting a superstring origin for the standard model.

  16. Integral formulas for computing a third-order gravitational tensor from volumetric mass density, disturbing gravitational potential, gravity anomaly and gravity disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    A new mathematical model for evaluation of the third-order (disturbing) gravitational tensor is formulated in this article. Firstly, we construct corresponding differential operators for the components of the third-order (disturbing) gravitational tensor in a spherical local north-oriented frame. We show that the differential operators may efficiently be decomposed into an azimuthal and an isotropic part. The differential operators are even more simplified for a certain class of isotropic kernels. Secondly, the differential operators are applied to the well-known integrals of Newton, Abel-Poisson, Pizzetti and Hotine. In this way, 40 new integral formulas are derived. The new integral formulas allow for evaluation of the components of the third-order (disturbing) gravitational tensor from density distribution, disturbing gravitational potential, gravity anomalies and gravity disturbances. Thirdly, we investigate the behaviour of the corresponding integral kernels in the spatial domain. The new mathematical formulas extend the theoretical apparatus of geodesy, i.e. the well-known Meissl scheme, and reveal important properties of the third-order gravitational tensor. They may be exploited in geophysical studies, continuation of gravitational field quantities and analysing the gradiometric-geodynamic boundary value problem.

  17. Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

    2003-01-01

    CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

  18. Experimental Investigation into the Radar Anomalies on the Surface of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohler, E.; Gavin, P.; Chevrier, V.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2012-01-01

    Radar mapping of thc surface of Venus shows areas of high reflectivity (low emissivity) in the Venusian highlands at altitudes between 2.5-4.75 kilometers. The origin of the radar anomalies found in the Venusian highlands remains unclear. Most explanations of the potential causes for these radar anomalies come from theoretical work. Previous studies suggest increased surface roughness or materials with higher dielectric constants as well as surface atmospheric interactions. Several possible candidates of high-dielectric materials are tellurium) ferroelectric materials, and lead or bismuth sulfides. While previous studies have been influential in determining possible sources for the Venus anomalies, only a very few hypotheses have been verified via experimentation. This work intends to experimentally constrain the source of the radar anomalies on Venus. This study proposes to investigate four possible materials that could potentially cause the high reflectivities on the surface of Venus and tests their behavior under simulated Venusian conditions.

  19. Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Lubinsky, M.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1997-03-31

    The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

  20. From amplitude anomalies to physical properties: A quantitative approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murayama; Ryuhei

    1994-01-01

    Seismic amplitude anomalies are important exploration targets for oil and gas. Bright spots and amplitude vs. offset (AVO) anomalies are especially attractive because the change of acoustic impedance suggested by a bright spot and the change of Poisson's ratio suggested by an AVO anomaly often relate to the existence of hydrocarbon. On the other hand, there are bright spots and

  1. Does Market Learning Explain the Disappearance of the Accrual Anomaly

    E-print Network

    Keskek, Sami

    2012-10-19

    for held firms than for non-held firms after the discovery of the anomaly, consistent with the conjecture that arbitrage by institutional investors reduce the anomaly. Overall, the findings are consistent with market learning and suggest that improvement...

  2. Information-Theoretic Measures for Anomaly Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenke Lee; Dong Xiang

    2001-01-01

    Anomaly detection is an essential component of the pro- tection mechanisms against novel attacks. In this pa- per, we propose to use several information-theoretic mea- sures, namely, entropy, conditional entropy, relative condi- tional entropy, information gain, and information cost for anomaly detection. These measures can be used to describe the characteristics of an audit data set, suggest the appro- priate

  3. Benchmarking Anomaly-Based Detection Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy A. Maxion; Kymie M. C. Tan

    2000-01-01

    Anomaly detection is a key element of intrusion- detection and other detection systems in which pertur- bations of normal behavior suggest the presence of in- tentionally or unintentionally induced attacks, faults, defects, etc. Because most anomaly detectors are based on probabilistic algorithms that exploit the intrinsic structure, or regularity, embedded in data logs, a fun- damental question is whether or

  4. Anomaly Detection for Cybersecurity of the Substations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chee-Wooi Ten; Junho Hong; Chen-Ching Liu

    2011-01-01

    Cybersecurity of the substations in a power system is a major issue as the substations become increasingly dependent on computer and communication networks. This paper is concerned with anomaly detection in the computer network environment of a substation. An anomaly inference algorithm is proposed for early detection of cyber-intrusions at the substations. The potential sce- nario of simultaneous intrusions launched

  5. Conscious and unconscious detection of semantic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Brenda

    2015-07-01

    When asked What superhero is associated with bats, Robin, the Penguin, Metropolis, Catwoman, the Riddler, the Joker, and Mr. Freeze? people frequently fail to notice the anomalous word Metropolis. The goals of this study were to determine whether detection of semantic anomalies, like Metropolis, is conscious or unconscious and whether this detection is immediate or delayed. To achieve these goals, participants answered anomalous and nonanomalous questions as their reading times for words were recorded. Comparisons between detected versus undetected anomalies revealed slower reading times for detected anomalies-a finding that suggests that people immediately and consciously detected anomalies. Further, comparisons between first and second words following undetected anomalies versus nonanomalous controls revealed some slower reading times for first and second words-a finding that suggests that people may have unconsciously detected anomalies but this detection was delayed. Taken together, these findings support the idea that when we are immediately aware of a semantic anomaly (i.e., immediate conscious detection) our language processes make immediate adjustments in order to reconcile contradictory information of anomalies with surrounding text; however, even when we are not consciously aware of semantic anomalies, our language processes still make these adjustments, although these adjustments are delayed (i.e., delayed unconscious detection). PMID:25624136

  6. An Analysis of the 1999 DARPA\\/Lincoln Laboratory Evaluation Data for Network Anomaly Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew V. Mahoney; Philip K. Chan

    2003-01-01

    We investigate potential simulation artifacts and their effects on the evaluation of network anomaly detection systems in the 1999 DARPA\\/MIT Lincoln Laboratory off-line intrusion detection evaluation data set. A statistical comparison of the simulated b ackground and training traffic with real t raffic c ollected from a university departmental server suggests the presence of artifacts that could allow a network

  7. Review on possible gravitational anomalies

    E-print Network

    Amador, X E

    2005-01-01

    This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15).

  8. Review on possible gravitational anomalies

    E-print Network

    Xavier Amador

    2008-09-03

    This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15).

  9. Multiple myeloma-associated hDIS3 mutations cause perturbations in cellular RNA metabolism and suggest hDIS3 PIN domain as a potential drug target

    PubMed Central

    Tomecki, Rafal; Drazkowska, Karolina; Kucinski, Iwo; Stodus, Krystian; Szczesny, Roman J.; Gruchota, Jakub; Owczarek, Ewelina P.; Kalisiak, Katarzyna; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    hDIS3 is a mainly nuclear, catalytic subunit of the human exosome complex, containing exonucleolytic (RNB) and endonucleolytic (PIN) active domains. Mutations in hDIS3 have been found in ?10% of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Here, we show that these mutations interfere with hDIS3 exonucleolytic activity. Yeast harboring corresponding mutations in DIS3 show growth inhibition and changes in nuclear RNA metabolism typical for exosome dysfunction. Construction of a conditional DIS3 knockout in the chicken DT40 cell line revealed that DIS3 is essential for cell survival, indicating that its function cannot be replaced by other exosome-associated nucleases: hDIS3L and hRRP6. Moreover, HEK293-derived cells, in which depletion of endogenous wild-type hDIS3 was complemented with exogenously expressed MM hDIS3 mutants, proliferate at a slower rate and exhibit aberrant RNA metabolism. Importantly, MM mutations are synthetically lethal with the hDIS3 PIN domain catalytic mutation both in yeast and human cells. Since mutations in PIN domain alone have little effect on cell physiology, our results predict the hDIS3 PIN domain as a potential drug target for MM patients with hDIS3 mutations. It is an interesting example of intramolecular synthetic lethality with putative therapeutic potential in humans. PMID:24150935

  10. Multiple myeloma-associated hDIS3 mutations cause perturbations in cellular RNA metabolism and suggest hDIS3 PIN domain as a potential drug target.

    PubMed

    Tomecki, Rafal; Drazkowska, Karolina; Kucinski, Iwo; Stodus, Krystian; Szczesny, Roman J; Gruchota, Jakub; Owczarek, Ewelina P; Kalisiak, Katarzyna; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    hDIS3 is a mainly nuclear, catalytic subunit of the human exosome complex, containing exonucleolytic (RNB) and endonucleolytic (PIN) active domains. Mutations in hDIS3 have been found in ?10% of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Here, we show that these mutations interfere with hDIS3 exonucleolytic activity. Yeast harboring corresponding mutations in DIS3 show growth inhibition and changes in nuclear RNA metabolism typical for exosome dysfunction. Construction of a conditional DIS3 knockout in the chicken DT40 cell line revealed that DIS3 is essential for cell survival, indicating that its function cannot be replaced by other exosome-associated nucleases: hDIS3L and hRRP6. Moreover, HEK293-derived cells, in which depletion of endogenous wild-type hDIS3 was complemented with exogenously expressed MM hDIS3 mutants, proliferate at a slower rate and exhibit aberrant RNA metabolism. Importantly, MM mutations are synthetically lethal with the hDIS3 PIN domain catalytic mutation both in yeast and human cells. Since mutations in PIN domain alone have little effect on cell physiology, our results predict the hDIS3 PIN domain as a potential drug target for MM patients with hDIS3 mutations. It is an interesting example of intramolecular synthetic lethality with putative therapeutic potential in humans. PMID:24150935

  11. New insights into global patterns of ocean temperature anomalies

    E-print Network

    Bruno, John F.

    the spatial and temporal characteristics of temperature anomalies related to both coral bleaching and disease spatial patterns in coral bleaching- and disease-related anomalies as well as for designing protected results suggest that temperature anomalies related to coral bleaching and disease are likely to be highly

  12. Exploratory and spatial data analysis (EDA-SDA) for determining regional background levels and anomalies of potentially toxic elements in soils from Catorce-Matehuala, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiprés, J.A.; Castro-Larragoitia, J.; Monroy, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The threshold between geochemical background and anomalies can be influenced by the methodology selected for its estimation. Environmental evaluations, particularly those conducted in mineralized areas, must consider this when trying to determinate the natural geochemical status of a study area, quantifying human impacts, or establishing soil restoration values for contaminated sites. Some methods in environmental geochemistry incorporate the premise that anomalies (natural or anthropogenic) and background data are characterized by their own probabilistic distributions. One of these methods uses exploratory data analysis (EDA) on regional geochemical data sets coupled with a geographic information system (GIS) to spatially understand the processes that influence the geochemical landscape in a technique that can be called a spatial data analysis (SDA). This EDA-SDA methodology was used to establish the regional background range from the area of Catorce-Matehuala in north-central Mexico. Probability plots of the data, particularly for those areas affected by human activities, show that the regional geochemical background population is composed of smaller subpopulations associated with factors such as soil type and parent material. This paper demonstrates that the EDA-SDA method offers more certainty in defining thresholds between geochemical background and anomaly than a numeric technique, making it a useful tool for regional geochemical landscape analysis and environmental geochemistry studies.

  13. SST Anomalies + Wind Anomalies (with dates)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Greg Shirah

    2003-02-03

    Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and sea surface wind anomalies show the development of the 2002-2003 El Nino based on data from NASAs Aqua and QuikSCAT spacecraft. The wind data has been processed using the Variational Analysis Method (VAM).

  14. Anomalies, Becchi-Rouet-Stora cohomology, and effective theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, J. A.

    1991-08-01

    A survey is made of the known Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) cohomology and potential anomalies in 'nonrenormalizable' effective gauge theories with and without supersymmetry. The probable existence of higher-dimension Abelian anomalies is mentioned. Supersymmetric theories have complicated BRS cohomology, but at least for N = 1 and D = 4 it appears that this does not give rise to corresponding anomalies so long as the gauge anomalies are eliminated.

  15. Limbal Fibroblasts Maintain Normal Phenotype in 3D RAFT Tissue Equivalents Suggesting Potential for Safe Clinical Use in Treatment of Ocular Surface Failure.

    PubMed

    Massie, Isobel; Dale, Sarah B; Daniels, Julie T

    2015-06-01

    Limbal epithelial stem cell deficiency can cause blindness, but transplantation of these cells on a carrier such as human amniotic membrane can restore vision. Unfortunately, clinical graft manufacture using amnion can be inconsistent. Therefore, we have developed an alternative substrate, Real Architecture for 3D Tissue (RAFT), which supports human limbal epithelial cells (hLE) expansion. Epithelial organization is improved when human limbal fibroblasts (hLF) are incorporated into RAFT tissue equivalent (TE). However, hLF have the potential to transdifferentiate into a pro-scarring cell type, which would be incompatible with therapeutic transplantation. The aim of this work was to assess the scarring phenotype of hLF in RAFT TEs in hLE+ and hLE- RAFT TEs and in nonairlifted and airlifted RAFT TEs. Diseased fibroblasts (dFib) isolated from the fibrotic conjunctivae of ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid (Oc-MMP) patients were used as a pro-scarring positive control against which hLF were compared using surrogate scarring parameters: matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, de novo collagen synthesis, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression, and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) secretion. Normal hLF and dFib maintained different phenotypes in RAFT TE. MMP-2 and -9 activity, de novo collagen synthesis, and ?-SMA expression were all increased in dFib cf. normal hLF RAFT TEs, although TGF-?1 secretion did not differ between normal hLF and dFib RAFT TEs. Normal hLF do not progress toward a scarring-like phenotype during culture in RAFT TEs and, therefore, may be safe to include in therapeutic RAFT TE, where they can support hLE, although in vivo work is required to confirm this. dFib RAFT TEs (used in this study as a positive control) may be useful toward the development of an ex vivo disease model of Oc-MMP. PMID:25380529

  16. Lunar Orbit Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riofrio, L.

    2012-12-01

    Independent experiments show a large anomaly in measurements of lunar orbital evolution, with applications to cosmology and the speed of light. The Moon has long been known to be slowly drifting farther from Earth due to tidal forces. The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment (LLRE) indicates the Moon's semimajor axis increasing at 3.82 ± .07 cm/yr, anomalously high. If the Moon were today gaining angular momentum at this rate, it would have coincided with Earth less than 2 Gyr ago. Study of tidal rhythmites indicates a rate of 2.9 ± 0.6 cm/yr. Historical eclipse observations independently measure a recession rate of 2.82 ± .08 cm/yr. Detailed numerical simulation of lunar orbital evolution predicts 2.91 cm/yr. LLRE differs from three independent experiments by over12 sigma. A cosmology where speed of light c is related to time t by GM=tc^3 has been suggested to predict the redshifts of Type Ia supernovae, and a 4.507034% proportion of baryonic matter. If c were changing in the amount predicted, lunar orbital distance would appear to increase by an additional 0.935 cm/yr. An anomaly in the lunar orbit may be precisely calculated, shedding light on puzzles of 'dark energy'. In Planck units this cosmology may be summarized as M=R=t.Lunar Recession Rate;

  17. Suggestion Reduces the Stroop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irving Kirsch; Jessica Pollard; Yael Nitkin-Kaner

    We examined the effects of suggestion on Stroop interference in highly suggestible individuals. Participantscompleted the Stroop task with and without a suggestion to perceive Stroop words as meaningless sym- bols. Half the participants were given this suggestion in hypnosis, and half were given the suggestion without the induction of hypnosis. Suggestion produced a significant reduction in Stroop inhibition, accounting for

  18. Analysis of spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

  19. Lifshitz scale anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, Igal; Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron

    2015-02-01

    We analyse scale anomalies in Lifshitz field theories, formulated as the relative cohomology of the scaling operator with respect to foliation preserving diffeomorphisms. We construct a detailed framework that enables us to calculate the anomalies for any number of spatial dimensions, and for any value of the dynamical exponent. We derive selection rules, and establish the anomaly structure in diverse universal sectors. We present the complete cohomologies for various examples in one, two and three space dimensions for several values of the dynamical exponent. Our calculations indicate that all the Lifshitz scale anomalies are trivial descents, called B-type in the terminology of conformal anomalies. However, not all the trivial descents are cohomologically non-trivial. We compare the conformal anomalies to Lifshitz scale anomalies with a dynamical exponent equal to one.

  20. Anomaly detection using topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basener, Bill; Ientilucci, Emmett J.; Messinger, David W.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we present a new topology-based algorithm for anomaly detection in dimensionally large datasets. The motivating application is hyperspectral imaging where the dataset can be a collection of ~ 10 6 points in R k, representing the reflected (or radiometric) spectra of electromagnetic radiation. The algorithm begins by building a graph whose edges connect close pairs of points. The background points are the points in the largest components of this graph and all other points are designated as anomalies. The anomalies are ranked according to their distance to the background. The algorithm is termed Topological Anomaly Detection (TAD). The algorithm is tested on hyperspectral imagery collected with the HYDICE sensor which contains targets of known reflectance and spatial location. Anomaly maps are created and compared to results from the common anomaly detection algorithm RX. We show that the TAD algorithm performs better than RX by achieving greater separation of the anomalies from the background for this dataset.

  1. A new method for gravity anomaly distortion correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liye; Li, Hongsheng

    2008-12-01

    Using gravity anomaly covariance function based on second-order Gaussian Markov gravity anomaly potential model, the state equation of gravity anomaly signal is obtained in marine gravimetry. Combined with the system state equation and the measurement equation, a new method of cascade Kalman filter is proposed and applied to the correction of gravity anomaly distortion. In the signal processing procedure, inverse Kalman filter is used to restore the gravity anomaly signal and high frequent noises firstly, then a adaptive Kalman filter - which uses the gravity anomaly state equation as system equation - is set to estimate the actual gravity anomaly data. Emulations and experiments indicate that both the cascade Kalman filter method and the single inverse Kalman filter method are effective in alleviating the distortion of the gravity anomaly signal, but the performance of the cascade Kalman filter method is better than that of single inverse Kalman filter method.

  2. Identification of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections at 1 AU Using Multiple Solar Wind Plasma Composition Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the use of multiple simultaneous solar wind plasma compositional anomalies, relative to the composition of the ambient solar wind, for identifying interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) plasma. We first summarize the characteristics of several solar wind plasma composition signatures (O(+7)/O(+6), Mg/O, Ne/O, Fe charge states, He/p) observed by the ACE and WIND spacecraft within the ICMEs during 1996 - 2002 identsed by Cane and Richardson. We then develop a set of simple criteria that may be used to identify such compositional anomalies, and hence potential ICMEs. To distinguish these anomalies from the normal variations seen in ambient solar wind composition, which depend on the wind speed, we compare observed compositional signatures with those 'expected' in ambient solar wind with the same solar wind speed. This method identifies anomalies more effectively than the use of fixed thresholds. The occurrence rates of individual composition anomalies within ICMEs range from approx. 70% for enhanced iron and oxygen charge states to approx. 30% for enhanced He/p (> 0.06) and Ne/O, and are generally higher in magnetic clouds than other ICMEs. Intervals of multiple anomalies are usually associated with ICMEs, and provide a basis for the identification of the majority of ICMEs. We estimate that Cane and Richardson, who did not refer to composition data, probably identitied approx. 90% of the ICMEs present. However, around 10% of their ICMEs have weak compositional anomalies, suggesting that the presence of such signatures does not provide a necessary requirement for an ICME. We note a remarkably similar correlation between the Mg/O and O(7)/O(6) ratios in hourly-averaged data both within ICMEs and the ambient solar wind. This 'universal' relationship suggests that a similar process (such as minor ion heating by waves inside coronal magnetic field loops) produces the first-ionization potential bias and ion freezing-in temperatures in the source regions of both ICMEs and the ambient solar wind.

  3. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis. PMID:25928681

  4. Chromium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Abundances of the chromium isotopes in terrestrial and bulk meteorite samples are identical to 0.01 percent. However, Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende meteorite show endemic isotopic anomalies in chromium which require at least three nucleosynthetic components. Large anomalies at Cr-54 in a special class of inclusions are correlated with large anomalies at Ca-48 and Ti-50 and provide strong support for a component reflecting neutron-rich nucleosynthesis at nuclear statistical equilibrium. This correlation suggests that materials from very near the core of an exploding massive star may be injected into the interstellar medium.

  5. Anomaly-induced charges in baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, Minoru; Hashimoto, Koji; Iida, Hideaki; Ishii, Takaaki; Maezawa, Yu

    2012-06-01

    We study the Skyrme model of baryons with quantum chiral anomaly of QCD in magnetic backgrounds, and suggest a possible induction of a novel structure of electric charge inside the baryons. Due to the anomaly-induced gauged Wess-Zumino term ˜(?0+multipion)E?·B?, the Skyrmions giving a local pion condensation ?(?0+multipion)??0 would produce a local charge source, in the background magnetic field B??0. Since the appearance of the total additional electric charge on the baryon looks unrealistic and surprising, we discuss the validity of our detailed evaluation of the anomaly effects.

  6. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  7. [Vascular anomalies: information documents].

    PubMed

    Philandrianos, C; Degardin, N; Casanova, D; Bardot, J; Petit, P; Bartoli, J-M; Magalon, G

    2011-06-01

    Vascular anomalies are a complex pathological group. They are composed of hemangiomas and other vascular tumors and congenital vascular malformations: venous, lymphatic, arteriovenous and capillary malformations. The management of these anomalies is difficult and must involve an interdisciplinary approach. To help patients to understand their pathology, we have made some information documents. PMID:20598795

  8. Anomalies from Immersions

    E-print Network

    Ospina, J F

    2001-01-01

    Two forms of anomalies for chiral spinors living on submanifolds of the spacetime are obtained from the integrality theorem for immersions. The first form of the chiral anomaly is the usual for chiral spinors living on D-brane and O-plane intersections, the second form is exotic.

  9. Anomalies from Immersions

    E-print Network

    Juan Ospina

    2001-08-15

    Two forms of anomalies for chiral spinors living on submanifolds of the spacetime are obtained from the integrality theorem for immersions. The first form of the chiral anomaly is the usual for chiral spinors living on D-brane and O-plane intersections, the second form is exotic.

  10. Isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.

    PubMed

    Ireland, T R

    1996-03-01

    Isotopic compositions are referred to as anomalous if the isotopic ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large isotopic anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from short lived 26Al decay. However, despite the isotopic anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large isotopic anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest isotopes of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C isotopic compositions. SiC commonly has C and N isotopic signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an isotopic signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of short lived isotopes 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these isotopic anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars. PMID:11541324

  11. Investigations of low-temperature geothermal potential in New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, D.S.; De Rito, R.; Hifiker, K.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.A.

    1981-09-01

    Temperature gradient map and published heat flow data indicate a possible potential for a geothermal resource in western and central New York State. A new analysis of bottom-hole temperature data for New York State confirms the existence of three positive gradient anomalies: the East Aurora, Cayuga, and Elmira anomalies, with gradients as high as 32/sup 0/C/km, 36/sup 0/C/km, and 36/sup 0/C/km, respectively. Ground waters from two of these anomalies are enriched in silica relative to surrounding areas. Heat flows based on silica geothermometry are 50 to 70 mWm/sup -2/ for the anomalies and 41.4 mWm/sup -2/ for bordering regional flux. A correlation between Bouguer gravity anomalies and the temperature gradient map suggests that the geothermal anomalies may occur above radioactive granites in the basement.

  12. Anomalies on orbifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew G.; Georgi, Howard

    2001-03-16

    We discuss the form of the chiral anomaly on an S1/Z2 orbifold with chiral boundary conditions. We find that the 4-divergence of the higher-dimensional current evaluated at a given point in the extra dimension is proportional to the probability of finding the chiral zero mode there. Nevertheless the anomaly, appropriately defined as the five dimensional divergence of the current, lives entirely on the orbifold fixed planes and is independent of the shape of the zero mode. Therefore long distance four dimensional anomaly cancellation ensures the consistency of the higher dimensional orbifold theory.

  13. Stellar Coronal Abundances. VI. The First Ionization Potential Effect and XI Bootis A: Solar-like Anomalies at Intermediate-Activity Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Martin Laming; Jeremy J. Drake

    1999-01-01

    Lines from different elements in the Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorer spectra of the corona of the intermediate-activity star xi Bootis A have been analyzed. Assuming that a photospheric composition for the plasma is responsible for the observed coronal emission, emission measures derived from lines of elements with low first ionization potentials (FIPs) are systematically higher than emission measures derived from lines formed

  14. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John D.

    2009-05-01

    There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5 mm/s for the NEAR spacecraft at a closest approach of 539 km, 3.9 mm/s for the Galileo spacecraft at 960 km, and 1.8 mm/s for the Rosetta spacecraft at 1956 km. Next, I suggest the change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm/yr (Krasinsky and Brumberg, Celes. Mech. & Dynam. Astron. 90, 267). The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 082004). Some, including me, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported increase that is about three times larger than expected (J. G. Williams, DDA/AAS Brouwer Award Lecture, Halifax, Nova Scotia 2006). We suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations. However, the possibility that they will be explained by a new theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation of the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  15. Semiclassical anomalies of the quantum mechanical systems and their modifications for the asymptotic matching

    SciTech Connect

    Deniz, Coskun, E-mail: coskun.deniz@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-08-15

    JWKB solutions to the Initial Value Problems (IVPs) of the Time Independent Schrodinger's Equation (TISE) for the Simple Linear Potentials (SLPs) with a turning point parameter have been studied according to the turning points by graphical analysis to test the results of the JWKB solutions and suggested modifications. The anomalies happening in the classically inaccessible region where the SLP function is smaller than zero and the results of the suggested modifications, which are in consistent with the quantum mechanical theories, to remove these anomalies in this region have been presented. The origins of the anomalies and verifications of the suggested modifications showing a great success in the results have also been studied in terms of a suggested M{sub ij}=S{sup {approx}}{sub i-1,j} matrix elements made up of the JWKB expansion terms, S{sub i-1,j} (where i = 1, 2, 3 and j 1, 2). The results of the modifications for the IVPs and their application to the Bound State Problems (BSPs) with an example application of the Harmonic Oscillator (HO) have been presented and their generalization for any potential function have been discussed and classified accordingly.

  16. Mass Anomalies on Ganymede

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Schubert; J. D. Anderson; R. A. Jacobson; E. L. Lau; W. B. Moore; J. Palguta

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of radio Doppler data from the Galileo spacecraft's flybys of Ganymede has detected the existence of mass anomalies on Ganymede that plausibly lie near the interface between the ice and silicate shells and near the surface.

  17. Earth Flyby and Pioneer Anomalies

    E-print Network

    Gerrard, M B

    2008-01-01

    Applying Newtonian dynamics in five dimensions rather than four, to a universe that is closed, isotropic and expanding, suggests that under certain circumstances an additional and previously unidentified acceleration can arise affecting the four dimensional motion of spacecraft. The reported acceleration anomalies from several Earth flybys and from the Pioneer spacecrafts are in reasonable agreement with the predicted values of this additional acceleration. Equations governing this additional acceleration have been derived from first principles, without the introduction of free parameters or new constants and without amendment to the law of gravity.

  18. The Pioneer Anomaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose A. de Diego; Darío Núñez

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the radio-metric data from Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts has\\u000aindicated the presence of an unmodeled acceleration starting at 20 AU, which\\u000ahas become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The nature of this acceleration is\\u000auncertain. In this paper we give a description of the effect and review some\\u000arelevant mechanisms proposed to explain the observed anomaly. We

  19. Insecure attachment is associated with the ?-EEG anomaly during sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eileen P Sloan; Robert G Maunder; Jonathan J Hunter; Harvey Moldofsky

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ?-EEG anomaly during sleep, originally associated with chronic pain, is noted in several psychiatric and medical conditions and is also present in some normal subjects. The exact significance of the ?-EEG anomaly is uncertain, but it has been suggested to be a nonspecific response to a variety of noxious stimuli. We propose that attachment insecurity, which is often

  20. A Review of Vascular Anomalies: Genetics and Common Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Killion, Elizabeth; Mohan, Kriti; Lee, Edward I.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular tumors and malformations are unique in that affected cells exhibit disrupted angiogenesis. The current treatment options often yield suboptimal results. New insight into the genetics and molecular basis of vascular anomalies may pave the way for potential development of targeted therapy. The authors review the genetic and molecular basis of vascular anomalies and common associated syndromes. PMID:25045331

  1. The Pioneer anomaly in the context of the braneworld scenario

    E-print Network

    O. Bertolami; J. Páramos

    2004-06-04

    We examine the Pioneer anomaly - a reported anomalous acceleration affecting the Pioneer 10/11, Galileo and Ulysses spacecrafts - in the context of a braneworld scenario. We show that effects due to the radion field cannot account for the anomaly, but that a scalar field with an appropriate potential is able to explain the phenomena. Implications and features of our solution are analyzed.

  2. Magnetic Anomalies in the Enderby Basin, the Southern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogi, Y.; Sato, T.; Hanyu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic anomalies in the Southern indian Ocean are vital to understanding initial breakup process of Gondwana. However, seafloor age estimated from magnetic anomalies still remain less well-defined because of the sparse observations in this area. To understand the seafloor spreading history related to the initial breakup process of Gondwana, vector magnetic anomaly data as well as total intensity magnetic anomaly data obtained by the R/V Hakuho-maru and the icebreaker Shirase in the Enderby Basin, Southern Indian Ocean, are used. The strikes of magnetic structures are deduced from the vector magnetic anomalies. Magnetic anomaly signals, most likely indicating Mesozoic magnetic anomaly sequence, are obtained almost parallel to the west of WNW-ESE trending lineaments just to the south of Conrad Rise inferred from satellite gravity anomalies. Most of the strikes of magnetic structures indicate NNE-SSW trends, and are almost perpendicular to the WNW-ESE trending lineaments. Mesozoic sequence magnetic anomalies with mostly WNW-ESE strikes are also observed along the NNE-SSW trending lineaments between the south of the Conrad Rise and Gunnerus Ridge. Magnetic anomalies originated from Cretaceous normal polarity superchron are found in these profiles, although magnetic anomaly C34 has been identified just to the north of the Conrad Rise. However Mesozoic sequence magnetic anomalies are only observed in the west side of the WNW-ESE trending lineaments just to the south of Conrad Rise and not detected to the east of Cretaceous normal superchron signals. These results show that counter part of Mesozoic sequence magnetic anomalies in the south of Conrad Rise would be found in the East Enderby Basin, off East Antarctica. NNE-SSW trending magnetic structures, which are similar to those obtained just to the south of Conrad Rise, are found off East Antarctica in the East Enderby Basin. However, some of the strikes show almost E-W orientations. These suggest complicated ridge reorganization occurred during initial breakup of Gondwana in the Enderby Basin.

  3. Geometries, structural features and velocity structures of the Pacific Anomaly and comparison with the African Anomaly (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; Wen, L.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic tomography has revealed two large low shear velocity anomalies in the Earth's lower mantle beneath the Pacific and Africa (we term them the Pacific Anomaly and the African Anomaly). For further understanding the origin and evolution of these anomalies, we map their geometries, structural features and velocity structures in detail. Previous waveform modeling and travel time analysis revealed that the African Anomaly exhibits a bell-like feature in the lower mantle extending to 1300 km above the core mantle boundary (CMB), and steeply dipping edges, rapidly varying thicknesses and a strong negative shear velocity gradient from -2% (top) to -9% to -12% (bottom) in the lowermost 300 km of the mantle. All those features clearly indicate that the African Anomaly is chemically distinct and geologically stable. The Pacific Anomaly, on the other hand, shows quite different features from those of the African Anomaly. Differential travel times indicate that the average shear velocity reduction inside the anomaly reaches -6% in the lowermost 300 km of the mantle and small-scale velocity heterogeneities exist inside the anomaly. On the basis of forward travel time and waveform modeling, the seismic data sampling a great arc across the anomaly from eastern Asia to southern South America suggest that the Pacific Anomaly along the great arc consists of at least two separated portions with a 740-km wide gap between them. The western portion of the anomaly extends about 700 km above the CMB and exhibits a trapezoidal shape with a negative shear velocity gradient from -3% (top) to -5% (bottom) in the lowermost 100 km of the mantle. The eastern portion of the anomaly has an 1800-km wide base and reaches at least 340 km above the CMB beneath the mid-Pacific with a uniform velocity reduction of -3%. Waveform modeling further suggests a high-velocity layer adjacent to the northwestern edge of the anomaly. The detailed structures of the transition from the base of the Pacific Anomaly to the northern high velocity zone are constrained along three perpendicular cross sections, with one across the Anomaly from New Zealand to Alaska and the others from Solomon Islands to North America. Waveform analysis suggests that the northern boundary is best characterized by a shear velocity model with low-velocity structure reaching 300 km above the CMB with its shallowly dipping edge extending beneath the surrounding high-velocity region. While the structural and velocity features of the African Anomaly can be best explained by a chemical anomaly produced early in the Earth's history and largely stabilized over the history, the complex morphology of the Pacific Anomaly, though clearly indicating a compositional origin, suggests several possible origins for the anomaly. It may similarly be a chemical anomaly produced in the Earth's history as the African Anomaly but with less intrinsic density buoyancy; it may also be accumulation of subducted oceanic crust or a mix of a primordial chemical anomaly with the subsequent accumulation of subducted oceanic crust, with the geometric features modified by mantle flow.

  4. Resolving the Cassini/Huygens relay anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.

    2002-01-01

    A test using NASA's DSN to mimic the probe's signal was performed in 2000 and uncovered an anomaly that, unchecked, would result in nearly complete loss of the Huygens mission. This led to a suggested modification to the Cassini trajectory that will result in nearly complete data return for Huygens with minimal impact on Cassini.

  5. Field Theory Model of the Flyby Anomaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Lewis

    2009-01-01

    Precision tracking of spacecraft on interplanetary missions has turned up several anomalous deviations from predictions of general relativity. The Flyby Anomaly, wherein spacecraft gain or lose energy in an earth-centric frame after an encounter with earth, is clearly associated with the rotation of the earth. The possibility that the missing ingredient is a new type of potential field surrounding the

  6. Astrometric solar system anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LABORATORY

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  7. The source of marine magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Christopher G. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Vine-Matthews hypothesis (1963) is examined. This hypothesis suggests that oceanic rocks become polarized in the direction of the magnetic field at the time of their formation, thus recording the polarity history of the earth's magnetic field. This produces the lineated magnetic anomalies on either side of the midoceanic ridge crests. The strength of these magnetic anomalies is studied to determine the strength of magnetization. Indirect determinations of the magnetization intensity of the oceanic crust and direct observations of the oceanic crust are compared. It is found that the average magnetization of a 6-km thick oceanic crust is 1.18 A/m.

  8. A Potential Link between Fluid Expulsion and Slope Stability: Geochemical Anomalies Measured in the Gas Blowouts along the U.S. Atlantic Margin Provide New Constraints on their Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. C.; Driscoll, N. W.; Weissel, J. K.; Kastner, M.; Singh, H.; Cormier, M.; Camilli, R.; Eustice, R.; Lipscomb, R.; McPhee, N.; Newman, K.; Robertson, G.; Solomon, E.; Tomanka, K.

    2004-12-01

    Geochemical, bathymetric and AUV based surveys conducted aboard the R/V Cape Hatteras in July 2004 provided new constraints on the formation of large-scale gas blowout features located along the U.S. Atlantic margin. These features, believed to be formed by gas expulsion processes, are ~4km long, ~1km wide and up to 50m deep. The stratal geometry of these features and their location on the shelf-edge has led us to hypothesize that they may indicate incipient slope failure. Interpretation from our chirp seismic reflection data, collected in 2000, showed gas generally was trapped under a thin veneer (several tens of meters) of deltaic sediments, but may be venting along the landward wall of the blowouts. New geochemical data indicate significant methane anomalies above both the seaward and landward walls of the blowouts and reveals that these features are actively venting fluids at the seafloor. Using a METSr sensor mounted on the WHOI Seabed AUV, we observed methane concentrations ranging from 50-100nM in the water column directly above the inner and outer walls, whereas typical methane concentrations in seawater are expected to be 2-4nM. Some of these methane hot spots were also associated with salinity anomalies. Additionally, pore fluids squeezed from a series of piston cores in the blowout region show relatively high alkalinity values (>4-15mM), with a near absence of hydrogen sulfide. These initial results are particularly intriguing since high alkalinity concentrations are commonly associated with high sulfide concentrations. We speculate that there may be a flux of CO2 into the sediments that may be responsible for the high alkalinity and low sulfide. In addition to our geochemical studies, we collected a full suite of bottom photographs, gravity cores, and high resolution bathymetry. Visualization of these data in three dimensions, along with methane concentration profiles, chirp reflection, and sidescan-sonar data has enabled us to build a relatively comprehensive picture of the blowout features. There are strong spatial correlations between trapped gas and the overlying shelf-edge delta deposit, as well as with relatively high methane concentrations in the water column, and indications of inner wall venting in the chirp profiles. Nevertheless, a distinct spatial correlation between the occurrence of biological communities and the fluid expulsion sites was not observed. The active fluid expulsion we measured is consistent with our geophysical observations, and supports our hypothesis that there is a link between upslope fluid migration, downslope creep, and potential slope failure.

  9. Undermining an Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection System Using Common Exploits

    E-print Network

    Maxion, Roy

    Undermining an Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection System Using Common Exploits Kymie M.C. Tan, Kevin-Mellon University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 USA Abstract. Over the past decade many anomaly-detection, and suggests possible improvements for existing and future anomaly-based intrusion detection systems. 1

  10. Expression and/or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter may be decreased in many aggressive cancers, suggesting potential utility for sodium bicarbonate and dehydroascorbic acid in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2013-10-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimer transcription factor whose elevated activity in many cancers helps them to survive under hypoxic conditions and enhances their capacity to grow invasively, establish metastases, and survive chemo- or radiotherapy. Optimal intracellular levels of ascorbate suppress the level and transcriptional activity of HIF-1under normoxic or mildly hypoxic conditions by supporting the activity of proly and asparagyl hydroxylases that target HIF-1alpha. High intracellular ascorbate can also work in various ways to down-regulate activation of NF-kappaB which, like HIF-1 is constitutively active in many cancers and promotes aggressive behavior - in part by promoting transcription of HIF-1alpha. Yet recent evidence suggests that, even in the context of adequate ascorbate nutrition, the intracellular ascorbate content of many aggressive cancers may be supoptimal for effective HIF-1 control. This likely reflects low expression or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter. The expression of SVCT2 in cancers has so far received little study; but the extracellular acidity characteristic of many tumors would be expected to reduce the activity of this transporter, which has a mildly alkaline pH optimum. Unfortunately, since SVCT2 has a high affinity for ascorbate, and its activity is nearly saturated at normal healthy serum levels of this vitamin, increased oral administration of ascorbate would be unlikely to have much impact on the intracellular ascorbate content of tumors. However, cancers in which HIF-1 is active express high levels of glucose transporters such as GLUT-1, and these transporters can promote influx of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) via facilitated diffusion; once inside the cell, DHA is rapidly reduced to ascorbate, which effectively is "trapped" within the cell. Hence, episodic intravenous infusions of modest doses of DHA may have potential for optimizing the intracellular ascorbate content of cancers, potentially rendering them less aggressive. Indeed, several published studies have concluded that parenteral DHA--sometimes in quite modest doses--can retard the growth of transplanted tumors in rodents. As an alternative or adjunctive strategy, oral administration of sodium bicarbonate, by normalizing the extracellular pH of tumors, has the potential to boost the activity of SCTV2 in tumor cells, thereby promoting increased ascorbate uptake. Indeed, the utility of oral sodium bicarbonate for suppressing metastasis formation in nude mice xenografted with a human breast cancer has been reported. Hence, oral sodium bicarbonate and intravenous DHA may have the potential to blunt the aggressiveness of certain cancers in which suboptimal intracellular ascorbate levels contribute to elevated HIF-1 activity. PMID:23916956

  11. An Analysis of the 1999 DARPA/Lincoln Laboratory Evaluation Data for Network Anomaly Detection

    E-print Network

    Somayaji, Anil

    An Analysis of the 1999 DARPA/Lincoln Laboratory Evaluation Data for Network Anomaly Detection TR investigate potential simulation artifacts and their effects on the evaluation of network anomaly detection traffic into the simulation. We compare five anomaly detection algorithms on simulated and mixed traffic

  12. Cerebral developmental venous anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego San Millán Ruíz; Philippe Gailloud

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  Cerebral developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are the most frequently encountered cerebral vascular malformation. As such,\\u000a they are often observed incidentally during routine CT and MRI studies. Yet, what DVAs represent from a clinical perspective\\u000a is frequently not common knowledge and DVAs, therefore, still generate uncertainty and concern amongst physicians. This article\\u000a reviews our current understanding of developmental venous anomalies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In

  13. Are Flyby Anomalies an ASTG Phenomenon?

    E-print Network

    G. G. Nyambuya

    2010-05-07

    This reading expounds with expediency on the recently proposed Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation (ASTG) set-up earlier. At its inspection, it was demonstrated that the ASTG is capable (among others solar anomalies) of explaining the precession of the perihelion of solar planets. In the present, we show that the ASTG is capable of explaining the puzzling observations of flyby anomalies, i.e. the anomalous asymptotic speed increases of the osculating hyperbolic speed excess. It is shown that these flyby anomalies occur naturally in the ASTG. We derive the empirical formula proposed by Anderson et al. in 2008, which up to now has no physical or foundational basis except that experience suggest it. If the ASTG model is correct, then for the first time the Anderson et al. formula is given a physical meaning.

  14. Hyperbolic Orbits and the Planetary Flylby Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Blome, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Space probes in the Solar System have experienced unexpected changes in velocity known as the flyby anomaly [1], as well as shifts in acceleration referred to as the Pioneer anomaly [2-4]. In the case of Earth flybys, ESA s Rosetta spacecraft experienced the flyby effect and NASA s Galileo and NEAR satellites did the same, although MESSENGER did not possibly due to a latitudinal property of gravity assists. Measurements indicate that both anomalies exist, and explanations have varied from the unconventional to suggestions that new physics in the form of dark matter might be the cause of both [5]. Although dark matter has been studied for over 30 years, there is as yet no strong experimental evidence supporting it [6]. The existence of dark matter will certainly have a significant impact upon ideas regarding the origin of the Solar System. Hence, the subject is very relevant to planetary science. We will point out here that one of the fundamental problems in science, including planetary physics, is consistency. Using the well-known virial theorem in astrophysics, it will be shown that present-day concepts of orbital mechanics and cosmology are not consistent for reasons having to do with the flyby anomaly. Therefore, the basic solution regarding the anomalies should begin with addressing the inconsistencies first before introducing new physics.

  15. The Hubble Space Telescope attitude observer anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Arsdall, Morgan M.; Ramsey, Patrick R.; Swain, Scott R.

    2006-06-01

    In mid-2004, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) began experiencing occasional losses of lock during Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) guide star acquisitions, threatening a potential loss of science. These failures were associated with an increasing disparity between the FGS-derived estimates of gyro bias calculated in orbit day and those calculated in orbit night. Early efforts to mitigate the operational effects of this Attitude Observer Anomaly (AOA) succeeded; however, the magnitude of the anomaly continued to increase at a linear rate and operational problems resumed in mid-2005. Continued analysis led to an additional on-orbit mitigation strategy that succeeded in reducing the AOA signature. Before the investigation could be completed, HST began operations under the life-extending Two Gyro Science mode. This eliminated both the operational effects of and the visibility into the AOA phenomenon. Possible causes of the anomaly at the vehicle system level included component hardware failures, flight software errors in control law processing, distortion of the telescope optical path, and deformation of vehicle structure. Although the mechanism of the AOA was not definitively identified, the Anomaly Review Board (ARB) chartered to investigate the anomaly concluded that the most likely root cause lies within one of HST's 6 rate-integrating gyroscopes. This paper provides a summary of the initial paths of investigation, the analysis and testing performed to attempt to isolate the source, and a review of the findings of the ARB. The possibility of future operational impacts and available methods of on-orbit mitigation are also addressed.

  16. Multidetector CT urography of renal fusion anomalies.

    PubMed

    Türkvatan, Aysel; Olçer, Tülay; Cumhur, Turhan

    2009-06-01

    Renal fusion anomalies, in which both kidneys are fused togeher in early embyronic life, are rarely encountered. Once a fused kidney is diagnosed or suspected, further laboratory and imaging evaluation should be performed to assess the status of the kidneys and to look for treatable causes of renal pathology. The early dignosis of potential complications that can accompany this anomaly must be made in order to prevent permanent renal damage. The advantage of multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) urography is its ability to depict the normal urinary tract anatomy, including both the renal parenchyma, and collecting structures and ureters. MDCT urography is helpful to screen for the presence of stones, hydronephrosis or masses. Additionally, it provides information about the vascular supply of the fused kidneys. Therefore, MDCT urography enables a comprehensive evaluation of patients with renal fusion anomalies in a single examination. Especially three-dimensional reformatted images can provide good delineation of congenital fusion anomalies of the kidney. In this study we report our experience with MDCT urography for the anatomic demonstration of renal fusion anomalies. PMID:19517383

  17. Gravity Anomaly Simulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. F. Gerrard; L. Strickland; A. L. Wade; H. K. Reynolds

    1957-01-01

    An instrument that will simulate the anomalous gravity effects of a subsurface body, having a density differing from that of its surroundings, is described. The device makes use of the similarity between the gravity equation and Lambert's cosine ? law, and enables the geophysicist to synthesize the anomaly producing body in a time much shorter than that required for conventional

  18. The Flyby Anomaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claus Lämmerzahl; Hansjörg Dittus

    2008-01-01

    At various occasions a significant unexplained velocity increase by a few mm\\/s of satellites after an Earth swing-by has been observed what is called the flyby anomaly. We discuss the validity of these observations and discuss general features.

  19. Orbital Anomalies FLORIN DIACU

    E-print Network

    Diacu, Florin

    other parameters beyond gravita- tion, such as magnetic effects and solar wind. To know the exact they understand gravity at all. The Pioneer Anomaly On March 2, 1972, Pioneer 10 was launched from Cape Canaveral cosmic rays, magnetic fields, solar wind, neutral hydrogen, dust particles; the Jovian aurorae, radio

  20. Anomaly detection for diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy A. Maxion

    1990-01-01

    The author presents a method for detecting anomalous events in communication networks and other similarly characterized environments in which performance anomalies are indicative of failure. The methodology, based on automatically learning the difference between normal and abnormal behavior, has been implemented as part of an automated diagnosis system from which performance results are drawn and presented. The dynamic nature of

  1. Anomaly detection: A survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varun Chandola; Arindam Banerjee; Vipin Kumar

    2009-01-01

    to difierentiate between normal and anomalous behavior. When applying a given technique to a particular domain, these assumptions can be used as guidelines to assess the efiectiveness of the technique in that domain. For each category, we provide a basic anomaly detection technique, and then show how the difierent existing techniques in that category are variants of the basic tech-

  2. A Principled Anomalies as

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    Erik M. Ferragut (ferragutem@ornl.gov) Jason Laska (laskaja@ornl.gov) Robert A. Bridges (bridgesra@ornl Application Conclusion Cyber Operational Challenge Question. How can intrusions be detected in an enterprise as Rare Events Anomaly Definition Main Theorem Application Conclusion Cyber Data and Requirements Cyber

  3. Earth Flyby and Pioneer Anomalies

    E-print Network

    M. B. Gerrard; T. J. Sumner

    2010-04-09

    Applying Newtonian dynamics in five dimensions rather than four, to a universe that is closed, isotropic and expanding,suggests that under certain circumstances an additional and previously unidentified acceleration, a_A, can arise affecting the four dimensional motion of spacecraft. The two cases of this acceleration being either real or virtual are considered. In the real case, simple estimates of a_A are shown to be in partial agreement with reported acceleration anomalies from several Earth flybys and from the Pioneer spacecraft. However, these estimates do not fully reconcile with radio Doppler tracking data. The virtual case, by contrast, appears to overcome these and other difficulties with the real case, and is discussed in an addendum. Furthermore, the virtual case has an altitude dependence which makes detection of any anomaly unlikely above ~2000 km. Equations governing this additional acceleration have been derived from first principles, without the introduction of free parameters or new constants and without amendment to the law of gravity.

  4. Congenital Vascular Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Gravereaux, Edwin C.; Nguyen, Louis L.; Cunningham, Leslie D.

    2004-04-01

    Congenital vascular anomalies are rare. The cardiovascular specialist should nevertheless be aware of the more common types of vascular anomalies and understand the implications for patient treatment and the likelihood of associated morbidity. The presentation of congenital arteriovenous malformations can range from asymptomatic or cosmetic lesions, to those causing ischemia, ulceration, hemorrhage, or high-output congestive heart failure. Treatment of large, symptomatic arteriovenous malformations often requires catheter-directed embolization prior to the attempt at complete surgical excision. Later recurrence, due to collateral recruitment, is frequent. Graded compression stockings and leg elevation are the mainstays of treatment for the predominantly venous congenital vascular anomalies. Most congenital central venous disorders are clinically silent. An exception is the retrocaval ureter. Retroaortic left renal vein, circumaortic venous ring, and absent, left-sided or duplicated inferior vena cava are relevant when aortic or inferior vena cava procedures are planned. The treatment of the venous disorders is directed at prevention or management of symptoms. Persistent sciatic artery, popliteal entrapment syndrome, and aberrant right subclavian artery origin are congenital anomalies that are typically symptomatic at presentation. Because they mimic more common diseases, diagnosis is frequently delayed. Delay can result in significant morbidity for the patient. Failure to make the diagnosis of persistent sciatic artery and popliteal entrapment can result in critical limb ischemia and subsequent amputation. Unrecognized aberrant right subclavian artery origin associated with aneurysmal degeneration can rupture and result in death. The treatment options for large-vessel arterial anomalies are surgical, sometimes in combination with endovascular techniques. PMID:15066242

  5. Anomaly-safe discrete groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Fallbacher, Maximilian; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas; Vaudrevange, Patrick K. S.

    2015-07-01

    We show that there is a class of finite groups, the so-called perfect groups, which cannot exhibit anomalies. This implies that all non-Abelian finite simple groups are anomaly-free. On the other hand, non-perfect groups generically suffer from anomalies. We present two different ways that allow one to understand these statements.

  6. Global Climate Highlights and Anomalies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NOAA's Global Climate Highlights and Anomalies page offers weekly summaries of global climate highlights and anomalies (warm, cold, wet, dry). Areas experiencing climate anomalies are color-marked on a global map, followed by written summaries of each region's climate conditions. All weeks are posted for the year 2000 (to present), and a link points users to the complete 1999 archive.

  7. Vascular Anomalies and Airway Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Caroline; Lee, Edward I.; Edmonds, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies, both tumors and malformations, can occur anywhere in the body, including the airway, often without any external manifestations. However, vascular anomalies involving the airway deserve special consideration as proper recognition and management can be lifesaving. In this article, the authors discuss vascular anomalies as they pertains to the airway, focusing on proper diagnosis, diagnostic modalities, and therapeutic options. PMID:25045336

  8. Probing the Chiral Anomaly with Nonlocal Transport in Three-Dimensional Topological Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswaran, S. A.; Grover, T.; Abanin, D. A.; Pesin, D. A.; Vishwanath, A.

    2014-07-01

    Weyl semimetals are three-dimensional crystalline systems where pairs of bands touch at points in momentum space, termed Weyl nodes, that are characterized by a definite topological charge: the chirality. Consequently, they exhibit the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly, which in this condensed-matter realization implies that the application of parallel electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields pumps electrons between nodes of opposite chirality at a rate proportional to E .B. We argue that this pumping is measurable via nonlocal transport experiments, in the limit of weak internode scattering. Specifically, we show that as a consequence of the anomaly, applying a local magnetic field parallel to an injected current induces a valley imbalance that diffuses over long distances. A probe magnetic field can then convert this imbalance into a measurable voltage drop far from source and drain. Such nonlocal transport vanishes when the injected current and magnetic field are orthogonal and therefore serves as a test of the chiral anomaly. We further demonstrate that a similar effect should also characterize Dirac semimetals—recently reported to have been observed in experiments—where the coexistence of a pair of Weyl nodes at a single point in the Brillouin zone is protected by a crystal symmetry. Since the nodes are analogous to valley degrees of freedom in semiconductors, the existence of the anomaly suggests that valley currents in three-dimensional topological semimetals can be controlled using electric fields, which has potential practical "valleytronic" applications.

  9. Maternal water consumption during pregnancy and congenital cardiac anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, G.M.; Swan, S.H.; Harris, J.A.; Malcoe, L.H. (California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville (USA))

    1990-05-01

    This case-control study, conducted in a California county that had a local incident of water contamination in 1981, investigated the relation between a mother's reported consumption of tap water during pregnancy and congenital cardiac anomalies in their offspring born during 1981-1983. Data were obtained from telephone interviews with 145 mothers of children born with a severe cardiac anomaly and 176 mothers of children born without such an anomaly. A positive association between a mother's consumption of home tap water during the first trimester of pregnancy and cardiac anomalies in her infant was unrelated to the incident of water contamination, the mother's race, or her educational level. A negative relation was found between a mother's use of bottled water and cardiac anomalies among the infants. These findings corresponded primarily to births in 1981. These data could not fully distinguish between a potential causal agent in the water and differential reporting of exposure by study subjects.

  10. Imaging the East Asian lower mantle water anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysession, M. E.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2005-12-01

    Using the first global whole-mantle 3D model of shear quality factor, we identify a large region at the top of Earth's lower mantle with unusually high seismic attenuation. This anomaly, found down-dip of western Pacific subduction zones 700-1500 km beneath eastern Asia, is best explained by a 10-fold increase in water content. The anomaly occupies ~1.8×1010 km3 with quality factor variations bordering on asthenospheric (Q?=101) when compared to typical lower mantle quality factor (Q?=311). A slab-like high quality factor anomaly, hypothesized to be subducting lithosphere, bounds the eastern and bottom side of the low quality factor anomaly. The anomaly resides in a region having very high resolution, making it a robust feature. The small amplitudes of low-velocity anomalies found in the same region suggest that the anomaly is not thermal. Additionally, a thermal anomaly of this magnitude would require a source to rise from the core mantle boundary through or around a thick sheet-like slab bounding the east and bottom side. We ruled out chemical and grain size anomalies based on the strength of the attenuation anomaly. It has previously been hypothesized that water, in the form of dense hydrous magnesium phase D, could dehydrate from cold slabs at 1100-1500 km depth. This depth range corresponds with the bottom of the anomaly, where free water would be highly unstable and possibly rise quickly through the lower mantle. Due to the low solubility of the expected mineral assemblages at lower mantle pressures, it only takes a small amount of water to drastically change mineral properties such as melting temperature, attenuation, and viscosity. The observation of water in the lower mantle above subducted oceanic lithosphere has significant implications for the processes of mantle convection, the dynamics of plate tectonics, the mixing of the mantle, and the thermal evolution of the Earth.

  11. Anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Alwis, S. P. de [Physics Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    A discrepancy between the anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) gaugino mass calculated from the work of Kaplunovsky and Louis (hep-th/9402005) (KL) and other calculations in the literature is explained, and it is argued that the KL expression is the correct one relevant to the Wilsonian action. Furthermore it is argued that the AMSB contribution to the squark and slepton masses should be replaced by the contribution pointed out by Dine and Seiberg (DS) which has nothing to do with Weyl anomalies. This is not in general equivalent to the AMSB expression, and it is shown that there are models in which the usual AMSB expression would vanish but the DS one is nonzero. In fact the latter has aspects of both AMSB and gauge mediated supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking. In particular like the latter, it gives positive squared masses for sleptons.

  12. Yearly Arctic Temperature Anomaly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cindy Starr

    2003-10-23

    This animation shows the yearly temperature anomaly over the Arctic region from 1981-82 through 2002-03. Years run from August 1 through July 31. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -7.0 to +7.0 degrees Celsius in increments of .25 degrees. (See color bar below)

  13. Anomaly for Model Building

    E-print Network

    Utpal Sarkar

    2006-06-19

    A simple algorithm to calculate the group theory factor entering in anomalies at four and six dimensions for SU(N) and SO(N) groups in terms of the Casimir invariants of their subgroups is presented. Explicit examples of some of the lower dimensional representations of $SU(n), n \\leq 5$ and SO(10) groups are presented, which could be used for model building in four and six dimensions.

  14. Pathogenesis of Vascular Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Laurence M.; Ballieux, Fanny; Vikkula, Miikka

    2010-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are localized defects of vascular development. Most of them occur sporadically, i.e. there is no familial history of lesions, yet in a few cases clear inheritance is observed. These inherited forms are often characterized by multifocal lesions that are mainly small in size and increase in number with patient’s age. On the basis of these inherited forms, molecular genetic studies have unraveled a number of inherited mutations giving direct insight into the pathophysiological cause and the molecular pathways that are implicated. Genetic defects have been identified for hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), inherited cutaneomucosal venous malformation (VMCM), glomuvenous malformation (GVM), capillary malformation - arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM), cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) and some isolated and syndromic forms of primary lymphedema. We focus on these disorders, the implicated mutated genes and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. We also call attention to the concept of Knudson’s double-hit mechanism to explain incomplete penetrance and the large clinical variation in expressivity of inherited vascular anomalies. This variability renders the making of correct diagnosis of the rare inherited forms difficult. Yet, the identification of the pathophysiological causes and pathways involved in them has had an unprecedented impact on our thinking of their etiopathogenesis, and has opened the doors towards a more refined classification of vascular anomalies. It has also made it possible to develop animal models that can be tested for specific molecular therapies, aimed at alleviating the dysfunctions caused by the aberrant genes and proteins. PMID:21095468

  15. Anomalies in bulk supercooled water at negative pressure

    PubMed Central

    Pallares, Gaël; El Mekki Azouzi, Mouna; González, Miguel A.; Aragones, Juan L.; Abascal, José L. F.; Valeriani, Chantal; Caupin, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Water anomalies still defy explanation. In the supercooled liquid, many quantities, for example heat capacity and isothermal compressibility ?T, show a large increase. The question arises if these quantities diverge, or if they go through a maximum. The answer is key to our understanding of water anomalies. However, it has remained elusive in experiments because crystallization always occurred before any extremum is reached. Here we report measurements of the sound velocity of water in a scarcely explored region of the phase diagram, where water is both supercooled and at negative pressure. We find several anomalies: maxima in the adiabatic compressibility and nonmonotonic density dependence of the sound velocity, in contrast with a standard extrapolation of the equation of state. This is reminiscent of the behavior of supercritical fluids. To support this interpretation, we have performed simulations with the 2005 revision of the transferable interaction potential with four points. Simulations and experiments are in near-quantitative agreement, suggesting the existence of a line of maxima in ?T (LM?T). This LM?T could either be the thermodynamic consequence of the line of density maxima of water [Sastry S, Debenedetti PG, Sciortino F, Stanley HE (1996) Phys Rev E 53:6144–6154], or emanate from a critical point terminating a liquid–liquid transition [Sciortino F, Poole PH, Essmann U, Stanley HE (1997) Phys Rev E 55:727–737]. At positive pressure, the LM?T has escaped observation because it lies in the “no man’s land” beyond the homogeneous crystallization line. We propose that the LM?T emerges from the no man’s land at negative pressure. PMID:24843177

  16. Primordial quantum nonequilibrium and large-scale cosmic anomalies

    E-print Network

    Samuel Colin; Antony Valentini

    2015-06-12

    We study incomplete relaxation to quantum equilibrium at long wavelengths, during a pre-inflationary phase, as a possible explanation for the reported large-scale anomalies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Our scenario makes use of the de Broglie-Bohm pilot-wave formulation of quantum theory, in which the Born probability rule has a dynamical origin. The large-scale power deficit could arise from incomplete relaxation for the amplitudes of the primordial perturbations. We show, by numerical simulations for a spectator scalar field, that if the pre-inflationary era is radiation dominated then the deficit in the emerging power spectrum will have a characteristic shape (an inverse-tangent dependence on wavenumber k, with oscillations). It is found that our scenario is able to produce a power deficit in the observed region and of the observed (approximate) magnitude for an appropriate choice of cosmological parameters. We also discuss the large-scale anisotropy, which might arise from incomplete relaxation for the phases of the primordial perturbations. We present numerical simulations for phase relaxation, and we show how to define characteristic scales for amplitude and phase nonequilibrium. The extent to which the data might support our scenario is left as a question for future work. Our results suggest that we have a potentially viable model that might explain two apparently independent cosmic anomalies by means of a single mechanism.

  17. Primordial quantum nonequilibrium and large-scale cosmic anomalies

    E-print Network

    Samuel Colin; Antony Valentini

    2014-07-31

    We study incomplete relaxation to quantum equilibrium at long wavelengths, during a pre-inflationary phase, as a possible explanation for the reported large-scale anomalies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Our scenario makes use of the de Broglie-Bohm pilot-wave formulation of quantum theory, in which the Born probability rule has a dynamical origin. The large-scale power deficit could arise from incomplete relaxation for the amplitudes of the primordial perturbations. We show, by numerical simulations for a spectator scalar field, that if the pre-inflationary era is radiation dominated then the deficit in the emerging power spectrum will have a characteristic shape (an inverse-tangent dependence on wavenumber k, with oscillations). It is found that our scenario is able to produce a power deficit in the observed region and of the observed (approximate) magnitude for an appropriate choice of cosmological parameters. We also discuss the large-scale anisotropy, which could arise from incomplete relaxation for the phases of the primordial perturbations. We present numerical simulations for phase relaxation, and we show how to define characteristic scales for amplitude and phase nonequilibrium. The extent to which the data might support our scenario is left as a question for future work. Our results suggest that we have a potentially viable model that might explain two apparently independent cosmic anomalies by means of a single mechanism.

  18. Vegetation Response and Streamflow Anomalies: Exploring the Modulating Effect of Watershed Storage as Estimated by a Regionalized Stream Recession Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worland, S. C.; Bennartz, R.; Murphy, J.; Merrick, T.; Bradley, M.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Water managers often make water allocation decisions based on data that is integrated at regional scales much coarser than those at which water management decisions are typically made. Important sub-regional variations in the data are subsumed in the aggregate, potentially leading to an improper handling of water resources. A combination of stream discharge characteristics and remotely sensed data can provide information that is responsive at local scales, such as watershed vulnerability to anomalous moisture conditions. We conducted an exploratory analysis of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data (500 m2 resolution, 16 day) obtained from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and USGS stream discharge (Q) records from over 100 unregulated streams in Tennessee for the years 2001-2012. The data sets were compiled to evaluate the vegetation response during a historical drought (Aug/Sept of 2007) within different streamflow recession index (SRI) regions. SRI can be applied as a metric for watershed storage and the ability of underlying aquifers to sustain streamflow through prolonged dry periods. The time series were filtered to remove seasonal trends, and bimonthly anomalies were calculated. Each of the three NDVI and Q time series (raw, filtered, and anomaly) were analyzed using cross-correlation analysis, cross-wavelet, and wavelet coherence analyses. Four SRI regions with similar land cover were chosen to spatially analyze NDVI anomalies during drought. The results from the cross-correlation analysis reveal strong biannual and annual correlations between raw NDVI and raw discharge values. Correlations between NDVI anomalies and discharge anomalies peak at lag periods of 1 to 1.5 months with NDVI leading. The wavelet coherence analysis suggests that drought dampens the monthly signal correlation between the raw values, and potentially removes a strong 2 year correlation between the anomalies. The spatial analysis shows regions with a higher SRI value tend to have higher NDVI values throughout a drought.

  19. Determination of mean gravity anomalies in the Taiwan Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Ruey-Gang

    1989-01-01

    The fitting and proper regression coefficients were made of one hundred seventeen 10 x 10' blocks with observed gravity data and corresponding elevation in the Taiwan Island. To compare five different predicted models, and the proper one for the mean gravity anomalies were determined. The predicted gravity anomalies of the non-observed gravity blocks were decided when the coefficients obtained through the model with the weighted mean method. It was suggested that the mean gravity anomalies of 10 x 10' blocks should be made when comprehensive the observed and predicted data.

  20. Gravitational Anomalies in the Solar System?

    E-print Network

    Lorenzo Iorio

    2015-03-16

    Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by U. Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by A. Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known bodies have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the Universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia; b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab); c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon; d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox; e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun; f) The Flyby Anomaly; g) The Pioneer Anomaly; and h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit

  1. A major geothermal anomaly in the Gulf of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawver, L.A.; Williams, D.L.; Von Herzen, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    We have mapped a 3-km wide, high heat flow anomaly with a maximum value of 30 ??calorie cm -2 s-1 within a zone of seafloor extension in the central Gulf of California. From seismic reflection data and thermal modelling we suggest that the anomaly is caused by a 1-km wide basaltic intrusion which is roughly 100 m deep and less than 18,000 yr old. ?? 1975 Nature Publishing Group.

  2. Vena Caval Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Rajakulasingam, Ramyah; Francis, Rohin; Rajakulasingam, Ramanan

    2013-01-01

    Anomalous vena cavae can have significant implications for procedures on the right side of the heart. We report a rare anatomical configuration in a 44-year-old female, which to the best of our knowledge, is the first report of such an association. She had a bicuspid aortic valve in conjunction with a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) draining into the coronary sinus, and a left-sided inferior vena cava (IVC) draining into a left superior vena cava via the hemiazygos vein. Comprehensive assessment of these anomalies is crucial given the widespread use of invasive cardiac procedures. PMID:24404410

  3. Sensitivity Simulation of Magnetic Field Induction Associated with Mantle Electrical Conductivity Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, F.; Shankland, T. J.; Matsumoto, R.; Chou, W.

    2001-12-01

    Recent laboratory experiments measured in situ electrical conductivities of mantle materials, and suggest that the contrast of conductivities due to the temperature anomaly in a hot plume (? p) and in the surrounding mantle (? ) can be as large as an order of magnitude, i.e., if the temperature difference is ~500 K, ? p/? is ~5.7 for pyrolite and ~10.2 for eclogite cmposition in the transition zone depths (410 to 660 km), ~15 for upper mantle (200 to 410 km), and ~2.5 for lower mantle (800 to 900 km), respectively. Using the conductivity anomalies thus estimated, we carried out computer simulations to test if the anomalous plume-like distribution is observable in the induced magnetic fields. We used a fully parallelized, time-domain 3-D finite difference code (Chou et al., 2000) that is particularly suitable for simulating transient responses such as those due to magnetic substorms whose prominent frequency band is typically from 0.00001 to 0.00005. Skin depths of this frequency band fall around the mantle transition zone. We tested EM responses for a variety of conductivity anomalies that are in a plume tail with a diameter of 100 to 400 km and an overlying broader layer ( ~1000 x 1000 km2) in the mantle, given a plane electric field (or a vector potential A differentiated by time) that oscillates with a period of ~13 hours to 1 day in the x-direction. After sufficient computation time ( ~3 to 5 times the oscillation period of the external field), the induced field at the surface was evaluated. Results show notable differences of EM responses (By) to the 3-D mantle conductivity anomalies. Bz (induction in the z-direction) is also induced by the anomalies.

  4. Heat flux boundary anomalies and thermal winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Wieland; Wicht, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have shown strong effects of outer boundary heat flux patterns on the dynamo mechanism in planets. For example, the hemispherical field of the ancient Martian dynamo can be explained by a large scale sinusoidal anomaly of the core mantle boundary heat flux triggered by large scale mantle convection or giant impacts. The magnetic fields show typically the desired effect - though dynamo action is locally stronger where the underneath heat flux is higher. However, it remains an open question if these effects still apply for more realistic planetary parameters, such as vigor of the convection (Rayleigh number) or the rotation rate (Ekman). The sinusoidal variation of the CMB heat flux along the colatitude with larger heat flux in the southern and smaller in the northern hemisphere as used for Mars can lead to a concentration of magnetic field in the south. The shape of such a hemispherical dynamo matches the crustal magnetization pattern at the surface and seems therefore an admissible mode for the ancient Martian dynamo. As the consequence of the emerging latitudinal temperature gradients convection and induction are dominated by thermal winds. These zonal flows were found to be equatorial antisymmetric, axisymmetric, ageostrophic, of strong amplitude and have therefore a severe effect on core convection and especially the induction process. We measure the underlying thermal anomalies as a function of Rayleigh and Ekman number and show that they are responsible for the thermal winds. Our results suggest that temperature anomalies decrease clearly with the supercriticality of the convection due to faster stirring and mixing, but show no additional dependence on the Ekman number. Interestingly, the decline of the latitudinal temperature anomaly follows a recently suggested scaling law for the thickness of thermal boundary layers. Even though the convective supercriticality of planetary cores is rather large and therefore only a minor effect of thermal boundary disturbances is expected, we suggest thermal winds can still significantly contribute to the total kinetic energy in real planetary core.

  5. Barium and neodymium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcculloch, M. T.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1978-01-01

    The discovery of Ba and Nd isotopic anomalies in two inclusions from the Allende meteorite is reported. The inclusions are Ca-Al-rich objects typical of the type considered as high-temperature condensation products in the solar nebula and contain distinctive Mg and O isotopic anomalies of the FUN (mass Fractionation, Unknown Nuclear processes) type. Mass-spectrometry results are discussed which show that inclusion C1 has anomalies in Ba at masses 134 and 136, while inclusion EK1-4-1 exhibits large marked negative anomalies at 130, 132, 134, and 136, as well as a positive anomaly at 137. It is also found that inclusion EK1-4-1 shows marked negative anomalies in Nd at masses 142, 146, 148, and 150, in addition to a positive anomaly at 145. These isotopic shifts are attributed to addition of r-process nuclei rather than mass fractionation. It is suggested that an onion-shell supernova explosion followed by injection into the solar nebula is the most likely generic model that may explain the observations.

  6. Nesting of thermodynamic, structural, and dynamic anomalies in liquid silicon.

    PubMed

    Vasisht, Vishwas V; Mathew, John; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Sastry, Srikanth

    2014-09-28

    Anomalous behaviour in density, diffusivity, and structural order is investigated for silicon modeled by the Stillinger-Weber potential by performing molecular dynamics simulations. As previously reported in the case of water [J. R. Errington and P. G. Debenedetti, Nature (London) 409, 318 (2001)] and silica [M. S. Shell, P. G. Debenedetti, and A. Z. Panagiotopoulos, Phys. Rev. E 66, 011202 (2002)], a cascading of thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural anomalous regions is also observed in liquid silicon. The region of structural anomaly includes the region of diffusivity anomaly, which in turn encompasses the region of density anomaly (which is unlike water but similar to silica). In the region of structural anomaly, a tight correlation between the translational and tetrahedrality order parameter is found, but the correlation is weaker when a local orientational order parameter (q3) is used as a measure of tetrahedrality. The total excess entropy and the pair correlation entropy are computed across the phase diagram and the correlation between the excess entropy and the regions of anomalies in the phase diagram of liquid silicon is examined. Scaling relations associating the excess entropy with the diffusion coefficient show considerable deviation from the quasi-universal behaviour observed in hard-sphere and Lennard-Jones liquids and some liquid metals. Excess entropy based criteria for diffusivity and structural anomalies fail to capture the observed regions of anomaly. PMID:25273445

  7. Gravity tests and the Pioneer anomaly

    E-print Network

    Marc-Thierry Jaekel; Serge Reynaud

    2005-11-04

    Experimental tests of gravity performed in the solar system show a good agreement with general relativity. The latter is however challenged by the Pioneer anomaly which might be pointing at some modification of gravity law at ranges of the order of the size of the solar system. We introduce a metric extension of general relativity which, while preserving the equivalence principle, modifies the coupling between curvature and stress tensors and, therefore, the metric solution in the solar system. The ``post-Einsteinian extension'' replaces Newton gravitation constant by two running coupling constants, which depend on the scale and differ in the sectors of traceless and traced tensors, so that the metric solution is characterized by two gravitation potentials. The extended theory has the capability to preserve compatibility with gravity tests while accounting for the Pioneer anomaly. It can also be tested by new experiments or, maybe, by having a new look at data of already performed experiments.

  8. Holographic models and the QCD trace anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Jose L. Goity, Roberto C. Trinchero

    2012-08-01

    Five dimensional dilaton models are considered as possible holographic duals of the pure gauge QCD vacuum. In the framework of these models, the QCD trace anomaly equation is considered. Each quantity appearing in that equation is computed by holographic means. Two exact solutions for different dilaton potentials corresponding to perturbative and non-perturbative {beta}-functions are studied. It is shown that in the perturbative case, where the {beta}-function is the QCD one at leading order, the resulting space is not asymptotically AdS. In the non-perturbative case, the model considered presents confinement of static quarks and leads to a non-vanishing gluon condensate, although it does not correspond to an asymptotically free theory. In both cases analyses based on the trace anomaly and on Wilson loops are carried out.

  9. Anomaly, Charge Quantization and Family

    E-print Network

    C. Q. Geng

    2001-01-30

    We first review the three known chiral anomalies in four dimensions and then use the anomaly free conditions to study the uniqueness of quark and lepton representations and charge quantizations in the standard model. We also extend our results to theory with an arbitrary number of color. Finally, we discuss the family problem.

  10. Anomalies in the Solar System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hansjoerg Dittus

    2008-01-01

    Several observations show unexplained phenomena in our solar system. These observations are e.g. the Pioneer Anomaly, an unexplained constant acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft, the Flyby Anomaly, an unexplained increase of the velocity of a series of spacecraft after Earth gravity assists, the recently reported increase of the Astronomical Unit defined by the distance of the planets

  11. Anomaly detection in IP networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Thottan; Chuanyi Ji

    2003-01-01

    Network anomaly detection is a vibrant research area. Researchers have approached this problem using various techniques such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and state machine modeling. In this paper, we first review these anomaly detection methods and then describe in detail a statistical signal processing technique based on abrupt change detection. We show that this signal processing technique is effective

  12. Graph-based anomaly detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caleb C. Noble; Diane J. Cook

    2003-01-01

    Anomaly detection is an area that has received much attention in recent years. It has a wide variety of applications, including fraud detection and network intrusion detection. A good deal of research has been performed in this area, often using strings or attribute-value data as the medium from which anomalies are to be extracted. Little work, however, has focused on

  13. Chiral anomaly in soft collinear effective theory

    E-print Network

    Waalewijn, Wouter Jonathan

    Anomalies have infrared and ultraviolet ingredients, and are often realized in effective theories in a nontrivial way. We study the chiral anomaly in soft collinear effective theory (SCET), where the anomaly equation has ...

  14. Impact of Sampling on Anomaly Detection

    E-print Network

    Chuah, Chen-Nee

    ? ISPs interested in detecting and stopping anomalous traffic early ­ Additional service to stub networks of Sampling on Anomaly Detection ­ Volume Anomaly Detection ­ Portscan Detection ­ Entropy-based Traffic Profiling Towards Accurate Measurements for Anomaly Detection ­ Filtered Sampling ­ Programmable

  15. Anomaly Detection Approaches for Communication Networks

    E-print Network

    Ji, Chuanyi

    Anomaly Detection Approaches for Communication Networks Marina Thottan, Guanglei Liu, Chuanyi Ji Abstract In recent years network anomaly detection has become an important area for both commercial interests as well as academic research. Applications of anomaly detection typically stem from

  16. Graph-Based Anomaly Detection Bill Eberle

    E-print Network

    Eberle, William

    SIAM Southeastern Sectional Annual Meeting #12;Anomaly Detection Challenge: Insider Threats ScenariosGraph-Based Anomaly Detection Bill Eberle Department of Computer Science Tennessee Tech University or leak sensitive information? March 24, 2013 2 #12;Anomaly Detection Challenge: Fraud Detection

  17. Anomaly detection in clinical processes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhengxing; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

    2012-01-01

    Meaningful anomalies in clinical processes may be related to caring performance or even the patient survival. It is imperative that the anomalies be timely detected such that useful and actionable knowledge of interest could be extracted to clinicians. Many previous approaches assume prior knowledge about the structure of clinical processes, using which anomalies are detected in a supervised manner. For a majority of clinical settings, however, clinical processes are complex, ad hoc, and even unknown a prior. In this paper, we investigate how to facilitate detection of anomalies in an unsupervised manner. An anomaly detection model is presented by applying a density-based clustering method on patient careflow logs. Using the learned model, it is possible to detect whether a particular patient careflow trace is anomalous with respect to normal traces in the logs. The approach has been validated over real data sets collected from a Chinese hospital. PMID:23304307

  18. Remote detection of geobotanical anomalies associated with hydrocarbon microseepage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the continuing study of the Lost River, West Virginia NASA/Geosat Test Case Site, an extensive soil gas survey of the site was conducted during the summer of 1983. This soil gas survey has identified an order of magnitude methane, ethane, propane, and butane anomaly that is precisely coincident with the linear maple anomaly reported previously. This and other maple anomalies were previously suggested to be indicative of anaerobic soil conditions associated with hydrocarbon microseepage. In vitro studies support the view that anomalous distributions of native tree species tolerant of anaerobic soil conditions may be useful indicators of methane microseepage in heavily vegetated areas of the United States characterized by deciduous forest cover. Remote sensing systems which allow discrimination and mapping of native tree species and/or species associations will provide the exploration community with a means of identifying vegetation distributional anomalies indicative of microseepage.

  19. The reactor anomaly after Daya Bay and RENO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuffoli, Emilio; Evslin, Jarah; Li, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Gallium and short baseline reactor neutrino experiments indicate a short- distance anomalous disappearance of electron antineutrinos which, if interpreted in terms of neutrino oscillations, would lead to a sterile neutrino mass inconsistent with standard cosmological models. This anomaly is difficult to measure at 1 km baseline experiments because its disappearance effects are degenerate with that of ? 13. The flux normalization independent measurement of ? 13 at Daya Bay breaks this degeneracy, allowing an unambiguous differentiation of 1-3 neutrino oscillations and the anomalous disappearance at Double Chooz and RENO. The resulting anomaly is consistent with that found at very short baselines and suggests a downward revision of RENO's result for ? 13. A MCMC global analysis of current cosmological data shows that a quintom cosmology is just compatible at 2 ? with a sterile neutrino with the right mass to reproduce the reactor anomaly and to a lesser extent the gallium and LSND/MiniBooNE anomalies.

  20. Phase behavior and thermodynamic anomalies of core-softened fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilding, Nigel B.; Magee, James E.

    2002-09-01

    We report extensive simulation studies of phase behavior in single component systems of particles interacting via a core-softened interparticle potential. Two recently proposed examples of such potentials are considered; one in which the hard core exhibits a shoulder [Sadr-Lahijany et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4895 (1998)], and the other in which the softening takes the form of a linear ramp [Jagla, Phys. Rev. E 63, 061501 (2001)]. Using a combination of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo methods, we obtain the gas, liquid, and solid phase behavior of the shoulder model in two dimensions. We then focus on the thermodynamic anomalies of the liquid phase, namely, maxima in the density and compressibility as a function of temperature. Analysis of the finite-size behavior of these maxima suggests that, rather than stemming from a metastable liquid-liquid critical point, as previously supposed, they are actually induced by the quasicontinuous nature of the two dimensional freezing transition. For the ramp model in three dimensions, we confirm the existence of a stable liquid-liquid (``second'') critical point occurring at higher pressure and lower temperature than the liquid-gas critical point. Both these critical points and portions of their associated coexistence curves are located to high precision. In contrast to the shoulder model, the observed thermodynamic anomalies of this model are found to be authentic, i.e., they are not engendered by an incipient new phase. We trace the locus of density and compressibility maxima, the former of which appears to terminate close to the second critical point.

  1. Large scale anomalies in the microwave background: causation and correlation.

    PubMed

    Aslanyan, Grigor; Easther, Richard

    2013-12-27

    Most treatments of large scale anomalies in the microwave sky are a posteriori, with unquantified look-elsewhere effects. We contrast these with physical models of specific inhomogeneities in the early Universe which can generate these apparent anomalies. Physical models predict correlations between candidate anomalies and the corresponding signals in polarization and large scale structure, reducing the impact of cosmic variance. We compute the apparent spatial curvature associated with large-scale inhomogeneities and show that it is typically small, allowing for a self-consistent analysis. As an illustrative example we show that a single large plane wave inhomogeneity can contribute to low-l mode alignment and odd-even asymmetry in the power spectra and the best-fit model accounts for a significant part of the claimed odd-even asymmetry. We argue that this approach can be generalized to provide a more quantitative assessment of potential large scale anomalies in the Universe. PMID:24483788

  2. Self-Assembly and Waterlike Anomalies in Janus Nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    José Rafael Bordin; Leandro B. Krott; Marcia C. Barbosa

    2015-04-28

    We explore the pressure versus temperature phase diagram of dimeric Janus nanoparticles using Molecular Dynamics simulations. The nanoparticle was modeled as a dumbbells particle, and have one monomer that interacts by a standard Lennard Jones potential and another monomer that is modeled using a two-length scale shoulder potential. Monomeric and dimeric systems modeled by this shoulder potential show waterlike anomalies, and we investigate if a Janus nanoparticle composed by one anomalous monomer will exhibit anomalous behavior and self-assembly structures. The influence of the non-anomalous monomer in the dimeric system properties was explored. We show that the diffusion anomaly is maintained, while the density anomaly can disappear depending on the non-anomalous monomer characteristics. As well, the self-assembled structures are affected. Our results are discussed in the basis of the distinct monomer-monomer interactions and on the two-length scale fluid characteristics.

  3. Anomaly mediation from unbroken supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Thaler, Jesse; Thomas, Zachary

    2013-09-01

    When supergravity (SUGRA) is spontaneously broken, it is well known that anomaly mediation generates sparticle soft masses proportional to the gravitino mass. Recently, we showed that one-loop anomaly-mediated gaugino masses should be associated with unbroken supersymmetry (SUSY). This counterintuitive result arises because the underlying symmetry structure of (broken) SUGRA in flat space is in fact (unbroken) SUSY in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. When quantum corrections are regulated in a way that preserves SUGRA, the underlying AdS curvature (proportional to the gravitino mass) necessarily appears in the regulated action, yielding soft masses without corresponding goldstino couplings. In this paper, we extend our analysis of anomaly mediation to sfermion soft masses. Already at tree-level we encounter a number of surprises, including the fact that zero soft masses correspond to broken (AdS) SUSY. At one-loop, we explain how anomaly mediation appears when regulating SUGRA in a way that preserves super-Weyl invariance. We find that recent claims in the literature about the non-existence of anomaly mediation were based on a Wilsonian effective action with residual gauge dependence, and the gauge-invariant 1PI effective action contains the expected anomaly-mediated spectrum. Finally, we calculate the sfermion spectrum to all orders, and use supertrace relations to derive the familiar two-loop soft masses from minimal anomaly mediation, as well as unfamiliar tree-level and one-loop goldstino couplings consistent with renormalization group invariance.

  4. Transcriptomic profiling of TK2 deficient human skeletal muscle suggests a role for the p53 signalling pathway and identifies growth and differentiation factor-15 as a potential novel biomarker for mitochondrial myopathies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations in the gene encoding thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) result in the myopathic form of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome which is a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy presenting in children. In order to unveil some of the mechanisms involved in this pathology and to identify potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets we have investigated the gene expression profile of human skeletal muscle deficient for TK2 using cDNA microarrays. Results We have analysed the whole transcriptome of skeletal muscle from patients with TK2 mutations and compared it to normal muscle and to muscle from patients with other mitochondrial myopathies. We have identified a set of over 700 genes which are differentially expressed in TK2 deficient muscle. Bioinformatics analysis reveals important changes in muscle metabolism, in particular, in glucose and glycogen utilisation, and activation of the starvation response which affects aminoacid and lipid metabolism. We have identified those transcriptional regulators which are likely to be responsible for the observed changes in gene expression. Conclusion Our data point towards the tumor suppressor p53 as the regulator at the centre of a network of genes which are responsible for a coordinated response to TK2 mutations which involves inflammation, activation of muscle cell death by apoptosis and induction of growth and differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in muscle and serum. We propose that GDF-15 may represent a potential novel biomarker for mitochondrial dysfunction although further studies are required. PMID:24484525

  5. Plasma structure over dayside lunar magnetic anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Nishino, M. N.; Yamamoto, T.; Uemura, K.; Yokota, S.; Asamura, K.; Tsunakawa, H.; Kaguya Map Team

    2010-12-01

    It is well-known that the Moon has neither global intrinsic magnetic field nor thick atmosphere. Different from the Earth’s case where the intrinsic global magnetic field prevents the solar wind from penetrating into the magnetosphere, solar wind directly impacts the lunar surface. Since the discovery of the lunar crustal magnetic field in 1960s, several papers have been published concerning the interaction between the solar wind and the lunar magnetic anomalies including both numerical simulations and observation by lunar orbiters. MAG/ER on Lunar Prospector found heating of the solar wind electrons presumably due to the interaction between the solar wind and the lunar magnetic anomalies and the existence of the mini-magnetosphere was suggested. However, the detailed mechanism of the interaction has been unclear mainly due to the lack of the in-situ observed low energy ion data. MAgnetic field and Plasma experiment - Plasma energy Angle and Composition Experiment (MAP-PACE) on Kaguya (SELENE) completed its ˜1.5-year observation of the low energy charged particles around the Moon on 10 June 2009. MAP-PACE made observations at a circular lunar polar orbit of 100km altitude for about 1 year between January 2008 and December 2008. During the last 5 months, the orbit was lowered to ˜50km-altitude between January 2009 and April 2009, and some orbits had further lower perilune altitude of ˜10km after April 2009. When Kaguya flew over strong magnetic anomalies, deceleration of the solar wind ions, acceleration of the solar wind electrons, and ions reflected by magnetic anomalies were observed. The deceleration of the solar wind ions was observed for both two major solar wind ion components: protons and alpha particles. Deceleration of the solar wind had the same ? E/q (? E : deceleration energy, q: charge) for both protons and alpha particles. In addition, the acceleration energy of the electrons was the same as the deceleration energy of the ions. It indicates the existence of DC electric field over Kaguya spacecraft. Since the gyro-radius of the electrons was smaller than the size of the magnetic anomalies, incident electrons were mirror reflected back. On the other hand, the gyro-radius of the ions was much larger than the size of the magnetic anomalies. Therefore the incident ions could penetrate deeper into the magnetic anomalies. As a result, DC electric field was generated over dayside magnetic anomalies. The reflected ions were observed in much larger area than the area where strong magnetic field was observed. Mass profile of the reflected ions showed existence of reflected alpha particles as expected from the magnetic mirror reflection. However, the energy of the reflected alpha particles was found to be lower than that of the alpha particles in the incident solar wind. In addition, the reflected protons also had lower energy and higher temperature than those of the incident solar wind protons. It clearly indicates the existence of a non-adiabatic interaction between solar wind ions and lunar magnetic anomalies.

  6. Anomaly Detection in Dynamic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, Melissa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Anomaly detection in dynamic communication networks has many important security applications. These networks can be extremely large and so detecting any changes in their structure can be computationally challenging; hence, computationally fast, parallelisable methods for monitoring the network are paramount. For this reason the methods presented here use independent node and edge based models to detect locally anomalous substructures within communication networks. As a first stage, the aim is to detect changes in the data streams arising from node or edge communications. Throughout the thesis simple, conjugate Bayesian models for counting processes are used to model these data streams. A second stage of analysis can then be performed on a much reduced subset of the network comprising nodes and edges which have been identified as potentially anomalous in the first stage. The first method assumes communications in a network arise from an inhomogeneous Poisson process with piecewise constant intensity. Anomaly detection is then treated as a changepoint problem on the intensities. The changepoint model is extended to incorporate seasonal behavior inherent in communication networks. This seasonal behavior is also viewed as a changepoint problem acting on a piecewise constant Poisson process. In a static time frame, inference is made on this extended model via a Gibbs sampling strategy. In a sequential time frame, where the data arrive as a stream, a novel, fast Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) algorithm is introduced to sample from the sequence of posterior distributions of the change points over time. A second method is considered for monitoring communications in a large scale computer network. The usage patterns in these types of networks are very bursty in nature and don’t fit a Poisson process model. For tractable inference, discrete time models are considered, where the data are aggregated into discrete time periods and probability models are fitted to the communication counts. In a sequential analysis, anomalous behavior is then identified from outlying behavior with respect to the fitted predictive probability models. Seasonality is again incorporated into the model and is treated as a changepoint model on the transition probabilities of a discrete time Markov process. Second stage analytics are then developed which combine anomalous edges to identify anomalous substructures in the network.

  7. Evaluation of anomalies in GLDAS-1996 dataset.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyao; Zhang, Yongqiang; Yang, Yonghui; Yang, Yanmin; Han, Shumin

    2013-01-01

    Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data are widely used for land-surface flux simulations. Therefore, the simulation accuracy using GLDAS dataset is largely contingent upon the accuracy of the GLDAS dataset. It is found that GLDAS land-surface model simulated runoff exhibits strong anomalies for 1996. These anomalies are investigated by evaluating four GLDAS meteorological forcing data (precipitation, air temperature, downward shortwave radiation and downward longwave radiation) in six large basins across the world (Danube, Mississippi, Yangtze, Congo, Amazon and Murray-Darling basins). Precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) are also compared with GLDAS forcing precipitation data. Large errors and lack of monthly variability in GLDAS-1996 precipitation data are the main sources for the anomalies in the simulated runoff. The impact of the precipitation data on simulated runoff for 1996 is investigated with the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land-surface model in the Yangtze basin, for which area high-quality local precipitation data are obtained from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). The CABLE model is driven by GLDAS daily precipitation data and CMA daily precipitation, respectively. The simulated daily and monthly runoffs obtained from CMA data are noticeably better than those obtained from GLDAS data, suggesting that GLDAS-1996 precipitation data are not so reliable for land-surface flux simulations. PMID:23579825

  8. Origin of conductivity anomalies in the asthenosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, T.; Zhang, B.

    2013-12-01

    Electrical conductivity anomalies with anisotropy parallel to the plate motion have been observed beneath the oceanic lithosphere by electromagnetic studies (e.g., Evans et al., 2005; Baba et al., 2010; Naif et al., 2013). Electrical conductivity of the oceanic asthenosphere at ~100 km depth is very high, about 10-2 to 10-1 S/m. This zone is also known in seismology as the low velocity zone. Since Karato (1990) first suggested that electrical conductivity is sensitive to water content in NAMs, softening of asthenosphere has been regarded as a good indicator for constraining the distribution of water. There are two difficulties to explain the observed conductivity features in the asthenosphere. Recent publications on electrical conductivity of hydrous olivine suggested that olivine with the maximum soluble H2O content at the top of the asthenosphere has much lower conductivity less than 0.1 S/m (e.g., Yoshino et al., 2006; 2009a; Poe et al., 2010; Du Frane and Tyburczy, 2012; Yang, 2012), which is a typical value of conductivity anomaly observed in the oceanic mantle. Partial melting has been considered as an attractive agent for substantially raising the conductivity in this region (Shankland and Waff, 1977), because basaltic melt has greater electrical conductivity (> 100.5 S/m) and high wetting properties. However, dry mantle peridotite cannot reach the solidus temperature at depth 100 km. Volatile components can dramatically reduce melting temperature, even if its amount is very small. Recent studies on conductivity measurement of volatile-bearing melt suggest that conductivity of melt dramatically increases with increasing volatile components (H2O: Ni et al., 2010a, b; CO2: Gaillard et al., 2008; Yoshino et al., 2010; 2012a). Because incipient melt includes higher amount of volatile components, conductivity enhancement by the partial melt is very effective at temperatures just above that of the volatile-bearing peridotite solidus. In this study, the electrical conductivity of peridotite with trace amount of volatile phases was measured in single crystal olivine capsule to protect escape of water from the sample at 3 GPa. The conductivity values were significantly higher than those of dry peridotite, suggesting that the observed conductivity anomalies at the asthenosphere are caused by a presence of trace amount of volatile component in fluid or melt. On the other hand, conductivity of partial molten peridotite measured under shear showed that the conductivity parallel to the shear direction becomes one order of magnitude higher than that normal direction. These observations suggest that partial melting can explain softening and the observed geophysical anomalies of asthenosphere.

  9. Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

    2011-07-01

    Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid. PMID:21797593

  10. Feature-based anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotto, Mark J.

    2007-04-01

    A feature-based approach for detecting anomalies in spectral, spatial, temporal, and other domains is described. When the frequency of occurrence is small relative to the background, anomalies such as man-made objects in natural image backgrounds do not form their own clusters, but are instead assigned the nearest background cluster, becoming an outlier (statistical anomaly) in that cluster. Our method clusters data, which may be spectral, spatial, or temporal in nature, into one or more background types and computes the Mahalanobis distance between the data and assigned model (background cluster). The detection of a variety of objects and phenomena in panchromatic and multispectral imagery, and video are illustrated.

  11. Satellite Geopotential Anomaly Constraints for the Crust of the Greenland-Iceland Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonFrese, R. R.; Leftwich, T. E.; Kim, H.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Kim, J.

    2004-01-01

    Satellite magnetometer observations of the Greenland-Iceland region compare quite well with lower altitude data. The satellite magnetic data suggest magnetically enhanced crust was emplaced by the Iceland Plume. Crustal thicknesses, which may be more than 30 km for the Greenland-Scotland Ridge, were obtained from inversion of the compensating terrain gravity effects that were estimated by spectral correlation analysis of the free-air gravity anomalies and terrain gravity effects. Regional magnetic anomaly maxima overlie possible thickened crust from eastern Iceland to the Greenland Coast. The Iceland-Faroe Ridge may involve thinner crust than the Greenland-Iceland portion of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. The gravity derived crustal model exceeds a 0.7 correlation with available seismic estimates. In thermally active areas our gravity Moho estimates are systematically deeper than the seismic estimates suggesting local density reductions of the underlying lower crust/upper mantle. In south central Greenland, on the other hand, the gravity Moho estimates are shallower than seismic estimates to suggest a local enhancement of the lower crust/upper mantle density. The dichotomous crust of the Greenland-Iceland and Iceland-Faroe Ridges suggests unequal crustal development by the Iceland Plume and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where more crustal material may have been contributed to the North Atlantic Plate than the Eurasian Plate. A new thermal modeling scheme based on Poisson's relation between point pole gravity and thermal potentials allows estimation of magnetic crustal thicknesses. Subsequent magnetic anomaly inversion for susceptibility contrasts infers crustal development of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge by temporally variable pulses in plume strength.

  12. Galileo spacecraft anomaly and safing recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilio, Ralph R.; Durham, David M.

    1993-01-01

    A high-level anomaly recovery plan which identifies the steps necessary to recover from a spacecraft 'Safing' incident was developed for the Galileo spacecraft prior to launch. Since launch, a total of four in-flight anomalies have lead to entry into a system fault protection 'Safing' routine which has required the Galileo flight team to refine and execute the recovery plan. These failures have allowed the flight team to develop an efficient recovery process when permanent spacecraft capability degradation is minimal and the cause of the anomaly is quickly diagnosed. With this previous recovery experience and the very focused boundary conditions of a specific potential failure, a Gaspra asteroid recovery plan was designed to be implemented in as quickly as forty hours (desired goal). This paper documents the work performed above, however, the Galileo project remains challenged to develop a generic detailed recovery plan which can be implemented in a relatively short time to configure the spacecraft to a nominal state prior to future high priority mission objectives.

  13. Two-hit model for sporadic congenital anomalies in mice with the disorganization mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, J.L. (Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (United States) Univ. of Maine, Orono (United States) Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)); Varnum, D.S.; Nadeau, J.H. (Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Congenital anomalies have complex etiologies involving both genetic and nongenetic components. Many are sporadic, without obvious evidence for heritability. An important model for these anomalies is a mutation in laboratory mice that is called [open quotes]disorganization[close quotes] (Ds), which functions as a variable autosomal dominant and leads to a wide variety of congenital anomalies involving many developmental processes and systems. Variable expressivity, asymmetrical manifestations, and low penetrance suggest that somatic events determine the location and nature of these anomalies. A statistical analysis suggests that occurrence of anomalies in mice with the Ds mutation follows a Poisson distribution. These results suggest that congenital anomalies in mice with the Ds mutation occur independently of each other. The authors propose that Ds causes a heritable predisposition to congenital anomalies and that Ds and appropriate somatic events combine to compromise normal development. They also propose that some sporadic, nonheritable congenital anomalies involve somatic mutations at Ds-like loci. Ds may therefore serve not only as a model for developmental anomalies in cell fate and pattern formation but also for complex developmental traits showing variable expressivity, low penetrance, and sporadic occurrence in mice and humans. 58 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Immatures of Palaearctic species of the weevil genus Sibinia (Coleoptera,
    Curculionidae): new descriptions and new bionomic data with suggestions on their potential value in a phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus.

    PubMed

    Skuhrovec, Ji?í; Gosik, Rafa?; Caldara, Roberto; Koš?ál, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The larvae and pupae of six species of the Palaearctic genus Sibinia Germar, 1817 are described in detail for the first time. Five of them develop in seeds of Caryophyllaceae and belong to Sibinia (s. str.): S. attalica Gyllenhal, 1835; S. femoralis Germar, 1824; S. tibialis Gyllenhal, 1835; and S. viscariae (Linnaeus, 1760), which are included in the S. femoralis group, and S. sicana Ragusa, 1908, which is included in the S. unicolor Fåhraeus, 1843 group. The sixth species is S. sodalis Germar, 1824, which develops in seeds of Plumbaginaceae and belongs to the subgenus Dichotychius Bedel, 1885. The larvae and pupae of these species are compared with those previously described for some species of the third subgenus, Microtychius Casey, 1910 from the Americas. Some larval characters, but no pupal ones, are useful to support the three subgenera and the two previously mentioned groups of Sibinia s. str., which were previously postulated based on a few adult morphological characters. The immatures of Sibinia are also compared with those of the closely related genus Tychius Germar, 1817, providing some distinctive characters between both genera. New bionomic data on larval and pupal development and adult emergence are reported for all the described species. These data suggest that species in this genus are highly homogeneous in life history traits. PMID:25947846

  15. Patterns of anomalies in children with malformed ears.

    PubMed

    Rapin, I; Ruben, R J

    1976-10-01

    Sixteen children with anomalies of the auricle and/or middle ear who presented malformations of the face, mouth, upper airway, spine, limbs, heart, gastrointestinal (GI), and/or genitourinary (GU) systems, were described. While clusters of anomalies suggested syndromes such as the oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome of Goldenhar, hamifacial microsomia, mandibulo-facial dysostosis (Treacher Collins syndrome), Pierre Robin, Klippel-Feil, Moebius, Duane, and/or VATER syndromes, many children did not fit what are usually considered even minimal criteria for these syndromes. Several children had malformations which fit the description of more than one syndrome. The importance of investigating the children for unsuspected anomalies, especially of the GU system, was emphasized. Life threatening problems in this group consisted of airway problems, congenital heart disease, and major anomalies of the GI and GU systems. Better management of sucking, swallowing and airway problems might have decreased the early morbidity and mortality (3/16) in this group. Children with multiple defacing anomalies may not be mentally retarded so that aggressive management of their visceral anomalies and hearing problems, and early educational intervention are mandatory. Delay in development may be due to hearing loss, vestibular impairment, ataxia, the consequences of early malnutrition, and multiple hospitalizations rather than to mental retardation. A pessimistic attitude in infancy is unwarranted since it is impossible to predict which children will end up competitive individuals. PMID:966914

  16. Pioneer Anomaly and the Kuiper Belt mass distribution

    E-print Network

    O. Bertolami; P. Vieira

    2006-06-18

    Pioneer 10 and 11 were the first probes sent to study the outer planets of the Solar System and Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to leave the Solar System. Besides their already epic journeys, Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft were subjected to an unaccounted effect interpreted as a constant acceleration toward the Sun, the so-called Pioneer anomaly. One of the possibilities put forward for explaining the Pioneer anomaly is the gravitational acceleration of the Kuiper Belt. In this work we examine this hypothesis for various models for the Kuiper Belt mass distribution. We find that the gravitational effect due to the Kuiper Belt cannot account for the Pioneer anomaly. Furthermore, we have also studied the hypothesis that drag forces can explain the the Pioneer anomaly; however we conclude that the density required for producing the Pioneer anomaly is many orders of magnitude greater than those of interplanetary and interstellar dust. Our conclusions suggest that only through a mission, the Pioneer anomaly can be confirmed and further investigated. If a mission with these aims is ever sent to space, it turns out, on account of our results, that it will be also a quite interesting probe to study the mass distribution of the Kuiper Belt.

  17. Obstetric consequences of uterovaginal anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, J.A.; Schlaff, W.D.

    1985-05-01

    This review discusses the diagnosis and classification of utero-vaginal anomalies as well as obstetric considerations in their management. Diagnosis is usually made by hysterosalpingography antepartum. Ultrasonography is also recommended. 40 references, 10 figures, 9 tables.

  18. Kohn anomalies in graphene nanoribbons

    E-print Network

    Dresselhaus, Mildred

    The quantum corrections to the energies of the ? point optical phonon modes (Kohn anomalies) in graphene nanoribbons (NRs) are investigated. We show theoretically that the longitudinal optical (LO) modes undergo a Kohn ...

  19. Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koons, Harry C.; Groney, David J.

    1994-02-01

    An expert system has been developed by The Aerospace Corporation, Space and Environment Technology Center for use in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to determine the probable cause of an anomaly from the following candidates: surface charging, bulk charging, single-event effects, total radiation dose, and space-plasma effects. Such anomalies depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local plasma and radiation environment (which is highly variable), the satellite-exposure time, and the hardness of the circuits and components in the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instrument's Personal Consultant Plus expert-system shell. The expert system's knowledgebase includes about 200 rules, as well as a number of databases that contain information on spacecraft and their orbits, previous spacecraft anomalies, and the environment.

  20. More anomalies from fractional branes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bertolini; P. Di Vecchia; M. Frau; A. Lerda; R. Marotta

    2002-01-01

    In this Letter we show how the anomalies of both pure and matter coupled N=1,2 supersymmetric gauge theories describing the low energy dynamics of fractional branes on orbifolds can be derived from supergravity.

  1. Understanding the mineral sources of remanent crustal magnetic anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnroe, S. A.; Fabian, K.; Robinson, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Hankard, F.; Langenhorst, F.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic exploration on local and global scale is focused on interpreting magnetic anomalies in terms of induced magnetization in today's geomagnetic field. However, numerous anomalies in Norway, Sweden and USA originate from rocks with oxide exsolution intergrowths with an overwhelmingly dominant magnetic remanence. In these rocks different magnetic minerals control induced versus remanent magnetization. Although, different types of magnetic interaction control the details of their potential to create anomalies, little is known about the detailed interplay between them. Using a newly developed giant-magnetoresistance micro-scanner, it is now possible to map remanent and induced magnetization at the mineral size scale from 10 micron up to several millimeters. In case studies presented here, Lamellar Magnetization (LM) accounts for the strong and stable magnetic signal in the rhombohedral oxides which produces significant large-scale negative anomalies. We explore experimentally and theoretically how the co-existing multi-domain magnetite and LM contributes to these anomalies, and correlate the mineral-scale maps with ground-magnetic traverses and high- resolution airborne surveys. This combination of methods provides a new paradigm for interpretation of remanence -dominated magnetic anomalies in Earth and planetary applications.

  2. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    PubMed Central

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  3. Remote detection of geochemical soil anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Canney, F.C.

    1970-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary experiment that was made to compare the spectral reflectance from trees growing in soil over a mineral deposit with reflectance from trees of the same species growing in a nearby unmineralized area. Although the measurements were made on a relatively small number of trees, some significant differences were obtained and the over-all results are encouraging enough to warrant additional studies. Preliminary results suggest that measurement of spectral reflectance may become a dramatic new way of detecting geochemical soil anomalies by remote means in tree-covered areas.

  4. Triangle Anomalies, Thermodynamics, and Hydrodynamics

    E-print Network

    Kristan Jensen

    2012-04-11

    We consider 3+1-dimensional fluids with U(1)^3 anomalies. We use Ward identities to constrain low-momentum Euclidean correlation functions and obtain differential equations that relate two and three-point functions. The solution to those equations yields, among other things, the chiral magnetic conductivity. We then compute zero-frequency functions in hydrodynamics and show that the consistency of the hydrodynamic theory also fixes the anomaly-induced conductivities.

  5. Satellite elevation magnetic anomaly maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J. (principal investigators)

    1982-01-01

    The problem of inverting 2 deg average MAGSAT scalar anomalies for the region 80 W, 60 E longitude and 40 S, 70 N latitude was attempted on the LARS computer; however, the effort was aborted due to insufficient allocation of CPU-time. This problem is currently being resubmitted and should be implemented shortly for quantitative comparison with free-air gravity anomaly, geothermal, and tectonic data.

  6. SUGGESTIONS FOR WEED CONTROL IN

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    B-5038 10-98 SUGGESTIONS FOR WEED CONTROL IN PASTURES AND FORAGES Texas Agricultural Extension;4 Suggestions for Weed Control in Pastures and Forages Dr. Paul A. Baumann, Extension Weed Specialist Dr. David as a guide for controlling weeds in pasture and forages. Labeled rates and restrictions change constantly

  7. Little SUSY hierarchy in mixed modulus-anomaly mediation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiwoon Choi; Kwang Sik Jeong; Tatsuo Kobayashi; Ken-Ichi Okumura

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the KKLT string compactification involving a supersymmetry-breaking uplifting potential, we examine 4D effective supergravity with a generic form of uplifting potential, focusing on the possibility that the resulting mixed modulus-anomaly mediated soft terms realize the little hierarchy between the Higgs boson masses mH and the sparticle masses mSUSY. It is noted that for some type of uplifting potential,

  8. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemouel, J. L. (principal investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  9. Spherical earth gravity and magnetic anomaly analysis by equivalent point source inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Frese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.

    1981-01-01

    To facilitate geologic interpretation of satellite elevation potential field data, analysis techniques are developed and verified in the spherical domain that are commensurate with conventional flat earth methods of potential field interpretation. A powerful approach to the spherical earth problem relates potential field anomalies to a distribution of equivalent point sources by least squares matrix inversion. Linear transformations of the equivalent source field lead to corresponding geoidal anomalies, pseudo-anomalies, vector anomaly components, spatial derivatives, continuations, and differential magnetic pole reductions. A number of examples using 1 deg-averaged surface free-air gravity anomalies of POGO satellite magnetometer data for the United States, Mexico, and Central America illustrate the capabilities of the method.

  10. A Comparative Study of Anomaly Detection Schemes in Network Intrusion Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandar Lazarevic; Levent Ertöz; Vipin Kumar; Aysel Ozgur; Jaideep Srivastava

    2003-01-01

    Intrusion detection corresponds to a suite of techniques that can be used to identify attacks against computers and network infrastructures. Anomaly detection is a key element of intrusion detection systems in which perturbations of normal behavior suggest the presence of intentionally or unintentionally induced attacks, faults, defects, etc. Several recently developed anomaly and outlier detection schemes have been proposed for

  11. Correlation of seismic and petrologic thermometers suggests deep thermal anomalies beneath hotspots

    E-print Network

    Stixrude, Lars

    Anna M. Courtier a,, Matthew G. Jackson b , Jesse F. Lawrence c , Zhengrong Wang d , Cin-Ty Aeolus Lee a , Angela M. Larson i , Stan R. Hart d , Carolina Lithgow-Bertelloni j , Lars Stixrude j , Wang-Ping Chen k

  12. Algorithm development for hyperspectral anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosario, Dalton S.

    2008-10-01

    This dissertation proposes and evaluates a novel anomaly detection algorithm suite for ground-to-ground, or air-to-ground, applications requiring automatic target detection using hyperspectral (HS) data. Targets are manmade objects in natural background clutter under unknown illumination and atmospheric conditions. The use of statistical models herein is purely for motivation of particular formulas for calculating anomaly output surfaces. In particular, formulas from semiparametrics are utilized to obtain novel forms for output surfaces, and alternative scoring algorithms are proposed to calculate output surfaces that are comparable to those of semiparametrics. Evaluation uses both simulated data and real HS data from a joint data collection effort between the Army Research Laboratory and the Army Armament Research Development & Engineering Center. A data transformation method is presented for use by the two-sample data structure univariate semiparametric and nonparametric scoring algorithms, such that, the two-sample data are mapped from their original multivariate space to an univariate domain, where the statistical power of the univariate scoring algorithms is shown to be improved relative to existing multivariate scoring algorithms testing the same two-sample data. An exhaustive simulation experimental study is conducted to assess the performance of different HS anomaly detection techniques, where the null and alternative hypotheses are completely specified, including all parameters, using multivariate normal and mixtures of multivariate normal distributions. Finally, for ground-to-ground anomaly detection applications, where the unknown scales of targets add to the problem complexity, a novel global anomaly detection algorithm suite is introduced, featuring autonomous partial random sampling (PRS) of the data cube. The PRS method is proposed to automatically sample the unknown background clutter in the test HS imagery, and by repeating multiple times this process, one can achieve a desirably low cumulative probability of taking target samples by chance and using them as background samples. This probability is modeled by the binomial distribution family, where the only target related parameter---the proportion of target pixels potentially covering the imagery---is shown to be robust. PRS requires a suitable scoring algorithm to compare samples, although applying PRS with the new two-step univariate detectors is shown to outperform existing multivariate detectors.

  13. Analyzing the Relationship Between Ocean Temperature Anomalies and Coral Disease

    E-print Network

    Harvell, Catherine Drew

    explained nearly 75% of the variance in disease cases. These results suggest that rising ocean temperatures6 Analyzing the Relationship Between Ocean Temperature Anomalies and Coral Disease Outbreaks, Kenneth S. Casey, and Hugh Sweatman Abstract Ocean warming due to climate change could increase

  14. Iridium Anomaly Approximately Synchronous with Terminal Eocene Extinctions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Alvarez; Frank Asaro; Helen V. Michel; Luis W. Alvarez

    1982-01-01

    An iridium anomaly has been found in coincidence with the known microtektite level in cores from Deep Sea Drilling Project site 149 in the Caribbean Sea. The iridium was probably not in the microtektites but deposited simultaneously with them; this could occur if the iridium was deposited from a dust cloud resulting from a bolide impact, as suggested for the

  15. Zero-point energies and the multiplicative anomaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. McKenzie-Smith; D. J. Toms

    2000-01-01

    For the case of a relativistic scalar field at finite temperature with a chemical potential, we calculate an exact expression for the one-loop effective action using the full fourth order determinant and zeta-function regularisation. We find that it agrees with the exact expression for the factored operator and thus there appears to be no mulitplicative anomaly. The appearance of the

  16. Anomaly Detection in Brain Connectivity Structure: An Application to Epilepsy

    E-print Network

    Golland, Polina

    Anomaly Detection in Brain Connectivity Structure: An Application to Epilepsy by Andrew Sweet B to Epilepsy by Andrew Sweet Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science-surgical epilepsy patients. Our goal is to investigate the potential of these non-invasive connectivity approaches

  17. Ethical issues in the management of neonatal surgical anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna A Caniano

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a framework for thinking about three areas in neonatal surgery that contain potential moral and ethical concerns for pediatric surgeons and the parents of a newborn and\\/or fetus with a surgical anomaly. The utilization of life-sustaining therapy for neonates has made survival possible for many infants with serious birth defects. Sometimes the use of these treatments is

  18. Impact of packet sampling on anomaly detection metrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Brauckhoff; Bernhard Tellenbach; Arno Wagner; Martin May; Anukool Lakhina

    2006-01-01

    Packet sampling methods such as Cisco's NetFlow are widely em- ployed by large networks to reduce the amount of traffic data mea- sured. A key problem with packet sampling is that it is inherently a lossy process, discarding (potentially useful) information. In this paper, we empirically evaluate the impact of sampling on anomaly detection metrics. Starting with unsampled flow records

  19. Anomaly-based intrusion detection: privacy concerns and other problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilie Lundin; Erland Jonsson

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the specific advantages and disadvantages of anomaly-based intrusion detection. One important disadvantage is its impact on user privacy. A great deal of potentially sensitive information is recorded and analyzed in ways that threaten personal integrity. A solution for this may be to pseudonymize the sensitive information in the log files, i.e., exchange user names, etc., for pseudonyms.

  20. Hypnotic suggestion and cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Oakley, David A; Halligan, Peter W

    2009-06-01

    The growing acceptance of consciousness as a legitimate field of enquiry and the availability of functional imaging has rekindled research interest in the use of hypnosis and suggestion to manipulate subjective experience and to gain insights into healthy and pathological cognitive functioning. Current research forms two strands. The first comprises studies exploring the cognitive and neural nature of hypnosis itself. The second employs hypnosis to explore known psychological processes using specifically targeted suggestions. An extension of this second approach involves using hypnotic suggestion to create clinically informed analogues of established structural and functional neuropsychological disorders. With functional imaging, this type of experimental neuropsychopathology offers a productive means of investigating brain activity involved in many symptom-based disorders and their related phenomenology. PMID:19428287

  1. Astrometric solar-system anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John D.; Nieto, Michael Martin

    2010-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is reportedly increasing by about 15 cm yr-1. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists, including us, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is prudent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  2. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    E-print Network

    John D. Anderson; Michael Martin Nieto

    2009-08-06

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr$^{-1}$. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is prudent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  3. Macroscopic effects of the quantum trace anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Mottola, Emil; Vaulin, Ruslan [Theoretical Division, T-8 Los Alamos National Laboratory M.S. B285 Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department of Physics Florida Atlantic University 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, Florida 33431 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    The low energy effective action of gravity in any even dimension generally acquires nonlocal terms associated with the trace anomaly, generated by the quantum fluctuations of massless fields. The local auxiliary field description of this effective action in four dimensions requires two additional scalar fields, not contained in classical general relativity, which remain relevant at macroscopic distance scales. The auxiliary scalar fields depend upon boundary conditions for their complete specification, and therefore carry global information about the geometry and macroscopic quantum state of the gravitational field. The scalar potentials also provide coordinate invariant order parameters describing the conformal behavior and divergences of the stress tensor on event horizons. We compute the stress tensor due to the anomaly in terms of its auxiliary scalar potentials in a number of concrete examples, including the Rindler wedge, the Schwarzschild geometry, and de Sitter spacetime. In all of these cases, a small number of classical order parameters completely determine the divergent behaviors allowed on the horizon, and yield qualitatively correct global approximations to the renormalized expectation value of the quantum stress tensor.

  4. AAAS seeks suggestions for initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Science Foundation's Division of International Programs has requested the American Association for Advancement of Science and its Consortium of Affiliates for International Programs (CAIP) to assist in the development of a list of potential topics for consideration as new global initiatives of the Foundation. AGU is a consortium member. As a result of a meeting of a steering group, which included consortium representatives, a solicitation of potential topics is being made to a wide variety of groups within the mainstream scientific and engineering community. Topics should meet three criteria: The topic should be an important global problem;it should have high potential scientific, technological, or intellectual content; andit should involve the broadest possible range of disciplines.

  5. Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

  6. Graph anomalies in cyber communications

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-11

    Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

  7. Anomalies, gauge field topology, and the lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, Michael, E-mail: creutz@bnl.gov [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Motivated by the connection between gauge field topology and the axial anomaly in fermion currents, I suggest that the fourth power of the naive Dirac operator can provide a natural method to define a local lattice measure of topological charge. For smooth gauge fields this reduces to the usual topological density. For typical gauge field configurations in a numerical simulation, however, quantum fluctuations dominate, and the sum of this density over the system does not generally give an integer winding. On cooling with respect to the Wilson gauge action, instanton like structures do emerge. As cooling proceeds, these objects tend shrink and finally 'fall through the lattice.' Modifying the action can block the shrinking at the expense of a loss of reflection positivity. The cooling procedure is highly sensitive to the details of the initial steps, suggesting that quantum fluctuations induce a small but fundamental ambiguity in the definition of topological susceptibility.

  8. Applications of TOPS Anomaly Detection Framework to Amazon Drought Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.; Ganguly, S.; Michaelis, A.; Hashimoto, H.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) is a flexible modeling software system that integrates ecosystem models with frequent satellite and surface weather observations to produce ecosystem nowcasts (assessments of current conditions) and forecasts useful in natural resources management, public health and disaster management. We have been extending the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to include capability for automated anomaly detection and analysis of both on-line (streaming) and off-line data. While there are large numbers of anomaly detection algorithms for multivariate datasets, we are extending this capability beyond the anomaly detection itself and towards an automated analysis that would discover the possible causes of the anomalies. In order to best capture the knowledge about data hierarchies, Earth science models and implied dependencies between anomalies and occurrences of observable events such as urbanization, deforestation, or fires, we have developed an ontology to serve as a knowledge base. The knowledge is captured using OWL ontology language, where connections are defined in a schema that is later extended by including specific instances of datasets and models. We have integrated this knowledge base with a framework for deploying an ensemble of anomaly detection algorithms on large volumes of Earth science datasets and applied it to specific scientific applications that support research conducted by our group. In one early application, we were able to process large number of MODIS, TRMM, CERES data along with ground-based weather and river flow observations to detect the evolution of 2010 drought in the Amazon, identify the affected area, and publish the results in three weeks. A similar analysis of the 2005 drought using the same data sets took nearly 2 years, highlighting the potential contribution of our anomaly framework in accelerating scientific discoveries.

  9. Neural Mechanisms of Rapid Sensitivity to Syntactic Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Albert E.; Gilley, Phillip M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent psycholinguistic models hypothesize that anticipatory processing can speed the response to linguistic input during language comprehension by pre-activating representations necessary for word recognition. We investigated the neurocognitive mechanisms of anticipatory processing by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to syntactically anomalous (The thief was caught by for police) and well-formed (e.g., The thief was caught by the police) sentences. One group of participants saw anomalies elicited by the same word in every instance (e.g., for; low-variability stimuli), providing high affordances for predictions about the word-form appearing in the critical position. A second group saw anomalies elicited by seven different prepositions (at, of, on, for, from, over, with; high-variability stimuli) across the study, creating a more difficult prediction task. Syntactic category anomalies enhanced the occipital-temporal N170 component of the ERP, indicating rapid sensitivity – within 200?ms of word-onset – to syntactic anomaly. For low-variability but not the high-variability stimuli, syntactic anomaly also enhanced the earlier occipital-temporal P1 component, around 130?ms after word-onset, indicating that affordances for prediction engendered earlier sensitivity to syntactic anomaly. Independent components analysis revealed three sources within the ERP signal whose functional dynamics were consistent with predictive processing and early responses to syntactic anomaly. Distributed neural source modeling (sLORETA) of these early active sources produced a candidate network for early responses to words during reading in the right posterior occipital, left occipital-temporal, and medial parietal cortex. PMID:23515395

  10. Branchial Anomalies: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Azeez, Arun; Thada, Nikhil Dinaker; Rao, Pallavi; Prasad, Kishore Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To find out the incidence of involvement of individual arches, anatomical types of lesions, the age and sex incidence, the site and side of predilection, the common clinical features, the common investigations, treatment, and complications of the different anomalies. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. Design. A 10 year retrospective study. Participants. 30 patients with clinically proven branchial anomalies including patients with bilateral disease totaling 34 lesions. Main Outcome Measures. The demographical data, clinical features, type of branchial anomalies, and the management details were recorded and analyzed. Results and Observations. The mean age of presentation was 18.67 years. Male to female sex ratio was 1.27?:?1 with a male preponderance. Of the 34 lesions, maximum incidence was of second arch anomalies (50%) followed by first arch. We had two cases each of third and fourth arch anomalies. Only 1 (3.3%) patients of the 30 presented with lesion at birth. The most common pathological type of lesions was fistula (58.82%) followed by cyst. 41.18% of the lesions occurred on the right side. All the patients underwent surgical excision. None of our patients had involvement of facial nerve in first branchial anomaly. All patients had tracts going superficial to the facial nerve. Conclusion. Confirming the extent of the tract is mandatory before any surgery as these lesions pass in relation to some of the most vital structures of the neck. Surgery should always be the treatment option. injection of dye, microscopic removal and inclusion of surrounding tissue while excising the tract leads to a decreased incidence of recurrence. PMID:24772172

  11. Field Theory Model of the Flyby Anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R. A

    2009-03-16

    Precision tracking of spacecraft on interplanetary missions has turned up several anomalous deviations from predictions of general relativity. The Flyby Anomaly, wherein spacecraft gain or lose energy in an earth-centric frame after an encounter with earth, is clearly associated with the rotation of the earth. The possibility that the missing ingredient is a new type of potential field surrounding the earth is assessed in this write-up. A scalar field with the kinetic energy distribution of the earth as a source is evaluated numerically, with an amplitude parameter adjusted to match the data of Anderson et al.(2008). The new field can be interpreted as a coupling between kinetic energies of objects, a field analogous to fluid mechanics, or a field coupled to acceleration. The potential field violates various aspects of standard physics, such as energy non-conservation.

  12. Field Theory Model of the Flyby Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, R. A.

    2009-03-01

    Precision tracking of spacecraft on interplanetary missions has turned up several anomalous deviations from predictions of general relativity. The Flyby Anomaly, wherein spacecraft gain or lose energy in an earth-centric frame after an encounter with earth, is clearly associated with the rotation of the earth. The possibility that the missing ingredient is a new type of potential field surrounding the earth is assessed in this write-up. A scalar field with the kinetic energy distribution of the earth as a source is evaluated numerically, with an amplitude parameter adjusted to match the data of Anderson et al. (2008). The new field can be interpreted as a coupling between kinetic energies of objects, a field analogous to fluid mechanics, or a field coupled to acceleration. The potential field violates various aspects of standard physics, such as energy non-conservation.

  13. Analysis of DSN software anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galorath, D. D.; Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Reifer, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    A categorized data base of software errors which were discovered during the various stages of development and operational use of the Deep Space Network DSN/Mark 3 System was developed. A study team identified several existing error classification schemes (taxonomies), prepared a detailed annotated bibliography of the error taxonomy literature, and produced a new classification scheme which was tuned to the DSN anomaly reporting system and encapsulated the work of others. Based upon the DSN/RCI error taxonomy, error data on approximately 1000 reported DSN/Mark 3 anomalies were analyzed, interpreted and classified. Next, error data are summarized and histograms were produced highlighting key tendencies.

  14. Revisiting Calendar Anomalies in Asian Stock Markets Using a Stochastic Dominance Approach

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    Revisiting Calendar Anomalies in Asian Stock Markets Using a Stochastic Dominance Approach Hooi Abstract Extensive evidence on the prevalence of calendar effects suggests that there exist abnormal returns. Some recent studies, however, have concluded that calendar effects have largely disappeared

  15. Attention focusing and anomaly detection in systems monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    Any attempt to introduce automation into the monitoring of complex physical systems must start from a robust anomaly detection capability. This task is far from straightforward, for a single definition of what constitutes an anomaly is difficult to come by. In addition, to make the monitoring process efficient, and to avoid the potential for information overload on human operators, attention focusing must also be addressed. When an anomaly occurs, more often than not several sensors are affected, and the partially redundant information they provide can be confusing, particularly in a crisis situation where a response is needed quickly. The focus of this paper is a new technique for attention focusing. The technique involves reasoning about the distance between two frequency distributions, and is used to detect both anomalous system parameters and 'broken' causal dependencies. These two forms of information together isolate the locus of anomalous behavior in the system being monitored.

  16. Zero-point energies and the multiplicative anomaly

    E-print Network

    J. J. McKenzie-Smith; D. J. Toms

    2000-05-22

    For the case of a relativistic scalar field at finite temperature with a chemical potential, we calculate an exact expression for the one-loop effective action using the full fourth order determinant and zeta-function regularisation. We find that it agrees with the exact expression for the factored operator and thus there appears to be no mulitplicative anomaly. The appearance of the anomaly for the fourth order operator in the high temperature limit is explained and we show that the multiplicative anomaly can be calculated as the difference between two zeta-regularised zero-point energies. This difference is a result of using a charge operator in the Hamiltonian which has not been normal ordered.

  17. The North German Conductivity Anomaly revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, A.; Houpt, L.; Brasse, H.; Hoffmann, N.

    2011-10-01

    The North German Conductivity Anomaly was detected already in the early years of electromagnetic deep sounding. It refers to the reversal of induction arrows (as a graphical representation of the tipper transfer function, the ratio of vertical to horizontal magnetic field variations) at the northern and southern margins of the North German Basin. In spite of the many experiments carried out so far, its origin has remained ambiguous; explanations encompass a deep-crustal or even mantle source as well as the simple response to deepening of sedimentary sequences in the centre of the basin. Here, we report on modelling of new long-period magnetotelluric data collected along two profiles in NE Germany and S Sweden, with one transect crossing the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone as the main boundary between Precambrian Baltica and the Palaeozoic belts of central Europe. With the exception of a few sites probably influenced by 3-D salt domes, the data allow a 2-D analysis. Resolution is reduced for large depths due to a well-conducting, saline aquifer, extending across the entire basin. The main result is that the reversal of induction arrows can largely be explained by the resistivity contrast between crystalline basement and sedimentary basin fill. Beneath Rügen island, a southward dipping conductor is interpreted to reflect an alum shale layer in Middle Cambrian-Lower Ordovician sediments. Beneath the southern basin, a moderately conductive upper mantle is modelled (although not very well resolved) which may reflect the thinning of the lithosphere as implied by seismic tomography. As the main anomalously inductive effect is primarily explained by the basin edges and numerous other anomalies exist inside the basin, we suggest not using the term 'North German Conductivity Anomaly' any longer.

  18. Lidar detection algorithm for time and range anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-David, Avishai; Davidson, Charles E.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.

    2007-10-01

    A new detection algorithm for lidar applications has been developed. The detection is based on hyperspectral anomaly detection that is implemented for time anomaly where the question "is a target (aerosol cloud) present at range R within time t1 to t2" is addressed, and for range anomaly where the question "is a target present at time t within ranges R1 and R2" is addressed. A detection score significantly different in magnitude from the detection scores for background measurements suggests that an anomaly (interpreted as the presence of a target signal in space/time) exists. The algorithm employs an option for a preprocessing stage where undesired oscillations and artifacts are filtered out with a low-rank orthogonal projection technique. The filtering technique adaptively removes the one over range-squared dependence of the background contribution of the lidar signal and also aids visualization of features in the data when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. A Gaussian-mixture probability model for two hypotheses (anomaly present or absent) is computed with an expectation-maximization algorithm to produce a detection threshold and probabilities of detection and false alarm. Results of the algorithm for CO2 lidar measurements of bioaerosol clouds Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly known as Bacillus subtilis niger, BG) and Pantoea agglomerans, Pa (formerly known as Erwinia herbicola, Eh) are shown and discussed.

  19. Reinterpreting the Pioneer anomaly and its annual residual

    E-print Network

    Paul G. ten Boom

    2005-05-18

    In addition to its long-term constancy, the Pioneer (spacecraft) anomaly appears to only exist for bodies whose mass is less than that of: planets, moons, comets, and heavy asteroids of known mass. Assuming the observational evidence is reliable, and not the result of an unknown systematic effect, a violation of the Weak Principle of Equivalence is implied. To propose an additional force fails to satisfy this constraint. This paper presents a new hypothesis involving additional field energy in the form of: a finite number of lunar sourced constant amplitude (Lorentz invariant) wave-like undulations upon the gravitational field. Although apparently a futile suggestion, the author's model overcomes concerns regarding wave dissipation, wave generation, and the apparent constancy of the anomaly. A shortfall in motion arises because a tiny proportion of spacecraft kinetic energy is directed into a superposition of non-translational longitudinal oscillatory components. The restriction of this effect to low mass bodies is also addressed. Additionally, the annual residual of the Pioneer anomaly may be attributed to a real 356 day Callisto-Titan wave resonance. This hypothesis may also be readily applied to other solar system anomalies including: the Earth flyby anomaly, an apparent absence of small comets, an apparent paucity of smaller bodies in the Main Belt of asteroids, and residual doubts concerning the migrating planets hypothesis that addresses the too rapid formation of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune.

  20. Characterization of NPP Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Reflective Solar Bands Dual Gain Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Shihyan; McIntire, Jeff; Oudari, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) contains six dual gain bands in the reflective solar spectrum. The dual gain bands are designed to switch gain mode at pre-defined thresholds to achieve high resolution at low radiances while maintaining the required dynamic range for science. During pre-launch testing, an anomaly in the electronic response before transitioning from high to low gain was discovered and characterized. On-orbit, the anomaly was confirmed using MODIS data collected during Simultaneous Nadir Overpasses (SNOs). The analysis of the Earth scene data shows that dual gain anomaly can be determined at the orbital basis. To characterize the dual gain anomaly, the anomaly region and electronic offsets were tracked per week during the first 8 month of VIIRS operation. The temporal analysis shows the anomaly region can drift 20 DN and is impacted by detectors DC Restore. The estimated anomaly flagging regions cover 2.5 % of the high gain dynamic range and are consistent with prelaunch and on-orbit LUT. The prelaunch results had a smaller anomaly range (30-50 DN) and are likely the results of more stable electronics from the shorter data collection time. Finally, this study suggests future calibration efforts to focus on the anomaly's impact on science products and possible correction method to reduce uncertainties.

  1. Gravity tests in the solar system and the Pioneer anomaly

    E-print Network

    Marc-Thierry Jaekel; Serge Reynaud

    2005-04-05

    We build up a new phenomenological framework associated with a minimal generalization of Einsteinian gravitation theory. When linearity, stationarity and isotropy are assumed, tests in the solar system are characterized by two potentials which generalize respectively the Newton potential and the parameter $\\gamma $ of parametrized post-Newtonian formalism. The new framework seems to have the capability to account for the Pioneer anomaly besides other gravity tests.

  2. Anomaly at finite density and chiral fermions on lattice

    E-print Network

    Rajiv V. Gavai; Sayantan Sharma

    2009-10-15

    Using both perturbation theory in the Euclidean formalism as well as the non-perturbative Fujikawa's method, we verify that the chiral anomaly equation remains unaffected in continuum QCD in the presence of nonzero chemical potential, \\mu. We extend our considerations to lattice fermions with exact chiral symmetry and discuss the consequences for the recent Bloch-Wettig proposal for the Dirac operator at finite chemical potential. We propose a new simpler method of incorporating \\mu.

  3. Correlation of cerium anomalies with indicators of paleoenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, K.G. [Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Paleobiology; Irving, A.J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1996-09-01

    Among 21 whole-rock samples of the Upper Cretaceous Niobrara Formation from Colorado, the abundance of cerium relative to other rate earth elements (Ce anomaly), the weight percent organic carbon (%C{sub org}), and the intensity of bioturbation all covary. This covariation is provocative because %C{sub org} and intensity of bioturbation track changes in the concentration of oxygen in the local water column at the time of deposition (Savrda and Bottjer 1989). Ce anomalies in apatite-rich fractions of the Maastrichtian Zumaya-Algorta Formation from France and Spain and the Miocene Monterey Formation from California show changes that also may coincide with changes in ancient oxygen levels. Results for the Niobrara samples are the closest correspondence demonstrated between paleo-redox conditions and Ce anomalies, but the authors cannot yet determine whether the correspondence reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. Variation in Ce anomalies is influenced by a number of factors, including terrigenous input, depositional environment, and diagenetic conditions. Potential interplay of these factors prevents a unique interpretation of the whole-rock data; dissecting whole-rock Ce anomalies through analysis of isolated sedimentary components, though, is a promising avenue of research.

  4. Automatic Construction of Anomaly Detectors from Graphical Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Darmon, David M [ORNL; Shue, Craig A [ORNL; Kelley, Stephen [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Detection of rare or previously unseen attacks in cyber security presents a central challenge: how does one search for a sufficiently wide variety of types of anomalies and yet allow the process to scale to increasingly complex data? In particular, creating each anomaly detector manually and training each one separately presents untenable strains on both human and computer resources. In this paper we propose a systematic method for constructing a potentially very large number of complementary anomaly detectors from a single probabilistic model of the data. Only one model needs to be trained, but numerous detectors can then be implemented. This approach promises to scale better than manual methods to the complex heterogeneity of real-life data. As an example, we develop a Latent Dirichlet Allocation probability model of TCP connections entering Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We show that several detectors can be automatically constructed from the model and will provide anomaly detection at flow, sub-flow, and host (both server and client) levels. This demonstrates how the fundamental connection between anomaly detection and probabilistic modeling can be exploited to develop more robust operational solutions.

  5. Anomaly detection in hyperspectral imagery: comparison of methods using diurnal and seasonal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hytla, Patrick C.; Hardie, Russell C.; Eismann, Michael T.; Meola, Joseph

    2009-09-01

    The use of hyperspectral imaging is a fast growing field with many applications in the civilian, commercial and military sectors. Hyperspectral images are typically composed of many spectral bands in the visible and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and have the potential to deliver a great deal of information about a remotely sensed scene. One area of interest regarding hyperspectral images is anomaly detection, or the ability to find spectral outliers within a complex background in a scene with no a priori information about the scene or its specific contents. Anomaly detectors typically operate by creating a statistical background model of a hyperspectral image and measuring anomalies as image pixels that do not conform properly to that given model. In this study we compare the performance over diurnal and seasonal changes for several different anomaly detection methods found in the literature and a new anomaly detector that we refer to as the fuzzy cluster-based anomaly detector. Here we also compare the performance of several anomaly-based change detection algorithms. Our results indicate that all anomaly detectors tested in this experimentation exhibit strong performance under optimum illumination and environmental conditions. However, our results point toward a significant performance advantage for cluster-based anomaly detectors in the presence of adverse environmental conditions.

  6. The prevalence of specific dental anomalies in a group of Saudi cleft lip and palate patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kharboush, Ghada H.; Al-Balkhi, Khalid M.; Al-Moammar, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and distribution of dental anomalies in a group of Saudi subjects with cleft lip and palate (CLP), to examine potential sex-based associations of these anomalies, and to compare dental anomalies in Saudi subjects with CLP with published data from other population groups. Design This retrospective study involved the examination of pre-treatment records obtained from three CLP centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in February and March 2010. The pre-treatment records of 184 subjects with cleft lip and palate were identified and included in this study. Pre-treatment maxillary occlusal radiographs of the cleft region, panoramic radiographs, and orthodontic study models of subjects with CLP were analyzed for dental anomalies. Results Orthopantomographs and occlusal radiographs may not be reliable for the accurate evaluation of root malformation anomalies. A total of 265 dental anomalies were observed in the 184 study subjects. Hypodontia was observed most commonly (66.8%), followed by microdontia (45.6%), intra-oral ectopic eruption (12.5%), supernumerary teeth (12.5%), intra-nasal ectopic eruption (3.2), and macrodontia (3.2%). No gender difference in the prevalence of these anomalies was observed. Conclusions Dental anomalies were common in Saudi subjects with CLP type. This will complicate the health care required for the CL/P subjects. This study was conducted to epidemiologically explore the prevalence of dental anomalies among Saudi Arabian subjects with CLP. PMID:26082573

  7. Congenital anomalies among live births in a polluted area. A ten-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Congenital anomalies and their primary prevention are a crucial public health issue. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of congenital anomalies in Brindisi, a city in southeastern Italy at high risk of environmental crisis. Methods This research concerned newborns up to 28 days of age, born between 2001 and 2010 to mothers resident in Brindisi and discharged with a diagnosis of congenital anomaly. We classified cases according to the coding system adopted by the European Network for the Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT). Prevalence rates of congenital anomalies in Brindisi were compared with those reported by EUROCAT. Logistic regression models were adapted to evaluate the association between congenital anomalies and municipality of residence of the mother during pregnancy. Results Out of 8,503 newborns we recorded 194 subjects with congenital anomalies (228.2/10,000 total births), 1.2 times higher than the one reported by the EUROCAT pool of registries. We observed 83 subjects with congenital heart diseases with an excess of 49.1%. Odds Ratios for congenital heart diseases significantly increased for newborns to mothers resident in Brindisi (OR 1.75 CI 95% 1.30-2.35). Conclusions Our findings indicated an increased prevalence of Congenital Anomalies (especially congenital heart diseases) in the city of Brindisi. More research is needed in order to analyze the role of factors potentially involved in the causation of congenital anomalies. PMID:23270371

  8. Suggestions for Popularizing Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    The public generally is taking very little interest in the progress of Civil Aviation, and the time has come to educate the public in aeronautics and to make them realize the far-reaching importance of air transport. Briefly, the whole problem resolves itself into discovering and applying means for bringing some of the many aspects and effects of civil aviation into the everyday lives of the public. The report suggests three principal groups of methods: (1) Bring aviation into daily contact with the public. (2) Bring the public into daily contact with aviation. (3) General publicity.

  9. Ancient Crystals Suggest Earlier Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This report describes the findings of two scientists who studied the chemical makeup of crystals of zircon from rocks in Western Australia's Jack Hills. The zircon crystals are thought to be 4.5 billion years old, making them some of the oldest materials yet found on Earth. The ratios of oxygen isotopes found in the crystals suggest that conditions during the Hadean Eon, the first 500 million years of Earth's history when the crystals were formed, were cooler and wetter than previously thought. Links to a glossary are embedded in the text.

  10. Constrained 3-D Linear Inversion of Geoid Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, E. P.; Ussami, N.; Pagiatakis, S.

    2003-12-01

    Lithospheric-scale geoid anomalies with wavelength of < 1000 km may provide independent geophysical evidence of mantle thermal state. In order to estimate the density distribution within the lithosphere from geoid anomalies, a constrained linear inversion technique is proposed for an arbitrarily shaped 3-D body by approximating it by a set of right-rectangular prisms. The forward problem is expressed by the gravitational potential given by Nagy et al. (2000). The geoid anomaly at each point on the surface of the Earth is the sum of the gravitational potential of all prisms, divided by the normal gravity. We take the first derivative of the gravitational potential with respect to density in order to compute the system sensitivity matrix (G), which is used in the inversion procedure. Non-uniqueness and instability problems are solved by minimizing two functionals that represent absolute and relative constraints, so that the absolute value of the difference between observed and calculated geoid anomalies is minimum in the least-squares sense. Inequality constraints are also introduced to represent lower and upper bounds for the densities. This method with the current computing capability allows us to invert large data sets with a sizable model space. Other advantages of this approach include: 1) geological and geophysical information can be incorporated to constrain the solution 2) it avoids problems related to wavenumber domain transforms, and 3) it is possible to analyse the solution in terms of resolution and variance. The algorithm was tested on synthetic models and a discussion of the potentialities of the method to solve real problems are also presented using as an example the case of a 8-meter amplitude positive geoid anomaly observed along the Eastern Brazilian continental margin.

  11. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5

  12. Astrometric solar-system anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Anderson; Michael Martin Nieto

    2010-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It

  13. Coral can have growth anomalies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral growth anomalies (GAs) are changes in the coral cells that deposit the calcium carbonate skeleton. They usually appear as raised areas of the skeleton and tissue that are different from the surrounding normal areas on the same colony. The features include abnormal shape a...

  14. Development anomalies of the occiput

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wickenhauser; O. Hochberg

    1974-01-01

    Four patients with classical features of bathrocephalism are described. Three further patients with developmental anomalies of the occiput are described and these are contrasted with those having classical bathrocephalism. The distinction between the two groups is emphasised. Reference is made to cases described in the pediatric literature which appears at times to depart from the traditional norms and classical notation.

  15. Anomaly detection from hyperspectral imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. J. Stein; S. G. Beaven; L. E. Hoff; E. M. Winter; A. P. Schaum; A. D. Stocker

    2002-01-01

    We develop anomaly detectors, i.e., detectors that do not presuppose a signature model of one or more dimensions, for three clutter models: the local normal model, the global normal mixture model, and the global linear mixture model. The local normal model treats the neighborhood of a pixel as having a normal probability distribution. The normal mixture model considers the observation

  16. Anomalies, Unitarity, and Quantum Irreversibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damiano Anselmi

    1999-01-01

    The trace anomaly in external gravity is the sum of three terms at criticality: the square of the Weyl tensor, the Euler density and ?R, with coefficients, properly normalized, called c, a, and a?, the latter being ambiguously defined by an additive constant. Considerations about unitarity and positivity properties of the induced actions allow us to show that the total

  17. ULF electric and magnetic anomalies accompanying the cracking of rock sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Qi Hao; Shu-Qing Qian; Jin-Tian Gao; Jian-Guo Zhou; Tao Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The anomalies of electric-magnetic field and self-potential before earthquakes are important precursory phenomena. A simulating\\u000a experiment study on the variations in ultra-low frequency (ULF) magnetic field and self-potential during rock cracking was\\u000a carried out in a magnetic field-free space. The results revealing in detail the whole process of the occurrences of electric\\u000a and magnetic anomalies are significant for understanding the

  18. Magnetic anomalies in the Eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orihuela Guevara, Nuris; García, Andreína; Arnaiz, Mariano

    2013-04-01

    Despite the many different studies on the origin and evolution of the Caribbean Plate, no proposal has been widely accepted so far. A key element within this field of research is the characterization of the plate subsurface oceanic crust, as it would clarify the conditions in which it originated, the geological period when it formed and its possible geographical location at this first evolution stage. Based on partial results of this research work, we can say that the conclusions of previous studies are valid to a great extent, namely the NE-SW orientation of the striped magnetic anomalies in the Venezuelan Basin's western section and the existence of W-E preferentially oriented stripes parallel to the Leeward Antilles. The magnetic response of the triangular section in the southeast of the Venezuelan Basin represents cretaceous magnetic quiet zone (CMQZ) and therefore shows a considerable attenuation of the stripe pattern, indicating that the whole East Caribbean subsurface features oceanic crustal material. As for the period recorded by the Caribbean magnetic stripes, we propose the interval between chrons M23 and M0, and part of CMQZ. The wavelengths of the identified anomalies suggest that the ridge associated with the formation of Caribbean ocean floor was slow-spreading when compared to average currently active ridges.

  19. Lorentz Accelerations in the Earth Flyby Anomaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin A. Atchison; Mason A. Peck

    2010-01-01

    Mission engineers have detected an unexpected anomaly on six spacecraft during low-altitude gravity-assist maneuvers around Earth. This Earth flyby anomaly involves an acceleration that, to date, researchers cannot account for based on known forces or errors in measurement or modeling. This paper evaluates Lorentz accelerations associated with spacecraft electrostatic charging as a possible explanation for the Earth flyby anomaly. This

  20. Payload Content based Network Anomaly Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandeep A. Thorat; Amit K. Khandelwal; Bezawada Bruhadeshwar; K. Kishore

    2008-01-01

    We present payload content based network anomaly detection, we call as PCNAD. PCNAD is an improvement to PAYL system which is considered one of the complete systems for payload based anomaly detection. PAYL takes into consideration the entire payload for profile calculation and effectively for anomaly detection. Payload length is very high on port numbers like 21 and 80. Hence

  1. Diagnosing network-wide traffic anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anukool Lakhina; Mark Crovella; Christophe Diot

    2004-01-01

    Anomalies are unusual and significant changes in a network's traffic levels, which can often span multiple links. Diagnosing anomalies is critical for both network operators and end users. It is a difficult problem because one must extract and interpret anomalous patterns from large amounts of high-dimensional, noisy data.In this paper we propose a general method to diagnose anomalies. This method

  2. Spectrum of anomalies in Fanconi anaemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Glanz; F C Fraser

    1982-01-01

    The frequency of various anomalies was compared in probands with Fanconi anaemia and their affected sibs. As probands are usually ascertained because of a 'characteristic' array of physical anomalies, the frequencies of these specific anomalies may be overestimated in probands, whereas their affected sibs may provide a more accurate estimate. The frequencies of growth retardation, skin hyperpigmentation, radial ray deformities,

  3. Detecting BGP Anomalies with Wavelet Jianning Mai

    E-print Network

    Chuah, Chen-Nee

    Detecting BGP Anomalies with Wavelet Jianning Mai ECE Department, UC Davis jnmai@ece.ucdavis.edu Abstract--In this paper, we propose a BGP anomaly detection framework called BAlet that delivers both property and earlier success in applying it for network anomaly detection motivate us to apply the same

  4. Anomaly Detection and Localization in Crowded Scenes

    E-print Network

    Vasconcelos, Nuno M.

    Anomaly Detection and Localization in Crowded Scenes Weixin Li, Student Member, IEEE, Vijay that the latter achieves state-of- the-art anomaly detection results. Index Terms--Video analysis, surveillance, anomaly detection, crowded scene, dynamic texture, center-surround saliency Ç 1 INTRODUCTION SURVEILLANCE

  5. CONCURRENT ATMOSPHERE-LAND-OCEAN ANOMALIES

    E-print Network

    Kalnay, Eugenia

    deviation can be used as threshold Duration of this anomaly A standard deviation with respect to the annual and 850hPa RV anomalies. #12;Annual number (contours) and average life span (shades) Geographical anomalies that exceeded one quarter of the standard deviation (w.r.t. the annual cycle) we counted

  6. Pioneer Anomaly: What Can We Learn from LISA?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defrère, Denis; Rathke, Andreas

    The Doppler tracking data from two deep-space spacecraft, Pioneer 10 and 11, show an anomalous blueshift, which has been dubbed the “Pioneer anomaly”. The effect is most commonly interpreted as a real deceleration of the spacecraft - an interpretation that faces serious challenges from planetary ephemerides. The Pioneer anomaly could as well indicate an unknown effect on the radio signal itself. Several authors have made suggestions how such a blueshift could be related to cosmology. We consider this interpretation of the Pioneer anomaly and study the impact of an anomalous blueshift on the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a planned joint ESA-NASA mission aiming at the detection of gravitational waves. The relative frequency shift (proportional to the light travel time) for the LISA arm length is estimated to 10-16, which is much bigger than the expected amplitude of gravitational waves. The anomalous blueshift enters the LISA signal in two ways, as a small term folded with the gravitational-wave signal, and as larger term at low frequencies. A detailed analysis shows that both contributions remain undetectable and do not impair the gravitational-wave detection. This suggests that the Pioneer anomaly will have to be tested in the outer solar system regardless if the effect is caused by an anomalous blueshift or by a real force.

  7. The Pioneer Anomaly: an inconvenient reality or NASA's 12 year misconception?

    E-print Network

    Boom, Paul G ten

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the likelihood of whether the Pioneer anomaly is due to 'mundane' systematic errors/effects or indicative of new or unappreciated physics. The main aim of this paper is to argue that recent publications suggesting that the anomaly is previously overlooked thermal recoil forces, which is in stark contrast to the earlier consensus (1998-2010), are open to questioning. Both direct and circumstantial evidence are examined, and the uncertainty or inaccuracy associated with observations of such a small magnitude effect is recognised. Whilst a non-systematic based anomaly appears to be very unlikely, by way of the awkwardness of the observational characteristics that would need to be modelled, the existence of other peripheral anomalous phenomena makes an outright dismissal of the anomaly unwise. Issues from the philosophy of science (and physics) are also tabled. In the interests of having a contingency plan, should future experiments provide support for a Pioneer-like anomaly, the type of unap...

  8. BY DEFINITION UNDEFINED: ADVENTURES IN ANOMALY (AND ANOMALOUS CHANGE) DETECTION

    E-print Network

    Theiler, James

    BY DEFINITION UNDEFINED: ADVENTURES IN ANOMALY (AND ANOMALOUS CHANGE) DETECTION James Theiler Los for the detection of anomalies and anomalous changes in hyperspectral imagery. The technical emphasis in anomaly. In general, the detection of anomalies is complicated by the fact that anomalies are rare and that anomalies

  9. Apollo experience report: Flight anomaly resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobb, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The identification of flight anomalies, the determination of their causes, and the approaches taken for corrective action are described. Interrelationships of the broad range of disciplines involved with the complex systems and the team concept employed to ensure timely and accurate resolution of anomalies are discussed. The documentation techniques and the techniques for management of anomaly resolution are included. Examples of specific anomalies are presented in the original form of their progressive documentation. Flight anomaly resolution functioned as a part of the real-time mission support and postflight testing, and results were included in the postflight documentation.

  10. Radio-anomalies: tool for earthquakes and tsunami forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straser, Valentino; Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake is the only among the other geophysical events that doesn't lead directly to death. Tsunami are one of the more dramatic consequences of the seism that happen on global scale. Also in this case, tsunami, we need to improve the tools that can help the forecast of this great geophysical event and the reduction of the dramatic effects on human activities. In order to explain this topic it is necessary that several methods of investigation cooperate and create a scientific network among the complementary branches of science. In this study I suggest a new strategy based on the detection of radio-anomalies and the increasing of the geomagnetic background; we can apply this method two days before the earthquake until the last few hours before it. This research and the data collection started in the 2011 and it show us that more than 400 earthquakes, occurred on global scale, were preceded by the increasing value of the geomagnetic background and the emergence of radio-anomalies in the frequency range from Elf to Self band. This last range is not globally accepted by the scientific community and it frequency between 0,001 and 3 Hz is included. The detection of radio-anomalies data, carried out by the monitoring station Radio Emission Project, in Rome (Italy), it lets us predict a strong seismic event on global scale 6 hour before. The tsunami is a great geophysical event that can embrace several areas of Earth, for this reason the detection of radio-anomalies method is useful for the experimentation in operative terms. Another important check about detection of radio-anomalies was carried out before and during the strong earthquake and tsunami occurred in Japan in 2011. The radio-anomalies that take over in this event and the energy released by the seaquake are linked and proportional between them.

  11. Understanding water's anomalies with locally favoured structures.

    PubMed

    Russo, John; Tanaka, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Water is a complex liquid that displays a surprising array of unusual properties, the most famous being the density maximum at about 4 °C. The origin of these anomalies is still a matter of debate, and so far a quantitative description of water's phase behaviour starting from the molecular arrangements is still missing. Here we report a study of the microscopic structural features of water as obtained from computer simulations. We identify locally favoured structures having a high degree of translational order in the second shell, and a two-state model is used to describe the behaviour of liquid water over a wide region of the phase diagram. Furthermore, we show that locally favoured structures not only have translational order in the second shell but also contain five-membered rings of hydrogen-bonded molecules. This suggests their mixed character: the former helps crystallization, whereas the latter causes frustration against crystallization. PMID:24694550

  12. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (principal investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported in developing predictive abilities to evaluate the potential stabilities of magnetic minerals in the Earth crust and mantle by: (1) computing oxidation state profiling as a function of temperature and pressure; (2) compiling data on basalts to establish validity of the oxidation state profiles; (3) determining Fe-Ni alloys in association with magnetitie as a function of temperature and oxidation state; and (4) acquiring large chemical data banks on the mineral ilmenite which decomposes to mineral spinel in the presence of high sulfur or carbonate environments in the lower crust upper mantle. In addition to acquiring these data which are related to constraining Curie isotherm depths, an excellent correlation was found between MAGSAT anomaly data and the geology of West Africa.

  13. Anomaly detection and diagnosis in Grid environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.; Liu, C.; Schopf, J. M.; Foster, I.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago; Microsoft Corp.

    2007-01-01

    Identifying and diagnosing anomalies in application behavior is critical to delivering reliable application-level performance. In this paper we introduce a strategy to detect anomalies and diagnose the possible reasons behind them. Our approach extends the traditional window-based strategy by using signal-processing techniques to filter out recurring, background fluctuations in resource behavior. In addition, we have developed a diagnosis technique that uses standard monitoring data to determine which related changes in behavior may cause anomalies. We evaluate our anomaly detection and diagnosis technique by applying it in three contexts when we insert anomalies into the system at random intervals. The experimental results show that our strategy detects up to 96% of anomalies while reducing the false positive rate by up to 90% compared to the traditional window average strategy. In addition, our strategy can diagnose the reason for the anomaly approximately 75% of the time.

  14. Satellite GN and C Anomaly Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Stoneking, Eric

    2003-01-01

    On-orbit anomaly records for satellites launched from 1990 through 2001 are reviewed to determine recent trends of un-manned space mission critical failures. Anomalies categorized by subsystems show that Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystems have a high number of anomalies that result in a mission critical failure when compared to other subsystems. A mission critical failure is defined as a premature loss of a satellite or loss of its ability to perform its primary mission during its design life. The majority of anomalies are shown to occur early in the mission, usually within one year from launch. GN&C anomalies are categorized by cause and equipment type involved. A statistical analysis of the data is presented for all anomalies compared with the GN&C anomalies for various mission types, orbits and time periods. Conclusions and recommendations are presented for improving mission success and reliability.

  15. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  16. Enzyme leaching of surficial geochemical samples for detecting hydromorphic trace-element anomalies associated with precious-metal mineralized bedrock buried beneath glacial overburden in northern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Robert J.; Meier, A.L.; Riddle, G.

    1990-01-01

    One objective of the International Falls and Roseau, Minnesota, CUSMAP projects was to develop a means of conducting regional-scale geochemical surveys in areas where bedrock is buried beneath complex glacially derived overburden. Partial analysis of B-horizon soils offered hope for detecting subtle hydromorphic trace-element dispersion patterns. An enzyme-based partial leach selectively removes metals from oxide coatings on the surfaces of soil materials without attacking their matrix. Most trace-element concentrations in the resulting solutions are in the part-per-trillion to low part-per-billion range, necessitating determinations by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry. The resulting data show greater contrasts for many trace elements than with other techniques tested. Spatially, many trace metal anomalies are locally discontinuous, but anomalous trends within larger areas are apparent. In many instances, the source for an anomaly seems to be either basal till or bedrock. Ground water flow is probably the most important mechanism for transporting metals toward the surface, although ionic diffusion, electrochemical gradients, and capillary action may play a role in anomaly dispersal. Sample sites near the Rainy Lake-Seine River fault zone, a regional shear zone, often have anomalous concentrations of a variety of metals, commonly including Zn and/or one or more metals which substitute for Zn in sphalerite (Cd, Ge, Ga, and Sn). Shifts in background concentrations of Bi, Sb, and As show a trend across the area indicating a possible regional zoning of lode-Au mineralization. Soil anomalies of Ag, Co, and Tl parallel basement structures, suggesting areas that may have potential for Cobalt/Thunder Baytype silver viens. An area around Baudette, Minnesota, which is underlain by quartz-chlorite-carbonate-altered shear zones, is anomalous in Ag, As, Bi, Co, Mo, Te, Tl, and W. Anomalies of Ag, As, Bi, Te, and W tend to follow the fault zones, suggesting potential for lode-Au deposits. Soil anomalies of Co, Mo, and Tl appear to follow northwest-striking structures that cross the shear zones, suggesting that Thunder Bay-type mineralization may have overprinted earlier mineralization along the shear zones.

  17. Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2009-09-07

    The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.

  18. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergei Klioner; P. Kenneth Seidelmann

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric\\u000adata. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby\\u000atrajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a\\u000achange in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the\\u000aastronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It

  19. Prevalence of hypospadias and other genital anomalies among singleton births, 1988–1997, in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S; Dobbie, R; Finlayson, A; Gilbert, J; Youngson, G; Chalmers, J; Stone, D

    2004-01-01

    Background: Considerable debate exists on the epidemiology of genital anomalies. Methods: All genital anomalies, excluding undescended testes, were identified from neonatal returns, stillbirth and infant death survey records, and returns relating to hospital admissions and linked to form infant profiles on a cohort of singleton births between 1988 and 1997 with follow up for a minimum of three years. Findings: The mean genital anomaly prevalence rate in Scotland was calculated at 4.6 per 1000 births varying from 4.0 per 1000 births in 1988 to 5.9 per 1000 births in 1996. However, there was no evidence of a clear trend to an increasing prevalence of hypospadias, which constituted 73% of the anomalies studied. Logistic regression analysis of the data also showed this rate to be independently associated with being relatively small for gestational age (odds ratio (OR) 1.43, p < 0.001) and increasing maternal age (OR 1.2, p < 0.05). Infants born in deprived areas, as judged by the Carstairs deprivation score, were least likely to have a genital anomaly (OR 0.73, p < 0.01). Interpretation: A new linked register of congenital genital anomalies in Scotland suggests that over a decade, the birth prevalence of genital anomalies has changed little. The associations between genital anomalies, maternal age, and socioeconomic deprivation require further study. PMID:14977900

  20. Contributions of cretaceus quiet zone natural remanent magnetization to Magsat anomalies in the Southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fullerton, Lawrence G.; Frey, Herbert V.; Roark, James H.; Thomas, Herman H.

    1994-01-01

    The Magsat magnetic anomalies over the Southwest Indian Ocean are modeled using a combination of induced plus viscous remanent magnetization (IM/VRM) and natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Two broad, roughly parallel, SW to NE trending triple-peaked positive anomalies dominate the region, one lying south of Africa and the other north of Antarctica. Although these anomaly peaks generally correspond with the Agulhas Plateau/Maud Rise, Mozambique Plateau/Astrid Ridge, and Madagascar Ridge/Conrad Rise conjugate pairs, the IM/VRM contribution from structural characteristics (i.e., crustal thickness) accounts for only about 20% of the anomaly amplitudes. A spatially variable but observationally constrained NRM contribution in Cretaceous Quiet Zone (KQZ) crust is required to account for the location, shape, and amplitude contrast of these anomalies. Many crustal features in the Southwest Indian Ocean near Antarctica have little geophysical data to constrain their structure but do hagve tectonic conjugates near Africa for which much more geophysical data are generally available. Using geophysical and geological constraints from one member to model the magnetization structure of its conjugate reproduces the observed Magsat reduced-to-pole anomalies over both structures very well. This suggests that no significant alteration in their magnetization structure has occurred since the features split. Models of these conjugate structures show that IM/VRM reproduces the Magsat anomalies associated with non-KQZ crust but that both IM/VRM and a dominant NRM component are required to explain the anomalies associated with KQZ crust.

  1. Contributions of Cretaceous Quiet Zone natural remanent magnetization to Magsat anomalies in the Southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Lawrence G.; Frey, Herbert V.; Roark, James H.; Thomas, Herman H.

    1994-06-01

    The Magsat magnetic anomalies over the Southwest Indian Ocean are modeled using a combination of induced plus viscous remanent magnetization (IM/VRM) and natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Two broad, roughly parallel, SW to NE trending triple-peaked positive anomalies dominate the region, one lying south of Africa and the other north of Antarctica. Although these anomaly peaks generally correspond with the Agulhas Plateau/Maud Rise, Mozambique Plateau/Astrid Ridge, and Madagascar Ridge/Conrad Rise conjugate pairs, the IM/VRM contribution from structural characteristics (i.e., crustal thickness) accounts for only about 20% of the anomaly amplitudes. A spatially variable but observationally constrained NRM contribution in Cretaceous Quiet Zone (KQZ) crust is required to account for the location, shape, and amplitude contrast of these anomalies. Many crustal features in the Southwest Indian Ocean near Antarctica have little geophysical data to constrain their structure but do have tectonic conjugates near Africa for which much more geophysical data are generally available. Using geophysical and geological constraints from one member to model the magnetization structure of its conjugate reproduces the observed Magsat reduced-to-pole anomalies over both structures very well. This suggests that no significant alteration in their magnetization structure has occurred since the features split. Models of these conjugate structures show that IM/VRM reproduces the Magsat anomalies associated with non-KQZ crust but that both IM/VRM and a dominant NRM component are required to explain the anomalies associated with KQZ crust.

  2. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  3. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    E-print Network

    Anderson, John D

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr$^{-1}$. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction ...

  4. Congenital Anomalies of the Limbs

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, G.; Mongeau, M.; Moreault, P.; Dupuis, M.; Hebert, B.; Corriveau, C.

    1964-01-01

    As a preparatory step towards the development of a complete habilitation program for children with congenital limb anomalies associated with maternal ingestion of thalidomide, the medical records of all patients with congenital limb anomalies referred to the Rehabilitation Institute of Montreal in the past decade were studied, and an examination and a thorough reassessment were made of 41 patients (21 males and 20 females). The medical and prosthetic aspects were dealt with in Part I of this paper. Part II describes, in a joint report, the results of psychiatric, psychological and educational assessments. There was no evidence of major emotional disorder in any of the patients, although conflicts were intensified by the presence of the physical anomaly. No relation was found between intelligence, emotional adjustment and disability. The patient's attitude towards his disability and prosthesis is definitely influenced by the degree of parental acceptance of the handicap and by the character of the emotional undertones in the total environment. In order to favour the occurrence of the healthiest modes of development in these children, the authors believe that the medical profession should be made fully aware of the physical and emotional problems which may arise after the birth of a deformed child. It is considered very important that the mother should receive psychotherapeutic support as soon as possible after the child is born. PMID:14174527

  5. Exploring preference anomalies in double bounded contingent valuation.

    PubMed

    Watson, Verity; Ryan, Mandy

    2007-05-01

    Double bounded dichotomous choice (DBDC) contingent valuation offers increased efficiency of willingness to pay (WTP) estimates compared with the single bounded format. However, evidence suggests DBDC generates anomalous respondent behaviour. This paper provides the first investigation and explanation of these anomalies in health. Results suggest the incentives for truthful preference revelation are altered in the presence of a follow up question. This result is found using both regression techniques and analysis of raw responses. Although findings suggest 'very certain' respondents exhibit less anomalous behaviour inconsistencies remain across bounds. The results of this study question the use of iterative valuation formats. PMID:17123652

  6. On the equatorial anomaly of the ionospheric total electron content near the northern anomaly crest region

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Cheng, K.; Chen, S. (Telecommunication Training Institute, Ministry of Communications, Taipei, Taiwan (TW))

    1989-10-01

    Daily contour charts of the ionospheric total electron content in latitude versus local time coordinates have been used to study the behavior of the development of the equatorial anomaly around the northern anomaly crest region. The daily development of the equatorial anomaly shows quite large day-to-day variabilities not only on magnetically disturbed days but also on quiet days. The daily maximum anomaly crest moves poleward as the magnitude of the total electron content of the daily maximum anomaly crest increases. The increase of the equatorial electrojet strength also results in a poleward movement of the anomaly crest. No significant correlation exists between the anomaly crest and the magnetic {ital Ap} index. The monthly mean diurnal development of the equatorial anomaly shows a remarkable seasonal difference, with the anomaly largest in equinoxes and slightly larger in winter than in summer. {copyright} American Geophysical Union 1989

  7. ENSO Variability at Vanuatu during the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hereid, K. A.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Edwards, R.; Cheng, H.; Shen, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; ~1050 - 1250 CE) is a period of warm temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes caused by enhanced solar forcing. The tropical response to this forcing is variable; sediment records from the tropical Pacific indicate warm conditions in the western tropics and cooler temperatures in the east during this interval, paired with precipitation changes that suggest a northward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Speleothem records and western Pacific sediment cores match this migration with a strengthened Asian monsoon, indicating a substantial reorganization in hydrology. However, the effect of these changes in zonal and meridional circulation patterns on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the dominant mode of global interannual climate variability, is unclear. Conflicting hypotheses arise due to datasets that are too short to be representative of multidecadal ENSO variability trends, cannot identify individual ENSO events due to lower than annual resolution, or are located in remote, teleconnected regions. We present a suite of monthly resolved geochemical records from fossil Porites corals at Vanuatu (Tasmaloum, Espiritu Santo), a location whose climate is strongly influenced by variations in ENSO and the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). Our proxy coral records of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) variations provide multidecadal- to centennial-scale windows into ENSO variability and mean climate state from ~600 - 1250 CE in the deep tropics. Preliminary results, based on coral Sr/Ca variations during a portion of the MCA, suggest that SST was cooler than modern at Vanuatu, with similar levels of total variability. Additional data acquisition and future work will focus on assessing potential ENSO event frequency and magnitude changes during the MCA in the deep tropics.

  8. TagAssist: Automatic Tag Suggestion for Blog Posts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay C. Sood; Kristian J. Hammond; Sara H. Owsley; Larry Birnbaum

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a system called TagAssist that provides tag suggestions for new blog posts by utilizing existing tagged posts. The system is able to increase the quality of suggested tags by performing lossless compression over existing tag data. In addition, the system employs a set of metrics to evaluate the quality of a potential tag suggestion. Coupled

  9. The Impact of Devegetated Dune Fields on North American Climate During the Late Medieval Climate Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, B. I.; Seager, R.; Miller, R. L.

    2011-01-01

    During the Medieval Climate Anomaly, North America experienced severe droughts and widespread mobilization of dune fields that persisted for decades. We use an atmosphere general circulation model, forced by a tropical Pacific sea surface temperature reconstruction and changes in the land surface consistent with estimates of dune mobilization (conceptualized as partial devegetation), to investigate whether the devegetation could have exacerbated the medieval droughts. Presence of devegetated dunes in the model significantly increases surface temperatures, but has little impact on precipitation or drought severity, as defined by either the Palmer Drought Severity Index or the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Results are similar to recent studies of the 1930s Dust Bowl drought, suggesting bare soil associated with the dunes, in and of itself, is not sufficient to amplify droughts over North America.

  10. Removal of two large-scale cosmic microwave background anomalies after subtraction of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.; Dupé, F.-X.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Although there is currently a debate over the significance of the claimed large-scale anomalies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), their existence is not totally dismissed. In parallel to the debate over their statistical significance, recent work has also focussed on masks and secondary anisotropies as potential sources of these anomalies. Aims: In this work we investigate simultaneously the impact of the method used to account for masked regions as well as the impact of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, which is the large-scale secondary anisotropy most likely to affect the CMB anomalies. In this sense, our work is an update of previous works. Our aim is to identify trends in CMB data from different years and with different mask treatments. Methods: We reconstruct the ISW signal due to 2 Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) galaxies, effectively reconstructing the low-redshift ISW signal out to z ~ 1. We account for regions of missing data using the sparse inpainting technique. We test sparse inpainting of the CMB, large scale structure and ISW and find that it constitutes a bias-free reconstruction method suitable to study large-scale statistical isotropy and the ISW effect. Results: We focus on three large-scale CMB anomalies: the low quadrupole, the quadrupole/octopole alignment, and the octopole planarity. After sparse inpainting, the low quadrupole becomes more anomalous, whilst the quadrupole/octopole alignment becomes less anomalous. The significance of the low quadrupole is unchanged after subtraction of the ISW effect, while the trend amongst the CMB maps is that both the low quadrupole and the quadrupole/octopole alignment have reduced significance, yet other hypotheses remain possible as well (e.g. exotic physics). Our results also suggest that both of these anomalies may be due to the quadrupole alone. While the octopole planarity significance is reduced after inpainting and after ISW subtraction, however, we do not find that it was very anomalous to start with. In the spirit of participating in reproducible research, we make all codes and resulting products which constitute main results of this paper public here: http://www.cosmostat.org/anomaliesCMB.html

  11. BRF1 mutations alter RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription and cause neurodevelopmental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Borck, Guntram; Hög, Friederike; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Tan, Perciliz L; Sowada, Nadine; Medeira, Ana; Gueneau, Lucie; Thiele, Holger; Kousi, Maria; Lepri, Francesca; Wenzeck, Larissa; Blumenthal, Ian; Radicioni, Antonio; Schwarzenberg, Tito Livio; Mandriani, Barbara; Fischetto, Rita; Morris-Rosendahl, Deborah J; Altmüller, Janine; Reymond, Alexandre; Nürnberg, Peter; Merla, Giuseppe; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Katsanis, Nicholas; Cramer, Patrick; Kubisch, Christian

    2015-02-01

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) synthesizes tRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs to regulate protein synthesis. Dysregulation of Pol III transcription has been linked to cancer, and germline mutations in genes encoding Pol III subunits or tRNA processing factors cause neurogenetic disorders in humans, such as hypomyelinating leukodystrophies and pontocerebellar hypoplasia. Here we describe an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia and intellectual disability, as well as facial dysmorphic features, short stature, microcephaly, and dental anomalies. Whole-exome sequencing revealed biallelic missense alterations of BRF1 in three families. In support of the pathogenic potential of the discovered alleles, suppression or CRISPR-mediated deletion of brf1 in zebrafish embryos recapitulated key neurodevelopmental phenotypes; in vivo complementation showed all four candidate mutations to be pathogenic in an apparent isoform-specific context. BRF1 associates with BDP1 and TBP to form the transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB), which recruits Pol III to target genes. We show that disease-causing mutations reduce Brf1 occupancy at tRNA target genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and impair cell growth. Moreover, BRF1 mutations reduce Pol III-related transcription activity in vitro. Taken together, our data show that BRF1 mutations that reduce protein activity cause neurodevelopmental anomalies, suggesting that BRF1-mediated Pol III transcription is required for normal cerebellar and cognitive development. PMID:25561519

  12. The low temperature dielectric anomaly of bismuth-based ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiukai Cai; Chunlei Wang; Peilin Zhang; Weilie Zhong; Liangying Zhang; Xi Yao

    2001-01-01

    A series of bismuth-contained ceramics have been prepared and the dielectric properties of typical samples are investigated in the temperature range of 300 to 10K. There exists a dielectric anomaly occurred common to all the bismuth, zinc(nickel), niobium(tantalum) oxide pyrochlores. The possible polarization mechanism is suggested and discussed by carrying out the phenomenological model analysis. The tendency of the dielectric

  13. Low-Temperature Specific Heat Anomaly in Manganese Ferrites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brooks Low

    1963-01-01

    The specific heats of a series of ferrites Mnx FeyO4 with x+y≈3, have been measured in the range 1.5°K to 6°K. The specific heats are anomalously large in this temperature range, and the anomaly increases with increasing manganese concentration. If the relatively small estimated lattice contribution is subtracted out, the resulting Cv vs T curves are concave downward, suggesting a

  14. The longevity of the South Pacific isotopic and thermal anomaly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staudigel, H.; Park, K.-H.; Pringle, M.; Rubenstone, J.L.; Smith, W.H.F.; Zindler, A.

    1991-01-01

    The South Pacific is anomalous in terms of the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios of its hot spot basalts, a thermally enhanced lithosphere, and possibly a hotter mantle. We have studied the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope characteristics of 12 Cretaceous seamounts in the Magellans, Marshall and Wake seamount groups (western Pacific Ocean) that originated in this South Pacific Isotopic and Thermal Anomaly (SOPITA). The range and values of isotope ratios of the Cretaceous seamount data are similar to those of the island chains of Samoa, Tahiti, Marquesas and Cook/Austral in the SOPITA. These define two major mantle components suggesting that isotopically extreme lavas have been produced at SOPITA for at least 120 Ma. Shallow bathymetry, and weakened lithosphere beneath some of the seamounts studied suggests that at least some of the thermal effects prevailed during the Cretaceous as well. These data, in the context of published data, suggest: 1. (1)|SOPITA is a long-lived feature, and enhanced heat transfer into the lithosphere and isotopically anomalous mantle appear to be an intrinsic characteristic of the anomaly. 2. (2)|The less pronounced depth anomaly during northwesterly plate motion suggests that some of the expressions of SOPITA may be controlled by the direction of plate motion. Motion parallel to the alignment of SOPITA hot spots focusses the heat (and chemical input into the lithosphere) on a smaller cross section than oblique motion. 3. (3)|The lithosphere in the eastern and central SOPITA appears to have lost its original depleted mantle characteristics, probably due to enhanced plume/lithosphere interaction, and it is dominated by isotopic compositions derived from plume materials. 4. (4)|We speculate (following D.L. Anderson) that the origin of the SOPITA, and possibly the DUPAL anomaly is largely due to focussed subduction through long periods of the geological history of the earth, creating a heterogeneous distribution of recycled components in the lower mantle. ?? 1991.

  15. Dendritic Anomalies in Disorders Associated with Mental Retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter E. Kaufmann; Hugo W. Moser

    2000-01-01

    Dendritic abnormalities are the most consistent anatomical correlates of mental retardation (MR). Earliest descriptions included dendritic spine dysgenesis, which was first associated with unclassified MR, but can also be found in genetic syndromes associated with MR. Genetic disorders with well-defined dendritic anomalies involving branches and\\/or spines include Down, Rett and fragile-X syndromes. Cytoarchitectonic analyses also suggest dendritic pathology in Williams

  16. The Effect of Ocean Currents on Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef; Leeuwenburgh, Olwijn

    2000-01-01

    We investigate regional and global-scale correlations between observed anomalies in sea surface temperature and height. A strong agreement between the two fields is found over a broad range of latitudes for different ocean basins. Both time-longitude plots and wavenumber-frequency spectra suggest an advective forcing of SST anomalies by a first-mode baroclinic wave field on spatial scales down to 400 km and time scales as short as 1 month. Even though the magnitude of the mean background temperature gradient is determining for the effectiveness of the forcing, there is no obvious seasonality that can be detected in the amplitudes of SST anomalies. Instead, individual wave signatures in the SST can in some cases be followed over periods of two years. The phase relationship between SST and SSH anomalies is dependent upon frequency and wavenumber and displays a clear decrease of the phase lag toward higher latitudes where the two fields come into phase at low frequencies. Estimates of the damping coefficient are larger than generally obtained for a purely atmospheric feedback. From a global frequency spectrum a damping time scale of 2-3 month was found. Regionally results are very variable and range from 1 month near strong currents to 10 month at low latitudes and in the sub-polar North Atlantic. Strong agreement is found between the first global EOF modes of 10 day averaged and spatially smoothed SST and SSH grids. The accompanying time series display low frequency oscillations in both fields.

  17. A RE-INTRODUCTION TO ANOMALIES OF CRITICALITY

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH RJ

    2009-09-09

    In 1974, a small innocuous document was submitted to the American Nuclear Society's Criticality Safety Division for publication that would have lasting impacts on this nuclear field The author was Duane Clayton, manager of the Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Critical Mass Lab, the world's preeminent reactor critical experimenter with plutonium solutions. The document was entitled, 'Anomalies of Criticality'. 'Anomalies...' was a compilation of more than thirty separate and distinct examples of departures from what might be commonly expected in the field of nuclear criticality. Mr. Clayton's publication was the derivative of more than ten thousand experiments and countless analytical studies conducted world-wide on every conceivable reactor system imaginable: from fissile bearing solutions to solids, blocks to arrays of fuel rods, low-enriched uranium oxide systems to pure plutonium and highly enriched uranium systems. After publication, the document was commonly used within the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor community to train potential criticality/reactor analysts, experimenters and fuel handlers on important things for consideration when designing systems with critically 'safe' parameters in mind The purpose of this paper is to re-introduce 'Anomalies of Criticality' to the current Criticality Safety community and to add new 'anomalies' to the existing compendium. By so doing, it is the authors' hope that a new generation of nuclear workers and criticality engineers will benefit from its content and might continue to build upon this work in support of the nuclear renaissance that is about to occur.

  18. On Debye temperature anomaly observed in Ge Se Ag glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razdan, Ashok

    2008-09-01

    Anomalous values of Debye temperature have been obtained from recoil free factor measurements Ge-Se-Ag glasses recently [B. Arcondo, M.A. Urena, A. Piarristeguy, A. Pradel, M. Fontana, Physica B 389 (2007) 77]. In the present paper we show that this anomaly may arise due to the presence of anharmonic potential at the high spin ferrous site. We use q Lamb Mossbauer factor and anharmonic Lamb Mossbauer factor to study this anharmonicity.

  19. Nonrelativistic scale anomaly, and composite operators with complex scaling dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Sergej

    2011-05-01

    It is demonstrated that a nonrelativistic quantum scale anomaly manifests itself in the appearance of composite operators with complex scaling dimensions. In particular, we study nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with an inverse square potential and consider a composite s-wave operator O=??. We analytically compute the scaling dimension of this operator and determine the propagator <0|TOO†|0>. The operator O represents an infinite tower of bound states with a geometric energy spectrum. Operators with higher angular momenta are briefly discussed.

  20. Ferromagnetic neutron stars: axial anomaly, dense neutron matter, and pionic wall

    E-print Network

    Minoru Eto; Koji Hashimoto; Tetsuo Hatsuda

    2012-09-21

    We show that a chiral nonlinear sigma model coupled to degenerate neutrons exhibits a ferromagnetic phase at high density. The magnetization is due to the axial anomaly acting on the parallel layers of neutral pion domain walls spontaneously formed at high density. The emergent magnetic field would reach the QCD scale ~ 10^19 [G], which suggests that the quantum anomaly can be a microscopic origin of the magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars).

  1. Hydrocephalus, skeletal anomalies, and mental disturbances in a mother and three daughters: A new syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Ferlini, A.; Zanetti, A.; Milan, M.; Calzolari, E. [Universita di Ferrara, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-12-04

    We report on a family in which a mother and her 3 daughters have delayed psychomotor development and/or psychosis, hydrocephalus with white matter alterations, arachnoid cysts, skeletal anomalies consisting of brachydactyly, and Sprengel anomaly. Biochemical and cytogenetic analyses were normal on all 4 patients. The pattern of inheritance, clinical manifestations, and variability of expression suggest that this is a new hydrocephalus syndrome possibly transmitted as an X-linked dominant trait. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Strictly anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Jones, D. R. Timothy

    2013-04-01

    We consider an extension of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with anomaly mediation as the only source of supersymmetry breaking, and the tachyonic slepton problem solved by a gauged U(1) symmetry. The extra gauge symmetry is broken at high energies in a manner preserving supersymmetry, while also introducing both the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses, and the Higgs ?-term. We call the model strictly anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We present typical spectra for the model and compare them with those from so-called minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We find a Standard Model-like Higgs of mass 125 GeV with a gravitino mass of 140 TeV and tan??=16. However, the muon anomalous magnetic moment is 3? away from the experimental value. The model naturally produces a period of hybrid inflation, which can exit to a false vacuum characterized by large Higgs vacuum expectation values, reaching the true ground state after a period of thermal inflation. The scalar spectral index is reduced to approximately 0.975, and the correct abundance of neutralino dark matter can be produced by decays of thermally produced gravitinos, provided the gravitino mass (and hence the Higgs mass) is high. Naturally light cosmic strings are produced, satisfying bounds from the cosmic microwave background. The complementary pulsar timing and cosmic ray bounds require that strings decay primarily via loops into gravitational waves. Unless the loops are extremely small, the next generation pulsar timing array will rule out or detect the string-derived gravitational radiation background in this model.

  3. One-loop effective actions and 2D hydrodynamics with anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Gim Seng; Surówka, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    We revisit the study of a 2D quantum field theory in the hydrodynamic regime and develop a formalism based on Euclidean one-loop partition functions that is suitable to analyze transport properties due to gauge and gravitational anomalies. To do so, we generalize the method of a modified Dirac operator developed for zero-temperature anomalies to finite temperature, chemical potentials and rotations.

  4. Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

  5. Chiral and gravitational anomalies in any dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Delbourgo, R.; Matsuki, T.

    1985-06-01

    Gravitational contributions to the chiral anomaly in 4N space-time dimensions as well as the purely gravitational anomaly in 4N-2 dimensions are expressed in terms of the Riemann--Christoffel tensor. Using this formula, we give a simple proof that if N > or = 4 there is no way to cancel the gravitational anomalies using fields of spin- 1/2 , - (3)/(2) , and -1.

  6. ?-Wars episode I: the phantom anomaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Intriligator; Jason Kumar

    2002-01-01

    As pointed out, chiral non-commutative theories exist, and examples can be constructed via string theory. Gauge anomalies require the matter content of individual gauge group factors, including U(1) factors, to be non-chiral. All “bad” mixed gauge anomalies, and also all “good” (e.g., for ?0???) ABJ type flavor anomalies, automatically vanish in non-commutative gauge theories. We interpret this as being analogous

  7. Discovery of mass anomalies on Ganymede.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John D; Schubert, Gerald; Jacobson, Robert A; Lau, Eunice L; Moore, William B; Palguta, Jennifer L

    2004-08-13

    We present the discovery of mass anomalies on Ganymede, Jupiter's third and largest Galilean satellite. This discovery is surprising for such a large icy satellite. We used the radio Doppler data generated with the Galileo spacecraft during its second encounter with Ganymede on 6 September 1996 to model the mass anomalies. Two surface mass anomalies, one a positive mass at high latitude and the other a negative mass at low latitude, can explain the data. There are no obvious geological features that can be identified with the anomalies. PMID:15310898

  8. Satellite Magnetic Anomalies of Africa and Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (principal investigators); Olivier, R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary MAGSAT scalar magnetic anomaly data of Africa, Europe, and adjacent marine areas were reduced to the pole assuming a constant inducing Earth's magnetic field of 60,000 nT. This process leads to a consistent anomaly data set free from marked variations in directional and intensity effects of the Earth's magnetic field over this extensive region. The resulting data are correlated with long wave length-pass filtered free-air gravity anomalies; regional heat flow, and tectonic data to investigate magatectonic elements and the region's geologic history. Magnetic anomalies are related to both ancient as well as more recent Cenozoic structural features.

  9. Anomaly-free sets of fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Batra, Puneet; /Argonne; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; /Fermilab; Spivak, David; /UC, Berkeley, Math. Dept.

    2005-10-01

    We present new techniques for finding anomaly-free sets of fermions. Although the anomaly cancellation conditions typically include cubic equations with integer variables that cannot be solved in general, we prove by construction that any chiral set of fermions can be embedded in a larger set of fermions which is chiral and anomaly-free. Applying these techniques to extensions of the Standard Model, we find anomaly-free models that have arbitrary quark and lepton charges under an additional U(1) gauge group.

  10. ?-Wars episode I: the phantom anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intriligator, Ken; Kumar, Jason

    2002-01-01

    As pointed out, chiral non-commutative theories exist, and examples can be constructed via string theory. Gauge anomalies require the matter content of individual gauge group factors, including U(1) factors, to be non-chiral. All "bad" mixed gauge anomalies, and also all "good" (e.g., for ?0? ??) ABJ type flavor anomalies, automatically vanish in non-commutative gauge theories. We interpret this as being analogous to string theory, and an example of UV/IR mixing: non-commutative gauge theories automatically contain "closed string", Green-Schwarz fields, which cancel these anomalies.

  11. Implementation of a General Real-Time Visual Anomaly Detection System Via Soft Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve; Ferrell, Bob; Steinrock, Todd (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The intelligent visual system detects anomalies or defects in real time under normal lighting operating conditions. The application is basically a learning machine that integrates fuzzy logic (FL), artificial neural network (ANN), and generic algorithm (GA) schemes to process the image, run the learning process, and finally detect the anomalies or defects. The system acquires the image, performs segmentation to separate the object being tested from the background, preprocesses the image using fuzzy reasoning, performs the final segmentation using fuzzy reasoning techniques to retrieve regions with potential anomalies or defects, and finally retrieves them using a learning model built via ANN and GA techniques. FL provides a powerful framework for knowledge representation and overcomes uncertainty and vagueness typically found in image analysis. ANN provides learning capabilities, and GA leads to robust learning results. An application prototype currently runs on a regular PC under Windows NT, and preliminary work has been performed to build an embedded version with multiple image processors. The application prototype is being tested at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, to visually detect anomalies along slide basket cables utilized by the astronauts to evacuate the NASA Shuttle launch pad in an emergency. The potential applications of this anomaly detection system in an open environment are quite wide. Another current, potentially viable application at NASA is in detecting anomalies of the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter's radiator panels.

  12. High Resolution Imaging of the Aspen Anomaly - CREST and USArray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCarthy, J. K.; Aster, R. C.; Dueker, K.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Hansen, S. M.; Stachnik, J. C.; Zang, Z.

    2008-12-01

    The Aspen anomaly is a low velocity (-4.5% Vs and -2.5% Vp) upper mantle feature that approximately underlies the highest elevations of the Colorado Rocky Mountains. It is geographically, and possibly causatively, associated with Proterozoic structure in the lithosphere underlying the Colorado Mineral Belt. The coincidence of high topography, evidence of Cenozoic uplift, slow mantle velocities, magmatism, and possible inherited Proterozoic lithospheric structure and associated rheological weakness, together suggest that the Aspen anomaly may be a significant mantle geodynamic influence on the evolution of the central Colorado Rocky Mountains through to the present day. Competing end-member models for the origin of the anomaly are: 1) upwelling asthenosphere associated with Cenozoic mantle modification, and 2) thermal, rheological, and/or compositional variations in the lithosphere resulting from reactivation of much older lithospheric structures. Hybrid models involving interaction between recent mantle reorganization and older lithospheric flaws are also possible. In August of 2008, we deployed 59 IRIS PASSCAL broadband seismographs above the Aspen anomaly with a mean station spacing of 26 km, which will remain in place until October 2009. This IRIS PASSCAL deployment was embedded within the 70-km spacing USArray Transportable array and 4 NEIC sites. In total, this composite array is 94 seismic sites which will provide improved resolution to transition zone depths beneath the Colorado Rockies. We report on resolution tests for seismic and joint seismic/gravity inversion and results from early data from this experiment in the context of Aspen anomaly hypotheses and predictions for three-dimensional upper-mantle velocity heterogeneity.

  13. [Dermatoglyphic studies on the congenital hand anomalies (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T

    1979-02-01

    Dermatoglyphic studies were carried out on the congenital hand anomalies. Clinical materials consisted of 94 cases with hand anomalies and 148 of their normal relatives as a control. An analysis of the dermal ridge patterns was based on "the Memorandum of Dermatoglyphic Nomenclature" described by Penrose. The results were as follows: 1) In hypoplastic fingers, a high incidence of radial loops or arches was noted, which were quite rare in normal fingers. 2) In cases with crooked fingers, a high incidence of simian creases on palms was noticed. 3) In hypoplastic thumbs, higher positions of axial triradii were observed in accordance with the advance of their grades. 4) In cases of cleft hands with the loss of a central digit, a rudimental finger pattern was found on the edge of the cleft. In the absence of two digits in cleft hands, two finger patterns were found locating on either sides of the clefts of the palm. 5) In cases of syndactyly, union of the digital triradii was found on the palm between bases of the two syndactylous fingers. In a case of osseous syndactyly, single finger pattern was observed on the palmar side of the digital phalanges. 6) In congenital amputations of the humerus, rudimental digits or finger nubbins were sometimes found on their stumps. I found whorl patterns on the nubbins, which suggested rudimental finger patterns. 7) In unilateral constriction band syndrome, the finger and palm patterns showed no particular changes except coarse ridges on affected fingers. In macrodactyly, there were normal ridge counts and the increased ridge breadths, which might indicate the anomalies occurring after the stage of formation of finger patterns. 8) In families of the arthrogryposis multiple congenita and camptodactyly, total ridge counts were markedly decreased and the incidence of the arches on fingers was marked increased. Conclusions The studies on dermal ridges on the congenital hand anomalies may give important keys for solving the process and time of occurrence of these anomalies in the early embryonal lives. PMID:429819

  14. Hematite Versus Magnetite as the Signature for Planetary Magnetic Anomalies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kletetshka, Gunther; Taylor, Patrick T.; Wasilewski, Peter J.

    1999-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomalies are the result of adjacent geologic units having contrasting magnetization. This magnetization arises from induction and/or remanence. In a planetary context we now know that Mars has significant crustal magnetic anomalies due to remanent magnetization, while the Earth has some anomalies where remanence can be shown to be important. This picture, however, is less clear because of the nature and the magnitude of the geomagnetic field which is responsible for superimposed induced magnetization. Induced magnetization assumes a magnetite source, because of its much greater magnetic susceptibility when compared with other magnetic minerals. We investigated the TRM (thermoremanent magnetization) acquisition of hematite, in weak magnetic fields up to 1 mT, to determine if the remanent and induced magnetization of hematite could compete with magnetite. TRM acquisition curves of magnetite and hematite show that multi-domain hematite reaches TRM saturation (0.3 - 0.4 A sq m/kg) in fields as low as 100 microT. However, multi-domain magnetite reaches only a few percent of its TRM saturation in a field of 100 microT (0.02 - 0.06 A sq m/kg). These results suggest that a mineral such as hematite and, perhaps, other minerals with significant remanence and minor induced magnetization may play an important role in providing requisite magnetization contrast. Perhaps, and especially for the Mars case, we should reevaluate where hematite and other minerals, with efficient remanence acquisition, exist in significant concentration, allowing a more comprehensive explanation of Martian anomalies and better insight into the role of remanent magnetization in terrestrial crustal magnetic anomalies.

  15. Magnetic anomaly modeling at the Indo Eurasian collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, Mita; Langel, R. A.

    1992-10-01

    One of the consistent features of satellite crustal magnetic anomaly maps is the large negative anomaly in the Indo Eurasian collision zone. This region is modeled by the introduction of magnetic blocks representing the Tibetan, Asian and Himalayan mountain regions. The crustal thickness of these blocks is based on the principle of isostasy. It has been shown that the removal of the core field from the Magsat data removes most of the long-wavelength anomalies associated with the ocean-continent susceptibility contrast, and that some of the observed anomalies, after processing of the satellite data, are a manifestation of this contrast. To account for this, the final model is a superposition of the above block model on a global model of typical continent and ocean susceptibility, called a Standard Earth Magnetization Model (SEMM). A combination of the three blocks superposed on the SEMM reproduces the major features of the observed Magsat anomalies. Block model susceptibilities of the Asian and Himalayan regions are the same as for the continental portion of the SEMM, albeit with a greater crustal thickness. Thus, the crust in these regions is typical. By contrast, the satellite magnetic data require an integrated susceptibility in the Tibetan region which is considerably lower than typical. Two possible explanations are suggested. One, that the origin and tectonic history of the Tibetan region differs from the neighboring regions in such a way as to result in lower susceptibility. This is consistent with current thinking that the Tibetan plateau is made up of several fragments or micro-continents which were attached to Asia prior to the collision of India with Asia. The other possible explanation is that the Curie isotherm in the Tibetan region is elevated compared to the Asian and Himalayan regions.

  16. A flyby anomaly for Juno? Not from standard physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, L.

    2014-12-01

    An empirical formula recently appeared in the literature to explain the observed anomalies of about ? ? ? ? 1 - 10 mm s-1 in the geocentric range-rates ? ? of the Galileo, NEAR and Rosetta spacecraft at some of their past perigee passages along unbound, hyperbolic trajectories.It predicts an anomaly of the order of 6 mm s-1 for the recent flyby of Juno, occurred on 9 October 2013.Data analyses to confirm or disproof it are currently ongoing.We numerically calculate the impact on the geocentric Juno's range rate of some classical and general relativistic dynamical effects which are either unmodeled or mismodeled to a certain level in the software used to process the data.They are: (a) the first even zonal harmonic coefficient J2 of the multipolar expansion of the terrestrial gravitational potential causing orbital perturbations both at the (a?) Newtonian (J2) and at the (a?) first post-Newtonian level (J2c-2) (b) the post-Newtonian gravitoelectric (GE) Schwarschild-like component of the Earth's gravitational field (c) the post-Newtonian gravitomagnetic (GM) Lense-Thirring effect.The magnitudes of their mismodeled and nominal range-rate signatures are: (a?) ????J2 ? 1 ? m s-1 (a?) ???J2c-2 ? 0.015 ? m s-1 (b) ???GE ? 25 ? m s-1 (c) ???GM ? 0.05 ? m s-1. If a flyby anomaly as large as a few mm s-1 will be finally found also for Juno, it will not be due to any of these standard gravitational effects. It turns out that a Rindler-type radial extra-acceleration of the same magnitude as in the Pioneer anomaly would impact the Juno's range-rate at a ???Rin ? 1.5 ? m s-1 level. Regardless of the quest for the flyby anomaly, all such effects are undetectable.

  17. Synaptic anomalies in fetal bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Koykul, W; Basrur, P K

    1994-02-01

    Chromosome pairing abnormalities in oocytes of bovine fetuses ranging in age from 81 to 130 days were studied using the surface-spread whole-mount technique. The synaptic abnormalities included partial or total asynapsis, nonhomologous pairing, and mid-pachytene degeneration with asynapsis constituting the most common category. Oocytes showing synaptic abnormalities were less frequent in younger fetuses and more abundant in fetuses older than 110 days. Histologic signs of oocyte degeneration, evident in all fetuses, were most striking in ovaries of fetuses older than 120 days. The temporal relationship of these events suggests that chromosome pairing anomalies may be associated with oocyte degeneration, although their exact role in precipitating oocyte atresia remains unclear. The presence of abnormal oocytes and follicles in the vicinity of the medullary cords seems to suggest that these germ cells may be exposed to deleterious substances from the degenerating rete cords and that the synaptic errors may be the meiotic manifestations of chromosome damages sustained by germ cells during the repeated oogonial divisions in an environment unconducive to mitosis and maturation of female germ cells. PMID:8181739

  18. Atmospheric and Surface Forcings on Recent Arctic Temperature Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serreze, M. C.; Barrett, A. P.; Cassano, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic has seen outsized warming over the past decade (2000-2009) relative to lower latitudes. This reflects the combined effects of: 1) a general background warming interpreted as part of the planet’s response to positive radiative forcing; 2) anomalies in atmospheric circulation; 3) changes in characteristics of the surface, in particular, reduced sea ice concentration and higher SSTs compared to climatology. Background radiative forcing is suggested from the widespread warming that is present for all seasons and for temperature anomalies stratified by each of the four cardinal wind directions. Anomalies in atmospheric circulation introduce spatial structure to seasonal temperature anomaly patterns. For example, strong positive anomalies centered between Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya in winter owe their existence in part to an anomalous southerly wind component. Circulation also explains local cooling, such as seen during spring over the quadrant from to date line eastward to 90 deg.W. The effects of reduced ice concentration are most apparent as regional “hot spots” in the temperature anomaly field. Surface forcing is evident from the stronger warming at the surface compared to the 925 hPa level. Processes can be mutually supporting. The best example is the region of positive temperature anomalies between Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya in winter - while both wind stress and warmth associated with anomalous southerly winds help to maintain open water, vertical heat fluxes from the open water help to keep the atmosphere warm. With regard to the trajectory of the Arctic system through the 21st century, an important issue is how the effects of atmospheric warming due to reduced sea ice concentration and higher SSTs will be spread out by winds to affect surrounding regions, acting as a feedback to foster more ice melt and reduce ice growth, or leading to enhanced warming over land affecting vegetation and soil temperature regimes. For the period 2000-2009, effects of winds in “spreading out the heat” are most apparent over the Atlantic side of the Arctic in winter and over the central Arctic Ocean in autumn.

  19. Anomaly Detection over Noisy Data using Learned Probability Distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleazar Eskin

    2000-01-01

    Traditional anomaly detection techniques focus on detecting anomalies in new data after training on normal (or clean) data. In this paper we present a technique for detecting anomalies without training on normal data. We present a method for detecting anomalies within a data set that contains a large number of normal elements and relatively few anomalies. We present a mixture

  20. Challenging the Supremacy of Traffic Matrices in Anomaly Detection

    E-print Network

    Challenging the Supremacy of Traffic Matrices in Anomaly Detection Augustin Soule Thomson Fernando-wide anomaly detection techniques pro- posed in the literature define an anomaly as a statistical outlier- bones. Then, a network-wide anomaly detection method is applied to each formalism. All anomalies

  1. VIDEO ANOMALY DETECTION IN SPATIOTEMPORAL CONTEXT , Junsong Yuan2

    E-print Network

    Tsaftaris, Sotirios

    VIDEO ANOMALY DETECTION IN SPATIOTEMPORAL CONTEXT Fan Jiang1 , Junsong Yuan2 , Sotirios A are detected as anomalies. Experiments on real traffic video prove that the detected video anomalies are defined as anomaly. Despite the success of clustering-based approaches for anomaly detection

  2. Altered orientation and flight paths of pigeons reared on gravity anomalies: a GPS tracking study.

    PubMed

    Blaser, Nicole; Guskov, Sergei I; Meskenaite, Virginia; Kanevskyi, Valerii A; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of pigeon homing are still not understood, in particular how they determine their position at unfamiliar locations. The "gravity vector" theory holds that pigeons memorize the gravity vector at their home loft and deduct home direction and distance from the angular difference between memorized and actual gravity vector. However, the gravity vector is tilted by different densities in the earth crust leading to gravity anomalies. We predicted that pigeons reared on different gravity anomalies would show different initial orientation and also show changes in their flight path when crossing a gravity anomaly. We reared one group of pigeons in a strong gravity anomaly with a north-to-south gravity gradient, and the other group of pigeons in a normal area but on a spot with a strong local anomaly with a west-to-east gravity gradient. After training over shorter distances, pigeons were released from a gravitationally and geomagnetically normal site 50 km north in the same direction for both home lofts. As expected by the theory, the two groups of pigeons showed divergent initial orientation. In addition, some of the GPS-tracked pigeons also showed changes in their flight paths when crossing gravity anomalies. We conclude that even small local gravity anomalies at the birth place of pigeons may have the potential to bias the map sense of pigeons, while reactivity to gravity gradients during flight was variable and appeared to depend on individual navigational strategies and frequency of position updates. PMID:24194860

  3. Breast-Feeding May Have Dental Benefits, Study Suggests

    MedlinePLUS

    Breast-Feeding May Have Dental Benefits, Study Suggests But kids also had fewer 'misaligned' teeth if they reduced ... that potential benefit, even if the children are breast-feeding, the Australian researchers said. "While most benefits of ...

  4. Minimal Z' explanations of the B?K*?+?- anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauld, Rhorry; Goertz, Florian; Haisch, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Recently LHCb has announced a discrepancy of 3.7? in one of the theoretically clean observables accessible through studies of angular correlations in B?K*?+?-. We point out that in the most minimal Z' setup that can address this anomaly there is a model-independent triple correlation between new physics (NP) in B?K*?+?-, Bs-B¯s mixing, and nonunitarity of the quark-mixing matrix. This triple correlation can be cast into a simple analytic formula that relates the NP contribution ?C9 to the Wilson coefficient of the semileptonic vector operator to a shift in the mass difference ?MB_s and a violation of |Vud|2+|Vus|2+|Vub|2=1. In contrast to the individual observables the found relation depends only logarithmically on the Z' mass. We show that our findings allow for useful future tests of the pattern of NP suggested by the B?K*?+?- anomaly.

  5. An Anomaly in the Angular Distribution of Quasar Spectra

    E-print Network

    Longo, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Quasars provide our most distant view of the Universe. The Sloan Survey now contains over 100,000 quasar candidates. A careful look at the angular distribution of quasar spectra shows a surprising blue shift toward (alpha, delta) ~ (190{\\deg}, 0{\\deg}). The angular distribution of the shift appears to be consistent with a large peculiar velocity toward that direction. However, the size of the shift would suggest our peculiar velocity is ~0.2 c, which is two orders of magnitude larger than measures of our peculiar velocity from nearby galaxies and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements. It is too large to explain as a systematic error in the quasar magnitudes. The direction is consistent with that of the reported anomalies in the CMB, the so-called "axis of evil". The angular pattern of the blue shift appears to be consistent with the existence of an expanding bubble universe in that direction, which could also explain the CMB anomalies.

  6. Reinterpreting the Pioneer anomaly and its annual residual

    E-print Network

    Boom, P G

    2005-01-01

    In addition to its long-term constancy, the Pioneer spacecraft anomaly appears to only exist for bodies whose mass is less than that of: planets, moons, comets, and heavy asteroids of known mass. Assuming the observational evidence is reliable, and not the result of an unknown systematic effect, a violation of the Weak Principle of Equivalence is implied. To propose an additional force fails to satisfy this constraint. This paper presents a new hypothesis involving additional field energy in the form of: a finite number of lunar sourced constant amplitude (Lorentz invariant) wave-like undulations upon the gravitational field. Although apparently a futile suggestion, the author's model overcomes concerns regarding wave dissipation, wave generation, and the apparent constancy of the anomaly. A shortfall in motion arises because a tiny proportion of spacecraft kinetic energy is directed into a superposition of non-translational longitudinal oscillatory components. The restriction of this effect to low mass bodie...

  7. Dynamical processes of low-frequency anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cash, Benjamin Adams

    2000-11-01

    Dynamical processes of atmospheric low-frequency anomalies (LFAs) are investigated. The LFAs examined are blocks the Pacific-North American pattern (PNA). Data analysis and numerical model experiments are performed to investigate the mechanisms which determine the full temporal evolution of the LFAs. A linear-stochastic model is applied to the 10 day low- pass streamfunction field at 300, 500, and 850 mb for 40 winter seasons of Northern Hemisphere NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data. The linear operator is derived from the observed multilevel covariances, allowing for statistical representation of nonlinear processes. Increases in the streamfunction variance through nonmodal growth is examined. The PNA is found to be the most probable state of the atmosphere following the leading optimal. 68% (70%) of positive (negative) PNA events are found to follow high projections onto the leading optimal, suggesting the PNA arises through constructive interference between the decaying modes, and may be treated as a linear response to gaussian white noise stochastic forcing. Further calculations suggest that the PNA arises through interaction between the LFA and the stationary waves. To examine blocking events, we apply a detailed vorticity budget to a 350 mb flow in a GCM run. Linear processes dominate block evolution during both the onset and decay phases, while the high- and low-frequency eddy fluxes act to prolong the total lifetime by 2 to 3 days. Time- averages of the budget yields results that are consistent with previous diagnostic studies, and exaggerate the role played by high-frequency eddies. The results from the budget analysis are supplemented by barotropic model experiments, which investigate the influence of individual dynamical process on block evolution. The barotropic model experiments show that the nonlinear self-interaction of the composite block anomaly plays a minimal role in the block evolution. It is the remaining part of the composite low-frequency eddy flux that contributes significantly toward the block evolution, indicating that case to case variability between blocking events can be significant. Furthermore, they demonstrate that the nonlinearity of a slowly moving, non-steady component of the flow plays an important role for the individual blocking events. The model experiments also show that the effect of divergence is crucial for correctly reproducing the structure of the blocking high.

  8. Spectral Methods for Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. L.; Gee, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Spectral methods, that is, those based in the Fourier transform, have long been employed in the analysis of magnetic anomalies. For example, Schouten and MaCamy's Earth filter is used extensively to map patterns to the pole, and Parker's Fourier transform series facilitates forward modeling and provides an efficient algorithm for inversion of profiles and surveys. From a different, and perhaps less familiar perspective, magnetic anomalies can be represented as the realization of a stationary stochastic process and then statistical theory can be brought to bear. It is vital to incorporate the full 2-D power spectrum, even when discussing profile data. For example, early analysis of long profiles failed to discover the small-wavenumber peak in the power spectrum predicted by one-dimensional theory. The long-wavelength excess is the result of spatial aliasing, when energy leaks into the along-track spectrum from the cross-track components of the 2-D spectrum. Spectral techniques may be used to improve interpolation and downward continuation of survey data. They can also evaluate the reliability of sub-track magnetization models both across and and along strike. Along-strike profiles turn out to be surprisingly good indicators of the magnetization directly under them; there is high coherence between the magnetic anomaly and the magnetization over a wide band. In contrast, coherence is weak at long wavelengths on across-strike lines, which is naturally the favored orientation for most studies. When vector (or multiple level) measurements are available, cross-spectral analysis can reveal the wavenumber interval where the geophysical signal resides, and where noise dominates. One powerful diagnostic is that the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-path components of the field must be constant 90 degrees. To illustrate, it was found that on some very long Project Magnetic lines, only the lowest 10% of the wavenumber band contain useful geophysical signal. In this case the spectra and cross spectra show that the source of the noise is instability in the gyro platform. Spectral techniques should always be applied to vector data in order to avoid overinterpretation of short-wavelength features.

  9. The axial anomaly, dimensional regularization and Lorentz-violating QED

    E-print Network

    Basem Kamal El-Menoufi; G. A. White

    2015-05-07

    We present a derivation of the QED axial anomaly that highlights the {\\em infrared} origin of the effect. This is done using dimensional regularization while treating $\\gamma_5$ as a spectator. We then move to discuss some aspects in the fermionic sector of Lorentz-violating QED which have analogous features to the axial anomaly. In particular, it is shown that both the Chern-Simons and photon mass operators are not induced in the one loop effective action. At lowest order in the Lorentz-violating parameter, we can define a non-relativistic potential that captures the effects of vacuum polarization. This leads to a Zeeman-like effect in vacuum which lifts the two-fold degeneracy of the hydrogen atom S-orbitals.

  10. The axial anomaly, dimensional regularization and Lorentz-violating QED

    E-print Network

    El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal

    2015-01-01

    We present a derivation of the QED axial anomaly that highlights the {\\em infrared} origin of the effect. This is done using dimensional regularization while treating $\\gamma_5$ as a spectator. We then move to discuss some aspects in the fermionic sector of Lorentz-violating QED which have analogous features to the axial anomaly. In particular, it is shown that both the Chern-Simons and photon mass operators are not induced in the one loop effective action. At lowest order in the Lorentz-violating parameter, we can define a non-relativistic potential that captures the effects of vacuum polarization. This leads to a Zeeman-like effect in vacuum which lifts the two-fold degeneracy of the hydrogen atom S-orbitals.

  11. Axial anomaly of QED in a strong magnetic field and noncommutative anomaly

    E-print Network

    N. Sadooghi; A. Jafari Salim

    2006-10-07

    The Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly of a 3+1 dimensional QED is calculated in the presence of a strong magnetic field. It is shown that in the regime with the lowest Landau level (LLL) dominance a dimensional reduction from D=4 to D=2 dimensions occurs in the longitudinal sector of the low energy effective field theory. In the chiral limit, the resulting anomaly is therefore comparable with the axial anomaly of a two dimensional massless Schwinger model. It is further shown that the U(1) axial anomaly of QED in a strong magnetic field is closely related to the ``nonplanar'' axial anomaly of a conventional noncommutative QED.

  12. Finding Hyperspectral Anomalies Using Multivariate Outlier Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy E. Smetek; Kenneth W. Bauer

    2007-01-01

    This research demonstrates the adverse implications of using non-robust statistical methods for detecting anomalies in hyperspectral image data, and proposes the use of multivariate outlier detection methods as an alternative detection strategy. Existing outlier detection methods are adapted for use in a hyperspectral image context, and their performance is compared to the benchmark RX detector and a cluster-based anomaly detector.

  13. Anomaly Detection and Reconstruction From Random Projections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Fowler; Qian Du

    2012-01-01

    Compressed-sensing methodology typically employs random projections simultaneously with signal acquisition to accomplish dimensionality reduction within a sensor device. The effect of such random projections on the preservation of anomalous data is investigated. The popular RX anomaly detector is derived for the case in which global anomalies are to be identified directly in the random-projection domain, and it is determined via

  14. Limb anomalies in the CHARGE association

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Meinecke; A Polke; P Schmiegelow

    1989-01-01

    We report a male infant with iris coloboma, choanal atresia, postnatal retardation of growth and psychomotor development, genital anomaly, ear anomaly, and anal atresia. In addition, there was cutaneous syndactyly and nail hypoplasia of the second and third fingers on the right and hypoplasia of the left second finger nail. Comparable observations have rarely been reported and possibly represent genetic

  15. Are Flyby Anomalies an ASTG Phenomenon?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Nyambuya

    2008-01-01

    This reading expounds with expediency on the recently proposed Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation (ASTG) set-up earlier. At its inspection, it was demonstrated that the ASTG is capable (among others solar anomalies) of explaining the precession of the perihelion of solar planets. In the present, we show that the ASTG is capable of explaining the puzzling observations of flyby anomalies,

  16. Photodiode and photomultiplier areal sensitivity anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngbluth, O., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Several silicon photodiodes and photomultipliers were tested to determine signal variations as a light spot was scanned over the photosensitive surface of these detectors. Qualitative and quantitative data is presented to demonstrate the areal sensitivity anomalies. These anomalies are related back to the fabrication techniques of the manufacturers.

  17. Magnetic resonance images of neuronal migration anomalies.

    PubMed

    Jaw, T S; Sheu, R S; Liu, G C; Chou, M S

    1998-08-01

    Neuronal migration anomalies are a spectrum of brain malformations caused by insults to migrating neuroblasts during the sixth week to fifth month of gestation. To study the characteristics of MRI findings in migration anomalies, MR images of 36 patients (28 children and 8 adults) with migration anomalies were evaluated. Five patients had lissencephaly, eight had pachygyria, twelve had schizencephaly, six had heterotopias of gray matter, three had hemimegalencephaly, and two had polymicrogyria. The frequency of migration anomalies was 0.51% of all cranial MRI studies and 1.21% of pediatric cranial MRI studies at our hospital. The major clinical presentations of these patients were seizure (64%), development delay (42%), motor deficits (42%) and mental retardation (25%). Twenty-five patients (69%) associated with other brain anomalies, including: other migration anomalies in 12 cases (33%), absence of the septum pellucidum in 10 cases (28%), Dandy-Walker malformation/variant in 5 cases, arachnoid cyst in 4 cases, agenesis of the corpus callosum in 3 cases, holoprosencephaly in 2 cases, mega cisterna magna in 1 case and cephalocele in 1 case. Some of them presented with multiple complicated anomalies. As MR imaging provides superb gray-white matter distinction, details of cortical anatomy and multiplanar capability, it can clearly delineate the detail morphologic changes of the brain caused by neuronal migration disorders as well as the associated anomalies. PMID:9780601

  18. Proactive anomaly detection using distributed intelligent agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Thottan; Chuanyi Ji

    1998-01-01

    Proactive network anomaly detection is crucial to provide quality of service guarantees for future networks. We characterize a set of proactively detectable anomalies in terms of the management information base variables. The time series data obtained from these variables are analyzed by an intelligent agent, which is a simple and lightweight signal processor. The agent provides real-time proactive alarms that

  19. A Classification Framework for Anomaly Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingo Steinwart; Don R. Hush; Clint Scovel

    2005-01-01

    One way to describe anomalies is by saying that anomalies are not concentrated. This leads to the problem of finding level sets for the data generating density. We interpret this learning problem as a binary classification problem and compare the corresponding classification risk with the standard performance measure for the density level problem. In particular it turns out that the

  20. Sensitivity of PCA for traffic anomaly detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haakon Ringberg; Augustin Soule; Jennifer Rexford; Christophe Diot

    2007-01-01

    Detecting anomalous traffic is a crucial part of managing IP networks. In recent years, network-wide anomaly de- tection based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has emerged as a powerful method for detecting a wide vari- ety of anomalies. We show that tuning PCA to operate effectively in practice is difficult and requires more robust techniques than have been presented thus

  1. Anomaly detection and classification for hyperspectral imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chein-I. Chang; Shao-Shan Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Anomaly detection becomes increasingly important in hyperspectral image analysis, since hyperspectral imagers can now uncover many material substances which were previously unresolved by multispectral sensors. Two types of anomaly detection are of interest and considered in this paper. One was previously developed by Reed and Yu to detect targets whose signatures are distinct from their surroundings. Another was designed to

  2. Anomaly intrusion detection in wireless sensor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Bhuse; Ajay Gupta

    2006-01-01

    We propose lightweight methods to detect anomaly intrusions in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The main idea is to reuse the already available system information that is generated at various layers of a network stack. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such approach for anomaly intrusion detection in WSNs.

  3. Disparity : scalable anomaly detection for clusters.

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, N.; Bradshaw, R.; Lusk, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe disparity, a tool that does parallel, scalable anomaly detection for clusters. Disparity uses basic statistical methods and scalable reduction operations to perform data reduction on client nodes and uses these results to locate node anomalies. We discuss the implementation of disparity and present results of its use on a SiCortex SC5832 system.

  4. Video Behavior Profiling for Anomaly Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Xiang; Shaogang Gong

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to address the problem of modelling video behaviour captured in surveillance videos for the applications of online normal behaviour recognition and anomaly detection. A novel framework is developed for automatic behaviour profiling an d online anomaly sampling\\/detection without any manual labelling of the training dataset. The framework consists of the following key components: (1) A compact and

  5. Overgrowth syndromes with complex vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Uller, Wibke; Fishman, Steven J; Alomari, Ahmad I

    2014-08-01

    Management of overgrowth syndromes with complex vascular anomalies is challenging. Careful analysis of the various clinical features by an interdisciplinary team of physicians experienced in this field is paramount to proper diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In this article, we focus on the spectrum of the clinical presentation and the management strategies of the most common overgrowth syndromes with complex vascular anomalies. PMID:25241100

  6. Spherical Earth analysis and modeling of lithospheric gravity and magnetic anomalies. Ph.D. Thesis - Purdue Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to the lithospheric analysis of potential field anomalies in the spherical domain is provided. It has widespread application in the analysis and design of satellite gravity and magnetic surveys for geological investigation.

  7. Topological Anomaly Detection Performance with Multispectral Polarimetric Imagery

    E-print Network

    Gartley, Michael G.

    Topological Anomaly Detection Performance with Multispectral Polarimetric Imagery M.G. Gartley, W to anomaly detection, which leverages topology theory, applied to spectral polarimetric imagery. Detection and Topolog- ical Anomaly Detection (TAD) approaches. We will also present detailed results examining

  8. Gravitational Anomalies in Noncommutative Field Theory

    E-print Network

    Sendic Estrada-Jimenez; Hugo Garcia-Compean; Carlos Soto-Campos

    2004-04-14

    Gravitational axial and chiral anomalies in a noncommutative space are examined through the explicit perturbative computation of one-loop diagrams in various dimensions. The analysis depend on how gravity is coupled to noncommutative matter fields. Delbourgo-Salam computation of the gravitational axial anomaly contribution to the pion decay into two photons, is studied in detail in this context. In the process we show that the two-dimensional chiral pure gravitational anomaly does not receive noncommutative corrections. Pure gravitational chiral anomaly in 4k+2 dimensions with matter fields being chiral fermions of spin-1/2 and spin-3/2, is discussed and a noncommutative correction is found in both cases. Mixed anomalies are finally considered in both cases.

  9. Detecting Flow Anomalies in Distributed Systems

    E-print Network

    Chua, Freddy Chong Tat; Huberman, Bernardo A

    2014-01-01

    Deep within the networks of distributed systems often contain anomalies that affect its efficiency and performance. These anomalies are difficult to detect because the distributed systems may not have sufficient sensors to monitor the flow of traffic within the interconnected nodes of the networks. Without early detection and making corrections, these anomalies may aggravate over time and could possibly cause disastrous outcomes in the system in the unforeseeable future. Using only coarse-grained information from the two end points of network flows, we propose a network transmission model and a localization algorithm, to detect the location of anomalies and rank them using a proposed metric within distributed systems. We evaluate our approach on passengers' records of an urbanized city's public transportation system and correlate our findings with passengers' postings on social media microblogs. Our experiments show that the metric derived using our localization algorithm gives a better ranking of anomalies a...

  10. A New, Principled Approach to Anomaly Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Laska, Jason A [ORNL; Bridges, Robert A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Intrusion detection is often described as having two main approaches: signature-based and anomaly-based. We argue that only unsupervised methods are suitable for detecting anomalies. However, there has been a tendency in the literature to conflate the notion of an anomaly with the notion of a malicious event. As a result, the methods used to discover anomalies have typically been ad hoc, making it nearly impossible to systematically compare between models or regulate the number of alerts. We propose a new, principled approach to anomaly detection that addresses the main shortcomings of ad hoc approaches. We provide both theoretical and cyber-specific examples to demonstrate the benefits of our more principled approach.

  11. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  12. Triangle Anomalies from Einstein Manifolds

    E-print Network

    Sergio Benvenuti; Leopoldo A. Pando Zayas; Yuji Tachikawa

    2006-07-20

    The triangle anomalies in conformal field theory, which can be used to determine the central charge a, correspond to the Chern-Simons couplings of gauge fields in AdS under the gauge/gravity correspondence. We present a simple geometrical formula for the Chern-Simons couplings in the case of type IIB supergravity compactified on a five-dimensional Einstein manifold X. When X is a circle bundle over del Pezzo surfaces or a toric Sasaki-Einstein manifold, we show that the gravity result is in perfect agreement with the corresponding quiver gauge theory. Our analysis reveals an interesting connection with the condensation of giant gravitons or dibaryon operators which effectively induces a rolling among Sasaki-Einstein vacua.

  13. Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J. A.; Coates, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Boardsen, S. A.; Moore, T. E.; Barabash, S.

    2011-12-01

    We present a multi-instrument study of a Hot Flow Anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venutian foreshock, expanding on an initial study by Slavin et al [2009] that employed magnetometer observations of an HFA-like event during the flyby of NASA's Messenger spacecraft. Whilst the Messenger events were indicative of an HFA, they were unable to demonstrate the unambiguous signatures of plasma heating or deflection due to the paucity of data. We examine the complex internal structure of a Venutian HFA on the 22nd of March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express magnetometer and ASPERA plasma observations to demonstrate the presence of plasma heating within one such event. Centered on an interplanetary discontinuity and bounded by shock, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFA's observed at other planets within the Solar System. Finally, we present a discussion of the implications of an HFA on the planet Venus.

  14. The prevalence of congenital anomalies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dolk, Helen; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester

    2010-01-01

    EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) is the network of population-based registers of congenital anomaly in Europe, with a common protocol and data quality review, covering 1.5 million annual births in 22 countries. EUROCAT recorded a total prevalence of major congenital anomalies of 23.9 per 1,000 births for 2003-2007. 80% were livebirths. 2.5% of livebirths with congenital anomaly died in the first week of life. 2.0% were stillbirths or fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation. 17.6% of all cases were terminations of pregnancy following prenatal diagnosis (TOPFA). Thus, congenital anomalies overwhelmingly concern children surviving the early neonatal period, who have important medical, social or educational needs. The prevalence of chromosomal anomalies was 3.6 per 1,000 births, contributing 28% of stillbirths/fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation with congenital anomaly, and 48% of all TOPFA. Congenital heart defects (CHD) were the most common non-chromosomal subgroup, at 6.5 per 1,000 births, followed by limb defects (3.8 per 1,000), anomalies of urinary system (3.1 per 1,000) and nervous system defects (2.3 per 1,000). In 2004, perinatal mortality associated with congenital anomaly was 0.93 per 1,000 births, and TOPFA 4.4 per 1,000 births, with considerable country variation. Primary prevention of congenital anomalies in the population based on controlling environmental risk factors is a crucial policy priority, including preconceptional care and whole population approaches. PMID:20824455

  15. A Distance Measure for Attention Focusing and Anomaly Detection in Systems Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, R.

    1994-01-01

    Any attempt to introduce automation into the monitoring of complex physical systems must start from a robust anomaly detection capability. This task is far from straightforward, for a single definition of what constitutes an anomaly is difficult to come by. In addition, to make the monitoring process efficient, and to avoid the potential for information overload on human operators, attention focusing must also be addressed. When an anomaly occurs, more often than not several sensors are affected, and the partially redundant information they provide can be confusing, particularly in a crisis situation where a response is needed quickly. Previous results on extending traditional anomaly detection techniques are summarized. The focus of this paper is a new technique for attention focusing.

  16. The Video Suggestibility Scale for Children: how generalizable is children's performance to other measures of suggestibility?

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Felicity; Powell, Martine B

    2002-01-01

    This study explored the generalizability of the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which was developed by Scullin and colleagues (Scullin & Ceci, 2001; Scullin & Hembrooke, 1998) as a tool for discriminating among children (aged three to five years) who have different levels of suggestibility. The VSSC consists of two subscales; Yield (a measure of children's willingness to acquiesce to misleading questions) and Shift (a measure of children's tendency to change their responses after feedback from the interviewer). Children's (N = 77) performance on each of the subscales was compared with their performance using several other measures of suggestibility. These measures included children's willingness to assent to a false event as well as the number of false interviewer suggestions and false new details that the children provided when responding to cued-recall questions about an independent true-biased and an independent false (non-experienced) event. An independent samples t-test revealed that those children who assented to the false event generated higher scores on the Yield measure. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that Yield was a significant predictor of the number of false details reported about the false activity, but not the true-biased activity. There was no significant relationship between the Shift subscale and any of the dependent variables. The potential contribution of the VSSC for forensic researchers and practitioners is discussed. PMID:12465135

  17. Hamiltonian Anomalies from Extended Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, Samuel

    2015-05-01

    We develop a proposal by Freed to see anomalous field theories as relative field theories, namely field theories taking value in a field theory in one dimension higher, the anomaly field theory. We show that when the anomaly field theory is extended down to codimension 2, familiar facts about Hamiltonian anomalies can be naturally recovered, such as the fact that the anomalous symmetry group admits only a projective representation on the Hilbert space, or that the latter is really an abelian bundle gerbe over the moduli space. We include in the discussion the case of non-invertible anomaly field theories, which is relevant to six-dimensional (2, 0) superconformal theories. In this case, we show that the Hamiltonian anomaly is characterized by a degree 2 non-abelian group cohomology class, associated to the non-abelian gerbe playing the role of the state space of the anomalous theory. We construct Dai-Freed theories, governing the anomalies of chiral fermionic theories, and Wess-Zumino theories, governing the anomalies of Wess-Zumino terms and self-dual field theories, as extended field theories down to codimension 2.

  18. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  19. Sensitivity of tropical lowland net primary production to climate anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofhansl, Florian; Kobler, Johannes; Drage, Sigrid; Pölz, Eva-Maria; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    While drivers of tropical forest productivity such as edaphic properties (geology, topography) and climate (precipitation, temperature, light) are well established, knowledge on the sensitivity of tropical lowland net primary production to climate anomalies remains scarce. We here investigate tropical lowland forest sites differing in topography and disturbance history to study the response of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in relation to (1) climate extremes as triggered by El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), as well as (2) topographic position and (3) land-use history. In general, climate anomalies resulted in decreased precipitation and increased temperature. The production of wood decreased while the production of canopy material increased in years with prolonged periods of drought and elevated temperature. However, the impact strongly depended on local characteristics of the forest sites, such that ANPP was only negatively affected at ridges but not at ravine forest sites. We moreover show that the productivity of primary forests was significantly affected by precipitation and drought, while in secondary forests temperature was the major predictor of ANPP. Our results suggest that site-specific parameters such as topographic position and disturbance history determine the response of tropical lowland forests to climate extremes. Hence we conclude that the impact of climate anomalies on tropical forest productivity is strongly related to local conditions and thus will likely prevent uniform responses of tropical lowland forests to projected global changes.

  20. Non-standard symmetries and quantum anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Visinescu, Anca; Visinescu, Mihai [Depart. Theoretical Physics National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering P.O. Box MG-6, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

    2008-08-31

    Quantum anomalies are investigated on curved spacetimes. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and non-standard symmetries is pointed out. The gravitational anomalies are absent if the hidden symmetry is associated to a Killing-Yano tensor. The axial anomaly in a background gravitational field is directly related with the index of the Dirac operator. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures. The general results are applied to the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space.

  1. Magnetic and gravity anomalies in the Americas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (principal investigators)

    1981-01-01

    The cleaning and magnetic tape storage of spherical Earth processing programs are reported. These programs include: NVERTSM which inverts total or vector magnetic anomaly data on a distribution of point dipoles in spherical coordinates; SMFLD which utilizes output from NVERTSM to compute total or vector magnetic anomaly fields for a distribution of point dipoles in spherical coordinates; NVERTG; and GFLD. Abstracts are presented for papers dealing with the mapping and modeling of magnetic and gravity anomalies, and with the verification of crustal components in satellite data.

  2. Triangle anomaly in Weyl semi-metals

    E-print Network

    Gokce Basar; Dmitri E. Kharzeev; Ho-Ung Yee

    2014-01-08

    Weyl semimetals possess massless chiral quasi-particles, and are thus affected by the triangle anomalies. We discuss the features of the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical effects specific to Weyl semimetals, and then propose three novel phenomena caused by the triangle anomalies in this material: 1) anomaly cooling; 2) charge transport by soliton waves as described by the Burgers' equation, and 3) the shift of the BKT phase transition of superfluid vortices coupled to Weyl fermions. In addition, we establish the conditions under which the chiral magnetic current exists in real materials.

  3. [Diagnosis and management of vascular anomalies].

    PubMed

    Philandrianos, C; Degardin, N; Casanova, D; Petit, P; Bartoli, J-M; Bardot, J; Magalon, G

    2011-06-01

    Vascular anomalies are a complex pathological group. They are especially difficult to study because of confusion in the terminology used. The classification developed by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) in 1996 allows using a common scientific language. There are two groups of lesions: vascular tumor and vascular malformation. The management of these anomalies is difficult and must involve an interdisciplinary approach including specialists in plastic surgery, radiology, pediatry and dermatology. We propose a simplified approach for the management of these pathologies. This approach is coming from the experience of Marseille (France) multidisciplinary team. PMID:21689587

  4. Improving the geological interpretation of magnetic and gravity satellite anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, William J.; Braile, Lawrence W.; Vonfrese, Ralph R. B.

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the geologic component of observed satellite magnetic and gravity fields requires accurate isolation of the geologic component of the observations, theoretically sound and viable inversion techniques, and integration of collateral, constraining geologic and geophysical data. A number of significant contributions were made which make quantitative analysis more accurate. These include procedures for: screening and processing orbital data for lithospheric signals based on signal repeatability and wavelength analysis; producing accurate gridded anomaly values at constant elevations from the orbital data by three-dimensional least squares collocation; increasing the stability of equivalent point source inversion and criteria for the selection of the optimum damping parameter; enhancing inversion techniques through an iterative procedure based on the superposition theorem of potential fields; and modeling efficiently regional-scale lithospheric sources of satellite magnetic anomalies. In addition, these techniques were utilized to investigate regional anomaly sources of North and South America and India and to provide constraints to continental reconstruction. Since the inception of this research study, eleven papers were presented with associated published abstracts, three theses were completed, four papers were published or accepted for publication, and an additional manuscript was submitted for publication.

  5. Claycap anomaly detection using hyperspectral remote sensing and lidargrammetric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Quijano, Maria Jose

    Clay capped waste sites are a common method to dispose of the more than 40 million tons of hazardous waste produced in the United States every year (EPA, 2003). Due to the potential threat that hazardous waste poses, it is essential to monitor closely the performance of these facilities. Development of a monitoring system that exploits spectral and topographic changes over hazardous waste sites is presented. Spectral anomaly detection is based upon the observed changes in absolute reflectance and spectral derivatives in centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiuroides) under different irrigation levels. The spectral features that provide the best separability among irrigation levels were identified using Stepwise Discriminant Analyses. The Red Edge Position was selected as a suitable discriminant variable to compare the performance of a global and a local anomaly detection algorithm using a DAIS 3715 hyperspectral image. Topographical anomaly detection is assessed by evaluating the vertical accuracy of two LIDAR datasets acquired from two different altitudes (700 m and 1,200 m AGL) over a clay-capped hazardous site at the Savannah River National Laboratory, SC using the same Optech ALTM 2050 and Cessna 337 platform. Additionally, a quantitative comparison is performed to determine the effect that decreasing platform altitude and increasing posting density have on the vertical accuracy of the LIDAR data collected.

  6. TIME SERIES ANALYSIS OF REMOTELY-SENSED TIR EMISSION: linking anomalies to physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidou, E.; van der Meijde, M.; Hecker, C.; van der Werff, H.; Ettema, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the last 15 years, remote sensing has been evaluated for detecting thermal anomalies as precursor to earthquakes. Important issues that need yet to be tackled include definition of: (a) thermal anomaly, taking into account weather conditions, observation settings and ';natural' variability caused by background sources (b) the length of observations required for this purpose; and (c) the location of detected anomalies, which should be physically related to the tectonic activity. To determine whether thermal anomalies are statistical noise, mere meteorological conditions, or actual earthquake-related phenomena, we apply a novel approach. We use brightness temperature (top-of-atmosphere) data from thermal infrared imagery acquired at a hypertemporal (sub-hourly) interval, from geostationary weather satellites over multiple years. The length of the time series allows for analysis of meteorological effects (diurnal, seasonal or annual trends) and background variability, through the application of a combined spatial and temporal filter to distinguish extreme occurrences from trends. The definition of potential anomalies is based on statistical techniques, taking into account published (geo)physical characteristics of earthquake related thermal anomalies. We use synthetic data to test the performance of the proposed detection method and track potential factors affecting the results. Subsequently, we apply the method on original data from Iran and Turkey, in quiescent and earthquake-struck periods alike. We present our findings with main focus to assess resulting anomalies in relation to physical processes thereby considering: (a) meteorological effects, (b) the geographical, geological and environmental settings, and (c) physically realistic distances and potential physical relations with the activity of causative faults.

  7. Lunar swirls: Examining crustal magnetic anomalies and space weathering trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewett, David T.; Coman, Ecaterina I.; Hawke, B. Ray; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Purucker, Michael E.; Hughes, Christopher G.

    2011-02-01

    We have used multispectral images from Clementine and data from Lunar Prospector's magnetometer to conduct a survey of lunar crustal magnetic anomalies, prominent lunar swirls, and lesser known swirl markings to provide new information on the nature of swirls and their association with magnetic anomalies. We find that all swirls and swirl-like albedo patterns are associated with areas of magnetized crust, but not all areas of magnetized crust are colocated with swirl-like albedo anomalies. All observed swirls exhibit spectral characteristics similar to immature material and generally have slightly lower FeO values compared with their surroundings as determined with a multispectral iron-mapping method. We discuss these results in relation to the various hypotheses for swirl formation. The comet impact hypothesis for lunar swirls would not predict a difference in the spectrally determined FeO content between swirls and nearby ordinary surfaces. The compositional difference could be explained as a consequence of (1) magnetic shielding of the surface from the solar wind, which could produce anomalous space weathering (little darkening with limited reddening) and potentially alter the predictions of the multispectral iron-mapping algorithm while the compositional contrast could be enhanced by delivery of lower-FeO ejecta from outside the swirl; and (2) accumulation of fine plagioclase-rich dust moving under the influence of electric fields induced by solar wind interactions with a magnetic anomaly. Therefore, we cannot at present clearly distinguish between the solar wind shielding and electrostatic dust accumulation models for swirl formation. We describe future measurements that could contribute to solution of the puzzle of swirl origin.

  8. Residual depth anomalies and the origin of the Australian-Antarctic discordance zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Karen M.; Vogt, Peter R.; Hall, Stuart A.

    1990-10-01

    A new, high resolution depth anomaly map covering the anomalously deep and rough Australian-Antarctic Discordance (AAD) has been constructed using crustal ages derived from a detailed aeromagnetic survey. The map shows a large, arcuate-shaped, negative depth anomaly that is centered on the Southeast Indian Ridge and trends NNE across the Australian plate (SSE across the Antarctic plate). Within this broad scale feature, two prominent depth anomaly lows are observed at 45°S, 128°E (the northern flank) and 54°S, 125°E (the southern flank). Both lows are associated with 15 Ma oceanic crust. The observed depth anomaly patterns are compared with the distinctive patterns predicted by coldspot, downwelling limbs of convection cells, and thin crust models of the discordance source. The observed depth anomaly does not result from absolute plate motions over a fixed coldspot source because the predicted ENE trend on the Antarctic plate is not in agreement with the SSE trend observed. The symmetric arrangement of the large-scale depth anomaly and prominent lows about the ridge axis suggests instead a source that has varied in strength but remained located at the ridge axis as the ridge migrated northeastward in the absolute reference frame. The organized pattern of elongated depth anomaly highs and lows predicted for upper mantle convection (cells) is not evident in the observed depth anomaly map. Thus a convergence of downwelling limbs of convection cells beneath the discordance is not indicated. If the source of cooler upwelling that produces less magma and hence thin crust has not varied over time, nor migrated along the ridge, then the predicted depth anomaly would persist unchanged with distance from the ridge axis, and trend in the direction of relative plate motion (parallel to fracture zones). The observed depth anomaly trends obliquely across fracture zones and changes in both amplitude and location relative to the ridge axis, and is therefore not consistent with cool upwelling producing thin crust. To explain the features of the depth anomaly map, we propose that asthenospheric material flowing from the Amsterdam hotspot in the west, and the Balleny and Tasmantid hotspots in the east, collides within the discordance. Propagating rifts converging on the AAD provide evidence for such asthenospheric flow. Attenuated shear velocities beneath the George V fracture zone complex, and lavas geochemically identical to those from propagating rifts associated with hotspots, suggest a thermal anomaly producing additional asthenospheric flow east of the AAD. The increased flow and greater proximity of the discordance to the thermal anomaly and hotspots to the east produce a higher pressure gradient, and hence greater driving force, which results in a westward migration of the collision zone with time. Seafloor spreading over the westward moving collision zone has produced the observed arcuate-shaped anomaly with the accompanying oblique depth anomaly trends. We cannot decipher from depth anomalies alone whether the converging flows downwell within the AAD or simply mix with upwelling materials.

  9. Data Mining for Anomaly Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Gautam; Mack, Daniel; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar; Bharadwaj, Raj

    2013-01-01

    The Vehicle Integrated Prognostics Reasoner (VIPR) program describes methods for enhanced diagnostics as well as a prognostic extension to current state of art Aircraft Diagnostic and Maintenance System (ADMS). VIPR introduced a new anomaly detection function for discovering previously undetected and undocumented situations, where there are clear deviations from nominal behavior. Once a baseline (nominal model of operations) is established, the detection and analysis is split between on-aircraft outlier generation and off-aircraft expert analysis to characterize and classify events that may not have been anticipated by individual system providers. Offline expert analysis is supported by data curation and data mining algorithms that can be applied in the contexts of supervised learning methods and unsupervised learning. In this report, we discuss efficient methods to implement the Kolmogorov complexity measure using compression algorithms, and run a systematic empirical analysis to determine the best compression measure. Our experiments established that the combination of the DZIP compression algorithm and CiDM distance measure provides the best results for capturing relevant properties of time series data encountered in aircraft operations. This combination was used as the basis for developing an unsupervised learning algorithm to define "nominal" flight segments using historical flight segments.

  10. Classifying gauge anomalies through symmetry-protected trivial orders and classifying gravitational anomalies through topological orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we systematically study gauge anomalies in bosonic and fermionic weak-coupling gauge theories with gauge group G (which can be continuous or discrete) in d space-time dimensions. We show a very close relation between gauge anomalies for gauge group G and symmetry-protected trivial (SPT) orders (also known as symmetry-protected topological (SPT) orders) with symmetry group G in one-higher dimension. The SPT phases are classified by group cohomology class Hd+1(G,R/Z). Through a more careful consideration, we argue that the gauge anomalies are described by the elements in Free[Hd+1(G,R/Z)]?H??d+1(BG,R/Z). The well known Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies are classified by the free part of Hd+1(G,R/Z) (denoted as Free[Hd+1(G,R/Z)]). We refer to other kinds of gauge anomalies beyond Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies as non-ABJ gauge anomalies, which include Witten SU(2) global gauge anomalies. We introduce a notion of ?-cohomology group, H??d+1(BG,R/Z), for the classifying space BG, which is an Abelian group and include Tor[Hd+1(G,R/Z)] and topological cohomology group Hd+1(BG,R/Z) as subgroups. We argue that H??d+1(BG,R/Z) classifies the bosonic non-ABJ gauge anomalies and partially classifies fermionic non-ABJ anomalies. Using the same approach that shows gauge anomalies to be connected to SPT phases, we can also show that gravitational anomalies are connected to topological orders (i.e., patterns of long-range entanglement) in one-higher dimension.

  11. Relaxing Lorentz invariance in general perturbative anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Salvio, A. [Institut de Theorie des Phenomenes Physiques, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-10-15

    We analyze the role of Lorentz symmetry in the perturbative nongravitational anomalies for a single family of fermions. The theory is assumed to be translational-invariant, power-counting renormalizable and based on a local action, but is allowed to have general Lorentz violating operators. We study the conservation of global and gauge currents associated with general internal symmetry groups and find, by using a perturbative approach, that Lorentz symmetry does not participate in the clash of symmetries that leads to the anomalies. We first analyze the triangle graphs and prove that there are regulators for which the anomalous part of the Ward identities exactly reproduces the Lorentz-invariant case. Then we show, by means of a regulator independent argument, that the anomaly cancellation conditions derived in Lorentz-invariant theories remain necessary ingredients for anomaly freedom.

  12. The two pioneers anomalies and universal rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Marcelo Samuel

    2011-12-01

    We show how to prove the two Pioneers Anomalies by means of the Godlowski et al. (arXiv:astro-ph/0404329, 2004) idea for a rotating General Relativistic Universe. The so-called clock effect is calculated.

  13. Design and Implementation of an Anomaly Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherjeiran, A; Cantu-Paz, E; Kamath, C

    2005-07-11

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a general-purpose anomaly detector for streaming data. Based on a survey of similar work from the literature, a basic anomaly detector builds a model on normal data, compares this model to incoming data, and uses a threshold to determine when the incoming data represent an anomaly. Models compactly represent the data but still allow for effective comparison. Comparison methods determine the distance between two models of data or the distance between a model and a point. Threshold selection is a largely neglected problem in the literature, but the current implementation includes two methods to estimate thresholds from normal data. With these components, a user can construct a variety of anomaly detection schemes. The implementation contains several methods from the literature. Three separate experiments tested the performance of the components on two well-known and one completely artificial dataset. The results indicate that the implementation works and can reproduce results from previous experiments.

  14. Understanding Magnetic Anomalies and Their Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, James H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise testing the Vine-Matthews-Morley hypothesis of plate tectonics. Includes 14 questions with explanations using graphs and charts. Provides a historical account of the current plate tectonic and magnetic anomaly theory. (MVL)

  15. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Adjusting Grievances, Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems. Generally, time spent by...

  16. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and congenital heart anomalies.

    PubMed

    Maeda, T; Suzuki, Y; Haeno, S; Asada, M; Hiramatsu, R; Tanaka, F; Okada, M; Suzuki, T

    1996-03-01

    Two sisters with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, and congenital heart disease are herein reported. One was a 20-year-old woman with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and multiple aphthous stomatitis, bronchial asthma, an emphysematous lung, a ventricular septal defect and a bilateral inguinal hernia due to hyperextensibility and joint hypermobility. The other was a 17-year-old girl with the same syndrome and an atrial septal defect, a ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus. The combination of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and congenital heart anomalies in these siblings suggest a common genetic defect to be the cause of these diseases. PMID:8785453

  17. Reactors antineutrino anomalies and searches for sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cribier, M.

    2015-04-01

    Over the last 20 years a standard neutrino oscillation framework associated with small splitting between the neutrino mass states have become well established. Beyond this model, anomalies have been observed at short baseline in reactor, accelerator and gallium experiments. This suggests the existence of a fourth massive neutrino, affecting experiments through oscillation with active flavours with ?m2 above 0.1 eV2. To definitively test this ?m2 region, several experiments on reactors or using neutrino or antineutrino sources are in preparation.

  18. Relationship between positive CE anomaly and adsorbed water in Antarctic lunar meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagi, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kazuya

    1998-09-01

    Concentration of adsorbed water in single mineral grains of Antarctic lunar meteorites was determined with micro IR spectroscopy. A relationship was found between the mineral ability to adsorb water and the extent of Ce anomaly in REE pattern precisely determined by the isotope dilution method using a thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Aska(A)-881757, a lunar meteorite from the mare basalt without Ce anomaly, showed no trace of IR absorption due to adsorbed water. On the contrary, Yamato(Y)-791197-109, Y-86032-98, Y-86032-95, Y-791197- 115 and Y-82192-55A from the lunar highland exhibiting positive Ce anomaly showed IR absorption due to adsorbed water in some of their minerals. The detected water would be a terrestrial origin, because it was not structurally bound and easy to exchange judging from the spectral band shape. The contrast in concentration of adsorbed water between the lunar highland and the mare basalt derived from a difference in the density of micro fracture in mineral grain. Average concentrations of adsorbed water in the lunar highland meteorites were 3.8 mg/cm3 for pyroxene and olivine, and 1.7 mg/cm3 for plagioclase, respectively. This contrast between minerals is noteworthy because it has been known that Ce anomaly of pyroxene and olivine is larger than that of plagioclase both for Antarctic lunar meteorites and some lunar rocks. Furthermore, more adsorbed water was detected for minerals in meteorite exhibiting larger Ce anomaly. The present observations demonstrated that the extent of Ce anomaly correlated with the concentration of adsorbed water, which suggests that active mineral surface resulting in adsorption of water could be a trace of interaction forming Ce anomaly. Terrestrial weathering on Antarctica and REE fractionation on the Moon were discussed for possible origins of the Ce anomaly.

  19. Chiral anomalies, higher dimensions, and differential geometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Zumino; Wu Yong-Shi; A. Zee

    1984-01-01

    We determine the abelian and non-abelian chiral anomalies in 2n-dimensional spacetime by a differential geometric method which enables us to obtain the anomalies without having to calculate Feynman diagrams, as has been done by Frampton and Kephart. The advantage of this method is that the construction automatically satisfies the Wess-Zumino consistency condition, a condition which has direct physical interpretation. We

  20. 't Hooft Anomaly Matching for Discrete Symmetries

    E-print Network

    Csaba Csaki; Hitoshi Murayama

    1998-05-12

    We show how to extend the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions to discrete symmetries. We check these discrete anomaly matching conditions on several proposed low-energy spectra of certain strongly interacting gauge theories. The excluded examples include the proposed chirally symmetric vacuum of pure N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories, certain non-supersymmetric confining theories and some self-dual N=1 supersymmetric theories based on exceptional groups.

  1. The Anomaly Structure of Regularized Supergravity

    E-print Network

    Daniel Butter; Mary K. Gaillard

    2014-10-22

    On-shell Pauli-Villars regularization of the one-loop divergences of supergravity theories is used to study the anomaly structure of supergravity and the cancellation of field theory anomalies under a $U(1)$ gauge transformation and under the T-duality group of modular transformations in effective supergravity theories with three K\\"ahler moduli $T^i$ obtained from orbifold compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. This procedure requires constraints on the chiral matter representations of the gauge group that are consistent with known results from orbifold compactifications. Pauli-Villars regulator fields allow for the cancellation of all quadratic and logarithmic divergences, as well as most linear divergences. If all linear divergences were canceled, the theory would be anomaly free, with noninvariance of the action arising only from Pauli-Villars masses. However there are linear divergences associated with nonrenormalizable gravitino/gaugino interactions that cannot be canceled by PV fields. The resulting chiral anomaly forms a supermultiplet with the corresponding conformal anomaly, provided the ultraviolet cut-off has the appropriate field dependence, in which case total derivative terms, such as Gauss-Bonnet, do not drop out from the effective action. The anomalies can be partially canceled by the four-dimensional version of the Green-Schwarz mechanism, but additional counterterms, and/or a more elaborate set of Pauli-Villars fields and couplings, are needed to cancel the full anomaly, including D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly that are nonlinear in the parameters of the anomalous transformations.

  2. “Great Salinity Anomalies” in the North Atlantic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor M. Belkin; Sydney Levitus; John Antonov; Svend-Aage Malmberg

    1998-01-01

    We revisited the “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1970s (GSA'70s; Dickson et al., 1988) and documented the newly identified “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1980s (hence termed GSA'80s), both propagated around the North Atlantic in a similar fashion. The advective mechanism, initially proposed to explain the observed sequence of low-salinity, low-temperature events during the GSA'70s, apparently holds also for the

  3. Viscosity anomaly in core-softened liquids

    E-print Network

    Yu. D. Fomin; V. N. Ryzhov

    2013-03-18

    The present article presents a molecular dynamics study of several anomalies of core-softened systems. It is well known that many core-softened liquids demonstrate diffusion anomaly. Usual intuition relates the diffusion coefficient to shear viscosity via Stockes-Einstein relation. However, it can break down at low temperature. In this respect it is important to see if viscosity also demonstrates anomalous behavior.

  4. Anomaly-Based Hyperspectral Image Compression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qian Du; Wei Zhu; James E. Fowler

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new lossy compression algorithm for hyperspectral images, which is based on spectral principal component analysis (PCA), followed by JPEG2000 (JP2K). The approach employs an anomaly-removal model in the compression process to preserve anomalous pixels. Results on two different hyperspectral image scenes show that the new algorithm not only provides good post-compression anomaly-detection performance but also improves rate-distortion

  5. ANOMALY-BASED HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE COMPRESSION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qian Du; Wei Zhu; James E. Fowler

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new lossy compression algorithm for hyperspectral images, which is based on spectral principal component analysis (PCA), followed by JPEG2000 (JP2K). The approach employs an anomaly-removal model in the compression process to preserve anomalous pixels. Results on two different hyperspectral image scenes show that the new algorithm not only provides good post-compression anomaly-detection performance but also improves rate-

  6. Temporal accumulations of extreme daily meantemperature anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Domonkos

    2001-01-01

    Summary  ?Statistical characteristics of accumulated extreme low and high daily mean temperatures have been investigated for Hungary.\\u000a Temperature extremes over periods of a few weeks were studied using 96-year temperature records. Temperature is defined as\\u000a extreme in the lowest or highest five percent of the empirical distribution of anomalies. Recurrence frequencies of extreme\\u000a anomalies were computed at 1, 2,…, 75 days

  7. Calcium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Lee; D. A. Papanastassiou; G. J. Wasserburg

    1978-01-01

    We report isotopic anomalies in Ca which were found in two Ca-Al-rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite. These inclusions previously had been shown to contain special anomalies for Mg and O which were attributed to fractionation and unknown nuclear effects. The Ca data, when corrected for mass fractionation by using ⁴°Ca\\/⁴⁴Ca as a standard, show nonlinear isotopic effects in ⁴⁸Ca

  8. CP-violating CFT and trace anomaly

    E-print Network

    Yu Nakayama

    2012-01-26

    It is logically possible that the trace anomaly in four dimension includes the Hirzebruch-Pontryagin density in CP violating theories. Although the term vanishes at free conformal fixed points, we realize such a possibility in the holographic renormalization group and show that it is indeed possible. The Hirzebruch-Pontryagin term in the trace anomaly may serve as a barometer to understand how much CP is violated in conformal field theories.

  9. Dissolved iron anomaly in the deep tropical-subtropical Pacific: Evidence for long-range transport of hydrothermal iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingfeng; Wells, Mark L.; Rember, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved iron profiles along a north-south transect along 158°W in the tropical Pacific show evidence of two deepwater anomalies. The first extends from Station ALOHA (22.78°N) to the equator at ˜1000-1500 m and lies below the maximum apparent oxygen utilization and nutrient (N, P) concentrations. The feature is not supported by vertical export processes, but instead corresponds with the lateral dilution field of ? 3He derived from the Loihi seamount, Hawaii, though a sediment source associated with the Hawaiian Island Chain cannot be entirely ruled out. The second, deeper (2000-3000 m) anomaly occurs in tropical South Pacific waters (7°S) and also does not correlate with the depths of maximum nutrient concentrations or apparent oxygen utilization, but it does coincide closely with ? 3He emanating from the East Pacific Rise, more than 5000 km to the east. We hypothesize that these anomalies represent the long-range (>2000 km) transport of hydrothermal iron residuals, stabilized against scavenging by complexation with excess organic ligands in the plume source regions. Such trace leakage of hydrothermal iron to distal plume regions would have been difficult to identify in most hydrothermal vent mapping studies because low analytical detection limits were not needed for the proximal plume regions. These findings suggest that hydrothermal activity may represent a major source of dissolved iron throughout the South Pacific deep basin today, as well as other regions having high mid-ocean spreading rates in the geologic past. In particular, we hypothesize that high spreading rates along the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean mid-oceanic ridges, combined with the upwelling ventilation of these distal hydrothermal plumes, may have increased ocean productivity and carbon export in the Southern Ocean. Assessing the magnitude and persistence of dissolved hydrothermal iron in basin scale deep waters will be important for understanding the marine biogeochemistry of iron and, potentially, on ocean productivity and climate change during the geologic past.

  10. Contribution of anomalies detection and analysis on traffic engineering

    E-print Network

    Owezarski, Philippe

    , and much more. Traffic anomalies, anomaly profile, overlay network routing I. INTRODUCTION Assuring QualityContribution of anomalies detection and analysis on traffic engineering Sílvia Farraposo DEI ESTG--In this paper we present a methodology for detecting traffic anomalies. To accomplish that, and as a demarcation

  11. On the Anomalies and Schwinger Terms in Noncommutative Gauge Theories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Ardalan; H. Arfaei; N. Sadooghi

    2006-01-01

    Invariant (nonplanar) anomaly of noncommutative QED is reexamined in this paper. It is found that just as in ordinary gauge theory UV regularization is needed to discover anomalies, in noncommutative case, in addition, an IR regularization is also required to exhibit the existence of invariant anomaly. Thus resolving the controversy in the value of invariant anomaly, an expression for the

  12. i\\ai"GIIS... Apollo 15 Anomalies Investigation PAGE

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    ' ·~ i\\ai"GIIS... Apollo 15 Anomalies Investigation PAGE 1 OF /~-........Divl·lan DATE 10/11/71 The purpose of this ATM is to review and status the BxA effort with respect to the Apollo 15 Anomalies t '-· :·~· . . !· ·'··..'· ~· : #12;Apollo 15 Anomalies Investigation TABLE OF CONTENTS Anomalies 1. UHT/Subpackage #2 Interface 2

  13. Consistent and covariant anomalies in gauge and gravitational theories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Bardeen; Bruno Zumino

    1984-01-01

    The gauge structure of anomalies and the related currents is analyzed in detail. We construct the covariant forms for both the currents and the anomalies for general gauge theories in even-dimensional space-time. The results are then extended to determine the structure of gravitational anomalies. These can always be interpreted as anomalies for local Lorentz transformations.

  14. Effect of sampling rate and monitoring granularity on anomaly detectability

    E-print Network

    Rejaie, Reza

    Effect of sampling rate and monitoring granularity on anomaly detectability Keisuke Ishibashi of anomalies to be detected. We show that by changing the measurement granularity, we can detect anomalies even and victim of the detected anomaly. On the other hand, the latter method gives rich information but lacks

  15. Multi-criteria Anomaly Detection using Pareto Depth Analysis

    E-print Network

    Hero, Alfred O.

    Multi-criteria Anomaly Detection using Pareto Depth Analysis Ko-Jen Hsiao, Kevin S. Xu, Jeff Calder, often referred to as anomaly detection. In most anomaly detection algorithms, the dissimilarity between in the linear combina- tion. In this paper, we introduce a novel non-parametric multi-criteria anomaly detection

  16. Using Artificial Anomalies to Detect Unknown and Known Network Intrusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Fan; Matthew Miller; Salvatore J. Stolfo; Wenke Lee; Philip K. Chan

    2001-01-01

    Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) must be capable of detecting new and unknown attacks, or anomalies. We study the problem of building detection models for both pure anomaly detection and combined misuse and anomaly detection (i.e., detection of both known and unknown in- trusions). We propose an algorithm to generate artificial anomalies to coerce the inductive learner into discovering an accurate

  17. Group Anomaly Detection using Flexible Genre Models Liang Xiong

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Jeff

    Group Anomaly Detection using Flexible Genre Models Liang Xiong Machine Learning Department and interesting phenomena. In this paper, we study the group anomaly detection problem. Unlike traditional anomaly and turbulence data, and show that it is superior to existing approaches in detecting group anomalies. 1

  18. The role of tropical Atlantic SST anomalies in modulating western North Pacific tropical cyclone genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Liwei; Guo, Pinwen; Hameed, Saji N.; Jin, Dachao

    2015-04-01

    The connection between north tropical Atlantic (NTA) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the western North Pacific (WNP) and associated physical mechanisms are investigated in this study. We demonstrate a remarkable negative correlation of WNP TC genesis frequency with the (preceding) boreal spring NTA SST anomalies. Our analysis suggests that major factors for TC genesis including distributions of large-scale vorticity and midtropospheric humidity are rendered unfavorable by remote teleconnections while barotropic energy conversion from the large-scale flow is suppressed. As shown in recent studies, the remote teleconnection from the Atlantic is sustained and enhanced throughout the typhoon season through local air-sea interactions. These results suggest that boreal spring NTA SST anomaly could be a new predictor for the seasonal WNP TC activity.

  19. Suggestions for Galaxy Workflow Design Using Semantically

    E-print Network

    Kissinger, Jessica

    Suggestions for Galaxy Workflow Design Using Semantically Annotated Services Alok Dhamanaskar Similarity 5. SSE Evaluation · Interfacing SSE with the Galaxy workflow editor 6. Summary and Future Work #12 Suggestions and Bi-directional Suggestions. SSE returns a ranked list of web service operations (from

  20. Muon g-2 Anomaly and Dark Leptonic Gauge Boson

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hye-Sung [W& M

    2014-11-01

    One of the major motivations to search for a dark gauge boson of MeV-GeV scale is the long-standing muon g-2 anomaly. Because of active searches such as fixed target experiments and rare meson decays, the muon g-2 favored parameter region has been rapidly reduced. With the most recent data, it is practically excluded now in the popular dark photon model. We overview the issue and investigate a potentially alternative model based on the gauged lepton number or U(1)_L, which is under different experimental constraints.

  1. La prospection geothermique de surface au Maroc: hydrodynamisme, anomalies thermiques et indices de surfaceGeothermal prospecting in Morocco: hydrodynamics, thermal anomalies and surface indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarhloule, Y.; Lahrache, A.; Ben Abidate, L.; Khattach, D.; Bouri, S.; Boukdir, A.; Ben Dhia, H.

    2001-05-01

    Shallow geothermal prospecting ( < 700 m) has been performed in four zones in Morocco for which few deep data are available: northwestern basin, northeastern basin, Tadla Basin and Agadir Basin. These areas are different geologically and hydrogeologically. The temperature data from 250 wells at depths between 15 and 500 m have been analysed in order to estimate the natural geothermal gradient in these areas, to determine the principal thermal anomalies, to identify the main thermal indices and to characterise the recharge, discharge and potential mixing limits of the aquifers. The hydrostratigraphical study of each basin revealed several potential reservoir layers in which the Turonian carbonate aquifer (Tadal and Agadir Basins) and Liassic acquifer (Moroccan northwestern and northeastern basins) are the most important hot water reservoirs in Morocco. The recharge zones of each aquifer are characterised by high topography, high water potential, shallow cold water, low geothermal gradient and negative anomalies. The discharge zones are characterized by low topography, low piezometric level, high geothermal gradient, high temperature with hot springs and positive anomalies. The main thermal indices and the principal thermal anomalies that coincide with the artesian zones of the Turonian and Liassic aquifers have been identified.

  2. Congenital anomaly surveillance in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Misra, T; Dattani, N; Majeed, A

    2006-03-01

    The National Congenital Anomaly System (NCAS) was set up in 1964, following the thalidomide epidemic, as a monitoring system designed to detect changes in the frequency of reporting of malformations. Its original aim was to detect anomalies reported within 7 days of birth. The NCAS is voluntary at all stages and covers all live- and stillbirths. It has two tiers; a 'passive system' receiving congenital anomaly notifications through a standard paper notification form, known as the SD56, and the congenital anomaly registers that send notifications electronically. Congenital anomalies are classified using the International Classification of Diseases codes and 10 monitoring groups. The Office for National Statistics performs a statistical analysis on a monthly, quarterly and annual basis, using the cumulative sum technique, which is the basis upon which surveillance alerts are raised within the system. The NCAS is now an open database where congenital anomalies can be notified whenever they are detected. The aim of this paper is to describe the current operation and uses of the NCAS based on guidelines for the evaluation of public health surveillance systems published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:16337977

  3. Silica-Like Sequence of Anomalies in Core-Softened Systems

    E-print Network

    Yu. D. Fomin; E. N. Tsiok; V. N. Ryzhov

    2013-01-17

    In this paper we present a simulation study of density, structural and diffusion anomalies in core-softened system introduced in our previous publications. It is well-known, that with appropriate parametrization, core-softened systems are remarkable model liquids that exhibit anomalous properties observed in tetrahedral liquids such as silica and water. It is widely believed that core-softened potentials demonstrate the water-like sequence of anomalies. We show that with increasing the depth of the attractive part of the potential the order of the region of anomalous diffusion and the regions of density and structural anomalies is inverted and have the silica-like sequence. We also show that the slope of the Widom line is negative like in water.

  4. Mass Hierarchies from Anomalies: a Peek Behind the Planck Curtain

    E-print Network

    P. Ramond

    1996-04-04

    The masses of quarks and leptons suggest a strong hierarchical structure. We argue that their patterns can be reproduced through the introduction of a new Abelian symmetry. The data suggest that this symmetry is anomalous. We suggest that the cancellation of its anomalies occur through the Green-Schwarz mechanism. An important check of this idea is that it links the Weinberg angle to a mass ratio of the elementary fermions. The Green-Schwarz mechanism occurs naturally in many superstring compactifications, and produces a small parameter, which we use to determine the quark mass hierarchy. We show that hierarchy and mixings among the chiral fermions is a consequence of the Green-Schwarz mechanism. We present several models where this idea is realized.

  5. An ERP study of structural anomalies in native and semantic free artificial grammar: evidence for shared processing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tabullo, Ángel; Sevilla, Yamila; Segura, Enrique; Zanutto, Silvano; Wainselboim, Alejandro

    2013-08-21

    Artificial grammars have been widely applied to the study of sequential learning in language, but few studies have directly compared the neural correlates of artificial and native grammar processing. In this study, we examined Event Related Potentials (ERPs) elicited by structural anomalies in semantic-free artificial grammar sequences and sentences in the subjects' native language (Spanish). Although ERPs differed during early stages, we observed similar posterior negativities (N400) and P600 effects in a late stage. We interpret these results as evidence of at least partially shared neural mechanisms for processing of language and artificial grammars. We suggest that in both the natural and artificial grammars, the N400 and P600 components we observed can be explained as the result of unfulfilled predictions about incoming stimuli. PMID:23711889

  6. A benthic Si mass balance on the Congo margin: Origin of the 4000 m DSi anomaly and implications for the transfer of Si from land to ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Ragueneau; A. Regaudie-de-Gioux; B. Moriceau; M. Gallinari; A. Vangriesheim; F. Baurand; A. Khripounoff

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate the origin of the silicic acid (DSi) anomaly observed along the 4000 isobath on the Congo margin, we have established a benthic Si mass balance and performed direct measurements of biogenic silica (bSiO2) dissolution in the deep waters and in the sediments. Results strongly suggest that the anomaly originates from the sediments; the intensity of DSi recycling is

  7. A magnetic anomaly of possible economic significance in southeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zietz, Isidore

    1964-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey in southeastern Minnesota by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the State of Minnesota has revealed a high-amplitude, linear, and narrow magnetic feature that suggests a possible source of Precambrian iron-formation of economic value. For the past few years the U. S. Geological Survey has been conducting detailed geophysical studies of the midcontinent gravity anomaly--a broad, high-amplitude feature that extends from Lake Superior through the States of Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and part of Kansas. As part of this study an aeromagnetic survey of the southern part of the State was made in cooperation with the State of Minnesota during the summer of 1963, in which a linear high-amplitude anomaly of the order of 4,000 gammas was discovered. Because of the high amplitude, the linearity, and the narrowness of the magnetic feature, it is believed the source may be Precambrian iron-formation of possible economic value. The anomalous area is in Fillmore County, approximately between the towns of Lanesboro and Peterson in the extreme southeastern part of the State. (See figures 1 and 2.) At the site of the anomaly, Cambrian sedimentary rocks occur in the valley of the Root River, and Ordovician rocks (nearly flat lying) mantle the upland areas. The uplands are largely covered by glacial deposits, which are relatively thin (Paul K. Sims, written communication, 1964). Depths to the Precambrian are estimated to range from 500 feet to 1,000 feet below the surface. The aeromagnetic map shown in figure 2 was compiled from continuous magnetic profiles made along east-west flight lines 1,000 feet above ground, and spaced approximately 1 mile apart. Contour intervals of 20, 100, and 500 gammas were used depending on the intensity. The instrument for the survey was a flux-gate type magnetometer (AN/ASQ-3A) which measures total-field variations. The contour map displays variations in magnetic pattern which are typical of shallow Precambrian rocks. Anomalies of the order of 1,000 gammas are shown along the east and west edges of the map. The outstanding feature is the previously mentioned linear positive anomaly that trends northeast and reaches a peak of 3,960 gammas. The positive anomaly is contoured from data on four consecutive profiles, but only two show high amplitudes. The high-amplitude anomalies along traverses 1 and 2 are shown in figure 3. Depth calculations suggest that the source of the anomaly lies about 1,000 feet below the surface. Assuming a dikelike source and magnetization resulting entirely from induction in the earth's field, several calculations were made in an attempt to fit the magnetic profile taken along the line AA' (see figs. 2 and 4), considered to be a typical cross-section of the magnetic anomaly. Comparisons are shown between observed and computed profiles. The fixed parameters used were (a) distance from detector to source of 2,000 ft; width of dike of 5,000 ft; dip of dike of 75?, 90?, 105? , and 120? , as shown. The best fit occurs when the dike is vertical or dips 75? to the southwest. For these cases, the susceptibility, k, is computed to be 0.016 c.g.s, units, and is comparable to k = 0.02+ calculated by Bath (1962) for the relatively unmetamorphosed iron-formation of the Main Megabi district in Minnesota where the induced magnetization was most likely the dominant magnetization. If the dominant magnetization for the anomaly in Fillmore County were remanent rather than induced, the economic importance of the anomaly would be greatly reduced. This anomaly seems sufficiently promising to warrant further geologic and geophysical investigation. Detailed ground magnetic and electrical studies would be useful to delineate the feature. In the final analysis, however, the presence of iron-formation can be determined only by the drill.

  8. The influence of suggestibility on memory.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L

    2011-06-01

    We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory. PMID:21144772

  9. MedMon: securing medical devices through wireless monitoring and anomaly detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Raghunathan, Anand; Jha, Niraj K

    2013-12-01

    Rapid advances in personal healthcare systems based on implantable and wearable medical devices promise to greatly improve the quality of diagnosis and treatment for a range of medical conditions. However, the increasing programmability and wireless connectivity of medical devices also open up opportunities for malicious attackers. Unfortunately, implantable/wearable medical devices come with extreme size and power constraints, and unique usage models, making it infeasible to simply borrow conventional security solutions such as cryptography. We propose a general framework for securing medical devices based on wireless channel monitoring and anomaly detection. Our proposal is based on a medical security monitor (MedMon) that snoops on all the radio-frequency wireless communications to/from medical devices and uses multi-layered anomaly detection to identify potentially malicious transactions. Upon detection of a malicious transaction, MedMon takes appropriate response actions, which could range from passive (notifying the user) to active (jamming the packets so that they do not reach the medical device). A key benefit of MedMon is that it is applicable to existing medical devices that are in use by patients, with no hardware or software modifications to them. Consequently, it also leads to zero power overheads on these devices. We demonstrate the feasibility of our proposal by developing a prototype implementation for an insulin delivery system using off-the-shelf components (USRP software-defined radio). We evaluate its effectiveness under several attack scenarios. Our results show that MedMon can detect virtually all naive attacks and a large fraction of more sophisticated attacks, suggesting that it is an effective approach to enhancing the security of medical devices. PMID:24473551

  10. Evolution of the Indian Ocean Triple Junction between 65 and 49 Ma (anomalies 28 to 21)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, JéRôMe

    1993-08-01

    Reinterpretation of newly published geophysical data (Kamesh-Raju and Ramprasad, 1989) and older profiles of the Central Indian Basin, associated with similar studies of the Madagascar and Crozet basins, shows that the Indian Ocean Triple Junction trace on the Indian plate corresponds, at anomalies 23 and 22, to a N38°E offset of the magnetic lineations, oblique to both the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR) and Central Indian Ridge (CIR) spreading directions. The conjugate Triple Junction trace on the African plate identified in the Madagascar Basin is associated with a roughly north-south offset, parallel to the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) fracture zones. In order to account for these observations and the velocity triangle of the Indian, African, and Antarctic plates close to the Triple Junction, a ridge-fault-fault mode is proposed, with a propagatorlike SEIR-CIR offset. The Triple Junction jumped between anomalies 24 and 23 and between anomalies 22 and 21, restoring a ridge-ridge-ridge configuration which immediately turned to a pseudo-ridge-ridge-fault and later to a true ridge-fault-fault configuration. After the Triple Junction jump at anomaly 21, the former SEIR-CIR offset was accommodated by a new CIR fracture zone. The lack of such a fracture zone prior to anomaly 21 suggests that either a pseudo-ridge-ridge-fault or an unstable ridge-ridge-ridge configuration prevailed before anomaly 24, in agreement with the velocity triangles which predict more unstable Triple Junction modes. Both modes support the creation of numerous SWIR fracture zones, presently observed between 52°30'E and 59°30'E, as a consequence of the Triple Junction evolution between anomalies 29 and 24. This result suggests that the physiography of the SWIR records the history of the Triple Junction.

  11. Breakup Threshold Anomaly: New Manifestation of the Dispersion Relation

    E-print Network

    M. S. Hussein; P. R. S. Gomes; J. Lubian; L. C. Chamon

    2007-04-23

    It is pointed out that the usual threshold anomaly, found operative in the energy behavior of the imaginary and real parts of the optical potential representing the elastic scattering of tightly bound nuclei at near- and below-barrier energies, suffers a drastic qualitative change in the case of the elastic scattering of weakly bound nuclei. Owing to the strong coupling to the breakup channel even at sub-barrier energies, the imaginary potential strength seems to increase as the energy is lowered down to below the natural, barrier, threshold, accompanied by a decrease in the real potential strength. This feature is consistent with the dispersion relation. The system $^{6}$Li + $^{208}$Pb is analyzed to illustrate this new phenomenon.

  12. On the Anomalies and Schwinger Terms in Noncommutative Gauge Theories

    E-print Network

    F. Ardalan; H. Arfaei; N. Sadooghi

    2006-01-05

    Invariant (nonplanar) anomaly of noncommutative QED is reexamined. It is found that just as in ordinary gauge theory UV regularization is needed to discover anomalies, in noncommutative case, in addition, an IR regularization is also required to exhibit existence of invariant anomaly. Thus resolving the controversy in the value of invariant anomaly, an expression for the unintergrated anomaly is found. Schwinger terms of the current algebra of the theory are derived.

  13. Recovery of opercular anomalies in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L.: morphological and morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Beraldo, P; Canavese, B

    2011-01-01

    Opercular anomalies are very frequent in reared gilthead sea bream and these can negatively influence the product value. Field observations have suggested that opercular malformations can recover over time. In order to verify this hypothesis, 140-day-old gilthead sea bream with monolateral opercular anomalies were divided into three groups, according to the type and increasing seriousness of the opercular malformations, and another group was composed of fish with bilateral opercular anomalies. All groups were monitored for 16 months. In the group with monolateral anomalies, the opercular recovery process was documented by morphological (stereomicroscope) and morphometric analysis. For the latter analysis, two relevant areas, A and T, were identified in the cephalic region. The ratio (T - A)/T, tending to 1, represents the recovery index (RI) of anatomical integrity and quantifies the recovery level of opercular complex anomalies. Results suggested that the recovery process was considerable over the 16 months of investigation but should not be considered complete. At the end of the study, 61% of the gilthead sea bream population with monolateral opercular defects recovered external integrity, whereas the population with bilateral defects showed a poorer recovery capability. PMID:21166823

  14. Minor physical anomalies are more common in schizophrenia patients with the history of homicide.

    PubMed

    Tényi, Tamás; Halmai, Tamás; Antal, Albert; Benke, Bálint; Jeges, Sára; Tényi, Dalma; Tóth, Ákos Levente; Csábi, Györgyi

    2015-02-28

    Minor physical anomalies may be external markers of abnormal brain development, so the more common appearance of these signs in homicidal schizophrenia might suggest the possibility of a more seriously aberrant neurodevelopment in this subgroup. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate and topological profile of minor physical anomalies in patients with schizophrenia with the history of committed or attempted homicide comparing them to patients with schizophrenia without homicide in their history and to normal control subjects. Using a list of 57 minor physical anomalies, 44 patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia were examined with the history of committed or attempted homicide, as a comparison 22 patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia without the history of any kind of homicide and violence and 21 normal control subjects were examined. Minor physical anomalies are more common in homicidal schizophrenia patients compared to non-homicidal schizophrenia patients and normal controls, which could support a stronger neurodevelopmental component of etiology in this subgroup of schizophrenia. The higher rate of minor physical anomalies found predominantly in the head and mouth regions in homicidal schizophrenia patients might suggest the possibility of a more seriously aberrant brain development in the case of homicidal schizophrenia. PMID:25500346

  15. Direct recovery of mean gravity anomalies from satellite to satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    The direct recovery was investigated of mean gravity anomalies from summed range rate observations, the signal path being ground station to a geosynchronous relay satellite to a close satellite significantly perturbed by the short wave features of the earth's gravitational field. To ensure realistic observations, these were simulated with the nominal orbital elements for the relay satellite corresponding to ATS-6, and for two different close satellites (one at about 250 km height, and the other at about 900 km height) corresponding to the nominal values for GEOS-C. The earth's gravitational field was represented by a reference set of potential coefficients up to degree and order 12, considered as known values, and by residual gravity anomalies obtained by subtracting the anomalies, implied by the potential coefficients, from their terrestrial estimates. It was found that gravity anomalies could be recovered from strong signal without using any a-priori terrestrial information, i.e. considering their initial values as zero and also assigning them a zero weight matrix. While recovering them from weak signal, it was necessary to use the a-priori estimate of the standard deviation of the anomalies to form their a-priori diagonal weight matrix.

  16. Surface Wave Amplitude Anomalies in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddy, C.; Ekstrom, G.

    2011-12-01

    We determine maps of local surface wave amplitude factors across the Western United States for Rayleigh and Love waves at discrete periods between 25 and 125s. Measurements of raw amplitude anomalies are made from data recorded at 1161 USArray stations for minor arc arrivals of earthquakes with Mw>5.5 occurring between 2006 and 2010. We take the difference between high-quality amplitude anomaly measurements for events recorded on station pairs less than 2 degrees apart. The mean of these differences for each station pair is taken as the datum. Surface wave amplitudes are controlled by four separate mechanisms: focusing due to elastic structure, attenuation due to anelastic structure, source effects, and receiver effects. By taking the mean of the differences of amplitude anomalies for neighboring stations, we reduce the effects of focusing, attenuation, and the seismic source, thus isolating amplitude anomalies due to near-receiver amplitude effects. We determine local amplitude factors for each USArray station by standard linear inversion of the differential data set. The individual station amplitude factors explain the majority of the variance of the data. For example, derived station amplitude factors for 50s Rayleigh waves explain 92% of the variance of the data. We explore correlations between derived station amplitude factors and local amplitude factors predicted by crust and upper mantle models. Maps of local amplitude factors show spatial correlation with topography and geologic structures in the Western United States, particularly for maps derived from Rayleigh wave amplitude anomalies. A NW-SE trending high in amplitude factors in Eastern California is evident in the 50s map, corresponding to the location of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. High amplitude factors are observed in Colorado and New Mexico in the 50s-125s maps in the location of the highest peaks of the Rocky Mountains. High amplitude factors are also seen in Southern Idaho and Eastern Wyoming in the 50s-125s maps, roughly in the location of the Snake River Plain and Yellowstone Hotspot. The locations of these regions of high local amplitude factors suggest that the amplitude factor is closely correlated with crustal thickness and structure.

  17. Vibrational anomalies and marginal stability of glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marruzzo, Alessia; Köhler, Stephan; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Schirmacher, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The experimentally measured vibrational spectrum of glasses strongly deviates from that expected in Debye's elasticity theory: The density of states deviates from Debye's ?2 law ("boson peak"), the sound velocity shows a negative dispersion in the boson-peak frequency regime, and there is a strong increase in the sound attenuation near the boson-peak frequency. A generalized elasticity theory is presented, based on the model assumption that the shear modulus of the disordered medium fluctuates randomly in space. The fluctuations are assumed to be uncorrelated and have a certain distribution (Gaussian or otherwise). Using field-theoretical techniques one is able to derive mean-field theories for the vibrational spectrum of a disordered system. The theory based on a Gaussian distribution uses a self-consistent Born approximation (SCBA),while the theory for non-Gaussian distributions is based on a coherent-potential approximation (CPA). Both approximate theories appear to be saddle-point approximations of effective replica field theories. The theory gives a satisfactory explanation of the vibrational anomalies in glasses. Excellent agreement of the SCBA theory with simulation data on a soft-sphere glass is reached. Since the SCBA is based on a Gaussian distribution of local shear moduli, including negative values, this theory describes a shear instability as a function of the variance of shear fluctuations. In the vicinity of this instability, a fractal frequency dependence of the density of states and the sound attenuation ? ?1+ a is predicted with a ? 1/2. Such a frequency dependence is indeed observed both in simulations and in experimental data. We argue that the observed frequency dependence stems from marginally stable regions in a glass and discuss these findings in terms of rigidity percolation.

  18. Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development.

    PubMed

    Dasse, Michelle N; Elkins, Gary R; Weaver, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotizability influences the development of false memories. In Experiment 1, participants heard a positive or negative suggestion regarding hypnosis and then listened to 8 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm lists in a hypnotic state. Neither hypnosis nor prehypnotic suggestion affected memory. Highly hypnotizable participants were more accurate in recall and recognition. In Experiment 2, suggestions were delivered in the form of feedback. Participants heard a positive or negative suggestion about their performance prior to either the encoding or retrieval of 8 DRM lists. Neither accurate nor false memories were affected by the suggestion. Highly hypnotizable individuals recognized fewer critical lures if they received a negative suggestion about their performance. These results highlight the unusual role of hypnotizability in the creation of false memories. PMID:25365130

  19. Detection of Low Temperature Volcanogenic Thermal Anomalies with ASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Baxter, S.

    2009-12-01

    Predicting volcanic eruptions is a thorny problem, as volcanoes typically exhibit idiosyncratic waxing and/or waning pre-eruption emission, geodetic, and seismic behavior. It is no surprise that increasing our accuracy and precision in eruption prediction depends on assessing the time-progressions of all relevant precursor geophysical, geochemical, and geological phenomena, and on more frequently observing volcanoes when they become restless. The ASTER instrument on the NASA Terra Earth Observing System satellite in low earth orbit provides important capabilities in the area of detection of volcanogenic anomalies such as thermal precursors and increased passive gas emissions. Its unique high spatial resolution multi-spectral thermal IR imaging data (90m/pixel; 5 bands in the 8-12um region), bore-sighted with visible and near-IR imaging data, and combined with off-nadir pointing and stereo-photogrammetric capabilities make ASTER a potentially important volcanic precursor detection tool. We are utilizing the JPL ASTER Volcano Archive (http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov) to systematically examine 80,000+ ASTER volcano images to analyze (a) thermal emission baseline behavior for over 1500 volcanoes worldwide, (b) the form and magnitude of time-dependent thermal emission variability for these volcanoes, and (c) the spatio-temporal limits of detection of pre-eruption temporal changes in thermal emission in the context of eruption precursor behavior. We are creating and analyzing a catalog of the magnitude, frequency, and distribution of volcano thermal signatures worldwide as observed from ASTER since 2000 at 90m/pixel. Of particular interest as eruption precursors are small low contrast thermal anomalies of low apparent absolute temperature (e.g., melt-water lakes, fumaroles, geysers, grossly sub-pixel hotspots), for which the signal-to-noise ratio may be marginal (e.g., scene confusion due to clouds, water and water vapor, fumarolic emissions, variegated ground emissivity, and their combinations). To systematically detect such intrinsically difficult anomalies within our large archive, we are exploring a four step approach: (a) the recursive application of a GPU-accelerated, edge-preserving bilateral filter prepares a thermal image by removing noise and fine detail; (b) the resulting stylized filtered image is segmented by a path-independent region-growing algorithm, (c) the resulting segments are fused based on thermal affinity, and (d) fused segments are subjected to thermal and geographical tests for hotspot detection and classification, to eliminate false alarms or non-volcanogenic anomalies. We will discuss our progress in creating the general thermal anomaly catalog as well as algorithm approach and results. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA.

  20. ‘Anomalies’, Damned ‘Anomalies’ and Statistics: Construction Industry Productivity in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cameron Allan; Andrew Dungan; David Peetz

    2010-01-01

    The exercise by an Australian state agency of coercive powers against construction industry workers has been justified by reference to claimed gains in productivity and hence national welfare. Yet the literature suggests that a more cooperative approach to union—management relations would offer better opportunities for productivity improvement. This article examines the data behind the productivity claims and finds that they

  1. Confirmation that the conotruncal anomaly face syndrome is associated with a deletion within 22q11.2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rumiko Matsuoka; Atsuyoshi Takao; Misa Kimura; Chisato Kondo; Masahiko Ando; Kazuo Momma; Shin-ichiro Imamura; Kunitaka Joh-o; Kazuo Ikeda; Makoto Nishibatake

    1994-01-01

    The so-called {open_quotes}conotruncal anomaly face syndrome{close_quotes} (CTAFS) is characterized by a peculiar facial appearance associated with congenital heart disease (CHD), especially cardiac outflow tract defects such as tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), double outlet ring ventricle (DORV), and truncus arteriosus (TAC). CTAFS and the DiGeorge anomaly (DGA) have many similar phenotypic characteristics, suggesting that they share a common cause. In many

  2. Geological reasons for change in intensity of linear magnetic anomalies of the Kursk magnetic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhavoronkin, I. A.; Kopayev, V. V.

    1985-01-01

    The geological reasons for fluctuations in the anomalous field intensity along the polar axes were examined. The Kursk magnetic anomaly is used as the basis for the study. A geological-geophysical section was constructed which used the results of the interpretation of gravimagnetic anomalies.

  3. On the equatorial anomaly of the ionospheric total electron content near the northern anomaly crest region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yinn-Nien Huang; Kang Cheng; Sen-Wen Chen

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of the equatorial anomaly in the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) around the northern anomaly crest region was studied, using the differential Doppler data from the U.S. Navy Navigation Satellite System and the Faraday rotation data from the Japanese geostationary satellite ETS 2 to construct the ionospheric TEC contour charts for each day from October 1, 1985 to

  4. Relationships between South African rainfall and SST anomalies in the Southwest Indian Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. C. Reason; H. Mulenga

    1999-01-01

    Previous work has indicated the importance of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Southwest Indian Ocean for rainfall variability over South Africa. Here, these links are further explored via bandpass filtering of the rainfall and SST data in several bands on the interannual and interdecadal scale that are known to be significant for global climate variability. This procedure suggests

  5. Biogeographic anomaly or human introduction: a cryptogenic population of tree skink (Reptilia

    E-print Network

    Austin, Christopher C.

    resulted from preda- tion by humans and non-native mammals such as rats, dogs, and pigs (Steadman & KirchBiogeographic anomaly or human introduction: a cryptogenic population of tree skink (Reptilia data. The lizard fauna east of Samoa has been suggested to derive entirely from human

  6. Distribution of branchial anomalies in a paediatric Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Neville Wei Yang; Ibrahim, Shahrul Izham; Tan, Kun Kiaang Henry

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of the present study was to review the distribution and incidence of branchial anomalies in an Asian paediatric population and highlight the challenges involved in the diagnosis of branchial anomalies. METHODS This was a retrospective chart review of all paediatric patients who underwent surgery for branchial anomalies in a tertiary paediatric hospital from August 2007 to November 2012. The clinical notes were correlated with preoperative radiological investigations, intraoperative findings and histology results. Branchial anomalies were classified based on the results of the review. RESULTS A total of 28 children underwent surgery for 30 branchial anomalies during the review period. Two children had bilateral branchial anomalies requiring excision. Of the 30 branchial anomalies, 7 (23.3%) were first branchial anomalies, 5 (16.7%) were second branchial anomalies, 3 (10.0%) were third branchial anomalies, and 4 (13.3%) were fourth branchial anomalies (one of the four patients with fourth branchial anomalies had bilateral branchial anomalies). In addition, seven children had 8 (26.7%) branchial anomalies that were thought to originate from the pyriform sinus; however, we were unable to determine if these anomalies were from the third or fourth branchial arches. There was inadequate information on the remaining 3 (10.0%) branchial anomalies for classification. CONCLUSION The incidence of second branchial anomalies appears to be lower in our Asian paediatric population, while that of third and fourth branchial anomalies was higher. Knowledge of embryology and the related anatomy of the branchial apparatus is crucial in the identification of the type of branchial anomaly. PMID:25917471

  7. A source-depth separation filter: Using the Euler method on the derivatives of total intensity magnetic anomaly data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ravat, D.; Kirkham, K.; Hildenbrand, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    An overview is given on the benefits of applying the Euler method on derivatives of anomalies to enhance the location of shallow and deep sources. Used properly, the method is suitable for characterizing sources from all potential-field data and/or their derivative, as long as the data can be regarded mathematically as "continuous". Furthermore, the reasons why the use of the Euler method on derivatives of anomalies is particularly helpful in the analysis and interpretation of shallow features are explained.

  8. Axial anomaly of QED in a strong magnetic field and noncommutative anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Sadooghi, N. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), School of Physics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari Salim, A. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    The Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly of a 3+1 dimensional QED is calculated in the presence of a strong magnetic field. It is shown that in the regime with the lowest Landau level (LLL) dominance a dimensional reduction from D=4 to D=2 dimensions occurs in the longitudinal sector of the low energy effective field theory. In the chiral limit, the resulting anomaly is therefore comparable with the axial anomaly of a two-dimensional massless Schwinger model. It is further shown that the U{sub A}(1) anomaly of QED in a strong magnetic field is closely related to the nonplanar axial anomaly of a conventional noncommutative U(1) gauge theory.

  9. Effects of Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing Anomalies on the Atmospheric Response to Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M.; Cess, Robert D.; Zhang, Ming-Hua

    1995-01-01

    The latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research community climate model (CCM2) has been used to investigate cloud radiative forcing (CRF) anomalies associated with equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and the effects of the longwave CRF (LWCRF) anomalies on the atmospheric response to the SST anomalies. The SST anomalies cause large CRF anomalies, both longwave and shortwave, as well as latent heat anomalies at low latitudes on a global scale. The relative magnitude of the simulated longwave and shortwave CRF anomalies is consistent with the result of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), implying that cloud height and cloud radiative properties such as emissivity and reflectivity are well simulated by the model. The LWCRF anomaly strongly enhances the precipitation anomaly in the whole tropical belt. The positive (negative) LWCRF anomaly warms (cools) the troposphere and destabilizes (stabilizes) the upper troposphere. The LWCRF anomaly enhances the Southern Oscillation and the related Walker circulation anomaly. The effects of the LWCRF anomaly are essential to the northern hemispheric extratropical circulation anomaly, the Pacific/North American pattern.

  10. Climate anomalies and the increasing risk of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus illnesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime Martinez-Urtaza; John C. Bowers; Joaquin Trinanes; Angelo DePaola

    2010-01-01

    We examined the potential influence of climate anomalies in expanding the geographical and seasonal range of seafood-borne illnesses from Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. Archived climate data from areas of implicated seafood production were obtained from various sources, including in situ monitoring devices and satellite imagery. The geographical expansion of V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks into Peru and Alaska corresponded closely with

  11. Accuracy Improvement of Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection System Using Taguchi Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toru Konno; Masamichi Tateoka

    2005-01-01

    In development of anomaly-based Intrusion Detection System, improving detection accuracy is important. It is considered a kind of optimization problem of the thresholds for dividing normal and potential attack. We applied the Toguchi method, which is a technique for quality engineering, for this purpose. We also use \\

  12. Two Suggestions for Improving Chemical Equilibrium Instruction

    E-print Network

    Yaron, David

    Two Suggestions for Improving Chemical Equilibrium Instruction Journal: Journal of Chemical to the Journal of Chemical Education #12;ed-20XX-XXXXXX Two Suggestions for Improving Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Instruction David Yaron*1, Jodi L. Davenport2, James Greeno3, Michael Karabinos1

  13. Cerebral Mechanisms of Hypnotic Induction and Suggestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Rainville; Robert K. Hofbauer; TomᚠPaus; Gary H. Duncan; M. Catherine Bushnell; Donald D. Price

    1999-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying hypnotic states and responses to hypnotic suggestions remain largely unknown and, to date, have been studied only with indirect methods. Here, the effects of hypnosis and suggestions to alter pain perception were investigated in hypnotizable subjects by using positron emission tomography (PET) measures of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of brain electrical

  14. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  15. Cluster and reentrant anomalies of nearly Gaussian core particles

    E-print Network

    Daniele Coslovich; Atsushi Ikeda

    2013-03-13

    We study through integral equation theory and numerical simulations the structure and dynamics of fluids composed of ultrasoft, nearly Gaussian particles. Namely, we explore the fluid phase diagram of a model in which particles interact via the generalized exponential potential u(r)=\\epsilon exp[-(r/\\sigma)^n], with a softness exponent n slightly larger than 2. In addition to the well-known anomaly associated to reentrant melting, the structure and dynamics of the fluid display two additional anomalies, which are visible in the isothermal variation of the structure factor and diffusivity. These features are correlated to the appearance of dimers in the fluid phase and to the subsequent modification of the cluster structure upon compression. We corroborate these results through an analysis of the local minima of the potential energy surface, in which clusters appear as much tighter conglomerates of particles. We find that reentrant melting and clustering coexist for softness exponents ranging from 2^+ up to values relevant for the description of amphiphilic dendrimers, i.e., n=3.

  16. Barriers to Policy Change and a Suggested Path for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing, Yijia

    2013-01-01

    China's one-child policy has been an unprecedented policy experiment in human history. Despite its significant achievements, the policy has induced equally significant potential problems. As problems of the one-child policy have been widely noticed and suggestions for adjustments are available, the leadership transition of China in 2012 and 2013…

  17. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false…

  18. Nucleosynthetic strontium isotope anomalies in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Fukami, Yusuke; Okui, Wataru; Ito, Nobuaki; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Precise Sr isotopic compositions in samples from sequential acid leaching experiments have been determined for three carbonaceous chondrites, Allende, Murchison, and Tagish Lake, together with those in the bulk aliquots of these meteorites. The chondritic acid leachates and residues were characterized by Sr isotope anomalies with variable ?84Sr values (106 relative deviation from a standard material) ranging from +120 to - 4700 ppm, documenting multiple nucleosynthetic sources within a single meteorite. In addition, the ?84Sr patterns across leaching samples for individual chondrites differed from one another. The highest ?84Sr values were observed for leaching Step 3 (HCl+H2O, 75 °C) for Allende and Murchison likely because of the incorporation of calcium and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). In contrast, extremely low ?84Sr values were observed in the later fractions (Steps 6 and 7) for Murchison and Tagish Lake, suggesting the existence of s-process-enriched presolar SiC grains derived from AGB stars. A ?84Sr-?54Cr diagram was prepared with the CAIs and bulk aliquots of carbonaceous chondrites and other meteorites (noncarbonaceous) that were plotted separately; however, they still formed a global positive correlation. CAIs presented the highest ?84Sr and ?54Cr values, whereas carbonaceous chondrites and noncarbonaceous meteorites had intermediate and the lowest ?84Sr and ?54Cr values, respectively. The positive trend was interpreted as resulting from global thermal processing in which sublimation of high ?84Sr and ?54Cr carriers generated the excess ?84Sr and ?54Cr signatures in CAIs, while noncarbonaceous planetesimals accreted from materials that underwent significant thermal processing and thus had relatively low ?84Sr and ?54Cr values. Apart from the global trend, the carbonaceous chondrites and noncarbonaceous meteorites both exhibited intrinsic variations that highlight an isotopic dichotomy similar to that observed in other isotope combinations (e.g., ?54Cr-?50Ti, ?54Cr-?17O). A plausible scenario for creation of the intrinsic variations involves local thermal processing (e.g., flash heating for chondrule formation) caused by additional selective destruction of presolar grains differently than that caused by global thermal processing. The existence of such a global positive trend and local variations for two meteorite groups suggests a complicated dynamic history for the dust grains with respect to thermal processing, material transportation, and mixing in the protoplanetary disk prior to planetesimal formation.

  19. Imaging riometer observation in South Atlantic Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makita, Kazuo; Hoshino, Mituo; Kato, Yasuo; Masanori, Nishino; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Foppiano, Alberto J.; Ovalle, Ellias; Tanaka, Yoshi; Monreal, Ricardo

    The total geomagnetic field intensity is especially weak around the southern part of Latin America. This region is called South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). We named this singularity region as "Geomagnetic Hole". High energetic particles larger than 100keV are precipitating into Geomagnetic Hole from Radiation belt. Since the intensity of Geomagnetic Hole is sharply decreasing now, the quantity of particle precipitation in this region will become more large near future. In order to examine Geomagnetic Hole phenomena, imaging riometer, photometer and other instruments are installed at INPE southern space observatory (SSO) and started observation since 1997. We also installed similar instruments and continue the observation at Concepcion / Punta Arenas in Chile and Kakioka in Japan. We study Cosmic Noise Absorption (CNA) obtained by imaging riometer and their relationships to particle data by GOES Satellite. From our analysis results, typical CNA events are observed in associated with big geomagnetic storm period at SSO and GOES particle date shows sharp decrease of energetic particle in this time. It suggests that radiation belt particles are precipitating to Geomagnetic Hole during ge-omagnetic storm period. Sometimes, CNA events are also observed during big substorm period and during the X-ray flare event. We also examined Punta Arenas, Concepcion and Kakioka imaging riometer data during geomagnetic storm time. However, typical CNA corresponding to SSO event is not found in our analysis. Our preliminary result suggests that particle precip-itation region is confined in a limited area around SSO, Brazil. On the other hands, Traveling Ionosphere Disturbance (TID) events are also observed at Concepcion and Kakioka as well as SSO by imaging riometer. Generally, number density of ionosphere electron increases and electron density disturbance with stripe-like structures are traveling during TID event. From imaging riometer observation, similar stripe-like CNA structure are also recognized during this TID event. It means that CNA occurs by not only energetic particle precipitation but also F-layer electron density disturbance. In order to examine the latitudinal/longitudinal width and its dynamical variation of CNA (or particle precipitation) more in detail, more imaging riometer are planning to install at Trelew Geomagnetic Observatory, Argentina and University of Vale de Paraiba, Brazil around SSO near future.

  20. Discussion of the SAGE anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, D.

    1980-04-01

    The performance of a nine-ampere-hour, nickel cadmium cell operating in a satellite power system is examined. Data for battery average dissipation, voltage profiles, battery temperatures, and the percent of recharge versus orbit are presented. The occurence of undervoltage and increased recharge/orbit percentages are examined and suggestions are made as to their causes.

  1. Imaging geometry, velocity, and anisotropy of the "African Anomaly"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi

    The "African Anomaly" is a prominent low velocity province in the lower mantle beneath Africa. I have determined the geometry and geographic distribution of a very low velocity province (VLVP) at the base of the "African Anomaly" near the core mantle boundary (CMB). The VLVP exhibits an "L-shaped" form stretching from the South Atlantic Ocean to the Indian Ocean, occupying an area of about 1.8 x 107 km2 at the CMB. Waveform modeling analyses with the SH hybrid method suggest that the VLVP has rapidly varying geometries and sharp borders as well as a linear gradient of shear velocity reduction from -2% (top) to -9% - -12% (bottom) relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model. These seismic characteristics unambiguously indicate that the VLVP is compositionally distinct, and can best be explained by partial melt driven by a compositional change, possibly produced early in the Earth's history. I have imaged the geometry and P- and S-velocity structures for the "African Anomaly" along the great arc from the East Pacific Rise to the Japan Sea. The "African Anomaly" exhibits a "cusplike" shape with both flanks tilting toward the apex beneath southern Africa, and it continuously extends about 1300 km upward into the mid-lower mantle. The average Vs reductions are about -5% in the base above the CMB and about -2% - -3% in the mid-lower portion above the base. A uniform Vs to Vp perturbation ratio of 3:1 can best explain the P wave data. The geometry and seismic features indicate that the mid-lower mantle portion of the "African Anomaly" is an integrated component of the VLVP at the base, and might also be compositionally distinct and geologically stable. After the geometry and seismic structure were imaged for the "African Anomaly", I have studied the anisotropy associated with the VLVP at the base of the "African Anomaly". I measure the apparent splitting parameters (the fast polarization direction and the delay time) for high-quality SKS and SKKS waveforms of deep earthquakes. The medium in the interior of the VLVP may be isotropic or vertically transverse isotropic due to the good station correlation of apparent splitting parameters and the consistency of apparent splitting parameters for SKS and SKKS waves of the same earthquake when seismic data sample in the interior of the VLVP. However, the medium near the borders of the VLVP has to be anisotropic in order to account for the lack of station correlation of apparent splitting parameters and the inconsistency of apparent splitting parameters for SKS and SKKS waves of the same earthquake when seismic data sample near the borders of the VLVP. The anisotropy near the borders of the VLVP can be generated by the lattice-preferred orientation of anisotropic aggregates, revealing a complex mantle flow in the surrounding areas.

  2. Velocity anomaly of a driven tracer in a confined crowded environment.

    PubMed

    Illien, Pierre; Bénichou, Olivier; Oshanin, Gleb; Voituriez, Raphaël

    2014-07-18

    We consider a discrete model in which a tracer performs a random walk biased by an external force, in a dense bath of particles performing symmetric random walks constrained by hard-core interactions. We reveal the emergence of a striking velocity anomaly in confined geometries: in quasi-1D systems such as stripes or capillaries, the velocity of the tracer displays a long-lived plateau before ultimately dropping to a lower value. We develop an analytical solution that quantitatively accounts for this intriguing behavior. Our analysis suggests that such a velocity anomaly could be a generic feature of driven dynamics in quasi-1D crowded systems. PMID:25083625

  3. 'T hooft anomaly matching for QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Terning, John

    1998-03-03

    I present a set of theories which display non-trivial 'tHooft anomaly matching for QCD with F flavors. The matching theories arenon-Abelian gauge theories with "dual" quarks and baryons, rather thanthe purely confining theories of baryons that 't Hooft originallysearched for. The matching gauge groups are required to have an Fpm 6dimensional representation. Such a correspondence is reminiscent ofSeiberg's duality for supersymmetric (SUSY) QCD, and these theories arecandidates for non-SUSY duality. However anomaly matching by itself isnot sufficiently restrictive, and duality for QCD cannot be establishedat present. At the very least, the existence of multiple anomaly matchingsolutions should provide a note of caution regarding conjectured non-SUSYdualities.

  4. Elastic anomalies of anorthite: Molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noritake, Fumiya; Kawamura, Katsuyuki; Matsukage, Kyoko N.

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the elastic anomalies of anorthite using molecular dynamics simulations in which the temperature and pressure induced P 1 bar / I 1 bar phase transitions were reproduced. The resulting changes in structure were investigated as functions of pressure and temperature. It was found that the temperature-induced elastic anomaly is caused by two different thermal expansion behaviors of atomic motion, that is, increased distance between nearest neighbor atoms and increased Si-O-Al angle. Furthermore, the pressure-induced elastic anomaly was found to be caused by a decrease in the Si-O-Al angle in six-membered rings, which is similar to the cases of vitreous silica or acidic silicate liquids.

  5. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (principal investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Experimental and analytical data on magnetic mineralogy was provided as an aid to the interpretation of magnetic anomaly maps. An integrated program, ranging from the chemistry of materials from 100 or more km depth within the Earth, to an examination of the MAGSAT anomaly maps at about 400 km above the Earth's surface, was undertaken. Within this framework, a detailed picture of the pertinent mineralogical and magnetic relationships for the region of West Africa was provided. Efforts were directed toward: (1) examining the geochemistry, mineralogy, magnetic properties, and phases relations of magnetic oxides and metal alloys in rocks demonstrated to have originated in the lower crust of upper mantle, (2) examining the assumption that these rocks portray the nature of their source regions; and (3) examining the regional geology, tectonics, gravity field and the MAGSAT anomaly maps for West Africa.

  6. Trace anomalies in chiral theories revisited

    E-print Network

    Loriano Bonora; Stefano Giaccari; Bruno Lima de Souza

    2014-08-29

    Motivated by the search for possible CP violating terms in the trace of the energy-momentum tensor in theories coupled to gravity we revisit the problem of trace anomalies in chiral theories. We recalculate the latter and ascertain that in the trace of the energy-momentum tensor of theories with chiral fermions at one-loop the Pontryagin density appears with an imaginary coefficient. We argue that this may break unitarity, in which case the trace anomaly has to be used as a selective criterion for theories, analogous to the chiral anomalies in gauge theories. We analyze some remarkable consequences of this fact, that seem to have been overlooked in the literature.

  7. Detecting data anomalies methods in distributed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosiej, Lukasz

    2009-06-01

    Distributed systems became most popular systems in big companies. Nowadays many telecommunications companies want to hold large volumes of data about all customers. Obviously, those data cannot be stored in single database because of many technical difficulties, such as data access efficiency, security reasons, etc. On the other hand there is no need to hold all data in one place, because companies already have dedicated systems to perform specific tasks. In the distributed systems there is a redundancy of data and each system holds only interesting data in appropriate form. Data updated in one system should be also updated in the rest of systems, which hold that data. There are technical problems to update those data in all systems in transactional way. This article is about data anomalies in distributed systems. Avail data anomalies detection methods are shown. Furthermore, a new initial concept of new data anomalies detection methods is described on the last section.

  8. Interaction of Solar Wind and Magnetic Anomalies - Modelling from Moon to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alho, Markku; Kallio, Esa; Wedlund, Cyril Simon; Wurz, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The crustal magnetic anomalies on both the Moon and Mars strongly affect the local plasma environment. On the Moon, the impinging solar wind is decelerated or deflected when interacting with the magnetic field anomaly, visible in the lunar surface as energetic neutral atom (ENA) emissions or as reflected protons, and may play a part in the space weathering of the lunar soil. At Mars, the crustal magnetic fields have been shown to be associated with, e.g., enhanced electron scale heights and modified convection of ionospheric plasma, resulting in the plasma environment being dominated by crustal magnetic fields up to altitudes of 400km. Our previous modelling work suggested that Hall currents are a dominant feature in a Moon-like magnetic anomaly interaction at scales at or below the proton inertial length. In this work we study the solar wind interaction with magnetic anomalies and compare the plasma environments of a Moon-like anomaly with a Mars-like anomaly by introducing an ionosphere and an exosphere to probe the transition from an atmosphere-less anomaly interaction to an ionospheric one. We utilize a 3D hybrid plasma model, in which ions are modelled as particles while electrons form a charge-neutralizing massless fluid. The hybrid model gives a full description of ion kinetics and associated plasma phenomena at the simulation region ranging from instabilities to possible reconnection. The model can thus be used to interpret both in-situ particle and field observations and remotely-sensed ENA emissions. A self-consistent ionosphere package for the model is additionally in development.

  9. Anomaly Detection for Discrete Sequences: A Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, Varun [ORNL; Banerjee, Arindam [University of Minnesota; Kumar, Vipin [University of Minnesota

    2012-01-01

    This survey attempts to provide a comprehensive and structured overview of the existing research for the problem of detecting anomalies in discrete/symbolic sequences. The objective is to provide a global understanding of the sequence anomaly detection problem and how existing techniques relate to each other. The key contribution of this survey is the classification of the existing research into three distinct categories, based on the problem formulation that they are trying to solve. These problem formulations are: 1) identifying anomalous sequences with respect to a database of normal sequences; 2) identifying an anomalous subsequence within a long sequence; and 3) identifying a pattern in a sequence whose frequency of occurrence is anomalous. We show how each of these problem formulations is characteristically distinct from each other and discuss their relevance in various application domains. We review techniques from many disparate and disconnected application domains that address each of these formulations. Within each problem formulation, we group techniques into categories based on the nature of the underlying algorithm. For each category, we provide a basic anomaly detection technique, and show how the existing techniques are variants of the basic technique. This approach shows how different techniques within a category are related or different from each other. Our categorization reveals new variants and combinations that have not been investigated before for anomaly detection. We also provide a discussion of relative strengths and weaknesses of different techniques. We show how techniques developed for one problem formulation can be adapted to solve a different formulation, thereby providing several novel adaptations to solve the different problem formulations. We also highlight the applicability of the techniques that handle discrete sequences to other related areas such as online anomaly detection and time series anomaly detection.

  10. The relationship between clear sky water vapor and SST anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Thomas C.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between clear sky water vapor anomalies and the SST anomalies (SSTAs) was investigated with the purpose of providing data for evaluating the clear sky greenhouse effect predicted in many global warming scenarios, by statistically analyzing anomaly data sets of SST and the water vapor anomaly data (obtained by subtracting the mean value of the six years of data for a given month from the observed values). Results show that clear sky water vapor anomalies increase in association with increases in SSTAs. The clear sky water vapor anomalies high in the troposphere were also found to increase with increasing SSTA.

  11. Hydrodynamics with gauge anomaly: Variational principle and Hamiltonian formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Gustavo M.; Abanov, Alexander G.; Nair, V. P.

    2015-06-01

    We present a variational principle for relativistic hydrodynamics with gauge-anomaly terms for a fluid coupled to an Abelian background gauge field. For this we utilize the Clebsch parametrization of the velocity field. We also set up the Hamiltonian formulation and the canonical framework for the theory. While the equations of motion only involve the density and velocity fields, i.e., the Clebsch potentials only appear in the combination which is the velocity field, the generators of symmetry transformations (including the Hamiltonian) depend explicitly on one of the Clebsch potentials, if the background field is time-dependent. For the special case of time-independent background fields, this feature is absent.

  12. SUGGESTED ANALYTIC APPROACH TO TRANSMISSION RELIABILITY MARGIN

    E-print Network

    SUGGESTED ANALYTIC APPROACH TO TRANSMISSION RELIABILITY MARGIN DRAFT REPORT JUNE 22 1999 Jianfeng Zhang Ian Dobson Fernando L. Alvarado POWER SYSTEMS ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER Electrical & Computer Engineering Dept. University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706 USA Abstract Transmission Reliability Margin (TRM

  13. Earth Flyby and Pioneer Anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Gerrard; T. J. Sumner

    2008-01-01

    Applying Newtonian dynamics in five dimensions rather than four, to a\\u000auniverse that is closed, isotropic and expanding,suggests that under certain\\u000acircumstances an additional and previously unidentified acceleration, a_A, can\\u000aarise affecting the four dimensional motion of spacecraft. The two cases of\\u000athis acceleration being either real or virtual are considered. In the real\\u000acase, simple estimates of a_A are

  14. Earth Flyby and Pioneer Anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Gerrard; T. J. Sumner

    2008-01-01

    Applying Newtonian dynamics in five dimensions rather than four, to a universe that is closed, isotropic and expanding,suggests that under certain circumstances an additional and previously unidentified acceleration, a_A, can arise affecting the four dimensional motion of spacecraft. The two cases of this acceleration being either real or virtual are considered. In the real case, simple estimates of a_A are

  15. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  16. Flyby anomaly and Lense-Thirring effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackmann, Eva; Laemmerzahl, Claus

    The flyby anomaly is a shift in the Doppler data of Earth-flybys of various spacecraft. This shift can be interpreted as an anomalous velocity change in the range of a few mm/s which could not be explained so far. We analyse the general relativistic influence of the rotation of the Earth on a test particle on a hyperbolic orbit, the well known Lense-Thirring effect, using analytical methods. The results are applied to some spacecraft orbits where a flyby anomaly was detected.

  17. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection and finger anomaly

    PubMed Central

    I?ikay, Sedat; Yilmaz, Kutluhan

    2013-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common cause of intrauterine infection. It affects the central nervous system and causes microcephaly, hydrocephalus, mental retardation, hearing disorder, chorioretinitis and rarely finger anomalies. We present the case of a 4-month-old girl with an agenesis of the middle finger and syndactyly of the fourth and fifth fingers as a result of congenital CMV; this is the first such case in the literature. Here, congenital CMV infection is examined along with finger anomalies. PMID:23761501

  18. The GSI Time Anomaly: Facts and Fiction

    E-print Network

    Carlo Giunti

    2009-05-28

    The claims that the GSI time anomaly is due to the mixing of neutrinos in the final state of the observed electron-capture decays of hydrogen-like heavy ions are refuted with the help of an analogy with a double-slit experiment. It is a consequence of causality. It is shown that the GSI time anomaly may be caused by quantum beats due to the existence of two coherent energy levels of the decaying ion with an extremely small energy splitting (about $6\\times10^{-16} \\text{eV}$) and relative probabilities having a ratio of about 1/99.

  19. The GSI Time Anomaly:. Facts and Fiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo

    2011-10-01

    The claims that the GSI time anomaly is due to the mixing of neutrinos in the final state of the observed electron-capture decays of hydrogen-like heavy ions are refuted with the help of an analogy with a double-slit experiment. It is a consequence of causality. It is shown that the GSI time anomaly may be caused by quantum beats due to the existence of two coherent energy levels of the decaying ion with an extremely small energy splitting (about 6 × 10-16eV) and relative probabilities having a ratio of about 1/99.

  20. Techniques for interpretation of geoid anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    For purposes of geological interpretation, techniques are developed to compute directly the geoid anomaly over models of density within the earth. Ideal bodies such as line segments, vertical sheets, and rectangles are first used to calculate the geoid anomaly. Realistic bodies are modeled with formulas for two-dimensional polygons and three-dimensional polyhedra. By using Fourier transform methods the two-dimensional geoid is seen to be a filtered version of the gravity field, in which the long-wavelength components are magnified and the short-wavelength components diminished.

  1. Development program enhancement suggestions (propulsion related)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are briefly addressed in this one page document: (1) potential instrumentation difficulties; (2) hazardous fluid leakage; (3) propellant loading procedures and operations; (4) pressurization systems; and (5) propellant mass uncertainty.

  2. Searches for solar-influenced radioactive decay anomalies using Spacecraft RTGs

    E-print Network

    Krause, D E; Fischbach, E; Buncher, J B; Ging, A; Jenkins, J H; Longuski, J M; Strange, N; Sturrock, P A

    2012-01-01

    Experiments showing a seasonal variation of the nuclear decay rates of a number of different nuclei, and decay anomalies apparently related to solar flares and solar rotation, have suggested that the Sun may somehow be influencing nuclear decay processes. Recently, Cooper searched for such an effect in $^{238}$Pu nuclei contained in the radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) on board the Cassini spacecraft. In this paper we modify and extend Cooper's analysis to obtain constraints on anomalous decays of $^{238}$Pu over a wider range of models, but these limits cannot be applied to other nuclei if the anomaly is composition-dependent. We also show that it may require very high sensitivity for terrestrial experiments to discriminate among some models if such a decay anomaly exists, motivating the consideration of future spacecraft experiments which would require less precision.

  3. Searches for solar-influenced radioactive decay anomalies using Spacecraft RTGs

    E-print Network

    D. E. Krause; B. A. Rogers; E. Fischbach; J. B Buncher; A. Ging; J. H. Jenkins; J. M. Longuski; N. Strange; P. A. Sturrock

    2012-05-31

    Experiments showing a seasonal variation of the nuclear decay rates of a number of different nuclei, and decay anomalies apparently related to solar flares and solar rotation, have suggested that the Sun may somehow be influencing nuclear decay processes. Recently, Cooper searched for such an effect in $^{238}$Pu nuclei contained in the radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) on board the Cassini spacecraft. In this paper we modify and extend Cooper's analysis to obtain constraints on anomalous decays of $^{238}$Pu over a wider range of models, but these limits cannot be applied to other nuclei if the anomaly is composition-dependent. We also show that it may require very high sensitivity for terrestrial experiments to discriminate among some models if such a decay anomaly exists, motivating the consideration of future spacecraft experiments which would require less precision.

  4. Gravity anomalies, caldera structure, and subsurface geology in the Rotorua area, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, T.M. (DSIR Geology and Geophysics, Geothermal Research Center, Private Bag 2000, Taupo (NZ))

    1992-04-01

    This paper discusses a re-examination of gravity which indicates that Rotorua Caldera does not have the circular, negative gravity anomaly typical of other rhyolitic calderas. New gravity measurements and residual gravity anomalies in Rotorua City are consistent with numerous rhyolite domes and ignimbrite sheets, interbedded with a thick sequence of poorly-compacted sediments. Within the city a gravity high extends from the shore of Lake Rotorua south to Whakarewarewa and is associated with a buried ridge, formed by the coalescing of two rhyolite domes. A gravity low centered near Linton Park suggests that rhyolites are thin or absent in this area and sediments extend to a depth of about 1 km. A quantitative analysis of the residual gravity anomalies was limited by insufficient information about the density, extent, and thickness of the material underlying the rhyolites, and the uncertainty in the distribution and density of silicification within the sediments.

  5. Stratigraphic occurrences of iridium anomalies at four Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary sites in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.R.; Strong, C.P.; Lee, J.; Orth, C.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Ryan, D.E.; Holzbecher, J.

    1986-09-01

    Three new iridium anomaly sites have been discovered in Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary sequences in New Zealand. These are at Needles Point, Chancet Rocks, and Waipara, where integrated iridium deposition values were 165, 211, and 7 ng/cm/sup 2/, respectively. In contrast to the previously reported Woodside Creek stratigraphic sequence that had an iridium anomaly of 187 ng/cm/sup 2/, a ferruginous boundary clay is absent in the three new sites, though the base of the Tertiary is marked by limonite staining. The relatively weak anomaly at the Waipara section is probably due to extensive bioturbation coupled with a high sedimentation rate at the time of deposition. The discovery of these additional boundary rock sequences in New Zealand negates suggestions that the Woodside Creek iridium.

  6. Bilateral Optic Nerve Aplasia: A Rare Isolated Central Nervous System Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Khandgave, Tejaswini P.; Kulkarni, Varsha N.; Muzumdar, Deepa V.; Puthran, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Optic nerve (ON) aplasia is a rare developmental anomaly comprising of absence of the ON, ganglion cells and the central retinal vessels. It is usually accompanied by a variety of central nervous system (CNS) malformations. We report an extremely rare case of bilateral true ON aplasia occurring as an isolated CNS anomaly. A 10-month-old female child was detected with bilateral absence of fixation, associated with multiple ocular findings of microcornea, anterior embryotoxon, pupillary corectopia, partial aniridia and lens coloboma. The optic disc locations were visible as avascular whitish areas. There were no retinal vessels seen in the disc area or elsewhere. There were bilateral multiple chorioretinal atrophic patches present. B-scan ultrasonography showed bilateral absence of ONs. Magnetic resonance imaging showed thinned out bilateral ONs with a hypoplastic optic chiasma and optic tract. There were no other CNS anomalies. Flash visually evoked potential was unrecordable. PMID:25100913

  7. Bilateral optic nerve aplasia: a rare isolated central nervous system anomaly.

    PubMed

    Khandgave, Tejaswini P; Kulkarni, Varsha N; Muzumdar, Deepa V; Puthran, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Optic nerve (ON) aplasia is a rare developmental anomaly comprising of absence of the ON, ganglion cells and the central retinal vessels. It is usually accompanied by a variety of central nervous system (CNS) malformations. We report an extremely rare case of bilateral true ON aplasia occurring as an isolated CNS anomaly. A 10-month-old female child was detected with bilateral absence of fixation, associated with multiple ocular findings of microcornea, anterior embryotoxon, pupillary corectopia, partial aniridia and lens coloboma. The optic disc locations were visible as avascular whitish areas. There were no retinal vessels seen in the disc area or elsewhere. There were bilateral multiple chorioretinal atrophic patches present. B-scan ultrasonography showed bilateral absence of ONs. Magnetic resonance imaging showed thinned out bilateral ONs with a hypoplastic optic chiasma and optic tract. There were no other CNS anomalies. Flash visually evoked potential was unrecordable. PMID:25100913

  8. Expected velocity anomaly for the Earth flyby of Juno spacecraft on October 9, 2013

    E-print Network

    Busack, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The so-called flyby anomaly is a yet unexplainable velocity jump measured at several Earth flybys of spacecraft. Known physical effects could be excluded as source of this anomaly. In order to model a possible new physical effect, empirical equations were proposed by Busack (2007) and Anderson et al. (2007), which gave quite good description of all measured anomalies. Some theories were suggested deriving the Anderson formula or a similar one. The recent two Earth flybys of the spacecraft Rosetta showed no measurable anomaly, although the Anderson formula predicted distinct effects for both flybys. The Busack formula predicted the null results, so the notion of a possibly correct formula or of an error of the older measuring software was supported. The forthcoming Earth flyby of Juno gives a good opportunity to decide this question or give rise to enhanced theory, because the orbit parameters are very similar to earlier flybys with notable effects. In this article, the flyby anomaly according to the Busack eq...

  9. Expected velocity anomaly for the Earth flyby of Juno spacecraft on October 9, 2013

    E-print Network

    Hans-Jürgen Busack

    2013-09-25

    The so-called flyby anomaly is a yet unexplainable velocity jump measured at several Earth flybys of spacecraft. Known physical effects could be excluded as source of this anomaly. In order to model a possible new physical effect, empirical equations were proposed by Busack (2007) and Anderson et al. (2007), which gave quite good description of all measured anomalies. Some theories were suggested deriving the Anderson formula or a similar one. The recent two Earth flybys of the spacecraft Rosetta showed no measurable anomaly, although the Anderson formula predicted distinct effects for both flybys. The Busack formula predicted the null results, so the notion of a possibly correct formula or of an error of the older measuring software was supported. The forthcoming Earth flyby of Juno gives a good opportunity to decide this question or give rise to enhanced theory, because the orbit parameters are very similar to earlier flybys with notable effects. In this article, the flyby anomaly according to the Busack equation will be predicted to be about -7mm/s in contrast to the value after the Anderson equation and similar ones with distinct positive value of the order of +6mm/s.

  10. Core-mantle boundary structure investigated using SKS and SKKS polarization anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restivo, Andrea; Helffrich, George

    2006-04-01

    Occasionally, SKS and SKKS waveforms in the same seismogram are affected differently by anisotropy. One source of this discrepancy may be structures in D''. In this study, we examine the discrepancy in order to determine where it arises in the propagation path and what it is due to. We find that D'' is the most likely source of the signal. The relatively minor differences in differential shear-wave splitting in SKS and SKKS limit large-scale azimuthal anisotropy in D'' to less than 2 per cent, though it may be locally stronger. The most effective way to develop the splitting differences is through polarization differences between SKS and SKKS imposed at the CMB. We examine how effective relief on and lateral gradients in CMB structure are at generating polarization anomalies and conclude that topography generates them best. Ramps and ridges are more effective generators of polarization anomalies than hills. Laterally extensive (500-1000 km) sloping CMB topography greater than 15° can develop the observed polarization anomalies in the data. The topography required exceeds constraints from other sources, so is unlikely to be the major factor explaining the anomalies. We produce a global map of SKS/SKKS exit points from the core where anomalous polarization behaviour is found, in relation to the velocity structure known to exist in D'': the anomalies appear to be restricted to faster than average areas of the CMB, suggesting a contribution from anisotropy related to the post-perovskite phase transition.

  11. Bouguer Gravity Anomalies Associated with Lunar Craters: Initial Results from the GRAIL Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Konopliv, A. S.; Park, R. S.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Melosh, H. J.; Thomason, C. J.; Egan, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    During its primary mapping phase, the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has mapped the gravity field of the Moon to unprecedented resolution, providing a spherical harmonic model of degree and order 420 and quantitatively useful results to a spatial resolution of at least 20 km. Anomalies associated with impact craters, from large mascon basins down to crater diameters less than 30 km, are the dominant features of a GRAIL degree (l) 420 free-air gravity map of the Moon. Here we focus on the Bouguer gravity anomalies associated with intermediate-sized craters, in the diameter range of ~30-230 km. Results from Apollo-era gravity and topography data analyses suggested that the behavior of crater Bouguer anomalies is age-dependent, but the crater database used then was extremely sparse (12 craters). With the GRAIL gravity field we have a vastly larger set of craters to work with and to date have examined ~200 craters. We calculate a finite-amplitude Bouguer correction with a semi-analytical spatial Green's function sampling a spherical harmonic representation of the lunar shape matched to the gravity bandwidth used (l = 2-300). The resulting crater Bouguer anomalies, averaged over the inner part of each crater, fall in a range of approximately -40 to +40 mGal. We compare Bouguer anomalies against lunar age, crater diameter, regional elevation, geographical locale, and geological setting. Results are interpreted in terms of processes that have operated in the lunar crust and upper mantle.

  12. Steganography anomaly detection using simple one-class classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Benjamin M.; Peterson, Gilbert L.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2007-04-01

    There are several security issues tied to multimedia when implementing the various applications in the cellular phone and wireless industry. One primary concern is the potential ease of implementing a steganography system. Traditionally, the only mechanism to embed information into a media file has been with a desktop computer. However, as the cellular phone and wireless industry matures, it becomes much simpler for the same techniques to be performed using a cell phone. In this paper, two methods are compared that classify cell phone images as either an anomaly or clean, where a clean image is one in which no alterations have been made and an anomalous image is one in which information has been hidden within the image. An image in which information has been hidden is known as a stego image. The main concern in detecting steganographic content with machine learning using cell phone images is in training specific embedding procedures to determine if the method has been used to generate a stego image. This leads to a possible flaw in the system when the learned model of stego is faced with a new stego method which doesn't match the existing model. The proposed solution to this problem is to develop systems that detect steganography as anomalies, making the embedding method irrelevant in detection. Two applicable classification methods for solving the anomaly detection of steganographic content problem are single class support vector machines (SVM) and Parzen-window. Empirical comparison of the two approaches shows that Parzen-window outperforms the single class SVM most likely due to the fact that Parzen-window generalizes less.

  13. Analyzing Global Climate System Using Graph Based Anomaly Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, K.; Agrawal, S.; Atluri, G.; Liess, S.; Steinbach, M.; Kumar, V.

    2014-12-01

    Climate networks have been studied for understanding complex relationships between different spatial locations such as community structures and teleconnections. Analysis of time-evolving climate networks reveals changes that occur in those relationships over time and can provide insights for discovering new and complex climate phenomena. We have recently developed a novel data mining technique to discover anomalous relationships from dynamic climate networks. The algorithms efficiently identifies anomalous changes in relationships that cause significant structural changes in the climate network from one time instance to the next. Using this technique we investigated the presence of anomalies in precipitation networks that were constructed based on monthly averages of precipitation recorded at .5 degree resolution during the time period 1982 to 2002. The precipitation network consisted of 10-nearest neighbor graphs for every month's data. Preliminary results on this data set indicate that we were able to discover several anomalies that have been verified to be related to or as the outcome of well known climate phenomena. For instance, one such set of anomalies corresponds to transition from January 1994 (normal conditions) to January 1995 (El-Nino conditions) and include events like worst droughts of the 20th century in Australian Plains, very high rainfall in southeast Asian islands, and drought-like conditions in Peru, Chile, and eastern equatorial Africa during that time period. We plan to further apply our technique to networks constructed out of different climate variables such as sea-level pressure, surface air temperature, wind velocity, 500 geo-potential height etc. at different resolutions. Using this method we hope to develop deeper insights regarding the interactions of multiple climate variables globally over time, which might lead to discovery of previously unknown climate phenomena involving heterogeneous data sources.

  14. Lessons Learned from the Pioneers 10/11 for a Mission to Test the Pioneer Anomaly

    E-print Network

    Slava G. Turyshev; Michael Martin Nieto; John D. Anderson

    2004-09-30

    Analysis of the radio-metric tracking data from the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft at distances between 20--70 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of an anomalous, small, constant Doppler frequency drift. The drift is a blue-shift, uniformly changing with rate a_t = (2.92 +/- 0.44) x 10^(-18) s/s^2. It can also be interpreted as a constant acceleration of a_P = (8.74 +/- 1.33) x 10^(-8) cm/s^2 directed towards the Sun. Although it is suspected that there is a systematic origin to the effect, none has been found. As a result, the nature of this anomaly has become of growing interest. Here we discuss the details of our recent investigation focusing on the effects both external to and internal to the spacecraft, as well as those due to modeling and computational techniques. We review some of the mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and show their inability to account for the observed behavior of the anomaly. We also present lessons learned from this investigation for a potential deep-space experiment that will reveal the origin of the discovered anomaly and also will characterize its properties with an accuracy of at least two orders of magnitude below the anomaly's size. A number of critical requirements and design considerations for such a mission are outlined and addressed.

  15. The pioneer 10 and 11 lessons for a mission to test the pioneer anomaly.

    SciTech Connect

    Turyshev, S. G. (Slava G.); Nieto, Michael Martin; Anderson, J. D. (John D.)

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the radio-metric tracking data from the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft at distances between 20-70 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of an anomalous, small, constant Doppler frequency drift. The drift is a blue-shift, uniformly changing with rate a{sub t} = (2.92 {+-} 0.44) x 10{sup -18} s/s{sup 2}. It can also be interpreted as a constant acceleration of a{sub P} = (8.74 {+-} 1.33) x 10{sup -8} cm/s{sup 2} directed towards the Sun. Although it is suspected that there is a systematic origin to the effect, none has been found. As a result, the nature of this anomaly has become of growing interest. Here we discuss the details of this investigation focusing on the effects both external to and internal to the spacecraft, as well as those due to modeling and computational techniques. We review some of the mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and show their inability to account for the observed behavior of the anomaly. We also present lessons learned from this investigation for a potential deep-space experiment that will reveal the origin of the discovered anomaly and also will characterize its properties with an accuracy of at least two orders of magnitude below the anomaly's size. A number of critical requirements and design considerations for such a mission are outlined and addressed.

  16. Chlorination Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water and Congenital Anomalies: Review and Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Martinez, David; Grellier, James; Bennett, James; Best, Nicky; Iszatt, Nina; Vrijheid, Martine; Toledano, Mireille B.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to review epidemiologic evidence, provide summary risk estimates of the association between exposure to chlorination disinfection by-products (DBPs) and congenital anomalies, and provide recommendations for future studies. Data sources and extraction We included all published epidemiologic studies that evaluated a relationship between an index of DBP exposure (treatment, water source, DBP measurements, and both DBP measurements and personal characteristics) and risk of congenital anomalies. When three or more studies examined the same exposure index and congenital anomaly, we conducted a meta-analysis to obtain a summary risk estimate comparing the highest exposure group with the lowest exposure group. When five or more studies examined total trihalomethane (TTHM) exposure and a specific congenital anomaly, we conducted a meta-analysis to obtain exposure–response risk estimates per 10 ?g/L TTHM. Data synthesis For all congenital anomalies combined, the meta-analysis gave a statistically significant excess risk for high versus low exposure to water chlorination or TTHM [17%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3–34] based on a small number of studies. The meta-analysis also suggested a statistically significant excess risk for ventricular septal defects (58%; 95% CI, 21–107), but this was based on only three studies, and there was little evidence of an exposure–response relationship. We observed no statistically significant relationships in the other meta-analyses. We found little evidence for publication bias, except for urinary tract defects and cleft lip and palate. Conclusion Although some individual studies have suggested an association between chlorination disinfection by-products and congenital anomalies, meta-analyses of all currently available studies demonstrate little evidence of such an association. PMID:20019896

  17. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. PMID:23660477

  18. Quadrature errors in the partical derivatives required for the direct recovery of gravity anomalies from satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    The equations of motion of a geodetic satellite in the earth's gravitational field expressed by gravity anomalies require the evaluation, amongst others, of the partial derivatives of the disturbing force with respect to individual gravity anomalies. Data are discussed on how anomaly blocks should be subdivided so that the partial derivatives may be numerically evaluated for each subdivision, and then finally meaned to give the value representative of the whole blocks, with accuracies better than 2 to 3 percent for all blocks. The number of subdivisions is large for the blocks nearest to the satellite subpoint and decreases away from it. The actual values of this spherical distance and the actual subdivision of the mean gravity anomaly blocks was determined numerically for 184 15 deg x 15 deg equal area blocks. Satellite heights above the earth of 400 km, 800 km and 1600 km were considered. The computer times for the suggested scheme were compared with alternative solutions.

  19. Aeromagnetic anomaly grid of Mozambique for WDMAM2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruotoistenmäki, Tapio; Daudi, Elias; Korhonen, Juha

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic anomaly data of Mozambique has been continued upwards to a level of 2500 m above the geoid and resampled to 1,5 minutes grid for the WDMAM2011. Techniques, anomaly map and metadata are presented.

  20. Psychoeducational Implications of Sex Chromosome Anomalies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Numerous anomalies involving the sex chromosomes (X or Y) have been documented and their impact on development, learning, and behavior studied. This article reviews three of these disorders, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Lesch-Nyhan disease. Each of these three is associated with one or more selective impairments or behavioral…

  1. Heineman Prize Lecture: Anomaly Cancellation: A Retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, John

    2002-04-01

    The mechanism by which gauge and gravitational anomalies cancel in certain string theories is reviewed. A few new tricks are introduced to make the derivation a little simpler, and the string-theoretic interpretation a little clearer, than in the original 1984 work.

  2. Hyperbolic Orbits and the Planetary Flyby Anomaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-J. Blome; T. L. Wilson

    2009-01-01

    The virial theorem in astrophysics is used to show that energy is not being conserved during the gravity assist procedure used in planetary flybys. These involve hyperbolic trajectories. So the so-called flyby anomaly exists at a very fundamental level.

  3. Flyby anomaly and Lense-Thirring effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Hackmann; Claus Laemmerzahl

    2010-01-01

    The flyby anomaly is a shift in the Doppler data of Earth-flybys of various spacecraft. This shift can be interpreted as an anomalous velocity change in the range of a few mm\\/s which could not be explained so far. We analyse the general relativistic influence of the rotation of the Earth on a test particle on a hyperbolic orbit, the

  4. Hyperbolic Orbits and the Planetary Flyby Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blome, H.-J.; Wilson, T. L.

    2009-03-01

    The virial theorem in astrophysics is used to show that energy is not being conserved during the gravity assist procedure used in planetary flybys. These involve hyperbolic trajectories. So the so-called flyby anomaly exists at a very fundamental level.

  5. Lorentz Accelerations in the Earth Flyby Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, Justin A.; Peck, Mason A.

    2010-07-01

    Mission engineers have detected an unexpected anomaly on six spacecraft during low-altitude gravity-assist maneuvers around Earth. This Earth flyby anomaly involves an acceleration that, to date, researchers cannot account for based on known forces or errors in measurement or modeling. This paper evaluates Lorentz accelerations associated with spacecraft electrostatic charging as a possible explanation for the Earth flyby anomaly. This analysis does not explicitly address plasma physics but, instead, bases its conclusions on fundamental six-state flight dynamics. The analysis focuses on the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous spacecraft, because it exhibited the largest anomalous error with the smallest estimated residuals. The analysis takes the form of a boundary-value problem in which vector-disturbance time histories are found numerically through nonlinear optimization methods. The analysis identifies the unknown, but required, acceleration based on a model of the Lorentz-force interaction. The algorithm cannot converge on a solution that fully reproduces the anomalous error in all six orbital states. It is unlikely, based on this analysis, that Lorentz forces cause the flyby anomaly.

  6. Table of hyperfine anomaly in atomic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, J.R., E-mail: jonas.persson@ntnu.no

    2013-01-15

    This table is a compilation of experimental values of magnetic hyperfine anomaly in atomic and ionic systems. The last extensive compilation was published in 1984 by Büttgenbach [S. Büttgenbach, Hyperfine Int. 20 (1984) 1] and the aim here is to make an up to date compilation. The literature search covers the period up to January 2011.

  7. Anomaly Detection and Modeling of Trajectories

    E-print Network

    proposes several methods using statistics and machine learning (ML) that provide a deep understanding;Keywords: Trajectories, Machine Learning, Anomaly Detection, Density Estimation, Graphical Models #12;Para has created a great need to understand datasets of trajectories. Moreover, tra- jectory data

  8. Anomalies, dimensional regularization, and the heat kernel

    SciTech Connect

    Delbourgo, R.; Thompson, G.

    1985-12-15

    In the context of dimensional continuation, it is shown that axial anomalies are associated with chiral noninvariance of the action (but not of the measure) and they can be extracted nonperturbatively from the heat kernel. Other techniques where the action is deemed invariant but the functional integral measure is not are shown to be equivalent.

  9. Dveloppement et maintenance Identification des anomalies

    E-print Network

    Spino, Claude

    Développement et maintenance Identification des anomalies et correction (déverminage) Ajout de Déploiement et exploitation d'infrastructure et installation de serveurs Application de normes de sécurité aux systèmes Mise en place de procédures, d'outils et environnement de développement Développement d'outils d

  10. Chiral anomaly and {gamma}3{pi}

    SciTech Connect

    Holstein, B.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Measurement of the {gamma}3{pi} process has revealed a possible conflict with what should be a solid prediction generated by the chiral anomaly. We show that inclusion of appropriate energy-momentum dependence in the matrix element reduces the discrepancy. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  11. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (principal investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The Curie Balance was brought to operational stage and is producing data of a preliminary nature. Substantial problems experienced in the assembly and initial operation of the instrument were, for the most part, rectified, but certain problems still exist. Relationships between the geology and the gravity and MAGSAT anomalies of West Africa are reexamined in the context of a partial reconstruction of Gondwanaland.

  12. Locally covariant chiral fermions and anomalies

    E-print Network

    Zahn, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    We define chiral fermions in the presence of non-trivial gravitational and gauge background fields in the framework of locally covariant field theory. This allows to straightforwardly compute the chiral anomalies on non-compact Lorentzian space-times, without recourse to a weak field approximation.

  13. Anomaly detection in the maritime domain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Roy

    2008-01-01

    Defence R&D Canada is developing a Collaborative Knowledge Exploitation Framework (CKEF) to support the analysts in efficiently managing and exploiting relevant knowledge assets to achieve maritime domain awareness in joint operations centres of the Canadian Forces. While developing the CKEF, anomaly detection has been clearly recognized as an important aspect requiring R&D. An activity has thus been undertaken to implement,

  14. Anomaly polynomial of E-string theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, Kantaro; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Tachikawa, Yuji

    2014-08-01

    We determine the anomaly polynomial of the E-string theory and its higher-rank generalizations, that is, the 6d = (1, 0) superconformal theories on the worldvolume of one or multiple M5-branes embedded within the end-of-the-world brane with E 8 symmetry.

  15. Hyperspectral imagery: Clutter adaptation in anomaly detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M. Schweizer; José M. F. Moura

    2000-01-01

    Hyperspectral sensors are passive sensors that simultaneously record images for hundreds of contiguous and narrowly spaced regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Each image corresponds to the same ground scene, thus creating a cube of images that contain both spatial and spectral information about the objects and backgrounds in the scene. In this paper, we present an adaptive anomaly detector designed

  16. Wood anomalies in resonant photonic quasicrystals

    E-print Network

    Poddubny, A N

    2010-01-01

    A theory of light diffraction from planar quasicrystalline lattice with resonant scatterers is presented. Rich structure, absent in the periodic case, is found in specular reflection spectra, and interpreted as a specific kind of Wood anomalies, characteristic for quasicrystals. The theory is applied to semiconductor quantum dots arranged in Penrose tiling.

  17. Dorsal Forebrain Anomaly in Williams Syndrome

    E-print Network

    in range to that seen in Down syndrome, show an unusual and uneven neuropsychological profileDorsal Forebrain Anomaly in Williams Syndrome Albert M. Galaburda, MD; J. Eric Schmitt, BS; Scott W. Atlas, MD; Stephan Eliez, MD; Ursula Bellugi, EdD; Allan L. Reiss, MD Background: Williams syndrome (WMS

  18. Temperature anomaly reemergence in seasonally frozen soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin M. Schaefer; Tingjun Zhang; Pieter P. Tans; Reto Stöckli

    2007-01-01

    In cold regions where soils experience seasonally freezing and thawing, past soil temperature anomalies are stored as variations in the amount of ground ice and can reemerge at the surface after frozen soils thaw. Warmer soils in autumn result in shallower freeze depths in winter, requiring less energy to thaw in spring, and resulting in warmer soils the following summer.

  19. Predictive network anomaly detection and visualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Celenk; Thomas Conley; John Willis; James Graham

    2010-01-01

    Various approaches have been developed for quantifying and displaying network traffic information for determining network status and in detecting anomalies. Although many of these methods are effective, they rely on the collection of long-term network statistics. Here, we present an approach that uses short-term observations of network features and their respective time averaged entropies. Acute changes are localized in network

  20. Anomaly Recovery and the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matijevic, Jacob R.; Dewell, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    The premise of the design of operations for the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) is that the vehicles will drive each day. As a result, they will encounter some aspect of the terrain environment that cannot be anticipated or otherwise accommodated by the sequences linked onboard that day. The operations team then must correct the problem by planning then commanding the execution of a different drive the next day. Often other aspects of the operation on the surface of Mars: environmental changes, component degradation, errors in sequence design or execution, etc., lead to anomalies which must be addressed before normal operations can resume. The operational design that makes it possible to recover from a driving error each day also reduces the time needed to recover from anomalies. As an example of the efficiency achieved, less than 5% (about 30 sols out of 700 sols of operations) of the time on the surface has been devoted to recovery from anomalies for each vehicle. In this paper the major anomalies experienced by the MER rovers will be recounted and the streamlined approaches to addressing these problems described. The operational flexibility developed for these missions is also a function of the system design that anticipated a number of likely faults and conditions arising from uncertainty in sequence execution and environmental change. This design will be described as well as the considerations in operation that motivated this design. These considerations will likely be present in any future surface mission.