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1

Singularity analysis of potential fields to enhance weak anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoanomalies generally are nonlinear, non-stationary and weak, especially in the land cover areas, however, the traditional methods of geoanomaly identification are usually based on linear theory. In past two decades, many power-law function models have been developed based on fractal concept in mineral exploration and mineral resource assessment, such that the density-area (C-A) model and spectrum-area model (S-A) suggested by Qiuming Cheng have played important roles in extracting geophysical and geochemical anomalies. Several power-law relationships are evident in geophysical potential fields, such as field value-distance, power spectrum-wave number as well as density-area models. The singularity index based on density-area model involves the first derivative transformation of the measure. Hence, we introduce the singularity analysis to develop a novel high-pass filter for extracting gravity and magnetic anomalies with the advantage of scale invariance. Furthermore, we suggest that the statistics of singularity indices can provide a new edge detection scheme for the gravity or magnetic source bodies. Meanwhile, theoretical magnetic anomalies are established to verify these assertions. In the case study from Nanling mineral district in south China and Qikou Depression in east China, compared with traditional geophysical filtering methods including multiscale wavelet analysis and total horizontal gradient methods, the singularity method enhances and extracts the weak anomalies caused by buried magmatic rocks more effectively, and provides more distinct boundary information of rocks. Moreover, the singularity mapping results have good correspondence relationship with both the outcropping rocks and known mineral deposits to support future mineral resource exploration. The singularity method based on fractal analysis has potential to be a new useful theory and technique for processing gravity and magnetic anomaly data.

Chen, G.; Cheng, Q.; Liu, T.

2013-12-01

2

Received 1 Jul 2013 | Accepted 10 Dec 2013 | Published xx xxx 2013 Helium anomalies suggest a fluid pathway from  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Received 1 Jul 2013 | Accepted 10 Dec 2013 | Published xx xxx 2013 Helium anomalies suggest was taken at six sites on 16 June 2011. In addition, we collected deep-sea sediment and pore-water samples

3

Suggestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the following literature on suggestion (1912-1913): (1) Bernheim distinguishes between auto- and hetero-suggestion (2) Lotz conceives of suggestion as the transmission of a conviction from one person to another or to others, and has written a paper for teachers or parents, which emphasizes precautions that must be followed if suggestion is to be effectively employed in education (3) Chatley

Walter Dill Scott

1913-01-01

4

Event-related brain potentials elicited by semantic and syntactic anomalies during auditory sentence processing.  

PubMed

The present study examined auditory event-related potential (ERP) responses to sentence-embedded syntactic (phrase structure) and semantic violations. Syntactic violations were found to elicit a centroparietal negativity peaking at around 350 msec, followed by a P600. Semantic anomalies elicited an N400 as well as a late centroparietally distributed positivity. The shorter latency and different morphology of the negativity observed in response to phrase structure violations compared to semantic anomalies indicate that the observed negativities are to some extent functionally different, suggesting that phrase structure information is processed prior to lexical-semantic information. The finding of a P600 in response to semantic anomalies suggests that the latter component reflects processes of reprocessing that are based on syntactic and semantic aspects of the sentence. PMID:16515142

Faustmann, Anja; Murdoch, Bruce E; Finnigan, Simon P; Copland, David A

2005-10-01

5

Intracochlear and extracochlear ECAPs suggest antidromic action potentials.  

PubMed

With experimental animals, the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) can be recorded from multiple sites (e.g., round window, intracranial and intracochlear sites). However, human ECAPs are typically recorded from intracochlear electrodes of the implanted array. To bridge this difference, we obtained ECAPs from cats using both intracochlear and nerve-trunk recording sites. We also sought to determine how recording the site influences the acquired evoked potential and how those differences may provide insight into basic excitation properties. In the main experiment, ECAPs were recorded from four acutely deafened cats after implanting a Nucleus-style banded electrode array. Potentials were recorded from an electrode positioned on the nerve trunk and an intracochlear electrode. We manipulated stimulus level, electrode configuration (monopolar vs bipolar) and stimulus polarity, variables that influence the site of excitation. Intracochlear ECAPs were found to be an order of magnitude greater than those obtained with the nerve-trunk electrode. Also, compared with the nerve-trunk potentials, the intracochlear ECAPs more closely resembled those obtained from humans in that latencies were shorter and the waveform morphology was typically biphasic (a negative peak followed by a positive peak). With anodic monophasic stimuli, the ECAP had a unique positive-to-negative morphology which we attributed to antidromic action potentials resulting from a relatively central site of excitation. We also collected intracochlear ECAPs from twenty Nucleus 24 implant users. Compared with the feline ECAPs, the human potentials had smaller amplitudes and longer latencies. It is not clear what underlies these differences, although several factors are considered. PMID:15567605

Miller, Charles A; Abbas, Paul J; Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia J; Robinson, Barbara K; Nourski, Kirill V; Jeng, Fuh-Cherng

2004-12-01

6

Structure order, local potentials, and physical anomalies of water ice  

E-print Network

Hydrogen-bond forms a pair of asymmetric, coupled, H-bridged oscillators with ultra-short-range interactions and memory. hydrogen bond cooperative relaxation and the associated binding electron entrapment and nonbonding electron polarization discriminate water and ice from other usual materials in the physical anomalies. As a strongly correlated fluctuating system, water prefers the statistically mean of tetrahedrally-coordinated structure with a supersolid skin that is elastic, polarized, ice like, hydrophobic, with 3/4 density.

Chang Q Sun

2014-02-17

7

Inversion of Self Potential Anomalies with Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the inverse solution on a buried and polarized sphere-shaped body using the self-potential method via multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLPNN). The polarization angle ( ?), depth to the centre of sphere ( h), electrical dipole moment ( K) and the zero distance from the origin ( x 0) were estimated. For testing the success of the MLPNN for sphere model, parameters were also estimated by the traditional Damped Least Squares (Levenberg-Marquardt) inversion technique (DLS). The MLPNN was first tested on a synthetic example. The performance of method was also tested for two S/N ratios (5 % and 10 %) by adding noise to the same synthetic data, the estimated model parameters with MLPNN and DLS method are satisfactory. The MLPNN also applied for the field data example in ?zmir, Urla district, Turkey, with two cross-section data evaluated by MLPNN and DLS, and the two methods showed good agreement.

Kaftan, Ilknur; S?nd?rg?, Petek; Akdemir, Özer

2014-08-01

8

Processes affecting the stratification-induced potential energy anomaly on the Skagit Bay tidal flats  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the Skagit Bay tidal flats, the stratification resulting from the buoyancy input of the Skagit River is modulated by tides with a 4 m range. Here, field observations and Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) simulations are used to evaluate the terms in the equation governing the temporal evolution of the stratification-induced potential energy anomaly (Phi) (Burchard and Hofmeister,

V. Pavel; B. Raubenheimer; S. Elgar; D. K. Ralston

2010-01-01

9

Hazard potential ranking of hazardous waste landfill sites and risk of congenital anomalies  

PubMed Central

Background: A 33% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies has been found among residents near hazardous waste landfill sites in a European collaborative study (EUROHAZCON). Aims: To develop and evaluate an expert panel scoring method of the hazard potential of EUROHAZCON landfill sites, and to investigate whether sites classified as posing a greater potential hazard are those with a greater risk of congenital anomaly among nearby residents relative to more distant residents. Methods: A total of 1270 cases of congenital anomaly and 2308 non-malformed control births were selected in 14 study areas around 20 landfill sites. An expert panel of four landfill specialists scored each site in three categories—overall, water, and air hazard—based on readily available, documented data on site characteristics. Tertiles of the average ranking scores defined low, medium, and high hazard sites. Calculation of odds ratios was based on distance of residence from the sites, comparing a 0–3 km "proximate" with a 3–7 km "distant" zone. Results: Agreement between experts measured by intraclass correlation coefficients was 0.50, 0.44, and 0.20 for overall, water, and air hazard before a consensus meeting and 0.60, 0.56, and 0.53 respectively after this meeting. There was no evidence for a trend of increasing odds ratios with increasing overall hazard or air hazard. For non-chromosomal anomalies, odds ratios by water hazard category showed an increasing trend of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.06) from 0.79 in the low hazard category, 1.43 in the medium, to 1.60 in the high water hazard category. Conclusions: There is little evidence for a relation between risk of congenital anomaly in proximate relative to distant zones and hazard potential of landfill sites as classified by the expert panel, but without external validation of the hazard potential scoring method interpretation is difficult. Potential misclassification of sites may have reduced our ability to detect any true dose–response effect. PMID:12409536

Vrijheid, M; Dolk, H; Armstrong, B; Boschi, G; Busby, A; Jorgensen, T; Pointer, P

2002-01-01

10

Processes affecting the stratification-induced potential energy anomaly on the Skagit Bay tidal flats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the Skagit Bay tidal flats, the stratification resulting from the buoyancy input of the Skagit River is modulated by tides with a 4 m range. Here, field observations and Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) simulations are used to evaluate the terms in the equation governing the temporal evolution of the stratification-induced potential energy anomaly (?) (Burchard and Hofmeister, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 77(4), 2008). Profiles of water density (range of 1000 to 1028 kg/m3) and velocity (up to 0.6 m/s) were measured at locations separated by roughly 600 m over a 4 by 4 km region of the flats (0.5 to 2.5 m mean water depth) for 56 days from early July (river discharge of 570 m3s-1) until late August 2009 (discharge of 140 m3s-1). The FVCOM grid of Skagit Bay and surrounding basins is forced with surface winds from a regional wind model, observed river discharge, and water level based on tidal harmonics and observed low-frequency variability. The model bathymetry incorporates numerous data sources including acoustic and LIDAR surveys performed during summer 2009. Temporal changes in ? may result from tidal straining (an effect of sheared flows and horizontally varying water density) of the depth-averaged and vertically-dependent densities, along- and across-flat advection, vertical advection, surface and bottom buoyancy fluxes, mixing, changes in water depth, and turbulent transport. FVCOM simulations suggest that the horizontal and vertical resolutions of the observations are sufficient to examine the relative importance of the terms in the equation for ?. Preliminary results suggest that temporal changes in ? primarily are owing to cross-flat tidal straining of the depth-averaged density, cross-flat advection, changing water depth, and mixing. However, model results suggest that the relative importance of the terms depends on proximity to the main river channel, river discharge, and tidal range (e.g., spring versus neap tides). Funded by ONR, NSF, and NSSEFF.

Pavel, V.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Ralston, D. K.

2010-12-01

11

Inversion of self-potential anomalies caused by simple-geometry bodies using global optimization algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three naturally inspired meta-heuristic algorithms—the genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO)—were used to invert some of the self-potential (SP) anomalies originated by some polarized bodies with simple geometries. Both synthetic and field data sets were considered. The tests with the synthetic data comprised of the solutions with both noise-free and noisy data; in the tests with the field data some SP anomalies observed over a copper belt (India), graphite deposits (Germany) and metallic sulfide (Turkey) were inverted. The model parameters included the electric dipole moment, polarization angle, depth, shape factor and origin of the anomaly. The estimated parameters were compared with those from previous studies using various optimization algorithms, mainly least-squares approaches, on the same data sets. During the test studies the solutions by GA, PSO and SA were characterized as being consistent with each other; a good starting model was not a requirement to reach the global minimum. It can be concluded that the global optimization algorithms considered in this study were able to yield compatible solutions with those from widely used local optimization algorithms.

Göktürkler, G.; Balkaya, Ç.

2012-10-01

12

Extreme sensitivity of the spin-splitting and 0.7 anomaly to confining potential in one-dimensional nanoelectronic devices.  

PubMed

Quantum point contacts (QPCs) have shown promise as nanoscale spin-selective components for spintronic applications and are of fundamental interest in the study of electron many-body effects such as the 0.7 × 2e(2)/h anomaly. We report on the dependence of the 1D Landé g-factor g and 0.7 anomaly on electron density and confinement in QPCs with two different top-gate architectures. We obtain g values up to 2.8 for the lowest 1D subband, significantly exceeding previous in-plane g-factor values in AlGaAs/GaAs QPCs and approaching that in InGaAs/InP QPCs. We show that g is highly sensitive to confinement potential, particularly for the lowest 1D subband. This suggests careful management of the QPC's confinement potential may enable the high g desirable for spintronic applications without resorting to narrow-gap materials such as InAs or InSb. The 0.7 anomaly and zero-bias peak are also highly sensitive to confining potential, explaining the conflicting density dependencies of the 0.7 anomaly in the literature. PMID:22830617

Burke, A M; Klochan, O; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D A; Hamilton, A R; Micolich, A P

2012-09-12

13

Naughty Versus Nice: Suggestive Pop Music Influences on Perceptions of Potential Romantic Partners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect mainstream music featuring sexually suggestive lyrics may have on judgments of potential romantic partners. Respondents listened to either sexually provocative or innocuous music. Thereafter, respondents were presented with online personal advertisements featuring ambiguously described target individuals. Respondents rated each individual first on a series of personality and sexual appeal characteristics and later on overall attraction.

Francesca Dillman Carpentier; Silvia Knobloch-Westerwick; Andree Blumhoff

2007-01-01

14

Suggestions for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing continuously and, accordingly, there is a great desire to evaluate the allergenic potential of components in our daily environment (e.g., food). Although there is almost no scientific evidence that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) exhibit increased allergenicity compared with the corresponding wild type significant concerns have been raised regarding this matter. In principle, it is possible that the allergenic potential of GMOs may be increased due to the introduction of potential foreign allergens, to potentially upregulated expression of allergenic components caused by the modification of the wild type organism or to different means of exposure. According to the current practice, the proteins to be introduced into a GMO are evaluated for their physiochemical properties, sequence homology with known allergens and occasionally regarding their allergenic activity. We discuss why these current rules and procedures cannot predict or exclude the allergenicity of a given GMO with certainty. As an alternative we suggest to improve the current evaluation by an experimental comparison of the wild-type organism with the whole GMO regarding their potential to elicit reactions in allergic individuals and to induce de novo sensitizations. We also recommend that the suggested assessment procedures be equally applied to GMOs as well as to natural cultivars in order to establish effective measures for allergy prevention. PMID:15947472

Spök, Armin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Laffer, Sylvia; Pauli, Gabrielle; Saito, Hirohisa; Sampson, Hugh; Sibanda, Elopy; Thomas, Wayne; van Hage, Marianne; Valenta, Rudolf

2005-06-01

15

Calculations on the threshold anomaly of weakly bound projectiles with São Paulo and Woods-Saxon polarization potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thorough study of the energy dependence of the nuclear optical potential in reactions involving the weakly bound projectiles 8B, 7Be and 6Li on the target 58Ni and 9Be on 27Al is carried out by performing a ?2-analysis of recent measurements of elastic scattering cross sections for energies around and above the Coulomb barrier. For this purpose two different potential types are used: the double folding São Paulo potential and the Woods-Saxon potential. The calculations performed for the energy dependence of the real and imaginary parts of the polarization potentials show that these potentials besides satisfying the dispersion relation, for some nuclear systems the uncertainties on the energy dependence of the polarization potentials allow to conclude that these systems present a behavior consistent with the Breakup Theshold Anomaly. In other cases, due to the large uncertainties, it is not possible to make a definitive conclusion about the anomalies.

Gómez-Camacho, A.; Aguilera, E. F.; Martínez-Quiroz, E.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Canto, L. F.

2010-07-01

16

Sharing of Potential Nest Sites by Etheostoma olmstedi Males Suggests Mutual Tolerance in an Alloparental Species  

PubMed Central

When reproductive competitors tolerate or cooperate with one another, they may gain particular benefits, such as collectively guarding resources or attracting mates. Shared resources may be those essential to reproduction, such as a breeding site or nest. Using the tessellated darter, a species where males but not females compete over potential nest sites, we examined site use and sharing under controlled conditions of differing competitor density. Sharing was observed even when competitor density was low and individuals could have each occupied a potential nest site without same-sex sharing. Males were more likely to share a nest site with one other when the difference in size between them was larger rather than smaller. There was no evidence that female sharing was dependent on their relative size. Fish were generally more likely to use and share larger sites, in accordance with the greater relative surface area they offered. We discuss how one or both sharing males may potentially benefit, and how male sharing of potential nest sites could relate to female mating preferences. Tessellated darter males are known to provide alloparental care for eggs but this occurs without any social contact between the alloparent and the genetic father of the young. Thus, the suggestion that they may also share sites and maintain social contact with reproductive competitors highlights the importance of increased focus on the potential complexity of reproductive systems. PMID:23468853

Stiver, Kelly A.; Wolff, Stephen H.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

2013-01-01

17

Spontaneous Potential Anomalies on Active Volcanoes: New Time and Spatial Series from Masaya, Telica, and Cerro Negro, Nicaragua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considerable effort worldwide has gone into monitoring heat and mass transfer at active volcanoes because such information may provide clues about changes in volcanic activity and impending eruptions. Here we present new time and spatial series of spontaneous potential (SP) anomalies from Masaya and Telica volcanoes, and spatial series collected at Cerro Negro volcano. Our primary purpose is to investigate correlations between more easily and cheaply monitored SP and CO2 gas flux, measured by an infrared CO2 analysis system. SP data were collected using nonpolarizing Pb-PbCL2 electrodes that we constructed following the approach of Petiau. Mapping at both Masaya, and Cerro Negro reveals broad correlations between SP anomalies and CO2 flux through soils. In addition, we monitored temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall at one minute intervals from May-August, 2006 at Masaya and Telica volcanoes. During this period it is clear that SP responds to changes in volcanic activity, with transient anomalies of 75 mV as well as atmospheric forcing due to rainfall, producing anomalies of 56 mV and related phenomena. Preliminary lab experiments provide further details of the electrokinetic origin of these SP anomalies. Our preliminary work supports the idea that large and inexpensive networks of electrodes might track changes in SP anomalies associated with changes in mass flow at active volcanoes.

Lehto, H.; Pearson, S.; Connor, C.; Sanford, W.; Saballos, A.

2006-12-01

18

A suggested procedure for resolving an anomaly in least-squares data analysis known as Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle'' and the general implications for nuclear data evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Modern nuclear-data evaluation methodology is based largely on statistical inference, with the least-squares technique being chosen most often to generate best estimates for physical quantities and their uncertainties. It has been observed that those least-squares evaluations which employ covariance matrices based on absolute errors that are derived directly from the reported experimental data often tend to produce results which appear to be too low. This anomaly is discussed briefly in this report, and a procedure for resolving it is suggested. The method involves employing data uncertainties which are derived from errors expressed in percent. These percent errors are used, in conjunction with reasonable a priori estimates for the quantities to be evaluated, to derive the covariance matrices which are required for applications of the least-squares procedure. This approach appears to lead to more rational weighting of the experimental data and, thus, to more realistic evaluated results than are obtained when the errors are based on the actual data. The procedure is very straightforward when only one parameter must be estimated. However, for those evaluation exercises involving more than one parameter, this technique demands that a priori estimates be provided at the outset for all of the parameters in question. Then, the least-squares method is applied iteratively to produce a sequence of sets of estimated values which are anticipated to convergence toward a particular set of parameters which one then designates as the best'' evaluated results from the exercise. It is found that convergence usually occurs very rapidly when the a priori estimates approximate the final solution reasonably well.

Chiba, Satoshi (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States) Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)); Smith, D.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1991-09-01

19

A suggested procedure for resolving an anomaly in least-squares data analysis known as ``Peelle`s Pertinent Puzzle`` and the general implications for nuclear data evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Modern nuclear-data evaluation methodology is based largely on statistical inference, with the least-squares technique being chosen most often to generate best estimates for physical quantities and their uncertainties. It has been observed that those least-squares evaluations which employ covariance matrices based on absolute errors that are derived directly from the reported experimental data often tend to produce results which appear to be too low. This anomaly is discussed briefly in this report, and a procedure for resolving it is suggested. The method involves employing data uncertainties which are derived from errors expressed in percent. These percent errors are used, in conjunction with reasonable a priori estimates for the quantities to be evaluated, to derive the covariance matrices which are required for applications of the least-squares procedure. This approach appears to lead to more rational weighting of the experimental data and, thus, to more realistic evaluated results than are obtained when the errors are based on the actual data. The procedure is very straightforward when only one parameter must be estimated. However, for those evaluation exercises involving more than one parameter, this technique demands that a priori estimates be provided at the outset for all of the parameters in question. Then, the least-squares method is applied iteratively to produce a sequence of sets of estimated values which are anticipated to convergence toward a particular set of parameters which one then designates as the ``best`` evaluated results from the exercise. It is found that convergence usually occurs very rapidly when the a priori estimates approximate the final solution reasonably well.

Chiba, Satoshi [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1991-09-01

20

Germination Responses to Water Potential in Neotropical Pioneers Suggest Large-seeded Species Take More Risks  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In neotropical forests, very small-seeded pioneer species (<0·1 mg seed mass) recruit preferentially in small tree fall gaps and at gap edges, but large-seeded pioneers do not. Since water availability is related to gap size, these differences in microsite preference may reflect in part species-specific differences in germination at reduced water potentials. Methods For 14 neotropical pioneer species, the hypothesis is tested that small-seeded species, with shallow initial rooting depths, reduce the risks associated with desiccation by germinating more slowly and at higher water potentials than large-seeded species. Key Results Germination occurred both more quickly and at lower water potentials with increasing seed mass. For example, Ochroma pyramidale (seed mass 5·5 mg) had a time to 50 % germination (T50) of 2·8 d and a median base potential for germination (?b50) of ?1·8 MPa while Clidemia quinquenervia (seed mass 0·017 mg) had a T50 of 17·6 d and ?b50 of ?1·1 MPa. Conclusions These data suggest that small-seeded species germinate only in comparatively moist microsites, such as small canopy gaps, which may reduce the risk of drought-induced mortality. Conversely, large-seeded species are able to germinate in the drier environment of large gaps, where they benefit by enhanced seedling growth in a high irradiance environment. The positive association of seed size and canopy gap size for optimal seedling establishment is maintained by differential germination responses to soil water availability coupled with the scaling of radicle growth rate and seed size, which collectively confer greater drought tolerance on large-seeded species. PMID:18840874

Daws, Matthew I.; Crabtree, Lora M.; Dalling, James W.; Mullins, Christopher E.; Burslem, David F. R. P.

2008-01-01

21

Interpretations of magnetic anomalies at a potential repository site located in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada test site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Yucca Mountain area, studies of the relation of magnetic properties to geologic features provided structural information at and near a potential site for storage of radioactive waste. Interpreted features include a tabular mass of magnetized sedimentary rock beneath thick deposits of volcanic rock, and 11 major faults that displace magnetized volcanic rock. The basis for mapping traces of faults and identifying their upthrown sides was developed elsewhere at Yucca fault in the relatively simple volcanic terrains of Yucca Flat. In the site area, analyses of aeromagnetic anomalies from a low altitude, east-west aeromagnetic survey show the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff as the primary source of anomalies from faulted sequences of volcanic rock. Faults related to belts of positive and negative anomalies surrounding the site were identified. The possibility that an east-west pattern of anomalies is related to structure crossing the site was investigated by an aeromagnetic survey. A significant reduction in amplitude of these anomalies resulted when effects of the deeply buried argillite were removed.

Bath, G. D.; Jahren, C. E.

22

Motor evoked potentials in clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the sensitivity and the profile of motor evoked potentials (MEP) in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). We measured the central motor conduction time (CMCT), amplitude ratio (AR), and surface ratio (SR) in tibialis anterior and first dorsal interosseous muscles in 22 patients with CIS. In 12 patients, the triple stimulation technique (TST) was also performed. AR was abnormal in 50% of patients, CMCT in 18% of patients, and TST in 25% of patients. AR had the highest sub-clinical sensitivity and the best positive predictive value. In the absence of clinical pyramidal signs, an early AR decrease seems to result from demyelination inducing excessive temporal dispersion of the MEP, while in territories with clinical pyramidal signs, it seems to result from conduction failure, which suggests that clinical pyramidal signs may be attributable to conduction failure. This study demonstrates that MEP, especially the AR, is sensitive to motor pathway dysfunction right from the early stages of MS. PMID:19153175

Rico, A; Audoin, B; Franques, J; Eusebio, A; Reuter, F; Malikova, I; Ali Cherif, A; Pouget, J; Pelletier, J; Attarian, S

2009-03-01

23

Widespread Sequence Variations in VAMP1 across Vertebrates Suggest a Potential Selective Pressure from Botulinum Neurotoxins  

PubMed Central

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A-G), the most potent toxins known, act by cleaving three SNARE proteins required for synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Previous studies on BoNTs have generally utilized the major SNARE homologues expressed in brain (VAMP2, syntaxin 1, and SNAP-25). However, BoNTs target peripheral motor neurons and cause death by paralyzing respiratory muscles such as the diaphragm. Here we report that VAMP1, but not VAMP2, is the SNARE homologue predominantly expressed in adult rodent diaphragm motor nerve terminals and in differentiated human motor neurons. In contrast to the highly conserved VAMP2, BoNT-resistant variations in VAMP1 are widespread across vertebrates. In particular, we identified a polymorphism at position 48 of VAMP1 in rats, which renders VAMP1 either resistant (I48) or sensitive (M48) to BoNT/D. Taking advantage of this finding, we showed that rat diaphragms with I48 in VAMP1 are insensitive to BoNT/D compared to rat diaphragms with M48 in VAMP1. This unique intra-species comparison establishes VAMP1 as a physiological toxin target in diaphragm motor nerve terminals, and demonstrates that the resistance of VAMP1 to BoNTs can underlie the insensitivity of a species to members of BoNTs. Consistently, human VAMP1 contains I48, which may explain why humans are insensitive to BoNT/D. Finally, we report that residue 48 of VAMP1 varies frequently between M and I across seventeen closely related primate species, suggesting a potential selective pressure from members of BoNTs for resistance in vertebrates. PMID:25010769

Peng, Lisheng; Adler, Michael; Demogines, Ann; Borrell, Andrew; Liu, Huisheng; Tao, Liang; Tepp, William H.; Zhang, Su-Chun; Johnson, Eric A.; Sawyer, Sara L.; Dong, Min

2014-01-01

24

Widespread sequence variations in VAMP1 across vertebrates suggest a potential selective pressure from botulinum neurotoxins.  

PubMed

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A-G), the most potent toxins known, act by cleaving three SNARE proteins required for synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Previous studies on BoNTs have generally utilized the major SNARE homologues expressed in brain (VAMP2, syntaxin 1, and SNAP-25). However, BoNTs target peripheral motor neurons and cause death by paralyzing respiratory muscles such as the diaphragm. Here we report that VAMP1, but not VAMP2, is the SNARE homologue predominantly expressed in adult rodent diaphragm motor nerve terminals and in differentiated human motor neurons. In contrast to the highly conserved VAMP2, BoNT-resistant variations in VAMP1 are widespread across vertebrates. In particular, we identified a polymorphism at position 48 of VAMP1 in rats, which renders VAMP1 either resistant (I48) or sensitive (M48) to BoNT/D. Taking advantage of this finding, we showed that rat diaphragms with I48 in VAMP1 are insensitive to BoNT/D compared to rat diaphragms with M48 in VAMP1. This unique intra-species comparison establishes VAMP1 as a physiological toxin target in diaphragm motor nerve terminals, and demonstrates that the resistance of VAMP1 to BoNTs can underlie the insensitivity of a species to members of BoNTs. Consistently, human VAMP1 contains I48, which may explain why humans are insensitive to BoNT/D. Finally, we report that residue 48 of VAMP1 varies frequently between M and I across seventeen closely related primate species, suggesting a potential selective pressure from members of BoNTs for resistance in vertebrates. PMID:25010769

Peng, Lisheng; Adler, Michael; Demogines, Ann; Borrell, Andrew; Liu, Huisheng; Tao, Liang; Tepp, William H; Zhang, Su-Chun; Johnson, Eric A; Sawyer, Sara L; Dong, Min

2014-07-01

25

Local properties of the potential-energy landscape of a model glass:Understanding the low-temperature anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the existence of two-level systems (TLS) is widely accepted to explain low temperature anomalies in the sound absorption, heat capacity, thermal conductivity and other quantities, an exact description of their microscopic nature is still lacking. We performed computer simulations for a binary Lennard-Jones system, using a newly developed algorithm to locate double-well potentials (DWP) and thus two-level systems on

J. Reinisch; A. Heuer

2004-01-01

26

PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: POTENTIAL ROLE OF HORMONAL ALTERATIONS IN INITIATING ADULT REPRODUCTIVE ANOMALIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary hypothesis to be tested in this series of studies is whether or not exposure to environmental agents, during certain key periods of development, will increase the risk of specific anomalies of the reproductive system. Embedded in this hypothesis is the assumption that...

27

Changes in Paired-Pulse Facilitation Suggest Presynaptic Involvement in Long-Term Potentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a use-dependent form of synaptic plasticity that is of great interest as a potential cellular substrate underlying memory. It is important to de- termine the pre- and\\/or postsynaptic locus of LTP expres- sion in order to study its underlying mechanisms. Despite intensive investigation, however, its locus of expression re- mains uncertain. It has been hypothesized that

Paul E. Schulz; Erik P. Cook; Daniel Johnston

1994-01-01

28

Global accuracy estimates of point and mean undulation differences obtained from gravity disturbances, gravity anomalies and potential coefficients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the method of truncation functions, the oceanic geoid undulation is divided into two constituents: an inner zone contribution expressed as an integral of surface gravity disturbances over a spherical cap; and an outer zone contribution derived from a finite set of potential harmonic coefficients. Global, average error estimates are formulated for undulation differences, thereby providing accuracies for a relative geoid. The error analysis focuses on the outer zone contribution for which the potential coefficient errors are modeled. The method of computing undulations based on gravity disturbance data for the inner zone is compared to the similar, conventional method which presupposes gravity anomaly data within this zone.

Jekeli, C.

1979-01-01

29

Effects of advancing age on the processing of semantic anomalies in adults: evidence from event-related brain potentials.  

PubMed

Age-related changes in the processing of sentence-embedded semantic anomalies were examined using auditory event-related potentials (ERPs). Semantically incongruous words elicited an N400 effect in middle-aged (50s: 55.6 years) and elderly (60s: 64.1 years) subjects, whereas in older elderly adults (70s: 74.9 years) this effect approached significance. N400 peak latencies were not delayed with advancing age; however, there was a reliable linear decrease in mean and peak amplitude, with slopes being similar to those previously reported for the visual N400 effect. A P600 effect was obtained in response to semantic anomalies and it was neither delayed in latency nor reduced in amplitude with advancing age. However, it was found to be larger over anterior sites in elderly and older elderly subjects. PMID:17886018

Faustmann, Anja; Murdoch, Bruce E; Finnigan, Simon P; Copland, David A

2007-01-01

30

Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program. Geotechnical Applications of the Self Potential (SP) Method. Report 4. Numerical Modeling of SP Anomalies: Documentation of Program SPPC and Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual describes the theory and operations of program SPPC. This code, a microcomputer (PC) version of program SPXCPL, calculates the self potential anomaly due to fluid and thermal sources in geologic media. Fluid and heat flow generate significant ...

D. K. Butler, M. J. Wilt

1990-01-01

31

ECG Features that suggest a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia as the cause for syncope.  

PubMed

Syncope is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in many conditions associated with structural heart disease as well as inherited heart disease. The ECG in patients with syncope should be examined carefully for signs of structural heart disease, such as myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy; signs of conduction system disease, such as bundle branch block or atrioventricular block; and signs of primary electrical disease. Important forms of cardiomyopathy accompanied by ECG changes include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD/C). Common ECG findings in HCM include left ventricular hypertrophy by voltage, repolarization abnormalities, QRS widening, pseudoinfarction patterns, and slurred QRS upstroke mimicking delta waves. Classical ECG findings of ARVD/C include T-wave inversions and epsilon waves in the right precordial leads (V?-V?). Important forms of primary electrical disease which may result in syncope include Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, long QT syndrome, and Brugada syndrome, which is characterized by coved ST-segments in the right precordial leads, associated with a history of syncope, ventricular arrhythmia, or sudden cardiac death in probands or family member. There are three Brugada ECG patterns; however, only type I (spontaneous or induced) is considered diagnostic. Recently, studies have suggested that patients with J-point elevation or early repolarization pattern on ECG are at elevated risk of SCD. The clinical significance of finding early repolarization in a patient with syncope is unknown and should be a subject of future research. PMID:23973090

Marine, Joseph E

2013-01-01

32

Self-Propagative Replication of A? Oligomers Suggests Potential Transmissibility in Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

The aggregation of amyloid-? (A?) peptide and its deposition in parts of the brain form the central processes in the etiology of Alzheimer disease (AD). The low-molecular weight oligomers of A? aggregates (2 to 30 mers) are known to be the primary neurotoxic agents whose mechanisms of cellular toxicity and synaptic dysfunction have received substantial attention in the recent years. However, how these toxic agents proliferate and induce widespread amyloid deposition throughout the brain, and what mechanism is involved in the amplification and propagation of toxic oligomer species, are far from clear. Emerging evidence based on transgenic mice models indicates a transmissible nature of A? aggregates and implicates a prion-like mechanism of oligomer propagation, which manifests as the dissemination and proliferation of A? toxicity. Despite accumulating evidence in support of a transmissible nature of A? aggregates, a clear, molecular-level understanding of this intriguing mechanism is lacking. Recently, we reported the characterization of unique replicating oligomers of A?42 (12–24 mers) in vitro called Large Fatty Acid-derived Oligomers (LFAOs) (Kumar et al., 2012, J. Biol. Chem). In the current report, we establish that LFAOs possess physiological activity by activating NF-?B in human neuroblastoma cells, and determine the experimental parameters that control the efficiency of LFAO replication by self-propagation. These findings constitute the first detailed report on monomer – oligomer lateral propagation reactions that may constitute potential mechanism governing transmissibility among A? oligomers. These data support the previous reports on transmissible mechanisms observed in transgenic animal models. PMID:25365422

Kumar, Amit; Pate, Kayla M.; Moss, Melissa A.; Dean, Dexter N.; Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan

2014-01-01

33

Potential bedrock source of groundwater arsenic anomaly in northeastern Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contaminant sources of arsenic are often very difficult to identify. It is rare that specific rock units can be identified to which groundwater anomalies can be attributed. In this study, primary arsenic minerals, such as a Y-As bearing phase and a Sr-Al-As phase, have been identified in the Cenozoic volcanic tuff from El Mimbre area, at the northeast part of Tabalaopa Basin, the City of Chihuahua. Tabalaopa Basin is one of the sources for groundwater of the City of Chihuahua. The volcanic strata and the unconsolidated Quaternary deposit serve as the groundwater reservoir. The El Mimbre area demonstrates elevated groundwater arsenic concentrations, with 5 wells having values greater than 20 ppb. Small hills of Cenozoic volcanic tuff lie immediately up gradient to the northeast adjacent to the groundwater anomaly. Electron microprobe elemental x-ray maps have been applied to detect arsenic distribution in the samples. The volcanic rocks are reddish welded ash flow tuff and rhyolite with mainly sanidine, quartz, and biotite. The Y-As phase (a possible hydrated chernovite YAsO4) exists as inclusions in the biotite. The Y-As phase could be the primary arsenic mineral formed in the crystallization stage of the magma. After the eruption, the vapor phase from the diagenetic welding of volcanic tuff formed the euhedral Sr-Al- As phase in the lithophysal cavities. The wavelength peak scan and quantitative analysis present that the euhedral arsenic minerals are mainly arsenogoyazite (SrAl3[(OH)5(AsO4)2])H2O. There are euhedral alkali feldspars and ilmenite co-existing with arsenogoyazite, so the arsenogoyazite could be the vapor phase derived. The arsenic mineral petrogenesis sequences can be 1) the formation of chernoviet, 2) vapor stage alteration and the precipitation of arsenogoyazite in the cavities. It is hypothesized that the relative soluble arsenogoyazite is leached by meteoric water and provides the arsenic in the nearby groundwater. Based on current study, the arsenic anomaly in the Tabalaopa Basin aquifer can be mainly from the arsenic minerals in the adjacent volcanic rocks.

Rodrigu, A.; Ren, M.; Goodell, P.

2007-12-01

34

Local properties of the potential-energy landscape of a model glass:Understanding the low-temperature anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though the existence of two-level systems (TLS) is widely accepted to explain low temperature anomalies in the sound absorption, heat capacity, thermal conductivity and other quantities, an exact description of their microscopic nature is still lacking. We performed computer simulations for a binary Lennard-Jones system, using a newly developed algorithm to locate double-well potentials (DWP) and thus two-level systems on a systematic basis. We show that the intrinsic limitations of computer simulations like finite time and finite size problems do not hamper this analysis. We discuss how the DWP are embedded in the total potential energy landscape. It turns out that most DWP are connected to the dynamics of the smaller particles and that these DWP are rather localized. However, DWP related to the larger particles are more collective.

Reinisch, J.; Heuer, A.

2004-08-01

35

Cervical spine anomalies in Menkes disease: a radiologic finding potentially confused with child abuse  

PubMed Central

Background Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in ATP7A, a copper-transporting ATPase. Certain radiologic findings reported in this condition overlap with those caused by child abuse. However, cervical spine defects simulating cervical spine fracture, a known result of nonaccidental pediatric trauma, have not been reported previously in this illness. Objective To assess the frequency of cervical spine anomalies in Menkes disease after discovery of an apparent C2 posterior arch defect in a child participating in a clinical trial. Materials and methods We examined cervical spine radiographs obtained in 35 children with Menkes disease enrolled in a clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Results Four of the 35 children with Menkes disease had apparent C2 posterior arch defects consistent with spondylolysis or incomplete/delayed ossification. Conclusion Defects in C2 were found in 11% of infants and young children with Menkes disease. Discovery of cervical spine defects expands the spectrum of radiologic findings associated with this condition. As with other skeletal abnormalities, this feature simulates nonaccidental trauma. In the context of Menkes disease, suspicions of child abuse should be considered cautiously and tempered by these findings to avoid unwarranted accusations. PMID:22825777

Hill, Suvimol C.; Dwyer, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

36

Age-Dependent Brain Gene Expression and Copy Number Anomalies in Autism Suggest Distinct Pathological Processes at Young Versus Mature Ages  

PubMed Central

Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that display the greatest growth abnormality. Previous functional genomic studies have identified possible alterations in transcript levels of genes related to neurodevelopment and immune function. Thus, there is a need for genetic studies involving key brain regions to replicate these findings and solidify the role of particular functional pathways in autism pathogenesis. We therefore sought to identify abnormal brain gene expression patterns via whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations (CNVs) in autistic and control postmortem brain samples. We focused on prefrontal cortex tissue where excess neuron numbers and cortical overgrowth are pronounced in the majority of autism cases. We found evidence for dysregulation in pathways governing cell number, cortical patterning, and differentiation in young autistic prefrontal cortex. In contrast, adult autistic prefrontal cortex showed dysregulation of signaling and repair pathways. Genes regulating cell cycle also exhibited autism-specific CNVs in DNA derived from prefrontal cortex, and these genes were significantly associated with autism in genome-wide association study datasets. Our results suggest that CNVs and age-dependent gene expression changes in autism may reflect distinct pathological processes in the developing versus the mature autistic prefrontal cortex. Our results raise the hypothesis that genetic dysregulation in the developing brain leads to abnormal regional patterning, excess prefrontal neurons, cortical overgrowth, and neural dysfunction in autism. PMID:22457638

Winn, Mary E.; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Li, Hai-Ri; Weiss, Lauren; Fan, Jian-Bing; Murray, Sarah; April, Craig; Belinson, Haim; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Schork, Nicholas J.; Courchesne, Eric

2012-01-01

37

Vaginal Anomalies: Cloacal Anomalies  

MedlinePLUS

... feces following the procedure? Your child's ability to control either the flow of her urine or elimination of her stool depends on the severity of the anomaly. In milder cases, more than 90 percent of patients have good sphincter control and a nearly normal pattern eliminating stools. Between ...

38

Thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies for a three-dimensional isotropic core-softened potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using molecular-dynamics simulations and integral equations (Rogers-Young, Percus-Yevick, and hypernetted chain closures) we investigate the thermodynamics of particles interacting with continuous core-softened intermolecular potential. Dynamic properties are also analyzed by the simulations. We show that, for a chosen shape of the potential, the density, at constant pressure, has a maximum for a certain temperature. The line of temperatures of maximum density (TMD) was determined in the pressure-temperature phase diagram. Similarly the diffusion constant at a constant temperature, D, has a maximum at a density ?max and a minimum at a density ?minpotential lacks directionality, this is the same behavior observed in simple point charge/extended water.

Barros de Oliveira, Alan; Netz, Paulo A.; Colla, Thiago; Barbosa, Marcia C.

2006-02-01

39

Simulation Suggests That Medical Group Mergers Won't Undermine The Potential Utility Of Health Information Exchanges  

PubMed Central

Substantial resources are being invested in health information exchanges (HIE), community-based consortia that enable independent health-care organizations to exchange clinical data. However, under pressure to form accountable care organizations, medical groups may merge and support private HIE, reducing the potential utility of community HIEs. Simulations of “care transitions” based on data from 10 Massachusetts communities suggest that mergers would have to be considerable to substantially reduce the potential utility of an HIE. Nonetheless, simulations also suggest that HIEs will need to recruit a large proportion of the medical groups in a community, as hospitals and the largest groups account for only 10 to 20% of care transitions in communities. PMID:22392665

Schneider, Eric C.; Volk, Lynn A.; Szolovits, Peter; Salzberg, Claudia A.; Simon, Steven R.; Bates, David W.

2013-01-01

40

1 Estimating aquifer hydraulic properties from the inversion of surface 2 Streaming Potential (SP) anomalies  

E-print Network

1 Estimating aquifer hydraulic properties from the inversion of surface 2 Streaming Potential (SP with the geometry of the water table. It follows that 11 SP measurements can be used to estimate aquifer hydraulic and found that we 14 are able to estimate the hydraulic conductivity and the depth 15 and the thickness

Sailhac, Pascal

41

Do U Txt? Event-Related Potentials to Semantic Anomalies in Standard and Texted English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Texted English is a hybrid, technology-based language derived from standard English modified to facilitate ease of communication via instant and text messaging. We compared semantic processing of texted and standard English sentences by recording event-related potentials in a classic semantic incongruity paradigm designed to elicit an N400 effect.…

Berger, Natalie I.; Coch, Donna

2010-01-01

42

Constraints on lithospheric structure from satellite potential field data: Africa and Asia. Analysis and interpretation of MAGSAT anomalies over North Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crustal anomaly detection with MAGSAT data is frustrated by the inherent resolving power of the data and by contamination from the external and core fields. The quality of the data might be tested by modeling specific tectonic features which produce anomalies that fall within the proposed resolution and crustal amplitude capabilities of the MAGSAT fields. To test this hypothesis, the north African hotspots associated with Ahaggar, Tibestia and Darfur have been modeled as magnetic induction anomalies due solely to shallower depth to the Curie isotherm surface beneath these features. The MAGSAT data were reduced by subtracting the external and core fields to isolate the scalar and vertical component crustal signals. The predicted model magnetic signal arising from the surface topography of the uplift and the Curie isotherm surface was calculated at MAGSAT altitudes by the Fourier transform technique modified to allow for variable magnetization. In summary it is suggested that the region beneath Ahaggar is associated with a strong thermal anomaly and the predicted anomaly best fits the associated MAGSAT anomaly if the African plate is moving in a northeasterly direction.

Phillips, R. J.

1986-01-01

43

CT colonography for investigation of patients with symptoms potentially suggestive of colorectal cancer: a review of the UK SIGGAR trials  

PubMed Central

This paper argues for the use of CT colonography (CTC) to investigate patients with symptoms potentially suggestive of colorectal cancer. It describes the rationale for the UK Special Interest Group in Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (SIGGAR) randomised controlled trials that compared CTC with barium enema (BE) or colonoscopy for diagnosis of colorectal cancer or large polyps in symptomatic patients. Diagnostic outcomes from the trials are detailed for both intra- and extracolonic disease, along with psychological reactions of patients to the tests, and cost-effectiveness of the different diagnostic strategies. The author concludes that BE should be replaced by CTC immediately and that CTC is a sensitive, acceptable and equally cost-effective alternative to colonoscopy in patients in whom colonoscopy is contraindicated or undesirable. PMID:23568360

2013-01-01

44

Musculoskeletal ultrasound education for sports medicine fellows: a suggested/potential curriculum by the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine.  

PubMed

The following musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSK US) curriculum was developed by the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) to provide a pathway by which a sports medicine fellow can obtain adequate MSK US training during their fellowship to meet the requirements of competency outlined by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) Training Guidelines for the Performance of MSK US Examination. Many fellowship programmes may not be able to follow all of the recommendations outlined by this document owing to their available resources. However, this curriculum can be used as a suggested/potential guideline for MSK US training within a sports medicine fellowship, and may assist programmes in developing or modifying their own internal training methods. PMID:21156766

Finnoff, Jonathan; Lavallee, Mark E; Smith, Jay

2010-12-01

45

Lymphocyte phenotypes in wild-caught rats suggest potential mechanisms underlying increased immune sensitivity in post-industrial environments  

PubMed Central

The immune systems of wild rats and of laboratory rats can been utilized as models of the human immune system in pre-industrial and post-industrial societies, respectively. In this study, lymphocyte phenotypes in wild rats were broadly characterized, and the results were compared to those obtained by us and by others using cells derived from various strains of laboratory rats. Although not expected, the production of regulatory T cells was not apparently different in wild rats compared to laboratory rats. On the other hand, differences in expression of markers involved in complement regulation, adhesion, signaling and maturation suggest increased complement regulation and decreased sensitivity in wild-caught rats compared to laboratory rats, and point toward complex differences between the maturation of T cells. The results potentially lend insight into the pathogenesis of post-industrial epidemics of allergy and autoimmune disease. PMID:22327212

Trama, Ashley M; Holzknecht, Zoie E; Thomas, Anitra D; Su, Kuei-Ying; Lee, Sean M; Foltz, Emily E; Perkins, Sarah E; Lin, Shu S; Parker, William

2012-01-01

46

Pathogenic rare copy number variants in community-based schizophrenia suggest a potential role for clinical microarrays  

PubMed Central

Individually rare, large copy number variants (CNVs) contribute to genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia. Unresolved questions remain, however, regarding the anticipated yield of clinical microarray testing in schizophrenia. Using high-resolution genome-wide microarrays and rigorous methods, we investigated rare CNVs in a prospectively recruited community-based cohort of 459 unrelated adults with schizophrenia and estimated the minimum prevalence of clinically significant CNVs that would be detectable on a clinical microarray. A blinded review by two independent clinical cytogenetic laboratory directors of all large (>500 kb) rare CNVs in cases and well-matched controls showed that those deemed to be clinically significant were highly enriched in schizophrenia (16.4-fold increase, P < 0.0001). In a single community catchment area, the prevalence of individuals with these CNVs was 8.1%. Rare 1.7 Mb CNVs at 2q13 were found to be significantly associated with schizophrenia for the first time, compared with the prevalence in 23 838 population-based controls (42.9-fold increase, P = 0.0002). Additional novel findings that will facilitate the future clinical interpretation of smaller CNVs in schizophrenia include: (i) a greater proportion of individuals with two or more rare exonic CNVs >10 kb in size (1.5-fold increase, P = 0.0109) in schizophrenia; (ii) the systematic discovery of new candidate genes for schizophrenia; and, (iii) functional gene enrichment mapping highlighting a differential impact in schizophrenia of rare exonic deletions involving diverse functions, including neurodevelopmental and synaptic processes (4.7-fold increase, P = 0.0060). These findings suggest consideration of a potential role for clinical microarray testing in schizophrenia, as is now the suggested standard of care for related developmental disorders like autism. PMID:23813976

Costain, Gregory; Lionel, Anath C.; Merico, Daniele; Forsythe, Pamela; Russell, Kathryn; Lowther, Chelsea; Yuen, Tracy; Husted, Janice; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J.; Speevak, Marsha; Chow, Eva W.C.; Marshall, Christian R.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Bassett, Anne S.

2013-01-01

47

A comparison of classical and intelligent methods to detect potential thermal anomalies before the 11 August 2012 Varzeghan, Iran, earthquake (Mw = 6.4)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a number of classical and intelligent methods, including interquartile, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM), have been proposed to quantify potential thermal anomalies around the time of the 11 August 2012 Varzeghan, Iran, earthquake (Mw = 6.4). The duration of the data set, which is comprised of Aqua-MODIS land surface temperature (LST) night-time snapshot images, is 62 days. In order to quantify variations of LST data obtained from satellite images, the air temperature (AT) data derived from the meteorological station close to the earthquake epicenter has been taken into account. For the models examined here, results indicate the following: (i) ARIMA models, which are the most widely used in the time series community for short-term forecasting, are quickly and easily implemented, and can efficiently act through linear solutions. (ii) A multilayer perceptron (MLP) feed-forward neural network can be a suitable non-parametric method to detect the anomalous changes of a non-linear time series such as variations of LST. (iii) Since SVMs are often used due to their many advantages for classification and regression tasks, it can be shown that, if the difference between the predicted value using the SVM method and the observed value exceeds the pre-defined threshold value, then the observed value could be regarded as an anomaly. (iv) ANN and SVM methods could be powerful tools in modeling complex phenomena such as earthquake precursor time series where we may not know what the underlying data generating process is. There is good agreement in the results obtained from the different methods for quantifying potential anomalies in a given LST time series. This paper indicates that the detection of the potential thermal anomalies derive credibility from the overall efficiencies and potentialities of the four integrated methods.

Akhoondzadeh, M.

2013-04-01

48

Potential tank waste material anomalies located near the liquid observation wells: Model predicted responses of a neutron moisture detection system  

SciTech Connect

Extensive analyses have been completed to demonstrate that a neutron moisture probe can be used to recognize anomalies in materials and geometry surrounding the liquid observation wells (LOWs). Furthermore, techniques can be developed that will permit the interpretation of detector readings, perturbed by the presence of anomalies, as more accurate moisture concentrations. This analysis effort extends the usefulness of a neutron moisture probe system significantly, especially in the complicated geometries and material conditions that may be encountered in the waste tanks. Both static-source and pulsed-source neutron probes were considered in the analyses. Four different detector configurations were investigated: Thermal and epithermal neutron detectors located in both the near and far field.

Finfrock, S.H.; Toffer, H.; Watson, W.T.

1994-09-01

49

Broadband Photometry of the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid 1999 MN: Suggestive of YORP and/or Tidal Spin-Up?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1999 MN was discovered by Carl Hergenrother on behalf of the Catalina Sky Survey on June 22 1999 (MPEC 1999-M27) and identified as a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) by the Minor Planet Center. The object's low inclination and perihelion distance allows for frequent gravitational encounters with Mercury, Venus, and Earth. 1999 MN passed within 0.033 AU of the Earth on June 4.5 2010. Our Bessel BVRI observations at the JPL Table Mountain Observatory 0.6-m telescope, summarized in Table 1, were scheduled to support Arecibo radar observations obtained in 2004 and 2005.

Hicks, M.; Mayes, D.; McAuley, A.; Foster, J.

2010-06-01

50

Computational identification and analysis of arsenate reductase protein in Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 suggests potential microorganism for reducing arsenate.  

PubMed

This study focuses a bioinformatics-based prediction of arsC gene product arsenate reductase (ArsC) protein in Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 strain. A protein structure-based study encloses three-dimensional structural modeling of target ArsC protein, was carried out by homology modeling method. Ultimately, the detection of active binding regions was carried out for characterization of functional sites in protein. The ten probable ligand binding sites were predicted for target protein structure and highlighted the common binding residues between target and template protein. It has been first time identified that modeled ArsC protein structure in C. sakazakii was structurally and functionally similar to well-characterized ArsC protein of Escherichia coli because of having same structural motifs and fold with similar protein topology and function. Investigation revealed that ArsC from C. sakazakii can play significant role during arsenic resistance and potential microorganism for bioremediation of arsenic toxicity. PMID:23666632

Chaturvedi, Navaneet; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Pandey, Paras Nath

2013-06-01

51

Complex lymphatic anomalies.  

PubMed

Complex lymphatic anomalies include several diagnoses with overlapping patterns of clinical symptoms, anatomic location, imaging features, hematologic alterations, and complications. Lymphatic malformations likely arise through anomalous embryogenesis of the lymphatic system. Analysis of clinical, imaging, histologic, and hematologic features is often needed to reach a diagnosis. Aspiration of fluid collections can readily define fluid as chylous or not. The presence of chyle indicates dysfunction at the mesenteric or retroperitoneal level or above the cisterna chyli due to reflux. The imaging patterns of generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA) and Gorham-Stout disease have been segregated with distinctive bone lesions and peri-osseous features. More aggressive histology (spindled lymphatic endothelial cells), clinical progression, hemorrhage, or moderate hematologic changes should raise suspicion for kaposiform lymphangiomatosis. Biopsy may be needed for diagnosis, though avoidance of rib biopsy is advised to prevent iatrogenic chronic pleural effusion. Lymphangiography can visualize the anatomy and function of the lymphatic system and may identify dysfunction of the thoracic duct in central conducting lymphatic anomalies. Local control and symptom relief are targeted by resection, laser therapy, and sclerotherapy. Emerging data suggest a role for medical therapies for complications of complex lymphatic anomalies. Outcomes include recurrent effusion, infection, pain, fracture, mortality, and rarely, malignancy. Complex lymphatic anomalies present significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Results from a phase 2 study of sirolimus in these and other conditions are expected in 2014. Improved characterization of natural history, predictors of poor outcomes, responses to therapy, and further clinical trials are needed for complex lymphatic anomalies. PMID:25241096

Trenor, Cameron C; Chaudry, Gulraiz

2014-08-01

52

Microtopography of the eye surface of the crab Carcinus maenas: an atomic force microscope study suggesting a possible antifouling potential  

PubMed Central

Marine biofouling causes problems for technologies based on the sea, including ships, power plants and marine sensors. Several antifouling techniques have been applied to marine sensors, but most of these methodologies are environmentally unfriendly or ineffective. Bioinspiration, seeking guidance from natural solutions, is a promising approach to antifouling. Here, the eye of the green crab Carcinus maenas was regarded as a marine sensor model and its surface characterized by means of atomic force microscopy. Engineered surface micro- and nanotopography is a new mechanism found to limit biofouling, promising an effective solution with much reduced environmental impact. Besides giving a new insight into the morphology of C. maenas eye and its characterization, our study indicates that the eye surface probably has antifouling/fouling-release potential. Furthermore, the topographical features of the surface may influence the wettability properties of the structure and its interaction with organic molecules. Results indicate that the eye surface micro- and nanotopography may lead to bioinspired solutions to antifouling protection. PMID:23635491

Greco, G.; Lanero, T. Svaldo; Torrassa, S.; Young, R.; Vassalli, M.; Cavaliere, A.; Rolandi, R.; Pelucchi, E.; Faimali, M.; Davenport, J.

2013-01-01

53

Microtopography of the eye surface of the crab Carcinus maenas: an atomic force microscope study suggesting a possible antifouling potential.  

PubMed

Marine biofouling causes problems for technologies based on the sea, including ships, power plants and marine sensors. Several antifouling techniques have been applied to marine sensors, but most of these methodologies are environmentally unfriendly or ineffective. Bioinspiration, seeking guidance from natural solutions, is a promising approach to antifouling. Here, the eye of the green crab Carcinus maenas was regarded as a marine sensor model and its surface characterized by means of atomic force microscopy. Engineered surface micro- and nanotopography is a new mechanism found to limit biofouling, promising an effective solution with much reduced environmental impact. Besides giving a new insight into the morphology of C. maenas eye and its characterization, our study indicates that the eye surface probably has antifouling/fouling-release potential. Furthermore, the topographical features of the surface may influence the wettability properties of the structure and its interaction with organic molecules. Results indicate that the eye surface micro- and nanotopography may lead to bioinspired solutions to antifouling protection. PMID:23635491

Greco, G; Lanero, T Svaldo; Torrassa, S; Young, R; Vassalli, M; Cavaliere, A; Rolandi, R; Pelucchi, E; Faimali, M; Davenport, J

2013-07-01

54

Characterization of MicA interactions suggests a potential novel means of gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs.  

PubMed

MicA is a small non-coding RNA that regulates ompA mRNA translation in Escherichia coli. MicA has an inhibitory function, base pairing to the translation initiation region of target mRNAs through short sequences of complementarity, blocking their ribosome-binding sites. The MicA structure contains two stem loops, which impede its interaction with target mRNAs, and it is thought that the RNA chaperone protein Hfq, known to be involved in MicA regulation of ompA, may structurally remodel MicA to reveal the ompA-binding site for cognate pairing. To further characterize these interactions, we undertook biochemical and biophysical studies using native MicA and a 'stabilized' version, modified to mimic the conformational state of MicA where the ompA-binding site is exposed. Our data corroborate two proposed roles for Hfq: first, to bring both MicA and ompA into close proximity, and second, to restructure MicA to allow exposure of the ompA-binding site for pairing, thereby demonstrating the RNA chaperone function of Hfq. Additionally, at accumulated MicA levels, we identified a Mg(2+)-dependent self-association that occludes the ompA-recognition region. We discuss the potential contribution of an Mg(2+)-mediated conformational switch of MicA for the regulation of MicA function. PMID:23361466

Henderson, Charlotte A; Vincent, Helen A; Stone, Carlanne M; Phillips, Jack O; Cary, Peter D; Gowers, Darren M; Callaghan, Anastasia J

2013-03-01

55

Magnetic anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implications and accuracy of anomaly maps produced using Magsat data on the scalar and vector magnetic field of the earth are discussed. Comparisons have been made between the satellite maps and aeromagnetic survey maps, showing smoother data from the satellite maps and larger anomalies in the aircraft data. The maps are being applied to characterize the structure and tectonics of the underlying regions. Investigations are still needed regarding the directions of magnetization within the crust and to generate further correlations between anomaly features and large scale geological structures. Furthermore, an increased data base is recommended for the Pacific Ocean basin in order to develop a better starting model for Pacific tectonic movements. The Pacific basin was large farther backwards in time and subduction zones surround the basin, thereby causing difficulties for describing the complex break-up scenario for Gondwanaland.

Harrison, C. G. A.

1983-04-01

56

Genomic Alterations in Biliary Atresia Suggests Region of Potential Disease Susceptibility in 2q37.3  

PubMed Central

Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive, idiopathic obliteration of the extrahepatic biliary system occurring exclusively in the neonatal period. It is the most common disease leading to liver transplantation in children. The etiology of BA is unknown, although infectious, immune and genetic causes have been suggested. While the recurrence of BA in families is not common, there are more than 30 multiplex families reported and an underlying genetic susceptibility has been hypothesized. We screened a cohort of 35 BA patients for genomic alterations that might confer susceptibility to BA. DNA was genotyped on the Illumina Quad550 platform, which analyzes over 550,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genomic deletions and duplications. Areas of increased and decreased copy number were compared to those found in control populations. In order to identify regions that could serve as susceptibility factors for BA, we searched for regions that were found in BA patients, but not in controls. We identified two unrelated BA patients with overlapping heterozygous deletions of 2q37.3. Patient 1 had a 1.76 Mb (280 SNP), heterozygous deletion containing thirty genes. Patient 2 had a 5.87 Mb (1,346 SNP) heterozygous deletion containing fifty-five genes. The overlapping 1.76 Mb deletion on chromosome 2q37.3 from 240,936,900 to 242,692,820 constitutes the critical region and the genes within this region could be candidates for susceptibility to BA. PMID:20358598

Leyva-Vega, Melissa; Gerfen, Jennifer; Thiel, Brian D.; Jurkiewicz, Dorota; Rand, Elizabeth B.; Pawlowska, Joanna; Kaminska, Diana; Russo, Pierre; Gai, Xiaowu; Krantz, Ian D.; Kamath, Binita M.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Haber, Barbara A.; Spinner, Nancy B.

2010-01-01

57

Developmental Expression of Smoc1 and Smoc2 Suggests Potential Roles in Fetal Gonad and Reproductive Tract Differentiation  

PubMed Central

SMOC1 and SMOC2 are matricellular proteins thought to influence growth factor signaling, migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. We examined the expression and regulation of Smoc1 and Smoc2 in fetal gonad/mesonephros complexes to discover possible roles for these genes in gonad and mesonephros development. Smoc1 was upregulated at ~E10.75 in a center-to-poles wave in pre-Sertoli and pre-granulosa cells and its expression was greatly reduced in Wt1, Sf1 and Fog2 mutants. After E13.5, Smoc1 was downregulated in an anterior-to-posterior wave in granulosa cells but persisted in Sertoli cells, suggesting a sexually dimorphic requirement in supporting cell lineage differentiation. Smoc2 was expressed in Leydig cells, mesonephroi, and Wnt4 mutant ovaries, but not wildtype ovaries. Using organ culture, we determined that Smoc2 expression was dependent on Hedgehog signaling in testes, mesonephroi, and kidneys. Overall, these results demonstrate that SMOC1 and SMOC2 may mediate intercellular signaling and cell type-specific differentiation during gonad and reproductive tract development. PMID:19842175

Pazin, Dorothy E.; Albrecht, Kenneth H.

2010-01-01

58

Combined analyses of kinship and FST suggest potential drivers of chaotic genetic patchiness in high gene-flow populations  

PubMed Central

We combine kinship estimates with traditional F-statistics to explain contemporary drivers of population genetic differentiation despite high gene flow. We investigate range-wide population genetic structure of the California spiny (or red rock) lobster (Panulirus interruptus) and find slight, but significant global population differentiation in mtDNA (?ST = 0.006, P = 0.001; Dest_Chao = 0.025) and seven nuclear microsatellites (FST = 0.004, P < 0.001; Dest_Chao = 0.03), despite the species’ 240- to 330-day pelagic larval duration. Significant population structure does not correlate with distance between sampling locations, and pairwise FST between adjacent sites often exceeds that among geographically distant locations. This result would typically be interpreted as unexplainable, chaotic genetic patchiness. However, kinship levels differ significantly among sites (pseudo-F16,988 = 1.39, P = 0.001), and ten of 17 sample sites have significantly greater numbers of kin than expected by chance (P < 0.05). Moreover, a higher proportion of kin within sites strongly correlates with greater genetic differentiation among sites (Dest_Chao, R2 = 0.66, P < 0.005). Sites with elevated mean kinship were geographically proximate to regions of high upwelling intensity (R2 = 0.41, P = 0.0009). These results indicate that P. interruptus does not maintain a single homogenous population, despite extreme dispersal potential. Instead, these lobsters appear to either have substantial localized recruitment or maintain planktonic larval cohesiveness whereby siblings more likely settle together than disperse across sites. More broadly, our results contribute to a growing number of studies showing that low FST and high family structure across populations can coexist, illuminating the foundations of cryptic genetic patterns and the nature of marine dispersal. PMID:23802550

Iacchei, Matthew; Ben-Horin, Tal; Selkoe, Kimberly A; Bird, Christopher E; García-Rodríguez, Francisco J; Toonen, Robert J

2013-01-01

59

DOWN'S ANOMALY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

60

Communications, suggestions  

E-print Network

specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo

Mellia, Marco

61

Potential gradients produced by pore-space heterogeneities: Application to isothermal frost damage and submarine hydrate anomalies  

E-print Network

Potential gradients produced by pore-space heterogeneities: Application to isothermal frost damage the supply of constituents through a fluid phase. With frost damage, the gradi- ents in chemical potential for constituent supply. We illustrate the consequences and character of isothermal frost damage using the results

Rempel, Alan W.

62

Transient self-potential anomalies associated with recent lava flows at Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Runion Island, Indian Ocean)  

E-print Network

be used to diagnose the cooling of recent lava flow on shield volcanoes. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights volcano (Réunion Island, Indian Ocean) S. Barde-Cabusson a, ,1 , G. Levieux a,b , J.-F. Lénat a , A Fournaise volcano (Reunion Island, Indian Ocean). Repeated self-potential measurements are used to determine

Duputel, Zacharie

63

Geologic Insights and Suggestions on Mineral Potential Based on Analyses of Geophysical Data of the Southern Toquima Range, Nye County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aeromagnetic and gravity data provide confirmation of major structural and lithologic units in the southern Toquima Range, Nevada. These units include Cretaceous granite plutons and Tertiary calderas. In addition, the geophysical maps pinpoint numerous faults and lesser intrusions, and they suggest locations of several inferred subsurface intrusions. They also corroborate a system of northwesterly and northeasterly conjugate structures that probably are fundamental to the structural framework of the Toquima Range. A combination of geophysical, geochemical, and geologic data available for the widely mineralized and productive area suggests additional mineral resource potential, especially in and (or) adjacent to the Round Mountain, Jefferson, Manhattan, and Belmont mining districts. Also, evidence for mineral potential exists for areas near the Flower mercury mine south of Mount Jefferson caldera, and in the Bald Mountain Canyon belt of gold-quartz veins in the Manhattan caldera. A few other areas also show potential for mineral resources. The various geologic environments indicated within the map area suggest base- and precious-metal potential in porphyry deposits as well as in quartz-vein and skarn deposits associated with intrusive stocks.

Shawe, D.R.; Kucks, R.P.; Hildenbrand, T.G.

2004-01-01

64

[Association between the percentages of typical forms, acrosome abnormalities and the multiple anomalies indices: potential quality indicators?].  

PubMed

In addition to NF EN ISO 15189, the second version of "GBEA AMP", published in the official journal of the French Republic, had set for "AMP" exams, the actions to be implemented in order to achieve an efficient quality management system. As part of continuous improvement of quality, and besides our external and internal quality systems, we have been developping indicators that will allow an early detection of potential drifts within operators performing sperm morphology testing. We have extracted nearly 1900 sperm morphology tests from our database. These tests were performed by three operators. The analysis of the data collected has shown a cross correlation between the percentages of typical forms, malformative acrosomes and "MAI". We have been using these correlations as quality indicators in our laboratory in order to highlight any potential drift in reading sperm morphology tests. PMID:22294144

Laudat, Antoine; Lecourbe, Karine; Joyeux, Claudine; Burc-Struxiano, Laurence

2012-01-01

65

Mass Anomalies on Ganymede  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio Doppler data from two Ganymede encounters (G1 and G2) on the first two orbits in the Galileo mission have been analyzed previously for gravity information . For a satellite in hydrostatic equilibrium, its gravitational field can be modeled adequately by a truncated spherical harmonic series of degree two. However, a fourth degree field is required in order to fit the second Galileo flyby (G2). This need for a higher degree field strongly suggests that Ganymede s gravitational field is perturbed by a gravity anomaly near the G2 closest approach point (79.29 latitude, 123.68 west longitude). In fact, a plot of the Doppler residuals , after removal of the best-fit model for the zero degree term (GM) and the second degree moments (J2 and C22), suggests that if an anomaly exists, it is located downtrack of the closest approach point, closer to the equator.

Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.; Jacobson, R. A.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Palguta, J.

2004-01-01

66

Dyonic Anomalies  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of coupling a dyonic p-brane in d = 2p+4 space-time dimensions to a prescribed (p+2)-form field strength. This is particularly subtle when p is odd. For the case p = 1, we explicitly construct a coupling functional, which is a sum of two terms: one which is linear in the prescribed field strength, and one which describes the coupling of the brane to its self-field and takes the form of a Wess-Zumino term depending only on the embedding of the brane world-volume into space-time. We then show that this functional is well-defined only modulo a certain anomaly, related to the Euler class of the normal bundle of the brane world-volume.

Mans Henningson; Erik P. G. Johansson

2005-08-15

67

Anomaly Transform method for initializing climate forecas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach, an Anomaly Transform method (AT) using a physics based metric, is developed to initialize decadal climate hindcast within the German climate prediction MiKlip project. The method starts from balanced anomaly structures in space and time and between variables derived from control runs and applies an orthogalization to these. Two physics based metric are used to set up the eigen problem (1) the weighted total energy with its zonal, meridional kinetic and available potential energy terms having equal contributions, and (2) the weighted ocean heat content in which a disturbance is applied only to the initial temperature fields. The choice of a reference state defining the anomalies and the selected sequence of anomalies, once on a seasonal timescales and second on an interannual timescales, project a-priori only the slow modes of the ocean physical processes, such that the disturbances grow mainly in the Western Boundary Currents, in the ACC and ENSO regions. An additional set of initial conditions was designed to fit in a least square sense anomalies from the GECCO-2 ocean reanalysis. These sets of AT initial conditions and the MPIOM-ESM coupled model in T63L47/GR15 resolution were used for ensemble experiments and a retrospective forecast. The weighted total energy norm is used to monitor the amplitudes and rates of the fastest growing error modes. The results showed minor dependence of the instability growth on the selected metric but considerable change due to the rescaling coefficients magnitude on the perturbation amplitude. In contrary to similar atmospheric applications, we find an energy conversion from kinetic to available potential energy, which suggests different source of uncertainties mainly associated with changes in density fields.

Romanova, Vanya; Hense, Andreas

2014-05-01

68

Anomaly Structure of Supergravity and Anomaly Cancellation  

E-print Network

We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1)_K transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.

Daniel Butter; Mary K. Gaillard

2009-06-18

69

Anomaly Structure of Supergravity and Anomaly Cancellation  

E-print Network

We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1)_K transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.

Butter, Daniel

2009-01-01

70

ANOMALY STRUCTURE OF SUPERGRAVITY AND ANOMALY CANCELLATION  

SciTech Connect

We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1){sub K} transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.

Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

2009-06-10

71

Anomaly structure of supergravity and anomaly cancellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new contributions to the conformal anomaly. Our result has the super-Weyl and Kähler U(1), transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green–Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation.

Daniel Butter; Mary K. Gaillard

2009-01-01

72

Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

2003-01-01

73

An ubiquitous mechanism for waterlike anomalies  

E-print Network

Using collision driven molecular dynamics a system of spherical particles interacting through an effective two length scales potential is studied. The potential can be tuned by means of a single parameter, $\\lambda$, from a ramp $(\\lambda=0.5)$ to a square-shoulder potential $(\\lambda=1.0)$ representing a family of two length scales potential in which the shortest interaction distance has higher potential energy than the largest interaction distance. For all the potentials, ranging between the ramp and the square-shoulder, density and structural anomalies were found, while the diffusion anomaly is found in all but in the square-shoulder potential. The presence anomalies in square-shoulder potential, not observed in previous simulations, confirm the assumption that the two length scales potential is an ubiquitous ingredient for a system to exhibit water-like anomalies

Alan Barros de Oliveira; Paulo A. Netz; Marcia C. Barbosa

2008-04-14

74

Congenital coronary anomalies detected by coronary computed tomography compared to invasive coronary angiography  

PubMed Central

Background As coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has emerged as a non-invasive alternative for evaluation of coronary anatomy with a lower referral threshold than invasive coronary angiography (ICA), the prevalence of coronary anomalies in CCTA may more closely reflect the true prevalence in the general population. Morphological features of coronary anomalies can be evaluated more precisely by CCTA than by ICA, which might lead to a higher identification of congenital coronary anomalies in CCTA compared to ICA. To evaluate the incidence, clinical and morphological features of the anatomy of patients with coronary anomalies detected either by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) with prospective ECG-triggering or invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Methods Consecutive patients underwent 64-slice CCTA (n?=?1?759) with prospective ECG-triggering or ICA (n?=?9?782) and coronary anatomy was evaluated for identification of coronary anomalies to predefined criteria (origin, course and termination) according to international recommendations. Results The prevalence of coronary anomalies was 7.9% (n?=?138) in CCTA and 2.1% in ICA (n?=?203; p?anomaly detected by CCTA was myocardial bridging 42.8% (n?=?59) vs. 21.2% (n?=?43); p?anomaly 36.0% (n?=?73; p?anomalies in CCTA 9.4% were potentially serious coronary anaomalies, defined as a course of the coronary artery between aorta and pulmonary artery were identified. Conclusion The prevalence of coronary anomalies is substantially higher with CCTA than ICA even after exclusion of patients with myocardial bridging which is more frequently found with CCTA. This suggests that the true prevalence of coronary anomalies in the general population may have been underestimated based on ICA. PMID:25004927

2014-01-01

75

Experimental Investigation into the Radar Anomalies on the Surface of Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar mapping of thc surface of Venus shows areas of high reflectivity (low emissivity) in the Venusian highlands at altitudes between 2.5-4.75 kilometers. The origin of the radar anomalies found in the Venusian highlands remains unclear. Most explanations of the potential causes for these radar anomalies come from theoretical work. Previous studies suggest increased surface roughness or materials with higher dielectric constants as well as surface atmospheric interactions. Several possible candidates of high-dielectric materials are tellurium) ferroelectric materials, and lead or bismuth sulfides. While previous studies have been influential in determining possible sources for the Venus anomalies, only a very few hypotheses have been verified via experimentation. This work intends to experimentally constrain the source of the radar anomalies on Venus. This study proposes to investigate four possible materials that could potentially cause the high reflectivities on the surface of Venus and tests their behavior under simulated Venusian conditions.

Kohler, E.; Gavin, P.; Chevrier, V.; Johnson, Natasha M.

2012-01-01

76

Caudal deficiency and asplenia anomalies in sibs.  

PubMed

The caudal deficiency and asplenia anomalies have been described separately in children. Two sibs with these two entities are described. Only another similar case, with caudal deficiency and polysplenia anomalies was found in the literature. It is possible that this association could be a new syndromic entity. An autosomal recessive mode of inheritance is suggested. PMID:3146294

Fullana, A; Garcia-Frias, E; Martinez-Frias, M L; Razquin, S; Quero, J

1986-01-01

77

Magnetic Anomalies over Iceland.  

PubMed

An aeromagnetic survey of Iceland reveals broad anomalies of large amplitude over zones of recent volcanic activity. The source of the anomalies is ascribed to large masses of basalt that have been coherently remagnetized by intrusive heating. A simple correlation of the Icelandic anomalies with those of the ocean floor therefore appears unjustified. PMID:17836657

Serson, P H; Hannaford, W; Haines, G V

1968-10-18

78

Analysis of spacecraft anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

1976-01-01

79

Anomaly detection using topology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a new topology-based algorithm for anomaly detection in dimensionally large datasets. The motivating application is hyperspectral imaging where the dataset can be a collection of ~ 10 6 points in R k, representing the reflected (or radiometric) spectra of electromagnetic radiation. The algorithm begins by building a graph whose edges connect close pairs of points. The background points are the points in the largest components of this graph and all other points are designated as anomalies. The anomalies are ranked according to their distance to the background. The algorithm is termed Topological Anomaly Detection (TAD). The algorithm is tested on hyperspectral imagery collected with the HYDICE sensor which contains targets of known reflectance and spatial location. Anomaly maps are created and compared to results from the common anomaly detection algorithm RX. We show that the TAD algorithm performs better than RX by achieving greater separation of the anomalies from the background for this dataset.

Basener, Bill; Ientilucci, Emmett J.; Messinger, David W.

2007-04-01

80

Is the Accrual Anomaly a Global Anomaly?  

E-print Network

This paper investigates the subsequent return implications of accruals within a sample of large, developed, international equity markets and assesses whether similar institutional features account for the accrual anomaly ...

LaFond, Ryan

2005-09-23

81

An Analysis of the 1999 DARPA\\/Lincoln Laboratory Evaluation Data for Network Anomaly Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate potential simulation artifacts and their effects on the evaluation of network anomaly detection systems in the 1999 DARPA\\/MIT Lincoln Laboratory off-line intrusion detection evaluation data set. A statistical comparison of the simulated b ackground and training traffic with real t raffic c ollected from a university departmental server suggests the presence of artifacts that could allow a network

Matthew V. Mahoney; Philip K. Chan

2003-01-01

82

Congenital Anomalies in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents data and analysis concerning congenital anomalies in Bulgaria. Assessment is based on statistical data\\u000a reported in the National Statistical Institute Yearbook: Health Protection and the Sofia registry of congenital anomalies\\u000a in the period 1996 – 1999. Forty subgroups of isolated congenital anomalies and congenital diseases, detectable at birth during\\u000a in the first year of life, have been

E. Terlemesian; S. Stoyanov

83

A novel resistance mechanism to triclosan that suggests horizontal gene transfer and demonstrates a potential selective pressure for reduced biocide susceptibility in clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

The widely used biocide triclosan selectively targets FabI, the NADH-dependent trans-2-enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, which is an important target for narrow-spectrum antimicrobial drug development. In relation to the growing concern about biocide resistance, we compared in vitro mutants and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced triclosan susceptibility. Clinical isolates of S. aureus as well as laboratory-generated mutants were assayed for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) phenotypes and genotypes related to reduced triclosan susceptibility. A potential epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) MBC of >4 mg/L was observed for triclosan in clinical isolates of S. aureus. These showed significantly lower MICs and higher MBCs than laboratory mutants. These groups of strains also had few similarities in the triclosan resistance mechanism. Molecular analysis identified novel resistance mechanisms linked to the presence of an additional sh-fabI allele derived from Staphylococcus haemolyticus. The lack of predictive value of in-vitro-selected mutations for clinical isolates indicates that laboratory tests in the present form appear to be of limited value. More importantly, detection of sh-fabI as a novel resistance mechanism with high potential for horizontal gene transfer demonstrates for the first time that a biocide could exert a selective pressure able to drive the spread of a resistance determinant in a human pathogen. PMID:22789727

Ciusa, Maria Laura; Furi, Leonardo; Knight, Daniel; Decorosi, Francesca; Fondi, Marco; Raggi, Carla; Coelho, Joana Rosado; Aragones, Luis; Moce, Laura; Visa, Pilar; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Baldassarri, Lucilla; Fani, Renato; Viti, Carlo; Orefici, Graziella; Martinez, Jose Luis; Morrissey, Ian; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo

2012-09-01

84

Effects of hand orientation on motor imagery--event related potentials suggest kinesthetic motor imagery to solve the hand laterality judgment task.  

PubMed

Motor imagery (MI) refers to the process of imagining the execution of a specific motor action without actually producing an overt movement. Two forms of MI have been distinguished: visual MI and kinesthetic MI. To distinguish between these forms of MI we employed an event related potential (ERP) study to measure interference effects induced by hand orientation manipulations in a hand laterality judgement task. We hypothesized that this manipulation should only affect kinesthetic MI but not visual MI. The ERPs elicited by rotated hand stimuli contained the classic rotation related negativity (RRN) with respect to palm view stimuli. We observed that laterally rotated stimuli led to a more marked RRN than medially rotated stimuli. This RRN effect was observed when participants had their hands positioned in either a straight (control) or an inward rotated posture, but not when their hands were positioned in an outward rotated posture. Posture effects on the ERP-RRN have not previously been studied. Apparently, a congruent hand posture (hands positioned in an outward rotated fashion) facilitates the judgement of the otherwise more demanding laterally rotated hand stimuli. These ERP findings support a kinesthetic interpretation of MI involved in solving the hand laterality judgement task. The RRN may be used as a non-invasive marker for kinesthetic MI and seems useful in revealing the covert behavior of MI in e.g. rehabilitation programs. PMID:24086747

Jongsma, Marijtje L A; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J; Okely, Judith; Baas, C Marjolein; van der Lubbe, Rob H J; Steenbergen, Bert

2013-01-01

85

Chromium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abundances of the chromium isotopes in terrestrial and bulk meteorite samples are identical to 0.01 percent. However, Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende meteorite show endemic isotopic anomalies in chromium which require at least three nucleosynthetic components. Large anomalies at Cr-54 in a special class of inclusions are correlated with large anomalies at Ca-48 and Ti-50 and provide strong support for a component reflecting neutron-rich nucleosynthesis at nuclear statistical equilibrium. This correlation suggests that materials from very near the core of an exploding massive star may be injected into the interstellar medium.

Papanastassiou, D. A.

1986-01-01

86

Anomalies on orbifolds  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the form of the chiral anomaly on an S1/Z2 orbifold with chiral boundary conditions. We find that the 4-divergence of the higher-dimensional current evaluated at a given point in the extra dimension is proportional to the probability of finding the chiral zero mode there. Nevertheless the anomaly, appropriately defined as the five dimensional divergence of the current, lives entirely on the orbifold fixed planes and is independent of the shape of the zero mode. Therefore long distance four dimensional anomaly cancellation ensures the consistency of the higher dimensional orbifold theory.

Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew G.; Georgi, Howard

2001-03-16

87

Response of African humid tropical forests to recent rainfall anomalies.  

PubMed

During the last decade, strong negative rainfall anomalies resulting from increased sea surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic have caused extensive droughts in rainforests of western Amazonia, exerting persistent effects on the forest canopy. In contrast, there have been no significant impacts on rainforests of West and Central Africa during the same period, despite large-scale droughts and rainfall anomalies during the same period. Using a combination of rainfall observations from meteorological stations from the Climate Research Unit (CRU; 1950-2009) and satellite observations of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; 1998-2010), we show that West and Central Africa experienced strong negative water deficit (WD) anomalies over the last decade, particularly in 2005, 2006 and 2007. These anomalies were a continuation of an increasing drying trend in the region that started in the 1970s. We monitored the response of forests to extreme rainfall anomalies of the past decade by analysing the microwave scatterometer data from QuickSCAT (1999-2009) sensitive to variations in canopy water content and structure. Unlike in Amazonia, we found no significant impacts of extreme WD events on forests of Central Africa, suggesting potential adaptability of these forests to short-term severe droughts. Only forests near the savanna boundary in West Africa and in fragmented landscapes of the northern Congo Basin responded to extreme droughts with widespread canopy disturbance that lasted only during the period of WD. Time-series analyses of CRU and TRMM data show most regions in Central and West Africa experience seasonal or decadal extreme WDs (less than -600 mm). We hypothesize that the long-term historical extreme WDs with gradual drying trends in the 1970s have increased the adaptability of humid tropical forests in Africa to droughts. PMID:23878335

Asefi-Najafabady, Salvi; Saatchi, Sassan

2013-01-01

88

Response of African humid tropical forests to recent rainfall anomalies  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, strong negative rainfall anomalies resulting from increased sea surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic have caused extensive droughts in rainforests of western Amazonia, exerting persistent effects on the forest canopy. In contrast, there have been no significant impacts on rainforests of West and Central Africa during the same period, despite large-scale droughts and rainfall anomalies during the same period. Using a combination of rainfall observations from meteorological stations from the Climate Research Unit (CRU; 1950–2009) and satellite observations of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; 1998–2010), we show that West and Central Africa experienced strong negative water deficit (WD) anomalies over the last decade, particularly in 2005, 2006 and 2007. These anomalies were a continuation of an increasing drying trend in the region that started in the 1970s. We monitored the response of forests to extreme rainfall anomalies of the past decade by analysing the microwave scatterometer data from QuickSCAT (1999–2009) sensitive to variations in canopy water content and structure. Unlike in Amazonia, we found no significant impacts of extreme WD events on forests of Central Africa, suggesting potential adaptability of these forests to short-term severe droughts. Only forests near the savanna boundary in West Africa and in fragmented landscapes of the northern Congo Basin responded to extreme droughts with widespread canopy disturbance that lasted only during the period of WD. Time-series analyses of CRU and TRMM data show most regions in Central and West Africa experience seasonal or decadal extreme WDs (less than ?600 mm). We hypothesize that the long-term historical extreme WDs with gradual drying trends in the 1970s have increased the adaptability of humid tropical forests in Africa to droughts. PMID:23878335

Asefi-Najafabady, Salvi; Saatchi, Sassan

2013-01-01

89

The QCD trace anomaly  

E-print Network

In this brief report we compare the predictions of a recent next-to-next-to-leading order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) calculation of the QCD trace anomaly to available lattice data. We focus on the trace anomaly scaled by T^2 in two cases: N_f=0 and N_f=3. When using the canonical value of mu = 2 pi T for the renormalization scale, we find that for Yang-Mills theory (N_f=0) agreement between HTLpt and lattice data for the T^2-scaled trace anomaly begins at temperatures on the order of 8 T_c while when including quarks (N_f=3) agreement begins already at temperatures above 2 T_c. In both cases we find that at very high temperatures the T^2-scaled trace anomaly increases with temperature in accordance with the predictions of HTLpt.

Jens O. Andersen; Lars E. Leganger; Michael Strickland; Nan Su

2011-06-02

90

On isostatic geoid anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In regions of slowly varying lateral density changes, the gravity and geoid anomalies may be expressed as power series expansions in topography. Geoid anomalies in isostatically compensated regions can be directly related to the local dipole moment of the density-depth distribution. This relationship is used to obtain theoretical geoid anomalies for different models of isostatic compensation. The classical Pratt and Airy models give geoid height-elevation relationships differing in functional form but predicting geoid anomalies of comparable magnitude. The thermal cooling model explaining ocean floor subsidence away from mid-ocean ridges predicts a linear age-geoid height relationship of 0.16 m/m.y. Geos 3 altimetry profiles were examined to test these theoretical relationships. A profile over the mid-Atlantic ridge is closely matched by the geoid curve derived from the thermal cooling model. The observed geoid anomaly over the Atlantic margin of North America can be explained by Airy compensation. The relation between geoid anomaly and bathymetry across the Bermuda Swell is consistent with Pratt compensation with a 100-km depth of compensation.

Haxby, W. F.; Turcotte, D. L.

1978-01-01

91

Midface anomalies in children.  

PubMed

A variety of congenital midface anomalies occur in children. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging have proved helpful in determining the nature and extent of dysplasia, thereby facilitating treatment planning. A classification system has been developed that groups these anomalies into four categories based on embryogenesis and anatomic location. These categories comprise anomalies that are related to the nasal cavity, nasofrontal region, nasolacrimal apparatus, and craniofacial syndromes. CT is the imaging modality of choice in children with possible choanal atresia, pyriform aperture stenosis, or anomalies of the nasolacrimal duct (eg, nasolacrimal duct stenosis, dacryocystoceles). MR imaging is the modality of choice in patients with congenital midface masses (eg, dermoid and epidermoid cysts, nasal gliomas, encephaloceles) and craniofacial syndromes (eg, Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Treacher Collins syndrome). In many cases, however, both CT and MR imaging are required to adequately evaluate midface anomalies. Familiarity with the characteristic imaging features of these anomalies along with knowledge of midface embryogenesis and normal developmental anatomy is essential to prevent misinterpretation of anatomic variations that may simulate disease. PMID:10903683

Lowe, L H; Booth, T N; Joglar, J M; Rollins, N K

2000-01-01

92

Open to Suggestion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

Journal of Reading, 1987

1987-01-01

93

Magnetic anomalies. [Magsat studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implications and accuracy of anomaly maps produced using Magsat data on the scalar and vector magnetic field of the earth are discussed. Comparisons have been made between the satellite maps and aeromagnetic survey maps, showing smoother data from the satellite maps and larger anomalies in the aircraft data. The maps are being applied to characterize the structure and tectonics of the underlying regions. Investigations are still needed regarding the directions of magnetization within the crust and to generate further correlations between anomaly features and large scale geological structures. Furthermore, an increased data base is recommended for the Pacific Ocean basin in order to develop a better starting model for Pacific tectonic movements. The Pacific basin was large farther backwards in time and subduction zones surround the basin, thereby causing difficulties for describing the complex break-up scenario for Gondwanaland.

Harrison, C. G. A.

1983-01-01

94

Hypnosis and Suggestion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a description of the use of hypnosis and suggestion and examines the physiological foundation. It includes a determination of the degree of susceptibility to suggestion and hypnosis, the techniques to hypnosis, and the reactions of pat...

P. I. Bul

1975-01-01

95

The Life of Suggestions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

Pearce, Cathie

2010-01-01

96

Paleo-Pole Positions from Martian Magnetic Anomaly Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic component anomaly maps were made from five mapping cycles of the Mars Global Surveyor s magnetometer data. Our goal was to find and isolate positive and negative anomaly pairs which would indicate magnetization of a single source body. From these anomalies we could compute the direction of the magnetizing vector and subsequently the location of the magnetic pole existing at the time of magnetization. We found nine suitable anomaly pairs and from these we computed four North and 3 South poles with two at approximately 60 degrees north latitude. These results suggest that during the existence of the Martian main magnetic field it experienced several reversals.

Taylor, Patrick T.; Frawley, James J.

2003-01-01

97

Paleo-Pole Positions from Martian Magnetic Anomaly Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic component anomaly maps were made from five mapping cycles of the Mars Global Surveyor's magnetometer data. Our goal was to find and isolate positive and negative anomaly pairs which would indicate magnetization of a single source body. From these anomalies we could compute the direction of the magnetizing vector and subsequently the location of the magnetic pole existing at the time of magnetization. We found nine suitable anomaly pairs and from these we computed paleo-poles that were nearly equally divided between north, south and mid-latitudes. These results suggest that during the existence of the martian main magnetic field it experienced several reversals and excursions.

Frawley, James J.; Taylor, Patrick T.

2004-01-01

98

Advancements of Data Anomaly Detection Research in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues  

PubMed Central

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are important and necessary platforms for the future as the concept “Internet of Things” has emerged lately. They are used for monitoring, tracking, or controlling of many applications in industry, health care, habitat, and military. However, the quality of data collected by sensor nodes is affected by anomalies that occur due to various reasons, such as node failures, reading errors, unusual events, and malicious attacks. Therefore, anomaly detection is a necessary process to ensure the quality of sensor data before it is utilized for making decisions. In this review, we present the challenges of anomaly detection in WSNs and state the requirements to design efficient and effective anomaly detection models. We then review the latest advancements of data anomaly detection research in WSNs and classify current detection approaches in five main classes based on the detection methods used to design these approaches. Varieties of the state-of-the-art models for each class are covered and their limitations are highlighted to provide ideas for potential future works. Furthermore, the reviewed approaches are compared and evaluated based on how well they meet the stated requirements. Finally, the general limitations of current approaches are mentioned and further research opportunities are suggested and discussed. PMID:23966182

Rassam, Murad A.; Zainal, Anazida; Maarof, Mohd Aizaini

2013-01-01

99

Advancements of data anomaly detection research in wireless sensor networks: a survey and open issues.  

PubMed

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are important and necessary platforms for the future as the concept "Internet of Things" has emerged lately. They are used for monitoring, tracking, or controlling of many applications in industry, health care, habitat, and military. However, the quality of data collected by sensor nodes is affected by anomalies that occur due to various reasons, such as node failures, reading errors, unusual events, and malicious attacks. Therefore, anomaly detection is a necessary process to ensure the quality of sensor data before it is utilized for making decisions. In this review, we present the challenges of anomaly detection in WSNs and state the requirements to design efficient and effective anomaly detection models. We then review the latest advancements of data anomaly detection research in WSNs and classify current detection approaches in five main classes based on the detection methods used to design these approaches. Varieties of the state-of-the-art models for each class are covered and their limitations are highlighted to provide ideas for potential future works. Furthermore, the reviewed approaches are compared and evaluated based on how well they meet the stated requirements. Finally, the general limitations of current approaches are mentioned and further research opportunities are suggested and discussed. PMID:23966182

Rassam, Murad A; Zainal, Anazida; Maarof, Mohd Aizaini

2013-01-01

100

Robust Satellite Techniques for monitoring TIR anomalies in seismogenic areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on Thermal Infrared (TIR) satellite observations, previous studies have been suggesting for decades a relation between TIR anomalies and seismic activity. Among the others, a Robust Satellite data analysis Technique (RST) was proposed which provides a statistically based definition of ?TIR anomalies? and a suitable method for their identification even in very different local (e.g. related to atmosphere and\\/or

C. Aliano; G. Martinelli; C. Filizzola; N. Pergola; N. Genzano; V. Tramutoli

2008-01-01

101

Congenital coronary artery anomalies angiographic classification revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many fragmental classification of coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) exist, but a simple practical angiographic classification for angiographers has been never proposed. This study is aimed to suggest a simplified angiographic classification of congenital CAAs based on just a few univocal common angiographic patterns. The authors reviewed 5100 coronary angiographies in order to select CAAs patients and identify simple common angiographic

Rigatelli Gianluca; Docali Giorgio; Rossi Paolo; Bovolon Daniela; Rossi Daniele; Bandello Attilio; Lonardi Gabriele; Rigatelli Giorgio

2003-01-01

102

Magnetic Anomalies in the Enderby Basin, the Southern Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic anomalies in the Southern indian Ocean are vital to understanding initial breakup process of Gondwana. However, seafloor age estimated from magnetic anomalies still remain less well-defined because of the sparse observations in this area. To understand the seafloor spreading history related to the initial breakup process of Gondwana, vector magnetic anomaly data as well as total intensity magnetic anomaly data obtained by the R/V Hakuho-maru and the icebreaker Shirase in the Enderby Basin, Southern Indian Ocean, are used. The strikes of magnetic structures are deduced from the vector magnetic anomalies. Magnetic anomaly signals, most likely indicating Mesozoic magnetic anomaly sequence, are obtained almost parallel to the west of WNW-ESE trending lineaments just to the south of Conrad Rise inferred from satellite gravity anomalies. Most of the strikes of magnetic structures indicate NNE-SSW trends, and are almost perpendicular to the WNW-ESE trending lineaments. Mesozoic sequence magnetic anomalies with mostly WNW-ESE strikes are also observed along the NNE-SSW trending lineaments between the south of the Conrad Rise and Gunnerus Ridge. Magnetic anomalies originated from Cretaceous normal polarity superchron are found in these profiles, although magnetic anomaly C34 has been identified just to the north of the Conrad Rise. However Mesozoic sequence magnetic anomalies are only observed in the west side of the WNW-ESE trending lineaments just to the south of Conrad Rise and not detected to the east of Cretaceous normal superchron signals. These results show that counter part of Mesozoic sequence magnetic anomalies in the south of Conrad Rise would be found in the East Enderby Basin, off East Antarctica. NNE-SSW trending magnetic structures, which are similar to those obtained just to the south of Conrad Rise, are found off East Antarctica in the East Enderby Basin. However, some of the strikes show almost E-W orientations. These suggest complicated ridge reorganization occurred during initial breakup of Gondwana in the Enderby Basin.

Nogi, Y.; Sato, T.; Hanyu, T.

2013-12-01

103

The NEAR Rendezvous Burn Anomaly  

E-print Network

The NEAR Rendezvous Burn Anomaly of December 1998 Final Report of the NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Report of the NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) Anomaly Review Board November 1999 ©1999 The Johns .................................................................................................................................................... 4 Reconstructed Timeline

Rhoads, James

104

Redshift Anomalies with Universal Free-Fall  

E-print Network

For most theories which parametrize modifications of General Relativity, including those which violate the equivalence principle, gravitational redshift tests typically offer weaker constraints on such test parameters than do precision measurements of the universality of free fall (UFF) and local Lorentz invariance (LLI). Although redshift anomalies are often linked with violations of UFF or LLI, they do not have to be. We offer a simple model in which particle masses anomalously vary with the gravitational potential. This generates gravitational redshift anomalies unconstrained by existing tests of UFF or LLI. We propose new experiments to limit such effects.

Michael A. Hohensee; Holger Mueller

2010-08-03

105

The source of marine magnetic anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vine-Matthews hypothesis (1963) is examined. This hypothesis suggests that oceanic rocks become polarized in the direction of the magnetic field at the time of their formation, thus recording the polarity history of the earth's magnetic field. This produces the lineated magnetic anomalies on either side of the midoceanic ridge crests. The strength of these magnetic anomalies is studied to determine the strength of magnetization. Indirect determinations of the magnetization intensity of the oceanic crust and direct observations of the oceanic crust are compared. It is found that the average magnetization of a 6-km thick oceanic crust is 1.18 A/m.

Harrison, Christopher G. A.

1987-01-01

106

Open to Suggestion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical suggestions from teachers include activities for defining new English words, using free association and writing, stocking the sustained silent reading library, and using the compare/contrast strategy for word recognition. (MKM)

Journal of Reading, 1981

1981-01-01

107

A Potential Link between Fluid Expulsion and Slope Stability: Geochemical Anomalies Measured in the Gas Blowouts along the U.S. Atlantic Margin Provide New Constraints on their Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical, bathymetric and AUV based surveys conducted aboard the R/V Cape Hatteras in July 2004 provided new constraints on the formation of large-scale gas blowout features located along the U.S. Atlantic margin. These features, believed to be formed by gas expulsion processes, are ~4km long, ~1km wide and up to 50m deep. The stratal geometry of these features and their location on the shelf-edge has led us to hypothesize that they may indicate incipient slope failure. Interpretation from our chirp seismic reflection data, collected in 2000, showed gas generally was trapped under a thin veneer (several tens of meters) of deltaic sediments, but may be venting along the landward wall of the blowouts. New geochemical data indicate significant methane anomalies above both the seaward and landward walls of the blowouts and reveals that these features are actively venting fluids at the seafloor. Using a METSr sensor mounted on the WHOI Seabed AUV, we observed methane concentrations ranging from 50-100nM in the water column directly above the inner and outer walls, whereas typical methane concentrations in seawater are expected to be 2-4nM. Some of these methane hot spots were also associated with salinity anomalies. Additionally, pore fluids squeezed from a series of piston cores in the blowout region show relatively high alkalinity values (>4-15mM), with a near absence of hydrogen sulfide. These initial results are particularly intriguing since high alkalinity concentrations are commonly associated with high sulfide concentrations. We speculate that there may be a flux of CO2 into the sediments that may be responsible for the high alkalinity and low sulfide. In addition to our geochemical studies, we collected a full suite of bottom photographs, gravity cores, and high resolution bathymetry. Visualization of these data in three dimensions, along with methane concentration profiles, chirp reflection, and sidescan-sonar data has enabled us to build a relatively comprehensive picture of the blowout features. There are strong spatial correlations between trapped gas and the overlying shelf-edge delta deposit, as well as with relatively high methane concentrations in the water column, and indications of inner wall venting in the chirp profiles. Nevertheless, a distinct spatial correlation between the occurrence of biological communities and the fluid expulsion sites was not observed. The active fluid expulsion we measured is consistent with our geophysical observations, and supports our hypothesis that there is a link between upslope fluid migration, downslope creep, and potential slope failure.

Hill, J. C.; Driscoll, N. W.; Weissel, J. K.; Kastner, M.; Singh, H.; Cormier, M.; Camilli, R.; Eustice, R.; Lipscomb, R.; McPhee, N.; Newman, K.; Robertson, G.; Solomon, E.; Tomanka, K.

2004-12-01

108

Global Climate Highlights and Anomalies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOAA's Global Climate Highlights and Anomalies page offers weekly summaries of global climate highlights and anomalies (warm, cold, wet, dry). Areas experiencing climate anomalies are color-marked on a global map, followed by written summaries of each region's climate conditions. All weeks are posted for the year 2000 (to present), and a link points users to the complete 1999 archive.

1999-01-01

109

Anomaly patterns about strong convective events in the tropics and midlatitudes: Observations from radiosondes and surface weather stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

use 13 years (1998-2010) of rainfall estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission to identify high rain events located close to radiosondes. This is done in four regions: the Western Tropical Pacific, Tropical Brazil, Southeast China, and Southeast U.S. We then construct composite anomaly patterns of temperature, relative humidity, surface pressure, convective available potential energy (CAPE), geopotential height, mass divergence, relative vorticity, and potential vorticity about these high rain events. One motivation of this analysis is to identify regional differences in the interaction between strong convective events and the background atmosphere. We find, overall, that the changes in meteorological variables which occur during the evolution of strong convective events in midlatitudes are similar to the changes that occur in the tropics. In midlatitudes, however, strong convective events are associated with stronger anomalies in surface pressure and geopotential height and exhibit a warm anomaly in the lower troposphere prior to peak rainfall. In the Southeast U.S., the near-surface layer of positive CAPE that occurs prior to high rain events is thicker than in the Western Tropical Pacific. In the two midlatitude regions, the midlevel potential vorticity maximum that develops during the growth stage of high rain events acquires a downward tilt toward the surface during the decay stage, suggesting downward transport toward the surface. A conceptual model previously used to interpret the anomaly patterns of the 2 day equatorial wave is used to interpret the anomaly patterns associated with more general types of high rain events in the tropics.

Mitovski, Toni; Folkins, Ian

2014-01-01

110

Hyperbolic Orbits and the Planetary Flylby Anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space probes in the Solar System have experienced unexpected changes in velocity known as the flyby anomaly [1], as well as shifts in acceleration referred to as the Pioneer anomaly [2-4]. In the case of Earth flybys, ESA s Rosetta spacecraft experienced the flyby effect and NASA s Galileo and NEAR satellites did the same, although MESSENGER did not possibly due to a latitudinal property of gravity assists. Measurements indicate that both anomalies exist, and explanations have varied from the unconventional to suggestions that new physics in the form of dark matter might be the cause of both [5]. Although dark matter has been studied for over 30 years, there is as yet no strong experimental evidence supporting it [6]. The existence of dark matter will certainly have a significant impact upon ideas regarding the origin of the Solar System. Hence, the subject is very relevant to planetary science. We will point out here that one of the fundamental problems in science, including planetary physics, is consistency. Using the well-known virial theorem in astrophysics, it will be shown that present-day concepts of orbital mechanics and cosmology are not consistent for reasons having to do with the flyby anomaly. Therefore, the basic solution regarding the anomalies should begin with addressing the inconsistencies first before introducing new physics.

Wilson, T.L.; Blome, H.J.

2009-01-01

111

Yearly Arctic Temperature Anomaly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the yearly temperature anomaly over the Arctic region from 1981-82 through 2002-03. Years run from August 1 through July 31. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -7.0 to +7.0 degrees Celsius in increments of .25 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

112

INVESTIGATING THE SOURCE OF THERMAL ANOMALIES IN THE NORTHERN UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (UAE) DESERT USING GEOPHYSICAL METHODS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted geophysical surveys to investigate the source of thermal anomalies and to delineate any potential water transport pathways from the recharge zones in the Oman Mountains to the location of the temporal thermal anomalies within the desert plain of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In the visible region of the spectrum of both ASTER and MODIS satellite images, the desert plain of the UAE appears as a bare sandy surface. However, detailed examination of these images in the thermal bands reveal cooler thermal anomalies within the desert plain following major rainfall events. This anomaly has a cooler surface of approximately 20 °C lower than the surroundings with a lifespan of several days. It has been hypothesized that moist surfaces, following rainfall events in an arid hot desert could be an indirect indication of locations with groundwater accumulation. Two regional fault zones, Dibba (NE-SW) and Hatta (NW-SE) were traced from ASTER satellite images and SRTM (~90 m) elevation data, but it remained unclear whether they extend into the thermal anomaly area. Control Source Audiomagnetotelluric (CSAMT) and ground magnetic data were acquired to verify the possible extension of these fault zones into the thermal anomaly area. CSAMT data were acquired along profiles positioned perpendicular to the Dibba and Hatta fault trends and over a 3-D survey grid covering the anomaly area. The ground magnetic survey delineated the extension of both fault zones into the gravel plains area but not into the anomaly area probably due to the thicker sand cover. 2D CSAMT apparent resistivity sections show a low resistivity structure coincident with the thermal anomalies that parallel the Dibba Fault zone trend. A conductive structure over the thermal anomaly area, coincident with the extension of the Hatta Fault zone, was characterized from CSAMT 2-D inversions. The results suggest that the Hatta and Dibba fault zones extend from the recharge areas in the mountain into the desert plains. The results also suggest that these faults play a vital role in transmitting infiltrated rainwater from the Oman Mountains into the desert plain of the UAE where freshwater accumulates after rainfall events causing the thermal anomalies.

Al Bloushi, K. M.; Atekwana, E. A.; Meju, M.; Ghoneim, E.; El-Baz, F.

2009-12-01

113

Soybean Insect Control Suggestions.  

E-print Network

............................ 7 Soybean Stem Borer ....................... 8 Occasional Pests ...................... ..... . 8 Beneficial Arthropods ....................... 8 Insecticide Application Methods ............. 9 Biological Insecticides ....................... 9... Protecting Bees and Other Pollinators from Insecticides .............................. 10 Policy Statement for Making Chemical Control Recommendations ....................... 11 Soybean Insect Control Suggestions (chart) ... 12 Conversion Table...

Drees, B.M.

1985-01-01

114

Satellite magnetic anomalies over subduction zones - The Aleutian Arc anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Positive magnetic anomalies seen in MAGSAT average scalar anomaly data overlying some subduction zones can be explained in terms of the magnetization contrast between the cold subducted oceanic slab and the surrounding hotter, nonmagnetic mantle. Three-dimensional modeling studies show that peak anomaly amplitude and location depend on slab length and dip. A model for the Aleutian Arc anomaly matches the general trend of the observed MAGSAT anomaly if a slab thickness of 7 km and a relatively high (induced plus viscous) magnetization contrast of 4 A/m are used. A second source body along the present day continental margin is required to match the observed anomaly in detail, and may be modeled as a relic slab from subduction prior to 60 m.y. ago.

Clark, S. C.; Frey, H.; Thomas, H. H.

1985-01-01

115

Coronary Artery Anomalies--Current Clinical Issues  

PubMed Central

The study of coronary artery anomalies would benefit from the clarification of various fundamental issues, including the definitions, classification, incidence, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and clinical relevance of each anomaly. The greatest challenge is to identify the abnormality and determine its clinical relevance so that appropriate treatment can be instituted. Currently, the coronary anatomy is essentially defined by the features of the (conductive) epicardial coronary tree and its dependent territory. Therefore, one must consider all the possible and observed variations in anatomic features that are used to describe the coronary arteries. We propose that the left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary arteries be considered the essential, elementary units of coronary anatomy. We also suggest that the coronary arteries be defined not by their origin or proximal course, but by their intermediate and distal segments or dependent microvascular bed. A strict classification system is necessary before meaningful data can be gathered about the incidence of coronary anomalies. With respect to clinical relevance, the greatest challenge is presented by anomalies that only occasionally cause critically severe clinical events and are otherwise compatible with a normal life. In such cases, it is not known whether the specific features of a given anomaly cause adverse clinical consequences, or whether additional episodic factors are required. To correlate subclassifiable anatomic and functional features with clinical events and prognoses, a large, multicenter database, relying on prospective, coordinated protocols, is urgently needed. In the absence of established official guidelines, we present practical protocols for diagnosing and treating coronary anomalies. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:271–8) PMID:12484611

Angelini, Paolo

2002-01-01

116

Online Anomaly Prediction for Real-Time Stream Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the consideration of real-time stream processing technology, it's important to develop high availability mechanism to guarantee stream-based application not interfered by faults caused by potential anomalies. In this paper, we present a novel online prediction technique for predicting some anomalies which may occur in the near future. Concretely, we first present a value prediction which combines the Hidden Markov Model and the Mixture of Expert Model to predict the values of feature metrics in the near future. Then we employ the Support Vector Machine to do anomaly identification, which is a procedure to identify the kind of anomaly that we are about to alarm. The purpose of our approach is to achieve a tradeoff between fault penalty and resource cost. The experiment results show that our approach is of high accuracy for common anomaly prediction and low runtime overhead.

Huang, Yuanqiang; Luan, Zhongzhi; Qian, Depei; Du, Zhigao; Chen, Ting; Bai, Yuebin

117

Maternal water consumption during pregnancy and congenital cardiac anomalies  

SciTech Connect

This case-control study, conducted in a California county that had a local incident of water contamination in 1981, investigated the relation between a mother's reported consumption of tap water during pregnancy and congenital cardiac anomalies in their offspring born during 1981-1983. Data were obtained from telephone interviews with 145 mothers of children born with a severe cardiac anomaly and 176 mothers of children born without such an anomaly. A positive association between a mother's consumption of home tap water during the first trimester of pregnancy and cardiac anomalies in her infant was unrelated to the incident of water contamination, the mother's race, or her educational level. A negative relation was found between a mother's use of bottled water and cardiac anomalies among the infants. These findings corresponded primarily to births in 1981. These data could not fully distinguish between a potential causal agent in the water and differential reporting of exposure by study subjects.

Shaw, G.M.; Swan, S.H.; Harris, J.A.; Malcoe, L.H. (California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville (USA))

1990-05-01

118

Pseudo-Predictability in Conditional Asset Pricing Tests: Explaining Anomaly Performance with Politics, the Weather, Global Warming, Sunspots, and the Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferson, Sarkissian and Simin (2003) warn that persistence in expected returns generates spurious regression bias in predictive regressions of stock returns, even though stock returns are themselves only weakly autocorrelated. Despite this fact a growing literature attempts to explain the performance of stock market anomalies with highly persistent investor sentiment. The data suggest, however, that the potential misspecification bias may

Robert Novy-Marx

2012-01-01

119

Thermodynamics, gravitational anomalies and cones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By studying the Euclidean partition function on a cone, we argue that pure and mixed gravitational anomalies generate a "Casimir momentum" which manifests itself as parity violating coefficients in the hydrodynamic stress tensor and charge current. The coefficients generated by these anomalies enter at a lower order in the hydrodynamic gradient expansion than would be naively expected. In 1 + 1 dimensions, the gravitational anomaly affects coefficients at zeroth order in the gradient expansion. The mixed anomaly in 3 + 1 dimensions controls the value of coefficients at first order in the gradient expansion.

Jensen, Kristan; Loganayagam, R.; Yarom, Amos

2013-02-01

120

Unexplained Fe, Ni and S anomalies in CV chondrite components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large negative anomalies in Fe, Co, Ni, S and Se are present in Allende Type B Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI's). Based on compilations of all the known published analyses, Allende chondrules, aggregates and other types of CAI's also display anomalies. These observations show that: (1) since Fe, Co, Ni, S and Se are more depleted than elements bracketing them in volatility (such as Pt and Au, and Su and Cd), the anomalies were not produced during the volatility dependent, high temperature CAI forming processes; (2) since Pt, Au, Ge and other siderophiles are not as depleted as Fe, Co and Ni, the anomalies are not due to a metal/silicate fractionation; (3) the association of Fe, Co, and Ni anomalies with S and Se anomalies suggests that the anomalies are due to the removal of FeNi sulfide; and (4) since these anomalies occur in all types of Allende inclusions, aggregates and chondrules, the Allende parental material must have undergone sulfide loss before the formation of these components.

Wark, D. A.

1984-01-01

121

Turtle Carapace Anomalies: The Roles of Genetic Diversity and Environment  

PubMed Central

Background Phenotypic anomalies are common in wild populations and multiple genetic, biotic and abiotic factors might contribute to their formation. Turtles are excellent models for the study of developmental instability because anomalies are easily detected in the form of malformations, additions, or reductions in the number of scutes or scales. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we integrated field observations, manipulative experiments, and climatic and genetic approaches to investigate the origin of carapace scute anomalies across Iberian populations of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis. The proportion of anomalous individuals varied from 3% to 69% in local populations, with increasing frequency of anomalies in northern regions. We found no significant effect of climatic and soil moisture, or climatic temperature on the occurrence of anomalies. However, lower genetic diversity and inbreeding were good predictors of the prevalence of scute anomalies among populations. Both decreasing genetic diversity and increasing proportion of anomalous individuals in northern parts of the Iberian distribution may be linked to recolonization events from the Southern Pleistocene refugium. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results suggest that developmental instability in turtle carapace formation might be caused, at least in part, by genetic factors, although the influence of environmental factors affecting the developmental stability of turtle carapace cannot be ruled out. Further studies of the effects of environmental factors, pollutants and heritability of anomalies would be useful to better understand the complex origin of anomalies in natural populations. PMID:21533278

Velo-Anton, Guillermo; Becker, C. Guilherme; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo

2011-01-01

122

Cosmological anomalies and exotic smoothness structures  

E-print Network

It seems to be generally accepted that apparently anomalous cosmological observations, such as accelerating expansion, etc., necessarily are inconsistent with standard general relativity and standard matter sources. Following the suggestions of S{\\l}adkowski, we point out that in addition to exotic theories and exotic matter there is another possibility. We refer to exotic differential structures on ${\\mathbb R}^4$ which could be the source of the observed anomalies without changing the Einstein equations or introducing strange forms of matter.

Torsten Asselmeyer-Maluga; Carl H. Brans

2001-10-08

123

New structural anomaly induced by nanoconfinement  

E-print Network

We explore the structural properties of anomalous fluids confined in a nanopore using Molecular Dynamics simulations. The fluid is modeled by core-softened (CS) potentials that have a repulsive shoulder and an attractive well at a further distance. Changing the attractive well depth of the fluid-fluid interaction potential, we studied the behavior of the anomalies in the translational order parameter $t$ and excess entropy $s_{ex}$ for the particles near to the nanopore wall (contact layer) for systems with two or three layers of particles. When the attractive well of the CS potential is shallow, the systems present a three to two layers transition and, additionally to the usual structural anomaly, a new anomalous region in $t$ and $s_{ex}$. For attractive well deep enough, the systems change from three layers to a bulk-like profile and just one region of anomaly in $t$ and $s_{ex}$ is observed. Our results are discussed in the basis of the fluid-fluid and fluid-surface interactions.

Leandro B. Krott; José Rafael Bordin; Marcia Barbosa

2014-10-21

124

Probing the Chiral Anomaly with Nonlocal Transport in Three-Dimensional Topological Semimetals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weyl semimetals are three-dimensional crystalline systems where pairs of bands touch at points in momentum space, termed Weyl nodes, that are characterized by a definite topological charge: the chirality. Consequently, they exhibit the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly, which in this condensed-matter realization implies that the application of parallel electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields pumps electrons between nodes of opposite chirality at a rate proportional to E .B. We argue that this pumping is measurable via nonlocal transport experiments, in the limit of weak internode scattering. Specifically, we show that as a consequence of the anomaly, applying a local magnetic field parallel to an injected current induces a valley imbalance that diffuses over long distances. A probe magnetic field can then convert this imbalance into a measurable voltage drop far from source and drain. Such nonlocal transport vanishes when the injected current and magnetic field are orthogonal and therefore serves as a test of the chiral anomaly. We further demonstrate that a similar effect should also characterize Dirac semimetals—recently reported to have been observed in experiments—where the coexistence of a pair of Weyl nodes at a single point in the Brillouin zone is protected by a crystal symmetry. Since the nodes are analogous to valley degrees of freedom in semiconductors, the existence of the anomaly suggests that valley currents in three-dimensional topological semimetals can be controlled using electric fields, which has potential practical "valleytronic" applications.

Parameswaran, S. A.; Grover, T.; Abanin, D. A.; Pesin, D. A.; Vishwanath, A.

2014-07-01

125

Major coronary anomalies in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major coronary artery anomalies are extremely rare in childhood. We wanted to assess the historical and diagnostic features and the therapeutic options of three distinct types of coronary artery anomalies: abnormal origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), coronary fistula and coronary stenosis. In a retrospective study, 33 children with these types of coronary artery disease

Daniël Wolf; Tom Vercruysse; Bert Suys; Nico Blom; Dirk Matthys; Jaap Ottenkamp

2002-01-01

126

Anomaly detection in IP networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network anomaly detection is a vibrant research area. Researchers have approached this problem using various techniques such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and state machine modeling. In this paper, we first review these anomaly detection methods and then describe in detail a statistical signal processing technique based on abrupt change detection. We show that this signal processing technique is effective

Marina Thottan; Chuanyi Ji

2003-01-01

127

Measuring anomaly with algorithmic entropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomaly detection refers to the identification of observations that are considered outside of normal. Since they are unknown to the system prior to training and rare, the anomaly detection problem is particularly challenging. Model based techniques require large quantities of existing data are to build the model. Statistically based techniques result in the use of statistical metrics or thresholds for

Wanda M. Solano

2007-01-01

128

Comparison of molecular dynamics averaged structures for complexes of normal and oncogenic ras-p21 with SOS nucleotide exchange protein, containing computed conformations for three crystallographically undefined domains, suggests a potential role of these domains in ras signaling.  

PubMed

ras-p21 protein binds to the son-of-sevenless (SOS) guanine nucleotide-exchange promoter that allows it to exchange GDP for GTP. Previously, we performed molecular dynamics calculations on oncogenic (Val 12-) and wild-type ras-p21 bound to SOS. By superimposing the average structures of these two complexes, we identified four domains (residues 631-641, 676-691, 718-729, and 994-1004) in SOS that change conformation and were candidates for being effector domains. These calculations were performed in the absence of three crystallographically undefined loops (i.e., residues 591-596, 654-675, and 742-751). We have now modeled these loops into the SOS structure and have re-performed the dynamics calculations. We find that all three loop domains undergo large changes in conformation that involve mostly changes in their positioning and not their individual conformations. We have also identified another potential effector domain (i.e., residues 980-989). Overall, our current results suggest that SOS interactions with oncogenic ras-p21 may enhance ras-p21 mitogenic signaling through prolonging its activation by maintaining its binding to GTP and by allowing its effector domains to interact with intracellular targets. PMID:15200053

Duncan, Thomas; Chen, James M; Friedman, Fred K; Hyde, Mark; Chie, Lyndon; Pincus, Matthew R

2004-04-01

129

Primordial quantum nonequilibrium and large-scale cosmic anomalies  

E-print Network

We study incomplete relaxation to quantum equilibrium at long wavelengths, during a pre-inflationary phase, as a possible explanation for the reported large-scale anomalies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Our scenario makes use of the de Broglie-Bohm pilot-wave formulation of quantum theory, in which the Born probability rule has a dynamical origin. The large-scale power deficit could arise from incomplete relaxation for the amplitudes of the primordial perturbations. We show, by numerical simulations for a spectator scalar field, that if the pre-inflationary era is radiation dominated then the deficit in the emerging power spectrum will have a characteristic shape (an inverse-tangent dependence on wavenumber k, with oscillations). It is found that our scenario is able to produce a power deficit in the observed region and of the observed (approximate) magnitude for an appropriate choice of cosmological parameters. We also discuss the large-scale anisotropy, which could arise from incomplete relaxation for the phases of the primordial perturbations. We present numerical simulations for phase relaxation, and we show how to define characteristic scales for amplitude and phase nonequilibrium. The extent to which the data might support our scenario is left as a question for future work. Our results suggest that we have a potentially viable model that might explain two apparently independent cosmic anomalies by means of a single mechanism.

Samuel Colin; Antony Valentini

2014-07-31

130

Exploration in Mid-Continent geophysical anomaly: rift or riffraff  

SciTech Connect

Geologic and geophysical exploration for oil and gas in the Mid-Continent geophysical anomaly (MGA) resulted in acquiring millions of acres and thousands of miles of seismic data in areas previously considered nonprospective for economic hydrocarbon production. Interpreted to be a rift, this 700-mi feature extends from northern Kansas through Lake Superior into Michigan. Factors influencing major company interest in the feature include: oil occurring in Keweenawan sediments from Michigan; gravity and magnetic data suggesting that clastic-filled basins are present; and extensive folding and faulting of Precambrian rock units seen on seismic sections. Little attention has been given to other important factors, including lithostratigraphy, thermal and burial history of reservoir and source rocks, and distribution of observed gravity and magnetic anomalies throughout the rift. Although such data are sparse or highly susceptible to interpretation, any ensuing model should attempt to explain the observations. The observed data constrain exploration modeling within certain boundaries. These constraints are: (1) proximity of the reservoir rock to the potential source rock; (2) different thermal histories for the flanks of the rift versus the center; and (3) high versus low densities and magnetic susceptibilities in the central part versus the flanking positions of the MGA south of Lake Superior.

Yarus, J.M.; Hinks, A.

1986-05-01

131

Heat flux boundary anomalies and thermal winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies have shown strong effects of outer boundary heat flux patterns on the dynamo mechanism in planets. For example, the hemispherical field of the ancient Martian dynamo can be explained by a large scale sinusoidal anomaly of the core mantle boundary heat flux triggered by large scale mantle convection or giant impacts. The magnetic fields show typically the desired effect - though dynamo action is locally stronger where the underneath heat flux is higher. However, it remains an open question if these effects still apply for more realistic planetary parameters, such as vigor of the convection (Rayleigh number) or the rotation rate (Ekman). The sinusoidal variation of the CMB heat flux along the colatitude with larger heat flux in the southern and smaller in the northern hemisphere as used for Mars can lead to a concentration of magnetic field in the south. The shape of such a hemispherical dynamo matches the crustal magnetization pattern at the surface and seems therefore an admissible mode for the ancient Martian dynamo. As the consequence of the emerging latitudinal temperature gradients convection and induction are dominated by thermal winds. These zonal flows were found to be equatorial antisymmetric, axisymmetric, ageostrophic, of strong amplitude and have therefore a severe effect on core convection and especially the induction process. We measure the underlying thermal anomalies as a function of Rayleigh and Ekman number and show that they are responsible for the thermal winds. Our results suggest that temperature anomalies decrease clearly with the supercriticality of the convection due to faster stirring and mixing, but show no additional dependence on the Ekman number. Interestingly, the decline of the latitudinal temperature anomaly follows a recently suggested scaling law for the thickness of thermal boundary layers. Even though the convective supercriticality of planetary cores is rather large and therefore only a minor effect of thermal boundary disturbances is expected, we suggest thermal winds can still significantly contribute to the total kinetic energy in real planetary core.

Dietrich, Wieland; Wicht, Johannes

2013-04-01

132

Chiral anomaly in soft collinear effective theory  

E-print Network

Anomalies have infrared and ultraviolet ingredients, and are often realized in effective theories in a nontrivial way. We study the chiral anomaly in soft collinear effective theory (SCET), where the anomaly equation has ...

Waalewijn, Wouter Jonathan

133

Reactor antineutrino anomaly  

SciTech Connect

Recently, new reactor antineutrino spectra have been provided for {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 238}U, increasing the mean flux by about 3%. To a good approximation, this reevaluation applies to all reactor neutrino experiments. The synthesis of published experiments at reactor-detector distances <100 m leads to a ratio of observed event rate to predicted rate of 0.976{+-}0.024. With our new flux evaluation, this ratio shifts to 0.943{+-}0.023, leading to a deviation from unity at 98.6% C.L. which we call the reactor antineutrino anomaly. The compatibility of our results with the existence of a fourth nonstandard neutrino state driving neutrino oscillations at short distances is discussed. The combined analysis of reactor data, gallium solar neutrino calibration experiments, and MiniBooNE-{nu} data disfavors the no-oscillation hypothesis at 99.8% C.L. The oscillation parameters are such that |{Delta}m{sub new}{sup 2}|>1.5 eV{sup 2} (95%) and sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub new})=0.14{+-}0.08 (95%). Constraints on the {theta}{sub 13} neutrino mixing angle are revised.

Mention, G.; Fechner, M. [CEA, Irfu, SPP, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lasserre, Th.; Cribier, M. [CEA, Irfu, SPP, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Astroparticule et Cosmologie APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Mueller, Th. A.; Lhuillier, D.; Letourneau, A. [CEA, Irfu, SPhN, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2011-04-01

134

ANALYZING THE FLUX ANOMALIES OF THE LARGE-SEPARATION LENSED QUASAR SDSS J1029+2623  

SciTech Connect

Using a high-resolution radio image, we successfully resolve the two-fold image components B and C of the quasar lens system SDSS J1029+2623. The flux anomalies associated with these two components in the optical regime persist, albeit less strongly, in our radio observations suggesting that the cluster must be modeled by something more than a single central potential. We argue that placing substructure close to one of the components can account for a flux anomaly with negligible changes in the component positions. Our best-fit model has a substructure mass of {approx}10{sup 9} M{sub sun} up to the mass-sheet degeneracy, located roughly 0.''1 west and 0.''1 north of component B. We demonstrate that a positional offset between the centers of the source components can explain the differences between the optical and radio flux ratios.

Kratzer, Rachael M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Goldberg, David M. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Oguri, Masamune [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Hodge, Jacqueline A.; Becker, Robert H. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Inada, Naohisa [Research Center for the Early Universe, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2011-02-10

135

Pelger-Huët Anomaly in a cat.  

PubMed

A 14-year-old, spayed female Domestic Shorthair cat was referred to the Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (PUVTH) for iodine 131 treatment of hyperthyroidism. Upon arrival, a biochemistry profile and a CBC were performed. Approximately 50% of the neutrophils and all the eosinophils observed were hyposegmented with a mature, condensed chromatin pattern. Nuclei had a band to "dumbbell" shape, and rarely a round shape, suggesting a Pelger-Huët anomaly or a pseudo Pelger-Huët. Based on both a negative FeLV and FIV tests, the absence of any clinical signs to support an inflammatory process, and the persistence of this granulocytic morphology 6 months after its previous admission to the PUVTH, a diagnosis of Pelger-Huët anomaly was established in this cat. PMID:25115222

Deshuillers, Pierre; Raskin, Rose; Messick, Joanne

2014-09-01

136

Nesting of thermodynamic, structural, and dynamic anomalies in liquid silicon.  

PubMed

Anomalous behaviour in density, diffusivity, and structural order is investigated for silicon modeled by the Stillinger-Weber potential by performing molecular dynamics simulations. As previously reported in the case of water [J. R. Errington and P. G. Debenedetti, Nature (London) 409, 318 (2001)] and silica [M. S. Shell, P. G. Debenedetti, and A. Z. Panagiotopoulos, Phys. Rev. E 66, 011202 (2002)], a cascading of thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural anomalous regions is also observed in liquid silicon. The region of structural anomaly includes the region of diffusivity anomaly, which in turn encompasses the region of density anomaly (which is unlike water but similar to silica). In the region of structural anomaly, a tight correlation between the translational and tetrahedrality order parameter is found, but the correlation is weaker when a local orientational order parameter (q3) is used as a measure of tetrahedrality. The total excess entropy and the pair correlation entropy are computed across the phase diagram and the correlation between the excess entropy and the regions of anomalies in the phase diagram of liquid silicon is examined. Scaling relations associating the excess entropy with the diffusion coefficient show considerable deviation from the quasi-universal behaviour observed in hard-sphere and Lennard-Jones liquids and some liquid metals. Excess entropy based criteria for diffusivity and structural anomalies fail to capture the observed regions of anomaly. PMID:25273445

Vasisht, Vishwas V; Mathew, John; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Sastry, Srikanth

2014-09-28

137

Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena.  

PubMed

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid. PMID:21797593

Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2011-07-01

138

Structure of Hot Flow Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot Flow Anomalies (HFAs) were first discovered in 1980s. These are active processes of hot plasma bulks formation that usually occur at planetary bow shocks. Though HFA were studied for long time it is still not clear if they are reforming structures and what defines particular internal structure of HFA. Our study is based on the Interball Tail Probe data. We used 10-sec measurements of complex plasma analyzer SCA-1 and 1-second magnetic field measurements, and ELECTRON spectrometer 2-dimensional measurements with 3,75-sec temporal resolution. Five anomalies that were observed on the basis of well resolved structure for which we obtained displacement velocity along bow shock, flow velocities within HFA, and estimated the size. We checked if main criteria of HFA formation were fulfilled for each case. The following criteria were satisfied: motional electric field direction was directed toward current sheet at least at one side of it, bow shock was quasi-perpendicular at least at one side of HFA, and angle between current sheet normal and solar wind velocity was large. Convection velocities of plasma within HFA were calculated by subtracting average velocity from measured ion convection velocities along spacecraft trajectory through anomaly. These convection velocities viewed in coordinate system of shock normal and calculated IMF current sheet normal clearly show separation of HFA region in 3 parts: leading part, narrow central part, and trailing part. Ion velocity distributions confirm this triple structure of HFA. Thomsen et al. [1986] identified the region within HFA that they called "internal recovery". It looks like central region that we call narrow central part. Vaisberg et al. [1999] discussed separation of HFA into 2 distinct parts that correspond to leading and trailing parts. Judging from plasma convection pattern within HFAs we assumed that "internal recovery" region is the source of energy and momentum around interplanetary current sheet crossing. HFA formation mechanisms presume that HFA is formed when particles are reflected on bow shock, get swept by motional electric field and are injected back into the area. We tried to calculate the balance of energy in solar wind and within HFA to estimate what amount of reflected particles is needed for "internal recovery" area to be the real energy source. These estimations suggest that this energy balance is nearly fulfilled in 4 of 5 analyzed HFAs, and does not hold for one HFA. This energy balance may be in favor of quasi-stationary nature of HFA structure. References Thomsen, M. F., J. T. Gosling, S. A. Fuselier, S. J. Bame, and C. T. Russell (1986), Hot, diamagnetic cavities upstream from the Earth's bow shock, J. Geophys. Res., 91(A3), 2961-2973, doi:10.1029/JA091iA03p02961. Vaisberg, O.L., J.H.Waite, L.Avanov, V.N.Smirnov, D.Dempsey J.L.Burch and A.A.Skalsky, HFA-like signatures observed with Interball-Tail spacecraft, in: Solar Wind Nine, ed. By S.R.Habbal, R.Esser, J.V.Hollweg, and P.A.Isenberg, AIP 1-56396-865-7, 1999, pp. 551-554.

Shestakov, A.; Vaisberg, O. L.

2012-12-01

139

Pacific Temperature Anomalies with Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the El Nino-La Nina Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly from January 1997 through July 1999. A graph inset shows the global average sea surface temperature fluctuation during this time period.

Shirah, Greg; Bridgman, Tom; Starr, Cindy; Busalacchi, Antonio; Schultz, Peter

2003-08-30

140

Suggestion systems in organizations: what motivates employees to submit suggestions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Suggestion systems offer the opportunity for organizations to benefit directly from their employees' innovativeness. The purpose of this paper is to investigate processes underlying employees' involvement with suggestion systems. It examines the relationship between interactional justice of the suggestion system, valence of the suggestion system (VSS), employees' wellbeing, and their motivation to submit suggestions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were

Veronika I. D. Buech; Alexandra Michel; Karlheinz Sonntag

2010-01-01

141

Evaluation of anomalies in GLDAS-1996 dataset.  

PubMed

Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data are widely used for land-surface flux simulations. Therefore, the simulation accuracy using GLDAS dataset is largely contingent upon the accuracy of the GLDAS dataset. It is found that GLDAS land-surface model simulated runoff exhibits strong anomalies for 1996. These anomalies are investigated by evaluating four GLDAS meteorological forcing data (precipitation, air temperature, downward shortwave radiation and downward longwave radiation) in six large basins across the world (Danube, Mississippi, Yangtze, Congo, Amazon and Murray-Darling basins). Precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) are also compared with GLDAS forcing precipitation data. Large errors and lack of monthly variability in GLDAS-1996 precipitation data are the main sources for the anomalies in the simulated runoff. The impact of the precipitation data on simulated runoff for 1996 is investigated with the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land-surface model in the Yangtze basin, for which area high-quality local precipitation data are obtained from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). The CABLE model is driven by GLDAS daily precipitation data and CMA daily precipitation, respectively. The simulated daily and monthly runoffs obtained from CMA data are noticeably better than those obtained from GLDAS data, suggesting that GLDAS-1996 precipitation data are not so reliable for land-surface flux simulations. PMID:23579825

Zhou, Xinyao; Zhang, Yongqiang; Yang, Yonghui; Yang, Yanmin; Han, Shumin

2013-01-01

142

New continental margin magnetic anomalies of East Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, Australian, Norwegian and Russian marine surveys have collected integrated seismic, gravity and magnetic data in the southern Indian Ocean. The more than 350,000 line-km of new airborne and marine magnetic observations for the East Antarctic continental margin have been compiled into an improved definition of crustal magnetic anomaly patterns. This compilation provides important new constraints on the breakup processes and igneous activity related to the formation of the passive margin of East Antarctica. The eastern sector of the map from Bruce Rise in the west to the D'Urville Sea in the east is largely dominated by seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies. The 'Adélie Rift Block' of highly stretched and extensively faulted continental crust is associated with a smooth anomaly fabric. Abrupt magnetic anomaly changes along the oceanic-continent transition in the Cooperation Sea including the Enderby Basin Anomaly extend for more than 1680 km from the Kerguelen Plateau towards the Cosmonaut Sea. Three sectors of the East Antarctic continental margin exhibit pronounced disparities in the anomaly patterns that strongly suggest different modes of seafloor formation. Strong positive seafloor magnetic anomalies mark the southern margin of the Kerguelen Plateau, the Maud Rise and adjacent areas in the Riiser-Larsen Sea. The new compilation suggests that at least 300 km of the Enderby Basin and Shackleton Basin may be part of the Cretaceous Kerguelen Volcanic Province and possibly maps an abandoned 'fossil' spreading center in the central Enderby Basin. The majority of the published age models for the Enderby Basin and "Australian sector" of the East Antarctic margin are not in agreement with the structural grain of magnetic anomalies in the newly compiled map.

Golynsky, A. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Kazankov, A. Ju.; Jokat, W.; Masolov, V. N.; von Frese, R. R. B.

2013-02-01

143

Video behavior profiling for anomaly detection.  

PubMed

This paper aims to address the problem of modelling video behaviour captured in surveillancevideos for the applications of online normal behaviour recognition and anomaly detection. A novelframework is developed for automatic behaviour profiling and online anomaly sampling/detectionwithout any manual labelling of the training dataset. The framework consists of the followingkey components: (1) A compact and effective behaviour representation method is developed basedon discrete scene event detection. The similarity between behaviour patterns are measured basedon modelling each pattern using a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN). (2) Natural grouping ofbehaviour patterns is discovered through a novel spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervisedmodel selection and feature selection on the eigenvectors of a normalised affinity matrix. (3) Acomposite generative behaviour model is constructed which is capable of generalising from asmall training set to accommodate variations in unseen normal behaviour patterns. (4) A run-timeaccumulative anomaly measure is introduced to detect abnormal behaviour while normal behaviourpatterns are recognised when sufficient visual evidence has become available based on an onlineLikelihood Ratio Test (LRT) method. This ensures robust and reliable anomaly detection and normalbehaviour recognition at the shortest possible time. The effectiveness and robustness of our approachis demonstrated through experiments using noisy and sparse datasets collected from both indoorand outdoor surveillance scenarios. In particular, it is shown that a behaviour model trained usingan unlabelled dataset is superior to those trained using the same but labelled dataset in detectinganomaly from an unseen video. The experiments also suggest that our online LRT based behaviourrecognition approach is advantageous over the commonly used Maximum Likelihood (ML) methodin differentiating ambiguities among different behaviour classes observed online. PMID:18369257

Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang

2008-05-01

144

Origin of conductivity anomalies in the asthenosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical conductivity anomalies with anisotropy parallel to the plate motion have been observed beneath the oceanic lithosphere by electromagnetic studies (e.g., Evans et al., 2005; Baba et al., 2010; Naif et al., 2013). Electrical conductivity of the oceanic asthenosphere at ~100 km depth is very high, about 10-2 to 10-1 S/m. This zone is also known in seismology as the low velocity zone. Since Karato (1990) first suggested that electrical conductivity is sensitive to water content in NAMs, softening of asthenosphere has been regarded as a good indicator for constraining the distribution of water. There are two difficulties to explain the observed conductivity features in the asthenosphere. Recent publications on electrical conductivity of hydrous olivine suggested that olivine with the maximum soluble H2O content at the top of the asthenosphere has much lower conductivity less than 0.1 S/m (e.g., Yoshino et al., 2006; 2009a; Poe et al., 2010; Du Frane and Tyburczy, 2012; Yang, 2012), which is a typical value of conductivity anomaly observed in the oceanic mantle. Partial melting has been considered as an attractive agent for substantially raising the conductivity in this region (Shankland and Waff, 1977), because basaltic melt has greater electrical conductivity (> 100.5 S/m) and high wetting properties. However, dry mantle peridotite cannot reach the solidus temperature at depth 100 km. Volatile components can dramatically reduce melting temperature, even if its amount is very small. Recent studies on conductivity measurement of volatile-bearing melt suggest that conductivity of melt dramatically increases with increasing volatile components (H2O: Ni et al., 2010a, b; CO2: Gaillard et al., 2008; Yoshino et al., 2010; 2012a). Because incipient melt includes higher amount of volatile components, conductivity enhancement by the partial melt is very effective at temperatures just above that of the volatile-bearing peridotite solidus. In this study, the electrical conductivity of peridotite with trace amount of volatile phases was measured in single crystal olivine capsule to protect escape of water from the sample at 3 GPa. The conductivity values were significantly higher than those of dry peridotite, suggesting that the observed conductivity anomalies at the asthenosphere are caused by a presence of trace amount of volatile component in fluid or melt. On the other hand, conductivity of partial molten peridotite measured under shear showed that the conductivity parallel to the shear direction becomes one order of magnitude higher than that normal direction. These observations suggest that partial melting can explain softening and the observed geophysical anomalies of asthenosphere.

Yoshino, T.; Zhang, B.

2013-12-01

145

In vitro and in vivo reproduction toxicology of 12 monoaminergic reuptake inhibitors: possible mechanisms of infrequent cardiovascular anomalies.  

PubMed

The rat Whole Embryo Culture (WEC) has been used to predict the potential teratogenicity of 12 selective/mixed monoaminergic reuptake inhibitors (MRUI). WEC results were compared with in vivo animal and human epidemiological teratogenicity data. In vitro, paroxetine and the positive control retinol were the only compounds identified as a clear teratogen, but developmental morphological indicators suggestive of a teratogenic potential were observed for most other MRUIs, including fluoxetine, citalopram and venlafaxine. No clear evidence of teratogenic potential was observed for three compounds, however, all compounds assessed showed a dose-dependent general embryotoxicity. In vivo testing of nine MRUIs for teratogenicity was limited by maternal toxicity (e.g. anorexia) without showing overt embryotoxicity (e.g. implantation loss). Next to complete absence, the cardiovascular (CV) anomalies observed (mostly) in rabbits ranged from a low incidence (e.g. above historical background of 0.35%) to a clear incidence (mean 4.1%). It is suggested that observed specific malformations in vitro (e.g. branchial bars deformed, displaced or additional otic system), not noted in any (historical) controls, may be early ontogenetic indicators for infrequent CV-anomalies observed in vivo. Despite the low incidence of anomalies in vitro or in vivo, they may yet be clinically relevant as in the case of paroxetine. Possible mechanisms are discussed, e.g. perturbed neural crest cell migration. PMID:19383541

Sloot, Willem N; Bowden, H Clare; Yih, Tjong D

2009-09-01

146

Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies  

E-print Network

There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr$^{-1}$. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is prudent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

John D. Anderson; Michael Martin Nieto

2009-07-14

147

A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

Ivanov, K. N.

2005-11-27

148

Patterns of anomalies in children with malformed ears.  

PubMed

Sixteen children with anomalies of the auricle and/or middle ear who presented malformations of the face, mouth, upper airway, spine, limbs, heart, gastrointestinal (GI), and/or genitourinary (GU) systems, were described. While clusters of anomalies suggested syndromes such as the oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome of Goldenhar, hamifacial microsomia, mandibulo-facial dysostosis (Treacher Collins syndrome), Pierre Robin, Klippel-Feil, Moebius, Duane, and/or VATER syndromes, many children did not fit what are usually considered even minimal criteria for these syndromes. Several children had malformations which fit the description of more than one syndrome. The importance of investigating the children for unsuspected anomalies, especially of the GU system, was emphasized. Life threatening problems in this group consisted of airway problems, congenital heart disease, and major anomalies of the GI and GU systems. Better management of sucking, swallowing and airway problems might have decreased the early morbidity and mortality (3/16) in this group. Children with multiple defacing anomalies may not be mentally retarded so that aggressive management of their visceral anomalies and hearing problems, and early educational intervention are mandatory. Delay in development may be due to hearing loss, vestibular impairment, ataxia, the consequences of early malnutrition, and multiple hospitalizations rather than to mental retardation. A pessimistic attitude in infancy is unwarranted since it is impossible to predict which children will end up competitive individuals. PMID:966914

Rapin, I; Ruben, R J

1976-10-01

149

The prevalence of minor physical anomalies in mentally retarded children.  

PubMed

The prevalence of minor physical anomalies was examined in a sample of 109 children with idiopathic mental retardation (65 boys and 44 girls). Control group consisted of 246 healthy schoolchildren (123 boys and 123 girls) aged 8 to 12 years. A comparison was made between number of found minor anomalies per child (W1) and their Waldrop weight scores (W2) in healthy and mentally retarded (MR) children. The MR children were found to have a higher number of minor anomalies per child. In their group predominated those with four or more anomalies (56.9%), whereas among healthy children only 7.7% had four anomalies or more. In contrast to the high weighted score value (W2) of five or greater in 36.7% of MR children, it was absent in all control group subjects. There were highly significant differences between the MR and healthy children in the average value of the number of minor anomalies per child (W1) and in the average weighted score (W2). The average number of minor anomalies per child (W1) in MR and well children was 3.65 and 1.7, respectively. In MR children the average weighted score (W2) was 3.82, being 1.46 in healthy children. Our results suggest that common etiological factors, which had led to a physical and mental disorder, were active early in the development of MR children. The finding of high incidence of multiple minor anomalies in MR children indicates that genetic factors may play an important role in the etiology of the underlying disorder in the child group studied. PMID:12137292

Ulovec, Z; Skrinjari?, I; Sosi?, Z; Szirovicza, L; Juki?, J

2002-06-01

150

Long-term sedimentary recycling of rare sulphur isotope anomalies.  

PubMed

The accumulation of substantial quantities of O2 in the atmosphere has come to control the chemistry and ecological structure of Earth's surface. Non-mass-dependent (NMD) sulphur isotope anomalies in the rock record are the central tool used to reconstruct the redox history of the early atmosphere. The generation and initial delivery of these anomalies to marine sediments requires low partial pressures of atmospheric O2 (p(O2); refs 2, 3), and the disappearance of NMD anomalies from the rock record 2.32 billion years ago is thought to have signalled a departure from persistently low atmospheric oxygen levels (less than about 10(-5) times the present atmospheric level) during approximately the first two billion years of Earth's history. Here we present a model study designed to describe the long-term surface recycling of crustal NMD anomalies, and show that the record of this geochemical signal is likely to display a 'crustal memory effect' following increases in atmospheric p(O2) above this threshold. Once NMD anomalies have been buried in the upper crust they are extremely resistant to removal, and can be erased only through successive cycles of weathering, dilution and burial on an oxygenated Earth surface. This recycling results in the residual incorporation of NMD anomalies into the sedimentary record long after synchronous atmospheric generation of the isotopic signal has ceased, with dynamic and measurable signals probably surviving for as long as 10-100 million years subsequent to an increase in atmospheric p(O2) to more than 10(-5) times the present atmospheric level. Our results can reconcile geochemical evidence for oxygen production and transient accumulation with the maintenance of NMD anomalies on the early Earth, and suggest that future work should investigate the notion that temporally continuous generation of new NMD sulphur isotope anomalies in the atmosphere was likely to have ceased long before their ultimate disappearance from the rock record. PMID:23615613

Reinhard, Christopher T; Planavsky, Noah J; Lyons, Timothy W

2013-05-01

151

Graph anomalies in cyber communications  

SciTech Connect

Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-11

152

Measuring anomaly with algorithmic entropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomaly detection refers to the identification of observations that are considered outside of normal. Since they are unknown to the system prior to training and rare, the anomaly detection problem is particularly challenging. Model based techniques require large quantities of existing data are to build the model. Statistically based techniques result in the use of statistical metrics or thresholds for determining whether a particular observation is anomalous. I propose a novel approach to anomaly detection using wavelet based algorithmic entropy that does not require modeling or large amounts of data. My method embodies the concept of information distance that rests on the fact that data encodes information. This distance is large when little information is shared, and small when there is greater information sharing. I compare my approach with several techniques in the literature using data obtained from testing of NASA's Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME)

Solano, Wanda M.

153

Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

1988-01-01

154

Anomalies of neutron field of the Earth.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is devoted to the researches of time and spatial heterogeneity of thermal neurtron flux (Fn) density in the troposphere of the Earth. We had already received the values of thermal neutron flux density on the surface of the Earth in the European part of Russia. The large-scale monitoring of thermal neutron flux density was carried out on structural cross-section from Drake Strait in the Atlantic Ocean to the high latitudes of Arctic. We observe the increase of Fn from 44? N to 59? N, from 0,4 to 2,9 •10-3 ?/(c•c?2). The values of Fn were received in latitude Novorossiysk (0,4•10-3 n/(c•sm2)) , Moskow (0,7-1,5•10-3 n/(c•sm2)), Arhangelsk (1,3•10-3 n/(c•sm2)). High-rise dependance of the thermal neutron flux density on the surface of the Earth and in troposphere during transcontinental flights was researched. With the increasing of height from 0 to 8000 m the thermal neutron flux density rises to 180•10-3 ?/(c•c?2) The measurements were carried out in latitude of Spitsbergen. The value of thermal neutron flux density on the North pole was measured. Fn is equal to 0,7•10-3 n/(c•sm2)) 890 20/ in North latitude. Recently it has been shown, that thermal neutrons render appreciable influence on alive organisms [Matveeva and etc., 2004, Masunaga S., 2001]. Abmormal increases of thermal neutron flux density are revealed in flora biogeocenosis. Daily background Fn demonstrate the specific abnormal flares for every biocenosis or biotope long-lasting (for tens of minutes) Fn - meaning during the «flares» in biogeocenosis depends on the contains of flora community and can reach 104 n/(? m2). [Plotnikova N.V., Siroeshkin A.V., 2005]. The researches of the neutron field in the World Ocean were received at the time of transatlantic expedition by the programme of RAS «Meridian» (2006, 2008). Abnormal increasing Fn had being observed in the area of equator and between 310N to 540N and 330S to 530S Moreover, the coordinates of these anomalies coincide with the coordinates of the subequatorial and subtropical climatic zones. This anomalous increase Fn happens above, with an increase in phytoplankton biomass, the value of Fn is growing. Abnormal outbreak of Fn in biocenoses and over fields of phytoplankton can be associated with a well-known effect of «neutron trap» in heterogeneous environments, and the thermalization of the epithermal neutrons. Presence of the biological answer to weak streams thermal neutrons allow to assume, that these corpuscular streams are one of the "intermediaries" allowing alive organisms to feel a lot of astrogeophysical events, in addition to known climatic factors. In addition, the thermal neutron flux density is the integral characteristic,which allows to make a"neutron portrait " of the resort or the countryside. Thus, speaking about the anomalies of the natural radioactive background , special attention should be paid to the level Fn and its variations, and the potential impact on biological objects and human. The data obtained interaction of neutron flux and biological objects may be important for their adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. Our data suggest that even in the lower layers of troposphere value thermal neutron flux (Fn) can be quite high, confirm the need for further studies to human security at the high altitude and transcontinental air flights.

Plotnikova, Natalia

155

Branchial Anomalies: Diagnosis and Management  

PubMed Central

Objective. To find out the incidence of involvement of individual arches, anatomical types of lesions, the age and sex incidence, the site and side of predilection, the common clinical features, the common investigations, treatment, and complications of the different anomalies. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. Design. A 10 year retrospective study. Participants. 30 patients with clinically proven branchial anomalies including patients with bilateral disease totaling 34 lesions. Main Outcome Measures. The demographical data, clinical features, type of branchial anomalies, and the management details were recorded and analyzed. Results and Observations. The mean age of presentation was 18.67 years. Male to female sex ratio was 1.27?:?1 with a male preponderance. Of the 34 lesions, maximum incidence was of second arch anomalies (50%) followed by first arch. We had two cases each of third and fourth arch anomalies. Only 1 (3.3%) patients of the 30 presented with lesion at birth. The most common pathological type of lesions was fistula (58.82%) followed by cyst. 41.18% of the lesions occurred on the right side. All the patients underwent surgical excision. None of our patients had involvement of facial nerve in first branchial anomaly. All patients had tracts going superficial to the facial nerve. Conclusion. Confirming the extent of the tract is mandatory before any surgery as these lesions pass in relation to some of the most vital structures of the neck. Surgery should always be the treatment option. injection of dye, microscopic removal and inclusion of surrounding tissue while excising the tract leads to a decreased incidence of recurrence. PMID:24772172

Azeez, Arun; Thada, Nikhil Dinaker; Rao, Pallavi; Prasad, Kishore Chandra

2014-01-01

156

Second order transport from anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study parity odd transport at second order in derivative expansion for a non-conformal charged fluid. We see that there are 27 parity odd transport coefficients, of which 12 are non-vanishing in equilibrium. We use the equilibrium partition function method to express 7 of these in terms of the anomaly, shear viscosity, charge diffusivity and thermodynamic functions. The remaining 5 are constrained by 3 relations which also involve the anomaly. We derive Kubo formulae for 2 of the transport coefficients and show these agree with that derived from the equilibrium partition function.

Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; David, Justin R.; Thakur, Somyadip

2014-01-01

157

Interplanetary Spaceflight Prehistory Flyby Anomalies in EGAs Search for Explanations Outlook Spacecraft Anomalies: An Update  

E-print Network

Interplanetary Spaceflight Prehistory Flyby Anomalies in EGAs Search for Explanations Outlook / 29 Spacecraft Anomalies: An Update #12;Interplanetary Spaceflight Prehistory Flyby Anomalies in EGAs Search for Explanations Outlook Overview 1 Interplanetary Spaceflight Swing-by Deep Space Network

Aste, Andreas

158

Two-hit model for sporadic congenital anomalies in mice with the disorganization mutation  

SciTech Connect

Congenital anomalies have complex etiologies involving both genetic and nongenetic components. Many are sporadic, without obvious evidence for heritability. An important model for these anomalies is a mutation in laboratory mice that is called [open quotes]disorganization[close quotes] (Ds), which functions as a variable autosomal dominant and leads to a wide variety of congenital anomalies involving many developmental processes and systems. Variable expressivity, asymmetrical manifestations, and low penetrance suggest that somatic events determine the location and nature of these anomalies. A statistical analysis suggests that occurrence of anomalies in mice with the Ds mutation follows a Poisson distribution. These results suggest that congenital anomalies in mice with the Ds mutation occur independently of each other. The authors propose that Ds causes a heritable predisposition to congenital anomalies and that Ds and appropriate somatic events combine to compromise normal development. They also propose that some sporadic, nonheritable congenital anomalies involve somatic mutations at Ds-like loci. Ds may therefore serve not only as a model for developmental anomalies in cell fate and pattern formation but also for complex developmental traits showing variable expressivity, low penetrance, and sporadic occurrence in mice and humans. 58 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Crosby, J.L. (Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (United States) Univ. of Maine, Orono (United States) Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)); Varnum, D.S.; Nadeau, J.H. (Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (United States))

1993-05-01

159

Congenital cardiac anomalies in relation to water contamination, Santa Clara County, California, 1981-1983.  

PubMed

In November 1981, a leak of solvents from an underground storage tank was detected at an electronics manufacturing plant in Santa Clara County, California. Solvents (predominantly 1,1,1-trichloroethene, or methyl chloroform) were found in a nearby well which supplied drinking water to the surrounding community. Residents were concerned about a possible relation between adverse reproductive outcomes and consumption of contaminated water. To address this concern, the California Department of Health Services conducted two epidemiologic studies: one of these, reported here, is a county-wide study of cardiac anomalies. This study, which looked at major cardiac anomalies among births throughout Santa Clara County in 1981-1983, found an increased prevalence in the service area of the water company which operated the contaminated well. During the potentially exposed time period (January 1981 through August 1982), 12 babies with major cardiac anomalies were born to residents of this area. This represents an excess of six cases over the number expected based on the prevalence in the remainder of the county (relative risk = 2.2, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.2-4.0). No excess was observed in the unexposed time period (September 1982 through December 1983). However, the temporal distribution of major cardiac cases born during the exposed time period suggests that the solvent leak is an unlikely explanation for this excess. PMID:2784935

Swan, S H; Shaw, G; Harris, J A; Neutra, R R

1989-05-01

160

Little SUSY hierarchy in mixed modulus-anomaly mediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the KKLT string compactification involving a supersymmetry-breaking uplifting potential, we examine 4D effective supergravity with a generic form of uplifting potential, focusing on the possibility that the resulting mixed modulus-anomaly mediated soft terms realize the little hierarchy between the Higgs boson masses mH and the sparticle masses mSUSY. It is noted that for some type of uplifting potential,

Kiwoon Choi; Kwang Sik Jeong; Tatsuo Kobayashi; Ken-Ichi Okumura

2006-01-01

161

Coral can have growth anomalies  

EPA Science Inventory

Coral growth anomalies (GAs) are changes in the coral cells that deposit the calcium carbonate skeleton. They usually appear as raised areas of the skeleton and tissue that are different from the surrounding normal areas on the same colony. The features include abnormal shape a...

162

Monitoring smartphones for anomaly detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we demonstrate how to monitor a smartphone running Symbian OS in order to extract features that de- scribe the state of the device and can be used for anomaly detection. These features are sent to a remote server, be- cause running a complex intrusion detection system (IDS) on this kind of mobile device still is not feasible,

Aubrey-derrick Schmidt; Frank Peters; Florian Lamour; Sahin Albayrak

2008-01-01

163

Archaeological Anomalies in the Bahamas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversial claims have been made for the presence of anom- alous underwater archaeological sites in the Bahamas by a number of in- vestigators. The proponents emphasize extraordinary explanations for the anomalies and tend to bypass the scientific journals in favor of popular presentations with little scientific rigor. The skeptics debunk selected claims for some of the sites, do not adequately

DOUGLAS G. RICHARDS

1988-01-01

164

2,0 superconformal anomaly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The (2,0) supersymmetric Wess-Zumino-Polyakov, action is constructed and the (2,0) superconformal anomaly is given. The anomalous Ward-identity in the right sector is derived and the known operator product expansion of the N = 2 superstress energy tensor ...

T. Lhallabi

1992-01-01

165

Attachment 6: Challenges and Suggestions  

E-print Network

Attachment 6: Challenges and Suggestions Challenges Examples Suggestions Concerning Winning not be the #1 selling point. No Prior Experience with ORNL No proven track record with ORNL; Losing contracts and let the Contracts Division know you are on top of things. #12;Challenges Examples Suggestions

166

Major congenital anomalies in babies born with Down syndrome: A EUROCAT population-based registry study.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that over 40% of babies with Down syndrome have a major cardiac anomaly and are more likely to have other major congenital anomalies. Since 2000, many countries in Europe have introduced national antenatal screening programs for Down syndrome. This study aimed to determine if the introduction of these screening programs and the subsequent termination of prenatally detected pregnancies were associated with any decline in the prevalence of additional anomalies in babies born with Down syndrome. The study sample consisted of 7,044 live births and fetal deaths with Down syndrome registered in 28 European population-based congenital anomaly registries covering seven million births during 2000-2010. Overall, 43.6% (95% CI: 42.4-44.7%) of births with Down syndrome had a cardiac anomaly and 15.0% (14.2-15.8%) had a non-cardiac anomaly. Female babies with Down syndrome were significantly more likely to have a cardiac anomaly compared to male babies (47.6% compared with 40.4%, P?anomaly (12.9% compared with 16.7%, P?anomalies in babies with Down syndrome has remained constant, suggesting that population screening for Down syndrome and subsequent terminations has not influenced the prevalence of specific congenital anomalies in these babies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25257471

Morris, Joan K; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Beres, Judit; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Budd, Judith; Dias, Carlos Matias; Gatt, Miriam; Klungsoyr, Kari; Khoshnood, Babak; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; Mullaney, Carmel; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O'Mahony, Mary; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Cath; Sipek, Antonin; Stoianova, Sylvia; Tucker, David; de Walle, Hermien; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Loane, Maria; Dolk, Helen

2014-12-01

167

Field Theory Model of the Flyby Anomaly  

SciTech Connect

Precision tracking of spacecraft on interplanetary missions has turned up several anomalous deviations from predictions of general relativity. The Flyby Anomaly, wherein spacecraft gain or lose energy in an earth-centric frame after an encounter with earth, is clearly associated with the rotation of the earth. The possibility that the missing ingredient is a new type of potential field surrounding the earth is assessed in this write-up. A scalar field with the kinetic energy distribution of the earth as a source is evaluated numerically, with an amplitude parameter adjusted to match the data of Anderson et al.(2008). The new field can be interpreted as a coupling between kinetic energies of objects, a field analogous to fluid mechanics, or a field coupled to acceleration. The potential field violates various aspects of standard physics, such as energy non-conservation.

Lewis, R. A

2009-03-16

168

Anomaly Detection in Brain Connectivity Structure: An Application to Epilepsy  

E-print Network

Anomaly Detection in Brain Connectivity Structure: An Application to Epilepsy by Andrew Sweet B to Epilepsy by Andrew Sweet Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science-surgical epilepsy patients. Our goal is to investigate the potential of these non-invasive connectivity approaches

Golland, Polina

169

Scalar Field Models: From the Pioneer Anomaly to Astrophysical Constraints  

E-print Network

In this work we study how scalar fields may affect solar observables, and use the constraint on the Sun's central temperature to extract bounds on the parameters of relevant models. Also, a scalar field driven by a suitable potential is shown to produce an anomalous acceleration similar to the one found in the Pioneer anomaly.

J. Paramos

2005-05-17

170

Iridium Anomaly Approximately Synchronous with Terminal Eocene Extinctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An iridium anomaly has been found in coincidence with the known microtektite level in cores from Deep Sea Drilling Project site 149 in the Caribbean Sea. The iridium was probably not in the microtektites but deposited simultaneously with them; this could occur if the iridium was deposited from a dust cloud resulting from a bolide impact, as suggested for the

Walter Alvarez; Frank Asaro; Helen V. Michel; Luis W. Alvarez

1982-01-01

171

Interpretation of magnetic anomalies over the Grenada Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Grenada Basin is a back arc basin located near the eastern border of the Caribbean Plate. The basin is bounded on the west by the north-south trending Aves Ridge (a remnant island arc) and on the east by the active Lesser Antilles island arc. Although this physiography suggests that east-west extension formed the basin, magnetic anomalies over the basins

Dale E. Bird; Stuart A. Hall; John F. Casey; Patrick S. Millegan

1993-01-01

172

Interpretation of magnetic anomalies over the Grenada Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Grenada Basin is a back arc basin located near the eastern border of the Caribbean Plate. The basin is bounded on the west by the north-south trending Aves Ridge (a remnant island arc) and on the east by the active Lesser Antilles island arc. Although this physiography suggests that east-west extension formed the basin, magnetic anomalies over the basin

Dale E. Bird; Stuart A. Hall; John F. Casey; Patrick S. Millegan

1993-01-01

173

MAGSAT scalar and vector anomaly data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts on the analysis of MAGSAT scalar anomaly data, the application of the scalar analysis results to three component vector data, and the comparison of MAGSAT data with corresponding MAGNET aeromagnetic and free air gravity anomaly data are briefly described.

1982-01-01

174

Applications of TOPS Anomaly Detection Framework to Amazon Drought Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) is a flexible modeling software system that integrates ecosystem models with frequent satellite and surface weather observations to produce ecosystem nowcasts (assessments of current conditions) and forecasts useful in natural resources management, public health and disaster management. We have been extending the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to include capability for automated anomaly detection and analysis of both on-line (streaming) and off-line data. While there are large numbers of anomaly detection algorithms for multivariate datasets, we are extending this capability beyond the anomaly detection itself and towards an automated analysis that would discover the possible causes of the anomalies. In order to best capture the knowledge about data hierarchies, Earth science models and implied dependencies between anomalies and occurrences of observable events such as urbanization, deforestation, or fires, we have developed an ontology to serve as a knowledge base. The knowledge is captured using OWL ontology language, where connections are defined in a schema that is later extended by including specific instances of datasets and models. We have integrated this knowledge base with a framework for deploying an ensemble of anomaly detection algorithms on large volumes of Earth science datasets and applied it to specific scientific applications that support research conducted by our group. In one early application, we were able to process large number of MODIS, TRMM, CERES data along with ground-based weather and river flow observations to detect the evolution of 2010 drought in the Amazon, identify the affected area, and publish the results in three weeks. A similar analysis of the 2005 drought using the same data sets took nearly 2 years, highlighting the potential contribution of our anomaly framework in accelerating scientific discoveries.

Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.; Ganguly, S.; Michaelis, A.; Hashimoto, H.

2011-12-01

175

A {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} Y:16 translocation with the Y breakpoint just proximal to the Yq heterochromatin boundary associated with Turner-like neonatal lymphedema suggests the location of a potential anti-Turner gene  

SciTech Connect

A male patient with Turner-like hydrops in the newborn period (Bonnevie-Ullrich syndrome) was studied. The extensive nucchal cystic hygroma and hydrops resolved over several weeks. The karyotype was 46,X,t(Y;16)(q11.2;q24). The paternal karyotype was normal. Chromosome painting with the heterochromatic long arm repeat DYZ2 disclosed that all the hybridization was on the derivative 16. This was confirmed by chromosome painting with DYZ1, the other major Y long arm heterochromatic repeat, and DYZ3, the Y alphoid, centromeric repeat, which showed chromosomal separation of the 2 stained regions. A {open_quotes}FISHing trip{close_quotes} was performed using the Y YAC contig created in Dr. David Page`s laboratory. This disclosed 2 YACs located just proximal to the Y heterochromatin which {open_quotes}jumped{close_quotes} the translocation. The recent discovery of a candidate gene for the azoospermia factor (AZF) in this region suggests the possibility that there are several Y-expressed genes adjacent to the heterochromatin boundary as there are near the pseudoautosomal boundary.

Erickson, R.P.; Hudgins, L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Stone, J.F. [Southwest Biomedical Research Institute, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

176

Constraints on the deep structure and dynamic processes beneath the Alps and adjacent regions from an analysis of gravity anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity anomalies over the Alps and the Molasse Basin are examined, focusing on the relationship between the anomalies and the tectonic processes beneath the region. Bouguer gravity anomalies measured in France, Germany, Italy, and Switzerland are analyzed. No large isostatic anomalies are observed over the Alps and an elastic model is unable to account for gravity anomalies over the Molasse Basin. These results suggest that the dynamic processes that flexed the European plate down, forming the Molasse Basin and building the Alpine chain, have waned. It is proposed that the late Cenozoic uplift of the region may be due to a diminution or termination of downwelling of mantle material.

Lyon-Caen, Helene; Molnar, Peter

1989-01-01

177

Limb Body Wall Complex: A Rare Anomaly  

PubMed Central

We present autopsy findings of a case of limb body wall complex (LBWC). The fetus had encephalocele, genitourinary agenesis, skeletal anomalies and body wall defects. The rare finding in our case is the occurrence of both cranial and urogenital anomalies. The presence of complex anomalies in this fetus, supports embryonal dysplasia theory of pathogenesis for LBWC. PMID:24014975

Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Dhumale, Hema; Kangle, Ranjit; Shekar, Rosini

2013-01-01

178

Congenital bone anomalies associated with lipomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital bone anomalies are occasionally located adjacent to deep lipomas. These bone dysplasias may take the form of localized overgrowth or osseous malformation. Two patients with iliac anomalies and spinal dysraphism and one with a hypertrophied rib and vertebra associated with lipomas are described. As both the lipomas and osseous anomalies tend to lie in the same sensory nerve distribution,

James M. Sauer; M. B. Ozonoff

1985-01-01

179

Study of magnetic anomalies over archaeological targets in urban environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic prospecting is one of the most widely used methods for investigating archaeological sites in the world. It is often applied before and during various types of industrial development and in agricultural areas. In Israel, most potential archaeological targets are located in urban settings, which substantially complicate their geophysical signatures. Noise from natural factors such as the inclined magnetization (about 44°) complex geological structure of the sites, and uneven terrain relief as well as artificial sources such as modern iron-containing objects, power lines and underground communications can confound the interpretation of magnetic anomalies. For the quantitative analysis of magnetic anomalies from ancient targets in Israel nonconventional procedures ( Khesin et al., 1996; Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2001) were applied. In this paper the effects of power lines on the quantitative analysis of magnetic anomalies indicative of archaeological objects are investigated. The method was tested on two typical models of physical-archaeological ancient remains by using different distances to the power line.

Eppelbaum, Lev V.

180

SUGGESTIONS FOR WEED CONTROL IN  

E-print Network

B-5038 10-98 SUGGESTIONS FOR WEED CONTROL IN PASTURES AND FORAGES Texas Agricultural Extension;4 Suggestions for Weed Control in Pastures and Forages Dr. Paul A. Baumann, Extension Weed Specialist Dr. David as a guide for controlling weeds in pasture and forages. Labeled rates and restrictions change constantly

Mukhtar, Saqib

181

Reasoning Anomalies Associated With Delusions in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Deluded people differ from nondeluded controls on attributional style questionnaires and probabilistic-reasoning and theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks. No study to date has examined the relations between these 3 reasoning anomalies in the same individuals so as to evaluate their functional independence and potentially inform theories of delusion formation. We did so in 35 schizophrenic patients with a history of delusions, 30 of whom were currently deluded, and 34 healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, patients showed (a) a jumping-to-conclusions bias and a bias to overadjust when confronted with a change of evidence on probabilistic-reasoning tasks, (b) an excessive externalizing attributional bias, and (c) performance deficits on 3 ToM tasks. Probabilistic-reasoning and ToM measures correlated, while attributional-bias scores were independent of other task measures. A general proneness to delusional ideation correlated with probabilistic-reasoning and ToM measures, while externalizing bias was unrelated to the study measures of delusional ideation. Personalizing bias associated specifically with paranoia across the clinical and nonclinical participants. Findings are consistent with a common underlying mechanism in schizophrenia which contributes to the anomalies on probabilistic-reasoning and ToM tasks associated with delusions. We speculate that this mechanism is impairment of the normal capacity to inhibit “perceived reality” (the evidence of our senses), a capacity that evolved as part of the “social brain” to facilitate intersubjective communication within a shared reality. PMID:18622010

Langdon, Robyn; Ward, Philip B.; Coltheart, Max

2010-01-01

182

Translocation-positive low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: clinicopathologic and molecular analysis of a series expanding the morphologic spectrum and suggesting potential relationship to sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma: a study from the French Sarcoma Group.  

PubMed

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcomas (LGFMS) bear either the t(7,16) (q32-34;p11) or t(11,16) (p11;p11) translocations, resulting in FUS-CREB3L2 or FUS-CREB3L1 fusions, respectively. Heretofore, fusion transcripts were mainly detected in frozen tissues, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In this study, we aimed to develop a reliable method to detect these in paraffin-embedded tissues, and to examine the clinicopathologic characteristics of a series of translocation-positive LGFMS. Sixty-three neoplasms with typical morphologic features of LGFMS and 66 non-LGFMS tumors selected for their resemblance to LGFMS (LGFMS-like tumors) were examined. RNA of sufficient quality could be extracted from 111/129 (86%) cases (59 LGFMS, 52 non-LGFMS). Of all, 48/59 (sensitivity, 81%) LGFMS contained detectable transcripts (45 FUS-CREB3L2, 3 FUS-CREB3L1). Most relevant clinicopathologic features of fusion-positive LGFMS included predominance in lower extremities (22/48; thigh: 13/48), deep situation (46/48), and occasional presence of unusual histologic features, for example, hypercellular areas (16/48), foci of epithelioid cells (13/48), and giant rosettes (6/48). Most tumors expressed EMA (41/45), at least focally, CD99 (38/41) and bcl-2 (36/41) while being essentially negative for CD34 (2/45), mdm2 (1/41), smooth muscle actin (1/45), S100 protein (0/46), desmin (0/44), h-caldesmon (0/42), keratins (0/44), and CD117 (0/40). Eleven presumed LGFMS were fusion negative. Of all, 7/52 non-LGMFS neoplasms contained FUS-CREB3L2 transcripts, of which 4 had been diagnosed as sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma. In conclusion, FUS-CREB3L1/L2 fusion transcripts can be detected in paraffin-embedded LGFMS in a sensitive manner, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Most fusion-positive LGFMS are EMA-positive and CD34/S100/smooth muscle actin negative. The presence of epithelioid cells and fusion transcripts in both LGFMS and a subset of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma suggest that these neoplasms might be related. PMID:17721195

Guillou, Louis; Benhattar, Jean; Gengler, Carole; Gallagher, Gabrielle; Ranchère-Vince, Dominique; Collin, Françoise; Terrier, Philippe; Terrier-Lacombe, Marie-José; Leroux, Agnès; Marquès, Bernard; Aubain Somerhausen, Nicolas de Saint; Keslair, Frédérique; Pedeutour, Florence; Coindre, Jean-Michel

2007-09-01

183

Body Stalk Anomaly in a 9-Week Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Body stalk anomaly is a rare and severe malformation syndrome in which the exact pathophysiology and trigger factors are still unknown. This is a case of a 30-year-old patient who underwent ultrasound at 9 weeks of gestation. It revealed an abnormal location of the inferior body of the embryo in the coelomic space. The findings suggested a short umbilical cord syndrome. In order to confirm the diagnosis, the patient was scheduled for a second ultrasonography at 11 weeks of gestation. The obtained images, confirmed the location of the inferior body in the coelomic space with no visible bladder, absence of the right leg, severe abdominal wall defect, consistent with an omphalocele, and a short 5?mm umbilical cord. These last ultrasonographic findings were consistent with body stalk anomaly. Because of severe malformation incompatible with life, the patient was offered termination of pregnancy. Pathologic examination confirmed the suspected pathology of body stalk anomaly. PMID:25105039

Quijano, Fabio E.; Rey, Maria Monica; Echeverry, Mariana; Axt-Fliedner, Roland

2014-01-01

184

Lidar detection algorithm for time and range anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new detection algorithm for lidar applications has been developed. The detection is based on hyperspectral anomaly detection that is implemented for time anomaly where the question "is a target (aerosol cloud) present at range R within time t1 to t2" is addressed, and for range anomaly where the question "is a target present at time t within ranges R1 and R2" is addressed. A detection score significantly different in magnitude from the detection scores for background measurements suggests that an anomaly (interpreted as the presence of a target signal in space/time) exists. The algorithm employs an option for a preprocessing stage where undesired oscillations and artifacts are filtered out with a low-rank orthogonal projection technique. The filtering technique adaptively removes the one over range-squared dependence of the background contribution of the lidar signal and also aids visualization of features in the data when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. A Gaussian-mixture probability model for two hypotheses (anomaly present or absent) is computed with an expectation-maximization algorithm to produce a detection threshold and probabilities of detection and false alarm. Results of the algorithm for CO2 lidar measurements of bioaerosol clouds Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly known as Bacillus subtilis niger, BG) and Pantoea agglomerans, Pa (formerly known as Erwinia herbicola, Eh) are shown and discussed.

Ben-David, Avishai; Davidson, Charles E.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.

2007-10-01

185

Refining the anomaly consistency condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the extended antifield formalism, a quantum BRST differential for anomalous gauge theories is constructed. Local BRST cohomological classes are characterized, in addition to the form degree and the ghost number, by the length of their descents and of their lifts, and this both in the standard and the extended antifield formalism. It is shown that during the BRST invariant renormalization of a local BRST cohomological class, the anomaly that can appear is constrained to be a local BRST cohomological class with a shorter descent and a longer lift than the given class. As an application of both results, a simple approach to the Adler-Bardeen theorem for the non-Abelian gauge anomaly is proposed. It applies independently of the gauge fixing, of power counting restrictions, and does not rely on the use of the Callan-Symanzik equation.

Barnich, Glenn

2000-08-01

186

Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods  

SciTech Connect

This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

Ng, B

2006-10-12

187

Monitoring Smartphones for Anomaly Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we demonstrate how to monitor a smartphone running Symbian operating system and Windows Mobile in order to extract\\u000a features for anomaly detection. These features are sent to a remote server because running a complex intrusion detection system\\u000a on this kind of mobile device still is not feasible due to capability and hardware limitations. We give examples on

Aubrey-derrick Schmidt; Frank Peters; Florian Lamour; Christian Scheel; Seyit Ahmet Çamtepe; Sahin Albayrak

2009-01-01

188

Bart syndrome with associated anomalies.  

PubMed

Bart syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by epidermolysis bullosa and congenital absence of skin. It has been associated with other anomalies including pyloric atresia. The genetic abnormality has been linked to chromosome 3, with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. We present a case of Bart syndrome that was associated with pyloric atresia. The literature is reviewed pertaining to this unusual association. Recommendations are offered regarding genetic counseling and anticipatory guidance for affected families. PMID:16215923

Bart, Bruce J; Lussky, Richard C

2005-10-01

189

Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries  

SciTech Connect

The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.

Creutz, M.

2009-09-07

190

Dyslexia: Anomaly or normal variation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an interim report on a large-scale survey. The background to the authors’ research into dyslexia is briefly\\u000a outlined. Next comes an explication of the contrast between “anomaly” and “normal variation.” Some details are then provided\\u000a of a survey of 12,905 children, age ten, who were given a variety of educational and cognitive tests relevant to a diagnosis

T. R. Miles; Mary N. Haslum

1986-01-01

191

Cloacal anomaly with bladder tumor  

PubMed Central

A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of bladder occurring in a 36-year-old female with persistent cloacal anomaly who presented with frequency, urgency, dysuria, and recurrent urinary tract infection is reported. Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography with three dimensional reconstruction showed presence of bladder tumor and persistent cloaca. She underwent pelvic exenteration and wet colostomy. Histopathologic findings revealed locally advanced moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23956519

Seth, Amlesh; Ram, Ishwar

2013-01-01

192

The early break-up phase of the South Atlantic - magnetic anomalies, volcanism and kinematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Atlantic has been generally recognized as a prime example for continental break-up with accompanying volcanic activity reflected today in massive seaward dipping reflector sequences (SDRS) in reflection as well as high velocity lower crust in refraction seismic data. The early history of the South Atlantic passive margin evolution is investigated in the view of interlaced magnetic anomalies related to seafloor spreading lineations and anomalies caused by seaward-dipping reflector sequences (SDRS). As the Atlantic opened from South to North, the magma-poor segments of the southernmost South Atlantic are also the oldest segments of the Ocean. Therefore, the magma-poor segments on the conjugated margins must be considered crucial in the understanding of the initial phase of spreading and rifting concluding in the opening of the South Atlantic. The interpretation of pre-M5n lineations define timing of the termination of excess breakup related volcanic activity and the transition to 'normal' seafloor spreading. Termination of magnetic anomalies within SDR wedges point towards a scissor-like succession in volcanic activity from south to north, following the opening of the South Atlantic. Reflection, refraction seismic and potential field data show that while the two conjugated margins share much of their structural features such as segmentation and abundant volcanism, they are by no means perfectly symmetrical. This is for example shown in shelf width, strength of the magnetic anomalies or orientation of break-up related sedimentary basins. From our data, we suggest changes in spreading and later rifting direction to be the cause of for these asymmetries. This directional change is also suggested to be responsible for the change in margin character from magma-poor to volcanic rather than solely a spontaneous change in crustal melt-generation. New models for the magnetic response of SDRS reveal a high variability within the wedges on either side of the Atlantic and between the conjugated margins. Former identifications of anomaly M11r off Cape Town have already been questioned and can now be shown to be caused by structural or magnetization variations within SDRS.

Koopmann, H.; Schreckenberger, B.; Franke, D.; Becker, K.; Schnabel, M.

2013-12-01

193

Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

2011-01-01

194

a Diagnostic Study of the Life Cycles of Persistent Flow Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of the thesis is to identify the primary mechanism(s) responsible for the formation of large-scale persistent flow anomalies. Towards this goal, we perform detailed synoptic and diagnostic analyses of the composite life cycles of persistent flow anomalies, focusing particularly on persistent flow anomaly (PA) development over the North Pacific and Atlantic Oceans during wintertime. The early portion of both Pacific negative (PN) and Atlantic negative (AN) development is characterized by synoptic-scale cyclogenesis and enhanced geostrophic frontogenesis over the western ocean. Analogous baroclinic ridge development occurs over the western North Pacific during Pacific positive (PP) formation. AN and Atlantic positive (AP) developments are both initially characterized by the westward retrogression of a large-scale flow anomaly towards the key region. During large-scale development, all four types exhibit zonally elongated and westward tilting perturbation structures in the jet regions, with associated fluxes of zonal momentum and heat directed down their respective time-mean gradients. The PN and AN cases also exhibit strong upward heat fluxes in the troposphere during large -scale growth, with weaker vertical heat fluxes for the positive cases. Little evidence is found of anomalous tropical forcing. Except during PP developments, sources for development are primarily local to the key regions. During PP developments, there is an anomalous wave activity flux from an upstream trough and a weak poleward flux emanating from the subtropical North Pacific. Nevertheless, budgets of energy and enstrophy suggest that, for all four PA types, local conversions associated with the composite perturbations are sufficient to account for eddy growth. The ratio of conversion to enstrophy change is largest during Pacific developments. Nonconservative processes and incoherent eddy forcing, calculated as a residual, oppose PA development. This effective dissipation is strongest during the Pacific developments. Potential vorticity analyses suggest that PN and AN developments are related to upper-tropospheric extrusions of high potential vorticity air from the upstream continent eastward towards the key region. The results suggest that successful extended-range forecasts of PA development will depend significantly upon proper simulation of the climatological-mean stationary wave pattern. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.) (Abstract shortened with permission of school.).

Black, Robert Xavier

1990-01-01

195

Suggestion overrides automatic audiovisual integration.  

PubMed

Cognitive scientists routinely distinguish between controlled and automatic mental processes. Through learning, practice, and exposure, controlled processes can become automatic; however, whether automatic processes can become deautomatized - recuperated under the purview of control - remains unclear. Here we show that a suggestion derails a deeply ingrained process involving involuntary audiovisual integration. We compared the performance of highly versus less hypnotically suggestible individuals (HSIs versus LSIs) in a classic McGurk paradigm - a perceptual illusion task demonstrating the influence of visual facial movements on auditory speech percepts. Following a posthypnotic suggestion to prioritize auditory input, HSIs but not LSIs manifested fewer illusory auditory perceptions and correctly identified more auditory percepts. Our findings demonstrate that a suggestion deautomatized a ballistic audiovisual process in HSIs. In addition to guiding our knowledge regarding theories and mechanisms of automaticity, the present findings pave the road to a more scientific understanding of top-down effects and multisensory integration. PMID:24398260

Déry, Catherine; Campbell, Natasha K J; Lifshitz, Michael; Raz, Amir

2014-02-01

196

Scalar potential model progress  

E-print Network

Because observations of galaxies and clusters have been found inconsistent with General Relativity (GR), the focus of effort in developing a Scalar Potential Model (SPM) has been on the examination of galaxies and clusters. The SPM has been found to be consistent with cluster cellular structure, the flow of IGM from spiral galaxies to elliptical galaxies, intergalactic redshift without an expanding universe, discrete redshift, rotation curve (RC) data without dark matter, asymmetric RCs, galaxy central mass, galaxy central velocity dispersion, and the Pioneer Anomaly. In addition, the SPM suggests a model of past expansion, past contraction, and current expansion of the universe. GR corresponds to the SPM in the limit in which the effect of the Sources and Sinks approximate a flat scalar potential field such as between clusters and on the solar system scale, which is small relative to the distance to a Source.

J. C. Hodge

2007-04-04

197

6d, Coulomb branch anomaly matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

6d QFTs are constrained by the analog of 't Hooft anomaly matching: all anomalies for global symmetries and metric backgrounds are constants of RG flows, and for all vacua in moduli spaces. We discuss an anomaly matching mechanism for 6d theories on their Coulomb branch. It is a global symmetry analog of Green-Schwarz-West-Sagnotti anomaly cancellation, and requires the apparent anomaly mismatch to be a perfect square, . Then ? I 8 is cancelled by making X 4 an electric/magnetic source for the tensor multiplet, so background gauge field instantons yield charged strings. This requires the coefficients in X 4 to be integrally quantized. We illustrate this for theories. We also consider the SCFTs from N small E8 instantons, verifying that the recent result for its anomaly polynomial fits with the anomaly matching mechanism.

Intriligator, Kenneth

2014-10-01

198

Understanding water's anomalies with locally favoured structures.  

PubMed

Water is a complex liquid that displays a surprising array of unusual properties, the most famous being the density maximum at about 4 °C. The origin of these anomalies is still a matter of debate, and so far a quantitative description of water's phase behaviour starting from the molecular arrangements is still missing. Here we report a study of the microscopic structural features of water as obtained from computer simulations. We identify locally favoured structures having a high degree of translational order in the second shell, and a two-state model is used to describe the behaviour of liquid water over a wide region of the phase diagram. Furthermore, we show that locally favoured structures not only have translational order in the second shell but also contain five-membered rings of hydrogen-bonded molecules. This suggests their mixed character: the former helps crystallization, whereas the latter causes frustration against crystallization. PMID:24694550

Russo, John; Tanaka, Hajime

2014-01-01

199

Use of MAGSAT anomaly data for crustal structure and mineral resources in the US Midcontinent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Personnel matters related to the processing and interpretation of MAGSAT data are reported. Efforts are being initiated to determine the crustal geology, structure, and potential economic consequences to be deduced from the satellite magnetic anomalies in conjuction with correlative data.

Carmichael, R. S. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

200

Prevent Cyberbullying: Suggestions for Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school, playground, and neighborhood often come to mind when one thinks about bullying that occurs among children and teens. However, given the significant role technology plays in the lives of today's youth, the potential of these media to function as a venue for social interaction that includes victimization, or cyberbullying, also needs to…

Demaray, Michelle K.; Brown, Christina F.

2009-01-01

201

Optical effects of space weathering in lunar crustal magnetic anomaly regions based on CE-1 observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of mini-magnetospheres above the lunar surface suggests that magnetic shielding could have led to anomalous space weathering (little darkening with limited reddening) in magnetic anomaly regions. Using spectral data from Chang'E 1 Imaging Interferometer (IIM) and data from Lunar Prospector's magnetometer, we instigate the relationship between lunar crustal magnetic anomalies and the optical effects in those areas in association with space weathering. The IIM onboard China's Chang'E 1 (CE-1) spacecraft is a Fourier transform Sagnac imaging spectrometer operating in the visible to near infrared (0.48-0.96 ?m) spectral range, with 32 channels at spectral intervals of 325.5 cm-1. We selected four regions with crustal magnetic anomalies to study their albedo properties: three lunar swirls (Gerasimovich, Mare Marginis, and Reiner Gamma) and the area antipodal to Herzsprung. We found that all three of the anomalous albedo areas are associated with magnetic anomalies, however, no anomalous albedo feature is found in the last magnetic anomaly area. In addition, we also studied the correlation between magnetic anomaly strength and albedo anomaly on a global scale. Our initial analysis suggests an overall tread of less darkening with increased magnetic anomaly.

Li, H.; Wang, X.; Cui, J.; Fu, X.; Zhang, G.; Yao, M.; Liu, B.; Liu, J.; Li, C.; Ouyang, Z.

2013-12-01

202

10 Suggestions for Enhancing Lecturing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criticism of the lecture method remains a staple of discussion and writing in academia--and most of the time it's deserved! Those interested in improving this aspect of their teaching might wish to consider some or all of the following suggestions for enhancing lectures. These include: (1) Lectures must start with a "grabber"; (2) Lectures must be…

Heitzmann, Ray

2010-01-01

203

Suggestions for Library Network Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various approaches to the design of automatic library systems are described, suggestions for the design of rational and effective automated library processes are posed, and an attempt is made to assess the importance and effect of library network systems on library operations and library effectiveness. (Author/CWM)

Salton, Gerald

1979-01-01

204

ARCHAEOLOGY Suggested Readings in Archaeology  

E-print Network

ARCHAEOLOGY Suggested Readings in Archaeology The following is a list of some of the major by those wishing more detailed information. Educators' Resources Archaeology in the Classroom. A Resource. Archaeological Institute of America. Archaeologists at Work: A Teacher's Guide to Classroom Archaeology. 2nd ed

Mathis, Wayne N.

205

Strictly anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider an extension of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with anomaly mediation as the only source of supersymmetry breaking, and the tachyonic slepton problem solved by a gauged U(1) symmetry. The extra gauge symmetry is broken at high energies in a manner preserving supersymmetry, while also introducing both the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses, and the Higgs ?-term. We call the model strictly anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We present typical spectra for the model and compare them with those from so-called minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We find a Standard Model-like Higgs of mass 125 GeV with a gravitino mass of 140 TeV and tan??=16. However, the muon anomalous magnetic moment is 3? away from the experimental value. The model naturally produces a period of hybrid inflation, which can exit to a false vacuum characterized by large Higgs vacuum expectation values, reaching the true ground state after a period of thermal inflation. The scalar spectral index is reduced to approximately 0.975, and the correct abundance of neutralino dark matter can be produced by decays of thermally produced gravitinos, provided the gravitino mass (and hence the Higgs mass) is high. Naturally light cosmic strings are produced, satisfying bounds from the cosmic microwave background. The complementary pulsar timing and cosmic ray bounds require that strings decay primarily via loops into gravitational waves. Unless the loops are extremely small, the next generation pulsar timing array will rule out or detect the string-derived gravitational radiation background in this model.

Hindmarsh, Mark; Jones, D. R. Timothy

2013-04-01

206

Survival of children born with congenital anomalies  

PubMed Central

Aim: To describe the survival to age 5 years of children born with congenital anomalies. Methods: Between 1980 and 1997, 6153 live born cases of congenital anomaly were diagnosed and registered by the population based Glasgow Register of Congenital Anomalies. They were retrospectively followed to assess their survival status from birth up to the age of 5 years. Results: The proportions of all live born infants with congenital anomalies surviving to the end of the first week, and first and fifth year were 94%, 89%, and 88%, respectively. Survival to age 5, the end point of follow up, was significantly poorer for infants with chromosomal anomalies (48%) compared to neural tube defects (72%), respiratory system anomalies (74%), congenital heart disease (75%), nervous system anomalies (77%), and Down's syndrome (84%). Conclusion: Although almost 90% of all live born infants with congenital anomalies survive to 5 years, there are notable variations in survival between anomaly types. Our findings should be useful for both clinicians and geneticists to assess the prognosis of congenital anomalies. This information is also important for affected families and for the planning of health care needs for this high risk population. PMID:12716706

Dastgiri, S; Gilmour, W; Stone, D

2003-01-01

207

Anomaly detection for internet surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming to monitor many websites. In this paper, we present a novel method to automatically monitor trends and find anomalies on the internet. The system was tested on Twitter data. The results showed that it can successfully recognize abnormal changes in activity or emotion.

Bouma, Henri; Raaijmakers, Stephan; Halma, Arvid; Wedemeijer, Harry

2012-06-01

208

Endocrine disruptors and congenital anomalies.  

PubMed

The specialized literature was reviewed concerning the suspected increasing secular trends in the frequency of female births, male genital congenital anomalies, abnormal sperm counts, and testicular cancer. Although no risk factors could be identified yet, the observed sex ratio decline during the last decades has been considered to be an effect of certain pollutants on normal hormone activity, and human reproductive development. Reported increasing trends in the frequencies of hypospadias and cryptorchidism are very difficult to be interpreted due to the large variability in the registered frequency of these malformations due to operational as well as biological reasons. PMID:11923883

Rittler, Mônica; Castilla, Eduardo E

2002-01-01

209

Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.

2012-01-01

210

Hydrodynamic anomalies in supercritical fluid.  

PubMed

Using the molecular dynamics simulations we investigate properties of velocity autocorrelation function of Lennard-Jones fluid at long and intermediate time scales in wide ranges of temperature and density. We show that the amplitudes of both the leading and the subleading time asymptotic terms of velocity autocorrelation function, a1 and a2, show essentially non-monotonic temperature and density dependence. There are two lines on temperature-density plain corresponding to maxima of a1 (a2) along isochors and isotherms situated in the supercritical fluid (hydrodynamic anomalies). These lines give insight into the stages of the fluid evolution into gas. PMID:25273453

Ryltsev, R E; Chtchelkatchev, N M

2014-09-28

211

Analyzing and modeling gravity and magnetic anomalies using the SPHERE program and Magsat data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer codes were completed, tested, and documented for analyzing magnetic anomaly vector components by equivalent point dipole inversion. The codes are intended for use in inverting the magnetic anomaly due to a spherical prism in a horizontal geomagnetic field and for recomputing the anomaly in a vertical geomagnetic field. Modeling of potential fields at satellite elevations that are derived from three dimensional sources by program SPHERE was made significantly more efficient by improving the input routines. A preliminary model of the Andean subduction zone was used to compute the anomaly at satellite elevations using both actual geomagnetic parameters and vertical polarization. Program SPHERE is also being used to calculate satellite level magnetic and gravity anomalies from the Amazon River Aulacogen.

Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

212

Surgical Treatment of Coronary Artery Anomalies  

PubMed Central

The surgical treatment of coronary artery anomalies continues to evolve. The most common coronary artery anomalies requiring surgical intervention include coronary artery fistulae, anomalous pulmonary origins of the coronary arteries, and anomalous aortic origins of the coronary arteries. The choice of surgical intervention for each type of coronary anomaly depends on several anatomic, physiologic, and patient-dependent variables. As surgical techniques have progressed, outcomes have continued to improve; however, controversy still exists about many aspects of the proper management of patients who have these coronary artery anomalies. We reviewed the surgical treatment of 178 patients who underwent surgery for the above-mentioned types of coronary artery anomalies at the Texas Heart Institute from December 1963 through June 2001. On the basis of this experience, we discuss historical aspects of the early treatment of these anomalies and describe their present-day management. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:299–307) PMID:12484614

Reul, Ross M.; Cooley, Denton A.; Hallman, Grady L.; Reul, George J.

2002-01-01

213

Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

2014-07-01

214

The DiGeorge anomaly.  

PubMed

The DiGeorge anomaly, originally considered a clinical paradigm for isolated thymus deficiency, has now been redefined as a member of a group of disorders that share in common a chromosome deletion resulting in monosomy 22q11 (CATCH-22 or DGA/VCFS). In addition to the thymus defect, conotruncal heart anomalies, dysmorphism, hypoparathyroidism, and cleft palate are prominent features. Despite the emphasis on thymus involvement in DGA, a clinically significant thymus defect is found only in a small percentage of these patients probably occurring in less than 5% of the cases. Maldescent of the thymus, however, is extremely common, leading to an absence of mediastinal thymic tissue in nearly all cases. The basic embryological fault in these disorders is an inadequate development of the facial neural-crest tissues, resulting in defective organogenesis of pharyngeal pouch derivatives that receive cephalic neural-crest contribution to the mesenchmyme. The causes for this maldevelopment are both genetic and extragenetic in origin and the genetic lesions act in concert with random environmental events to produce the ultimate clinical picture. The modern research approaches now available have cleared away most of the confusion clouding the clinical and theoretical aspects of DGA and related disorders, providing the clinician with useful landmarks to assess and treat these intriguing clinical challenges. PMID:11269228

Hong, R

2001-02-01

215

Ancient Crystals Suggest Earlier Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes the findings of two scientists who studied the chemical makeup of crystals of zircon from rocks in Western Australia's Jack Hills. The zircon crystals are thought to be 4.5 billion years old, making them some of the oldest materials yet found on Earth. The ratios of oxygen isotopes found in the crystals suggest that conditions during the Hadean Eon, the first 500 million years of Earth's history when the crystals were formed, were cooler and wetter than previously thought. Links to a glossary are embedded in the text.

216

Crustal Magnetic Field Anomalies and Global Tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of evidence suggests that the ruling isochron (geomagnetic polarity versus age) hypothesis of marine magnetic lineations has no merit - undermining therefore one of the central tenets of plate tectonics. Instead, variable induction by the ambient geomagnetic field is likely to be the principal agent for mega-scale crustal magnetic features - in both oceanic and continental settings. This revitalizes the fault-controlled susceptibility-contrast model of marine magnetic lineations, originally proposed in the late 1960s. Thus, the marine magnetic 'striping' may be ascribed to tectonic shearing and related, but variable, disintegration of the original iron-oxide mineralogy, having developed primarily along one of the two pan-global sets of orthogonal fractures and faults. In this way, fault zones (having the more advanced mineral alteration) would be characterized by relatively low susceptibility, while more moderately affected crustal sections (located between principal fault zones) would be likely to have less altered oxide mineralogy and therefore higher magnetic susceptibility. On this basis, induction by the present geomagnetic field is likely to produce oscillating magnetic field anomalies with axis along the principal shear grain. The modus operandi of the alternative magneto-tectonic interpretation is inertia-driven wrenching of the global Alpine age palaeo-lithosphere - triggered by changes in Earth's rotation. Increasing sub-crustal loss to the upper mantle during the Upper Mesozoic had left the ensuing Alpine Earth in a tectonically unstable state. Thus, sub-crustal eclogitization and associated gravity-driven delamination to the upper mantle led to a certain degree of planetary acceleration which in turn gave rise to latitude-dependent, westward inertial wrenching of the global palaeo-lithosphere. During this process, 1) the thin and mechanically fragile oceanic crust were deformed into a new type of broad fold belts, and 2) the continents were subjected to relative 'in situ' rotations (mostly moderate). Examples of marine magnetic lineations with landward continuation along prominent transcurrent fault zones, and the fact that striped marine magnetic anomalies may display orthogonal networks - concordant with the ubiquitous system of rectilinear fractures, faults and joints - corroborate the wrench tectonic interpretation of crustal field anomalies.

Storetvedt, Karsten

2014-05-01

217

Pancake kidney: A rare developmental anomaly  

PubMed Central

There are many developmental anomalies of the kidney. Pancake kidney is one of the rarest types of renal ectopia. We report a case of pancake kidney which was detected incidentally while treating a female patient for a urinary tract infection. Although urinary system anomalies often coexist with malformations of other organs and systems, no associated anomalies could be detected in this case. Pancake kidney is usually managed by surgery, but this case was managed conservatively without any complication. PMID:25024805

Tiwari, Alok Kumar; Choudhary, Anil Kumar; Khowal, Hemant; Chaudhary, Poras; Arora, Mohinder. P.

2014-01-01

218

The Mars Rover Spirit FLASH anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Exploration Rover 'Spirit' suffered a debilitating anomaly that prevented communication with Earth for several anxious days. With the eyes of the world upon us, the anomaly team used each scrap of information, our knowledge of the system, and sheer determination to analyze and fix the problem, then return the vehicle to normal operation. This paper will discuss the Spirit FLASH anomaly, including the drama of the investigation, the root cause and the lessons learned from the experience.

Reeves, Glenn E.; Neilson, Tracy C.

2005-01-01

219

Chiral and gravitational anomalies in any dimension  

SciTech Connect

Gravitational contributions to the chiral anomaly in 4N space-time dimensions as well as the purely gravitational anomaly in 4N-2 dimensions are expressed in terms of the Riemann--Christoffel tensor. Using this formula, we give a simple proof that if N > or = 4 there is no way to cancel the gravitational anomalies using fields of spin- 1/2 , - (3)/(2) , and -1.

Delbourgo, R.; Matsuki, T.

1985-06-01

220

Separation of potential field data using 3-D principal component analysis and textural analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential field data represent the superposition of effects of all surface and underground sources. A reliable interpretation of different gravity or magnetic anomalies greatly depends on a reasonable separation between regional field and local anomalies. We present here a novel separation method based on a 3-D principal component analysis (PCA) and textural analysis. The PCA, used to decompose the potential field data into a linear superposition of eigenimages, is performed not only on anomaly values but also on textural features, so as to fully use the spatial distribution characteristics of the data and make the separated regional field comprehensively account for the major variations of the data. In order to reduce subjectivity and inaccuracy, we propose a texture-based criterion in separation result selection, which measures the highlighted differences between the two kinds of anomaly by textural statistics and select the first several eigenimages corresponding to the most important variability as the region field when the differences reach maximum. The method is tested with two synthetic models and two real data examples from the Huanghua area, located in Hebei Province, China. Our tests suggest that the method provides a better separation of regional and local anomalies than does the polynomial fitting technique. The separated regional fields and local anomalies of the gravity and magnetic data coincide well with the geological structure of the Huanghua area.

Zhang, Lili; Hao, Tianyao; Jiang, Weiwei

2009-12-01

221

Abnormal electroretinogram associated with developmental brain anomalies.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: We have encountered abnormal ERGs associated with optic nerve hypoplasia, macular, optic nerve and chorioretinal colobomata and developmental brain anomalies. Brain anomalies include cortical dysgenesis, lissencephaly, porencephaly, cerebellar and corpus callosum hypoplasia. We describe six exemplar cases. METHODS: Scotopic and photopic ERGs adherent to international standards were performed as well as photopic ERGs to long-duration stimuli. CT or MRI studies were also done. The ERGs were compared to age-matched normal control subjects. RESULTS: ERG changes include reduced amplitude b-waves to blue and red stimuli under scotopic testing conditions. Implicit times were often delayed. The photopic responses also showed reduced amplitude a- and b-waves with implicit time delays. The long-duration photopic ERG done in one case shows attenuation of both ON- and OFF-responses. CONCLUSIONS: Common underlying developmental genetic or environmental unifying casualties are speculated to be at fault in causing these cases of associated retinal and brain abnormalities. No single etiology is expected. Multiple potential causes acting early in embryogenesis effecting neuronal induction, migration and differentiation are theorized. These occur at a time when brain and retinal cells are sufficiently undifferentiated to be similarly effected. We call these cases examples of Brain Retina Neuroembryodysgenesis (BRNED). Homeobox and PAX genes with global neuronal developmental influences are gene candidates to unify the observed disruption of brain and retinal cell development. The ERG can provide a valuable clinical addition in understanding and ultimately classifying these disorders. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:8719676

Cibis, G W; Fitzgerald, K M

1995-01-01

222

Anomaly polynomial of general 6D SCFTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a method to determine the anomaly polynomials of general 6D mathcal {N}={(2,0)} and mathcal {N}={(1,0)} superconformal field theories (SCFTs), in terms of the anomaly matching on their tensor branches. This method is almost purely field theoretical, and can be applied to all known 6D SCFTs. We demonstrate our method in many concrete examples, including mathcal {N}={(2,0)} theories of arbitrary type and the theories on M5 branes on asymptotically locally Euclidean (ALE) singularities, reproducing the N^3 behavior. We check the results against the anomaly polynomials computed M-theoretically via the anomaly inflow.

Ohmori, Kantaro; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Tachikawa, Yuji; Yonekura, Kazuya

2014-10-01

223

The magnetic anomaly of the Ivreazone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic field survey was made in the Ivreazone in 1969/70. The results were: significant anomaly of the vertical intensity is found. It follows the basic main part of the Ivrea-Verbano zone and continues to the south. The width of the anomaly is about 10 km, the maximum measures about +800 gamma. The model interpretation shows that possibly the anomaly belongs to an amphibolitic body, which in connection with the Ivrea-body was found by deep seismic sounding. Therefore, the magnetic anomaly provides further evidence for the conception that the Ivrea-body has to be regarded as a chip of earthmantle material pushed upward by tectonic processes.

Albert, G.

1979-01-01

224

Analysis of Solar Irradiation Anomalies in Long Term Over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of global hemispheric irradiation measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of solar irradiation in India using anomalies techniques and trends in ten places over India. Most of the places have exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

Cony, M.; Polo, J.; Martin, L.; Navarro, A.; Serra, I.

2012-04-01

225

Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

2014-05-01

226

The Rise and Fall of Anomalies in Tetrahedral Liquids  

E-print Network

The thermodynamic liquid-state anomalies and associated structural changes of the Stillinger-Weber family of liquids are mapped out as a function of the degree of tetrahedrality of the interaction potential, focusing in particular on tetrahedrality values suitable for modeling C, H2O, Si, Ge and Sn. We show that the density anomaly, associated with a rise in molar volume on isobaric cooling, emerges at intermediate tetrahedralities (e.g. Ge, Si and H2O) but is absent in the low (e.g. Sn) and high (e.g. C) tetrahedrality liquids. The rise in entropy on isothermal compression associated with the density anomaly is related to the structural changes in the liquid using the pair correlation entropy. An anomalous increase in the heat capacity on isobaric cooling exists at high tetrahedralities but is absent at low tetrahedralities (e.g. Sn). Structurally, this heat capacity anomaly originates in a sharp rise in the fraction of four-coordinated particles and local tetrahedral order in the liquid as its structure approaches that of the tetrahedral crystal.

Waldemar Hujo; B. Shadrack Jabes; Varun K. Rana; Charusita Chakravarty; Valeria Molinero

2011-07-28

227

A RE-INTRODUCTION TO ANOMALIES OF CRITICALITY  

SciTech Connect

In 1974, a small innocuous document was submitted to the American Nuclear Society's Criticality Safety Division for publication that would have lasting impacts on this nuclear field The author was Duane Clayton, manager of the Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Critical Mass Lab, the world's preeminent reactor critical experimenter with plutonium solutions. The document was entitled, 'Anomalies of Criticality'. 'Anomalies...' was a compilation of more than thirty separate and distinct examples of departures from what might be commonly expected in the field of nuclear criticality. Mr. Clayton's publication was the derivative of more than ten thousand experiments and countless analytical studies conducted world-wide on every conceivable reactor system imaginable: from fissile bearing solutions to solids, blocks to arrays of fuel rods, low-enriched uranium oxide systems to pure plutonium and highly enriched uranium systems. After publication, the document was commonly used within the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor community to train potential criticality/reactor analysts, experimenters and fuel handlers on important things for consideration when designing systems with critically 'safe' parameters in mind The purpose of this paper is to re-introduce 'Anomalies of Criticality' to the current Criticality Safety community and to add new 'anomalies' to the existing compendium. By so doing, it is the authors' hope that a new generation of nuclear workers and criticality engineers will benefit from its content and might continue to build upon this work in support of the nuclear renaissance that is about to occur.

PUIGH RJ

2009-09-09

228

Contributions of cretaceus quiet zone natural remanent magnetization to Magsat anomalies in the Southwest Indian Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Magsat magnetic anomalies over the Southwest Indian Ocean are modeled using a combination of induced plus viscous remanent magnetization (IM/VRM) and natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Two broad, roughly parallel, SW to NE trending triple-peaked positive anomalies dominate the region, one lying south of Africa and the other north of Antarctica. Although these anomaly peaks generally correspond with the Agulhas Plateau/Maud Rise, Mozambique Plateau/Astrid Ridge, and Madagascar Ridge/Conrad Rise conjugate pairs, the IM/VRM contribution from structural characteristics (i.e., crustal thickness) accounts for only about 20% of the anomaly amplitudes. A spatially variable but observationally constrained NRM contribution in Cretaceous Quiet Zone (KQZ) crust is required to account for the location, shape, and amplitude contrast of these anomalies. Many crustal features in the Southwest Indian Ocean near Antarctica have little geophysical data to constrain their structure but do hagve tectonic conjugates near Africa for which much more geophysical data are generally available. Using geophysical and geological constraints from one member to model the magnetization structure of its conjugate reproduces the observed Magsat reduced-to-pole anomalies over both structures very well. This suggests that no significant alteration in their magnetization structure has occurred since the features split. Models of these conjugate structures show that IM/VRM reproduces the Magsat anomalies associated with non-KQZ crust but that both IM/VRM and a dominant NRM component are required to explain the anomalies associated with KQZ crust.

Fullerton, Lawrence G.; Frey, Herbert V.; Roark, James H.; Thomas, Herman H.

1994-01-01

229

MAGSAT anomaly field inversion and interpretation for the US  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long wavelength anomalies in the total magnetic field measured by MAGSAT over the United States and adjacent areas are inverted to an equivalent layer crustal magnetization distribution. The model is based on an equal area dipole grid at the Earth's surface. Model resolution, defined as the closest dipole spacing giving a solution having physical significance, is about 220 km for MAGSAT data in the elevation range 300-500 km. The magnetization contours correlate well with large scale tectonic provinces. A higher resolution (200 km) model based on relatively noise free synthetic "pseudodata" is also presented. Magnetic anomaly component data measured by MAGSAT is compared with synthetic anomaly component fields arising from an equivalent source dipole array at the Earth's surface generated from total field anomaly data alone. An excellent inverse correlation between apparent magnetization and heat flow in the western U.S. is demonstrated. A regional heat flow map which is presented and compared with published maps, predicts high heat flow in Nebraska and the Dakotas, suggesting the presence of a "blind" geothermal area of regional extent.

Mayhew, M. A. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

230

Recent summer Arctic atmospheric circulation anomalies in a historical perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant increase in the summertime occurrence of a high pressure area over the Beaufort Sea and Greenland has been observed from the beginning of the 2000's, and particularly between 2007 and 2012. These circulation anomalies are likely partly responsible for the enhanced Greenland ice sheet melt as well as the Arctic sea ice loss observed since 2007. Therefore, it is interesting to analyse whether similar conditions might have happened since the late 19th century over the Arctic region. We have used an atmospheric circulation type classification based on daily mean sea level pressure and 500 hPa geopotential height data from four reanalysis datasets (ERA-Interim, ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR, and 20CRv2) to put the recent circulation anomalies in perspective with the atmospheric circulation variability since 1871. We found that circulation conditions similar to 2007-2012 have occurred in the past, despite a higher uncertainty of the reconstructed circulation before 1940. But the recent anomalies largely exceed the interannual variability of the atmospheric circulation of the Arctic region. These circulation anomalies are linked with the North Atlantic Oscillation suggesting that they are not limited to the Arctic. Finally, they favour summertime Arctic sea ice loss.

Belleflamme, A.; Fettweis, X.; Erpicum, M.

2014-09-01

231

Gravitational Anomalies and Thermal Hall effect in Topological Insulators  

E-print Network

It has been suggested that a temperature gradient will induce a Leduc-Righi, or thermal Hall, current in the Majorana quasiparticles localized on the surface of class DIII topological insulators, and that the magnitude of this current can be related {\\it via} an Einstein argument to a Hall-like energy flux induced by gravity. We critically examine this idea, and argue that the gravitational Hall effect is more complicated than its familiar analogue. A conventional Hall current is generated by a {\\it uniform} electric field, but computing the flux from the gravitational Chern-Simons functional shows that gravitational field {\\it gradients} - i.e. tidal forces - are needed to induce a energy-momentum flow. We relate the surface energy-momentum flux to a domain-wall gravitational anomaly {\\it via} the Callan-Harvey inflow mechanism. We stress that the gauge invariance of the combined bulk-plus-boundary theory ensures that the current in the domain wall always experiences a "covariant" rather than "consistent" anomaly. We use this observation to confirm that the tidally induced energy-momentum current exactly accounts for the covariant gravitational anomaly in $(1+1)$ dimensional domain-wall fermions. The same anomaly arises whether we write the Chern-Simons functional in terms of the Christofflel symbol or in terms of the the spin connection.

Michael Stone

2012-01-19

232

Building false memories without suggestions.  

PubMed

People can come to remember doing things they have never done. The question we asked in this study is whether people can systematically come to remember performing actions they never really did, in the absence of any suggestion from the experimenter. People built LEGO vehicles, performing some steps but not others. For half the people, all the pieces needed to assemble each vehicle were laid out in order in front of them while they did the building; for the other half, the pieces were hidden from view. The next day, everyone returned for a surprise recognition test. People falsely and confidently remembered having carried out steps they did not; those who saw all the pieces while they built each vehicle were more likely to correctly remember performing steps they did perform but equally likely to falsely remember performing steps they did not. We explain our results using the source monitoring framework: People used the relationships between actions to internally generate the missing, related actions, later mistaking that information for genuine experience. PMID:22774684

Foster, Jeffrey L; Garry, Maryanne

2012-01-01

233

Spin foam quantization and anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most common spin foam models of gravity are widely believed to be discrete path integral quantizations of the Plebanski action. However, their derivation in present formulations is incomplete and lower dimensional simplex amplitudes are left open to choice. Since their large-spin behavior determines the convergence properties of the state-sum, this gap has to be closed before any reliable conclusion about finiteness can be reached. It is shown that these amplitudes are directly related to the path integral measure and can in principle be derived from it, requiring detailed knowledge of the constraint algebra and gauge fixing. In a related manner, minimal requirements of background independence provide non trivial restrictions on the form of an anomaly free measure. Many models in the literature do not satisfy these requirements. A simple model satisfying the above consistency requirements is presented which can be thought of as a spin foam quantization of the Husain-Kucha? model.

Bojowald, Martin; Perez, Alejandro

2010-04-01

234

Triangle Anomalies from Einstein Manifolds  

E-print Network

The triangle anomalies in conformal field theory, which can be used to determine the central charge a, correspond to the Chern-Simons couplings of gauge fields in AdS under the gauge/gravity correspondence. We present a simple geometrical formula for the Chern-Simons couplings in the case of type IIB supergravity compactified on a five-dimensional Einstein manifold X. When X is a circle bundle over del Pezzo surfaces or a toric Sasaki-Einstein manifold, we show that the gravity result is in perfect agreement with the corresponding quiver gauge theory. Our analysis reveals an interesting connection with the condensation of giant gravitons or dibaryon operators which effectively induces a rolling among Sasaki-Einstein vacua.

Sergio Benvenuti; Leopoldo A. Pando Zayas; Yuji Tachikawa

2006-01-10

235

Pictorial essay: Coronary artery variants and anomalies  

PubMed Central

CT coronary angiography has helped radiologists understand the variations and anomalies of the anatomy of the coronary arteries and, thus, to alert the cardiologist whenever such an anomaly is present. This can be of immense help to the clinician planning interventional procedures such as stenting, balloon dilatation, or graft surgery, particularly when there are secondary changes of calcification, plaque formation and stenosis. PMID:19774140

Rahalkar, Anand M.; Rahalkar, Mukund D.

2009-01-01

236

Thermal anomaly prediction in data centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the demand for data centers has seen tremendous growth. Simultaneously, power densities have increased resulting in greater chances of thermal anomalies - situations where the temperature at a location exceeds the safety threshold for equipment placed there. In this paper, we explore some techniques for predicting such thermal anomalies so that preemptive steps can be taken to

Manish Marwah; Ratnesh Sharma; Cullen Bash

2010-01-01

237

The summer evening anomaly and conjugate effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) GPS occultation data have been analyzed in this study to provide a better understanding of the Weddell Sea Anomaly (WSA) and to place it in the wider context of a general phenomenon that occurs near dusk in summer, which we are calling the summer evening anomaly to better capture its

A. G. Burns; S. C. Solomon; W. Wang; G. Jee; C. H. Lin; C. Rocken; Y. H. Kuo

2011-01-01

238

Risk Leveling of Network Traffic Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The goal of intrusion detection is to identify attempted or ongoing attacks on a computer system or network. Many attacks aim to compromise computer networks in an online manner. Traffic anomalies have been an important indication of such attacks. Challenges in the detections lie in modeling of the large continuous streams of data and performing anomaly detection in an

Charlie Isaksson; Yu Meng; Margaret H. Dunham

2006-01-01

239

Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6  

SciTech Connect

This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

2010-02-19

240

Ultrasound Characteristics of Thyroglossal Duct Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the value of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of thyroglossal duct anomalies. The ultrasound and palpation findings in 24 patients with a thyroglossal duct anomaly were reviewed. Cysts, tracts and ectopic thyroid tissue appeared to produce a characteristic ultrasound pattern in most cases. This study includes 5 patients with non-symptomatic lesions which

Robert J. Baatenburg de Jong; Robert J. Rongen; Johan S. Laméris; Paul Knegt; Carel D. A. Verwoerd

1993-01-01

241

Scintigraphic demonstration of a gallbladder anomaly  

SciTech Connect

Congenital anomalies of the gallbladder are uncommon. In this paper the authors report a case of double gallbladder in which intravenous cholecystokinin analog (CCK) was used to confirm the presence of two ectopic gallbladders rather than other biliary tract anomalies or dilated hepatic ducts.

Singh, A.; Holmes, R.A.; Witten, D.M.

1985-01-01

242

Stationary anomalies in stratospheric meteorological data sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several northern hemisphere stratospheric meteorological data sets are shown to contain stationary anomalies. We consider four possible explanations for the anomalies: 1) real stationary-wave features; 2) biases in the analysis and assimilation methods; 3) errors in data input into the analysis and assimilation systems; and 4) tidal signals that are undersampled in the daily analyses. Because the easterly flow in

Kenneth P. Bowman; Karl Hoppel; Richard Swinbank

1998-01-01

243

Proactive anomaly detection using distributed intelligent agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proactive network anomaly detection is crucial to provide quality of service guarantees for future networks. We characterize a set of proactively detectable anomalies in terms of the management information base variables. The time series data obtained from these variables are analyzed by an intelligent agent, which is a simple and lightweight signal processor. The agent provides real-time proactive alarms that

Marina Thottan; Chuanyi Ji

1998-01-01

244

Photodiode and photomultiplier areal sensitivity anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several silicon photodiodes and photomultipliers were tested to determine signal variations as a light spot was scanned over the photosensitive surface of these detectors. Qualitative and quantitative data is presented to demonstrate the areal sensitivity anomalies. These anomalies are related back to the fabrication techniques of the manufacturers.

Youngbluth, O., Jr.

1977-01-01

245

Inkjet Mask Anomalies for Microfluidic Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of inkjet masks with UV light on a photoresistive material can be a cost-effective method for the generation of microfluidic devices for research and\\/or demonstration. The multicomponent combinations of various colors utilized in inks can lead to anomalies in the generation of the device. These anomalies are demonstrated for various UV exposures with a 365 nm source and

William Dieterle

2010-01-01

246

Anomaly detection in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomaly detection in wireless sensor networks is an important challenge for tasks such as fault diagnosis, intrusion detection, and monitoring applications. The algorithms developed for anomaly detection have to consider the inherent limitations of sensor networks in their design so that the energy consumption in sensor nodes is minimized and the lifetime of the network is maximized. In this survey

SUTHARSHAN RAJASEGARAR; CHRISTOPHER LECKIE; MARIMUTHU PALANISWAMI

2008-01-01

247

Magnetic resonance images of neuronal migration anomalies.  

PubMed

Neuronal migration anomalies are a spectrum of brain malformations caused by insults to migrating neuroblasts during the sixth week to fifth month of gestation. To study the characteristics of MRI findings in migration anomalies, MR images of 36 patients (28 children and 8 adults) with migration anomalies were evaluated. Five patients had lissencephaly, eight had pachygyria, twelve had schizencephaly, six had heterotopias of gray matter, three had hemimegalencephaly, and two had polymicrogyria. The frequency of migration anomalies was 0.51% of all cranial MRI studies and 1.21% of pediatric cranial MRI studies at our hospital. The major clinical presentations of these patients were seizure (64%), development delay (42%), motor deficits (42%) and mental retardation (25%). Twenty-five patients (69%) associated with other brain anomalies, including: other migration anomalies in 12 cases (33%), absence of the septum pellucidum in 10 cases (28%), Dandy-Walker malformation/variant in 5 cases, arachnoid cyst in 4 cases, agenesis of the corpus callosum in 3 cases, holoprosencephaly in 2 cases, mega cisterna magna in 1 case and cephalocele in 1 case. Some of them presented with multiple complicated anomalies. As MR imaging provides superb gray-white matter distinction, details of cortical anatomy and multiplanar capability, it can clearly delineate the detail morphologic changes of the brain caused by neuronal migration disorders as well as the associated anomalies. PMID:9780601

Jaw, T S; Sheu, R S; Liu, G C; Chou, M S

1998-08-01

248

Procedures and results related to the direct determination of gravity anomalies from satellite and terrestrial gravity data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The equations needed for the incorporation of gravity anomalies as unknown parameters in an orbit determination program are described. These equations were implemented in the Geodyn computer program which was used to process optical satellite observations. The arc dependent parameter unknowns, 184 unknown 15 deg and coordinates of 7 tracking stations were considered. Up to 39 arcs (5 to 7 days) involving 10 different satellites, were processed. An anomaly solution from the satellite data and a combination solution with 15 deg terrestrial anomalies were made. The limited data samples indicate that the method works. The 15 deg anomalies from various solutions and the potential coefficients implied by the different solutions are reported.

Rapp, R. H.

1974-01-01

249

Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

1985-01-01

250

Anomaly detection and reconstruction from random projections.  

PubMed

Compressed-sensing methodology typically employs random projections simultaneously with signal acquisition to accomplish dimensionality reduction within a sensor device. The effect of such random projections on the preservation of anomalous data is investigated. The popular RX anomaly detector is derived for the case in which global anomalies are to be identified directly in the random-projection domain, and it is determined via both random simulation, as well as empirical observation that strongly anomalous vectors are likely to be identifiable by the projection-domain RX detector even in low-dimensional projections. Finally, a reconstruction procedure for hyperspectral imagery is developed wherein projection-domain anomaly detection is employed to partition the data set, permitting anomaly and normal pixel classes to be separately reconstructed in order to improve the representation of the anomaly pixels. PMID:21690013

Fowler, James E; Du, Qian

2012-01-01

251

The local RG equation and chiral anomalies  

E-print Network

We generalize the local renormalization group (RG) equation to theories with chiral anomalies. We find that a new anomaly is required by the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions. Taking into account the new anomaly, the trace of the energy momentum tensor is expressed in terms of the covariant flavor currents, instead of the consistent ones. This result is used to show that a flavor rotation induced by the RG flow can be eliminated by a choice of scheme even in the presence of chiral anomalies. As part of a general discussion of chiral anomalies in the presence of background sources, we also derive non-renormalization theorems. Finally, we introduce the $\\theta$ parameter as a source, and derive constraints on a perturbative running of this parameter.

Boaz Keren-Zur

2014-06-03

252

Detecting Flow Anomalies in Distributed Systems  

E-print Network

Deep within the networks of distributed systems often contain anomalies that affect its efficiency and performance. These anomalies are difficult to detect because the distributed systems may not have sufficient sensors to monitor the flow of traffic within the interconnected nodes of the networks. Without early detection and making corrections, these anomalies may aggravate over time and could possibly cause disastrous outcomes in the system in the unforeseeable future. Using only coarse-grained information from the two end points of network flows, we propose a network transmission model and a localization algorithm, to detect the location of anomalies and rank them using a proposed metric within distributed systems. We evaluate our approach on passengers' records of an urbanized city's public transportation system and correlate our findings with passengers' postings on social media microblogs. Our experiments show that the metric derived using our localization algorithm gives a better ranking of anomalies a...

Chua, Freddy Chong Tat; Huberman, Bernardo A

2014-01-01

253

Global magnetic anomaly and aurora of Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The large offset and tilt of Neptune's dipole magnetic field combine to create a global magnetic anomaly, analogous to but much more important than earth's South Atlantic Anomaly. Energetic particle precipitation loss within the Neptune anomaly creates 'atmospheric drift shadows' within which particle fluxes are greatly reduced. The energetic particle dropout observed by Voyager near closest approach occurred near the predicted times when Voyager passed within the atmospheric drift shadow. Extremely soft, structured bursts of ions and electrons within the drift shadow may result from plasma wave-induced pitch angle scattering of trapped particles confined near the magnetic equator. The dropout does not necessarily imply that Voyager passed through an earth-like discrete auroral zone, as earlier reported. The ion and electron fluxes observed within the dropout period correspond to particles that must precipitate to Neptune's atmosphere within the anomaly region. This anomaly precipitation can account for a major portion of the ultraviolet emissions previously identified as Neptune aurora.

Cheng, Andrew F.

1990-01-01

254

Global magnetic anomaly and aurora of Neptune  

SciTech Connect

The large offset and tilt of Neptune's dipole magnetic field combine to create a global magnetic anomaly, analogous to but much more important than Earth's South Atlantic Anomaly. Energetic particle precipitation loss within the Neptune anomaly creates atmospheric drift shadows within which particle fluxes are greatly reduced. The energetic particle dropout observed by Voyager near closest approach occurred near the predicted times when Voyager passed within the atmospheric drift shadow. Extremely soft, structured bursts of ions and electrons within the drift shadow may result from plasma wave-induced pitch angle scattering of trapped particles confined near the magnetic equator. The dropout does not necessarily imply that Voyager passed through an Earth-like discrete auroral zone, as earlier reported. The ion and electron fluxes observed within the dropout period correspond to particles that must precipitate to Neptune's atmosphere within the anomaly region. This anomaly precipitation can account for a major portion of the ultraviolet emissions previously identified as Neptune aurora.

Cheng, A.F. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (USA))

1990-09-01

255

A New, Principled Approach to Anomaly Detection  

SciTech Connect

Intrusion detection is often described as having two main approaches: signature-based and anomaly-based. We argue that only unsupervised methods are suitable for detecting anomalies. However, there has been a tendency in the literature to conflate the notion of an anomaly with the notion of a malicious event. As a result, the methods used to discover anomalies have typically been ad hoc, making it nearly impossible to systematically compare between models or regulate the number of alerts. We propose a new, principled approach to anomaly detection that addresses the main shortcomings of ad hoc approaches. We provide both theoretical and cyber-specific examples to demonstrate the benefits of our more principled approach.

Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Laska, Jason A [ORNL; Bridges, Robert A [ORNL

2012-01-01

256

The local RG equation and chiral anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generalize the local renormalization group (RG) equation to theories with chiral anomalies. We find that a new anomaly is required by the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions. Taking into account the new anomaly, the trace of the energy momentum tensor is expressed in terms of the covariant flavor currents, instead of the consistent ones. This result is used to show that a flavor rotation induced by the RG flow can be eliminated by a choice of scheme even in the presence of chiral anomalies. As part of a general discussion of chiral anomalies in the presence of background sources, we also derive non-renormalization theorems. Finally, we introduce the $\\theta$ parameter as a source, and derive constraints on a perturbative running of this parameter.

Keren-Zur, Boaz

2014-09-01

257

Spreading rate dependence of gravity anomalies along oceanic transform faults.  

PubMed

Mid-ocean ridge morphology and crustal accretion are known to depend on the spreading rate of the ridge. Slow-spreading mid-ocean-ridge segments exhibit significant crustal thinning towards transform and non-transform offsets, which is thought to arise from a three-dimensional process of buoyant mantle upwelling and melt migration focused beneath the centres of ridge segments. In contrast, fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges are characterized by smaller, segment-scale variations in crustal thickness, which reflect more uniform mantle upwelling beneath the ridge axis. Here we present a systematic study of the residual mantle Bouguer gravity anomaly of 19 oceanic transform faults that reveals a strong correlation between gravity signature and spreading rate. Previous studies have shown that slow-slipping transform faults are marked by more positive gravity anomalies than their adjacent ridge segments, but our analysis reveals that intermediate and fast-slipping transform faults exhibit more negative gravity anomalies than their adjacent ridge segments. This finding indicates that there is a mass deficit at intermediate- and fast-slipping transform faults, which could reflect increased rock porosity, serpentinization of mantle peridotite, and/or crustal thickening. The most negative anomalies correspond to topographic highs flanking the transform faults, rather than to transform troughs (where deformation is probably focused and porosity and alteration are expected to be greatest), indicating that crustal thickening could be an important contributor to the negative gravity anomalies observed. This finding in turn suggests that three-dimensional magma accretion may occur near intermediate- and fast-slipping transform faults. PMID:17625563

Gregg, Patricia M; Lin, Jian; Behn, Mark D; Montési, Laurent G J

2007-07-12

258

Hematite Versus Magnetite as the Signature for Planetary Magnetic Anomalies?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crustal magnetic anomalies are the result of adjacent geologic units having contrasting magnetization. This magnetization arises from induction and/or remanence. In a planetary context we now know that Mars has significant crustal magnetic anomalies due to remanent magnetization, while the Earth has some anomalies where remanence can be shown to be important. This picture, however, is less clear because of the nature and the magnitude of the geomagnetic field which is responsible for superimposed induced magnetization. Induced magnetization assumes a magnetite source, because of its much greater magnetic susceptibility when compared with other magnetic minerals. We investigated the TRM (thermoremanent magnetization) acquisition of hematite, in weak magnetic fields up to 1 mT, to determine if the remanent and induced magnetization of hematite could compete with magnetite. TRM acquisition curves of magnetite and hematite show that multi-domain hematite reaches TRM saturation (0.3 - 0.4 A sq m/kg) in fields as low as 100 microT. However, multi-domain magnetite reaches only a few percent of its TRM saturation in a field of 100 microT (0.02 - 0.06 A sq m/kg). These results suggest that a mineral such as hematite and, perhaps, other minerals with significant remanence and minor induced magnetization may play an important role in providing requisite magnetization contrast. Perhaps, and especially for the Mars case, we should reevaluate where hematite and other minerals, with efficient remanence acquisition, exist in significant concentration, allowing a more comprehensive explanation of Martian anomalies and better insight into the role of remanent magnetization in terrestrial crustal magnetic anomalies.

Kletetshka, Gunther; Taylor, Patrick T.; Wasilewski, Peter J.

1999-01-01

259

Structural anomalies of fluids: Origins in second and higher coordination shells  

E-print Network

Compressing or cooling a fluid typically enhances its static interparticle correlations. However, there are notable exceptions. Isothermal compression can reduce the translational order of fluids that exhibit anomalous waterlike trends in their thermodynamic and transport properties, while isochoric cooling (or strengthening of attractive interactions) can have a similar effect on fluids of particles with short-range attractions. Recent simulation studies by Yan et al. [Phys. Rev. E 76, 051201 (2007)] on the former type of system and Krekelberg et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 044502 (2007)] on the latter provide examples where such structural anomalies can be related to specific changes in second and more distant coordination shells of the radial distribution function. Here, we confirm the generality of this microscopic picture through analysis, via molecular simulation and integral equation theory, of coordination shell contributions to the two-body excess entropy for several related model fluids which incorporate different levels of molecular resolution. The results suggest that integral equation theory can be an effective and computationally inexpensive first-pass tool for assessing, based on the pair potential alone, whether new model systems are good candidates for exhibiting structural (and hence thermodynamic and transport) anomalies.

William P. Krekelberg; Jeetain Mittal; Venkat Ganesan; Thomas M. Truskett

2008-01-11

260

Interactions between Cytokines, Congenital Anomalies of Kidney and Urinary Tract and Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Fetal hydronephrosis is the most common anomaly detected on antenatal ultrasound, affecting 1–5% of pregnancies. Postnatal investigation has the major aim in detecting infants with severe urinary tract obstruction and clinically significant urinary tract anomalies among the heterogeneous universe of patients. Congenital uropathies are frequent causes of pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD). Imaging techniques clearly contribute to this purpose; however, sometimes, these exams are invasive, very expensive, and not sufficient to precisely define the best approach as well as the prognosis. Recently, biomarkers have become a focus of clinical research as potentially useful diagnostic tools in pediatric urological diseases. In this regard, recent studies suggest a role for cytokines and chemokines in the pathophysiology of CAKUT and for the progression to CKD. Some authors proposed that the evaluation of these inflammatory mediators might help the management of postnatal uropathies and the detection of patients with high risk to developed chronic kidney disease. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to revise general aspects of cytokines and the link between cytokines, CAKUT, and CKD by including experimental and clinical evidence. PMID:24066006

Simoes e Silva, Ana Cristina; Valerio, Flavia Cordeiro; Vasconcelos, Mariana Affonso; Miranda, Debora Marques; Oliveira, Eduardo Araujo

2013-01-01

261

Atmospheric and Surface Forcings on Recent Arctic Temperature Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic has seen outsized warming over the past decade (2000-2009) relative to lower latitudes. This reflects the combined effects of: 1) a general background warming interpreted as part of the planet’s response to positive radiative forcing; 2) anomalies in atmospheric circulation; 3) changes in characteristics of the surface, in particular, reduced sea ice concentration and higher SSTs compared to climatology. Background radiative forcing is suggested from the widespread warming that is present for all seasons and for temperature anomalies stratified by each of the four cardinal wind directions. Anomalies in atmospheric circulation introduce spatial structure to seasonal temperature anomaly patterns. For example, strong positive anomalies centered between Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya in winter owe their existence in part to an anomalous southerly wind component. Circulation also explains local cooling, such as seen during spring over the quadrant from to date line eastward to 90 deg.W. The effects of reduced ice concentration are most apparent as regional “hot spots” in the temperature anomaly field. Surface forcing is evident from the stronger warming at the surface compared to the 925 hPa level. Processes can be mutually supporting. The best example is the region of positive temperature anomalies between Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya in winter - while both wind stress and warmth associated with anomalous southerly winds help to maintain open water, vertical heat fluxes from the open water help to keep the atmosphere warm. With regard to the trajectory of the Arctic system through the 21st century, an important issue is how the effects of atmospheric warming due to reduced sea ice concentration and higher SSTs will be spread out by winds to affect surrounding regions, acting as a feedback to foster more ice melt and reduce ice growth, or leading to enhanced warming over land affecting vegetation and soil temperature regimes. For the period 2000-2009, effects of winds in “spreading out the heat” are most apparent over the Atlantic side of the Arctic in winter and over the central Arctic Ocean in autumn.

Serreze, M. C.; Barrett, A. P.; Cassano, J. J.

2010-12-01

262

Io's Thermal Anomalies: Clues to their origins from comparison of ground based observations between 1 and 20 micrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observed frequency of occurrence of high temperature events, the linking of high and lower temperature thermal anomalies, and observed stability of volcanic regions since Voyager suggests that high temperature silicate eruptions could support the entire observed population of cooler temperature anomalies.

Blaney, Diana L.; Veeder, Glenn J.; Matson, Dennis L.; Johnson, Torrence V.; Goguen, Jay D.

1997-01-01

263

The impact of devegetated dune fields on North American climate during the late Medieval Climate Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Medieval Climate Anomaly, North America experienced severe droughts and widespread mobilization of dune fields that persisted for decades. We use an atmosphere general circulation model, forced by a tropical Pacific sea surface temperature reconstruction and changes in the land surface consistent with estimates of dune mobilization (conceptualized as partial devegetation), to investigate whether the devegetation could have exacerbated the medieval droughts. Presence of devegetated dunes in the model significantly increases surface temperatures, but has little impact on precipitation or drought severity, as defined by either the Palmer Drought Severity Index or the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Results are similar to recent studies of the 1930s Dust Bowl drought, suggesting bare soil associated with the dunes, in and of itself, is not sufficient to amplify droughts over North America.

Cook, B. I.; Seager, R.; Miller, R. L.

2011-07-01

264

Enzyme leaching of surficial geochemical samples for detecting hydromorphic trace-element anomalies associated with precious-metal mineralized bedrock buried beneath glacial overburden in northern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One objective of the International Falls and Roseau, Minnesota, CUSMAP projects was to develop a means of conducting regional-scale geochemical surveys in areas where bedrock is buried beneath complex glacially derived overburden. Partial analysis of B-horizon soils offered hope for detecting subtle hydromorphic trace-element dispersion patterns. An enzyme-based partial leach selectively removes metals from oxide coatings on the surfaces of soil materials without attacking their matrix. Most trace-element concentrations in the resulting solutions are in the part-per-trillion to low part-per-billion range, necessitating determinations by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry. The resulting data show greater contrasts for many trace elements than with other techniques tested. Spatially, many trace metal anomalies are locally discontinuous, but anomalous trends within larger areas are apparent. In many instances, the source for an anomaly seems to be either basal till or bedrock. Ground water flow is probably the most important mechanism for transporting metals toward the surface, although ionic diffusion, electrochemical gradients, and capillary action may play a role in anomaly dispersal. Sample sites near the Rainy Lake-Seine River fault zone, a regional shear zone, often have anomalous concentrations of a variety of metals, commonly including Zn and/or one or more metals which substitute for Zn in sphalerite (Cd, Ge, Ga, and Sn). Shifts in background concentrations of Bi, Sb, and As show a trend across the area indicating a possible regional zoning of lode-Au mineralization. Soil anomalies of Ag, Co, and Tl parallel basement structures, suggesting areas that may have potential for Cobalt/Thunder Baytype silver viens. An area around Baudette, Minnesota, which is underlain by quartz-chlorite-carbonate-altered shear zones, is anomalous in Ag, As, Bi, Co, Mo, Te, Tl, and W. Anomalies of Ag, As, Bi, Te, and W tend to follow the fault zones, suggesting potential for lode-Au deposits. Soil anomalies of Co, Mo, and Tl appear to follow northwest-striking structures that cross the shear zones, suggesting that Thunder Bay-type mineralization may have overprinted earlier mineralization along the shear zones.

Clark, Robert J.; Meier, A.L.; Riddle, G.

1990-01-01

265

Associated nonurinary congenital anomalies among infants with congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT).  

PubMed

Infants with congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) often have other associated anomalies. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the prevalence and the types of associated anomalies in CAKUT in a defined population from northeastern France. The associated anomalies in CAKUT were collected in all livebirths, stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy during 26 years in 346,831 consecutive births of known outcome in the area covered by our population based registry of congenital anomalies. Of the 1678 infants with CAKUT born during this period (prevalence at birth of 48.4 per 10,000), 563 (34%) had associated anomalies. There were 119 (7%) patients with chromosomal abnormalities including 33 trisomies 18 (2%), and 168 (10%) nonchromosomal recognized dysmorphic conditions. There were no predominant recognized dysmorphic conditions, but VA(C)TER(L) association (3%). However, other recognised dysmorphic conditions were registered including Meckel-Gruber syndrome (2%), and prune belly syndrome (1%). Two hundred seventy six (16%) of the patients had multiple congenital anomalies, non syndromic, non chromosomal (MCA). Anomalies in the musculoskeletal, the digestive, the cardiovascular and the central nervous systems were the most common other anomalies. Prenatal diagnosis was obtained in 71% of dysmorphic syndromes with CAKUT. In conclusion the overall prevalence of associated anomalies, which was one in three infants, emphasizes the need for a thorough investigation of infants with CAKUT. The most commonly associated major nonurinary anomalies involved the musculoskeletal system, followed by the digestive, the cardiovascular and the central nervous systems. A routine screening for other anomalies may be considered in infants and in fetuses with CAKUT. One should be aware that the anomalies associated with CAKUT can be classified into a recognizable anomaly syndrome or pattern in one out of six infants with CAKUT. PMID:24821302

Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

2014-07-01

266

Ferromagnetic neutron stars: axial anomaly, dense neutron matter, and pionic wall  

E-print Network

We show that a chiral nonlinear sigma model coupled to degenerate neutrons exhibits a ferromagnetic phase at high density. The magnetization is due to the axial anomaly acting on the parallel layers of neutral pion domain walls spontaneously formed at high density. The emergent magnetic field would reach the QCD scale ~ 10^19 [G], which suggests that the quantum anomaly can be a microscopic origin of the magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars).

Minoru Eto; Koji Hashimoto; Tetsuo Hatsuda

2012-09-21

267

Ferromagnetic neutron stars: Axial anomaly, dense neutron matter, and pionic wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that a chiral nonlinear sigma model coupled to degenerate neutrons exhibits a ferromagnetic phase at high density. The magnetization is due to the axial anomaly acting on the parallel layers of neutral pion domain walls spontaneously formed at high density. The emergent magnetic field would reach the QCD scale ˜1019[G], which suggests that the quantum anomaly can be a microscopic origin of the magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars).

Eto, Minoru; Hashimoto, Koji; Hatsuda, Tetsuo

2013-10-01

268

Implementation of a General Real-Time Visual Anomaly Detection System Via Soft Computing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intelligent visual system detects anomalies or defects in real time under normal lighting operating conditions. The application is basically a learning machine that integrates fuzzy logic (FL), artificial neural network (ANN), and generic algorithm (GA) schemes to process the image, run the learning process, and finally detect the anomalies or defects. The system acquires the image, performs segmentation to separate the object being tested from the background, preprocesses the image using fuzzy reasoning, performs the final segmentation using fuzzy reasoning techniques to retrieve regions with potential anomalies or defects, and finally retrieves them using a learning model built via ANN and GA techniques. FL provides a powerful framework for knowledge representation and overcomes uncertainty and vagueness typically found in image analysis. ANN provides learning capabilities, and GA leads to robust learning results. An application prototype currently runs on a regular PC under Windows NT, and preliminary work has been performed to build an embedded version with multiple image processors. The application prototype is being tested at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, to visually detect anomalies along slide basket cables utilized by the astronauts to evacuate the NASA Shuttle launch pad in an emergency. The potential applications of this anomaly detection system in an open environment are quite wide. Another current, potentially viable application at NASA is in detecting anomalies of the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter's radiator panels.

Dominguez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve; Ferrell, Bob; Steinrock, Todd (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

269

Nonrelativistic scale anomaly, and composite operators with complex scaling dimensions  

SciTech Connect

Research Highlights: > Nonrelativistic scale anomaly leads to operators with complex scaling dimensions. > We study an operator O={psi}{psi} in quantum mechanics with 1/r{sup 2} potenial. > The propagator of the composite operator is analytically computed. - Abstract: It is demonstrated that a nonrelativistic quantum scale anomaly manifests itself in the appearance of composite operators with complex scaling dimensions. In particular, we study nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with an inverse square potential and consider a composite s-wave operator O={psi}{psi}. We analytically compute the scaling dimension of this operator and determine the propagator <0|TOO{sup +}|0>. The operator O represents an infinite tower of bound states with a geometric energy spectrum. Operators with higher angular momenta are briefly discussed.

Moroz, Sergej, E-mail: s.moroz@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-05-15

270

Esthetic dental anomalies as motive for bullying in schoolchildren.  

PubMed

Facial esthetics, including oral esthetics, can severely affect children's quality-of-life, causing physical, social and psychological impairment. Children and adolescents with esthetic-related dental malformations are potential targets for bullies. This study was aimed to present and discuss patients who suffered from bullying at school and family environment due to esthetic-related teeth anomalies. Providing an adequate esthetic dental treatment is an important step in their rehabilitation when the lack of esthetic is the main source of bullying. After dental treatment, we noted significant improvement in self-esteem, self-confidence, socialization and academic performance of all patients and improvement in parental satisfaction regarding the appearance of their children. It is imperative that both family and school care providers be constantly alert about bullying in order to prevent or interrupt aggressive and discriminatory practices against children and adolescents. Clearly, dental anomalies may be a motive for bullying. PMID:24966759

Scheffel, Débora Lopes Salles; Jeremias, Fabiano; Fragelli, Camila Maria Bullio; Dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes Aparecida Martins; Hebling, Josimeri; de Oliveira, Osmir Batista

2014-01-01

271

Esthetic dental anomalies as motive for bullying in schoolchildren  

PubMed Central

Facial esthetics, including oral esthetics, can severely affect children's quality-of-life, causing physical, social and psychological impairment. Children and adolescents with esthetic-related dental malformations are potential targets for bullies. This study was aimed to present and discuss patients who suffered from bullying at school and family environment due to esthetic-related teeth anomalies. Providing an adequate esthetic dental treatment is an important step in their rehabilitation when the lack of esthetic is the main source of bullying. After dental treatment, we noted significant improvement in self-esteem, self-confidence, socialization and academic performance of all patients and improvement in parental satisfaction regarding the appearance of their children. It is imperative that both family and school care providers be constantly alert about bullying in order to prevent or interrupt aggressive and discriminatory practices against children and adolescents. Clearly, dental anomalies may be a motive for bullying. PMID:24966759

Scheffel, Debora Lopes Salles; Jeremias, Fabiano; Fragelli, Camila Maria Bullio; dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes Aparecida Martins; Hebling, Josimeri; de Oliveira, Osmir Batista

2014-01-01

272

Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes  

PubMed Central

In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

Wei, Congxin; Guo, Xiao; Qin, Manzhong

2013-01-01

273

Brans-Dicke theory and the Pioneer anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scalar-tensor theory offers the possibility of a modification of Newtonian gravity due to the presence of a 4d scalar dilaton field. The prototypical version of such a theory, massless Brans-Dicke theory, is considered here in the Einstein frame representation. The acceleration of a test mass is obtained from the exact 4d Xanthopoulos-Zannias solutions with spherical symmetry. The deviation of this acceleration from the pure Newtonian gravitational acceleration is examined to see if it can account for the anomalous Pioneer acceleration, while satisfying solar system constraints. Theoretical considerations, along with limits inferred from Pioneer 10 data, suggest that Brans-Dicke gravity could account for no more than a small fraction of the Pioneer anomaly, so that a complete explanation of the anomaly must lie elsewhere.

Anderson, John D.; Morris, J. R.

2012-09-01

274

Piecewise potential vorticity diagnosis of the development of a polar low over the Sea of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The piecewise potential vorticity (PV) inversion method developed by Davis and Emanuel (1991) is used to diagnose the development processes of a polar low over the Sea of Japan in December 2003. The synoptic scale-balanced flows associated with the polar low are successfully captured using the inversion method. It is shown that, antecedent to the development of the polar low, a positive lower-tropospheric temperature anomaly was induced by the approach of a positive tropopause-level PV anomaly over the northern Sea of Japan. The analysis suggests that the polar low was initiated as a result of the combined effect of the positive PV anomaly near the tropopause and the near-surface positive temperature anomaly. The rapid height falls in the lower troposphere were primarily contributed by the upper tropospheric PV anomaly. Further intensification of the polar low was afforded by latent heat release associated with cloud and precipitation processes. After the polar low moved over northern Honshu, quick dissipation was primarily rendered by the thinning and elongating of the upper level PV anomaly that led to a rapid reduction of the lower troposphere height perturbations associated with it.

Wu, Longtao; Martin, Jonathan E.; Petty, Grant W.

2011-03-01

275

Regional mapping of the lunar magnetic anomalies at the surface: Method and its application to strong and weak magnetic anomaly regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new method for regional mapping of the lunar magnetic anomalies as the vector field at the surface using the satellite observation, that is the surface vector mapping (SVM). The SVM is based on the inverse boundary value problem with a spherical boundary surface. There are two main procedures for reducing effects of bias and noise on mapping: (1) preprocessing the data to provide first derivatives along the pass, and (2) the Bayesian statistical procedure in the inversion using Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion. The SVM was applied to two regions: the northwest region of the South Pole-Aitken basin as a strong magnetic anomaly region, and the southeast region of the lunar near side as a weak magnetic anomaly region. Since the results from the different datasets of the Kaguya and Lunar Prospector observations show good consistency, characteristic features of the lunar magnetic anomalies at the surface are considered to be well estimated except for components of wavelength shorter than about 1°. From the results by the SVM, both of the regions show elongation patterns of the lunar magnetic anomalies, suggesting lineated structures of the magnetic anomaly sources.

Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Matsushima, Masaki

2014-01-01

276

Crustal structure interpreted from magnetic anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review, discusses publications during the last quadrennium (1987-1990) that used aeromagnetic data, marine magnetic data, satellite magnetic data, and rock magnetic and petrologic data to provide information on the sources of magnetic anomalies. The publications reviewed reflect increased integration of rock magnetic property and petrologic studies with magnetic anomaly interpretation studies, particularly in deep crustal magnetization, exploration for hydrocarbons, and inversion of marine magnetic anomalies. Interpretations of aeromagnetic data featuring image display techniques and using the horizontal gradient method for locating magnetization boundaries became standard.

Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Frey, Herbert

1991-01-01

277

Cervical meningocele and associated spinal anomalies.  

PubMed

Simple meningoceles are infrequent forms of dysraphism and are often benign. They have been associated with other spinal anomalies. The uncommon cervical meningocele may have a higher propensity to be associated with other spinal anomalies. Four patients with cervical meningocele are presented with radiographic evaluation and clinical course. Multiple abnormalities were documented radiographically and operatively, including hydrocephalus, Chiari malformation, hydromyelia, lipomeningomyelocele, tethered cord, thickened filum terminale, diastematomyelia, Klippel-Feil syndrome, and thoracic hemivertebrae. Prior to the development of any late neurological abnormality from associated spinal anomalies, magnetic resonance imaging is recommended early in a child born with a simple meningocele. PMID:3652068

Delashaw, J B; Park, T S; Cail, W M; Vollmer, D G

1987-01-01

278

Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental breakup  

SciTech Connect

Continental lithosphere magnetic anomalies mapped by the Magsat satellite are related to tectonic features associated with regional compositional variations of the crust and upper mantle and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. These continental-scale anomaly patterns when corrected for varying observation elevation and the global change in the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field show remarkable correlation of regional lithospheric magnetic sources across rifted continental margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans.

von Frese, R.R.B.; Hinze, W.J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C.R.

1986-01-01

279

The conformal anomaly of M5-branes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the conformal anomaly for N M5-branes grows like N 3. The method we employ relates Coulomb branch interactions in six dimensions to interactions in four dimensions using supersymmetry. This leads to a relation between the six-dimensional conformal anomaly and the conformal anomaly of N = 4 Yang-Mills. Along the way, we determine the structure of the four derivative interactions for the toroidally compactified (2, 0) theory, while encountering interesting novelties in the structure of the six derivative interactions.

Maxfield, Travis; Sethi, Savdeep

2012-06-01

280

Considerations in the Interpretation of Cosmological Anomalies  

E-print Network

Anomalies drive scientific discovery -- they are associated with the cutting edge of the research frontier, and thus typically exploit data in the low signal-to-noise regime. In astronomy, the prevalence of systematics --- both "known unknowns" and "unknown unknowns" --- combined with increasingly large datasets, the widespread use of ad hoc estimators for anomaly detection, and the "look-elsewhere" effect, can lead to spurious false detections. In this informal note, I argue that anomaly detection leading to discoveries of new physics requires a combination of physical understanding, careful experimental design to avoid confirmation bias, and self-consistent statistical methods. These points are illustrated with several concrete examples from cosmology.

Peiris, Hiranya V

2014-01-01

281

Potential Vorticity Attribution and Causality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrostatic analogy provides a well known paradigm for the concept of potential vorticity (PV) attribution. Just as electric fields can be attributed to electric charges, so are localized PV anomalies thought to induce far-fields of flow and temperature, at least after geostrophic adjustment. Piecewise PV inversion (PPVI) exploits this concept. Idealized examples of PPVI are discussed by selecting isolated anomalies which are inverted to yield the far-field 'caused' by the PV anomaly. The causality of attribution is tested in this study by seeking an unbalanced initial state containing the same PV anomaly but without a far-field from which the balanced state can be attained by geostrophic adjustment. It is shown that the far-field of a balanced axisymmetric PV-anomaly in shallow water, without mean PV-gradients, may evolve from a localized anomaly without a far-field. For the more general example of the electrostatics analogy, namely a three-dimensional spherical PV-anomaly, the initial state has to be non-hydrostatic and needs to exhibit a mass deficit. As this mass deficit cannot be removed during hydrostatic and geostrophic adjustment, it follows that PV attribution does not imply a causal relationship between the far-field of a PV anomaly and the anomaly itself.

Spengler, T.; Egger, J.

2012-04-01

282

US Aeromagnetic and Satellite Magnetic Anomaly Comparisons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scalar aeromagnetic data obtained by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NOO) Vector Magnetic Survey of the conterminous U.S. were screened for periods of intense diurnal magnetic activity and reduced to anomaly form, filtered, and continued upward. A number of correlations between the NOO, POGO and preliminary MAGSAT data are evident at satellite elevations, including a prominent transcontinental magnetic high which extends from the Anadarko Basin to the Cincinnati Arch. The transcontinental magnetic high is breached by negative anomalies located over the Rio Grande Rift and Mississippi River Aulacogen. Differentially reduced-to-pole NOO and POGO magnetic anomaly data show that the transcontinental magnetic high corresponds to a well-defined regional trend of negative free-air gravity and enhanced crustal thickness anomalies.

Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W. (principal investigators); Sexton, J. L.

1984-01-01

283

Reduction of satellite magnetic anomaly data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of global magnetic anomaly maps derived from satellite data is facilitated by inversion to the equivalent magnetization in a constant thickness magnetic crust or, equivalently, by reduction to the pole. Previous inversions have proven unstable near the geomagnetic equator. The instability results from magnetic moment distributions which are admissible in the inversion solution but which make only small contribution to the computed values of anomaly field. Their admissibility in the solution could result from noisy or incomplete data or from small poorly resolved anomalies. The resulting magnetic moments are unrealistically large and oscillatory. Application of the method of principal components (e.g. eigenvalue decomposition and selective elimination of less significant eigenvectors) is proposed as a way of overcoming the instability and the method is demonstrated by applying it to the region around the Bangui anomaly in Central Africa.

Slud, E. V.; Smith, P. J.; Langel, R. A.

1984-01-01

284

Chemical Compositions and Anomalies in Stellar Coronae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In summary, as the papers cited here and in earlier reports demonstrate, this award has enabled us to obtain a fairly good picture of the abundance anomalies in stellar coronae. The "inverse FIP" effect in very active stars has now been fleshed out as a more complex anomaly depending on FIP, whereas before it appeared only in terms of a general metal paucity, the recent solar abundance assessment of Asplund et a1 will, if correct, challenge some of the older interpretations of coronal abundance anomalies since they imply quite different relative abundances of CNO compared with Fe, Mg and Si. Further investigations have been in into the possibility of modeling some of the recent coronal abundance anomaly results in terms of Alfven wave-driven separation of neutrals and ions in the upper chromosphere. This work still remains in the seed stage, and future funding from a different program will be requested to pursue it further.

Drake, Jeremy; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

2005-01-01

285

Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Congenital Anomalies in Barcelona  

PubMed Central

Background: A recent meta-analysis suggested evidence for an effect of exposure to ambient air pollutants on risk of certain congenital heart defects. However, few studies have investigated the effects of traffic-related air pollutants with sufficient spatial accuracy. Objectives: We estimated associations between congenital anomalies and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in Barcelona, Spain. Method: Cases with nonchromosomal anomalies (n = 2,247) and controls (n = 2,991) were selected from the Barcelona congenital anomaly register during 1994–2006. Land use regression models from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), were applied to residential addresses at birth to estimate spatial exposure to nitrogen oxides and dioxide (NOx, NO2), particulate matter with diameter ? 10 ?m (PM10), 10–2.5 ?m (PMcoarse), ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), and PM2.5 absorbance. Spatial estimates were adjusted for temporal trends using data from routine monitoring stations for weeks 3–8 of each pregnancy. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for 18 congenital anomaly groups associated with an interquartile-range (IQR) increase in exposure estimates. Results: In spatial and spatiotemporal exposure models, we estimated statistically significant associations between an IQR increase in NO2 (12.2 ?g/m3) and coarctation of the aorta (ORspatiotemporal = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.31) and digestive system defects (ORspatiotemporal = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.23), and between an IQR increase in PMcoarse (3.6 ?g/m3) and abdominal wall defects (ORspatiotemporal = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.73). Other statistically significant increased and decreased ORs were estimated based on the spatial model only or the spatiotemporal model only, but not both. Conclusions: Our results overall do not indicate an association between traffic-related air pollution and most groups of congenital anomalies. Findings for coarctation of the aorta are consistent with those of the previous meta-analysis. Citation: Schembari A, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Salvador J, de Nazelle A, Cirach M, Dadvand P, Beelen R, Hoek G, Basagaña X, Vrijheid M. 2014. Traffic-related air pollution and congenital anomalies in Barcelona. Environ Health Perspect 122:317–323;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306802 PMID:24380957

Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Salvador, Joaquin; de Nazelle, Audrey; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Basagana, Xavier; Vrijheid, Martine

2014-01-01

286

“Great Salinity Anomalies” in the North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We revisited the “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1970s (GSA'70s; Dickson et al., 1988) and documented the newly identified “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1980s (hence termed GSA'80s), both propagated around the North Atlantic in a similar fashion. The advective mechanism, initially proposed to explain the observed sequence of low-salinity, low-temperature events during the GSA'70s, apparently holds also for the

Igor M. Belkin; Sydney Levitus; John Antonov; Svend-Aage Malmberg

1998-01-01

287

Inversion of marine magnetic anomalies by deconvolution  

E-print Network

large block size, it is demonstrated that the deconvolution technique can retrieve the equivalent source function when the anomaly due to each source block is clearly defined. The model profiles used were 115 samples in length, with a sample... magnetization structure. used to calculate the anomaly. 38 CHAPTER V RESOLUTION OF THE INVERSION TECHNIQUE The ability of the inversion procedure to recover short wavelength source blocks is limited by two factors; the sample interval of the magnetic...

Harry, Dennis Lee

2012-06-07

288

The Anomaly Structure of Regularized Supergravity  

E-print Network

On-shell Pauli-Villars regularization of the one-loop divergences of supergravity theories is used to study the anomaly structure of supergravity and the cancellation of field theory anomalies under a $U(1)$ gauge transformation and under the T-duality group of modular transformations in effective supergravity theories with three K\\"ahler moduli $T^i$ obtained from orbifold compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. This procedure requires constraints on the chiral matter representations of the gauge group that are consistent with known results from orbifold compactifications. Pauli-Villars regulator fields allow for the cancellation of all quadratic and logarithmic divergences, as well as most linear divergences. If all linear divergences were canceled, the theory would be anomaly free, with noninvariance of the action arising only from Pauli-Villars masses. However there are linear divergences associated with nonrenormalizable gravitino/gaugino interactions that cannot be canceled by PV fields. The resulting chiral anomaly forms a supermultiplet with the corresponding conformal anomaly, provided the ultraviolet cut-off has the appropriate field dependence, in which case total derivative terms, such as Gauss-Bonnet, do not drop out from the effective action. The anomalies can be partially canceled by the four-dimensional version of the Green-Schwarz mechanism, but additional counterterms, and/or a more elaborate set of Pauli-Villars fields and couplings, are needed to cancel the full anomaly, including D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly that are nonlinear in the parameters of the anomalous transformations.

Daniel Butter; Mary K. Gaillard

2014-10-22

289

Principal Component-based Anomaly Detection Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, a novel anomaly detection scheme that uses a robust principal component classifier (PCC) to handle computer\\u000a network security problems is proposed. An intrusion predictive model is constructed from the major and minor principal components\\u000a of the normal instances, where the difference of an anomaly from the normal instance is the distance in the principal component\\u000a space. The

Mei-ling Shyu; Shu-ching Chen; Kanoksri Sarinnapakorn; Liwu Chang

2006-01-01

290

Anomaly Detection Approaches for Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In recent years, network anomaly detection has become an important area for both commercial interests as well as academic\\u000a research. Applications of anomaly detection typically stem from the perspectives of network monitoring and network security.\\u000a In network monitoring, a service provider is often interested in capturing such network characteristics as heavy flows, flow\\u000a size distributions, and the number of distinct

Marina Thottan; Guanglei Liu; Chuanyi Ji

2010-01-01

291

Inkjet Mask Anomalies for Microfluidic Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of inkjet masks with UV light on a photoresistive material can be a cost-effective method for the generation of microfluidic devices for research and/or demonstration. The multicomponent combinations of various colors utilized in inks can lead to anomalies in the generation of the device. These anomalies are demonstrated for various UV exposures with a 365 nm source and possible solutions are discussed.

Dieterle, William

2010-04-01

292

The BP Oil Spill as a Cultural Anomaly? Institutional Context, Conflict, and Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that the BP Oil Spill is, potentially, a “cultural anomaly” for institutional changes in environmental management and fossil fuel production. The problem as defined by the spill’s context, the potential solutions provided by the competing logics in that context, and the selection of problem—solution bundles through the fortuitous timing of events, and more calculative efforts of institutional

Andrew J. Hoffman; P. Devereaux Jennings

2011-01-01

293

Satellite-altitude horizontal magnetic gradient anomalies used to define the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (KMA), Russia, is one of the world's largest magnetic anomalies. We used satellite altitude horizontal gradient magnetic anomaly data to study this feature. There are two main objectives of our research; the first, to determine if the technique of the horizontal magnetic anomaly gradient analysis can be applied to CHAMP satellite altitude data to define the outline of the source of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (KMA). Another objective is to use the ten years of CHAMP data to reproduce the horizontal magnetic anomaly gradient data that will be measured by the two lower orbiting ESA/Swarm mission. We will be able to evaluate the application of these newer satellite altitude data for studying large areas with significant crustal magnetization. While we have acquired sufficient CHAMP orbital data to compute a horizontal gradient anomaly map from these ten years of data; the future ESA/Swarm mission will, however, allow us to compute directly the horizontal magnetic anomaly without orbital altitude and/or magnetic secular variations; however the east-west gradient that the Swarm is measuring will minimize, but not eliminate, the difference in external fields between the two lower satellites. One will still need to use relatively quiet data (e.g., Kp < 1) for crustal field mapping. Our results, developed from interpreting the satellite horizontal magnetic anomaly data, indicate that the source of the KMA is bowl shaped body open to the northwest covering an area of approximately 190,000 km2.

Taylor, P. T.; Kis, K. I.; Wittmann, G.

2014-10-01

294

Clustering and Recurring Anomaly Identification: Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS). The Recurring Anomaly Detection System is a tool to analyze text reports, such as aviation reports and maintenance records: (1) Text clustering algorithms group large quantities of reports and documents; Reduces human error and fatigue (2) Identifies interconnected reports; Automates the discovery of possible recurring anomalies; (3) Provides a visualization of the clusters and recurring anomalies We have illustrated our techniques on data from Shuttle and ISS discrepancy reports, as well as ASRS data. ReADS has been integrated with a secure online search

McIntosh, Dawn

2006-01-01

295

Improving the geological interpretation of magnetic and gravity satellite anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative analysis of the geologic component of observed satellite magnetic and gravity fields requires accurate isolation of the geologic component of the observations, theoretically sound and viable inversion techniques, and integration of collateral, constraining geologic and geophysical data. A number of significant contributions were made which make quantitative analysis more accurate. These include procedures for: screening and processing orbital data for lithospheric signals based on signal repeatability and wavelength analysis; producing accurate gridded anomaly values at constant elevations from the orbital data by three-dimensional least squares collocation; increasing the stability of equivalent point source inversion and criteria for the selection of the optimum damping parameter; enhancing inversion techniques through an iterative procedure based on the superposition theorem of potential fields; and modeling efficiently regional-scale lithospheric sources of satellite magnetic anomalies. In addition, these techniques were utilized to investigate regional anomaly sources of North and South America and India and to provide constraints to continental reconstruction. Since the inception of this research study, eleven papers were presented with associated published abstracts, three theses were completed, four papers were published or accepted for publication, and an additional manuscript was submitted for publication.

Hinze, William J.; Braile, Lawrence W.; Vonfrese, Ralph R. B.

1987-01-01

296

Case report: a prototypical experience of 'poltergeist' activity, conspicuous quantitative electroencephalographic patterns, and sLORETA profiles - suggestions for intervention.  

PubMed

People who report objects moving in their presence, unusual sounds, glows around other people, and multiple sensed presences but do not meet the criteria for psychiatric disorders have been shown to exhibit electrical anomalies over the right temporal lobes. This article reports the striking quantitative electroencephalography, sLORETA results, and experimental elicitation of similar subjective experiences in a middle-aged woman who has been distressed by these classic phenomena that began after a head injury. She exhibited a chronic electrical anomaly over the right temporoinsular region. The rotation of a small pinwheel near her while she 'concentrated' upon it was associated with increased coherence between the left and right temporal lobes and concurrent activation of the left prefrontal region. The occurrence of the unusual phenomena and marked 'sadness' was associated with increased geomagnetic activity; she reported a similar mood when these variations were simulated experimentally. Our quantitative measurements suggest people displaying these experiences and possible anomalous energies can be viewed clinically and potentially treated. PMID:22229671

Roll, William G; Saroka, Kevin S; Mulligan, Bryce P; Hunter, Mathew D; Dotta, Blake T; Gang, Noa; Scott, Mandy A; St-Pierre, Linda S; Persinger, Michael A

2012-01-01

297

Sensitivity of tropical lowland net primary production to climate anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While drivers of tropical forest productivity such as edaphic properties (geology, topography) and climate (precipitation, temperature, light) are well established, knowledge on the sensitivity of tropical lowland net primary production to climate anomalies remains scarce. We here investigate tropical lowland forest sites differing in topography and disturbance history to study the response of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in relation to (1) climate extremes as triggered by El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), as well as (2) topographic position and (3) land-use history. In general, climate anomalies resulted in decreased precipitation and increased temperature. The production of wood decreased while the production of canopy material increased in years with prolonged periods of drought and elevated temperature. However, the impact strongly depended on local characteristics of the forest sites, such that ANPP was only negatively affected at ridges but not at ravine forest sites. We moreover show that the productivity of primary forests was significantly affected by precipitation and drought, while in secondary forests temperature was the major predictor of ANPP. Our results suggest that site-specific parameters such as topographic position and disturbance history determine the response of tropical lowland forests to climate extremes. Hence we conclude that the impact of climate anomalies on tropical forest productivity is strongly related to local conditions and thus will likely prevent uniform responses of tropical lowland forests to projected global changes.

Hofhansl, Florian; Kobler, Johannes; Drage, Sigrid; Pölz, Eva-Maria; Wanek, Wolfgang

2014-05-01

298

An Anomaly in the Angular Distribution of Quasar Spectra  

E-print Network

Quasars provide our farthest-reaching view of the Universe. The Sloan Survey now contains over 100,000 quasar candidates. A careful look at the angular distribution of quasar spectra shows a surprising "bullseye" pattern on the sky toward (RA, Dec) ~ (190{\\deg}, 0{\\deg}) for all wavelengths from UV through infrared. The angular distribution of the shift in the UV suggests a large peculiar velocity vp toward that direction. However, the size of the shift would indicate a vp ~0.2 c, which is two orders of magnitude larger than measures of our peculiar velocity from nearby galaxies and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements. The angular pattern and size of the shift is very similar for all wavelengths, which is inconsistent with a Doppler shift. The shift is also too large to explain as a systematic error in the quasar magnitudes. The anomaly appears to be a very large hotspot in the Universe. Its direction is close to that of the reported anomalies in the CMB, the so-called "axis of evil". The angular pattern of the shift and its redshift dependence are consistent with the existence of an expanding bubble universe in that direction, which could also explain the CMB anomalies.

Michael J. Longo

2011-12-21

299

Different greenhouse gases as a possible origin of the different behaviour of TIR anomalies observed from satellite in seismogenic areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have been suggesting for decades a relation between Thermal Infrared (TIR) anomalies, observed from satellite, and seismic activity. In particular, the Robust Satellite Technique (RST) for the first time provided a statistics-based definition of \\

C. Aliano; R. Corrado; C. Filizzola; V. Lanorte; M. Lisi; R. Paciello; N. Pergola; V. Tramutoli; T. Tsamalashvili

2009-01-01

300

Assessment of the 1997-1998 Asian Monsoon Anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using State-of-the-art satellite-gauge monthly rainfall estimate and optimally interpolated sea surface temperature (SST) data, we have assessed the 1997-98 Asian monsoon anomalies in terms of three basic causal factors: basin-scale SST, regional coupling, and internal variability. Singular Value Decomposition analysis of rainfall and SST are carried out globally over the entire tropics and regionally over the Asian monsoon domain. Contributions to monsoon rainfall predictability by various factors are evaluated from cumulative anomaly correlation with dominant regional SVD modes. Results reveal a dominant, large-scale monsoon-El Nino coupled mode with well-defined centers of action in the near-equatorial monsoon regions. it is noted that some subcontinental regions such as all-India, or arbitrarily chosen land regions over East Asia, while important socio-economically, are not near the centers of influence from El Nino, hence are not necessarily representative of the response of the entire monsoon region to El Nino. The observed 1997-98 Asian monsoon anomalies are found to be very complex with approximately 34% of the anomalies attributable to basin- scale SST influence associated with El Nino. Regional coupled processes contribute an additional 19%, leaving about 47% due to internal dynamics. Also noted is that the highest monsoon predictability is not necessary associated with major El Nino events (e.g. 1997, 1982) but rather in non-El Nino years (e.g. 1980, 1988) when contributions from the regional coupled modes far exceed those from the basin-scale SST. The results suggest that in order to improve monsoon seasonal-to-interannual predictability, there is a need to exploit not only monsoon-El Nino relationship, but also monsoon regional coupled processes and their modulation by long-term climate change.

Lau, William K.-M.; Wu, H.-T.

1999-01-01

301

Multiple Meteoroid Impacts In Antarctica: Potential for Major Glacial Surges?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the similarity of an early gravity profile undertaken over a large area of Wilkes Land to those of known impact sites:[free air anomaly to -158mgal, apparent rim structures, circular basins, steep negative free air gravity anomaly gradients (to 4.71 mgal\\/km)] it was suggested that this anomaly might reflect a large impact site. The anomaly was uncharacteristic of mantle-related

A. R. Rice; J. Weihaupt; F. van der Hoeven

2009-01-01

302

Numerical investigations of the spreading-rate dependence of anomalous skewness of marine magnetic anomalies due to seafloor spreading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved understanding of the spreading-rate dependence of anomalous skewness from magnetic anomalies due to seafloor spreading will allow for better constraints on apparent polar wander paths, plate reconstructions, and the magnetic and thermal structure of oceanic lithosphere. Anomalous skewness, which is the difference between experimentally determined skewness and skewness expected from simple magnetization models with vertical reversal boundaries, has been observed to vary as a function of spreading rate, decreasing with increasing spreading rate and becoming negligible at spreading half-rates exceeding about 55 mm/a [Roest et al. 1992; Dyment et al. 1994]. In our analysis, we determine model-based estimates of anomalous skewness as a function of spreading rate for each anomaly. We do so by creating many synthetic profiles using the model of Dyment and Arkani-Hamed (1995), which was specifically constructed to produce anomalies with anomalous skewness consistent with observed anomalies. We experimentally determine the phase shift that causes the resulting synthetic magnetic anomaly to best match a profile produced from a "standard" model for anomalies due to seafloor spreading that assumes simple vertical reversal boundaries. We present results for those anomalies between 12r and 33r from which reliable paleomagnetic poles may potentially be determined. Differences in anomalous skewness for different anomalies determined at the same spreading rate can be attributed to the sequence effect, that is, the effect on the shape of a magnetic anomaly above seafloor of a single polarity chron of the magnetization of neighboring blocks of lithosphere magnetized during other chrons. We find that the sequence effect is smaller than we expected with the largest difference being between the results for anomaly 25r and those for anomaly 33r, for which the difference is 14 degrees at a 10 mm/a half-rate. Results for other anomalies lie between these two. We also infer a small outward displacement of the magnetic anomalies, which-like anomalous skewness-decreases with increasing spreading rate and vanishes at half rates exceeding 55 mm/a. We find that results obtained trying to find the best match to the synthetic magnetic anomaly profile are generally similar to results obtained when using the balanced-shoulder criterion for when an anomaly has been successfully deskewed. The values of chron-specific (or anomaly-specific) anomalous skewness that we have determined can be used to reduce the number of adjustable parameters in the determination of paleomagnetic poles from skewness data from three to two, to simply the latitude and longitude of the paleomagnetic pole. Implications for the northward motion of the Pacific Plate will be discussed.

Boswell, S. M.; Zheng, L.; Gordon, R. G.; Dyment, J.

2011-12-01

303

p-Process 180W anomalies in iron meteorites: Nucleosynthetic versus non-nucleosynthetic origins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy, proton-rich stable isotopes belong to the least abundant isotopes in the solar system. Their formation mechanisms and their stellar sources are most likely different from those of neutron-capture generated r- and s-process nuclei that comprise the majority of nuclides heavier than iron. Heavy p-nuclide abundances in meteorites are therefore potentially useful in deciphering distinct stellar contributions to the nascent solar system. We therefore conducted the first high-precision measurements of the heavy p-process isotope 180W, achieving a typical precision of ±0.7 ?-units for ca. 300 ng W. Measured samples comprise metals from magmatic- and non-magmatic iron meteorites, as well as metal from one H4 chondrite (NWA 926) and two reduced terrestrial basalts (from Disko Island, Greenland and the Dzheltul'ski massif from Eastern-Siberia, Russia). The analyzed iron meteorites show clearly resolvable 180W anomalies of up to +6 ?-units. Conversely, the chondritic metal and both terrestrial samples exhibit 180W abundances indistinguishable from the standard value. As cosmogenic effects during space exposure of the meteoroids may have affected the 180W budget, cosmic-ray exposure of the meteorites has to be critically evaluated. We therefore propose a method to approximate cosmogenic contributions to the 180W signatures in order to unravel nucleosynthetic 180W abundance anomalies. Our study reveals significant cosmogenic effects only for the longest exposed meteorites, shifting 180W anomalies always to lower values (average cosmic-ray correction-factors can be estimated to lie between 0.01 and 0.30 ?180W-units per 100 Myr of exposure). Cosmogenic effects for most of the analyzed meteorites therefore appear to be negligible with respect to the analytical precision achieved for iron meteorites. In addition to cosmic-ray exposure, radiogenic effects can be caused by putative decay of 184Os or by decay of 180Ta in its ground state. Whereas potential alpha decay of 184Os could shift 180W anomalies to higher values (but only up to levels that are within the analytical error of ˜0.5 ?-units for most samples), no significant production of 180W could have occurred from 180Ta decay. Notably, we identified significant and systematic abundance variations in 180W between different iron meteorite groups, indicating that these isotope anomalies are characteristic for their entire parent asteroids. Our finding of decreasing excesses in 180W from early formed magmatic iron meteorites (+3.8±1.2 ?-units) towards later formed non-magmatic iron meteorites (+0.6±0.5 ?-units), the analyzed chondrite and both terrestrial rocks (-0.3±0.7 ?-units) may thus mirror progressive homogenization of 180W in the early solar nebula. This overall trend is also supported by a co-variation between 180W and metal segregation ages for the different iron meteorite groups as well as by a co-variation between 180W deviations and the respective asteroidal accretion ages. Such an interpretation would suggest progressive homogenization of the solar nebula within about ˜2.5 to ˜6 Myr.

Schulz, Toni; Münker, Carsten; Peters, Stefan T. M.

2013-01-01

304

TIME SERIES ANALYSIS OF REMOTELY-SENSED TIR EMISSION: linking anomalies to physical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 15 years, remote sensing has been evaluated for detecting thermal anomalies as precursor to earthquakes. Important issues that need yet to be tackled include definition of: (a) thermal anomaly, taking into account weather conditions, observation settings and ';natural' variability caused by background sources (b) the length of observations required for this purpose; and (c) the location of detected anomalies, which should be physically related to the tectonic activity. To determine whether thermal anomalies are statistical noise, mere meteorological conditions, or actual earthquake-related phenomena, we apply a novel approach. We use brightness temperature (top-of-atmosphere) data from thermal infrared imagery acquired at a hypertemporal (sub-hourly) interval, from geostationary weather satellites over multiple years. The length of the time series allows for analysis of meteorological effects (diurnal, seasonal or annual trends) and background variability, through the application of a combined spatial and temporal filter to distinguish extreme occurrences from trends. The definition of potential anomalies is based on statistical techniques, taking into account published (geo)physical characteristics of earthquake related thermal anomalies. We use synthetic data to test the performance of the proposed detection method and track potential factors affecting the results. Subsequently, we apply the method on original data from Iran and Turkey, in quiescent and earthquake-struck periods alike. We present our findings with main focus to assess resulting anomalies in relation to physical processes thereby considering: (a) meteorological effects, (b) the geographical, geological and environmental settings, and (c) physically realistic distances and potential physical relations with the activity of causative faults.

Pavlidou, E.; van der Meijde, M.; Hecker, C.; van der Werff, H.; Ettema, J.

2013-12-01

305

Gravity anomalies, forearc morphology and seismicity in subduction zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply spectral averaging techniques to isolate and remove the long-wavelength large-amplitude trench-normal topographic and free-air gravity anomaly "high" and "low" associated with subduction zones. The residual grids generated illuminate the short-wavelength structure of the forearc. Systematic analysis of all subduction boundaries on Earth has enabled a classification of these grids with particular emphasis placed on topography and gravity anomalies observed in the region above the shallow seismogenic portion of the plate interface. The isostatic compensation of these anomalies is investigated using 3D calculations of the gravitational admittance and coherence. In the shallow region of the megathrust, typically within 100 km from the trench, isolated residual anomalies with amplitudes of up to 2.5 km and 125 mGal are generally interpreted as accreted/subducting relief in the form of seamounts and other bathymetric features. While most of these anomalies, which have radii < 50km, are correlated with areas of reduced seismicity, several in regions such as Japan and Java appear to have influenced the nucleation and/or propagation of large magnitude earthquakes. Long-wavelength (500 - >1000 km) trench-parallel forearc ridges with residual anomalies of up to 1.5 km and 150 mGal are identified in approximately one-third of the subduction zones analyzed. Despite great length along strike, these ridges are less than 100 km wide and several appear uncompensated. A high proportion of arc-normal structure and the truncation/morphological transition of trench-parallel forearc ridges is explained through the identification and tracking of pre-existing structure on the over-riding and subducting plates into the seismogenic portion of the plate boundary. Spatial correlations between regions with well-defined trench-parallel forearc ridges and the occurrence of large magnitude interplate earthquakes, in addition to the uncompensated state of these ridges, suggest links between the morphology of the forearc and the peak earthquake stress drop on the subduction megathrust. We present our classification of residual bathymetric and gravitational anomalies using examples from Sumatra, Kuril-Kamchatka, Mariana, Peru-Chile and the Tonga-Kermadec margin. We reassess proposed links between trench-parallel residual topography and gravity anomalies and subduction zone seismicity using global earthquake catalogs and a new compilation of published aftershock locations and distributed slip models from over 200 of the largest subduction zone earthquakes. Our results highlight the role of pre-existing structure in both the over-riding and subducting plates in modulating the along- and across-strike segmentation of subduction zones. Understanding the genesis of long-wavelength trench-parallel forearc ridges may provide further insights into links between forearc morphology, the rheology of the overriding and subducting plates and seismicity in subduction zones.

Bassett, D.; Watts, A. B.; Das, S.

2012-12-01

306

Geological reasons for change in intensity of linear magnetic anomalies of the Kursk magnetic anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geological reasons for fluctuations in the anomalous field intensity along the polar axes were examined. The Kursk magnetic anomaly is used as the basis for the study. A geological-geophysical section was constructed which used the results of the interpretation of gravimagnetic anomalies.

Zhavoronkin, I. A.; Kopayev, V. V.

1985-01-01

307

A magnetic anomaly of possible economic significance in southeastern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An aeromagnetic survey in southeastern Minnesota by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the State of Minnesota has revealed a high-amplitude, linear, and narrow magnetic feature that suggests a possible source of Precambrian iron-formation of economic value. For the past few years the U. S. Geological Survey has been conducting detailed geophysical studies of the midcontinent gravity anomaly--a broad, high-amplitude feature that extends from Lake Superior through the States of Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and part of Kansas. As part of this study an aeromagnetic survey of the southern part of the State was made in cooperation with the State of Minnesota during the summer of 1963, in which a linear high-amplitude anomaly of the order of 4,000 gammas was discovered. Because of the high amplitude, the linearity, and the narrowness of the magnetic feature, it is believed the source may be Precambrian iron-formation of possible economic value. The anomalous area is in Fillmore County, approximately between the towns of Lanesboro and Peterson in the extreme southeastern part of the State. (See figures 1 and 2.) At the site of the anomaly, Cambrian sedimentary rocks occur in the valley of the Root River, and Ordovician rocks (nearly flat lying) mantle the upland areas. The uplands are largely covered by glacial deposits, which are relatively thin (Paul K. Sims, written communication, 1964). Depths to the Precambrian are estimated to range from 500 feet to 1,000 feet below the surface. The aeromagnetic map shown in figure 2 was compiled from continuous magnetic profiles made along east-west flight lines 1,000 feet above ground, and spaced approximately 1 mile apart. Contour intervals of 20, 100, and 500 gammas were used depending on the intensity. The instrument for the survey was a flux-gate type magnetometer (AN/ASQ-3A) which measures total-field variations. The contour map displays variations in magnetic pattern which are typical of shallow Precambrian rocks. Anomalies of the order of 1,000 gammas are shown along the east and west edges of the map. The outstanding feature is the previously mentioned linear positive anomaly that trends northeast and reaches a peak of 3,960 gammas. The positive anomaly is contoured from data on four consecutive profiles, but only two show high amplitudes. The high-amplitude anomalies along traverses 1 and 2 are shown in figure 3. Depth calculations suggest that the source of the anomaly lies about 1,000 feet below the surface. Assuming a dikelike source and magnetization resulting entirely from induction in the earth's field, several calculations were made in an attempt to fit the magnetic profile taken along the line AA' (see figs. 2 and 4), considered to be a typical cross-section of the magnetic anomaly. Comparisons are shown between observed and computed profiles. The fixed parameters used were (a) distance from detector to source of 2,000 ft; width of dike of 5,000 ft; dip of dike of 75?, 90?, 105? , and 120? , as shown. The best fit occurs when the dike is vertical or dips 75? to the southwest. For these cases, the susceptibility, k, is computed to be 0.016 c.g.s, units, and is comparable to k = 0.02+ calculated by Bath (1962) for the relatively unmetamorphosed iron-formation of the Main Megabi district in Minnesota where the induced magnetization was most likely the dominant magnetization. If the dominant magnetization for the anomaly in Fillmore County were remanent rather than induced, the economic importance of the anomaly would be greatly reduced. This anomaly seems sufficiently promising to warrant further geologic and geophysical investigation. Detailed ground magnetic and electrical studies would be useful to delineate the feature. In the final analysis, however, the presence of iron-formation can be determined only by the drill.

Zietz, Isidore

1964-01-01

308

Signature of pending earthquake from electromagnetic anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two electromagnetic (EM) anomalies have been detected in the VLF frequency band before the Athens earthquake (EQ) (Mw=5.9, Sept. 7, 1999) with the following characteristics: (i) The first and second anomaly lasted for 12 and 17 hours respectively with a cessation of 12 hours; (ii) The second anomaly ceased at about 9 hours before the EQ; (iii) The larger anomaly, the second one, contains approximately 80% of the total EM energy received; (iv) No EM disturbance has been recorded in the VHF frequency band unlike with other cases, e.g., the Kozani Grevena and Egion-Eratini earthquakes. The fault modeling of the Athens EQ, based on information obtained by radar interferometry, predicts two faults. The main fault segment is responsible for 80% of the total energy released, while the secondary fault segment for the remaining 20%. Moreover, a recent seismic data analysis supports the hypothesis that a two-event solution for the Athens EQ, is more likely than a single event solution. In addition, the absence of surface rupture explains the absence of EM detection in the VHF frequency band. The present analysis reveals that the properties of the preseismic electromagnetic anomalies might be considered as signatures of a pending earthquake.

Eftaxias, K.; Kapiris, P.; Polygiannakis, J.; Bogris, N.; Kopanas, J.; Antonopoulos, G.; Peratzakis, A.; Hadjicontis, V.

309

Further evidence of fracture-zone induced tectonic segmentation of the Antarctic Peninsula from detailed aeromagnetic anomalies.  

SciTech Connect

Aeromagnetic anomaly data collected between 67{degrees}S and 70{degrees}S crossing the Antarctic Peninsula and adjacent offshore areas show a prominent NW-SE trend in the magnetic fabric. Apparent lateral offsets, previously recognized in the Pacific Margin Anomaly, have been mapped in detail and are shown to be much smaller than previously suggested. A 35 km wide zone of subdued magnetic anomalies at the Western edge of the Pacific Margin Anomaly, bounded by these apparent offsets, is interpreted as a downfaulted block of the mafic-intermediate batholith thought to be responsible for the Pacific Margin Anomaly. The trends of both fracture zones and magnetic lineaments strongly support the link between faulting in the Antarctic Peninsula magmatic arc and offshore tectonics. 20 refs., 3 figs.

Johnson, A.C.; Swain, C.J. [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

1995-07-15

310

Extraction of lineaments from gravity anomaly maps using the gradient calculation: Application to Central Anatolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear anomalies are important in the interpretation of gravity and magnetic data because they indicate some important structural features. In this study, a method is proposed to extract lineaments which may be difficult to recognize. It is based on the convolution between the templates obtained from the second horizontal derivative of the theoretical anomaly due to a truncated horizontal plate and the gravity anomaly. Local maxima of the gradient magnitude determine lineaments in a gravity anomaly map. The method is used in the edge detection of geological structures closer to the surface, which are masked by other structures with various depths and dimensions. A source code in Matlab format for the proposed algorithm is implemented. Firstly, it was tested on synthetic examples and satisfactory results were obtained. Secondly, it was tested on gravity-anomaly maps of the Tuzgölü (Salt Lake) basin in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Subsequently, the proposed algorithm and normalized standard deviation (NSTD), another edge-detection filter, were evaluated together to obtain the horizontal location of potential-field source boundaries. A visual evaluation of the outputs was carried out and the results compared with each other. These examples demonstrate that the proposed method can be used in the visual interpretation of gravity-anomaly maps in order to detect geological features such as major and minor faults.

Aydogan, D.

2011-08-01

311

Estimating Antarctic Near-Surface Magnetic Anomalies from Oersted and CHAMP Satellite Magnetometer Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant improvement in predicting near-surface magnetic anomalies can result from the highly accurate magnetic observations of the CHAMP satellite that is orbiting at about 400 km altitude. In general, regional magnetic signals of the crust are strongly masked by the core field and its secular variations due to wavelength coupling in the spherical harmonic representation and thus are difficult to isolate in the satellite measurements. However, efforts to isolate the regional lithospheric from core field components can exploit the correlations between the CHAMP magnetic anomalies and the pseudo magnetic effects inferred from gravity-derived crustal thickness variations. In addition, we can use spectral correlation theory to filter the static lithospheric field components from the dynamic external field effects. Employing these procedures, we processed the CHAMP magnetic conservations for an improved magnetic anomaly map of the Antarctic crust. Relative to the much higher altitude Oersted and noisier Magsat observations, CHAMP magnetic anomalies at 400 km altitude reveal new details on the effects of intra-crustal magnetic features and crustal thickness variations of the Antarctic. Moreover, these results greatly facilitate predicting magnetic anomalies in the regional coverage gaps of the ADMAP compilation of Antarctic magnetic anomalies from shipborne, airborne and ground surveys. Our analysis suggests that considerable new insights on the magnetic properties of the lithosphere may be revealed by a further order-of-magnitude improvement in the accuracy of the magnetometer.

vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Gaya-Pique, Luis R.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Golynsky, Alexander V.; Kim, Jeong Woo

2004-01-01

312

A map of the Pacific geomagnetic anomaly during the Brunhes chron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The persistence of an anomaly of the geomagnetic field in the central Pacific Ocean has been suggested by many authors. However, the amplitude and the extent of this feature remain poorly constrained due to insufficient spatial and temporal coverage of the volcanic database. Records from marine sediments are appropriate to document the long-term behavior of the geomagnetic field. We studied 11 piston cores from the central and southwestern Pacific in order to document the anomaly during the past 800 kyr. Ten records were retained after applying selection criteria dealing with physical disturbances, deformations, and any possible sources of inclination errors. The results have been integrated into a new data set for the Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean, which combines sedimentary and volcanic records. A strong negative inclination anomaly (?-10°) in the southwestern Pacific is the main characteristic of the new map. In contrast, the sedimentary records from the Hawaiian area do not indicate any stable feature but rather alternating positive and negative anomalies. The new inclination map of the Brunhes chron bears striking similarities with the configuration of the historical field, particularly the presence of a negative anomaly centered in the eastern Indian Ocean and southwestern Pacific Ocean. Detailed records constraining the archeological period in the southwestern Pacific and documenting the spatial extension of the anomaly are now needed to establish a direct link with the present field.

Elmaleh, Agnès; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio

2001-12-01

313

Feasibility of anomaly detection and characterization using trans-admittance mammography with 60 × 60 electrode array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical impedance imaging has the potential to detect an early stage of breast cancer due to higher admittivity values compared with those of normal breast tissues. The tumor size and extent of axillary lymph node involvement are important parameters to evaluate the breast cancer survival rate. Additionally, the anomaly characterization is required to distinguish a malignant tumor from a benign tumor. In order to overcome the limitation of breast cancer detection using impedance measurement probes, we developed the high density trans-admittance mammography (TAM) system with 60 × 60 electrode array and produced trans-admittance maps obtained at several frequency pairs. We applied the anomaly detection algorithm to the high density TAM system for estimating the volume and position of breast tumor. We tested four different sizes of anomaly with three different conductivity contrasts at four different depths. From multifrequency trans-admittance maps, we can readily observe the transversal position and estimate its volume and depth. Specially, the depth estimated values were obtained accurately, which were independent to the size and conductivity contrast when applying the new formula using Laplacian of trans-admittance map. The volume estimation was dependent on the conductivity contrast between anomaly and background in the breast phantom. We characterized two testing anomalies using frequency difference trans-admittance data to eliminate the dependency of anomaly position and size. We confirmed the anomaly detection and characterization algorithm with the high density TAM system on bovine breast tissue. Both results showed the feasibility of detecting the size and position of anomaly and tissue characterization for screening the breast cancer.

Zhao, Mingkang; Wi, Hun; Lee, Eun Jung; Woo, Eung Je; In Oh, Tong

2014-10-01

314

Residential proximity to waste sites and industrial facilities and chromosomal anomalies in offspring.  

PubMed

A few studies have found chromosomal anomalies in offspring associated with a maternal residence near waste sites, but did not examine the effect of living near industrial facilities, and most combined specific anomalies into heterogeneous groups. With a case-control study design, we investigated whether maternal residential proximity to hazardous waste sites or industrial facilities with chemical air emissions was associated with chromosomal anomalies in births. Maternal residences of 2099 Texas births with chromosomal anomalies and 4368 control births without documented malformations were related to boundaries of hazardous waste sites and street addresses of industrial facilities through geographic information systems. With adjustment for maternal age, race/ethnicity, and education, maternal residence within 1mile of a hazardous waste site (relative to farther away) was not associated with chromosomal anomalies in offspring except for Klinefelter variants among Hispanic births (odds ratios (OR) 7.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-42.4). Women 35 years or older who lived within 1mile of industries with emissions of heavy metals were two times more likely (95% CI 1.1-4.1) than women living farther away to have offspring with chromosomal anomalies including trisomies 13, 18, or 21 or sex chromosome abnormalities. Among women 40 years or older, maternal residence within a mile of industries with solvent emissions was associated with chromosomal anomalies in births (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.2-42.8). Study findings suggest some relation between residential proximity to industries with emissions of solvents or heavy metals and chromosomal anomalies in births to older mothers. PMID:17470415

Brender, Jean D; Zhan, F Benjamin; Langlois, Peter H; Suarez, Lucina; Scheuerle, Angela

2008-03-01

315

Detection of Low Temperature Volcanogenic Thermal Anomalies with ASTER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting volcanic eruptions is a thorny problem, as volcanoes typically exhibit idiosyncratic waxing and/or waning pre-eruption emission, geodetic, and seismic behavior. It is no surprise that increasing our accuracy and precision in eruption prediction depends on assessing the time-progressions of all relevant precursor geophysical, geochemical, and geological phenomena, and on more frequently observing volcanoes when they become restless. The ASTER instrument on the NASA Terra Earth Observing System satellite in low earth orbit provides important capabilities in the area of detection of volcanogenic anomalies such as thermal precursors and increased passive gas emissions. Its unique high spatial resolution multi-spectral thermal IR imaging data (90m/pixel; 5 bands in the 8-12um region), bore-sighted with visible and near-IR imaging data, and combined with off-nadir pointing and stereo-photogrammetric capabilities make ASTER a potentially important volcanic precursor detection tool. We are utilizing the JPL ASTER Volcano Archive (http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov) to systematically examine 80,000+ ASTER volcano images to analyze (a) thermal emission baseline behavior for over 1500 volcanoes worldwide, (b) the form and magnitude of time-dependent thermal emission variability for these volcanoes, and (c) the spatio-temporal limits of detection of pre-eruption temporal changes in thermal emission in the context of eruption precursor behavior. We are creating and analyzing a catalog of the magnitude, frequency, and distribution of volcano thermal signatures worldwide as observed from ASTER since 2000 at 90m/pixel. Of particular interest as eruption precursors are small low contrast thermal anomalies of low apparent absolute temperature (e.g., melt-water lakes, fumaroles, geysers, grossly sub-pixel hotspots), for which the signal-to-noise ratio may be marginal (e.g., scene confusion due to clouds, water and water vapor, fumarolic emissions, variegated ground emissivity, and their combinations). To systematically detect such intrinsically difficult anomalies within our large archive, we are exploring a four step approach: (a) the recursive application of a GPU-accelerated, edge-preserving bilateral filter prepares a thermal image by removing noise and fine detail; (b) the resulting stylized filtered image is segmented by a path-independent region-growing algorithm, (c) the resulting segments are fused based on thermal affinity, and (d) fused segments are subjected to thermal and geographical tests for hotspot detection and classification, to eliminate false alarms or non-volcanogenic anomalies. We will discuss our progress in creating the general thermal anomaly catalog as well as algorithm approach and results. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA.

Pieri, D. C.; Baxter, S.

2009-12-01

316

Deflected Anomaly Mediation and Neutralino Dark Matter  

E-print Network

We study the phenomenology of the neutralino dark matter in the so called deflected anomaly mediation scenario. This scheme is obtained from the minimal anomaly mediated scenario by introducing a gauge mediated sector with $N_f$ messenger fields. Unlike the former scheme the latter has no tachyons. We find that the neutralino is still the LSP in a wide region of the parameter space: it is essentially a pure bino in the scenario with $N_f=1$ while it can also be a pure higgsino for $N_f>1$. This is very different from the naive anomaly mediated scenario which predicts a wino like neutralino. Moreover we do not find any tachyonic scalars in this scheme. After computing the relic density (considering all the possible coannihilations) we find that there are regions in the parameter space with values compatible with the latest WMAP results with no need to consider moduli fields that decay in the early universe.

Alessandro Cesarini; Francesco Fucito; Andrea Lionetto

2006-11-08

317

The Anomaly Structure of Regularized Supergravity  

E-print Network

On-shell Pauli-Villars regularization of the one-loop divergences of supergravity theories is used to study the anomaly structure of supergravity and the cancellation of field theory anomalies under a $U(1)$ gauge transformation and under the T-duality group of modular transformations in effective supergravity theories with three K\\"ahler moduli $T^i$ obtained from orbifold compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. This procedure requires constraints on the chiral matter representations of the gauge group that are consistent with known results from orbifold compactifications. Pauli-Villars regulator fields allow for the cancellation of all quadratic and logarithmic divergences, as well as most linear divergences. If all linear divergences were canceled, the theory would be anomaly free, with noninvariance of the action arising only from Pauli-Villars masses. However there are linear divergences associated with nonrenormalizable gravitino/gaugino interactions that cannot be canceled by PV fields...

Butter, Daniel

2014-01-01

318

Holographic entanglement entropy and gravitational anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study entanglement entropy in two-dimensional conformal field theories with a gravitational anomaly. In theories with gravity duals, this anomaly is holographically represented by a gravitational Chern-Simons term in the bulk action. We show that the anomaly broadens the Ryu-Takayanagi minimal worldline into a ribbon, and that the anomalous contribution to the CFT entanglement entropy is given by the twist in this ribbon. The entanglement functional may also be interpreted as the worldline action for a spinning particle — that is, an anyon — in three-dimensional curved spacetime. We demonstrate that the minimization of this action results in the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations of motion for a spinning particle in three dimensions. We work out several simple examples and demonstrate agreement with CFT calculations.

Castro, Alejandra; Detournay, Stephane; Iqbal, Nabil; Perlmutter, Eric

2014-07-01

319

Trace anomalies in chiral theories revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the search for possible CP violating terms in the trace of the energy-momentum tensor in theories coupled to gravity we revisit the problem of trace anomalies in chiral theories. We recalculate the latter and ascertain that in the trace of the energy-momentum tensor of theories with chiral fermions at one-loop the Pontryagin density appears with an imaginary coefficient. We argue that this may break unitarity, in which case the trace anomaly has to be used as a selective criterion for theories, analogous to the chiral anomalies in gauge theories. We analyze some remarkable consequences of this fact, that seem to have been overlooked in the literature.

Bonora, Loriano; Giaccari, Stefano; de Souza, Bruno Lima

2014-07-01

320

Multifractal characterization of global temperature anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global monthly temperature anomaly time series for the period 1850-2012 has been investigated in terms of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). Various multifractal observables, such as the generalized Hurst exponent, the multifractal exponent, and the singularity spectrum, are extracted and are fitted to a generalized binomial multifractal model consists of only two free parameters. The results of this analysis give a clear indication of the presence of long-term memory in the global temperature anomaly time series which causes multifractal pattern in the data. We investigate the possible other source(s) of multifractality in the series by random shuffling as well as by surrogating the original series and find that the probability density function also contributes to the observed multifractal pattern along with the long-memory effect. Surprisingly, the temperature anomaly time series are well described by the two-parameter multifractal binomial model.

Mali, Provash

2014-08-01

321

Mass Hierarchies from Anomalies: a Peek Behind the Planck Curtain  

E-print Network

The masses of quarks and leptons suggest a strong hierarchical structure. We argue that their patterns can be reproduced through the introduction of a new Abelian symmetry. The data suggest that this symmetry is anomalous. We suggest that the cancellation of its anomalies occur through the Green-Schwarz mechanism. An important check of this idea is that it links the Weinberg angle to a mass ratio of the elementary fermions. The Green-Schwarz mechanism occurs naturally in many superstring compactifications, and produces a small parameter, which we use to determine the quark mass hierarchy. We show that hierarchy and mixings among the chiral fermions is a consequence of the Green-Schwarz mechanism. We present several models where this idea is realized.

P. Ramond

1996-04-04

322

Mass hierarchies from anomalies: A peek behind the Planck curtain  

SciTech Connect

The masses of quarks and leptons suggest a strong hierarchical structure. We argue that their patterns can be reproduced through the introduction of a new Abelian symmetry. The data suggest that this symmetry is anomalous. We suggest that the cancellation of its anomalies occurs through the Green-Schwarz mechanism. An important check of this idea is that it links the Weinberg angle to a mass ration of the elementary fermions. The Green-Schwarz mechanism occurs naturally in many superstring compactifications, and produces a small parameter, which we use to determine the quark mass hierarchy. We show that hierarchy and mixings among the chiral fermions is a consequence of the Green-Schwarz mechanism. We present several models where this idea is realized. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

Ramond, P.

1996-05-01

323

Effects of Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing Anomalies on the Atmospheric Response to Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research community climate model (CCM2) has been used to investigate cloud radiative forcing (CRF) anomalies associated with equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and the effects of the longwave CRF (LWCRF) anomalies on the atmospheric response to the SST anomalies. The SST anomalies cause large CRF anomalies, both longwave and shortwave, as well as latent heat anomalies at low latitudes on a global scale. The relative magnitude of the simulated longwave and shortwave CRF anomalies is consistent with the result of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), implying that cloud height and cloud radiative properties such as emissivity and reflectivity are well simulated by the model. The LWCRF anomaly strongly enhances the precipitation anomaly in the whole tropical belt. The positive (negative) LWCRF anomaly warms (cools) the troposphere and destabilizes (stabilizes) the upper troposphere. The LWCRF anomaly enhances the Southern Oscillation and the related Walker circulation anomaly. The effects of the LWCRF anomaly are essential to the northern hemispheric extratropical circulation anomaly, the Pacific/North American pattern.

Chen, M.; Cess, Robert D.; Zhang, Ming-Hua

1995-01-01

324

Detection of Surface Temperature Anomalies in the Coso Geothermal Field Using Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use thermal infrared (TIR) data from the spaceborne ASTER instrument to detect surface temperature anomalies in the Coso geothermal field in eastern California. The identification of such anomalies in a known geothermal area serves as an incentive to search for similar markers to areas of unknown geothermal potential. We carried out field measurements concurrently with the collection of ASTER images. The field data included reflectance, subsurface and surface temperatures, and radiosonde atmospheric profiles. We apply techniques specifically targeted to correct for thermal artifacts caused by topography, albedo, and thermal inertia. This approach has the potential to reduce data noise and to reveal thermal anomalies which are not distinguishable in the uncorrected imagery. The combination of remote sensing and field data can be used to evaluate the performance of TIR remote sensing as a cost-effective geothermal exploration tool.

Coolbaugh, M.; Eneva, M.; Bjornstad, S.; Combs, J.

2007-12-01

325

LHC Test of CDF $Wjj$ anomaly  

E-print Network

We discuss a test of the CDF dijet anomaly at the LHC. The recent observed dijet mass peak at the CDF is well fitted by a new particle with a mass of around 150 GeV, which decays into two jets. In this paper, we focus on only $Wjj$ signal to avoid model dependence, and comprehensively study the LHC discovery/exclusion reach. We found almost all the models are inconsistent with the result of the LHC, unless only valence quarks contribute the new process. We also discuss further prospects of the LHC search for this anomaly.

Keisuke Harigaya; Ryosuke Sato; Satoshi Shirai

2011-07-26

326

Preferential filtering for gravity anomaly separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the preferential filtering method for gravity anomaly separation based on Green equivalent-layer concept and Wiener filter. Compared to the conventional upward continuation and the preferential continuation, the preferential filtering method has the advantage of no requirement of continuation height. The method was tested both on the synthetic gravity data of a model of multiple rectangular prisms and on the real gravity data from a magnetite area in Jilin Province, China. The results show that the preferential filtering method produced better separation of gravity anomaly than both the conventional low-pass filtering and the upward continuation.

Guo, Lianghui; Meng, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhaoxi; Li, Shuling; Zheng, Yuanman

2013-02-01

327

Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios  

DOEpatents

A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

2013-08-20

328

Magnetic anomalies northeast of Shatsky Plateau  

E-print Network

trending Japanese lineations to form a magnetic bight north of Shatsky Plateau. The bight is interpreted to be evidence of a ridge-ridge-ridge (RRR) triple junction which ex1sted from about 124 MYBP (anomaly MlON time) into the Cretaceous Duiet Per1od.... A r1dge-fault-fault (RFF) triple junction existed at Shatsky Plateau for about 17 MY (anomalies Mlg-MlDN t1me). The plate boun- daries were: a Pacif1c-Farallon (P-F) transform fault, a Pacific-Kula (P-K) spreading ridge, and a Kula-Farallon (K...

Risch, David Lawrence

2012-06-07

329

Hypnosuggestive Therapy (Treatment by Suggestion in Hypnosis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: A brief history of hypnosis; The theoretical foundations of hypnosis; The method of hypnotizing and verbal suggestion in hypnosis; Indications for treatment by hypnotic suggestion; Clinical observations; The role of hypno suggestive therapy in e...

K. M. Varshavskii

1974-01-01

330

Is plagioclase removal responsible for the negative Eu anomaly in the source regions of mare basalts?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nearly ubiquitous presence of a negative Eu anomaly in the mare basalts has been suggested to indicate prior separation and flotation of plagioclase from the basalt source region during its crystallization from a lunar magma ocean (LMO). Are there any mare basalts derived from a mantle source which did not experience prior plagioclase separation? Crystal chemical rationale for REE substitution in pyroxene suggests that the combination of REE size and charge, M2 site characteristics of pyroxene, fO2, magma chemistry, and temperature may account for the negative Eu anomaly in the source region of some types of primitive, low TiO2 mare basalts. This origin for the negative Eu anomaly does not preclude the possibility of the LMO as many mare basalts still require prior plagioclase crystallization and separation and/or hybridization involving a KREEP component.

Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.

1989-01-01

331

A prospective observational study of associated anomalies in Hirschsprung’s disease  

PubMed Central

Background Associated anomalies have been reported in around 20% of Hirschsprung patients but many Authors suggested a measure of underestimation. We therefore implemented a prospective observational study on 106 consecutive HSCR patients aimed at defining the percentage of associated anomalies and implementing a personalized and up-to-date diagnostic algorithm. Methods After Institutional Ethical Committee approval, 106 consecutive Hirschsprung patients admitted to our Institution between January 2010 and December 2012 were included. All families were asked to sign a specific Informed Consent form and in case of acceptance each patient underwent an advanced diagnostic algorithm, including renal ultrasound scan (US), cardiologic assessment with cardiac US, cerebral US, audiometry, ENT and ophthalmologic assessments plus further specialist evaluations based on specific clinical features. Results Male to female ratio of our series of patients was 3,4:1. Aganglionosis was confined to the rectosigmoid colon (classic forms) in 74,5% of cases. We detected 112 associated anomalies in 61 (57,5%) patients. The percentage did not significantly differ according to gender or length of aganglionosis. Overall, 43,4% of patients complained ophthalmologic issues (mostly refraction anomalies), 9,4% visual impairment, 20,7% congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, 4,7% congenital heart disease, 4,7% hearing impairment or deafness, 2,3% central nervous system anomalies, 8,5% chromosomal abnormalities or syndromes and 12,3% other associated anomalies. Conclusions Our study confirmed the underestimation of certain associated anomalies in Hirschsprung patients, such as hearing impairment and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. Subsequently, based on our results we strongly suggest performing renal US and audiometry in all patients. Conversely, ophthalmologic assessment and cerebral and heart US can be performed according to guidelines applied to the general population or in case of patients with suspected clinical features or chromosomal abnormalities. This updated diagnostic algorithm aims at improving overall outcome thanks to better prognostic expectations, prevention strategies and early rehabilitation modalities. The investigation of genetic background of patients with associated anomalies might be the next step to explore this intriguing multifactorial congenital disease. PMID:24267509

2013-01-01

332

Brachydactyly, a possible inherited anomaly at prehistoric Prince Rupert Harbour.  

PubMed

Disproportionately short metacarpals or metatarsals in eight burial skeletons and three unusually short metapodials recovered as disturbed bones were identified in a 1500 B.C. to A.D. 500 skeletal series from eight archeological sites of the north mainland coast of British Columbia, Canada. At least ten people were affected from four sites for a minimum series frequency of 5.2%. Various factors clinically implicated in the occurrence of brachymetapody were investigated to account for the anomaly. Context-sensitive information suggested that trauma, infarction or infection, and individual or family-related malformation syndromes were unlikely possibilities. Some modern population data suggest that the series frequency was unusually high, particularly for fourth metatarsal involvement, the most commonly affected bone. Modern pedigree interpretations, ethnohistoric inferences, and the archeological contexts of the affected burial skeletons and site samples provide a framework for concluding that brachymetapody in the series was more likely due to the inheritance of an essentially isolated anomaly. PMID:3046372

Cybulski, J S

1988-07-01

333

Response of Tropical Forests to Intense Climate Variability and Rainfall Anomaly of Last Decade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade, strong precipitation anomalies resulted from increased sea surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic, have caused extensive drying trends in rainforests of western Amazonia, exerting water stress, tree mortality, biomass loss, and large-scale fire disturbance. In contrast, there have been no reports on large-scale disturbance in rainforests of west and central Africa, though being exposed to similar intensity of climate variability. Using data from Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission (TRMM) (1999-2010), and time series of rainfall observations from meteorological stations (1971-2000), we show that both Amazonian and African rainforest experienced strong precipitation anomalies from 2005-2010. We monitored the response of forest to the climate variability by analyzing the canopy water content observed by SeaWinds Ku-band Scatterometer (QSCAT) (1999-2009) and found that more than 70 million ha of forests in western Amazonia experienced a strong water deficit during the dry season of 2005 and a closely corresponding decline in canopy backscatter that persisted until the next major drought in 2010. This decline in backscatter has been attributed to loss of canopy water content and large-scale tree mortality corroborated by ground and airborne observations. However, no strong impacts was observed on tropical forests of Africa, suggesting that the African rainforest may have more resilience to droughts. We tested this hypothesis by examining the seasonal rainfall patterns, maximum water deficit, and the surface temperature variations. Results show that there is a complex pattern of low annual rainfall, moderate seasonality, and lower surface temperature in Central Africa compared to Amazonia, indicating potentially a lower evapotranspiration circumventing strong water deficits.

Saatchi, S. S.; Asefi Najafabady, S.

2011-12-01

334

Response of Tropical Forests to Intense Climate Variability and Rainfall Anomaly over the Last Decade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade, strong precipitation anomalies resulted from increased sea surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic, have caused extensive drying trends in rainforests of western Amazonia, exerting water stress, tree mortality, biomass loss, and large-scale fire disturbance. In contrast, there have been no reports on large-scale disturbance in rainforests of west and central Africa, though being exposed to similar intensity of climate variability. Using data from Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission (TRMM) (1999-2010), and time series of rainfall observations from meteorological stations (1971-2000), we show that both Amazonian and African rainforest experienced strong precipitation anomalies from 2005-2010. We monitored the response of forest to the climate variability by analyzing the canopy water content observed by SeaWinds Ku-band Scatterometer (QSCAT) (1999-2009) and found that more than 70 million ha of forests in western Amazonia experienced a strong water deficit during the dry season of 2005 and a closely corresponding decline in canopy backscatter that persisted until the next major drought in 2010. This decline in backscatter has been attributed to loss of canopy water content and large-scale tree mortality corroborated by ground and airborne observations. However, no strong impacts was observed on tropical forests of Africa, suggesting that the African rainforest may have more resilience to droughts. We tested this hypothesis by examining the seasonal rainfall patterns, maximum water deficit, and the surface temperature variations. Results show that there is a complex pattern of low annual rainfall, moderate seasonality, and lower surface temperature in Central Africa compared to Amazonia, indicating potentially a lower evapotranspiration circumventing strong water deficits

Saatchi, S.; Asefi, S.

2012-04-01

335

Psychoeducational Implications of Sex Chromosome Anomalies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous anomalies involving the sex chromosomes (X or Y) have been documented and their impact on development, learning, and behavior studied. This article reviews three of these disorders, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Lesch-Nyhan disease. Each of these three is associated with one or more selective impairments or behavioral…

Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer

2008-01-01

336

Table of hyperfine anomaly in atomic systems  

SciTech Connect

This table is a compilation of experimental values of magnetic hyperfine anomaly in atomic and ionic systems. The last extensive compilation was published in 1984 by Büttgenbach [S. Büttgenbach, Hyperfine Int. 20 (1984) 1] and the aim here is to make an up to date compilation. The literature search covers the period up to January 2011.

Persson, J.R., E-mail: jonas.persson@ntnu.no

2013-01-15

337

The anomaly data base of screwworm information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Standard statistical processing of anomaly data in the screwworm eradication data system is possible from data compiled on magnetic tapes with the Univac 1108 computer. The format and organization of the data in the data base, which is also available on dedicated disc storage, are described.

Giddings, L. E.

1976-01-01

338

Locally covariant chiral fermions and anomalies  

E-print Network

We define chiral fermions in the presence of non-trivial gravitational and gauge background fields in the framework of locally covariant field theory. This allows to straightforwardly compute the chiral anomalies on non-compact Lorentzian space-times, without recourse to a weak field approximation.

Jochen Zahn

2014-07-08

339

Satellite Anomalies from Galactic Cosmic Rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalies in communication satellite operation have been caused by the unexpected triggering of digital circuits. Interactions with galactic cosmic rays were investigated as a mechanism for a number of these events. The mechanism assumed was the charging of the base-emitter capacitance of sensitive transistors to the turn-on voltage. The calculation of the cosmic ray event rate required the determination of

D. Binder; E. C. Smith; A. B. Holman

1975-01-01

340

Table of hyperfine anomaly in atomic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This table is a compilation of experimental values of magnetic hyperfine anomaly in atomic and ionic systems. The last extensive compilation was published in 1984 by Büttgenbach [S. Büttgenbach, Hyperfine Int. 20 (1984) 1] and the aim here is to make an up to date compilation. The literature search covers the period up to January 2011.

Persson, J. R.

2013-01-01

341

Kohn anomaly in phonon driven superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalies often occur in the physical world. Sometimes quite unexpectedly anomalies may give rise to new insight to an unrecognized phenomenon. In this paper we shall discuss about Kohn anomaly in a conventional phonon-driven superconductor by using a microscopic approach. Recently Aynajian et al.'s experiment showed a striking feature; the energy of phonon at a particular wave-vector is almost exactly equal to twice the energy of the superconducting gap. Although the phonon mechanism of superconductivity is well known for many conventional superconductors, as has been noted by Scalapino, the new experimental results reveal a genuine puzzle. In our recent work we have presented a detailed theoretical analysis with the help of microscopic calculations to unravel this mystery. We probe this aspect of phonon behaviour from the properties of electronic polarizability function in the superconducting phase of a Fermi liquid metal, leading to the appearance of a Kohn singularity. We show the crossover to the standard Kohn anomaly of the normal phase for temperatures above the transition temperature. Our analysis provides a nearly complete explanation of this new experimentally discovered phenomenon. This report is a shorter version of our recent work in JPCM.

Das, M. P.; Chaudhury, R.

2014-08-01

342

Anomaly Detection in Relational Data for the  

E-print Network

Anomaly Detection in Relational Data for the Discovery of Insider Threats Bill Eberle DepartmentECBHU2704309YOKOHAMASEATTLE JAPAN CSCO LING YUN HE 36 CHINA OCEAN SHPG 20601 0048774000ECBHU2709933YOKOHAMASEATTLE JAPAN CSCO LING YUN HE 36 CHINA OCEAN SHPG 20601 0048774000ECBHU2724727YOKOHAMASEATTLE JAPAN CSCO

Eberle, William

343

Anomalies, dimensional regularization, and the heat kernel  

SciTech Connect

In the context of dimensional continuation, it is shown that axial anomalies are associated with chiral noninvariance of the action (but not of the measure) and they can be extracted nonperturbatively from the heat kernel. Other techniques where the action is deemed invariant but the functional integral measure is not are shown to be equivalent.

Delbourgo, R.; Thompson, G.

1985-12-15

344

Conformal anomaly actions for dilaton interactions  

E-print Network

We discuss, in conformally invariant field theories such as QCD with massless fermions, a possible link between the perturbative signature of the conformal anomaly, in the form of anomaly poles of the 1-particle irreducible effective action, and its description in terms of Wess-Zumino actions with a dilaton. The two descriptions are expected to capture the UV and IR behaviour of the conformal anomaly, in terms of fundamental and effective degrees of freedom respectively, with the dilaton effective state appearing in a nonlinear realization. As in the chiral case, conformal anomalies seem to be related to the appearance of these effective interactions in the 1PI action in all the gauge-invariant sectors of the Standard Model. We show that, as a consequence of the underlying anomalous symmetry, the infinite hierarchy of recurrence relations involving self-interactions of the dilaton is entirely determined only by the first four of them. This relation can be generalized to any even space-time dimension.

Rose, Luigi Delle; Serino, Mirko

2014-01-01

345

Ocean response to surface heat anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ocean general circulation model (OGCM) is used to study the response of ocean heat and mass transport to positive and negative heat flux anomalies at the ocean surface. As expected, tropical and low-latitude mixed layers respond rapidly (e-folding time about 50-70 years) to external forcing, while the response of the high-latitude mixed layer, especially the Southern Ocean and northern North Atlantic, is very slow (e-folding time greater than 300 yr). The overall response is faster for negative than positive heat flux anomaly at the surface. The meridional heat transport changes by 15% in the first 50 yr in the southern high latitudes. Surprisingly, for the next 400-500 yr the change is very small. The analysis shows that the meridional mass transport intensifies in response to a negative surface heat flux anomaly but weakens in response to a positive heat flux anomaly. For example, at model year 100 the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is reduced from about 18 Sv to about 10 Sv for the positive heat flux experiment but increased to about 26 Sv for the negative heat flux experiment.

Jiang, Xingjian; Fung, Inez

1994-01-01

346

Ocean response to surface heat anomalies  

SciTech Connect

An ocean general circulation model (OGCM) is used to study the response of ocean heat and mass transport to positive and negative heat flux anomalies at the ocean surface. As expected, tropical and low-latitude mixed layers respond rapidly (e-folding time about 50-70 years) to external forcing, while the response of the high-latitude mixed layer, especially the Southern Ocean and northern North Atlantic, is very slow (e-folding time greater than 300 yr). The overall response is faster for negative than positive heat flux anomaly at the surface. The meridional heat transport changes by 15% in the first 50 yr in the southern high latitudes. Surprisingly, for the next 400-500 yr the change is very small. The analysis shows that the meridional mass transport intensifies in response to a negative surface heat flux anomaly but weakens in response to a positive heat flux anomaly. For example, at model year 100 the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is reduced from about 18 Sv to about 10 Sv for the positive heat flux experiment but increased to about 26 Sv for the negative heat flux experiment.

Jiang, Xingjian; Fung, Inez (NASA. Goddard Inst. for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States))

1994-05-01

347

The inheritance anomaly: ten years after  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term inheritance anomaly was coined in 1993 by Matsuoka and Yonezawa [15] to refer to the problems arising by the coexistence of inheritance and concurrency in concurrent object oriented languages (COOLs). The quirks arising by such combination have been observed since the early eighties, when the first experimental COOLs were designed [3]. In the nineties COOLs turned from research

Giuseppe Milicia; Vladimiro Sassone

2004-01-01

348

Subband anomaly detection and spatial localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulating source assumption allows us to specify the problem of anomaly detection as a problem in robust statistics. The demodulation property of the Teager energy operator is used to jointly expose amplitude and frequency features of audio sub-bands. Spectral decomposition is achieved using a scaled wavelet function acting as a band-pass filter which halves its bandwidth for each decomposition

John F. N. Salik

2007-01-01

349

Integrating network misuse and anomaly prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network intrusion detection systems (NIDS) aim at preventing network attacks and unauthorised remote use of computers. More accurately, depending on the kind of attack it targets, NIDS can be oriented to detect misuses (by defining all possible attacks) or anomalies (by modelling legitimate behaviour to find those that do not fit into that model). Still, since their problem knowledge is

Y. K. Penva; Pablo G. Bringas

2008-01-01

350

Table of hyperfine anomaly in atomic systems  

E-print Network

This table is a compilation of experimental values of magnetic hyperfine anomaly in atomic and ionic systems. The last extensive compilation was published in 1984 by Buttgenbach (Hyperfine Interactions 20, (1984) p 1) and the aim here is to make an up to date compilation. The literature search covers the period to January 2011.

Jonas R. Persson

2011-10-27

351

Passive Identification and Analysis of TCP Anomalies  

E-print Network

and time, which is due to the closed-loop behavior of TCP, the TCP/IP client- server communication paradigmPassive Identification and Analysis of TCP Anomalies Marco Mellia, Michela Meo, Luca Muscariello on passive measurements of TCP traffic, main component of nowadays traffic. We propose a heuristic technique

352

What drives the Tibetan crust to the South East Asia? Role of upper mantle density discontinuities as inferred from the continental geoid anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Himalaya-Tibet orogen formed as a result of the northward convergence of India into the Asia over the past 55 Ma had caused the north south crustal shortening and Cenozoic upliftment of the Tibetan plateau, which significantly affected the tectonic and climatic framework of the Asia. Geodetic measurements have also shown eastward crustal extrusion of Tibet, especially along major east-southeast strike slip faults at a slip rate of 15-20 mm a-1 and around 40 mm a-1. Such continental scale deformations have been modeled as block rotation by fault boundary stresses developed due to the India-Eurasia collision. However, the Thin Sheet model explained the crustal deformation mechanism by considering varying gravitational potential energy arise out of varying crustal thickness of the viscous lithosphere. The Channel Flow model, which also suggests extrusion is a boundary fault guided flow along the shallow crustal brittle-ductile regime. Although many models have proposed, but no consensus in these models to explain the dynamics of measured surface geodetic deformation of the Tibetan plateau. But what remains conspicuous is the origin of driving forces that cause the observed Tibetan crustal flow towards the South East Asia. Is the crustal flow originated only because of the differential stresses that developed in the shallow crustal brittle-ductile regime? Or should the stress transfer to the shallow crustal layers as a result of gravitational potential energy gradient driven upper mantle flow also to be accounted. In this work, I examine the role of latter in the light of depth distribution of continental geoid anomalies beneath the Himalaya-Tibet across major upper mantle density discontinuities. These discontinuity surfaces in the upper mantle are susceptible to hold the plastic deformation that may occur as a result of the density gradient driven flow. The distribution of geoid anomalies across these density discontinuities at 220, 410 and 660 km depth in the upper mantle beneath the Himalaya-Tibet has been studied by analyzing the geoid undulation data obtained from various satellite geodetic missions along with the recent and old (EGM2008 and EGM2006) Earth Gravity models. Results show that the net geoid anomaly varies from -65 m to -20 m, which signify a density stratified upper mantle beneath the Himalaya-Tibet and the same has been confirmed from the results of regional seismic tomography studies. The density anomaly distribution beneath Tibet from 163 km depth to its upper mantle thickness of 1063 km show a strong NW-SE elliptically oriented positive geoid anomalies of magnitude around 40 meter. Asymmetric density anomaly gradient have been observed along the Himalayan arc from west to east as well as across the arc from north to south. This caused differential gravitational potential gradient and hence an elliptical flow structure of the Tibetan continental mantle along the resultant NW-SE direction, which is in concurrence with the observed present day direction of the Tibetan crustal flow. Thus the geoid anomalies distributed at various depth ranges show how the gradient in the upper mantle gravitational potential energy, especially across the deformed discontinuity surface, is significant in determining the transfer of deviatoric stresses and providing traction to the flow of crustal layers of the Tibetan Plateau. This suggests the viscous flow model could be a preferable choice, which could better accommodate the dynamics of the upper mantle, in explaining the crustal extrusion processes of the Tibetan Plateau.

Rajesh, S.

2012-04-01

353

Large-scale atmospheric response to eastern Mediterranean summer-autumn SST anomalies and the associated regional impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the Mediterranean Sea is halfway between subtropical and middle latitudes, and it represents a marginal oceanic region, research has tended to focus on how large-scale modes of atmospheric variability modulate its surface temperature. Conversely, the present study examines the potential influence of the Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation. In particular, this work explores the large-scale changes in the global circulation forced/influenced by the eastern Mediterranean summer-autumn SST pattern. To isolate the atmospheric response, AGCM sensitivity experiments with prescribed SST over the Mediterranean Sea and climatology elsewhere are analysed. Observational diagnostics upon the period used to define the boundary conditions (1979-2002) are also interpreted. Our results support the hypothesis of an atmospheric pattern initiated in the Mediterranean basin, pointing out both a local baroclinic response and a barotropic circumglobal anomaly. This atmospheric teleconnection pattern projects onto a hemispheric wave-like structure, reflecting the waveguide effect of the westerly jets. Results suggest, thereby, that the recurrent summer-autumn circumglobal teleconnection pattern can be excited locally by changes in the atmosphere over the Mediterranean region. A linear behaviour is found upon a regional impact over northeastern Africa. The remote impacts present however a nonlinear signature: anomalous warm conditions influencing on northern Europe and Euro-Asia, whereas anomalous cold conditions impacting more on the North Pacific basin. Limitations in our model setup are also discussed.

García-Serrano, J.; Polo, I.; Rodríguez-Fonseca, B.; Losada, T.

2013-11-01

354

Abundance anomalies in NGC 2808  

E-print Network

We present metallicity measurements of 25 stars in the blue horizontal branch of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808. Our measurements are based on moderate-resolution spectra taken with the multi-object fiber facility FLAMES-UVES, mounted on Kueyen at the Very Large Telescope. We confirm that stars hotter than a threshold temperature have super-solar abundance, while the cooler ones respect the nominal metallicity of the cluster, i.e. [Fe/H] ~ -1.1. The threshold temperature is estimated to be about 12000 K, corresponding to the so called u-jump, and coincides with the sudden departure of the cluster horizontal branch from the models. The metallicity increases with temperature for star hotter than the jump, confirming the hypothesis that the process responsible for this abrupt metallic enhancement is the levitation due to the strong radiation field in absence of a significative convective envelope. A metallicity dependence of the abundance enhancement is also suggested, with more metal poor clusters having a higher increase in metal content. The slope in the temperature vs. abundance diagram is higher than the errors involved, and the metal content of the cluster plays possibly a role in determining the amplitude of the jump (more metal poor clusters show more enhancement after the jump), although other parameters, such as clusters' characteristics and even the atomic species involved, may also someway contribute.

G. Pace; A. Recio-Blanco; G. Piotto; Y. Momany

2006-02-28

355

Disconnected Glass-Glass Transitions and Diffusion Anomalies in a Model with Two Repulsive Length Scales  

E-print Network

Disconnected Glass-Glass Transitions and Diffusion Anomalies in a Model with Two Repulsive Length-coupling-theory calculations, we report a novel scenario for multiple glass tran- sitions in a purely repulsive spherical potential: the square shoulder. The liquid-glass transition lines exhibit both melting by cooling

Zaccarelli, Emanuela

356

Combining Multiple One-Class Classifiers for Hardening Payload-based Anomaly Detection Systems (Extended Abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are valuable tools for the defense-in-depth of computer networks. Network IDS look for known or potential malicious activities in network traffic and raise an alarm whenever a suspicious activity is detected. Two main approaches to intrusion detection are used, namely misuse and anomaly detec- tion (10). Misuse detectors are based on a description of known malicious

Roberto Perdisci; Guofei Gu; Wenke Lee

357

A flyby anomaly for Juno? Not from standard physics  

E-print Network

An empirical formula recently appeared in the literature to explain the observed anomalies of about $\\Delta\\dot\\rho\\approx 1-10$ mm s$^{-1}$ in the geocentric range-rates $\\dot\\rho$ of the Galileo, NEAR and Rosetta spacecraft at some of their past perigee passages along unbound, hyperbolic trajectories. It predicts an anomaly of the order of $6$ mm s$^{-1}$ for the recent flyby of Juno, occurred on 9 October 2013. Data analyses to confirm or disproof it are currently ongoing. We numerically calculate the impact on the geocentric Juno's range rate of some classical and general relativistic dynamical effects which are either unmodelled or mismodelled to a certain level in the software used to process the data. They are: a) The first even zonal harmonic coefficient $J_2$ of the multipolar expansion of the terrestrial gravitational potential causing orbital perturbations both at the $\\left.{\\rm a}^{'}\\right)$ Newtonian ($J_2$) and at the $\\left. {\\rm a}^{''}\\right)$ first post-Newtonian level ($J_2 c^{-2}$) b) The post-Newtonian gravitoelectric (GE) Schwarschild-like component of the Earth's gravitational field c) The post-Newtonian gravitomagnetic (GM) Lense-Thirring effect. The magnitudes of their mismodeled and nominal range-rate signatures are: $\\left. {\\rm a}^{'}\\right)$ $\\Delta\\dot\\rho_{\\sigma_{J_2}} \\approx 1$ $\\mu$m s$^{-1}$ $\\left. {\\rm a}^{''}\\right)$ $\\Delta\\dot\\rho_{J_2 c^{-2}} \\approx 0.015$ $\\mu$m s$^{-1}$ b) $\\Delta\\dot\\rho_{\\rm GE} \\approx 25$ $\\mu$m s$^{-1}$ c) $\\Delta\\dot\\rho_{\\rm GM} \\approx 0.05$ $\\mu$m s$^{-1}$. If a flyby anomaly as large as a few mm s$^{-1}$ will be finally found also for Juno, it will not be due to any of these standard gravitational effects. (Abridged)

Lorenzo Iorio

2013-11-17

358

The contribution of associated congenital anomalies in understanding Hirschsprung's disease.  

PubMed

Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a complex congenital disorder which, from a molecular perspective, appears to result due to disruption of normal signalling during development of enteric nerve cells, resulting in aganglionosis of the distal bowel. Associated congenital anomalies occur in at least 5-32% (mean 21%) of patients and certain syndromic phenotypes have been linked to distinct genetic sites, indicating underlying genetic associations of the disease and probable gene-gene interaction in its pathogenesis. Clear-cut associations with HSCR include Down's syndrome, dominant sensorineural deafness, Waardenburg syndrome, neurofibromatosis, neuroblastoma, phaeochromocytoma, the MEN type IIB syndrome and other abnormalities. Individual anomalies vary from 2.97% to 8%, the most frequent being the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) (8.05%), the central nervous system (CNS) and sensorineural anomalies (6.79%) and the genito-urinary tract (6.05%). Other associated systems include the musculoskeletal (5.12%), cardiovascular systems (4.99%), craniofacial and eye abnormalities (3%) and less frequently the skin and integumentary system (ectodermal dysplasia) and syndromes related to cholesterol and fat metabolism. In addition to associations with neuroblastoma and tumours related to MEN2B, HSCR may also be associated with tumours of neural origin such as ganglioneuroma, ganglioneuroblastoma, retinoblastoma and tumours associated with neurofibromatosis and other autonomic nervous system disturbances. The contribution of the major susceptibility genes on chromosome 10 (RET) and chromosome 13 (EDNRB) is well established in the phenotypic expression of HSCR. Whereas major RET mutations may result in HSCR by haploinsufficiency in 20-25% of cases, the etiology of the majority of sporadic HSCR is not as clear, appearing to arise from the combined cumulative effects of susceptibility loci at critical genes controlling the mechanisms of cell proliferation, differentiation and maturation. In addition, potential "modifying" associations exist with chromosome 2, 9, 20, 21 and 22, and we explore the importance of certain flanking genes of critical areas in the final phenotypic expression of HSCR. PMID:16518596

Moore, S W

2006-04-01

359

Reliable prediction of micro-anomalies from macro-observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stochastic multi-scale based approach is presented in this work to detect signatures of micro-anomalies from macrolevel response variables. By micro-anomalies, we primarily refer to micro-cracks of size 10-100 ?m (depending on the material), while macro-level response variables imply, e.g., strains, strain energy density of macro-level structures (typical size often varying in the order of 10-100 m). The micro-anomalies referred above are not discernible to the naked eyes. Nevertheless, they can cause catastrophic failures of structural systems due to fatigue cyclic loading that results in initiation of fatigue cracks. Analysis of such precursory state of internal damage evolution, before amacro-crack visibly appears (say, size of a few cms), is beyond the scope of the conventional crack propagation analysis, e.g., classical fracture mechanics. The present work addresses this issue in a certain sense by incorporating the effects of micro-cracks into the macro-scale constitutive material properties (e.g., constitutive elasticity tensors) within a probabilistic formalism based on random matrix theory, maximum entropy principle, and principles of minimum complementary energy and minimum potential energy. Distinct differences are observed in the macro-level response characteristics depending on the presence or absence of micro-cracks. This particular feature can now be used to reliably detect micro-cracks from experimental measurements of macro-observables. The present work, therefore, further proposes an efficient and robust optimization scheme: (1) to identify locations of micro-cracks in macroscopic structural systems, say, in an aircraft wing which is of the size of 10- 100 m, and (2) to determine the weakened (due to the presence of micro-cracks) macroscopic material properties which will be useful in predicting the remaining useful life of structural systems. The proposed optimization scheme achieves better convergence rate and accuracy by exploiting positive-definite structure of the macroscopic constitutive matrices.

Das, Sonjoy; Chakravarty, Sourish

2014-03-01

360

A source-depth separation filter: Using the Euler method on the derivatives of total intensity magnetic anomaly data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An overview is given on the benefits of applying the Euler method on derivatives of anomalies to enhance the location of shallow and deep sources. Used properly, the method is suitable for characterizing sources from all potential-field data and/or their derivative, as long as the data can be regarded mathematically as "continuous". Furthermore, the reasons why the use of the Euler method on derivatives of anomalies is particularly helpful in the analysis and interpretation of shallow features are explained.

Ravat, D.; Kirkham, K.; Hildenbrand, T.G.

2002-01-01

361

NEUTRON-RICH CHROMIUM ISOTOPE ANOMALIES IN SUPERNOVA NANOPARTICLES  

SciTech Connect

Neutron-rich isotopes with masses near that of iron are produced in Type Ia and II supernovae (SNeIa and SNeII). Traces of such nucleosynthesis are found in primitive meteorites in the form of variations in the isotopic abundance of {sup 54}Cr, the most neutron-rich stable isotope of chromium. The hosts of these isotopic anomalies must be presolar grains that condensed in the outflows of SNe, offering the opportunity to study the nucleosynthesis of iron-peak nuclei in ways that complement spectroscopic observations and can inform models of stellar evolution. However, despite almost two decades of extensive search, the carrier of {sup 54}Cr anomalies is still unknown, presumably because it is fine grained and is chemically labile. Here, we identify in the primitive meteorite Orgueil the carrier of {sup 54}Cr anomalies as nanoparticles (<100 nm), most likely spinels that show large enrichments in {sup 54}Cr relative to solar composition ({sup 54}Cr/{sup 52}Cr ratio >3.6 x solar). Such large enrichments in {sup 54}Cr can only be produced in SNe. The mineralogy of the grains supports condensation in the O/Ne-O/C zones of an SNII, although a Type Ia origin cannot be excluded. We suggest that planetary materials incorporated different amounts of these nanoparticles, possibly due to late injection by a nearby SN that also delivered {sup 26}Al and {sup 60}Fe to the solar system. This idea explains why the relative abundance of {sup 54}Cr and other neutron-rich isotopes vary between planets and meteorites. We anticipate that future isotopic studies of the grains identified here will shed new light on the birth of the solar system and the conditions in SNe.

Dauphas, N. [Origins Laboratory, Department of the Geophysical Sciences and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Remusat, L.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Guan, Y.; Ma, C.; Eiler, J. M. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chen, J. H. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Roskosz, M.; Stodolna, J., E-mail: dauphas@uchicago.ed [Unite Materiaux et Transformations, Universite de Lille 1, CNRS UMR 8207, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France)

2010-09-10

362

Weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic field-induced regeneration anomalies in the planarian, Dugesia tigrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors recently reported that cephalic regeneration in the planarian Dugesia tigrina was significantly delayed in populations exposed continuously to combined parallel DC and AC magnetic fields. This effect was consistent with hypotheses suggesting an underlying resonance phenomenon. The authors report here, in a parallel series of investigations on the same model system, that the incidence of regeneration anomalies presenting

K. A. Jenrow; C. H. Smith; A. R. Liboff

1996-01-01

363

Resolving P-wave travel-time anomalies using seismic array observations of oceanic storms  

E-print Network

Resolving P-wave travel-time anomalies using seismic array observations of oceanic storms Jian California reveals P-wave arrivals from distant storms in open oceans. In this case, the noise can results suggest using oceanic storms as additional seismic sources for resolving P-wave travel

Gerstoft, Peter

364

Minor physical anomalies in patients with schizophrenia and their parents: prevalence and pattern of craniofacial abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of minor physical anomalies (MPAs) in patients with schizophrenia suggests an early disturbance in the development of the neuroectoderm. To improve the phenotypic delimitation of this disorder, we used a comprehensive scale of MPAs (41 items) in patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives. This scale, adapted from a revised version of the Waldrop Scale (Ismail et al.

David Gourion; Céline Goldberger; Marie-Chantal Bourdel; Frank Jean Bayle; Henri Lôo; Marie-Odile Krebs

2004-01-01

365

Genetic investigation of swimbladder inflation anomalies in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the aetiology of swimbladder inflation anomalies in important aquaculture species such as European sea bass D. labrax is not fully determined, culture conditions are commonly suggested as main contributory factors. Little information is available on whether swimbladder inflation has a genetic basis for its expression too. In this work, 24 full-sibling sea bass families from a 4 dams×6 sires

Stefano Peruzzi; Jon-Ivar Westgaard; Béatrice Chatain

2007-01-01

366

The Origin of the Jurassic Quiet Zone -new insights from Hawaiian Jurassic magnetic anomalies (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine magnetic anomalies recorded in oceanic crust, have played a central role in documenting Earth's magnetic field history as compiled in the geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS). The oldest part of the marine record is the Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ) (pre-M29 chrons) which is known to be a period when field intensity was low, while reversal rate was high. The origin and character of the JQZ has been the subject of marine magnetic studies over past 20 years in the western Pacific where the oldest and arguably best preserved Jurassic magnetic anomalies create three Jurassic lineation sets (Japanese, Hawaiian, and Phoenix). The Japanese JQZ sequence was extensively investigated by an aeromagnetic and 2 deeptow magnetometer surveys, revealing (i) the presence of lineated anomalies older than M29; (ii) a GPTS record extending from M29 to M44 with a tie to ODP Hole 801C and (iii) remarkably fast reversals that decrease in intensity back in time until M38. Prior to M38 there is a low amplitude zone (LAZ) in anomalies lasting until M42, when both anomaly amplitude and a lineated character reappears around Hole 801C. Recently collected (2011) high quality seasurface marine magnetic anomaly data from the Hawaiian lineations show changes in magnetic anomaly shape and amplitude that are similar in to the Japanese lineations, suggesting that the anomalies record globally coherent geomagnetic field behavior for the Jurassic. Specifically, the strong similarity of anomaly patterns between the Japanese and Hawaiian sequences from M19 to M38 supports the remarkably dynamic geomagnetic field behavior of fast reversals and changing intensity, confirming a proposed record of the GPTS sequence for M29 to M38. While the LAZ in the Hawaiian sequence is not as clear as in the Japanese lineations, we believe we can correlate the earlier M42-M44 sequence between the two sets of lineations. The slower spreading rate in the Hawaiian lineations may contribute to this lack of resolution of the LAZ and result in a less clear recording of anomalies. We present models to investigate if this is simply a lack of spatial resolution or if there are indeed different processes active within the Hawaiian sequence such as seamount/plateau formation and crustal construction.

Tominaga, M.; Tivey, M.; Sager, W. W.

2013-12-01

367

Neutral pion lifetime measurements and the QCD chiral anomaly  

E-print Network

A fundamental property of QCD is the presence of the chiral anomaly, which is the dominant component of the ?[superscript 0]??? decay rate. Based on this anomaly and its small (?4.5%) chiral correction, a prediction of the ...

Bernstein, Aron M.

368

Detectability of Traffic Anomalies in Two Adjacent Augustin Soule1  

E-print Network

that transit between the two networks. We show that differences in the monitoring infrastructure, network engineering practices, and anomaly-detection parameters have a large impact on which anomaly detectability

369

Suggestibility and Expectancy in a Counseling Analogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data indicated that (a) subjectively experienced suggestibility was more closely related to attitude change than was objective suggestibility, and (b) the generalized expectancy treatments were ineffective in influencing different criterion scores. (Author)

Kaul, Theodore J.; Parker, Clyde A.

1971-01-01

370

Working Night Shift Slows Metabolism, Study Suggests  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Working Night Shift Slows Metabolism, Study Suggests Finding means fewer calories burned, and ... sleeping by day may slow down the body's metabolism, a small study suggests. Researchers found that when ...

371

Spontaneous thrombosis of developmental venous anomaly (DVA) with venous infarct and acute cerebellar ataxia.  

PubMed

Developmental venous anomaly (DVA), formally known as venous angioma, is a congenital anatomic variant of the venous drainage of the brain. Although they typically have a benign clinical course and a low symptomatic rate, thrombosis of a drainage vein may occur, leading to potentially debilitating complications. We report a unique case of spontaneous thrombosis of a posterior fossa developmental venous anomaly with cerebellar infarct in a 61-year-old man who presented with acute onset cerebellar ataxia. DVA thrombosis was well-depicted on CT and MR studies. Patient was put on anticoagulant therapy and complete recanalization was seen on follow-up imaging. PMID:24676737

Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam; Kalapos, Paul; Vijay, Kanupriya

2014-08-01

372

Detecting low Velocity Anomalies Combining Seismic Reflection With First Arrival Seismic Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study seismic reflection techniques and high resolution seismic tomography are combined to determine location and geometry of shallow low velocity anomalies. Underground cavities (mines), water flows (formation with loose sand), etc. are geologic features characterized by slow seismic velocities and are targets of considerable social interest. Theoretical considerations (Snell's law) suggest that low velocity anomalies are undersampled and therefore badly resolved by ray tracing methods. A series of synthetics simulations have been carried out to asses the resolving power of the different methodologies. A 400mx50m two dimensional velocity model consisting of a background velocity gradient in depth from 3000 to 4000 m/s which included a rectangular low velocity anomaly (300 m/s). This anomaly was placed between 10m and 30m in depth and between 180m and 220m in length. The synthetic data calculation and the tomographic inversion have been done with absolutely independent programs. The data has been created using a 2D finite differences wave propagation acoustic algorithm. The tomographic inversion has been performed using two different software packages. The first one uses a combination of ray tracing a finite differences schemes to estimate the forward problem and an iterative conjugate gradient matrix solver to calculate the inverse. The second software package uses a modified Vidale scheme (Eikonal equation) to solve the forward problem and a LSQR to solve the inverse problem. The synthetic data were used for the inversions and for the generation of a conventional stacked section simulating a high resolution seismic reflection transect along the velocity model. The conventional stack images the diffractions caused by the velocity anomaly, which provided the location and extent of the low velocity anomaly. The inversions schemes provided estimates of the velocities, however, the tomograms and the ray tracing diagrams indicated a low resolution for the anomaly.

Flecha, I.; Marti, D.; Carbonell, R.

2002-12-01

373

Weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic field-induced regeneration anomalies in the planarian, Dugesia tigrina  

SciTech Connect

The authors recently reported that cephalic regeneration in the planarian Dugesia tigrina was significantly delayed in populations exposed continuously to combined parallel DC and AC magnetic fields. This effect was consistent with hypotheses suggesting an underlying resonance phenomenon. The authors report here, in a parallel series of investigations on the same model system, that the incidence of regeneration anomalies presenting as tumor-like protuberances also increases significantly (P < .001) in association with exposure to weak 60 Hz magnetic fields, with peak intensities ranging between 1.0 and 80.0 {micro}T. These anomalies often culminate in the complete disaggregation of the organism. Similar to regeneration rate effects, the incidence of regeneration anomalies is specifically dependent upon the planaria possessing a fixed orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field vectors. However, unlike the regeneration rate effects, the AC magnetic field alone, in the absence of any measurable DC field, is capable of producing these anomalies. Moreover, the incidence of regeneration anomalies follows a clear dose-response relationship as a function of AC magnetic field intensity, with the threshold for induced electric field intensity estimated at 5 {micro} V/m. The addition of either 51.1 or 78.4 {micro}T DC magnetic fields, applied in parallel combination with the AC field, enhances the appearance of anomalies relative to the 60 Hz AC field alone, but only at certain AC field intensities. Thus, whereas the previous study of regeneration rate effects appeared to involve exclusively resonance interactions, the regeneration anomalies reported here appear to result primarily from Faraday induction coupling.

Jenrow, K.A.; Smith, C.H.; Liboff, A.R. [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics] [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics

1996-12-31

374

Oscillations, trends and anomalies in rainfall and air temperature in the principal cities in Bolivia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall and temperature can be extremely variable in space and time especially in mountainous environment. The determination of climate variability and climate change needs a special assessment for water management. Increase our knowledge of the main climate trends in the region toward higher quality future climate determination is required. This research examines the anomalies of observed monthly rainfall and temperature data from 4 stations located in the principal cities in Bolivia (see Table below). Trends and anomalies in quantiles were determined for each station for monthly and 6-month seasonal block periods (wet period and dry period). The results suggest the presence of cycles rather than unidirectional trends. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) gives an indication of the development and intensity of El Niño or La Niña events in the Pacific Ocean. After determination of the anomalies for each of the stations, in both monthly rainfall and average temperature, together with the confidence intervals, comparison is made with the anomalies calculated in a similar way with data corresponding to the SOI. Comparison in cycles, shape and correlation has been performed between the anomalies from the observation data and the anomalies from the SOI with different time delay. The aim of this comparison is to identify the external influences of the anomalies in rainfall and temperature (Tele-connections). Influences have been identified during cycles of El Niño in the Andean zones La Paz, El Alto and Cochabamba dry cycles occur and in the most Amazonian side, Santa Cruz city, wet cycle is observed. This relation is opposite in La Niña periods.Meteorological stations under study;

Villazon, M. F.

2013-05-01

375

The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

1985-01-01

376

Anal anomalies: an uncommon feature of velocardiofacial (Shprintzen) syndrome?  

PubMed Central

We report three cases of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) with anal anomalies who have deletions of the 22q11 region and a further case where the proband has VCFS clinically and her father has an anal anomaly. It is important to consider VCFS in the differential diagnosis of children with anal anomalies and to look for other features of the syndrome, such as asymmetrical crying facies, submucous cleft of the palate, developmental delay, cardiac anomalies, and hypoparathyroidism. Images PMID:9032655

Worthington, S; Colley, A; Fagan, K; Dai, K; Lipson, A H

1997-01-01

377

i\\ai"GIIS... Apollo 15 Anomalies Investigation PAGE  

E-print Network

' ·~ i\\ai"GIIS... Apollo 15 Anomalies Investigation PAGE 1 OF /~-........Divl·lan DATE 10/11/71 The purpose of this ATM is to review and status the BxA effort with respect to the Apollo 15 Anomalies t '-· :·~· . . !· ·'··..'· ~· : #12;Apollo 15 Anomalies Investigation TABLE OF CONTENTS Anomalies 1. UHT/Subpackage #2 Interface 2

Rathbun, Julie A.

378

Anomalies in quantum and classical magnetoresistance of semi-metallic nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report anomalies in the weak localisation (wl) effect and strong deviations from the Kohler rule (DKR) in the classical magnetoresistance of antimony wires of cross-sections down to 30×100 nm2 in the fields up to 5 T in the temperature interval of 0.27-10 K. A strong anisotropy of the Fermi surface generic to semi-metals and reflections at grain boundaries are suggested to account for DKR. There is probably a link between the DKR and the wl anomalies.

Parsons, A.; Petrashov, V. T.; Sosnin, I. A.

2000-07-01

379

Sulfur and Hydrogen Isotope Anomalies in Organic Compounds from the Murchison Meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isotopic measurements have been made on organic sulfur and phosphorus compounds recently discovered in the Murchison meteorite. Carbon, hydrogen and sulfur measurements were performed on individual members of the organic sulfur compounds, alkyl sulfonates; and carbon and hydrogen measurements were made on bulk alkyl phosphonates. Cooper and Chang reported the first carbon isotopic measurements of Murchison organic sulfonates, providing insight into the potential synthetic mechanisms of these and, possibly, other organic species. Hydrogen isotopic measurements of the sulforiates now reveal deuterium excesses ranging from +660 to +2730 %. The deuterium enrichments indicate formation of the hydrocarbon portion of these compounds in a low temperature astrophysical environment consistent with that of dense molecular clouds. Measurements of the sulfur isotopes provide further constraints on the origin and mechanism of formation of these organic molecules. Recently, there has been growing documentation of sulfur isotopic anomalies in meteoritic material. Thiemens and Jackson have shown that some bulk ureilites possess excess S-33 and Thiemens et al. have reported excess S-33 in an oldhamite separate from the Norton County meteorite. Rees and Thode reported a large S-33 excess in an Allende acid residue, however, attempts to verify this measurements have been unsuccessful, possibly due to the heterogeneous nature of the carrier phase. With the recognition that sulfur isotopes may reflect chemistry in the protosolar nebula or the precursor molecular cloud, identification of potential carriers is of considerable interest. In the present study, the stable isotopes of sulfur were measured in methane sulfonic acid extracted from the Murchison meteorite. The isotopic composition was found to be: (delta)S-33 = 2.48 %, (delta)S-34 = 2.49 % and (delta)S-36 = 6.76 %. Based upon analysis of more than 60 meteoritic and numerous terrestrial samples, the mass fractionation lines are defined by Delta-33 = (delta)S-33 -0.50(delta)S-34 and Delta-36 = (delta)s-36 - 1.97 (delta)S-34. From these relationships Delta-33 = 1.24 % and Delta-36 = 0.89 % are observed. These anomalies, particularly the Delta-33, lie well outside the range of analytical uncertainty. They are the largest observed in any meteoritic component and the first found in an organosulfur compound. As discussed by Thiemens and Jackson, due to it's position on the periodic chart, sulfur undergoes chemically induced mass independent isotopic fractionations as does oxygen. Experiments by Mauersberger et. al. show that in such processes, the magnitude of fractionation for the different isotopically substituted species varies with mass and angular momentum; thus, anomalies are expected for both S-33 and S-36, but not necessarily of the same magnitude. Laboratory experiments have also confirmed that chemically produced, mass independent fractionations are mediated by molecular symmetry factors. A chemical source of fractionation requires that the sulfur isotopic anomaly was established in the gas phase, probably in reactions involving symmetric CS2. The discovery of an anomalous sulfur isotopic composition in a specific molecule containing excess deuterium is an important advance in the understanding of the cosmochemistry of sulfur. This evidence suggests that methanesulfonic acid was synthesized by interstellar processes. Further measurements and details of possible synthesis and fractionation mechanisms will be presented.

Cooper, G. W.; Thiemens, M. H.; Jackson, T.; Chang, Sherwood

1996-01-01

380

Suggestive techniques connected to medical interventions  

PubMed Central

The paper introduces a series of articles where several detailed clinical examples will be presented on the effectiveness of using suggestive techniques in various fields of interventional medicine. The aim of this series is to raise the attention to the patients heightened openness to suggestions. By recognizing the unavoidable nature of suggestive effects on one hand we can eliminate unfavourable, negative suggestions and on the other hand go on and consciously apply positive, helpful variations. Research materials, reviews and case study will describe the way suggestions can reduce anxiety and stress connected to medical intervention, improve subjective well-being and cooperation, and increase efficiency by reducing treatment costs. PMID:24265898

2013-01-01

381

MONTHLY SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY GRAPHS FOR ATLANTIC COAST  

E-print Network

MONTHLY SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY GRAPHS FOR ATLANTIC COAST STATIONS by Franklin StearnsKeman, Director Monthly Sea-Surface Temperature Anomaly Graphs For Atlantic Coast Stations by Franklin Stearns. December 19^4 #12;Monthly Sea-Surface Temperature Anomaly Graphs For Atlantic Coast Stations by Franklin

382

Late-Term Abortion for Fetal Anomaly: Vietnamese Women's Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening for fetal anomalies in the second trimester of pregnancy is increasingly becoming a part of antenatal care. As a consequence, more pregnant women are learning that the child they are expecting has an anomaly. This article derives from anthropological research in a hospital in Hanoi, Viet Nam, from 2003–2006 that investigated 30 women's experiences after a fetal anomaly was

Tine Gammeltoft

2008-01-01

383

Trajectory Boundary Modeling of Time Series for Anomaly Detection  

E-print Network

compares favorably with anomaly detection algorithms based on Euclidean distance and dynamic time warping on the Space Shuttle Marrotta fuel control valve data set. Keywords Time series anomaly detection, MachineTrajectory Boundary Modeling of Time Series for Anomaly Detection Matthew V. Mahoney and Philip K

Chan, Philip K.

384

Five-Year Average Global Temperature Anomalies 1880 - 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This color-coded map displays a progression of changing five-year average global surface temperatures anomalies from 1880 through 2010. The final frame represents global temperature anomalies averaged from 2006 to 2010. The temperature anomalies are computed relative to the base period 1951-1980.

Schmunk, Robert B.; Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, Mki; Lo, K.; Studio, Nasa/goddard S.

385

Congenital and developmental anomalies of the shoulder girdle.  

PubMed

An understanding of congenital and developmental anomalies of the shoulder girdle is facilitated by a knowledge of embryology, physeal appearance and closure, and phylogenetic changes. Scapular, clavicular, and proximal humeral anomalies are classified and discussed with reference to diagnosis and management. Finally anomalies of the shoulder girdle musculature are delineated. PMID:7001305

Samilson, R L

1980-04-01

386

The influence of suggestibility on memory.  

PubMed

We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory. PMID:21144772

Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L

2011-06-01

387

The satellite magnetic anomaly of Ahaggar - Evidence for African Plate motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ahaggar volcanic province of North Central Africa is considered a region of excess heat flow (hot spot) and hence elevated Curie isotherm. Using a modified version of the Parker FFT potential field representation, magnetic signals were calculated at Magsat altitudes for models in which the African Plate is both fixed and moving. The moving-plate model extends the Curie isotherm anomaly in the direction of plate motion and provides a satisfactory match to vertical component anomaly data when the magnitude of plate velocity is 0.75 cm/yr. Although the signal levels are marginal for the scalar component anomalies of this region, the same model provides an adequate match to this data set and is clearly preferable to a fixed-plate model.

Phillips, R. J.; Brown, C. R.

1985-01-01

388

El Nino: Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly and Sea Surface Height Anomaly from Sept. 1996 to Sept. 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea surface height anomaly is presented as topography and sea surface temperature anomaly as color. A similar visualization (animation 1415) presents this same data and includes a pan from the front view to a side view.

Shirah, Greg; Busalacchi, Antonio

1997-09-08

389

Susceptibility Anomaly at 50 K in Brain Tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main iron oxide phase that has been identified in brain tissue is a low coercivity phase, which is magnetite/maghemite. Measurement of susceptibility as a function of temperature (?-T) often does not show a Verwey transition, but may show a perturbation around 50 K. Such an anomaly has been reported in several studies for crystals of multi-domain magnetite, which display a Verwey transition. The anomaly is particularly evident in magnetic after-effect (MAE) spectroscopy. Based on MAE data, Walz (2002, J. Phys. Condens. Matt., 14, R285) suggested that this marks a transition between different mechanisms of electron transfer in magnetite. Above 50 K transfer is accommodated by small-polaron hopping. We have further investigated the magnetic behavior of this 50 K anomaly in brain and tumor tissue with the help of ?-T curves after cooling in zero-field (ZFC) or in a field (FC) and hysteresis loops. Measurements were made on three different Quantum Design MPMS magnetometers: (i) IRM, University of Minnesota, (ii) Institute for Geosciences, University of Bremen, and (iii) Dept. of Chemistry, ETH-Zurich, to assure that the effect was not related to the measurement instrument. The 50 K anomaly is expressed as a bump in ?-T curves over a 10 K temperature range whereby the peak susceptibility lies between 45 and 55 K. It should be noted that oxygen undergoes a transition from liquid to solid state at 53 K and undergoes magnetic ordering at 43 K. Although the magnetic intensity of the samples is small due to a large diamagnetic component from the tissue itself, a phase transition or magnetic ordering does not seem a likely explanation, because both the ZFC and FC curves follow the perturbation, rather than showing a bifurcation at peak susceptibility. This explanation would also preclude ordering of a superparamagnetic component. Hysteresis loops at the peak perturbation temperature show a splitting of the descending and ascending limbs at the maximum starting field. Different mechanism to explain these observations will be discussed.

Hirt, A. M.; Brem, F.

2005-12-01

390

Ruptured arteriovenous anomaly in a former woman astronaut candidate.  

PubMed

A case is reported of a former woman astronaut candidate who withstood the rigors of the preliminary physical examinations for this position. Some years later, she sustained a subarachnoid hemorrhage from an arteriovenous malformation in the right parieto-occipital area, which was successfully excised. Postoperatively, she had a marked visual deficit, from which she completely recovered within 3 months. The development of psychomotor seizures 5 months later was due to probable scarring in the right parieto-occipital region of the cerebral cortex, the interpretive area for orientation of body image in space, which had been supplied by the clipped right anterior and posterior cerebral arteries feeding the arteriovenous anomaly. These seizures have been well controlled on anticonvulsants. A lesion in the temporoparieto-occipital region due to a hemorrhage from a ruptured arteriovenous anomaly, resulting in the disabling symptoms of disorientation or loss of body image due to impairment of the interpretive cortex, could be devastating to the pilot and a mission. This case raises the question of an automatic use of the CT brain scan in screening potential space candidates, and even the consideration of a percutaneous femoral four-vessel arteriogram in all, or possibly selected, candidates. Most neurosurgeons and neuroradiologists probably would consider the risks of the latter procedure too great to justify its use for fear of permanent complications to the space candidate. PMID:444178

Schneider, R C; Scott, B B; Crosby, E C

1979-02-01

391

Neutron-poor Nickel Isotope Anomalies in Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new, mass-independent, Ni isotope data for a range of bulk chondritic meteorites. The data are reported as ?60Ni58/61, ?62Ni58/61, and ?64Ni58/61, or the parts per ten thousand deviations from a terrestrial reference, the NIST SRM 986 standard, of the 58Ni/61Ni internally normalized 60Ni/61Ni, 62Ni/61Ni, and 64Ni/61Ni ratios. The chondrites show a range of 0.15, 0.29, and 0.84 in ?60Ni58/61, ?62Ni58/61, and ?64Ni58/61 relative to a typical sample precision of 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08 (2 s.e.), respectively. The carbonaceous chondrites show the largest positive anomalies, enstatite chondrites have approximately terrestrial ratios, though only EH match Earth's composition within uncertainty, and ordinary chondrites show negative anomalies. The meteorite data show a strong positive correlation between ?62Ni58/61 and ?64Ni58/61, an extrapolation of which is within the error of the average of previous measurements of calcium-, aluminium-rich inclusions. Moreover, the slope of this bulk meteorite array is 3.003 ± 0.166 which is within the error of that expected for an anomaly solely on 58Ni. We also determined to high precision (~10 ppm per AMU) the mass-dependent fractionation of two meteorite samples which span the range of ?62Ni58/61 and ?64Ni58/61. These analyses show that "absolute" ratios of 58Ni/61Ni vary between these two samples whereas those of 62Ni/61Ni and 64Ni/61Ni do not. Thus, Ni isotopic differences seem most likely explained by variability in the neutron-poor 58Ni, and not correlated anomalies in the neutron-rich isotopes, 62Ni and 64Ni. This contrasts with previous inferences from mass-independent measurements of Ni and other transition elements which invoked variable contributions of a neutron-rich component. We have examined different nucleosynthetic environments to determine the possible source of the anomalous material responsible for the isotopic variations observed in Ni and other transition elements within bulk samples. We find that the Ni isotopic variability of the solar system cannot be explained by mixing with a component of bulk stellar ejecta from either SN II, Wolf-Rayet or, an asymptotic giant branch source and is unlikely to result from bulk mixing of material from an SN Ia. However, variable admixture of material from the Si/S zone of an SN II can create all the characteristics of Ni isotope variations in solar system materials. Moreover, these characteristics can also be provided by an SN II with a range of masses from 15 to 40 M ?, showing that input from SN II is a robust source for Ni isotope variations in the solar system. Correlations of Ni isotope anomalies with O, Cr, and Ti isotope ratios and Pb/Yb in bulk meteorites suggest that the heterogeneous distribution of isotopic anomalies in the early solar system likely resulted from nebular sorting of chemically or physically different materials bearing different amounts of isotopes synthesized proximally to the collapse of the protosolar nebula.

Steele, Robert C. J.; Coath, Christopher D.; Regelous, Marcel; Russell, Sara; Elliott, Tim

2012-10-01

392

Body Stalk Anomaly Complicated by Ectopia Cordis in the First Trimester  

PubMed Central

The most serious conditions seen in body stalk anomaly may be the cases which are complicated by ectopia cordis, which is characterized by the abnormal location of the heart outside the thorax. We encountered four cases of body stalk anomaly, which were complicated by ectopia cordis, which were diagnosed in the first trimesters of pregnancy. In three of these cases, ultrasound scans revealed foetuses with large anterior abdominal wall defects, with their hearts extending outside their thoracic cavities. Their mothers, along with their husbands opted for termination of their pregnancies. In 1 other case, an ultrasound scan revealed a dead foetus, with gastroschisis. Based on the current cases, we suggest that the diagnosis of ectopia cordis caused by body stalk anomaly can be made during the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:24995220

Y., Shibata; K., Terada; M., Igarashi

2014-01-01

393

Searches for solar-influenced radioactive decay anomalies using Spacecraft RTGs  

E-print Network

Experiments showing a seasonal variation of the nuclear decay rates of a number of different nuclei, and decay anomalies apparently related to solar flares and solar rotation, have suggested that the Sun may somehow be influencing nuclear decay processes. Recently, Cooper searched for such an effect in $^{238}$Pu nuclei contained in the radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) on board the Cassini spacecraft. In this paper we modify and extend Cooper's analysis to obtain constraints on anomalous decays of $^{238}$Pu over a wider range of models, but these limits cannot be applied to other nuclei if the anomaly is composition-dependent. We also show that it may require very high sensitivity for terrestrial experiments to discriminate among some models if such a decay anomaly exists, motivating the consideration of future spacecraft experiments which would require less precision.

D. E. Krause; B. A. Rogers; E. Fischbach; J. B Buncher; A. Ging; J. H. Jenkins; J. M. Longuski; N. Strange; P. A. Sturrock

2012-05-31

394

Pregnancy interrupted: loss of a desired pregnancy after diagnosis of fetal anomaly.  

PubMed

Prenatal diagnostic techniques both enable and force women and couples to make decisions about whether to continue a pregnancy where the fetus has an anomaly. Few studies have explored the decision-making and bereavement processes of women who terminate a desired pregnancy after the discovery of a fetal anomaly. This reports the qualitative results of a study designed to explore these processes while placing them within the context of the societal milieu. Findings are reported as themes that emerged from the 30 intensive interviews conducted with women at varying stages after this experience. These include mythical expectations based on denial that anomaly could occur, misconceptions about the nature of prenatal testing and inaccurate expectations about the experience and duration of grief. Further, the contradictory norms in society are defined as creating additional dilemmas for women as they attempt to gain support and understanding following their loss. Suggestions for how providers may assist women with their grief are incorporated. PMID:17454512

McCoyd, Judith L M

2007-03-01

395

Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events.  

PubMed

According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage. PMID:25352285

Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter Iii, James L

2014-01-01

396

A neo-Newtonian explanation of the Pioneer anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over 20 years NASA has struggled to find an explanation for the Pioneer anomaly, an unmodelled weak acceleration towards the sun (? 8.5×10^{-10} m s^{-2}), observed in deep space probes Pioneer 10, 11, Galileo and Ulysses (Anderson et al. 1998, 1999; Katz 1999). No consensus explanation has been given since the anomaly was first announced, suggesting that new physics is involved. The riddle may be solved if we assume that c, the speed of light, is not a universal constant. Newtonian mechanics, together with the hypothesis by Céspedes-Curé (2002) that the index of refraction is a function of the gravitational energy density of space, leads to values of c slightly higher for interstellar space dominated by the primordial energy density ?_{*}^{} due to galaxies and far away stars, far from the gravitational influence of Earth, Moon, and Sun. The value derived for the index of refraction of space (n' < 1), implies a Doppler shift of the radio signal received from the probes which results in a decrease of the frequency received at Earth and interpreted as a weak acceleration towards the Sun.

Greaves, E. D.

2009-05-01

397

Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage.

Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter, James L., III

2014-10-01

398

Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events  

PubMed Central

According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage. PMID:25352285

Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter III, James L.

2014-01-01

399

East west trending magnetic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere of Mars: Modeling analysis and interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maps of the vector components of the martian crustal magnetic field over the strongly magnetized Terra Cimmeria/Sirenum region are constructed using Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer data. Although pronounced east-west trending anomalies are present on the radial and north field component maps at the mapping altitude (˜360-380 km), these trends are much less prominent at the lower aerobraking altitude (˜90-150 km). Comparisons with similar maps produced using artificial data at the aerobraking altitude indicate that elongated sources in this region may have maximum lengths along the martian surface of ˜500 km and maximum aspect ratios of ˜2. Iterative forward modeling of several relatively isolated anomalies in the mapped region yields paleomagnetic pole positions consistent with those estimated in previous studies of other anomalies using mapping phase and science phasing orbit data. On this basis, it is inferred that sources in the studied region are most probably magnetized primarily in northward or southward directions. Using this additional constraint, iterative forward modeling is then applied to determine a magnetization distribution that is consistent with data at both the aerobraking altitude and the mapping altitude. The model magnetization distribution, which includes 41 discrete sources, again indicates no highly elongated sources. An examination of surface geology in the region as well as a consideration of the global distribution of anomalies suggests that magmatic intrusions (e.g., subsurface dike swarms), cooling in the presence of water, are the most likely sources of the magnetic anomalies.

Hood, Lon L.; Richmond, Nicola C.; Harrison, Keith P.; Lillis, Robert J.

2007-11-01

400

Rehabilitation of a child with partial unilateral cryptophthalmos and multiple congenital anomalies.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: This paper describes the surgical rehabilitation of a child with craniofacial anomalies, unilateral syndactyly, and partial unilateral cryptophthalmos associated with inferior colobomata of the iris and optic nerve and agenesis of the inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles. The clinical presentation of cryptophthalmos is described. METHODS: The medical literature since the original description of cryptophthalmos in 1872 was reviewed to define patterns of inheritance and the incidence of associated anomalies. RESULTS: Including this patient, 149 case reports of cryptophthalmos were identified. In two families transmission from parent to child suggests dominant inheritance. None of the five dominant cases had any other anomalies, and all had bilateral complete cryptophthalmos. The incidence of cryptophthalmos in the remaining families is consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. This group includes patients with bilateral, unilateral, and partial cryptophthalmos. Other anomalies are common, including those of the ear and nose, limbs, genitourinary system, and mouth and palate. Mortality in the perinatal period is associated with renal agenesis, laryngeal atresia, and pulmonary hypoplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Cryptophthalmos is a rare congenital anomaly with two patterns of inheritance. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8719680

Konrad, H; Merriam, J C; Jones, I S

1995-01-01

401

Conditional Anomaly Detection with Soft Harmonic Functions  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we consider the problem of conditional anomaly detection that aims to identify data instances with an unusual response or a class label. We develop a new non-parametric approach for conditional anomaly detection based on the soft harmonic solution, with which we estimate the confidence of the label to detect anomalous mislabeling. We further regularize the solution to avoid the detection of isolated examples and examples on the boundary of the distribution support. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method on several synthetic and UCI ML datasets in detecting unusual labels when compared to several baseline approaches. We also evaluate the performance of our method on a real-world electronic health record dataset where we seek to identify unusual patient-management decisions.

Valko, Michal; Kveton, Branislav; Valizadegan, Hamed; Cooper, Gregory F.; Hauskrecht, Milos

2012-01-01

402

A critical appraisal of the LSND anomaly  

E-print Network

The so-called 'LSND anomaly', a 3.8 sigma excess of anti-nu_e events interpreted as originating from anti-nu_mu -> anti-nu_e oscillation, gave rise to many theoretical speculations. The MiniBooNE Collaboration reported inconsistency of this interpretation with the findings from their search for nu_mu -> nu_e oscillations. Yet the origin of the LSND anomaly was never clarified. A critical issue is the prediction of the background anti-nu_e flux that was used in the analysis of the LSND experiment. For this, decisive input comes from pion spectra measured with the HARP large-angle spectrometer under conditions that closely resemble the LSND situation: a proton beam with 800 MeV kinetic energy hitting a water target.

I. Boyko

2008-10-08

403

Hyperactive behavior and minor physical anomalies.  

PubMed

Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) are congenital abnormalities of body structure which reflect fetal maldevelopment. They originate in the same embryonic layer that produces the central nervous system, and it is reasoned that MPAs are markers of nervous system anomalies. High MPA counts have been associated with hyperactive behavior in normal and clinical populations of boys, and with inhibited behavior in normal groups of girls. The present sample of children from a longitudinal study of a Danish birth cohort show no significant sex differences in mean number of MPAs, but the male hyperactivity-MPA relation and the female inhibition-MPA relation is supported in this non-clinical sample. MPAs are not recommended for use in clinical screening or diagnosis at this time, but the evidence of a congenital, biological component to hyperactive behavior may eventually have useful implications for prevention and/or intervention. PMID:4083059

Fogel, C A; Mednick, S A; Michelsen, N

1985-12-01

404

Thesis: Orientifolds, Anomalies and the Standard Model  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we study aspects of D-brane realizations of the Standard Model. Specifically, we study orientifold models with rotation and translation elements that break supersymmetry, provide the general consistency conditions and derive the massless spectrum for these type of orientifolds. These models contain in general anomalous U(1) gauge fields. The Green-Schwarz mechanism cancels the anomaly and provides a mass term for the anomalous gauge fields. We calculate the bare mass for supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric vacua and we show that higher dimensional anomalies can affect the masses of the anomalous U(1)s. Phenomenological aspects are also discussed. We evaluate the contribution of the extra U(1) fields to the anomalous moments and it is shown that this imposes constraints on the magnitude of the string scale.

P. Anastasopoulos

2005-03-07

405

Thesis: Orientifolds, Anomalies and the Standard Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, we study aspects of D-brane realizations of the Standard Model. Specifically, we study orientifold models with rotation and translation elements that break supersymmetry, provide the general consistency conditions and derive the massless spectrum for these type of orientifolds. These models contain in general anomalous U(1) gauge fields. The Green-Schwarz mechanism cancels the anomaly and provides a mass term for the anomalous gauge fields. We calculate the bare mass for supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric vacua and we show that higher dimensional anomalies can affect the masses of the anomalous U(1)s. Phenomenological aspects are also discussed. We evaluate the contribution of the extra U(1) fields to the anomalous moments and it is shown that this imposes constraints on the magnitude of the string scale.

Anastasopoulos, P.

2005-03-01

406

Geophysical anomalies and quartz microstructures, Eastern Warburton Basin, North-east South Australia: Tectonic or impact shock metamorphic origin?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eastern Warburton Basin, Northeast South Australia, features major geophysical anomalies, including a magnetic high of near-200 nT centred on a 25 km-wide magnetic low (< 100 nT), interpreted in terms of a magmatic body below 6 km depth. A distinct seismic tomographic low velocity anomaly may reflect its thick (9.5 km) sedimentary section, high temperatures and possible deep fracturing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses of granites resolves microbreccia veins consisting of micron-scale particles injected into resorbed quartz grains. Planar and sub-planar elements in quartz grains (Qz/PE) occur in granites, volcanics and sediments of the > 30,000 km-large Eastern Warburton Basin. The Qz/PE include multiple intersecting planar to curved sub-planar elements with relic lamellae less than 2 ?m wide with spacing of 4-5 ?m. Qz/PE are commonly re-deformed, displaying bent and wavy patterns accompanied with fluid inclusions. U-stage measurements of a total of 243 planar sets in 157 quartz grains indicate dominance of ?{10-12}, ?{10-13} and subsidiary §{11-22}, {22-41}, m{10-11} and x{51-61} planes. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis displays relic narrow ? 1 ?m-wide lamellae and relic non-sub grain boundaries where crystal segments maintain optical continuity. Extensive sericite alteration of feldspar suggests hydrothermal alteration to a depth of 500 m below the unconformity which overlies the Qz/PE-bearing Warburton Basin terrain. The data are discussed in terms of (A) Tectonic-metamorphic deformation and (B) impact shock metamorphism producing planar deformation features (Qz/PDF). Deformed Qz/PE are compared to re-deformed Qz/PDFs in the Sudbury, Vredefort, Manicouagan and Charlevoix impact structures. A 4-5 km uplift of the Big Lake Granite Suite during 298-295 Ma is consistent with missing of upper Ordovician to Devonian strata and possible impact rebound. The occurrence of circular seismic tomography anomalies below the east Warburton Basin, the Poolowana Basin and the Woodleigh impact structure signifies a potential diagnostic nature of circular tomographic anomalies.

Glikson, Andrew Y.; Uysal, I. Tonguç; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Saygin, Erdinc

2013-03-01

407

Behavior profiling for robust anomaly detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet attacks are evolving using evasion techniques such as polymorphism and stealth scanning. Conventional detection systems using signature-based and\\/or rule-based anomaly detection techniques no longer suffice. It is difficult to predict what form the next malware attack will take and these pose a great challenge to the design of a robust intrusion detection system. We focus on the anomalous behavioral

Shun-Wen Hsiao; Yeali S. Sun; Meng Chang Chen; Hui Zhang

2010-01-01

408

Scaling anomalies in Kaluza-Klein theory  

SciTech Connect

The effect of Pauli interactions on the scaling anomaly is to add F/sup 4/, (par. deltaF)/sup 2/ and m/sup 2/F/sup 2/ terms to the trace of the stress-tensor at one loop level, such terms being connected with renormalization. However, when the sum over all modes is taken, these extra contributions vanish upon zeta-function regularisation.

Delbourgo, R.; Thompson, G.; Weber, R.O.

1987-04-01

409

Multifactor Explanations of Asset Pricing Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work shows that average returns on common stocks are related to firm characteristics like size, earnings\\/price, cash flow\\/price, book-to-market equity, past sales growth, long-term past return, and short-term past return. Because these patterns in average returns apparently are not explained by the capital asset pricing model, (CAPM), they are called anomalies. The authors find that, except for the continuation

EUGENE F. FAMA; KENNETH R. FRENCH

1996-01-01

410

Fusion and normalization to enhance anomaly detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines normalizing the imagery and the optimization metrics to enhance anomaly and change detection, respectively. The RX algorithm, the standard anomaly detector for hyperspectral imagery, more successfully extracts bright rather than dark man-made objects when applied to visible hyperspectral imagery. However, normalizing the imagery prior to applying the anomaly detector can help detect some of the problematic dark objects, but can also miss some bright objects. This study jointly fuses images of RX applied to normalized and unnormalized imagery and has a single decision surface. The technique was tested using imagery of commercial vehicles in urban environment gathered by a hyperspectral visible/near IR sensor mounted in an airborne platform. Combining detections first requires converting the detector output to a target probability. The observed anomaly detections were fitted with a linear combination of chi square distributions and these weights were used to help compute the target probability. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) quantitatively assessed the target detection performance. The target detection performance is highly variable depending on the relative number of candidate bright and dark targets and false alarms and controlled in this study by using vegetation and street line masks. The joint Boolean OR and AND operations also generate variable performance depending on the scene. The joint SUM operation provides a reasonable compromise between OR and AND operations and has good target detection performance. In addition, new transforms based on normalizing correlation coefficient and least squares generate new transforms related to canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and a normalized image regression (NIR). Transforms based on CCA and NIR performed better than the standard approaches. Only RX detection of the unnormalized of the difference imagery in change detection provides adequate change detection performance.

Mayer, R.; Atkinson, G.; Antoniades, J.; Baumback, M.; Chester, D.; Edwards, J.; Goldstein, A.; Haas, D.; Henderson, S.; Liu, L.

2009-05-01

411

SOM-Based Anomaly Intrusion Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a SOM-based anomaly intrusion detection system is proposed, which can contract high-dimension data to lower,\\u000a meanwhile keeping the primary relationship between clustering and topology. During the experiment, the theory of SOM is used\\u000a to train three SOMs on the layers of system, process and network. Although our experiment environment is simpler than the\\u000a real one, the result

Chun-dong Wang; He-feng Yu; Huai-bin Wang; Kai Liu

2007-01-01

412

Chlorination Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water and Congenital Anomalies: Review and Meta-Analyses  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to review epidemiologic evidence, provide summary risk estimates of the association between exposure to chlorination disinfection by-products (DBPs) and congenital anomalies, and provide recommendations for future studies. Data sources and extraction We included all published epidemiologic studies that evaluated a relationship between an index of DBP exposure (treatment, water source, DBP measurements, and both DBP measurements and personal characteristics) and risk of congenital anomalies. When three or more studies examined the same exposure index and congenital anomaly, we conducted a meta-analysis to obtain a summary risk estimate comparing the highest exposure group with the lowest exposure group. When five or more studies examined total trihalomethane (TTHM) exposure and a specific congenital anomaly, we conducted a meta-analysis to obtain exposure–response risk estimates per 10 ?g/L TTHM. Data synthesis For all congenital anomalies combined, the meta-analysis gave a statistically significant excess risk for high versus low exposure to water chlorination or TTHM [17%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3–34] based on a small number of studies. The meta-analysis also suggested a statistically significant excess risk for ventricular septal defects (58%; 95% CI, 21–107), but this was based on only three studies, and there was little evidence of an exposure–response relationship. We observed no statistically significant relationships in the other meta-analyses. We found little evidence for publication bias, except for urinary tract defects and cleft lip and palate. Conclusion Although some individual studies have suggested an association between chlorination disinfection by-products and congenital anomalies, meta-analyses of all currently available studies demonstrate little evidence of such an association. PMID:20019896

Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Martinez, David; Grellier, James; Bennett, James; Best, Nicky; Iszatt, Nina; Vrijheid, Martine; Toledano, Mireille B.

2009-01-01

413

Modelling the Pioneer anomaly as modified inertia  

E-print Network

This paper proposes an explanation for the Pioneer anomaly: an unexplained Sunward acceleration of 8.74 +/- 1.33 x 10^-10 m s^-2 seen in the behaviour of the Pioneer probes. Two hypotheses are made: (1) Inertia is a reaction to Unruh radiation and (2) this reaction is weaker for low accelerations because some wavelengths in the Unruh spectrum do not fit within a limiting scale (twice the Hubble distance) and are disallowed: a process similar to the Casimir effect. When these ideas are used to model the Pioneer crafts' trajectories there is a slight reduction in their inertial mass, causing an anomalous Sunward acceleration of 6.9 +/- 3.5 x 10^-10 m s^-2 which agrees within error bars with the observed Pioneer anomaly beyond 10 AU from the Sun. This new scheme is appealingly simple and does not require adjustable parameters. However, it also predicts an anomaly within 10 AU of the Sun, which has not been observed. Various observational tests for the idea are proposed.

M. E. McCulloch

2006-12-20

414

Deflected anomaly mediation and neutralino dark matter  

SciTech Connect

This is a study of the phenomenology of the neutralino dark matter in the so called deflected anomaly mediation scenario. This scheme is obtained from the minimal anomaly-mediated scenario by introducing a gauge-mediated sector with N{sub f} messenger fields. Unlike the former scheme the latter has no tachyons. We find that the neutralino is still the LSP in a wide region of the parameter space: it is essentially a pure bino in the scenario with N{sub f}=1 while it can also be a pure Higgsino for N{sub f}>1. This is very different from the naive anomaly-mediated scenario which predicts a wino like neutralino. Moreover we do not find any tachyonic scalars in this scheme. After computing the relic density (considering all the possible coannihilations) we find that there are regions in the parameter space with values compatible with the latest WMAP results with no need to consider moduli fields that decay in the early universe.

Cesarini, Alessandro; Fucito, Francesco; Lionetto, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma 'Tor Vergata' I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma II, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy)

2007-01-15

415

CHAMP Magnetic Anomalies of the Antarctic Crust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regional magnetic signals of the crust are strongly masked by the core field and its secular variations components and hence difficult to isolate in the satellite measurements. In particular, the un-modeled effects of the strong auroral external fields and the complicated- behavior of the core field near the geomagnetic poles conspire to greatly reduce the crustal magnetic signal-to-noise ratio in the polar regions relative to the rest of the Earth. We can, however, use spectral correlation theory to filter the static lithospheric and core field components from the dynamic external field effects. To help isolate regional lithospheric from core field components, the correlations between CHAMP magnetic anomalies and the pseudo magnetic effects inferred from gravity-derived crustal thickness variations can also be exploited.. Employing these procedures, we processed the CHAMP magnetic observations for an improved magnetic anomaly map of the Antarctic crust. Relative to the much higher altitude Orsted and noisier Magsat observations, the CHAMP magnetic anomalies at 400 km altitude reveal new details on the effects of intracrustal magnetic features and crustal thickness variations of the Antarctic.

Kim, Hyung Rae; Gaya-Pique, Luis R.; vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Kim, Jeong Woo

2003-01-01

416

Thermal expansion anomaly regulated by entropy.  

PubMed

Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced therm