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Sample records for anomaly grass valley

  1. Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

  2. Electromagnetic (EM-60) survey in the Panther Canyon Area, Grass Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Goldstein, N.; Stark, M.; Haught, R.

    1980-05-01

    Eight frequency domain electromagnetic soundings were measured over the Panther Canyon thermal anomaly in Grass Valley, Nevada. The data were collected with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's large moment horizontal loop system (EM-60). At the transmitter site located near the center of the thermal anomaly, square wave currents of up to 70 A were impressed into a fourturn 50 m radius coil at frequencies from 0.033 to 500 Hz. At the eight receiver sites, 0.5 to 1.5 km from the loop, magnetic fields were detected with a three-component SQUID magnetometer and vertical and radial magnetic field spectra were calculated. Data were interpreted with a computer program which fit filled spectra and associated ellipse polarization data to one-dimensional resistivity models and results were compared to interpretations from earlier dipole-dipole resistivity measurements. Comparison of these interpretations indicates fairly close agreement between the two, with both models clearly indicating the presence and dimensions of the conductivity anomaly associated with the thermal zone. Although the dc data was better able to resolve the high resistivity bedrock, the EM-data were able to resolve all major features without distortion at shorter transmitter receiver separations and in about one-third of the field time.

  3. Detection of chiral anomaly and valley transport in Dirac semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Enze; Liu, Yanwen; Chen, Zhigang; Liang, Sihang; Cao, Junzhi; Yuan, Xiang; Tang, Lei; Li, Qian; Gu, Teng; Wu, Yizheng; Zou, Jin; Xiu, Faxian

    Chiral anomaly is a non-conservation of chiral charge pumped by the topological nontrivial gauge field, which has been predicted to exist in the emergent quasiparticle excitations in Dirac and Weyl semimetals. However, so far, such pumping process hasn't been clearly demonstrated and lacks a convincing experimental identification. Here, we report the detection of the charge pumping effect and the related valley transport in Cd3As2 driven by external electric and magnetic fields (EB). We find that the chiral imbalance leads to a non-zero gyrotropic coefficient, which can be confirmed by the EB-generated Kerr effect. By applying B along the current direction, we observe a negative magnetoresistance despite the giant positive one at other directions, a clear indication of the chiral anomaly. Remarkably, a robust nonlocal response in valley diffusion originated from the chiral anomaly is persistent up to room temperature when B is parallel to E. The ability to manipulate the valley polarization in Dirac semimetal opens up a brand-new route to understand its fundamental properties through external fields and utilize the chiral fermions in valleytronic applications.

  4. Spectral anomaly over Railroad Valley oil field, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, S.C. ); Honey, F.R. ); Ballew, G.I. )

    1990-05-01

    Oil was first discovered in Railroad Valley, south-central Nevada in 1954. Since that time, over 195 wells have been drilled and six oil fields have been found: Bacon Flat, Currant, Trap Spring, Eagle Springs, Grant Canyon and Kate Spring. Two wells in the Grant Canyon field had flows between 2,480 and 4,108 bbl/day in 1987 and may be the most prolific wells onshore in the continental US. Production in the Railroad Valley fields is from Oligocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks and Paleozoic carbonate formations. Traps are structural or structural and stratigraphic, and reservoir seals are indurated or clayey valley fill, weathered tuff, and shales in Tertiary sediments. Reservoir temperatures range between 95 and 309{degree}F. Previous workers have identified a statistically significant positive correlation between hydrocarbon microseepage and vegetation anomalies over the Railroad Valley oil fields with Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery. Several flight lines of high spectral and spatial resolution imagery in the visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the spectrum were flown with Geoscan's MkII Airborne Multispectral Scanner to determine if there was a mineralogical signature associated with the oil fields. The 24-channel scanner collected 8-m resolution picture elements over a swath of about 8 km. Image processing strategies were developed from a knowledge of the spectral curves of minerals in the laboratory. The results from processing Geoscans MkII data were also compared with those obtained from processing Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery over the same area. An 8 {times} 6 km carbonate and iron anomaly was detected on the processed MkII imagery over the Trap Spring oil field. This anomaly may be related to hot spring activity, reported by other workers, that has formed extensive calcite deposits along faults.

  5. Integrated GRASS GIS based techniques to identify thermal anomalies on water surface. Taranto case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massarelli, Carmine; Matarrese, Raffaella; Felice Uricchio, Vito

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, thermal images collected by airborne systems have made the detection of thermal anomalies possible. These images are an important tool to monitor natural inflows and legal or illegal dumping in coastal waters. By the way, the potential of these kinds of data is not well exploited by the Authorities who supervises the territory. The main reason is the processing of remote sensing data that requires very specialized operators and softwares which are usually expensive and complex. In this study, we adopt a simple methodology that uses GRASS, a free open-source GIS software, which has allowed us to map surface water thermal anomalies and, consequently, to identify and locate coastal inflows, as well as manmade or natural watershed drains or submarine springs (in italian citri) in the Taranto Sea (South of Italy). Taranto sea represents a coastal marine ecosystem that has been gradually modified by mankind. One of its inlet, the Mar Piccolo, is a part of the National Priority List site identified by the National Program of Environmental Remediation and Restoration because of the size and high presence of industrial activities, past and present, that have had and continue to seriously compromise the health status of the population and the environment. In order to detect thermal anomalies, two flights have been performed respectively on March 3rd and on April 7th, 2013. A total of 13 TABI images have been acquired to map the whole Mar Piccolo with 1m of spatial resolution. TABI-320 is an airborne thermal camera by ITRES, with a continuous spectral range between 8 and 12 microns. On July 15th, 2013, an in-situ survey was carried out along the banks to retrieve clear visible points of natural or artificial inflows, detecting up to 72 of discharges. GRASS GIS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System), is a free and open source Geographic Information System (GIS) software suite used for geospatial data management and analysis, image processing

  6. Negative gravity anomaly over spreading rift valleys: Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26°N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowin, Carl; Milligan, Julie

    1985-03-01

    A pronounced negative free-air gravity anomaly commonly occurs over the median valley of slow spreading ocean ridges. Previous results, using Wiener filtering and cross-spectral analysis techniques for the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, obtained estimates of the elastic plate thickness in the range of 7-13 km and the existence of a residual negative gravity anomaly over the median rift valley, suggesting that the rift valley has a response function different than the remainder of the spreading ridge. In this paper we have improved the derivation of the topography-gravity admittance function for spreading ocean crust by carefully avoiding several sources of spectral splattering when processing the data: (1) selecting data from a cruise that followed a flowline of central North Atlantic relative plate motion and hence is least corrupted by fracture zones; and (2) accounting for the difference in distance between the gravity meter and the regional variation in elevation as the ridge crest is traversed. Improvements of lesser importance include the use of cubic splines to interpolate to equally spaced data rather than linear interpolation, and correction of the free-air anomaly values for long-wavelength variations of the indirect effect. Comparison of the resulting admittance function to elastic flexure response functions suggests an elastic plate thickness of about 8 km. The improved admittance function, when convolved with the ridge topography, provides a predicted gravity profile that accounts very well for the negative anomaly over the rift valley. Therefore, the isostatic response function for the rift valley is similar to that for the topography away from the rift valley.

  7. Evapotranspiration from forage grass replacing native vegetation in the Gila River valley of Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leppanen, O.E.

    1981-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration from an area of forage grass, which had been planted to replace native vegetation of little economic value, were made daily for a 363-day period in 1969 and 1970. The measurement site was located in the Gila River valley in east-central Arizona. The forage, panigrass (Panicum antidotale Retz.), grew from seed during the early summer of 1969 and after winterkill, regrew in 1970. Daily evapotranspiration estimates, which were based on energy budget measurements, ranged from a maximum of 9.2 millimeters to small amounts of condensation. Two daily values of substantial condensation (0.9 and 0.4 millimeter) were of dubious quality, but were retained in the record. The annual evapotranspiration was 989 millimeters, of which about 332 millimeters came from precipitation at the site. The water table fluctuated between 210 and 280 centimeters below land surface. However, the measurement site was near a wash, so that undocumented, shallower subterranean flows may have occurred. (USGS)

  8. Demonstration of dual-band infrared thermal imaging at Grass Valley Creek bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N. K.; Durbin, P.F.; Logan, C.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Schich, P.C.

    1996-11-01

    We demonstrated dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging at the Grass Valley Creek Bridges near Redding CA. DBIR thermal imaging is an enabling technology for rapid, reliable, bridge deck inspections while minimizing lane closures. bridge-deck inspections were conducted from a mobile DBIR bridge inspection laboratory during November 2-3, 1995. We drove this self-contained unit at limited highway speeds over 0.4 lane miles of bridge deck. Using two thermal IR bands, we distinguished delaminations from clutter. Clutter, or unwanted thermal detail, occurs from foreign materials or uneven shade on the bridge deck surface. By mapping the DBIR spectral- response differences at 3-5 {mu}m and 8-12 {mu}m, we removed foreign material clutter. By mapping the deck diurnal thermal inertia variations, we removed clutter from uneven shade. Thermal inertia is a bulk deck property, the square root of thermal conductivity x density x heat capacity. Delaminated decks have below-average thermal inertias, or above-average day-night temperature excursions. Compared to normal decks areas, delaminated deck areas were typically 2 or 3 {degrees}C warmer at noon, and 0.5{degrees}C cooler at night. The mobile DBIR bridge inspection laboratory is currently undergoing extensive testing to examine bridges by the Federal Highway Administration.

  9. Controls on Martian Hydrothermal Systems: Application to Valley Network and Magnetic Anomaly Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Keith P.; Grimm, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Models of hydrothermal groundwater circulation can quantify limits to the role of hydrothermal activity in Martian crustal processes. We present here the results of numerical simulations of convection in a porous medium due to the presence of a hot intruded magma chamber. The parameter space includes magma chamber depth, volume, aspect ratio, and host rock permeability and porosity. A primary goal of the models is the computation of surface discharge. Discharge increases approximately linearly with chamber volume, decreases weakly with depth (at low geothermal gradients), and is maximized for equant-shaped chambers. Discharge increases linearly with permeability until limited by the energy available from the intrusion. Changes in the average porosity are balanced by changes in flow velocity and therefore have little effect. Water/rock ratios of approximately 0.1, obtained by other workers from models based on the mineralogy of the Shergotty meteorite, imply minimum permeabilities of 10(exp -16) sq m2 during hydrothermal alteration. If substantial vapor volumes are required for soil alteration, the permeability must exceed 10(exp -15) sq m. The principal application of our model is to test the viability of hydrothermal circulation as the primary process responsible for the broad spatial correlation of Martian valley networks with magnetic anomalies. For host rock permeabilities as low as 10(exp -17) sq m and intrusion volumes as low as 50 cu km, the total discharge due to intrusions building that part of the southern highlands crust associated with magnetic anomalies spans a comparable range as the inferred discharge from the overlying valley networks.

  10. Anomalies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

  11. Antimony and other metal anomalies south of Stibnite, Valley County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Gary C.; King, Harley D.; Leonard, B.F.

    1974-01-01

    Results of geochemical investigations south of Stibnite, Valley County, Idaho, show that the distribution of Sb, As, Au, Zn, Ag, and Mo in mull ash and of Hg, in soil forms a highly anomalous area which is more than 1.5 km long and 1 km wide along the trace of the Meadow Creek fault, a major northstriking fault zone. In the report area the Meadow Creek fault is covered by deposits of Quaternary glacial debris ranging in thickness from several meters to more than 30 meters. Two other highly anomalous areas--one of Au, Zn, and Hg, and one of Zn, Ag, Hg, and Mo--correlate with silicified granodiorite along the trace of the Meadow Creek fault. These anomalies are not related to hnown Ore deponits and merit further investigation. The enrichment of metals in mull ash in the area of thick glacial debris suggests that the metals migrate from bedrock upward through the glacial debris, are taken up by the forest vegetation, and are concentrated in the mull as the litter from the vegetation-decays. The findings indicate that mull is the most useful geochemical sampling medium in the stibnite area because the bedrock is deeply buried beneath deposits of transported material such as colluvium or glacial debris.

  12. Marine magnetic anomaly 33 34 identified in the Upper Cretaceous of the Great Valley Sequence of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Peter D.; Verosub, Kenneth L.; Haggart, James W.

    1983-02-01

    An interval of reversed magnetic polarity has been located in Upper Cretaceous rocks of the Great Valley Sequence of California. The interval has been found at four sites, two on each side of the Sacramento Valley. In each case, the reversed interval is associated with the same ammonite local range zone. Firm biostratigraphic correlation and the structure of the magnetic polarity time scale allow us to determine that the reversed interval corresponds to marine magnetic anomaly 33 34 and represents the lower part of the Campanian Stage. The reversed interval serves as a marker horizon linking the different faunal assemblages and sedimentary facies of the Great Valley Sequence. It also provides the first direct correlation of provincial biostratigraphic zones of the North Pacific province with the Cretaceous stages in Europe.

  13. Application of U-Th-Pb phosphate geochronology to young orogenic gold deposits: New age constraints on the formation of the Grass Valley gold district, Sierra Foothills province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Monecke, Thomas; Fletcher, Ian R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Kelly, Nigel M.

    2015-01-01

    The Grass Valley orogenic gold district in the Sierra Nevada foothills province, central California, the largest historic gold producer of the North American Cordillera, comprises both steeply dipping east-west (E-W) veins located along lithologic contacts in accreted ca. 300 and 200 Ma oceanic rocks and shallowly dipping north-south (N-S) veins hosted by the Grass Valley granodiorite; the latter have yielded about 70 percent of the 13 million ounces of historic lode gold production in the district. The oceanic host rocks were accreted to the western margin of North America between 200 and 170 Ma, metamorphosed to greenschist and amphibolite facies, and uplifted between 175 and 160 Ma. Large-scale magmatism in the Sierra Nevada occurred between 170-140 Ma and 120-80 Ma, with the Grass Valley granodiorite being emplaced during the older episode of magmatism. Uranium-lead isotopic dating of hydrothermal xenotime yielded the first absolute age of 162±5 Ma for the economically more significant N-S veins. The vein-hosted xenotime, as well as associated monazite, are unequivocally of hydrothermal origin as indicated by textural and chemical characteristics, including grain shape, lack of truncated growth banding, lack of a Eu anomaly, and low U and Th concentrations. Furthermore, the crack-seal texture of the veins, with abundant wallrock slivers, suggests their formation as a result of episodic fluid flow possibly related to reoccurring seismic events, rather than a period of fluid exsolution from an evolving magma. The N-S veins are temporally distinct from a younger 153-151 Ma gold event that was previously reported for the E-W veins. Overlapping U-Pb zircon (159.9±2.2 Ma) and 40Ar/39Ar biotite and hornblende (159.7±0.6 to 161.9±1.4 Ma) ages and geothermobarometric calculations indicate that the Grass Valley granodiorite was emplaced at ca. 160 Ma at elevated temperatures (~800°C) within approximately 3 km of the paleosurface and rapidly cooled to the ambient

  14. The Association of Ambient Air Pollution and Traffic Exposures With Selected Congenital Anomalies in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Amy M.; Tager, Ira B.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Lurmann, Frederick; Shaw, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital anomalies are a leading cause of infant mortality and are important contributors to subsequent morbidity. Studies suggest associations between environmental contaminants and some anomalies, although evidence is limited. We aimed to investigate whether ambient air pollutant and traffic exposures in early gestation contribute to the risk of selected congenital anomalies in the San Joaquin Valley of California, 1997–2006. Seven exposures and 5 outcomes were included for a total of 35 investigated associations. We observed increased odds of neural tube defects when comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of exposure for several pollutants after adjusting for maternal race/ethnicity, education, and multivitamin use. The adjusted odds ratio for neural tube defects among those with the highest carbon monoxide exposure was 1.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 3.2) compared with those with the lowest exposure, and there was a monotonic exposure-response across quartiles. The highest quartile of nitrogen oxide exposure was associated with neural tube defects (adjusted odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.8). The adjusted odds ratio for the highest quartile of nitrogen dioxide exposure was 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.7). Ozone was associated with decreased odds of neural tube defects. Our results extend the limited body of evidence regarding air pollution exposure and adverse birth outcomes. PMID:23538941

  15. Relationship between summer rainfall anomalies and sub-seasonal oscillation intensity in the ChangJiang Valley in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunhui; Li, Tim; Gu, Dejun; Lin, Ailan; Zheng, Bin

    2015-06-01

    Sub-seasonal variability of summer (May-October) rainfall over the ChangJiang Valley exhibits two dominant timescales, one with a quasi-biweekly (QBW) period (10-20 days) and the other with an intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) period (20-60 days). A significant positive correlation (at a 99% confidence level) was found between the summer precipitation anomaly and the intensity of the QBW and ISO modes in the region. By examining the composite structure and evolution characteristics, we note that the QBW mode is characterized by a northwest-southeast oriented wave train pattern, moving southeastward. The perturbations associated with the ISO mode propagate northwestward in strong ISO years but southeastward in weak ISO years. A marked feature is the phase leading of low-level moisture to convection in both the QBW and ISO mode. When the summer rainfall is strong in the ChangJiang Valley, large-scale atmospheric conditions in the strong QBW/ISO activity region are characterized by deeper moist layer, convectively more unstable stratification and greater ascending motion. Such mean conditions favor the growth of the QBW and ISO perturbations. Thus, a significant positive correlation between the summer precipitation and the strength of sub-seasonal variability arises from the large-scale control of the summer mean flow to perturbations.

  16. Earthquake-induced barium anomalies in the Lisan Formation, Dead Sea Rift valley, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Amitai; Agnon, Amotz; Marco, Shmuel

    2009-08-01

    Prominent barium concentration anomalies that appear within earthquake brecciated layers (seismites) in the late Pleistocene lacustrine Lisan Formation in the Dead Sea Basin (DSB) are described and discussed here for the first time. Chemical analyses of samples from vertical profiles through the seismites display asymmetric Ba concentration peaks. The peaks start a few centimeters above the seismite's base and gradually rise to maxima reaching some 1000 ppm Ba, before falling off to background values (around 100 ppm), or abutting against the upper boundary of the breccia layer. High resolution SEM and electron microprobe analyses disclose that the Ba in the anomalies resides within prismatic crystallites (mostly < 2 µm in length) composed of a Ba(Sr)SO 4 mineral (designated "BM" henceforth). These are lacking altogether in the normal (non-seismic) underlying and overlying sediments. The crystallites are much smaller than the adjacent, supporting matrix grains of the gradually-bedded seismite, and show no size-sorting relationship with the latter. The peaks of the anomalies reflect higher population density, rather than larger crystal sizes, of the BM crystallites therein. Mass balance calculations show that the mass of Ba 2+ dissolved in the lake above a unit area of the seismites was mostly several times larger than that found in the seismite. The concentration of Ba 2+ in DSB Ca-chloride brines is mostly lesser than that in the DSB Lake, ruling out the former as a source of Ba to the anomalies. We propose that, during earthquakes, the uppermost bottom sediment layers in the DSB Lake were shaken and re-suspended into the overlying brine. The larger, faster-settling fragments and grains remained almost intact or were rapidly removed, unaffected, from the slurry. However, the finer grains remained in suspension for longer periods, allowing nucleation and growth of BM crystallites on their surfaces from the surrounding brine before reaching the bottom. The lag of Ba

  17. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Slide and Grass Valley Fires, San Bernardino County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Slide and Grass Valley Fires in San Bernardino County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 3.50 inches (88.90 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  18. Grass allergy

    MedlinePlus

    Although the grass itself may not be harmful, fertilizers, insecticides , and herbicides applied to the grass can ... with a chemical of any sort such as fertilizer, insecticide, or herbicide, find out the product name ...

  19. Mechanisms for concurrent low-latitude circulation anomalies responsible for persistent extreme precipitation in the Yangtze River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Zhai, Panmao

    2015-11-01

    Concurrent position shifts of the mid-level western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and the upper-level South Asia high (SAH) are regarded as significant precursors for persistent extreme precipitation events (PEPEs) in the Yangtze River Valley (YRV). By performing composite analyses, accountable vorticity genesis and dissipation are diagnosed based on a potential vorticity-diabatic heating theory. The results indicate that about 1 week preceding precipitation onset, a wave-like pattern of anomalous diabatic heating (Q) initiates its northwestward propagation from equatorial central Pacific. Subsequently, this wave-like pattern induces substantial changes in both horizontal and vertical structure of local Q along the propagating route. Forced negative vorticities in key areas result in the zonal approach between the SAH and the WPSH. During PEPEs, two thermal-induced vertical circulation cells take shape, with common strong ascent centered in the YRV. These anomalous cells are capable of self-maintaining for a few days via positive feedback processes. The WPSH and the SAH are therefore anchored in respective favorable positions for PEPEs. Simultaneously, descending motion of these two cells increases local solar radiation and decreases upward latent heat flux from surface, facilitating warmer underlying surface and swift accumulation of lower-level moisture. Correspondingly, enhanced heating to the north and rapid developing cyclone over warmer sea surface to the south combine to terminate above positive feedback processes. Finally, both the WPSH and the SAH retreat to their normal positions, accompanied by a quick decay of PEPEs.

  20. Mechanisms for concurrent low-latitude circulation anomalies responsible for persistent extreme precipitation in the Yangtze River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Zhai, Panmao

    2016-08-01

    Concurrent position shifts of the mid-level western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and the upper-level South Asia high (SAH) are regarded as significant precursors for persistent extreme precipitation events (PEPEs) in the Yangtze River Valley (YRV). By performing composite analyses, accountable vorticity genesis and dissipation are diagnosed based on a potential vorticity-diabatic heating theory. The results indicate that about 1 week preceding precipitation onset, a wave-like pattern of anomalous diabatic heating (Q) initiates its northwestward propagation from equatorial central Pacific. Subsequently, this wave-like pattern induces substantial changes in both horizontal and vertical structure of local Q along the propagating route. Forced negative vorticities in key areas result in the zonal approach between the SAH and the WPSH. During PEPEs, two thermal-induced vertical circulation cells take shape, with common strong ascent centered in the YRV. These anomalous cells are capable of self-maintaining for a few days via positive feedback processes. The WPSH and the SAH are therefore anchored in respective favorable positions for PEPEs. Simultaneously, descending motion of these two cells increases local solar radiation and decreases upward latent heat flux from surface, facilitating warmer underlying surface and swift accumulation of lower-level moisture. Correspondingly, enhanced heating to the north and rapid developing cyclone over warmer sea surface to the south combine to terminate above positive feedback processes. Finally, both the WPSH and the SAH retreat to their normal positions, accompanied by a quick decay of PEPEs.

  1. Modeling a sustainable salt tolerant grass-livestock production system under saline conditions in the western San Joaquin Valley of California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salinity and trace mineral accumulation threaten the sustainability of crop production in many semi-arid parts of the world, including California’s western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV). We used data from a multi-year field-scale trial in Kings County and related container trials to simulate a forage-gr...

  2. Underutilized Grasses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial warm-season grasses have been recognized for having several properties, such as high rates of net photosynthesis, energy and labor savings, and reduced soil and nutrient losses that make them better suited for biofuel production than many annual crops. Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinat...

  3. Basin wildrye: the forgotten grass revisited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basin wildrye was once a very abundant and widely occurring species throughout the landscapes of northern Nevada. When Captain Simpson, of the topographical Engineers, explored the route for a wagon road across the central Great Basin he marveled at the grass in the valley bottoms that reached to h...

  4. Grass Lignocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Danny E.

    Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion.

  5. Holonomy anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Bagger, J.; Nemeschansky, D.; Yankielowicz, S.

    1985-05-01

    A new type of anomaly is discussed that afflicts certain non-linear sigma models with fermions. This anomaly is similar to the ordinary gauge and gravitational anomalies since it reflects a topological obstruction to the reparametrization invariance of the quantum effective action. Nonlinear sigma models are constructed based on homogeneous spaces G/H. Anomalies arising when the fermions are chiral are shown to be cancelled sometimes by Chern-Simons terms. Nonlinear sigma models are considered based on general Riemannian manifolds. 9 refs. (LEW)

  6. Bangui Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.

    2004-01-01

    Bangui anomaly is the name given to one of the Earth s largest crustal magnetic anomalies and the largest over the African continent. It covers two-thirds of the Central African Republic and therefore the name derives from the capitol city-Bangui that is also near the center of this feature. From surface magnetic survey data Godivier and Le Donche (1962) were the first to describe this anomaly. Subsequently high-altitude world magnetic surveying by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (Project Magnet) recorded a greater than 1000 nT dipolar, peak-to-trough anomaly with the major portion being negative (figure 1). Satellite observations (Cosmos 49) were first reported in 1964, these revealed a 40nT anomaly at 350 km altitude. Subsequently the higher altitude (417-499km) POGO (Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Observatory) satellite data recorded peak-to-trough anomalies of 20 nT these data were added to Cosmos 49 measurements by Regan et al. (1975) for a regional satellite altitude map. In October 1979, with the launch of Magsat, a satellite designed to measure crustal magnetic anomalies, a more uniform satellite altitude magnetic map was obtained. These data, computed at 375 km altitude recorded a -22 nT anomaly (figure 2). This elliptically shaped anomaly is approximately 760 by 1000 km and is centered at 6%, 18%. The Bangui anomaly is composed of three segments; there are two positive anomalies lobes north and south of a large central negative field. This displays the classic pattern of a magnetic anomalous body being magnetized by induction in a zero inclination field. This is not surprising since the magnetic equator passes near the center of this body.

  7. Western Oregon Grass Seed Crop Rotation and Straw Residue Effects on Soil Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the impact of crop rotation and post-harvest residue management on the agricultural sustainability of conventional grass seed cropping systems in the Willamette Valley of western Oregon, U.S.A. The effects of a six-year rotation (continuous grass versus diverse crop species rot...

  8. Aeromagnetic survey map of Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    Three aeromagnetic surveys were flown to improve understanding of the geology and structure in the Sacramento Valley. The resulting data serve as a basis for geophysical interpretations, and support geological mapping, water and mineral resource investigations, and other topical studies. Local spatial variations in the Earth's magnetic field (evident as anomalies on aeromagnetic maps) reflect the distribution of magnetic minerals, primarily magnetite, in the underlying rocks. In many cases the volume content of magnetic minerals can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in the amount of magnetic minerals commonly mark lithologic or structural boundaries. Bodies of serpentinite and other mafic and ultramafic rocks tend to produce the most intense positive magnetic anomalies (for example, in the northwest part of the map). These rock types are the inferred sources, concealed beneath weakly magnetic, valley-fill deposits, of the most prominent magnetic features in the map area, the magnetic highs that extend along the valley axis. Cenozoic volcanic rocks are also an important source of magnetic anomalies and coincide with short-wavelength anomalies that can be either positive (strong central positive anomaly flanked by lower-amplitude negative anomalies) or negative (strong central negative anomaly flanked by lower-amplitude positive anomalies), reflecting the contribution of remanent magnetization. Rocks with more felsic compositions or even some sedimentary units also can cause measurable magnetic anomalies. For example, the long, linear, narrow north-trending anomalies (with amplitudes of <50 nanoteslas [nT]) along the western margin of the valley coincide with exposures of the Mesozoic Great Valley sequence. Note that isolated, short-wavelength anomalies, such as those in the city of Sacramento and along some of the major roads, are caused by manmade features.

  9. Valley Fever

    MedlinePlus

    Valley Fever is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold) called Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil ... from person to person. Anyone can get Valley Fever. But it's most common among older adults, especially ...

  10. Pests in Ornamental Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ornamental perennial grasses are becoming increasingly popular in the landscape due to their beauty and ease of care. Although few pest problems are encountered in ornamental grasses, they are not immune to insects and disease. Two lined spittlebugs (Prosapia bicincta) can cause damage to ornament...

  11. DOWN'S ANOMALY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

    BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

  12. Grass Rooting the System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Janice E.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)

  13. GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the

  14. LIGNIN ACYLATION IN GRASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acylation of lignin during growth and development is a commonly found among some plant species. Grasses form unique acylated lignins involving p-coumarate (pCA). In corn rind tissue, it is exclusively attached to the gamma-carbon of lignin monomers, with a strong preference (over 90%) for attachment...

  15. Gauge anomalies, gravitational anomalies, and superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1985-08-01

    The structure of gauge and gravitational anomalies will be reviewed. The impact of these anomalies on the construction, consistency, and application of the new superstring theories will be discussed. 25 refs.

  16. ANOMALY STRUCTURE OF SUPERGRAVITY AND ANOMALY CANCELLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

    2009-06-10

    We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1){sub K} transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.

  17. The elliptic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janin, G.; Bond, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    An independent variable different from the time for elliptic orbit integration is used. Such a time transformation provides an analytical step-size regulation along the orbit. An intermediate anomaly (an anomaly intermediate between the eccentric and the true anomaly) is suggested for optimum performances. A particular case of an intermediate anomaly (the elliptic anomaly) is defined, and its relation with the other anomalies is developed.

  18. Attacking invasive grasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  19. Meridiani Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    10 March 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered sedimentary rocks and the traces of valleys that were once underneath those rocks in northwestern Sinus Meridiani.

    Location near: 4.5oN, 2.4oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Summer

  20. PERENNIAL WARM-SEASON GRASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm-season grasses and can be used to augment the forage supply for grazing livestock operations in the northeastern U.S. Much of what is known about warm season grass production and management in the northeastern US was obtained from a soil conservation or wildlife habitat perspective. Warm-seas...

  1. Ornamental Landscape Grasses. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven M.; Adams, Denise W.

    This slide script to accompany the slide series, Ornamental Landscape Grasses, contains photographs of the 167 slides and accompanying narrative text intended for use in the study and identification of commercially important ornamental grasses and grasslike plants. Narrative text is provided for slides of 62 different perennial and annual species…

  2. Lymphatic Anomalies Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-26

    Lymphatic Malformation; Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly (GLA); Central Conducting Lymphatic Anomaly; CLOVES Syndrome; Gorham-Stout Disease ("Disappearing Bone Disease"); Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome; Kaposiform Lymphangiomatosis; Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma/Tufted Angioma; Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome; Lymphangiomatosis

  3. Analysis of spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

  4. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  5. On the causes of variability in amounts of airborne grass pollen in Melbourne, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morton, Julian; Bye, John; Pezza, Alexandre; Newbigin, Edward

    2011-07-01

    In Melbourne, Australia, airborne grass pollen is the predominant cause of hay fever (seasonal rhinitis) during late spring and early summer, with levels of airborne grass pollen also influencing hospital admissions for asthma. In order to improve predictions of conditions that are potentially hazardous to susceptible individuals, we have sought to better understand the causes of diurnal, intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal variability of atmospheric grass pollen concentrations (APC) by analysing grass pollen count data for Melbourne for 16 grass pollen seasons from 1991 to 2008 (except 1994 and 1995). Some of notable features identified in this analysis were that on days when either extreme (>100 pollen grains m-3) or high (50-100 pollen grains m-3) levels of grass pollen were recorded the winds were of continental origin. In contrast, on days with a low (<20 pollen grains m-3) concentration of grass pollen, winds were of maritime origin. On extreme and high grass pollen days, a peak in APC occurred on average around 1730 hours, probably due to a reduction in surface boundary layer turbulence. The sum of daily APC for each grass pollen season was highly correlated ( r = 0.79) with spring rainfall in Melbourne for that year, with about 60% of a declining linear trend across the study period being attributable to a reduction of meat cattle and sheep (and hence grazing land) in rural areas around Melbourne. Finally, all of the ten extreme pollen events (3 days or more with APC > 100 pollen grains m-3) during the study period were characterised by an average downward vertical wind anomaly in the surface boundary layer over Melbourne. Together these findings form a basis for a fine resolution atmospheric general circulation model for grass pollen in Melbourne's air that can be used to predict daily (and hourly) APC. This information will be useful to those sectors of Melbourne's population that suffer from allergic problems.

  6. Gravity and magnetic data of Midway Valley, southwest Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; Sikora, R.F.

    1993-12-31

    Detailed gravity and ground magnetic data collected along five traverses across Midway Valley on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are described. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of proposed surface facilities for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geophysical data show that Midway Valley is bounded by large gravity and magnetic anomalies associated with the Bow Ridge and Paintbrush Canyon faults, on the west side of Exile Hill and on the west flank of Fran Ridge, respectively. In addition, Midway Valley itself is characterized by a number of small-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small-scale faulting beneath Midway Valley.

  7. [Kimmerle's anomaly and stroke].

    PubMed

    Barsukov, S F; Antonov, G I

    1992-10-01

    The anomaly of cranio-vertebral area can frequently be the reason of acute cerebrovascular disorders in vertebro-basilar field. The frequent C1 pathology in the Kimmerle's anomaly. The anatomic studies has shown that 30% of people had this type of anomaly. This pathology can lead to severe vascular diseases of cerebrum because of the squeezing effect upon vertebral arteries in the zone of osteal ponticulus of the rear arch of atlas. PMID:1481402

  8. Taussig-Bing Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Igor E.

    2009-01-01

    Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation that was first described in 1949 by Helen B. Taussig (1898–1986) and Richard J. Bing (1909–). Although substantial improvement has since been achieved in surgical results of the repair of the anomaly, management of the Taussig-Bing anomaly remains challenging. A history of the original description of the anomaly, the life stories of the individuals who first described it, and the current outcomes of its surgical management are reviewed herein. PMID:20069085

  9. Saline Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2

    These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Valley Divide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03664 Valley Divide

    These small channels join to become Sabis Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -35.3N, Longitude 159.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Geomagnetic anomaly detected at hydromagnetic wave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meloni, A.; Medford, L. V.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1985-04-01

    We report the discovery, in northwestern Illinois, of a geomagnetic anomaly, using hydromagnetic wave frequencies as the source spectrum. Three portable magnetometer stations with computer-compatible digital data acquisition systems were operated in a longitude array at Piano and Ashton, Illinois, and Cascade, Iowa (total separation ˜200 km), in 1981-1982. Analysis of the natural geomagnetic field fluctuations in the hydromagnetic wave regime reveals that the vertical components of the detected fluctuations are essentially 180° out of phase between Plano/Ashton and Cascade for variations with periods ˜30-120 s. The observations can be modeled in terms of a shallow (˜10-20 km) north-south oriented geomagnetic anomaly of enhanced conductivity located between Ashton and Cascade, approximately parallel to the Mississippi River valley.

  12. Principal facts for gravity stations in the Elko, Steptoe Valley, Coyote Spring Valley, and Sheep Range areas, eastern and southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, D.L.; Schaefer, D.H.; Frick, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Principal facts for 537 gravity stations in the carbonate-rock province of eastern and southern Nevada are tabulated and presented. The gravity data were collected in support of groundwater studies in several valleys. The study areas include the Elko area, northern Steptoe Valley, Coyote Spring Valley, and the western Sheep Range area. The data for each site include values for latitude, longitude, altitude, observed gravity, free- air anomaly, terrain correction, and Bouguer anomaly (calculated at a bedrock density of 2.67 g/cu cm. (USGS)

  13. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  14. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  15. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  16. Müllerian anomalies.

    PubMed

    Gell, Jennifer S

    2003-11-01

    The reproductive organs in both males and females consist of gonads, internal ductal structures, and external genitalia. Normal sexual differentiation is dependent on the genetic sex determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome at fertilization. Testes develop under the influence of the Y chromosome and ovaries develop when no Y chromosome is present. In the absence of testes and their normal hormonal products, sexual differentiation proceeds along the female pathway, resulting in a normal female phenotype. Anatomic gynecologic anomalies occur when there is failure of normal embryologic ductal development. These anomalies include congenital absence of the vagina as well as defects in lateral and vertical fusion of the Müllerian ducts. Treatment of müllerian anomalies begins with the correct identification of the anomaly and an understanding of the embryologic origin. This includes evaluation for other associated anomalies such as renal or skeletal abnormalities. After correct identification, treatment options include nonsurgical as well as surgical intervention. This chapter serves to review the embryology and development of the reproductive system and to describe common genital tract anomalies. Details of surgical or nonsurgical correction of these anomalies are presented. PMID:14724770

  17. Behavioral economics without anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Rachlin, H

    1995-01-01

    Behavioral economics is often conceived as the study of anomalies superimposed on a rational system. As research has progressed, anomalies have multiplied until little is left of rationality. Another conception of behavioral economics is based on the axiom that value is always maximized. It incorporates so-called anomalies either as conflicts between temporal patterns of behavior and the individual acts comprising those patterns or as outcomes of nonexponential time discounting. This second conception of behavioral economics is both empirically based and internally consistent. PMID:8551195

  18. Contrasts of atmospheric circulation and associated tropical convection between Huaihe River valley and Yangtze River valley mei-yu flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jieli; Liu, Yimin

    2012-07-01

    The significant differences of atmospheric circulation between flooding in the Huaihe and Yangtze River valleys during early mei-yu (i.e., the East Asian rainy season in June) and the related tropical convection were investigated. During the both flooding cases, although the geopotential height anomalies always exhibit equivalent barotropic structures in middle to high latitudes at middle and upper troposphere, the phase of the Rossby wave train is different over Eurasian continent. During flooding in the Huaihe River valley, only one single blocking anticyclone is located over Baikal Lake. In contrast, during flooding in the Yangtze River valley, there are two blocking anticyclones. One is over the Ural Mountains and the other is over Northeast Asia. In the lower troposphere a positive geopotential height anomaly is located at the western ridge of subtropical anticyclone over Western Pacific (SAWP) in both flooding cases, but the location of the height anomaly is much farther north and west during the Huaihe River mei-yu flooding. Furthermore, abnormal rainfall in the Huaihe River valley and the regions north of it in China is closely linked with the latent heating anomaly over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula. However, the rainfall in the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south in China is strongly related to the convection over the western tropical Pacific. Numerical experiments demonstrated that the enhanced latent heating over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula causes water vapor convergence in the region south of Tibetan Plateau and in the Huaihe River valley extending to Japan Sea with enhanced precipitation; and vapor divergence over the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south with deficient precipitation. While the weakened convection in the tropical West Pacific results in moisture converging over the Yangtze River and the region to its south, along with abundant rainfall.

  19. Chemicals Reduce Need To Mow Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrys, Brooks; Farley, Max; Gast, Larry J.

    1993-01-01

    Brief report discusses use of herbicides Roundup(R), Campaign(R), and Oust(R) to retard growth of Argentine bahia grass. Herbicide applied by use of spraying apparatus pulled by tractor. "Chemical mowing" keeps grass at "freshly mowed" height with less mechanical mowing. Applied to grass on shoulders of roads, reducing time spent on mowing.

  20. VARIABILITY OF GRASS LIGNIN ACYLATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasses are being championed as biomass sources for bioenergy production. Their ultimate use would be as a source of carbohydrate for fermentation to ethanol, conversion to oils via pyrolysis, or direct conversion to energy through combustion. In the latter case, increasing lignin content would enha...

  1. Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M

    2014-06-01

    Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both

  2. Dual diaphragmatic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Thomas, Abin Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Although diaphragmatic anomalies such as an eventration and hiatus hernia are commonly encountered in incidental chest X-ray imaging, the presence of concomitant multiple anomalies is extremely rare. This is all the more true in adults. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old female, while undergoing a routine chest X-ray imaging, was found to have eventration of right hemidiaphragm along with a hiatus hernia as well. PMID:27625457

  3. Dual diaphragmatic anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Thomas, Abin Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Although diaphragmatic anomalies such as an eventration and hiatus hernia are commonly encountered in incidental chest X-ray imaging, the presence of concomitant multiple anomalies is extremely rare. This is all the more true in adults. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old female, while undergoing a routine chest X-ray imaging, was found to have eventration of right hemidiaphragm along with a hiatus hernia as well.

  4. Anomalies and entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Tatsuma; Yarom, Amos

    2016-03-01

    We initiate a systematic study of entanglement and Rényi entropies in the presence of gauge and gravitational anomalies in even-dimensional quantum field theories. We argue that the mixed and gravitational anomalies are sensitive to boosts and obtain a closed form expression for their behavior under such transformations. Explicit constructions exhibiting the dependence of entanglement entropy on boosts is provided for theories on spacetimes with non-trivial magnetic fluxes and (or) non-vanishing Pontryagin classes.

  5. On isostatic geoid anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haxby, W. F.; Turcotte, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    In regions of slowly varying lateral density changes, the gravity and geoid anomalies may be expressed as power series expansions in topography. Geoid anomalies in isostatically compensated regions can be directly related to the local dipole moment of the density-depth distribution. This relationship is used to obtain theoretical geoid anomalies for different models of isostatic compensation. The classical Pratt and Airy models give geoid height-elevation relationships differing in functional form but predicting geoid anomalies of comparable magnitude. The thermal cooling model explaining ocean floor subsidence away from mid-ocean ridges predicts a linear age-geoid height relationship of 0.16 m/m.y. Geos 3 altimetry profiles were examined to test these theoretical relationships. A profile over the mid-Atlantic ridge is closely matched by the geoid curve derived from the thermal cooling model. The observed geoid anomaly over the Atlantic margin of North America can be explained by Airy compensation. The relation between geoid anomaly and bathymetry across the Bermuda Swell is consistent with Pratt compensation with a 100-km depth of compensation.

  6. Videographic enhancement of GRASS imagery: Recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G.

    1992-06-01

    The Geographic Resource Analysis Support System (GRASS), a geographic information system, has been fielded at approximately 50 US Army training installations as a land-management decision-making tool. Use of the GRASS geographic information system involves the production of numerous digital maps of environmental parameters, such as elevation, soils, hydrography, etc. A recently emerging technology called computer videographics can be used to graphically enhance GRASS images, thereby creating new ways to visualize GRASS analysis results. The project described in this report explored the enhancement of GRASS images through the use of videographic technology. General image quality of videographically enhanced GRASS images was improved through the use of high-resolution imagery and improved software. Several new types of geographic data visualizations were developed, including three-dimensional shaded-relief maps of GRASS data, overlay of GRASS images with satellite images, and integration of computer-aided-design imagery with GRASS images. GRASS images were successfully enhanced using Macintosh hardware and software, rather than the DOS-based equipment used previously. Images scanned with a document scanner were incorporated into GRASS imagery, and enhanced images were output in an S-VHS high-resolution video format.

  7. UV induced visual cues in grasses

    PubMed Central

    Baby, Sabulal; Johnson, Anil John; Govindan, Balaji; Lukose, Sujith; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Koshy, Konnath Chacko

    2013-01-01

    Grasses are traditionally considered as wind pollinated, however, field observations confirmed frequent insect visits to grass flowers, suggesting insect pollination. Fruit and seed predators inflict heavy losses to cereals and millets during their growth, maturation and storage. The actual factors guiding insects and predators to grass flowers, fruits and seeds are not clear. Here, we report attractive blue fluorescence emissions on grass floral parts such as glumes, lemma, palea, lodicules, staminal filaments, pollens and fruits in ultraviolet (UV) 366 nm, whereas the stigmatic portions were not blue, but red fluorescent. We characterized the blue fluorescent constituent in grass reproductive structures as ferulic acid (FA). Fluorescence spectra of blue-emitting grass floral, seed extracts and isolated FA on excitation at 366 nm showed their emissions at 420–460 nm. We propose these FA-based blue fluorescence emissions in grass reproductive structures as visual cues that attract pollinators, predators and even pests towards them. PMID:24061408

  8. Astrometric solar system anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Michael Martin; Anderson, John D

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  9. Assessment and demonstration of ecologically-based medusahead and cheatgrass management in Jordan Valley, Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medusahead was first noted in Jordan Valley, OR approximately 25-30 years ago. It has significantly expanded within the last 10-20 years. As part of the USDA-ARS Area-wide project for invasive annual grasses, landscape scale demonstration plots were established with five cooperating ranches in 200...

  10. QCD trace anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jens O.; Leganger, Lars E.; Strickland, Michael; Su, Nan

    2011-10-15

    In this brief report we compare the predictions of a recent next-to-next-to-leading order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) calculation of the QCD trace anomaly to available lattice data. We focus on the trace anomaly scaled by T{sup 2} in two cases: N{sub f}=0 and N{sub f}=3. When using the canonical value of {mu}=2{pi}T for the renormalization scale, we find that for Yang-Mills theory (N{sub f}=0) agreement between HTLpt and lattice data for the T{sup 2}-scaled trace anomaly begins at temperatures on the order of 8T{sub c}, while treating the subtracted piece as an interaction term when including quarks (N{sub f}=3) agreement begins already at temperatures above 2T{sub c}. In both cases we find that at very high temperatures the T{sup 2}-scaled trace anomaly increases with temperature in accordance with the predictions of HTLpt.

  11. Modeling the Pioneer anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibovitz, Jacques

    2007-04-01

    Scientists continue their attempts to model the observed Pioneer anomaly (PA) as an artifact of measurement or of equipment operation. Scientists also explore ``new physics'' as a possible explanation, but they have eliminated dark matter (DM). Here, the main arguments used to eliminate DM are refuted and then the anomaly is modeled by application of Newton laws to the observed macroscopic properties of DM. Around a central mass M, the modeling predicts a DM distribution that produces the PA at short distances (R smaller than 188 AU) from a star like the Sun, and a flat rotation curve at sufficiently large distances from the center of a galaxy. Below about 188 AU from the Sun, the modeling predicts that the anomaly may be expressed as PA = 8.3E-8 [R̂(-2)] -- 1 cm (s)̂(-2). It shows that the anomaly remains fairly constant down to 5 AU, decreases significantly from 5 AU to 1 AU where it becomes zero and changes sign below a distance of 1 AU, then increases rapidly in magnitude as R decreases in that range. Verifiable tests are proposed. Some related topics for future research are proposed.

  12. Symbiotic grasses: A review of basic biology of forage grass fungal endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal endophytes associated with grasses are the fundamental reason for the basic successes of several pasture grasses, notable tall fescues, and perennial ryegrass. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass fungal endophytes, Neotyphodium coenophialum and N. lolii, respectively, and their relatives ...

  13. Valley polarization in bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauque, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The electronic structure of certain crystal lattices can contain multiple degenerate valleys for their charge carriers to occupy. The principal challenge in the development of valleytronics is to lift the valley degeneracy of charge carriers in a controlled way. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. According to our recent study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth, a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. As a consequence of a unique combination of high mobility and extreme mass anisotropy in bismuth, the effect is visible even at room temperature in a magnetic field of 1 T. Thus, a modest magnetic field can be used as a valley valve in bismuth. The results of our recent investigation of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in other semi-metals and doped semiconductors suggest that a rotating magnetic field can behave as a valley valve in a multi-valley system with sizeable mass anisotropy.

  14. Estimating dry grass residues using landscape integration analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Quinn J.; Ustin, Susan L.; Duan, Lian; Scheer, George

    1993-01-01

    The acreage of grassland and grassland-savannah is extensive in California, making direct measurement and assessment logistically impossible. Grasslands cover the entire Central Valley up to about 1200 m elevation in the Coast Range and Sierra Nevada Range. Kuchler's map shows 5.35 M ha grassland with an additional 3.87 M ha in Oak savannah. The goal of this study was to examine the use of high spectral resolution sensors to distinguish between dry grass and soil in remotely sensed images. Spectral features that distinguish soils and dry plant material in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) region are thought to be primarily caused by cellulose and lignin, biochemicals which are absent from soils or occur as breakdown products in humid substances that lack the narrow-band features. We have used spectral mixing analysis (SMA) combined with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis to characterize plant communities and dry grass biomass. The GIS was used to overlay elevation maps, and vegetation maps, with the SMA results. The advantage of non-image data is that it provides an independent source of information for the community classification.

  15. L-band radar scattering from grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauhan, N.; O'Neill, P.; Le Vine, D.; Lang, R.; Khadr, N.

    1992-01-01

    A radar system based on a network analyzer has been developed to study the backscatter from vegetation. The radar is operated at L-band. Radar measurements of a grass field were made in 1991. The radar returns from the grass were measured at three incidence angles. Ground truth and canopy parameters such as blade and stem dimensions, moisture content of the grass and the soil, and blade and stem density, were measured. These parameters are used in a distorted Born approximation model to compute the backscatter coefficients from the grass layer. The model results are compared with the radar data.

  16. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  17. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  18. Anomaly discrimination in hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shih-Yu; Paylor, Drew; Chang, Chein-I.

    2014-05-01

    Anomaly detection finds data samples whose signatures are spectrally distinct from their surrounding data samples. Unfortunately, it cannot discriminate the anomalies it detected one from another. In order to accomplish this task it requires a way of measuring spectral similarity such as spectral angle mapper (SAM) or spectral information divergence (SID) to determine if a detected anomaly is different from another. However, this arises in a challenging issue of how to find an appropriate thresholding value for this purpose. Interestingly, this issue has not received much attention in the past. This paper investigates the issue of anomaly discrimination which can differentiate detected anomalies without using any spectral measure. The ideas are to makes use unsupervised target detection algorithms, Automatic Target Generation Process (ATGP) coupled with an anomaly detector to distinguish detected anomalies. Experimental results show that the proposed methods are indeed very effective in anomaly discrimination.

  19. Forecasting the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of a Rift Valley fever Outbreak in East Africa: 2006-2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related climate anomalies have been shown to have a direct impact on Rift Valley fever (RVF) disease outbreaks. Knowledge of the links between ENSO driven climate anomalies and RVF can allow us to provide improved long range forecasts of an epidemic or epizootic. ...

  20. Antler anomalies in tule elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.P.; Jessup, David A.; Barrett, Reginald H.

    1988-01-01

    Antler anomalies were evident in tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) within 1 yr of reintroduction to Point Reyes, California (USA). These anomalies are consistent with previously described mineral deficiency-induced anomalies in cervids. The elk were judged deficient in copper. Low levels of copper in soils and vegetation at the release site, exacerbated by possible protein deficiency due to poor range conditions, are postulated as likely causes of the antler anomalies.

  1. Down in the Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Linda Graef

    1999-01-01

    Describes the partnerships formed by West Valley Mission Community College District (California) with its surrounding Silicon Valley business community in an effort to benefit workforce development. Asserts that community colleges are uniquely positioned to provide a lifelong education that will yield a skilled workforce to meet the needs of…

  2. California: San Joaquin Valley

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Fog and Haze in California's San Joaquin Valley   ... is noted for its hazy overcasts and a low, thick ground fog known as the Tule. Owing to the effects of the atmosphere on reflected ... as the angle of view changes. An area of thick, white fog in the San Joaquin Valley is visible in all three of the images. However, ...

  3. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  4. Mass Anomalies on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.; Jacobson, R. A.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Palguta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Radio Doppler data from two Ganymede encounters (G1 and G2) on the first two orbits in the Galileo mission have been analyzed previously for gravity information . For a satellite in hydrostatic equilibrium, its gravitational field can be modeled adequately by a truncated spherical harmonic series of degree two. However, a fourth degree field is required in order to fit the second Galileo flyby (G2). This need for a higher degree field strongly suggests that Ganymede s gravitational field is perturbed by a gravity anomaly near the G2 closest approach point (79.29 latitude, 123.68 west longitude). In fact, a plot of the Doppler residuals , after removal of the best-fit model for the zero degree term (GM) and the second degree moments (J2 and C22), suggests that if an anomaly exists, it is located downtrack of the closest approach point, closer to the equator.

  5. Exploiting the Potential Differences in Pasture Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate grasses grown for pasture in Wisconsin exhibit a range of chemical and physical characteristics that influence their utilization by grazing cattle. Potential intake of all grasses declines with maturity due to decreasing cell wall digestiblity, but the leaves and stems of orchardgrass and...

  6. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G. ); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. )

    1992-01-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  7. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G.; Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D.

    1992-07-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  8. A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaatz, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

  9. Unique aspects of the grass cell wall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasses are amongst the most important crops worldwide, and the composition of their cell walls is critical for uses as food, feed, and energy crops. Grass cell walls differ dramatically from dicot cell walls in terms of the major structural polysaccharides present, how those polysaccharides are lin...

  10. The Endophytic Niche and Grass Defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much research has been done on the interactive nature of the tall fescue grass and its fungal partner. This research has established that this very valuable forage, turf and conservation grass, which occupies 30 million plus acres in the south-eastern USA, is toxic to most livestock and wild animal...

  11. An aeromagnetic survey in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anma, K.

    1971-01-01

    Geologic and magnetic studies of the Katmai area have further demonstrated the close relationship between the Katmai Caldera, Novarupta plug, and the pyroclastic flows in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes. The magnetic fields observed appear to be associated with the thickness of the pyroclastic flow and the different rock units within it for lower flight levels, and also the contrast between the valley fill and the rock units at the Valley margins. Consistent magnetic anomalies are associated with the larger fumarole lines, which were presumably sites of large scale activity, while the smaller fumaroles are not usually seen in the aeromagnetic map. A possible correlation between low positive anomalies and nuee ardente deposits was revealed by the aeromagnetic survey, but was not strong. A ground survey was also carried out in several parts of the Valley with a view to detailed delineation of the magnetic signatures of the pyroclastic flow, as an aid to interpreting the aeromagnetic date.

  12. Principal facts for gravity stations in Dixie; Fairview, and Stingaree valleys, Churchill and Pershing counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.; Duffrin, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    During March through July 1979, gravity measurements were made at 300 stations in Dixie Valley, Nevada. In December 1981, 45 additional stations were added--7 in Dixie Valley, 23 in Fairview Valley, and 15 in Stingaree Valley. Most altitudes were determined by using altimeters or topographic maps. The gravity observations were made with a Worden temperature-controlled gravimeter with an initial scale factor of 0.0965 milliGal/scale division. Principal facts for each of the 345 stations are tabulated; they consist of latitude, longitude, altitude, observed gravity, free-air anomaly, terrain correction, and Bouguer anomaly values at a bedrock density of 2.67 grams/cu cm. (Lantz-PTT)

  13. Physicochemical isotope anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Esat, T.M.

    1988-06-01

    Isotopic composition of refractory elements can be modified, by physical processes such as distillation and sputtering, in unexpected patterns. Distillation enriches the heavy isotopes in the residue and the light isotopes in the vapor. However, current models appear to be inadequate to describe the detailed mass dependence, in particular for large fractionations. Coarse- and fine-grained inclusions from the Allende meteorite exhibit correlated isotope effects in Mg both as mass-dependent fractionation and residual anomalies. This isotope pattern can be duplicated by high temperature distillation in the laboratory. A ubiquitous property of meteoritic inclusions for Mg as well as for most of the other elements, where measurements exist, is mass-dependent fractionation. In contrast, terrestrial materials such as microtektites, tektite buttons as well as lunar orange and green glass spheres have normal Mg isotopic composition. A subset of interplanetary dust particles labelled as chondritic aggregates exhibit excesses in {sup 26}Mg and deuterium anomalies. Sputtering is expected to be a dominant mechanism in the destruction of grains within interstellar dust clouds. An active proto-sun as well as the present solar-wind and solar-flare flux are of sufficient intensity to sputter significant amounts of material. Laboratory experiments in Mg show widespread isotope effects including residual {sup 26}Mg excesses and mass dependent fractionation. It is possible that the {sup 26}Mg excesses in interplanetary dust is related to sputtering by energetic solar-wind particles. The implication if the laboratory distillation and sputtering effects are discussed and contrasted with the anomalies in meteoritic inclusions the other extraterrestrial materials the authors have access to.

  14. Hypercharged anomaly mediation.

    PubMed

    Dermísek, Radovan; Verlinde, Herman; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2008-04-01

    We show that, in string models with the minimal supersymmetric standard model residing on D-branes, the bino mass can be generated in a geometrically separated hidden sector. Hypercharge mediation thus naturally teams up with anomaly mediation. The mixed scenario predicts a distinctive yet viable superpartner spectrum, provided that the ratio alpha between the bino and gravitino mass lies in the range 0.05 < or = |alpha| < or = 0.25 and m(3/2) > or = 35 TeV. We summarize some of the experimental signatures of this scenario. PMID:18517937

  15. Satellite magnetic anomalies over subduction zones - The Aleutian Arc anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. C.; Frey, H.; Thomas, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Positive magnetic anomalies seen in MAGSAT average scalar anomaly data overlying some subduction zones can be explained in terms of the magnetization contrast between the cold subducted oceanic slab and the surrounding hotter, nonmagnetic mantle. Three-dimensional modeling studies show that peak anomaly amplitude and location depend on slab length and dip. A model for the Aleutian Arc anomaly matches the general trend of the observed MAGSAT anomaly if a slab thickness of 7 km and a relatively high (induced plus viscous) magnetization contrast of 4 A/m are used. A second source body along the present day continental margin is required to match the observed anomaly in detail, and may be modeled as a relic slab from subduction prior to 60 m.y. ago.

  16. Overview of Reclamation's geothermal program in Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulcher, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is presently involved in a unique Geothermal Resource Development Program in Imperial Valley, California. The main purpose of the investigations is to determine the feasibility of providing a source of fresh water through desalting geothermal fluids stored in the aquifers underlying the valley. Significant progress in this research and development stage to date includes extensive geophysical investigations and the drilling of five geothermal wells on the Mesa anomaly. Four of the wells are for production and monitoring the anomaly, and one will be used for reinjection of waste brines from the desalting units. Two desalting units, a multistage flash unit and a vertical tube evaporator unit, have been erected at the East Mesa test site. The units have been operated on shakedown and continuous runs and have produced substantial quantities of high-quality water.

  17. Evolution of Grasses and Grassland Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömberg, Caroline A. E.

    2011-05-01

    The evolution and subsequent ecological expansion of grasses (Poaceae) since the Late Cretaceous have resulted in the establishment of one of Earth's dominant biomes, the temperate and tropical grasslands, at the expense of forests. In the past decades, several new approaches have been applied to the fossil record of grasses to elucidate the patterns and processes of this ecosystem transformation. The data indicate that the development of grassland ecosystems on most continents was a multistage process involving the Paleogene appearance of (C3 and C4) open-habitat grasses, the mid-late Cenozoic spread of C3 grass-dominated habitats, and, finally, the Late Neogene expansion of C4 grasses at tropical-subtropical latitudes. The evolution of herbivores adapted to grasslands did not necessarily coincide with the spread of open-habitat grasses. In addition, the timing of these evolutionary and ecological events varied between regions. Consequently, region-by-region investigations using both direct (plant fossils) and indirect (e.g., stable carbon isotopes, faunas) evidence are required for a full understanding of the tempo and mode of grass and grassland evolution.

  18. Tropical grasses as a renewable energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.; Alexander, A.G.; Rios, C.; Garcia, M.

    1983-01-01

    Agronomists, evaluating tropical grasses from Saccharum and allied genera as potential renewable energy sources for boiler fuel and alcohol, emphasized (1) maximizing sugar cane's total biomass rather than sucrose production, (2) utilizing alternative tropical grasses during sugar cane's offseason for year-round fuel production, and (3) mechanizing production technologies for fibrous, thin-stemmed tropical grasses that are to be managed as solar-dried fuels and feedstocks. Based on the time required to maximize their dry matter yields, three categories of grasses have emerged as potential energy crops: short rotation (2-3 months) with Sordan 70A (a sorghum/sudan grass hybrid), intermediate rotation (4-6 months) with napier grass, and long rotation (12-18 months) with sugar cane. Total oven-dried matter is 50 tons/acre-yr (114 metric tons /hectare-yr) for sugar cane, 33 tons (74 metric tons) from napier grass harvested at 6-month intervals, and 21 tons (47 metric tons) from Sordan 70A harvested every 14 weeks.

  19. Shallow Drilling In The Salton Sea Region, The Thermal Anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R. L.; Kasameyer, P. W.; Younker, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    During two shallow thermal drilling programs, thermal measurements were obtained in 56 shallow (76.2 m) and one intermediate (457.3 m) depth holes located both onshore and offshore along the southern margin of the Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley, California. These data complete the surficial coverage of the thermal anomaly, revealing the shape and lateral extent of the hydrothermal system. The thermal data show the region of high thermal gradients to extend only a short distance offshore to the north of the Quaternary volcanic domes which are exposed along the southern shore of the Salton Sea. The thermal anomaly has an arcuate shape, about 4 km wide and 12 km long. Across the center of the anomaly, the transition zone between locations exhibiting high thermal gradients and those exhibiting regional thermal gradients is quite narrow. Thermal gradients rise from near regional (0.09 C/m) to extreme (0.83 C/m) in only 2.4 km. The heat flow in the central part of the anomaly is >600 mW/m{sup 2} and in some areas exceeds 1200 mW/m{sup 2}. The shape of the thermal anomaly is asymmetric with respect to the line of volcanoes previously thought to represent the center of the field, with its center line offset south of the volcanic buttes. There is no broad thermal anomaly associated with the magnetic high that extends offshore to the northeast from the volcanic domes. These observations of the thermal anomaly provide important constraints for models of the circulation of the hydrothermal system. Thermal budgets based on a simple model for this hydrothermal system indicate that the heat influx rate for local ''hot spots'' in the region may be large enough to account for the rate of heat flux from the entire Salton Trough.

  20. Geothermal systems of the Mono Basin-Long Valley region, eastern California and western Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.; Flynn, T.; Chapman, R.H.; Trexler, D.T.; Chase, G.R.; Bacon, C.F.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The region that includes Mono Basin, Long Valley, the Bridgeport-Bodie Hills area, and Aurora, in eastern California and western Nevada was studied to determine the possible causes and interactions of the geothermal anomalies in the Mono Basin-Long Valley region as a whole. A special goal of the study was to locate possible shallow bodies of magma and to determine their influence on the hydrothermal systems in the region. (ACR)

  1. Climate controls on valley fever incidence in Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, Charles S.; Talamantes, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Coccidiodomycosis (valley fever) is a systemic infection caused by inhalation of airborne spores from Coccidioides immitis, a soil-dwelling fungus found in the southwestern United States, parts of Mexico, and Central and South America. Dust storms help disperse C. immitis so risk factors for valley fever include conditions favorable for fungal growth (moist, warm soil) and for aeolian soil erosion (dry soil and strong winds). Here, we analyze and inter-compare the seasonal and inter-annual behavior of valley fever incidence and climate risk factors for the period 1980-2002 in Kern County, California, the US county with highest reported incidence. We find weak but statistically significant links between disease incidence and antecedent climate conditions. Precipitation anomalies 8 and 20 months antecedent explain only up to 4% of monthly variability in subsequent valley fever incidence during the 23 year period tested. This is consistent with previous studies suggesting that C. immitis tolerates hot, dry periods better than competing soil organisms and, as a result, thrives during wet periods following droughts. Furthermore, the relatively small correlation with climate suggests that the causes of valley fever in Kern County could be largely anthropogenic. Seasonal climate predictors of valley fever in Kern County are similar to, but much weaker than, those in Arizona, where previous studies find precipitation explains up to 75% of incidence. Causes for this discrepancy are not yet understood. Higher resolution temporal and spatial monitoring of soil conditions could improve our understanding of climatic antecedents of severe epidemics.

  2. Rift Valley Fever (RVF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outbreak resources, VHF information for specific groups, virus ecology, references... RVF Distribution Map Rift Valley Fever Transmission ... Outbreaks Outbreak Summaries RVF Distribution Map Resources Virus Ecology File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  3. Ariel's transecting valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This highest-resolution Voyager 2 view of Ariel's terminator shows a complex array of transecting valleys with super-imposed impact craters. Voyager obtained this clear-filter, narrow-angle view from a distance of 130,000 kilometers (80,000 miles) and with a resolution of about 2.4 km (1.5 mi). Particularly striking to Voyager scientists is the fact that the faults that bound the linear valleys are not visible where they transect one another across the valleys. Apparently these valleys were filled with deposits sometime after they were formed by tectonic processes, leaving them flat and smooth. Sinuous rilles (trenches) later formed, probably by some flow process. Some type of fluid flow may well have been involved in their evolution. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  4. Lily of the valley

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the valley poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of this plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT ... information: Person's age, weight, and condition Name and part of the plant swallowed, if known Time it was swallowed Amount ...

  5. The XXXXY Chromosome Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Witold A.; Houston, C. Stuart; Pozsonyi, J.; Ying, K. L.

    1966-01-01

    The majority of abnormal sex chromosome complexes in the male have been considered to be variants of Klinefelter's syndrome but an exception should probably be made in the case of the XXXXY individual who has distinctive phenotypic features. Clinical, radiological and cytological data on three new cases of XXXXY syndrome are presented and 30 cases from the literature are reviewed. In many cases the published clinical and radiological data were supplemented and re-evaluated. Mental retardation, usually severe, was present in all cases. Typical facies was observed in many; clinodactyly of the fifth finger was seen in nearly all. Radiological examination revealed abnormalities in the elbows and wrists in all the 19 personally evaluated cases, and other skeletal anomalies were very frequent. Cryptorchism is very common and absence of Leydig's cells may differentiate the XXXXY chromosome anomaly from polysomic variants of Klinefelter's syndrome. The relationship of this syndrome to Klinefelter's syndrome and to Down's syndrome is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:4222822

  6. Trace anomaly driven inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.; Hertog, T.; Reall, H. S.

    2001-04-01

    This paper investigates Starobinsky's model of inflation driven by the trace anomaly of conformally coupled matter fields. This model does not suffer from the problem of contrived initial conditions that occurs in most models of inflation driven by a scalar field. The universe can be nucleated semiclassically by a cosmological instanton that is much larger than the Planck scale provided there are sufficiently many matter fields. There are two cosmological instantons: the four sphere and a new ``double bubble'' solution. This paper considers a universe nucleated by the four sphere. The AdS/CFT correspondence is used to calculate the correlation function for scalar and tensor metric perturbations during the ensuing de Sitter phase. The analytic structure of the scalar and tensor propagators is discussed in detail. Observational constraints on the model are discussed. Quantum loops of matter fields are shown to strongly suppress short scale metric perturbations, which implies that short distance modifications of gravity would probably not be observable in the cosmic microwave background. This is probably true for any model of inflation provided there are sufficiently many matter fields. This point is illustrated by a comparison of anomaly driven inflation in four dimensions and in a Randall-Sundrum brane-world model.

  7. Automated anomaly detection processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraiman, James B.; Arouh, Scott L.; Webb, Michael L.

    2002-07-01

    Robust exploitation of tracking and surveillance data will provide an early warning and cueing capability for military and civilian Law Enforcement Agency operations. This will improve dynamic tasking of limited resources and hence operational efficiency. The challenge is to rapidly identify threat activity within a huge background of noncombatant traffic. We discuss development of an Automated Anomaly Detection Processor (AADP) that exploits multi-INT, multi-sensor tracking and surveillance data to rapidly identify and characterize events and/or objects of military interest, without requiring operators to specify threat behaviors or templates. The AADP has successfully detected an anomaly in traffic patterns in Los Angeles, analyzed ship track data collected during a Fleet Battle Experiment to detect simulated mine laying behavior amongst maritime noncombatants, and is currently under development for surface vessel tracking within the Coast Guard's Vessel Traffic Service to support port security, ship inspection, and harbor traffic control missions, and to monitor medical surveillance databases for early alert of a bioterrorist attack. The AADP can also be integrated into combat simulations to enhance model fidelity of multi-sensor fusion effects in military operations.

  8. NV PFA - Steptoe Valley

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jim Faulds

    2015-10-29

    All datasets and products specific to the Steptoe Valley model area. Includes a packed ArcMap project (.mpk), individually zipped shapefiles, and a file geodatabase for the northern Steptoe Valley area; a GeoSoft Oasis montaj project containing GM-SYS 2D gravity profiles along the trace of our seismic reflection lines; a 3D model in EarthVision; spreadsheet of links to published maps; and spreadsheets of well data.

  9. Is there continental crust underneath the northern Natal Valley and the Mozambique Coastal Plains?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinweber, Volker Thor; Jokat, W.

    2011-07-01

    To draw conclusions about the crustal nature and history of the Natal Valley and the Mozambique Ridge, systematic potential field data were obtained during the AISTEK III cruise with R/V Pelagia in 2009. This paper presents and interprets the results of that expedition. The new magnetic data reveal a pattern of linear magnetic spreading anomalies, NW-SE trending in the southwestern part of the Mozambique Ridge and E-W trending on its central part. The Ariel Graben, which separates the Mozambique Ridge from the Northern Natal Valley, is represented by a pronounced negative anomaly in the magnetic- as well as the free-air gravity field. The Northern Natal Valley bears a complicated pattern of anomalies with mainly SW-NE trends. In the Northern Natal Valley, no indications for a continent-ocean-boundary between continental crust in the north and oceanic crust in the south exist, either in the free-air gravity or in the magnetic field. The magnetic wavelengths of the Mozambique Coastal Plains are similar to those of the Northern Natal Valley and the Mozambique Ridge. Particularly in the gravity data, the Mozambique coastal plains, the Northern Natal Valley and the Mozambique Ridge appear as one continuous geological province. We interpret the region from the Mateke-Sabi monocline in the north to the southwestern tip of the Mozambique Ridge as mainly being floored by thickened oceanic crust.

  10. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  11. Quantum anomalies in dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Son, D.T.; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2004-10-01

    We consider the effects of quantum anomalies involving the baryon current for high-density matter. In the effective Lagrangian, the anomaly terms describe the interaction of three light fields: the electromagnetic photons A{sub {mu}}, neutral light Nambu-Goldstone bosons ({pi}, {eta}, {eta}{sup '}), and the superfluid phonon. The anomaly induced interactions lead to a number of interesting phenomena which may have phenomenological consequences observable in neutron stars.

  12. Reanalysis of S-to-P amplitude ratios for gross attenuation structure, Long Valley caldera, California

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.O.

    1993-12-01

    Because of the strong interest in the magmatism and volcanism at Long Valley caldera, eastern California, and because of recent sifnigicant improvements in our knowledge of the caldera velocity structure and earthquake locations, I have reanalyzed the local-earthquake S-to-P amplitude-ratio data of Sanders (1984) for the gross three-dimensional attenuation structure of the upper 10 km of Long Valley caldera. The primary goals of the analysis are to provide more accurate constraints on the depths of the attenuation anomalies using improved knowledge of the ray locations and an objective inversion procedure. The new image of the high S wave attenuation anomaly in the west-central cadlera suggests that the top of the principal anomaly is at 7-km depth, which is 2 km deeper than previously determined. Because of poor resolution in much of the region, some of the data remain unsatisfied by the final attenuation model. This unmodeled data may imply unresolved attenuation anomalies, perhaps small anomalies in the kilometer or two just above the central-caldera anomaly and perhaps a larger anomaly at about 7-km depth in the northwest caldera or somewhere beneath the Mono Craters. The central-caldera S wave attenuation anomaly has a location similar to mapped regions of low teleseismic P wave velocity, crustal inflation, reduced density, and aseismicity, strongly suggesting magmatic association.

  13. Geophysical surveys in Parvati valley geothermal field, Kullu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakesh Kumar, S. B.; Singh, Mohan; Gupta, L.; Rao, G. V.

    1982-08-01

    Direct current resistivity surveys and shallow temperature measurements were carried out for geothermal exploration in a part of Parvati valley, goethermal field, Himachal Pradesh, India. At a few places, the Schlumberger soundings pointed to the presence of a relatively low-resistivity shallow layer, which probably represents fractured and jointed quartzite, saturated with hot/cold water. Wenner resistivity profiles indicate the presence of some possible shallow subsurface lateral hot water channels across the valley at Manikaran. Shallow temperature measurements show a good subsurface thermal anomaly near the confluence of the rivers Brahmaganga and Parvati. The results of the survey, together with other available geodata, suggest that an anomalous heat source does not lie beneath the study area. It is postulated that the meteoric water, originating at high elevations after heating as a result of circulation at depth, emerges at the surface in the Parvati valley as hot springs, after mixing in various proportions with near surface cold waters.

  14. The First Prediction of a Rift Valley Fever Outbreak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Small, Jennifer; Tucker, Compton J.; Formenty, Pierre; Richardson, Jason H.; Britch, Seth C.; Schnabel, David C.; Erickson, Ralph L.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related anomalies were analyzed using a combination of satellite measurements of elevated sea surface temperatures, and subsequent elevated rainfall and satellite derived normalized difference vegetation index data. A Rift Valley fever risk mapping model using these climate data predicted areas where outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in humans and animals were expected and occurred in the Horn of Africa from December 2006 to May 2007. The predictions were subsequently confirmed by entomological and epidemiological field investigations of virus activity in the areas identified as at risk. Accurate spatial and temporal predictions of disease activity, as it occurred first in southern Somalia and then through much of Kenya before affecting northern Tanzania, provided a 2 to 6 week period of warning for the Horn of Africa that facilitated disease outbreak response and mitigation activities. This is the first prospective prediction of a Rift Valley fever outbreak.

  15. Seismic and geodetic studies of the Imperial Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.D.

    1981-05-01

    The Imperial Valley exhibits perhaps the most active current tectonism in the United States; patterns of gravitational and thermal anomalies, along with geodetic measurements, strike-slip faulting, and recent volcanism suggest that the continental crust may still be spreading (Elders et al., 1972). In recent years, the United States Geological Survey and Caltech have added new seismic stations into a dense network in the Imperial Valley to study in detail the relationship between geothermal areas and earthquakes, and to understand the tectonic processes taking place there. The purposes of this study are to: (1) examine crustal structure using recently available data on P-wave arrival times of local earthquakes; (2) examine the leveling data for evidence of tectonic subsidence or uplift; and (3) study correlations between seismicity, seismic velocity, geodetic motion, geothermal activity, and local geology to provide a more consistent picture of the tectonics of the Imperial Valley.

  16. Congenital joint laxity and dwarfism: A feed-associated congenital anomaly of beef calves in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ribble, Carl S.; Janzen, Eugene D.; Proulx, Julien G.

    1989-01-01

    Five feeding trials were performed on three ranches to determine if a distinctive, recurring, congenital anomaly in beef calves was associated with feeding clover or grass silage without supplementation to pregnant cows overwinter. The anomaly, termed congenital joint laxity and dwarfism, was characterized at birth by generalized joint laxity, disproportionate dwarfism, and occasionally, superior brachygnathia. The anomaly had been documented for several consecutive years on these ranches and affected 2-46% of the calf crop. Pregnant cows were divided randomly into feeding groups, and the number of abnormal calves in each group was tabulated. Supplementation of the overwinter grass/clover silage diet with hay (2.5-4.5 kg/head/day) and rolled barley (0.75-1.5 kg/head/day) eliminated the problem. Supplementation of grain, without hay, was not as effective. Varying the proportions of grass and clover in the silage, and the age of the silage, did not alter the teratogenic potency of silage. Vitamin D3 supplementation did not reduce the risk of the condition. The definitive cause of congenital joint laxity and dwarfism was not determined. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17423291

  17. Watching Grass Grow: Biology Explorations Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puttick, Gillian

    2002-01-01

    Describes an online biology course for science teachers in a master's degree program that focuses on the adaptation and natural selection of grass under environmental challenges. Provides experience with how biologists use questioning and investigation in their research. (YDS)

  18. New Developments in Grasses for Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New forage varieties with improved traits are an essential component of best management practices for livestock agriculture. This paper discusses new varieties of several cool-season forage grasses used for pasture production....

  19. Temperate grass response to timing of grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing management has a significant impact on pasture growth. We determined how timing of grazing influences grass productivity, yield distribution, and persistence. Meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.], orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), quackgrass [Elymus repens (L.) Gould...

  20. Aeromagnetic maps with geologic interpretations for the Tularosa Valley, south-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bath, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey of the Tularosa Valley in south-central New Mexico has provided information on the igneous rocks that are buried beneath alluvium and colluvium. The data, compiled as residual magnetic anomalies, are shown on twelve maps at a scale of 1:62,500. Measurements of magnetic properties of samples collected in the valley and adjacent highlands give a basis for identifying the anomaly-producing rocks. Precambrian rocks of the crystalline basement have weakly induced magnetizations and produce anomalies having low magnetic intensities and low magnetic gradients. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic intrusive rocks have moderately to strongly induced magnetizations. Precambrian rocks produce prominent magnetic anomalies having higher amplitudes and higher gradients. The Quaternary basalt has a strong remanent magnetization of normal polarity and produces narrow anomalies having high-magnetic gradients. Interpretations include an increase in elevation to the top of buried Precambrian rock in the northern part of the valley, a large Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic intrusive near Alamogordo, and a southern extension of the intrusive rock exposed in the Jarilla Mountains. Evidence for the southern extension comes from a quantitative analysis of the magnetic anomalies..

  1. Final environmental assessment: Demonstration of use of grass carp in management of aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) plans to introduce triploid (sterile) grass carp into Guntersville Reservoir to test their usefulness in managing aquatic vegetation in a reservoir system. This demonstration is compatible with the long-range management plan for Guntersville Reservoir being developed jointly by TVA and the US Army Corps of Engineers at the request of several members of Congress. TVA is not at this time proposing to include grass carp as a routine component if its ongoing aquatic plant management program for Guntersville Reservoir or the TVA reservoir system. TVA's present program consists of water level fluctuations supplemented by herbicides. This environmental assessment evaluates several alternatives to use of grass carp, including use of water level fluctuations (drawdowns), herbicides, and mechanical harvesters. The overall target for this demonstration is to reduce aquatic vegetation in Guntersville Reservoir to about 7,000 acres. The results of this initial stocking will be closely monitored. The proposed monitoring will serve to evaluate the effectiveness of the grass carp demonstration. Because only triploid grass carp will be stocked and phased stocking will be done, any undesirable effects that monitoring might reveal should be reversible within a few years following termination of stocking. 88 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Rare Upper Airway Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Windsor, Alanna; Clemmens, Clarice; Jacobs, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    A broad spectrum of congenital upper airway anomalies can occur as a result of errors during embryologic development. In this review, we will describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management strategies for a few select, rare congenital malformations of this system. The diagnostic tools used in workup of these disorders range from prenatal tests to radiological imaging, swallowing evaluations, indirect or direct laryngoscopy, and rigid bronchoscopy. While these congenital defects can occur in isolation, they are often associated with disorders of other organ systems or may present as part of a syndrome. Therefore workup and treatment planning for patients with these disorders often involves a team of multiple specialists, including paediatricians, otolaryngologists, pulmonologists, speech pathologists, gastroenterologists, and geneticists. PMID:26277452

  3. Genetics of lymphatic anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Brouillard, Pascal; Boon, Laurence; Vikkula, Miikka

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic anomalies include a variety of developmental and/or functional defects affecting the lymphatic vessels: sporadic and familial forms of primary lymphedema, secondary lymphedema, chylothorax and chylous ascites, lymphatic malformations, and overgrowth syndromes with a lymphatic component. Germline mutations have been identified in at least 20 genes that encode proteins acting around VEGFR-3 signaling but also downstream of other tyrosine kinase receptors. These mutations exert their effects via the RAS/MAPK and the PI3K/AKT pathways and explain more than a quarter of the incidence of primary lymphedema, mostly of inherited forms. More common forms may also result from multigenic effects or post-zygotic mutations. Most of the corresponding murine knockouts are homozygous lethal, while heterozygotes are healthy, which suggests differences in human and murine physiology and the influence of other factors. PMID:24590274

  4. Post senescent grass canopy remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of in situ collected spectral reflectance data from a dormant or senescent grass canopy showed a direct relationship existed between spectral reflectance and biomass for the 0.50-0.80 micron spectral region. The data, collected four weeks after the end of the growing season, indicated that post senescent remote sensing of grass canopy biomass is possible and helps to elucidate the spectral contribution of recently dead vegetation in mixed live/dead canopy situations.

  5. Nolen-Schiffer anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S.C.; Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    The Argonne v{sub 18} potential contains a detailed treatment of the pp, pn and nn electromagnetic potential, including Coulomb, vacuum polarization, Darwin Foldy and magnetic moment terms, all with suitable form factors and was fit to pp and pn data using the appropriate nuclear masses. In addition, it contains a nuclear charge-symmetry breaking (CSB) term adjusted to reproduce the difference in the experimental pp and nn scattering lengths. We have used these potential terms to compute differences in the binding energies of mirror isospin-1/2 nuclei (Nolen-Schiffer [NS] anomaly). Variational Monte Carlo calculations for the {sup 3}He-{sup 3}H system and cluster variational Monte Carlo for the {sup 15}O-{sup 15}N and {sup 17}F-{sup 17}O systems were made. In the first case, the best variational wave function for the A = 3 nuclei was used. However, because our {sup 16}O wave function does not reproduce accurately the {sup 16}O rms radius, to which the NS anomaly is very sensitive, we adjusted the A = 15 and A = 17 wave functions to reproduce the experimental density profiles. Our computed energy differences for these three systems are 0.757 {plus_minus} .001, 3.544 {plus_minus} .018 and 3.458 {plus_minus} .040 MeV respectively, which are to be compared with the experimental differences of 0.764, 3.537, and 3.544 MeV. Most of the theoretical uncertainties are due to uncertainties in the experimental rms radii. The nuclear CSB potential contributes 0.066, 0.188, and 0.090 MeV to these totals. We also attempted calculations for A = 39 and A = 41. However, in these cases, the experimental uncertainties in the rms radius make it impossible to extract useful information about the contribution of the nuclear CSB potential.

  6. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W. Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M.; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P.; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O.; Kimeu, John M.; Luke, W. R. Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H. Peter

    2016-01-01

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:26791612

  7. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    PubMed

    Vorontsova, Maria S; Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O; Kimeu, John M; Luke, W R Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H Peter

    2016-01-27

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:26791612

  8. Molecular control of grass inflorescence development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dabing; Yuan, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The grass family is one of the largest families in angiosperms and has evolved a characteristic inflorescence morphology, with complex branches and specialized spikelets. The origin and development of the highly divergent inflorescence architecture in grasses have recently received much attention. Increasing evidence has revealed that numerous factors, such as transcription factors and plant hormones, play key roles in determining reproductive meristem fate and inflorescence patterning in grasses. Moreover, some molecular switches that have been implicated in specifying inflorescence shapes contribute significantly to grain yields in cereals. Here, we review key genetic and molecular switches recently identified from two model grass species, rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays), that regulate inflorescence morphology specification, including meristem identity, meristem size and maintenance, initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems, and organogenesis. Furthermore, we summarize emerging networks of genes and pathways in grass inflorescence morphogenesis and emphasize their evolutionary divergence in comparison with the model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. We also discuss the agricultural application of genes controlling grass inflorescence development. PMID:24471834

  9. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    PubMed

    Saikkonen, Kari; Wäli, Piippa R; Helander, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds) transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1) and F(2) generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1) genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2) these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars. PMID:20614034

  10. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  11. Medical management of vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Trenor, Cameron C

    2016-03-01

    We have entered an exciting era in the care of patients with vascular anomalies. These disorders require multidisciplinary care and coordination and dedicated centers have emerged to address this need. Vascular tumors have been treated with medical therapies for many years, while malformations have been historically treated with endovascular and operative procedures. The recent serendipitous discoveries of propranolol and sirolimus for vascular anomalies have revolutionized this field. In particular, sirolimus responses are challenging the dogma that vascular malformations are not biologically active. While initially explored for lymphatic anomalies, sirolimus is now being used broadly throughout the spectrum of vascular anomalies. Whether medical therapies are reserved for refractory patients or used first line is currently dependent on the experience and availability of alternative therapies at each institution. On the horizon, we anticipate new drugs targeting genes and pathways involved in vascular anomalies to be developed. Also, combinations of medications and protocols combining medical and procedural approaches are in development for refractory patients. PMID:27607327

  12. Congenital Anomalies of the Nose.

    PubMed

    Funamura, Jamie L; Tollefson, Travis T

    2016-04-01

    Congenital anomalies of the nose range from complete aplasia of the nose to duplications and nasal masses. Nasal development is the result of a complex embryologic patterning and fusion of multiple primordial structures. Loss of signaling proteins or failure of migration or proliferation can result in structural anomalies with significant cosmetic and functional consequences. Congenital anomalies of the nose can be categorized into four broad categories: (1) aplastic or hypoplastic, (2) hyperplastic or duplications, (3) clefts, and (4) nasal masses. Our knowledge of the embryologic origin of these anomalies helps dictate subsequent work-up for associated conditions, and the appropriate treatment or surgical approach to manage newborns and children with these anomalies. PMID:27097134

  13. System for closure of a physical anomaly

    DOEpatents

    Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-11-11

    Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

  14. 76 FR 39261 - Tennessee Valley Authority Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY 18 CFR Part 1301 Tennessee Valley Authority Procedures AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Tennessee Valley Authority is amending its regulations which...

  15. Claycap anomaly detection using hyperspectral remote sensing and lidargrammetric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Quijano, Maria Jose

    Clay capped waste sites are a common method to dispose of the more than 40 million tons of hazardous waste produced in the United States every year (EPA, 2003). Due to the potential threat that hazardous waste poses, it is essential to monitor closely the performance of these facilities. Development of a monitoring system that exploits spectral and topographic changes over hazardous waste sites is presented. Spectral anomaly detection is based upon the observed changes in absolute reflectance and spectral derivatives in centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiuroides) under different irrigation levels. The spectral features that provide the best separability among irrigation levels were identified using Stepwise Discriminant Analyses. The Red Edge Position was selected as a suitable discriminant variable to compare the performance of a global and a local anomaly detection algorithm using a DAIS 3715 hyperspectral image. Topographical anomaly detection is assessed by evaluating the vertical accuracy of two LIDAR datasets acquired from two different altitudes (700 m and 1,200 m AGL) over a clay-capped hazardous site at the Savannah River National Laboratory, SC using the same Optech ALTM 2050 and Cessna 337 platform. Additionally, a quantitative comparison is performed to determine the effect that decreasing platform altitude and increasing posting density have on the vertical accuracy of the LIDAR data collected.

  16. Treatment for Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Institutes of Health (NIH) is sponsoring a randomized controlled trial to learn more about the best ... recently called attention to Valley fever and this randomized controlled trial . How is Valley fever treated? For ...

  17. Session: Long Valley Exploratory Well

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Finger, John T.; Eichelberger, John C.; Hickox, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations'' by John T. Finger; ''Geologic results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well'' by John C. Eichelberger; and ''A Model for Large-Scale Thermal Convection in the Long Valley Geothermal Region'' by Charles E. Hickox.

  18. Binning of satellite magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, H. K.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomaly signals over satellite orbits were simulated to investigate numerical averaging as an anomaly estimator. Averaging as an anomaly estimator involves significant problems concerning spatial and amplitude smoothing of the satellite magnetic observations. The results of simulations suggest that the error of numerical averaging constitutes a small and relatively minor component of the total error-budget of higher orbital anomaly estimates, whereas for lower orbital estimates numerical averaging error increases substantially. As an alternative to numerical averaging, least-squares collocation was investigated and observed to produce substantially more accurate anomaly estimates, particularly as the orbital elevation of prediction was decreased towards the crustal sources. In contrast to averaging, collocation is a significantly more resource-intensive procedure to apply because of the practical, but surmountable problems related to establishing and inverting the covariance matrix for accurate anomaly prediction. However, collocation may be much more effectively used to exploit the anomaly details contained in the lower orbital satellite magnetic data for geologic analysis.

  19. Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

    2003-01-01

    CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

  20. Phylogenetic niche conservatism in C4 grasses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Edwards, Erika J; Freckleton, Robert P; Osborne, Colin P

    2012-11-01

    Photosynthetic pathway is used widely to discriminate plant functional types in studies of global change. However, independent evolutionary lineages of C(4) grasses with different variants of C(4) photosynthesis show different biogeographical relationships with mean annual precipitation, suggesting phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC). To investigate how phylogeny and photosynthetic type differentiate C(4) grasses, we compiled a dataset of morphological and habitat information of 185 genera belonging to two monophyletic subfamilies, Chloridoideae and Panicoideae, which together account for 90 % of the world's C(4) grass species. We evaluated evolutionary variance and covariance of morphological and habitat traits. Strong phylogenetic signals were found in both morphological and habitat traits, arising mainly from the divergence of the two subfamilies. Genera in Chloridoideae had significantly smaller culm heights, leaf widths, 1,000-seed weights and stomata; they also appeared more in dry, open or saline habitats than those of Panicoideae. Controlling for phylogenetic structure showed significant covariation among morphological traits, supporting the hypothesis of phylogenetically independent scaling effects. However, associations between morphological and habitat traits showed limited phylogenetic covariance. Subfamily was a better explanation than photosynthetic type for the variance in most morphological traits. Morphology, habitat water availability, shading, and productivity are therefore all involved in the PNC of C(4) grass lineages. This study emphasized the importance of phylogenetic history in the ecology and biogeography of C(4) grasses, suggesting that divergent lineages need to be considered to fully understand the impacts of global change on plant distributions. PMID:22569558

  1. Southern Florida's River of Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Florida's Everglades is a region of broad, slow-moving sheets of water flowing southward over low-lying areas from Lake Okeechobeeto the Gulf of Mexico. In places this remarkable 'river of grass' is 80 kilometers wide. These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer show the Everglades region on January 16, 2002. Each image covers an area measuring 191 kilometers x 205 kilometers. The data were captured during Terra orbit 11072.

    On the left is a natural color view acquired by MISR's nadir camera. A portion of Lake Okeechobee is visible at the top, to the right of image center. South of the lake, whose name derives from the Seminole word for 'big water,' an extensive region of farmland known as the Everglades Agricultural Area is recognizable by its many clustered squares. Over half of the sugar produced in United States is grown here. Urban areas along the east coast and in the northern part of the image extend to the boundaries of Big Cypress Swamp, situated north of Everglades National Park.

    The image on the right combines red-band data from the 46-degree backward, nadir and 46-degree forward-viewing camera angles to create a red, green, blue false-color composite. One of the interesting uses of the composite image is for detecting surface water. Wet surfaces appear blue in this rendition because sun glitter produces a greater signal at the forward camera's view angle. Wetlands visible in these images include a series of shallow impoundments called Water Conservation Areas which were built to speed water flow through the Everglades in times of drought. In parts of the Everglades, these levees and extensive systems such as the Miami and Tamiami Canals have altered the natural cycles of water flow. For example, the water volume of the Shark River Slough, a natural wetland which feeds Everglades National Park, is influenced by the Tamiami Canal. The unique and intrinsic value of the Everglades is now widely recognized, and efforts to restore

  2. 'Valley Red' Strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Valley Red' is a new June-bearing (short-day) strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, Ore., released in cooperation with the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, Th...

  3. Rift Valley Fever Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a disease of animals and humans that occurs in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae causes the disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Epidemics occur during years of unusually heavy rainfall that assessment models are being develo...

  4. Echoes of Spring Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, J. Clarine J.

    Designed to preserve the rich heritage of the rural school system which passed from the education scene in the 1930's and 1940's, this narrative, part history and part nostalgia, describes the author's own elementary education and the secure community life centered in the one room Spring Valley School in Hamilton County, Iowa, in the early decades…

  5. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes" are…

  6. Detecting new Buffel grass infestations in Australian arid lands: evaluation of methods using high-resolution multispectral imagery and aerial photography.

    PubMed

    Marshall, V M; Lewis, M M; Ostendorf, B

    2014-03-01

    We assess the feasibility of using airborne imagery for Buffel grass detection in Australian arid lands and evaluate four commonly used image classification techniques (visual estimate, manual digitisation, unsupervised classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholding) for their suitability to this purpose. Colour digital aerial photography captured at approximately 5 cm of ground sample distance (GSD) and four-band (visible–near-infrared) multispectral imagery (25 cm GSD) were acquired (14 February 2012) across overlapping subsets of our study site. In the field, Buffel grass projected cover estimates were collected for quadrates (10 m diameter), which were subsequently used to evaluate the four image classification techniques. Buffel grass was found to be widespread throughout our study site; it was particularly prevalent in riparian land systems and alluvial plains. On hill slopes, Buffel grass was often present in depressions, valleys and crevices of rock outcrops, but the spread appeared to be dependent on soil type and vegetation communities. Visual cover estimates performed best (r 2 0.39), and pixel-based classifiers (unsupervised classification and NDVI thresholding) performed worst (r 2 0.21). Manual digitising consistently underrepresented Buffel grass cover compared with field- and image-based visual cover estimates; we did not find the labours of digitising rewarding. Our recommendation for regional documentation of new infestation of Buffel grass is to acquire ultra-high-resolution aerial photography and have a trained observer score cover against visual standards and use the scored sites to interpolate density across the region. PMID:24234223

  7. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1

  8. Grass pollen immunotherapy: where are we now.

    PubMed

    Würtzen, Peter A; Gupta, Shashank; Brand, Stephanie; Andersen, Peter S

    2016-04-01

    During allergen immunotherapy (AIT), the allergic patient is exposed to the disease-inducing antigens (allergens) in order to induce clinical and immunological tolerance and obtain disease modification. Large trials of grass AIT with highly standardized subcutaneous and sublingual tablet vaccines have been conducted to document the clinical effect. Induction of blocking antibodies as well as changes in the balance between T-cell phenotypes, including induction of regulatory T-cell subtypes, have been demonstrated for both treatment types. These observations increase the understanding of the immunological mechanism behind the clinical effect and may make it possible to use the immunological changes as biomarkers of clinical effect. The current review describes the recent mechanistic findings for subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy/tablet treatment and discusses how the observed immunological changes translate into a scientific foundation for the observed clinical effects of grass pollen immunotherapy and lead to new treatment strategies for grass AIT. PMID:26973122

  9. Molecular biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Grass pollen allergy represents a significant cause of allergic morbidity worldwide. Component-resolved diagnosis biomarkers are increasingly used in allergy practice in order to evaluate the sensitization to grass pollen allergens, allowing the clinician to confirm genuine sensitization to the corresponding allergen plant sources and supporting an accurate prescription of allergy immunotherapy (AIT), an important approach in many regions of the world with great plant biodiversity and/or where pollen seasons may overlap. The search for candidate predictive biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy (tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells biomarkers, serum blocking antibodies biomarkers, especially functional ones, immune activation and immune tolerance soluble biomarkers and apoptosis biomarkers) opens new opportunities for the early detection of clinical responders for AIT, for the follow-up of these patients and for the development of new allergy vaccines. PMID:25237628

  10. Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Lubinsky, M.S.

    1997-03-31

    The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Peters anomaly

    MedlinePlus

    ... the anterior segment is abnormal, leading to incomplete separation of the cornea from the iris or the ... anomaly type I is characterized by an incomplete separation of the cornea and iris and mild to ...

  12. Satellite elevation magnetic anomaly maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The problem of inverting 2 deg average MAGSAT scalar anomalies for the region 80 W, 60 E longitude and 40 S, 70 N latitude was attempted on the LARS computer; however, the effort was aborted due to insufficient allocation of CPU-time. This problem is currently being resubmitted and should be implemented shortly for quantitative comparison with free-air gravity anomaly, geothermal, and tectonic data.

  13. Aeromagnetic anomalies over faulted strata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys are now an industry standard and they commonly detect anomalies that are attributed to faults within sedimentary basins. However, detailed studies identifying geologic sources of magnetic anomalies in sedimentary environments are rare in the literature. Opportunities to study these sources have come from well-exposed sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico and Colorado. High-resolution aeromagnetic data from these areas reveal numerous, curvilinear, low-amplitude (2–15 nT at 100-m terrain clearance) anomalies that consistently correspond to intrasedimentary normal faults (Figure 1). Detailed geophysical and rock-property studies provide evidence for the magnetic sources at several exposures of these faults in the central Rio Grande rift (summarized in Grauch and Hudson, 2007, and Hudson et al., 2008). A key result is that the aeromagnetic anomalies arise from the juxtaposition of magnetically differing strata at the faults as opposed to chemical processes acting at the fault zone. The studies also provide (1) guidelines for understanding and estimating the geophysical parameters controlling aeromagnetic anomalies at faulted strata (Grauch and Hudson), and (2) observations on key geologic factors that are favorable for developing similar sedimentary sources of aeromagnetic anomalies elsewhere (Hudson et al.).

  14. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Blei, Francine

    2015-04-01

    Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies encompass entities with a vascular anomaly as the predominant feature vs those syndromes with predominant somatic overgrowth and a vascular anomaly as a more minor component. The focus of this article is to categorize these syndromes phenotypically, including updated clinical criteria, radiologic features, evaluation, management issues, pathophysiology, and genetic information. A literature review was conducted in PubMed using key words "overgrowth syndromes and vascular anomalies" as well as specific literature reviews for each entity and supportive genetic information (e.g., somatic mosaicism). Additional searches in OMIM and Gene Reviews were conducted for each syndrome. Disease entities were categorized by predominant clinical features, known genetic information, and putative affected signaling pathway. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of disorders, often with variable clinical expression, due to germline or somatic mutations. Overgrowth can be focal (e.g., macrocephaly) or generalized, often asymmetrically (and/or mosaically) distributed. All germ layers may be affected, and the abnormalities may be progressive. Patients with overgrowth syndromes may be at an increased risk for malignancies. Practitioners should be attentive to patients having syndromes with overgrowth and vascular defects. These patients require proactive evaluation, referral to appropriate specialists, and in some cases, early monitoring for potential malignancies. Progress in identifying vascular anomaly-related overgrowth syndromes and their genetic etiology has been robust in the past decade and is contributing to genetically based prenatal diagnosis and new therapies targeting the putative causative genetic mutations. PMID:25937473

  15. Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts Rob Mitchell Abstract: Switchgrass, big bluestem, and warm-season grass mixtures provide numerous benefits. Existing field equipment, herbicides, and cultivar improvement promote rapid establishment in the planting year. These gra...

  16. Mapping the Extent of the Lovejoy Basalt Beneath the Sacramento Valley, CA, Using Aeromagnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenheim, V. E.; Sweetkind, D. S.; Springhorn, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Lovejoy Basalt is a distinctive Miocene (~16 Ma) unit that erupted from Thompson Peak in the northeast Sierra Nevada, flowed southwest across the Sierra Nevada into the Sacramento Valley. It crops out in a few places in Sacramento Valley: (1) near Chico and Oroville on the east side of the valley, (2) Orland Buttes on the west side, and (3) Putnam Peak, some 250 km southwest of Thompson Peak. The basalt is also encountered in drill holes, but its extent is not entirely known. The Lovejoy Basalt is strongly magnetic and, in general, reversely magnetized, making it an excellent target for aeromagnetic mapping. Recently acquired aeromagnetic data (flight line spacing 800 m at an altitude of 240 m) indicate a characteristic, sinuous, short-wavelength magnetic pattern associated with outcrops and known subcrops of Lovejoy Basalt. Filtering of these data to enhance negative, short-wavelength anomalies defines two large bands of negative anomalies that trend southwest of Chico and Oroville and appear to coalesce about 25 km north of Sutter Buttes. Another band of negative anomalies extends north of the junction roughly along the Sacramento River 40 km to Deer Creek. The anomalies become more subdued to the north, suggesting that the Lovejoy thins to the north. Aeromagnetic data also indicate a large subcrop of Lovejoy Basalt that extends 25 km north-northeast from exposures at Orland Buttes. Driller logs from gas and water wells confirm our mapping of Lovejoy within these areas. The sinuous magnetic lows are not continuous south of Sutter Buttes, but form isolated patches that are aligned in a north-south direction south of the concealed Colusa Dome to Putnam Peak and an east-west, 20-km-long band about 15 km south of Sutter Buttes. Other reversed anomalies in the Sacramento Valley coincide with volcanic necks in the Sutter Buttes and Colusa Dome; these produce semicircular anomalies that are distinct from those caused by the Lovejoy Basalt.

  17. Science guide for the Long Valley Caldera deep hole

    SciTech Connect

    Rundle, J.B.; Eichelberger, J.C.

    1989-05-01

    The Magma Energy Program of the US Department of Energy, Geothermal Technology Division, is planning to begin drilling a deep (6 km) exploration well in Long Valley Caldera, California, in September 1988. The location of the well is in the central part of the caldera, coincident with a large number of shallow (5-7 km) geophysical anomalies identified through many independent investigations. Results from the hole will permit the following: direct investigation of the geophysical anomalies interpreted to be magma; investigation of the patterns and conditions of deep fluid circulation and heat transport below the caldera floor; determination of the amount of collapse and subsequent resurgence of the central portion of Long Valley caldera; and determination of the intrusion history of the central plutonic complex beneath the caldera, and establishment of the relationship of intrusive to eruptive events. The hole will thus provide a stringent test of the hypothesis that magma is still present within the central plutonic complex. If the interpretation of geophysical anomalies is confirmed, the hole will provide the first observations of the environment near a large silicic magma chamber. 80 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Isotopic signatures of vegetation change on northern mixed grass prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National analyses have shown invasion of northern mixed-grass prairie by nonnative grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Invasion of native prairie by nonnative grasses may compromise ecosystem function and limit potential ecosystem services. Recent data from a long-term (100 year) ...

  19. Native Grasses as a Management Alternative on Vegetated Closure Caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwit, Charles; Collins, Beverly

    2008-06-01

    Capped waste sites often are vegetated with commercial turf grasses to increase evapotranspiration and prevent erosion and possible exposure of the barrier. Fertilizer, frequent watering, and mowing may be required to establish the turf grass and prevent invasion by trees and shrubs. Oldfield vegetation of grasses and forbs is a possible sustainable alternative to turf grass communities. To determine if oldfield vegetation can establish on caps, we (1) compared establishment of a dominant oldfield grass and a commercial turf grass under different combinations of new closure cap management: spring or summer planting and presence or absence of amendments to alleviate drought (watering, mulch) or increase soil fertility (fertilizer, lime, a nitrogen-fixing legume); (2) surveyed existing caps to determine if oldfield species establish naturally; and (3) performed a greenhouse experiment to compare growth of two native grasses under low and amended (added water, soil nutrients) conditions. Both the commercial grass and oldfield species established under new cap conditions; fertilizer, water, and mulch improved vegetation establishment in spring or summer, but legumes decreased grass cover. In the greenhouse, both native grasses grew best with amendments; however, substantial stem and root length were obtained with no fertilizer and only once-weekly watering. Existing vegetated caps supported planted grasses and naturally established oldfield species. Overall, the results indicate native grasses can establish on new caps and oldfields can serve as a management model; further work is needed to determine the management strategy to maintain herbaceous vegetation and slow woody species invasion.

  20. Native Warm Season Grasses in the National Plant Germplasm System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) warm-season grass collection which is maintained in Griffin, Georgia currently has over 7300 accessions of which less than ten percent of the collection can be classified as native grass material. This native grass material has been collected from dif...

  1. A Tensile Strength of Bermuda Grass and Vetiver Grass in Terms of Root Reinforcement Ability Toward Soil Slope Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorasyikin, M. N.; Zainab, M.

    2016-07-01

    An examination on root characteristics and root properties has been implemented in this study. Two types of bioengineering were chose which are Vetiver grass and Bermuda grass as these grasses were widely applied for slope stabilization. The root samples were taken to the laboratory to investigate its classification, characteristics and strength. The root of both grasses was found grow with fibrous root matrix system. In terms of root anchorage, the root matrix system of Vetiver grass was exhibits more strengthen than the Bermuda grass. However, observation on root image from Scanning Electron Microscope test reveals that the root of Vetiver grass becomes non-porous as the moisture content reduced. Meanwhile, the root tensile strength of Bermuda grass was obtained acquired low value with higher percentage of moisture content, root morphology and bonding strength. The results indicated that the root tensile strength is mainly influence by percentage of moisture content and root morphology.

  2. Valley South of Cerberus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-413, 6 July 2003

    To date, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) narrow angle system has only imaged about 3% of the martian surface. Thus, a new discovery can come at any time, as additional places are covered every day. This MOC image shows a portion of a shallow valley south of Cerberus that was just discovered in April 2003. The valley may have been cut but torrents of mud-laden water; alternatively, an extremely fluid lava was involved. This picture was acquired in May 2003; it covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated from the left. North is toward the top/upper right. The picture is located near 4.6oN, 204.3oW.

  3. Toward Baseline Software Anomalies in NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layman, Lucas; Zelkowitz, Marvin; Basili, Victor; Nikora, Allen P.

    2012-01-01

    In this fast abstract, we provide preliminary findings an analysis of 14,500 spacecraft anomalies from unmanned NASA missions. We provide some baselines for the distributions of software vs. non-software anomalies in spaceflight systems, the risk ratings of software anomalies, and the corrective actions associated with software anomalies.

  4. Grassroots e-floras in the Poaceae: growing GrassBase and GrassWorld

    PubMed Central

    Vorontsova, Maria S.; Clayton, Derek; Simon, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract GrassBase and GrassWorld are the largest structured descriptive datasets in plants, publishing descriptions of 11,290 species in the DELTA format. Twenty nine years of data compilation and maintenance have created a dataset which now underpins much of the Poaceae bioinformatics. GrassBase and GrassWorld can continue to grow productively if the proliferation of alternative classifications and datasets can be brought together into a consensus system. If the datasets are reconciled instead of diverging further apart a long term cumulative process can bring knowledge together for great future utility. This paper presents the Poaceae as the first and largest model system for e-taxonomy and the study of classification development in plants. The origin, development, and content of both datasets is described and key contributors are noted. The challenges of alternative classifications, data divergence, collaborative contribution mechanisms, and software are outlined. PMID:25941449

  5. Project GRADS (Grass Roots Alternative Diploma Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Harold S.; Lucas, Geoffrey S.

    A project to develop grass roots alternative diploma study (Project GRADS) was undertaken for the purpose of formulating and implementing a multimodal, systems approach to preparing rural adults to pass the General Educational Development (GED) Tests. During the year-long, countywide program, GED programming was developed and delivered via the…

  6. Wheatgrass and Wildrye Grasses (Triticeae) (Book Chapter)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheatgrass and wildrye grasses are valued throughout the temperature regions of the world as forage and habitat for livestock and wildlife as well as for other qualities relating to aesthetics, soil stabilization, weed control, and watershed management in semiarid environments. These perennial gras...

  7. Grasses and Legumes: Genetics and Plant Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have been breeding forage and turf species for over 100 years. This chapter explores the progress that has been made in improving grasses and legumes for human benefit and the evolution of breeding and selection systems that have brought about those changes....

  8. INTESPECIIC DIFFERENCES IN GRASS SEED IMBIBITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seeds from 12 grass species were studied relative to mode of wetting and time of exposure to water to document interspecific differences in imbibition characteristics. Imbibition causes seeds to become wet, and wet seeds are more detectable to consumers than dry seeds. Thus, ge...

  9. Common Ground for Managing Invasive Annual Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive annual grasses often reach their full biological potential in ecosystems of the western United States. This suggests that crucial ecosystem "checks and balances" are not functioning. In other words, invasion occurs because ecosystems have lost resistance to invasion, and invasive plants a...

  10. Challenging Cancer at the Grass Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute created the Appalachia Leadership Initiative on Cancer, composed of four similar projects that focus on increasing screening for cervical and breast cancer among low-income, older women. The program relies on community coalitions that develop innovative grass roots methods to spread the message about the importance of…

  11. Annual grass as supplements for beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown when limit grazing cool-season annual grasses as a supplement in a complementary forage system, energy and CP supplementation are not required and hay requirements are reduced 23% for gestating beef cows. To further improve the sustainability of complementary forage systems, repla...

  12. Grass Woman Stories. Blackfeet Heritage Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground, Mary

    During her lifetime Mary Ground, whose Indian name is Grass Woman, has experienced extreme changes in the life of Blackfeet Indians. Born in 1883, she remembers the travois and teepee days as well as the change to reservation life when the reservation was a fenced compound patrolled by the U.S. military. She has seen the decline in the use of…

  13. Grass roots of soil carbon sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils rooted with perennial grasses have high organic matter content, and therefore, can contribute to an agricultural future with high soil quality; a condition that can help to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions through soil carbon sequestration and improve a multitude of other ecosystem responses,...

  14. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  15. The Owens Valley LWA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallinan, Gregg

    2014-04-01

    The Owens Valley LWA is a new array of 256 dual polarization antennas at Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO). It hosts the LEDA correlator, which provides full cross-correlation capability and enables instantaneous snapshot imaging of most of the viewable sky, as well as a dedicated back-end for transient searching. Developed in collaboration between Caltech, JPL and the LEDA and LWA consortia, the array targets the 28-88 MHz band with primary focus on high redshift HI (Dark Ages), radio transients (particularly radio exoplanets), solar dynamic imaging spectroscopy and measurement of coronal magnetic fields, and production of a full-Stokes, low frequency, all-sky catalog. The array comprises a 230m diameter dense core and outriggers at 365m capable of imaging with a resolution of 1 degree. Over the next 12 months, 32 additional antennas will be installed, powered by solar panels and serviced by optical fiber, with the goal of delivering instantaneous all-sky images with ~10' resolution. The associated data rate for the latter array will be extremely large, at 1.5 GB per integration, corresponding to 45,000 baselines x 4 polarizations x 2000 channels (60 MHz). Our collaboration is also working towards a much larger next generation array for study of HI and transients, sited at or near the Owens Valley observatory. I will briefly discuss some of the related ongoing technical development and data processing challenges.

  16. Hudson Valley Fog Environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzjaprald, David R.; Garland Lala, G.

    1989-12-01

    Observations of 14 cases of radiation fog in the Hudson River valley in New York State are presented. Our emphasis is to connect the fog prediction problem to mechanisms in the nocturnal boundary layer that influence heat and moisture balances. Surface layer and boundary layer fogs are distinguished by the difference in dominant terms in the saturation specific humidity deficit budget. Fogs that persist longer than approximately 30 minutes are most frequently thicker than 50 m. The ultimate depth to which the fog grows is shown to be determined by initial conditions at sunset and by subsequent evolution of winds in the nocturnal boundary layer, as well as by surface transports and radiative cooling. Estimates of the surface and boundary layer heat budget are presented. Two new phenomena are identified: 1) A jump in specific humidity occurring during the early evening transition that shortens the time required to reach surface layer saturation; and 2) along-valley jetlike winds with maxima near 100 m altitude are shown to be frequent and their occurrence is associated with a threshold value of the along-valley surface pressure gradient. Such jets appear to have an important influence on deep fog, increasing or decreasing its likelihood depending on the sign of heat and moisture advection they associate with.

  17. Surface pressure disturbance in the Ebro Valley (Spain) produced by the Pyrenees mountains during PYREX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz de Argandoña, J.; Ezcurra, A.; Bénech, B.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, the pressure anomaly created by the Pyrenees during the Pyrenees Experiment (PYREX) in the Ebro Valley is studied and analysed. In the first part, pressure disturbance is obtained during some selected cases of PYREX by subtracting the synoptic component from the pressure registered by microbarographs and regular meteorological stations located in the area. As expected from a linear model, a low pressure is found for northerly synoptic winds and a high pressure for southerly synoptic winds. Data shows that the maximum pressure anomaly observed may reach values of the order of 7 hPa. Pressure-anomaly spatial patterns found inside the valley are classified by using principal component analysis (PCA). It is found that the first axes deduced from the PCA carried out represent 75% of the variance in pressure data, indicating that all the stations analysed observed pressure anomalies in a correlated manner. Pressure anomalies are then related to incident-air characteristics expressed as Froude and Rossby numbers. Significant correlation is generally found with these numbers in all cases, demonstrating the dynamic origin of the pressure anomaly computed.

  18. Thunderstorm asthma due to grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Suphioglu, C

    1998-08-01

    It is widely known and accepted that grass pollen is a major outdoor cause of hay fever. Moreover, grass pollen is also responsible for triggering allergic asthma, gaining impetus as a result of the 1987/1989 Melbourne and 1994 London thunderstorm-associated asthma epidemics. However, grass pollen is too large to gain access into the lower airways to trigger the asthmatic response and micronic particles <5 micro m are required to trigger the response. We have successfully shown that ryegrass pollen ruptures upon contact with water, releasing about 700 starch granules which not only contain the major allergen Lol p 5, but have been shown to trigger both in vitro and in vivo IgE-mediated responses. Furthermore, starch granules have been isolated from the Melbourne atmosphere with 50-fold increase following rainfall. Free grass pollen allergen molecules have been recently shown to interact with other particles including diesel exhaust carbon particles, providing a further transport mechanism for allergens to gain access into lower airways. In this review, implication and evidence for grass pollen as a trigger of thunderstorm-associated asthma is presented. Such information is critical and mandatory for patient education and training in their allergen avoidance programs. More importantly, patients with serum IgE to group 5 allergens are at high risk of allergic asthma, especially those not protected by medication. Therefore, a system to determine the total atmospheric allergen load and devising of an effective asthma risk forecast is urgently needed and is subject to current investigation. PMID:9693274

  19. Non-relativistic scale anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, Igal; Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron

    2016-06-01

    We extend the cohomological analysis in arXiv:1410.5831 of anisotropic Lifshitz scale anomalies. We consider non-relativistic theories with a dynamical critical exponent z = 2 with or without non-relativistic boosts and a particle number symmetry. We distinguish between cases depending on whether the time direction does or does not induce a foliation structure. We analyse both 1 + 1 and 2 + 1 spacetime dimensions. In 1 + 1 dimensions we find no scale anomalies with Galilean boost symmetries. The anomalies in 2 + 1 dimensions with Galilean boosts and a foliation structure are all B-type and are identical to the Lifshitz case in the purely spatial sector. With Galilean boosts and without a foliation structure we find also an A-type scale anomaly. There is an infinite ladder of B-type anomalies in the absence of a foliation structure with or without Galilean boosts. We discuss the relation between the existence of a foliation structure and the causality of the field theory.

  20. Experimental Anomalies in Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamara, Ornella

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, experimental anomalies ranging in significance (2.8-3.8 σ) have been reported from a variety of experiments studying neutrinos over baselines less than 1 km. Results from the LSND and MiniBooNE short-baseline νe /νe appearance experiments show anomalies which cannot be described by oscillations between the three standard model neutrinos (the ``LSND anomaly''). In addition, a re-analysis of the anti-neutrino flux produced by nuclear power reactors has led to an apparent deficit in νe event rates in a number of reactor experiments (the ``reactor anomaly''). Similarly, calibration runs using 51Cr and 37Ar radioactive sources in the Gallium solar neutrino experiments GALLEX and SAGE have shown an unexplained deficit in the electron neutrino event rate over very short distances (the ``Gallium anomaly''). The puzzling results from these experiments, which together may suggest the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model and hint at exciting new physics, including the possibility of additional low-mass sterile neutrino states, have raised the interest in the community for new experimental efforts that could eventually solve this puzzle. Definitive evidence for sterile neutrinos would be a revolutionary discovery, with implications for particle physics as well as cosmology. Proposals to address these signals by employing accelerator, reactor and radioactive source experiments are in the planning stages or underway worldwide. In this talk some of these will be reviewed, with emphasis on the accelerator programs.

  1. Nitrate and Pesticide Transport From Tile-Drained Fields in the Willamette Valley, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, K. L.; Rupp, D. E.; Selker, J. S.; Dragila, M. I.; Peachey, R. E.

    2002-12-01

    Tile drainage affects the hydrology and thus the solute transport on agricultural fields by increasing the volume of water that drains from the subsurface. Previous NAWQA studies have shown elevated nitrate levels in wells and high detection frequencies for selected pesticides in Willamette Valley streams. As a substantial area of Willamette Valley agricultural land is tile-drained, it is important to determine the role of tile drains in surface water and ground water pollution. Four fields in the Willamette Valley were instrumented to monitor tile effluent for two winter seasons. On two fields, surface runoff was also monitored for the second season. Field areas ranged from 3 to 30 acres and were cropped in grass, corn, or a grass/corn rotation. Tile effluent nitrate concentrations frequently exceeded 10 ppm on some fields. Flow-weighted averages for each field were 0.87 ppm and 1.36 ppm for two established grass fields, and 8.1 ppm and 14.4 ppm for grass fields that had recently grown corn. Mass losses ranged from 1.15%-6.45% of the applied nitrate through the tile drains. Diuron, Metolachlor, and Chlorpyrifos were tested in selected surface runoff and tile effluent samples. On one field, Metolachlor concentrations were similar in the tile drains and surface runoff. Concentrations in both sources were 10 times lower than the drinking water advisory for Metolachlor. In a second field, Chlorpyrifos concentrations were two orders of magnitude lower than drinking water advisories in both sources. On the same field, Diuron concentrations were significantly higher in the surface runoff than in the tile effluent. Diuron concentrations were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher during the first precipitation events after application in the surface runoff. On a third field, Diuron was at least 10 times lower than drinking water advisories in the tile effluent, with the highest concentrations found in samples collected within 21 days of pesticide application.

  2. Heat Shock Proteins in Association with Heat Tolerance in Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zhan, Chenyang; Huang, Bingru

    2011-01-01

    The grass family Poaceae includes annual species cultivated as major grain crops and perennial species cultivated as forage or turf grasses. Heat stress is a primary factor limiting growth and productivity of cool-season grass species and is becoming a more significant problem in the context of global warming. Plants have developed various mechanisms in heat-stress adaptation, including changes in protein metabolism such as the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs). This paper summarizes the structure and function of major HSPs, recent research progress on the association of HSPs with grass tolerance to heat stress, and incorporation of HSPs in heat-tolerant grass breeding. PMID:22084689

  3. Orbital forcing and the spread of C4 grasses in the late Neogene: stable isotope evidence from South African speleothems.

    PubMed

    Hopley, Philip J; Marshall, Jim D; Weedon, Graham P; Latham, Alf G; Herries, Andy I R; Kuykendall, Kevin L

    2007-11-01

    Reconstructing Plio-Pleistocene African paleoenvironments is important for models of early hominin evolution, but is often hampered by low-resolution or discontinuous climatic data. Here, we present high-resolution stable oxygen and carbon isotope time series data from two flowstones (secondary cave deposits) from the South African hominin-bearing Makapansgat Valley. The age of the older of the two flowstones (Collapsed Cone) is constrained by magnetostratigraphy to approximately 4-5 Ma; the younger flowstone (Buffalo Cave) grew between 2.0-1.5 Ma, as determined by magnetostratigraphy and orbital tuning of the isotopic data. The carbon isotope data is used as a proxy for the proportion of C(4) grasses in the local environment and the oxygen isotope data reflects monsoon rainfall intensity. The carbon isotope evidence indicates that in the late Miocene/early Pliocene, the local environment was dominated by C(3) vegetation, whereas, in the Plio-Pleistocene, it was composed of a mixture of C(3) and C(4) vegetation. This suggests that C(4) grasses became a significant part of the Makapansgat Valley ecosystem at approximately 4-5 Ma, towards the end of the late Neogene global expansion of C(4) grasses. After this initial expansion, South Africa experienced further fluctuations in the proportion of C(3) and C(4) vegetation during the Plio-Pleistocene, in response to regional and global climatic changes. Most notably, the Buffalo Cave flowstone provides evidence for C(4) grass expansion at ca. 1.7 Ma that we suggest was a response to African aridity caused by the onset of the Walker Circulation in the Pacific Ocean at this time. PMID:17942141

  4. Measuring anomaly with algorithmic entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Wanda M.

    Anomaly detection refers to the identification of observations that are considered outside of normal. Since they are unknown to the system prior to training and rare, the anomaly detection problem is particularly challenging. Model based techniques require large quantities of existing data are to build the model. Statistically based techniques result in the use of statistical metrics or thresholds for determining whether a particular observation is anomalous. I propose a novel approach to anomaly detection using wavelet based algorithmic entropy that does not require modeling or large amounts of data. My method embodies the concept of information distance that rests on the fact that data encodes information. This distance is large when little information is shared, and small when there is greater information sharing. I compare my approach with several techniques in the literature using data obtained from testing of NASA's Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME)

  5. Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

  6. Graph anomalies in cyber communications

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Wiel, Scott A; Storlie, Curtis B; Sandine, Gary; Hagberg, Aric A; Fisk, Michael

    2011-01-11

    Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

  7. Boundary terms of conformal anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the structure of the boundary terms in the conformal anomaly integrated over a manifold with boundaries. We suggest that the anomalies of type B, polynomial in the Weyl tensor, are accompanied with the respective boundary terms of the Gibbons-Hawking type. Their form is dictated by the requirement that they produce a variation which compensates the normal derivatives of the metric variation on the boundary in order to have a well-defined variational procedure. This suggestion agrees with recent findings in four dimensions for free fields of various spins. We generalize this consideration to six dimensions and derive explicitly the respective boundary terms. We point out that the integrated conformal anomaly in odd dimensions is non-vanishing due to the boundary terms. These terms are specified in three and five dimensions.

  8. Soil formation in the Tsauchab Valley, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Marie; Bens, Oliver; Ramisch, Arne; Schwindt, Daniel; Völkel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The BMBF-funded project GeoArchives (Spaces) investigates soils and sediments in Southern Africa. A focus area lies on the Tsauchab Valley (Namibia), South of the Naukluft mountain range (24°26'40'' S, 16°10'40'' E). On a gently sloping alluvial fan facing East towards the river, the surface is characterized by a desert pavement covering soils used as farmland. The landscape units were mapped and the area at the lower slope of a hill was divided into three units: a rinsing surface and a gravel plain, separated by a channel. On these surfaces soil profiles were excavated. Profile description followed the German system (Bodenkundliche Kartieranleitung KA 5) and disturbed samples were taken at various depths and analysed in the lab. Undisturbed soil cores with a volume of 100 cm³ were taken just below the surface at a depth of ~1-6 cm. Lab analyses included texture and gravel content, colour, pH, electrical conductivity, carbonates, CNS, cation exchange capacity, pedogenic oxides, main and trace elements (XRF), and clay mineral distribution (XRD). Undisturbed samples were used to determine soil water retention curve, air permeability and bulk density. The profiles revealed moderately developed cambic soils rich in clay minerals and with total carbon contents ranging up to 1.8 %, bearing shrubs and after episodic rainfall a dense grass vegetation. Their genesis is discussed and interpreted in the context of the landscape and climate history of this semi-desert environment.

  9. Branchial Anomalies: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Azeez, Arun; Thada, Nikhil Dinaker; Rao, Pallavi; Prasad, Kishore Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To find out the incidence of involvement of individual arches, anatomical types of lesions, the age and sex incidence, the site and side of predilection, the common clinical features, the common investigations, treatment, and complications of the different anomalies. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. Design. A 10 year retrospective study. Participants. 30 patients with clinically proven branchial anomalies including patients with bilateral disease totaling 34 lesions. Main Outcome Measures. The demographical data, clinical features, type of branchial anomalies, and the management details were recorded and analyzed. Results and Observations. The mean age of presentation was 18.67 years. Male to female sex ratio was 1.27 : 1 with a male preponderance. Of the 34 lesions, maximum incidence was of second arch anomalies (50%) followed by first arch. We had two cases each of third and fourth arch anomalies. Only 1 (3.3%) patients of the 30 presented with lesion at birth. The most common pathological type of lesions was fistula (58.82%) followed by cyst. 41.18% of the lesions occurred on the right side. All the patients underwent surgical excision. None of our patients had involvement of facial nerve in first branchial anomaly. All patients had tracts going superficial to the facial nerve. Conclusion. Confirming the extent of the tract is mandatory before any surgery as these lesions pass in relation to some of the most vital structures of the neck. Surgery should always be the treatment option. injection of dye, microscopic removal and inclusion of surrounding tissue while excising the tract leads to a decreased incidence of recurrence. PMID:24772172

  10. Genetic basis for vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Kirkorian, A Yasmine; Grossberg, Anna L; Püttgen, Katherine B

    2016-03-01

    The fundamental genetics of many isolated vascular anomalies and syndromes associated with vascular anomalies have been elucidated. The rate of discovery continues to increase, expanding our understanding of the underlying interconnected molecular pathways. This review summarizes genetic and clinical information on the following diagnoses: capillary malformation, venous malformation, lymphatic malformation, arteriovenous malformation, PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS), Proteus syndrome, SOLAMEN syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, phakomatosis pigmentovascularis, congenital hemangioma, verrucous venous malformation, cutaneomucosal venous malformation, blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome, Parkes-Weber syndrome, and Maffucci syndrome. PMID:27607321

  11. Boundary anomalies and correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-08-01

    It was shown recently that boundary terms of conformal anomalies recover the universal contribution to the entanglement entropy and also play an important role in the boundary monotonicity theorem of odd-dimensional quantum field theories. Motivated by these results, we investigate relationships between boundary anomalies and the stress tensor correlation functions in conformal field theories. In particular, we focus on how the conformal Ward identity and the renormalization group equation are modified by boundary central charges. Renormalized stress tensors induced by boundary Weyl invariants are also discussed, with examples in spherical and cylindrical geometries.

  12. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  13. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism of a marine grass.

    PubMed

    Benedict, C R; Scott, J R

    1976-06-01

    The delta(13)C value of a tropical marine grass Thalassia testudinum is -9.04 per thousand. This value is similar to the delta(13)C value of terrestrial tropical grasses. The delta(13)C values of the organic acid fraction, the amino acid fraction, the sugar fraction, malic acid, and glucose are: -11.2 per thousand, -13.1 per thousand, -10.1 per thousand, -11.1 per thousand, and -11.5 per thousand, respectively. The delta(13)C values of malic acid and glucose of Thalassia are similar to the delta(13)C values of these intermediates in sorghum leaves and attest to the presence of the photosynthetic C(4)-dicarboxylic acid pathway in this marine grass. The inorganic HCO(3) (-) for the growth of the grass fluctuates between -6.7 to -2.7 per thousand during the day. If CO(2) fixation in Thalassia is catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (which would result in a -3 per thousand fractionation between HCO(3) (-) and malic acid), the predicted delta(13)C value for Thalassia would be -9.7 to -5.7 per thousand. This range is close to the observed range of -12.6 to -7.8 per thousand for Thalassia and agree with the operation of the C(4)-dicarboxylic acid pathway in this plant. The early products of the fixation of HCO(3) (-) in the leaf sections are malic acid and aspartic acid which are similar to the early products of CO(2) fixation in C(4) terrestrial plants.Electron microscopy of the leaves of Thalassia reveal thick walled epidermal cells exceedingly rich in mitochondria and C(3)-type chloroplasts. The mesophyll cells have many different shapes and surround air lacunae which contain O(2) and CO(2). The mesophyll cells are highly vacuolated and the parietal cytoplasm contains an occasional chloroplast. This chloroplast contains grana but the lamellar system is not as developed as the system in epidermal chloroplasts. Extensive phloem tissue is present but the xylem elements are reduced in this aquatic grass. The vascular tissue is not surrounded by bundle sheath cells

  14. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  15. Ground magnetometer survey in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trible, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    A reconnaissance magnetometer survey was conducted with both total- and vertical-field magnetometers. The large, sharp, narrow total magnetic anomalies observed over a zone of relict fumaroles in Broken Mountain Valley showed spectacular agreement with the surficial geology. Such a correlation is a strong indication that accumulations of magnetic minerals have been preserved along these fissure vents at shallow depths. Since large magnetic anomalies were measured near fumarolic markings along all of the traverses, it is proposed that the retention of sublimates along fumarolic vents is common throughout the Valley. The generally concentric contours of the vertical magnetic anomaly at the head of the Valley suggest that the dome of Novarupta is merely the surficial expression of a very massive conical-shaped intrusive centered just northeast of the dome. The magnetometer survey indicates that the pyroclastics in the Valley may be over 150 meters thick. Such an estimate is compatible with the volume of eruptive material needed to compensate for the subsidence surrounding Novarupta as well as a sizable amount of other regional subsidence.

  16. Synthetic River Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    The description of fluvial form has evolved from anecdotal descriptions to artistic renderings to 2D plots of cross section or longitudinal profiles and more recently 3D digital models. Synthetic river valleys, artificial 3D topographic models of river topography, have a plethora of potential applications in fluvial geomorphology, and the earth sciences in general, as well as in computer science and ecology. Synthetic river channels have existed implicitly since approximately the 1970s and can be simulated from a variety of approaches spanning the artistic and numerical. An objective method of synthesizing 3D stream topography based on reach scale attributes would be valuable for sizing 3D flumes in the physical and numerical realms, as initial input topography for morphodynamic models, stream restoration design, historical reconstruction, and mechanistic testing of interactions of channel geometric elements. Quite simply - simulation of synthetic channel geometry of prescribed conditions can allow systematic evaluation of the dominant relationships between river flow and geometry. A new model, the control curve method, is presented that uses hierarchically scaled parametric curves in over-lapping 2D planes to create synthetic river valleys. The approach is able to simulate 3D stream geometry from paired 2D descriptions and can allow experimental insight into form-process relationships in addition to visualizing past measurements of channel form that are limited to two dimension descriptions. Results are presented that illustrate the models ability to simulate fluvial topography representative of real world rivers as well as how channel geometric elements can be adjusted. The testing of synthetic river valleys would open up a wealth of knowledge as to why some 3D attributes of river channels are more prevalent than others as well as bridging the gap between the 2D descriptions that have dominated fluvial geomorphology the past century and modern, more complete, 3D

  17. Observational manifestations of anomaly inflow

    SciTech Connect

    Boyarsky, Alexey; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2005-10-15

    In theories with chiral couplings, one of the important consistency requirements is that of the cancellation of a gauge anomaly. In particular, this is one of the conditions imposed on the hypercharges in the standard model. However, anomaly cancellation condition of the standard model looks unnatural from the perspective of a theory with extra dimensions. Indeed, if our world were embedded into an odd-dimensional space, then the full theory would be automatically anomaly-free. In this paper we discuss the physical consequences of anomaly noncancellation for effective 4-dimensional field theory. We demonstrate that in such a theory parallel electric and magnetic fields get modified. In particular, this happens for any particle possessing both electric charge and magnetic moment. This effect, if observed, can serve as a low energy signature of extra dimensions. On the other hand, if such an effect is absent or is very small, then from the point of view of any theory with extra dimensions it is just another fine-tuning and should acquire theoretical explanation.

  18. Thermal anomalies in stressed Teflon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. H.; Wulff, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    In the course of testing polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) as a calorimetric gasketing material, serendipity revealed a thermal anomaly in stressed film that occurs concomitantly with the well-documented 25 C transition. The magnitude of the excess energy absorption - about 35 cal/g - is suggested to be related to the restricted thermal expansion of the film.

  19. Coral can have growth anomalies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral growth anomalies (GAs) are changes in the coral cells that deposit the calcium carbonate skeleton. They usually appear as raised areas of the skeleton and tissue that are different from the surrounding normal areas on the same colony. The features include abnormal shape a...

  20. Numerical anomalies mimicking physical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menikoff, R.

    Numerical simulations of flows with shock waves typically use finite-difference shock-capturing algorithms. These algorithms give a shock a numerical width in order to generate the entropy increase that must occur across a shock wave. For algorithms in conservation form, steady-state shock waves are insensitive to the numerical dissipation because of the Hugoniot jump conditions. However, localized numerical errors occur when shock waves interact. Examples are the 'excess wall heating' in the Noh problem (shock reflected from rigid wall), errors when a shock impacts a material interface or an abrupt change in mesh spacing, and the start-up error from initializing a shock as a discontinuity. This class of anomalies can be explained by the entropy generation that occurs in the transient flow when a shock profile is formed or changed. The entropy error is localized spatially but under mesh refinement does not decrease in magnitude. Similar effects have been observed in shock tube experiments with partly dispersed shock waves. In this case, the shock has a physical width due to a relaxation process. An entropy anomaly from a transient shock interaction is inherent in the structure of the conservation equations for fluid flow. The anomaly can be expected to occur whenever heat conduction can be neglected and a shock wave has a non-zero width, whether the width is physical or numerical. Thus, the numerical anomaly from an artificial shock width mimics a real physical effect.

  1. Geology and thermal regime, geothermal test USA No. 11-36, Grass Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, Walter R.; Koenig, James B.

    1980-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of drilling of an 8,565 foot geothermal test near Leach Hot Springs, Pershing County, Nevada, by Sunoco Energy Development Company. USA No.11-36 is located 500 feet south and 500 feet east of the northwest corner of Section 36, T. 32 N., R. 38 E (Mount Diablo Meridian), elevation 4,573 feet. It was drilled between May 15 and July 2, 1980. USA No.11-36 was deemed unsuccessful, having encountered no temperature higher than 270 F and no significant permeability, and was plugged and abandoned without testing prior to releasing the rig.

  2. Library Cooperation at the Grass Roots: A Regional Intertype Library Network in the San Joaquin Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, R. Dean

    1979-01-01

    A small academic library's experience in a regional intertype library network had positive effects on interlibrary loan procedures and improved and promoted cooperation at the local level. The regional network relieves the burden on large research libraries and enables libraries with inadequate resources to provide better service to patrons.…

  3. Transfer of Cs-137 from grass and wilted grass silage to milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vreman, K; van der Struijs, T D; van den Hoek, J; Berende, P L; Goedhart, P W

    1989-09-01

    Deposition of radiocaesium from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the Netherlands made it possible to collect contaminated fresh grass and first cut wilted grass silage. These contaminated roughages were used in transfer experiments with lactating dairy cows to determine transfer coefficients and half-lives for Cs-137 in milk. The experimental design was based on three consecutive periods: a preliminary period to determine the background concentration of the isotope in milk, a contamination period to determine the magnitude of accumulation and finally a depletion period to measure the rate at which the activity concentration of Cs-137 in milk declined after continuous feeding. The average transfer coefficient (Fmilk) for cows fed on contaminated dried grass under steady-state conditions was 0.002 d/kg and for cows fed on slightly contaminated second cut fresh grass 0.006 d/kg. The highest transfer coefficients were obtained for cows fed on contaminated grass silage for 119 days, which also included the dry period of about two months. For the first five days after calving the Fmilk values varied from 0.0066 to 0.0091 d/kg. There were no significant differences in transfer coefficients between cows in early lactation (third month of lactation), cows in late lactation (the last month of the lactation period) and cows fed on both contaminated grass silage and uncontaminated maize silage simultaneously. Half-life values for the rate of decline of the isotope in milk during the depletion period were estimated on the basis of a mathematical model with two exponential components. These components were characterized by half-lives of 0.5 to 3.5 days and 10 to 46 days. PMID:2814441

  4. Effect of cadmium on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and metal accumulation of bana grass and vetiver grass.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingfeng; Gao, Bo; Xia, Hanping

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the differential effects of Cd contamination on the growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of bana grass (Pennisetum americanum × Pennisetum purpureum) and vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Bana grass accumulated 48-453 and 25-208 mg kg(-1) in plant roots and shoots, respectively, at 15-100 mg kg(-1) soil Cd concentration, while vetiver grass accumulated 167-396 and 0.13-9.0 mg kg(-1). These results indicated that bana grass was a Cd accumulator while vetiver grass was a Cd excluder. The ratio of root to shoot biomass was significantly increased in vetiver grass, while it was unchanged in bana grass by Cd pollution. This suggests that excluders may allocate more energy to roots than shoots under Cd pollution compared to un-contaminated condition, while accumulators may allocate equal proportions of energy to roots and shoots. For bana grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe and Mn in roots as well as the translocation factors of Zn and K. For vetiver grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe in roots and had no influence on the translocation factors of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mg, K and Ca. Soil Cd pollution showed no significant effect on chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rates in either of the grasses. The water content and leaf transpiration rate were significantly increased by Cd pollution in bana grass, while they were unchanged in vetiver grass. The results indicated that the energy allocation and mineral nutrition characteristics may aid in screening suitable plant species for phytoremediation. PMID:24836884

  5. Local gravity anomalies produced by dislocation sources.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Dilatancy, in general, does not correspond to the absence of a free air anomaly, as might be suggested by the special case of a spherical source of dilatation. For two-dimensional models a cylindrical source of dilatation produces no free air gravity anomaly, dip-slip faulting produces no Bouguer anomaly, and open cracks produce a Bouguer anomaly equal to that which would be produced had the material within the crack been mined out without deforming the solid. -from Author

  6. Anomaly constraints on monopoles and dyons

    SciTech Connect

    Csaki, Csaba; Shirman, Yuri; Terning, John

    2010-06-15

    Fermions with magnetic charges can contribute to anomalies. We derive the axial anomaly and gauge anomalies for monopoles and dyons, and find eight new gauge anomaly cancellation conditions in a general theory with both electric and magnetic charges. As a by-product, we also extend the Zwanziger two-potential formalism to include the {theta} parameter, and elaborate on the condition for CP invariance in theories with fermionic dyons.

  7. Loop anomalies in the causal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, Dan-Radu

    2015-01-01

    We consider gauge models in the causal approach and study one-loop contributions to the chronological products and the anomalies they produce. We prove that in order greater than 4 there are no one-loop anomalies. Next we analyze one-loop anomalies in the second- and third-order of the perturbation theory. We prove that the even parity contributions (with respect to parity) do not produce anomalies; for the odd parity contributions we reobtain the well-known result.

  8. Titanium isotopic anomalies in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neimeyer, S.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1984-07-01

    Studies of Ti isotopic compositions have shown that virtually every Ca-Al-rich Allende inclusion contains anomalous Ti. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a study of Ti isotopic compositions in meteorites. One objective of the study is to evaluate the possibility of a relation between oxygen and Ti anomalies, while another objective is to explore questions regarding the origin of the Ti anomalies. A summary of the major experimental findings of the study of Ti isotopic compositions is also presented. It is noted that an assessment of the implications of the Ti results favors a chemical memory type of model in which products from various nucleosynthetic sources survive in mineral grains. Isotopic heterogeneities are then preserved due to incomplete mixing and/or equilibriation with the bulk of solar system matter. Strong arguments are found to exist against a pure late supernova injection model.

  9. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  10. Titanium isotopic anomalies in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of Ti isotopic compositions have shown that virtually every Ca-Al-rich Allende inclusion contains anomalous Ti. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a study of Ti isotopic compositions in meteorites. One objective of the study is to evaluate the possibility of a relation between oxygen and Ti anomalies, while another objective is to explore questions regarding the origin of the Ti anomalies. A summary of the major experimental findings of the study of Ti isotopic compositions is also presented. It is noted that an assessment of the implications of the Ti results favors a chemical memory type of model in which products from various nucleosynthetic sources survive in mineral grains. Isotopic heterogeneities are then preserved due to incomplete mixing and/or equilibriation with the bulk of solar system matter. Strong arguments are found to exist against a pure late supernova injection model.

  11. Model selection for anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnaev, E.; Erofeev, P.; Smolyakov, D.

    2015-12-01

    Anomaly detection based on one-class classification algorithms is broadly used in many applied domains like image processing (e.g. detection of whether a patient is "cancerous" or "healthy" from mammography image), network intrusion detection, etc. Performance of an anomaly detection algorithm crucially depends on a kernel, used to measure similarity in a feature space. The standard approaches (e.g. cross-validation) for kernel selection, used in two-class classification problems, can not be used directly due to the specific nature of a data (absence of a second, abnormal, class data). In this paper we generalize several kernel selection methods from binary-class case to the case of one-class classification and perform extensive comparison of these approaches using both synthetic and real-world data.

  12. Long Valley Coring Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, John; Finger, John; McConnel, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    In December 1997, the California Energy Commission (CEC) agreed to provide funding for Phase III continued drilling of the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVEW) near Mammoth Lakes, CA, from its present depth. The CEC contribution of $1 million completes a funding package of $2 million from a variety of sources, which will allow the well to be cored continuously to a depth of between 11,500 and 12,500 feet. The core recovered from Phase III will be crucial to understanding the origin and history of the hydrothermal systems responsible for the filling of fractures in the basement rock. The borehole may penetrate the metamorphic roof of the large magmatic complex that has fed the volcanism responsible for the caldera and subsequent activity.

  13. Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. The bright dots near the center of the image are corner refectors that have been set-up to calibrate the radar as the Shuttle passes overhead with the SIR-C/X-SAR system. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43883.

  14. Coachella Valley, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These band composites, acquired on June 4, 2000, cover a 11 by 13.5 km sub-scene in the Coachella Valley, CA. The area is shown by the yellow box on the full scene in the LOWER RIGHT corner, northwest of the Salton Sea. This is a major agricultural region of California, growing fruit and produce throughout the year. Different combinations of ASTER bands help identify the different crop types. UPPER LEFT: bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, and blue (RGB); UPPER RIGHT: bands 4, 2, 1 as RGB; LOWER LEFT: bands 4, 3, 2 as RGB. The image is centered at 33.6 degrees north latitude, 116.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.

    PubMed

    Ireland, T R

    1996-03-01

    Isotopic compositions are referred to as anomalous if the isotopic ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large isotopic anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from short lived 26Al decay. However, despite the isotopic anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large isotopic anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest isotopes of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C isotopic compositions. SiC commonly has C and N isotopic signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an isotopic signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of short lived isotopes 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these isotopic anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars. PMID

  16. Pigmentary anomalies and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Toriello, Helga V

    2011-01-01

    A number of syndromes that include hearing loss in the phenotype also have pigmentary anomalies as a component manifestation. One of the most common of these is Waardenburg syndrome, which includes hypopigmentation and sensorineural hearing loss in the phenotype. There are four types of Waardenburg syndrome, distinguishable from each other by clinical findings. However, there are several other syndromes which include not only hypopigmentation, but also hyperpigmentation in the phenotype. This paper serves as a review of many of these syndromes. PMID:21358185

  17. Cloacal anomaly with bladder tumor

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Amlesh; Ram, Ishwar

    2013-01-01

    A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of bladder occurring in a 36-year-old female with persistent cloacal anomaly who presented with frequency, urgency, dysuria, and recurrent urinary tract infection is reported. Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography with three dimensional reconstruction showed presence of bladder tumor and persistent cloaca. She underwent pelvic exenteration and wet colostomy. Histopathologic findings revealed locally advanced moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23956519

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of cloacal anomaly.

    PubMed

    Cacciaguerra, S; Lo Presti, L; Di Leo, L; Grasso, S; Gangarossa, S; Di Benedetto, V; Di Benedetto, A

    1998-02-01

    The authors present a case of prenatal diagnosis of cloacal anomaly, characterized by the presence of oligohydramnios and cystic pelvic mass with changing features during observation. Postnatal study confirmed the presence of a recto-cloacal fistula, with a high confluence of the urinary, genital and intestinal systems. Both parents had a chromosome 9 inversion (p11q13), but the child was chromosomally normal. PMID:9561584

  19. Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2009-09-07

    The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.

  20. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  1. Diuron occurrence and distribution in soil and surface and ground water associated with grass seed production.

    PubMed

    Field, Jennifer A; Reed, Ralph L; Sawyer, Thomas E; Griffith, Steven M; Wigington, P J

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the occurrence and distribution of the herbicide diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea] in soil, ground water, and surface water in areas affected by grass-seed production. A field study was designed to investigate the occurrence and distribution of diuron and its transformation products at a poorly drained field site located along an intermittent tributary of Lake Creek in the southern Willamette Valley of Oregon. The experimental sites consisted of a field under commercial grass seed production with a cultivated riparian zone and a second site that was part of the same grass seed field but with a noncultivated riparian zone. Diuron and its transformation product DCPMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methylurea] were the only significant residues detected in this study. Concentrations of diuron in surface water declined from a maximum of 28 microg/L immediately following application to low levels that persisted as long as flow was present. Diuron and DCPMU concentrations in shallow ground water (15-36 cm below ground surface) were highest (2-13 microg/L) in the zone immediately adjacent (0.5 m) to Lake Creek and indicated the influence of stream water on shallow ground water near the stream. Diuron and DCPMU detected in soil prior to the second season's application indicated the persistence of diuron and DCPMU from the previous year's application. Surface runoff during the rainy season removes only a very small percentage (<1%) of the applied herbicide. In addition, no evidence was obtained for the downward transport of diuron or its transformation products to deep ground water. PMID:12549556

  2. 27 CFR 9.58 - Carmel Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carmel Valley. 9.58... Carmel Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Carmel Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Carmel Valley...

  3. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Camara, Paulo E. A. S.; Rudall, Paula J.; Ladd, Philip; Malcomber, Simon T.; Whipple, Clinton J.; Doust, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180°, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. The morphology and developmental genetics of the shift in phyllotaxis have been studied extensively in maize and rice. However, in wheat, Brachypodium, and oats, all in the grass subfamily Pooideae, the change in phyllotaxis does not occur; primary inflorescence branches are produced distichously. It is unknown whether the distichous inflorescence originated at the base of Pooideae, or whether it appeared several times independently. In this study, we show that Brachyelytrum, the genus sister to all other Pooideae has spiral phyllotaxis in the inflorescence, but that in the remaining 3000+ species of Pooideae, the phyllotaxis is two-ranked. These two-ranked inflorescences are not perfectly symmetrical, and have a clear “front” and “back;” this developmental axis has never been described in the literature and it is unclear what establishes its polarity. Strictly distichous inflorescences appear somewhat later in the evolution of the subfamily. Two-ranked inflorescences also appear in a few grass outgroups and sporadically elsewhere in the family, but unlike in Pooideae do not generally correlate with a major radiation of species. After production of branches, the inflorescence meristem may be converted to a spikelet meristem or may simply abort; this developmental decision appears to be independent of the branching pattern. PMID:23898335

  4. Microwave Scattering Model for Grass Blade Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, James M.; Sarabandi, Kamal; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the electromagnetic scattering solution for a grass blade with complex cross-section geometry is considered. It is assumed that the blade cross section is electrically small, but its length is large compared to the incident wavelength. In a recent study it has been shown that the scattering solution for such problems, in the form of a polarizability tensor, can be obtained using the low-frequency approximation in conjunction with the method of moments. In addition, the study shows that the relationship between the polarizability tensor of a dielectric cylinder and its dielectric constant can be approximated by a simple algebraic expression. The results of this study are used to show that this algebraic approximation is valid also for cylinders with cross sections the shape of grass blades, providing that proper values am selected for each of three constants appearing in the expression. These constants are dependent on cylinder shape, and if the relationship between the constants and the three parameters describing a grass blade shape can be determined, an algebraic approximation relating polarizability tensor to blade shape, as well as dielectric constant, can be formed. Since the elements of the polarizability tensor are dependent on only these parameters, this algebraic approximation can replace the cumbersome method of moments model. A conjugate gradient method is then implemented to correctly determine the three constants of the algebraic approximation for each blade shape. A third-order polynomial fit to the data is then determined for each constant, thus providing a complete analytic replacement to the numerical (moment method) scattering model. Comparisons of this approximation to the numerical model show an average error of less than 3%.

  5. Global anomalies and effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkar, Siavash; Sethi, Savdeep

    2016-05-01

    We show that matching anomalies under large gauge transformations and large diffeomorphisms can explain the appearance and non-renormalization of couplings in effective field theory. We focus on thermal effective field theory, where we argue that the appearance of certain unusual Chern-Simons couplings is a consequence of global anomalies. As an example, we show that a mixed global anomaly in four dimensions fixes the chiral vortical effect coefficient (up to an overall additive factor). This is an experimentally measurable prediction from a global anomaly. For certain situations, we propose a simpler method for calculating global anomalies which uses correlation functions rather than eta invariants.

  6. Perennial grass dominance: creating a resilient plant community in an exotic annual grass invaded rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of hectares of western rangelands have been invaded by the exotic and invasive annual grass, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Cheatgrass provides a fine-textured, early maturing fuel that has increased the chance, rate, spread and season of wildfire to public and private lands throughout the ...

  7. Insights into the Antiviral Immunity against Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Reovirus (GCRV) in Grass Carp

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs); pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs); antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine) and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease. PMID:25759845

  8. Satellite GN and C Anomaly Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Stoneking, Eric

    2003-01-01

    On-orbit anomaly records for satellites launched from 1990 through 2001 are reviewed to determine recent trends of un-manned space mission critical failures. Anomalies categorized by subsystems show that Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystems have a high number of anomalies that result in a mission critical failure when compared to other subsystems. A mission critical failure is defined as a premature loss of a satellite or loss of its ability to perform its primary mission during its design life. The majority of anomalies are shown to occur early in the mission, usually within one year from launch. GN&C anomalies are categorized by cause and equipment type involved. A statistical analysis of the data is presented for all anomalies compared with the GN&C anomalies for various mission types, orbits and time periods. Conclusions and recommendations are presented for improving mission success and reliability.

  9. Trends in environmentally induced spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Daniel C.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacecraft Anomaly Data Base was useful in identifying trends in anomaly occurrence. Trends alone do not provide quantitative testimony to a spacecraft's reliability, but they do indicate areas that command closer study. An in-depth analysis of a specific anomaly can be expensive and difficult without access to the spacecraft. Statistically verified anomaly trends can provide a good reference point to begin anomaly analysis. Many spacecraft experience an increase in anomalies during the period of several days centered on the solar equinox, a period that is also correlated with sun eclipse at geostationary altitude and an increase in major geomagnetic storms. Increase anomaly occurrence can also be seen during the local time interval between midnight and dawn. This local time interval represents a region in Earth's near space that experiences an enhancement in electron plasma density due to a migration from the magnetotail during or following a geomagnetic substorm.

  10. Accelerating optimization by tracing valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing-Xiao; He, Rong-Qiang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-06-01

    We propose an algorithm to accelerate optimization when an objective function locally resembles a long narrow valley. In such a case, a conventional optimization algorithm usually wanders with too many tiny steps in the valley. The new algorithm approximates the valley bottom locally by a parabola that is obtained by fitting a set of successive points generated recently by a conventional optimization method. Then large steps are taken along the parabola, accompanied by fine adjustment to trace the valley bottom. The effectiveness of the new algorithm has been demonstrated by accelerating the Newton trust-region minimization method and the Levenberg-Marquardt method on the nonlinear fitting problem in exact diagonalization dynamical mean-field theory and on the classic minimization problem of the Rosenbrock's function. Many times speedup has been achieved for both problems, showing the high efficiency of the new algorithm.

  11. The anatomy of an anomaly. [data on LANDSAT multispectral band scanning in Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.; Marrs, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    An anomalous tonal pattern, apparently associated with the Beaver Creek oil field in central Wyoming, was identified using an MSS Band 5 to 4 ratio image made from digital LANDSAT data. This pattern was attributed to an increase in iron with rocks and/or soils which might have resulted from escaping hydrocarbons. The nature of this anomaly was investigated by producing several different combinations of band ratios and by conducting appropriate field studies. The results indicated (1) the existence of a well-defined oval feature related to exposure of iron-cemented red sandstones in a badlands topography, (2) a broader iron-influenced anomaly surrounding this feature, and (3) a spectral response of the rocks, soils, and alluvium making up this iron-colored surface that is readily distinguishable from that of iron-rich reddish Chugwater siltstones exposed in nearby anticlines. The general pattern of the broad anomaly extending beyond the Beaver Creek field is controlled by several factors including variations in vegetation (mainly sage and tall grasses), soil composition and moisture, and topography in addition to variations in iron content of the rock materials. From the available evidence, there is no provable correlation between the oval or the broad anomalies and the distribution of petroleum-producing structures or possible surface alteration effects related to uranium deposits known to occur within this region.

  12. InSAR and the Hector Mine Earthquake: Crustal Deformation v Atmospheric Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzia, J.

    2005-12-01

    A series of SAR interferograms of the southwestern Mojave Desert record the apparent development and collapse of a topographic anomaly near the epicenter of the 16 Oct 1999 Mw7.1 Hector Mine Earthquake. Interferograms generated from Feb 1999 to June 2000 ERS data, using GAMMA software, record the development of an elliptical uplift, centered about 20 km north-northeast of the epicenter. The uplift covers approximately 2700 km2 and a regional amplitude of 2.8 cm; peak amplitude is nearly 7 cm. Although NOAA records indicate no rain fall in the area of the anomaly for October 1999, the close correlation between topography and interference fringes suggests atmospheric stratification between the highest peak and valley floor. Reprocessing the SAR data, using DIAPASON software, resulted in inversion of the anomaly from uplift to depression. This inversion suggests that the topographic anomaly is not caused by crustal deformation, but is a near-surface atmospheric anomaly caused by local transient conditions such as dust or smoke. Although InSAR offers a powerful new tool for earthquake prediction, this study confirms the impact that minor atmosphere contaminants can have on the interpretation of SAR data.

  13. Statistical modeling of valley fever data in Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talamantes, Jorge; Behseta, Sam; Zender, Charles S.

    2007-03-01

    Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) is a fungal infection found in the southwestern US, northern Mexico, and some places in Central and South America. The fungus that causes it ( Coccidioides immitis) is normally soil-dwelling but, if disturbed, becomes air-borne and infects the host when its spores are inhaled. It is thus natural to surmise that weather conditions that foster the growth and dispersal of the fungus must have an effect on the number of cases in the endemic areas. We present here an attempt at the modeling of valley fever incidence in Kern County, California, by the implementation of a generalized auto regressive moving average (GARMA) model. We show that the number of valley fever cases can be predicted mainly by considering only the previous history of incidence rates in the county. The inclusion of weather-related time sequences improves the model only to a relatively minor extent. This suggests that fluctuations of incidence rates (about a seasonally varying background value) are related to biological and/or anthropogenic reasons, and not so much to weather anomalies.

  14. Statistical modeling of valley fever data in Kern County, California.

    PubMed

    Talamantes, Jorge; Behseta, Sam; Zender, Charles S

    2007-03-01

    Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) is a fungal infection found in the southwestern US, northern Mexico, and some places in Central and South America. The fungus that causes it (Coccidioides immitis) is normally soil-dwelling but, if disturbed, becomes air-borne and infects the host when its spores are inhaled. It is thus natural to surmise that weather conditions that foster the growth and dispersal of the fungus must have an effect on the number of cases in the endemic areas. We present here an attempt at the modeling of valley fever incidence in Kern County, California, by the implementation of a generalized auto regressive moving average (GARMA) model. We show that the number of valley fever cases can be predicted mainly by considering only the previous history of incidence rates in the county. The inclusion of weather-related time sequences improves the model only to a relatively minor extent. This suggests that fluctuations of incidence rates (about a seasonally varying background value) are related to biological and/or anthropogenic reasons, and not so much to weather anomalies. PMID:17120065

  15. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  16. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as a renewable energy source. Third quarterly report, December 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Greenhouse-level screening for short- and intermediate-rotation grasses included further trials with legume species as potential nitrogen sources for the tropical grasses. Yields from four indigenous legumes were appreciably higher when planted in spring (May) than when planted in autumn (November). Initial data were recorded from second generation energy cane studies established during 1980. Controlled variables include varieties, harvest interval, and nitrogen input. Yield data at 6 months indicate high but essentially equal growth rates among all varieties and N-variables. This is attributed to the use of a land rotavator during seedbed preparation - the first such application of this implement on Lajas Valley soils. Total green weights were in the order of 50 to 60 tons/acre, and millable stem weights ranged from 33 to 37 tons/acre, at the 6-months harvest. Dry matter yields ranged from 8 to 11 tons/acre. Juice quality values indicated a minimal sugar content at this stage of maturity. Fiber values ranged from 7 to 14%. Field-scale studies were continued at the Hatillo demonstration site on the humid north coast and in the semi-arid Lajas Valley. For the 6-months harvest at Hatillo, total green weights for all treatments averaged 38.4 tons/acre. Variety US 67-22-2 produced 50.2 tons/acre. Millable cane yields averaged 25.3 tons/acre for all treatments and 34.7 tons/acre for variety US 67-22.2.

  17. Salinity tolerance of foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum) and desirable pasture grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the relative salinity tolerance of foxtail barley and seven desirable pasture grasses. Grass species were reed canarygrass, timothy, altai wildrye, tall fescue, tall wheatgrass, orchardgrass, creeping meadow foxtail, and foxtail barley. Grasses were e...

  18. Long Valley caldera GIS Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. J.; Battaglia, M.; Hill, D.; Langbein, J.; Segall, P.

    2002-12-01

    In May of 1980, a strong earthquake swarm that included four magnitude 6 earthquakes struck the southern margin of Long Valley Caldera associated with a 25-cm, dome-shaped uplift of the caldera floor. These events marked the onset of the latest period of caldera unrest that continues to this day. This ongoing unrest includes recurring earthquake swarms and continued dome-shaped uplift of the central section of the caldera (the resurgent dome) accompanied by changes in thermal springs and gas emissions. Analysis of combined gravity and geodetic data confirms the intrusion of silicic magma beneath Long Valley caldera. In 1982, the U.S. Geological Survey under the Volcano Hazards Program began an intensive effort to monitor and study geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera. This database provides an overview of the studies being conducted by the Long Valley Observatory in Eastern California from 1975 to 2000. The database includes geological, monitoring and topographic datasets related to the Long Valley Caldera, plus a number of USGS publications on Long Valley (e.g., fact-sheets, references). Datasets are available as text files or ArcView shapefiles. Database CD-ROM Table of Contents: - Geological data (digital geologic map) - Monitoring data: Deformation (EDM, GPS, Leveling); Earthquakes; Gravity; Hydrologic; CO2 - Topographic data: DEM, DRG, Landsat 7, Rivers, Roads, Water Bodies - ArcView Project File

  19. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brulfert, G.; Chemel, C.; Chaxel, E.; Chollet, J. P.

    2005-03-01

    Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys), to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the valley, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening). Modelling in POVA should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter. Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System), developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms) of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain. This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model) code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing. Using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the valley (slope and valley winds) and to process chemistry at fine scale. Validation of campaign days allows to study chemistry indicators in the valley. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  20. Geochemical evolution of Mexicali Valley groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Makdisi, R.S.; Truesdell, A.H.; Thompson, J.M.; Coplen, T.B.; Sanchez R., J.

    1982-08-10

    Isotopic and chemical compositions of Mexicali Valley groundwaters vary widely. Observed variations reflect different water origins, mineral-water reactions, lateral variations of delta facies as well as evaporation. Regional treatment of the groundwater data shows that northern and central regions are a mixture of old and new Colorado River water. Variations in water chemistry result from different groundwaters origins and the effects of lateral delta facies changes. Dissolution of gypsum and precipitation of carbonates, silicates, and phosphates are suggested. The eastern Mesa de San Luis and southern region water originates primarily from the Gila River catchment area. This water is undersaturated with respect to gypsum and carbonates and is oversaturated with respect to silicates. Most of the western groundwaters are a mixture of Colorado River and geothermal waters in the proximity of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. Recharge to the geothermal aquifer is from the west as well as the north and east. Calcite is being precipitated out as the groundwater temperatures rise in response to the geothermal anomaly. Other western groundwaters reflect a dominant mixture of Colorado River water and evaporated lake water. Some Western groundwater samples suggest dilution by local rainwater and/or irrigation water.

  1. Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

  2. Anomaly detection for internet surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Henri; Raaijmakers, Stephan; Halma, Arvid; Wedemeijer, Harry

    2012-06-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming to monitor many websites. In this paper, we present a novel method to automatically monitor trends and find anomalies on the internet. The system was tested on Twitter data. The results showed that it can successfully recognize abnormal changes in activity or emotion.

  3. Hot flow anomalies at Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J. A.; Coates, A. J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.; Boardsen, S.; Moore, T. E.; Barabash, S.

    2012-04-01

    We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

  4. Railroad Valley, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Information from images of Railroad Valley, Nevada captured on August 17,2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer(ASTER) may provide a powerful tool for monitoring crop health and maintenance procedures.

    These images cover an area of north central Nevada. The top image shows irrigated fields, with healthy vegetation in red. The middle image highlights the amount of vegetation. The color code shows highest vegetation content in red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple and the lowest in black. The final image is a thermal infrared channel, with warmer temperatures in white and colder in black.

    In the thermal image, the northernmost and westernmost fields are markedly colder on their northwest areas, even though no differences are seen in the visible image or the second, Vegetation Index image. This can be attributed to the presence of excess water, which can lead to crop damage.

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)is an imaging instrument that is flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The instrument is being used to obtain detailed maps of land surface temperature, emissivity, reflectance and elevation. The Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms are part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, whose goal is to obtain a better understanding of the interactions between the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.

  5. Weed suppression by grasses for orchard floor management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit trees in orchards of the mid-Atlantic region are often planted in vegetation-free rows alternating with grass travel alleys. The tree rows can be maintained vegetation-free by herbicides or tillage but soil degradation or tree injury can result from these practices. Grasses that suppress wee...

  6. Evaluating Pasture Grasses: Fescues and Other Freaks of Nature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) has excellent potential for grazing-based dairy and beef systems in Wisconsin, but producer awareness of this temperate grass is lacking. Previous research established that its intake potential is comparable or superior to other pasture grasses, and winter-ha...

  7. Regional collaborative research on cold tolerance of exotic biofuel grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold tolerance is a selectable trait for many exotic grasses, even those of tropical or subtropical origin. We are conducting cold tolerance assessments on an array of perennial biofuel grasses at Booneville, AR. In study one (published), we reported that two sugarcane clones (US84-1028 and US84-1...

  8. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the bulk of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the genome...

  9. Field drying rate differences among three cool-season grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conserving cool-season grasses as silage or hay remains a challenge due to the time required for curing and the unpredictability of weather. We compared the drying rates of three grasses with differing yield potential, morphology, and physical characteristics. Inflorescence-stage meadow fescue, orch...

  10. Narrow grass hedge effects on nutrient transport following compost application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of stiff-stemmed grass hedges can be a valuable soil conservation measure. A study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of a narrow grass hedge, planted on the contour along the hillslope, in reducing runoff nutrient transport from plots with a range of soil nutrient values. Composted ...

  11. Two-dimensional flow patterns near contour grass hedges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass hedges are narrow strips of stiff-stemmed vegetation used to control erosion and sediment delivery. When planted on the contour, the hydraulic resistance of the vegetation slows runoff, creates ponding, and promotes sediment deposition. In addition, when tillage is performed between grass he...

  12. Cellulosic ethanol production from warm-season perennial grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm-season (C4) perennial grasses are able to produce large quantities of biomass, and will play a key role in bioenergy production, particularly in areas with long warm growing seasons. Several different grass species have been studied as candidate bioenergy crops for the Southeast USA, and each ...

  13. Molecular understandings on 'the never thirsty' and apomictic Cenchrus grass.

    PubMed

    Syamaladevi, Divya P; Meena, S S; Nagar, R P

    2016-03-01

    The genus Cenchrus comprises around 25 species of 'bristle clade' grasses. Cenchrus ciliaris (buffel grass) is a hardy, perennial range grass that survives in poor sandy soils and limiting soil moisture conditions and, due to the very same reasons, this grass is one of the most prevalent fodder grasses of the arid and semi-arid regions. Most of the germplasms of Cenchrus produce seeds asexually through the process of apomeiosis. Therefore, the lack of sufficient sexual lines has hindered the crop improvement efforts in Cenchrus being confined to simple selection methods. Many attempts have been initiated in buffel grass to investigate the various molecular aspects such as genomic signatures of different species and genotypes, molecular basis of abiotic stress tolerance and reproductive performance. Even though it is an important fodder crop, molecular investigations in Cenchrus lack focus and the molecular information available on this grass is scanty. Cenchrus is a very good gene source for abiotic stress tolerance and apomixis studies. Biotechnological interventions in Cenchrus can help in crop improvement in Cenchrus as well as other crops through transgenic technology or marker assisted selection. To date no consolidated review on biotechnological interventions in Cenchrus grass has been published. Therefore we provide a thorough and in depth review on molecular research in Cenchrus focusing on molecular signatures of evolution, tolerance to abiotic stress and apomictic reproductive mechanism. PMID:26601981

  14. Grazing invasive annual grasses: the green and brown guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasion of rangeland by annual grasses has become one of the most serious and catastrophic problems in the western United States. Annual grasses displace desired plants and create monocultures that do not provide adequate plant cover for the entire year. Using the ecologically-based invasive plant ...

  15. GRASS CARP AS A POTENTIAL CONTROL AGENT FOR CATTAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Replicate ponds were stocked with grass carp in May 1982 and a fence exclosure placed in each pond to assess the effects of this herbivorous fish on the cattail community. Stocking rate of grass carp four individuals oer pond each membership 18-23 cm in total length. In August 19...

  16. Weed suppression by grasses for orchard floor management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit trees in orchards of the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. are often planted in vegetation-free rows alternating with grass travel alleys. The tree rows can be maintained vegetation-free by herbicides or tillage, but soil degradation or tree injury can result. Grass that is managed to suppress...

  17. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Model Grass Brachypodium Distachyon.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the compl...

  18. Space Weather, Cosmic Rays, and Satellite Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Dorman

    Results are presented of the Satellite Anomaly Project, which aims to improve the methods of safeguarding satellites in the Earth’s magnetosphere from the negative effects of the space environment. Anomaly data from the USSR and Russian “Kosmos” series satellites in the period 1971-1999 are combined into one database, together with similar information on other spacecraft. This database contains, beyond the anomaly information, various characteristics of space weather: geomagnetic activity indices (Ap, AE and Dst), fluxes and fluencies of electrons and protons at different energies, high energy cosmic ray variations and other solar, interplanetary and solar wind data. A comparative analysis of the distribution of each of these parameters relative to satellite anomalies was carried out for the total number of anomalies (about 6000 events), and separately for high altitude orbit satellites ( 5000 events) and low altitude (about 800 events). No relation was found between low and high altitude satellite anomalies. Daily numbers of satellite anomalies, averaged by a superposed epoch method around sudden storm commencements and proton event onsets for high (>1500 km) and low (<1500 km) altitude orbits revealed a big difference in behavior. Satellites were divided into several groups according to their orbital characteristics (altitude and inclination). The relation of satellite anomalies to the environmental parameters was found to be different for various orbits, and this should be taken into account when developing anomaly frequency models. The preliminary anomaly frequency models are presented.

  19. Local variations of seismic velocity in the Imperial Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.D.; Lee, W.B.

    1981-12-01

    The authors inverted local earthquake arrival times to estimate spatial variations of seismic velocity. Their model consisted of near-surface station corrections and local perturbations to a standard crustal velocity model. The authors found a zone of relatively high-velocity trending southeast from the Salton Sea. This zone corresponds to the region of thickest sediments. The authors compared results with those of teleseismic studies by Savino et al (1977). The agreement was excellent, suggesting that the teleseismic delays are caused primarily by crustal velocity variations. Residual delays between the teleseismic observations and predicted crustal delays imply crustal thinning of 3 or 4 km along the axis of the valley. Known geothermal resource areas at Salton Sea (or Obsidian Buttes), Brawley, and East Mesa, lie on the axis of a zone of thin crust, and they may be intimately related to the Brawley fault. Neither local earthquake nor teleseismic arrival times can discriminate between these hypotheses, but the issue might be resolved by combining both types of data. Known geothermal resource areas at Heber, Dunes, and Glamis, lie away from the projected trace of the Brawley fault. These areas are nearly aseismic, and overlie crust with apparent seismic velocities only mildly higher than the regional average. These apparent velocity anomalies could be related to crustal thinning, but because of the very mild Bouguer gravity anomalies in these areas, it seems more likely that the velocity anomalies occur entirely within the crust. 7 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, Michael G; Parr, Patricia Dreyer; Cohen, Kari

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  1. Preliminary results of hydrogeologic investigations Humboldt River Valley, Winnemucca, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Philip M.

    1964-01-01

    Most of the ground water of economic importance and nearly all the ground water closely associated with the flow o# the Humboldt River in the. 40-mile reach near Winnemucca, Nev., are in unconsolidated sedimentary deposits. These deposits range in age from Pliocene to Recent and range in character from coarse poorly sorted fanglomerate to lacustrine strata of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The most permeable deposit consists of sand and gravel of Lake Lahontan age--the so-called medial gravel unit--which is underlain and overlain by fairly impermeable silt and clay also of Lake Lahontan age. The ultimate source of nearly all the water in the study area is precpitation within the drainage basin of the Humboldt River. Much of this water reaches the study, area as flow or underflow of the Humboldt River and as underflow from other valleys tributary to the study area. Little if any flow from the tributary streams in the study area usually reaches the Humboldt River. Most of the tributary streamflow within the study area evaporates or is transpired by vegetation, but a part percolates downward through unconsolidated deposits of the alluvial fans flanking the mountains and move downgradient as ground-water underflow toward the Humboldt River. Areas that contribute significant amounts of ground-water underflow to. the valley of the Humboldt River within the study area are (1) the valley of the Humboldt River upstream from the study area, (2) the Pole Creek-Rock Creek area, (3) Paradise Valley, and (4) Grass Valley and the northwestern slope of the Sonoma Range. The total average underflow from these areas in the period 1949-61 was about 14,000-19,000 acre-feet per year. Much of this underflow discharged into the Humboldt River within the study area and constituted a large part of the base flow of the river. Streamflow in the Humboldt River increases substantially in the early spring, principally because of runoff to the river in the reaches upstream from the study area

  2. Conductivity Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neska, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies which, by applying the magnetotelluric, geomagnetic deep sounding, and magnetovariational sounding methods (the latter refers to usage of the horizontal magnetic tensor), investigate Central Europe for zones of enhanced electrical conductivity. The study areas comprise the region of the Trans-European Suture Zone (i.e. the south Baltic region and Poland), the North German Basin, the German and Czech Variscides, the Pannonian Basin (Hungary), and the Polish, Slovakian, Ukrainian, and Romanian Carpathians. This part of the world is well investigated in terms of data coverage and of the density of published studies, whereas the certainty that the results lead to comprehensive interpretations varies within the reviewed literature. A comparison of spatially coincident or adjacent studies reveals the important role that the data coverage of a distinct conductivity anomaly plays for the consistency of results. The encountered conductivity anomalies are understood as linked to basin sediments, asthenospheric upwelling, large differences in lithospheric age, and—this concerns most of them, which all concentrate in the middle crust—tectonic boundaries that developed during all mountain building phases that have taken place on the continent.

  3. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  4. Grass Lignin Acylation: p-Coumaroyl Transferase Activity and Cell Wall Characteristics of C3 and C4 Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasses have always been a predominate source of nutritional energy for livestock systems around the world. Species belonging to the C3 and C4 grass types have recently been championed as feedstock sources for bioenergy production. Their ultimate use would be as a source of carbohydrate for fermenta...

  5. Chromium isotopic anomalies in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esat, T. M.; Ireland, T. R.

    1989-02-01

    The abundances of chromium isotopes, in refractory inclusions from the Allende meteorite, show wide-spread anomalies. The chromium isotope anomalies are similar in pattern to the anomalies discovered in Ca and Ti. The largest effects occur at the neutron-rich isotopes Ca-48, Ti-50 and Cr-54. Individual Cr-rich pink spinels, from the Murchison meteorite, exhibit large and variable excesses in Cr-53 and Cr-54 including the largest Cr-53 anomaly so far reported. Magnesium isotopes, in Murchison Cr-poor blue spinels, also show variable anomalies in Mg-26 including mass-dependent fractionation favoring the lighter isotopes. The Cr-53, Cr-54 and Mg-26 anomalies in Murchison spinels are indicative of a heterogeneous distribution of magnesium and chromium isotopes in the early solar nebula and require a contribution from several nucleosynthetic components in addition to physicochemical processing.

  6. Minor congenital anomalies and ataxic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, G

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of minor congenital anomalies was examined in 36 patients with ataxic cerebral palsy, in unaffected family members, and in 100 unrelated control subjects. None of the control subjects or family members had more than four anomalies, and 25 of 36 (69%) of the patients had more than four. The distribution of anomalies differed considerably, with 60% of the index cases having seven or more, and 94% of the controls having three or less. The number occurring in the patients was significantly more than in their relatives. Of the 25 patients with more than four anomalies, 16 (64%) had undergone potentially adverse perinatal or early postnatal events. Thus minor congenital anomalies were considerably more frequent in those with ataxic cerebral palsy than in related or unrelated control subjects. These anomalies may be markers of early prenatal factors that contributed to the adverse outcome either directly or by predisposing to perinatal difficulties. PMID:2751330

  7. Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

  8. Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Fe and Pb in wild grasses affected by the Aznalcóllar mine spill (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Madejón, P; Murillo, J M; Marañón, T; Cabrera, F; López, R

    2002-05-01

    The collapse of the tailing dam in the Aznalcóllar pyrite mine (SW Spain) occurred in April 1998 and affected approximately 4300 ha along the Agrio and Guadiamar valleys. An urgent soil cleaning up and remediation programme was started just after the accident. Eighteen months later, mineral nutrients and trace elements concentration in soil and two wild grasses--Cynodon dactylon and Sorghum halepense--have been studied. Three types of conditions are distinguished: (a) unaffected soils (control); (b) cleaned up and remediated soils (remediated); and (c) sludge-covered soils left in a fenced plot (non-remediated). As, Cd, Cu and Pb in grasses reached toxic levels for the food web in the non-remediated plot, while on remediated soils only Cd reached a toxic level in grass tissues. However, Pb and, to a lesser extent As and Fe, reached also toxic levels in unwashed plants (as they would be ingested by animals) in remediated soils. Both native grasses seem tolerant of trace elements pollution and suitable for stabilisation of spill-affected soils. PMID:12083702

  9. Methods to assess factors that influence grass seed yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louhaichi, Mounir

    A greater than 10-fold increase in Canada goose (Branta canadensis ) populations over the past several years has resulted in concerns over grazing impacts on grass seed production in the mid-Willamette Valley, Oregon. This study was designed to develop methods to quantify and statistically analyze goose-grazing impacts on seed yields of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Yield-mapping-system equipped combines, incorporating global positioning system (GPS) technology, were used to measure and map yields. Image processing of ground-level photography to estimate crop cover and other relevant observations were spatially located via GPS to establish spatial-temporal goose grazing patterns. We sampled each field semi-monthly from mid-winter through spring. Spatially located yield data, soils information, exclosure locations, and grazing patterns were integrated via geographical information system (GIS) technology. To avoid concerns about autocorrelation, a bootstrapping procedure for subsampling spatially contiguous seed yield data was used to organize the data for appropriate use of analysis of variance. The procedure was used to evaluate grazing impacts on seed yield for areas of fields with different soils and with differential timing and intensity of goose grazing activity. We also used a standard paired-plot procedure, involving exclosures and associated plots available for grazing. The combination of spatially explicit photography and yield mapping, integrated with GIS, proved effective in establishing cause-and-effect relationships between goose grazing and seed yield differences. Exclosures were essential for providing nongrazed controls. Both statistical approaches were effective in documenting goose-grazing impacts. Paired-plots were restricted by small size and few numbers and did not capture grazing impacts as effectively as comparison of larger areas to exclosures. Bootstrapping to subsample larger areas of

  10. Acardiac anceps: a rare congenital anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Aruna; Agarwal, Rohini; Saxena, Pikee; Barla, Jaya

    2014-01-01

    Acardiac twin is a rare congenital anomaly and is exclusively associated with monochorionic twin pregnancies. The abnormalities occur due to abnormal communication between the two fetuses in the form of arterioarterial and venovenous communications, resulting in a grossly abnormal acardiac twin with reduction anomalies mainly of the upper body and gross oedema. Since no two acardiac twins are alike, this case report will add to the acardiac twin anomaly spectrum. PMID:24717594

  11. The Mars Rover Spirit FLASH anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, Glenn E.; Neilson, Tracy C.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover 'Spirit' suffered a debilitating anomaly that prevented communication with Earth for several anxious days. With the eyes of the world upon us, the anomaly team used each scrap of information, our knowledge of the system, and sheer determination to analyze and fix the problem, then return the vehicle to normal operation. This paper will discuss the Spirit FLASH anomaly, including the drama of the investigation, the root cause and the lessons learned from the experience.

  12. Resolution of grass canopy biomass classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of variance methods has been applied to in situ grassland spectral reflectance data in order to determine the classes or levels of total wet biomass that can be resolved spectrally by a single narrow band measurement. Ground-truth clipping of blue grama grass plots was performed immediately following spectral reflectance measurements at 91 wavelength intervals which were 0.005 microns apart over the spectral range from 0.350 to 0.800 microns. It was found that the photographic infrared region of 0.750 to 0.800 microns could be used to distinguish three classes or levels of total wet biomass. Four or five classes, particularly at higher biomass levels, could not be distinguished by this technique.

  13. Galilean anomalies and their effect on hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Akash

    2016-03-01

    We study flavor and gravitational anomalies in Galilean theories coupled to torsional Newton-Cartan backgrounds. We establish that the relativistic anomaly inflow mechanism with an appropriately modified anomaly polynomial can be used to generate these anomalies. Similar to the relativistic case, we find that Galilean anomalies also survive only in even dimensions. Further, these anomalies only effect the flavor and rotational symmetries of a Galilean theory; in particular, the Milne boost symmetry remains nonanomalous. We also extend the transgression machinery used in relativistic fluids to Galilean fluids, and use it to determine how these anomalies affect the constitutive relations of a Galilean fluid. Unrelated to the Galilean fluids, we propose an analogue of the off-shell second law of thermodynamics for relativistic fluids, to include torsion and a conserved spin current in the vielbein formalism. Interestingly, we find that even in the absence of spin current and torsion the entropy currents in the two formalisms are different: while the usual entropy current gets a contribution from the gravitational anomaly, the entropy current in the vielbein formalism does not have any anomaly-induced part.

  14. The magnetic anomaly of the Ivreazone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, G.

    1979-01-01

    A magnetic field survey was made in the Ivreazone in 1969/70. The results were: significant anomaly of the vertical intensity is found. It follows the basic main part of the Ivrea-Verbano zone and continues to the south. The width of the anomaly is about 10 km, the maximum measures about +800 gamma. The model interpretation shows that possibly the anomaly belongs to an amphibolitic body, which in connection with the Ivrea-body was found by deep seismic sounding. Therefore, the magnetic anomaly provides further evidence for the conception that the Ivrea-body has to be regarded as a chip of earthmantle material pushed upward by tectonic processes.

  15. Initial scalar magnetic anomaly map from Magsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.; Phillips, J. D.; Horner, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Magsat data acquired during the November 1979-June 1980 mission was used to derive a scalar magnetic anomaly map covering +50 to -50 deg geographic latitude, and the separation of anomaly fields from core and external fields was accomplished by techniques developed for POGO satellite data. Except in the Atlantic and Pacific at latitudes south of -15 deg, comparison of the Magsat map with its POGO data-derived counterpart shows basic anomaly patterns to be reproducible, and higher resolution due to Magsat's lower measurement altitude. Color-coded scalar anomaly maps are presented for both satellites.

  16. Conscious and unconscious detection of semantic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    When asked What superhero is associated with bats, Robin, the Penguin, Metropolis, Catwoman, the Riddler, the Joker, and Mr. Freeze? people frequently fail to notice the anomalous word Metropolis. The goals of this study were to determine whether detection of semantic anomalies, like Metropolis, is conscious or unconscious and whether this detection is immediate or delayed. To achieve these goals, participants answered anomalous and nonanomalous questions as their reading times for words were recorded. Comparisons between detected versus undetected anomalies revealed slower reading times for detected anomalies-a finding that suggests that people immediately and consciously detected anomalies. Further, comparisons between first and second words following undetected anomalies versus nonanomalous controls revealed some slower reading times for first and second words-a finding that suggests that people may have unconsciously detected anomalies but this detection was delayed. Taken together, these findings support the idea that when we are immediately aware of a semantic anomaly (i.e., immediate conscious detection) our language processes make immediate adjustments in order to reconcile contradictory information of anomalies with surrounding text; however, even when we are not consciously aware of semantic anomalies, our language processes still make these adjustments, although these adjustments are delayed (i.e., delayed unconscious detection). PMID:25624136

  17. Satellite Magnetic Anomalies of Africa and Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (Principal Investigator); Olivier, R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary MAGSAT scalar magnetic anomaly data of Africa, Europe, and adjacent marine areas were reduced to the pole assuming a constant inducing Earth's magnetic field of 60,000 nT. This process leads to a consistent anomaly data set free from marked variations in directional and intensity effects of the Earth's magnetic field over this extensive region. The resulting data are correlated with long wave length-pass filtered free-air gravity anomalies; regional heat flow, and tectonic data to investigate magatectonic elements and the region's geologic history. Magnetic anomalies are related to both ancient as well as more recent Cenozoic structural features.

  18. Consistent anomalies of the induced W gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abud, Mario; Ader, Jean-Pierre; Cappiello, Luigi

    1996-02-01

    The BRST anomaly which may be present in the induced Wn gravity quantized on the light-cone is evaluated in the geometrical framework of Zucchini. The cocycles linked by the cohomology of the BRST operator to the anomaly are straightforwardly calculated thanks to the analogy between this formulation and the Yang-Mills theory. We give also a conformally covariant formulation of these quantities including the anomaly, which is valid on arbitrary Riemann surfaces. The example of the W3 theory is discussed and a comparison with other candidates for the anomaly available in the literature is presented.

  19. Tuning Spin- and Valley-Degeneracies in Multicomponent Quantum Well Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu-Gaunkar, Sunanda

    The theme of this thesis is manipulation of spin and valley degeneracies in two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) by locally or globally controlling the energy gaps between the two spin states or multiple valley states. Degeneracies in 2DES can be controlled internally or externally with magnetic, strain, and electrostatic fields. With magneto-transport measurements we can probe these spin and valley energy gaps. Spin degeneracies in quantum wells (QW) can be controlled with magnetic field by changing the tilt angle of the field with respect to the sample. Valley degeneracies can be controlled principally by growing QWs of a certain orientation and width. Furthermore, the valley energies can be controlled externally by applying strain or electrostatic gated devices. We first consider transport signatures of controlled spin degeneracies. Magnetic fields can be used to control spin degeneracies and spin gaps by tuning the tilt angle of the field with respect to the sample plane. These spin dependencies can be observed at different tilt angles by conducting measurements of the longitudinal and Hall resistance. In particular, transport measurements in a Si/SiGe spin-split valley degenerate 2DES demonstrates anomalous rise of the transverse Hall resistance at certain quantized plateaus. With systematic tilted field data we map this anomaly to the longitudinal resistance, and also to directional derivatives of the longitudinal resistance. We also develop a theoretical model for estimating the spin-degenerate and spin-split density of states which we fit using the data on longitudinal resistance. We input the exactly calculated spin gaps at every tilt angle in the edge state model of quantum Hall effect, and we are able to provide a microscopic justification to the experimentally observed anomalous features by introducing a constant energy density of disordered states in our model. We next consider transport signatures of controlled valley degeneracies. Valley

  20. Summer Dormancy in Perennial Temperate Grasses

    PubMed Central

    VOLAIRE, FLORENCE; NORTON, MARK

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Dormancy has been extensively studied in plants which experience severe winter conditions but much less so in perennial herbaceous plants that must survive summer drought. This paper reviews the current knowledge on summer dormancy in both native and cultivated perennial temperate grasses originating from the Mediterranean Basin, and presents a unified terminology to describe this trait. • Scope Under severe drought, it is difficult to separate the responses by which plants avoid and tolerate dehydration from those associated with the expression of summer dormancy. Consequently, this type of endogenous (endo-) dormancy can be tested only in plants that are not subjected to moisture deficit. Summer dormancy can be defined by four criteria, one of which is considered optional: (1) reduction or cessation of leaf production and expansion; (2) senescence of mature foliage; (3) dehydration of surviving organs; and (4, optional) formation of resting organs. The proposed terminology recognizes two levels of summer dormancy: (a) complete dormancy, when cessation of growth is associated with full senescence of foliage and induced dehydration of leaf bases; and (b) incomplete dormancy, when leaf growth is partially inhibited and is associated with moderate levels of foliage senescence. Summer dormancy is expressed under increasing photoperiod and temperature. It is under hormonal control and usually associated with flowering and a reduction in metabolic activity in meristematic tissues. Dehydration tolerance and dormancy are independent phenomena and differ from the adaptations of resurrection plants. • Conclusions Summer dormancy has been correlated with superior survival after severe and repeated summer drought in a large range of perennial grasses. In the face of increasing aridity, this trait could be used in the development of cultivars that are able to meet agronomic and environmental goals. It is therefore important to have a better

  1. Gramene, a tool for grass genomics.

    PubMed

    Ware, Doreen H; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Ni, Junjian; Yap, Immanuel V; Pan, Xioakang; Clark, Ken Y; Teytelman, Leonid; Schmidt, Steven C; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Kuan; Cartinhour, Sam; Stein, Lincoln D; McCouch, Susan R

    2002-12-01

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is a comparative genome mapping database for grasses and a community resource for rice (Oryza sativa). It combines a semi-automatically generated database of cereal genomic and expressed sequence tag sequences, genetic maps, map relations, and publications, with a curated database of rice mutants (genes and alleles), molecular markers, and proteins. Gramene curators read and extract detailed information from published sources, summarize that information in a structured format, and establish links to related objects both inside and outside the database, providing seamless connections between independent sources of information. Genetic, physical, and sequence-based maps of rice serve as the fundamental organizing units and provide a common denominator for moving across species and genera within the grass family. Comparative maps of rice, maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and oat (Avena sativa) are anchored by a set of curated correspondences. In addition to sequence-based mappings found in comparative maps and rice genome displays, Gramene makes extensive use of controlled vocabularies to describe specific biological attributes in ways that permit users to query those domains and make comparisons across taxonomic groups. Proteins are annotated for functional significance using gene ontology terms that have been adopted by numerous model species databases. Genetic variants including phenotypes are annotated using plant ontology terms common to all plants and trait ontology terms that are specific to rice. In this paper, we present a brief overview of the search tools available to the plant research community in Gramene. PMID:12481044

  2. Spectral Methods for Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. L.; Gee, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Spectral methods, that is, those based in the Fourier transform, have long been employed in the analysis of magnetic anomalies. For example, Schouten and MaCamy's Earth filter is used extensively to map patterns to the pole, and Parker's Fourier transform series facilitates forward modeling and provides an efficient algorithm for inversion of profiles and surveys. From a different, and perhaps less familiar perspective, magnetic anomalies can be represented as the realization of a stationary stochastic process and then statistical theory can be brought to bear. It is vital to incorporate the full 2-D power spectrum, even when discussing profile data. For example, early analysis of long profiles failed to discover the small-wavenumber peak in the power spectrum predicted by one-dimensional theory. The long-wavelength excess is the result of spatial aliasing, when energy leaks into the along-track spectrum from the cross-track components of the 2-D spectrum. Spectral techniques may be used to improve interpolation and downward continuation of survey data. They can also evaluate the reliability of sub-track magnetization models both across and and along strike. Along-strike profiles turn out to be surprisingly good indicators of the magnetization directly under them; there is high coherence between the magnetic anomaly and the magnetization over a wide band. In contrast, coherence is weak at long wavelengths on across-strike lines, which is naturally the favored orientation for most studies. When vector (or multiple level) measurements are available, cross-spectral analysis can reveal the wavenumber interval where the geophysical signal resides, and where noise dominates. One powerful diagnostic is that the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-path components of the field must be constant 90 degrees. To illustrate, it was found that on some very long Project Magnetic lines, only the lowest 10% of the wavenumber band contain useful geophysical signal. In this

  3. Martian oceans, valleys and climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The new Mars Global Surveyor altimetry shows that the heavily cratered southern hemisphere of Mars is 5 km higher that the sparely cratered plains of the northern hemisphere. Previous suggestions that oceans formerly occupied that northern plains as evidenced by shorelines are partly supported by the new data. A previously identified outer boundary has a wide range of elevations and is unlikely to be a shoreline but an inner contact with a narrow range of elevations is a more likely candidate. No shorelines are visible in the newly acquired, 2.5 metre/pixel imaging. Newly imaged valleys provide strong support for sustained or episodic flow of water across the Martian surface. A major surprise, however, is the near absence of valleys less than 100 m across. Martian valleys seemingly do not divide into ever smaller valleys as terrestrial valleys commonly do. This could be due to lack of precipitation or lack of surface runoff because of high infiltration rates. High erosion rates and supports warm climates and presence of large bodies of water during heavy bombardment. The climate history and fate of the water after heavy bombardment remain cotroversial.

  4. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum and cerebral anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Schrander-Stumpel, C T; de Die-Smulders, C E; Hennekam, R C; Fryns, J P; Bouckaert, P X; Brouwer, O F; da Costa, J J; Lommen, E J; Maaswinkel-Mooy, P D

    1992-01-01

    We report on three Dutch children with a clinical diagnosis of oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) and hydrocephalus. The clinical features are compared to 15 published cases of OAVS and hydrocephalus. Several other cerebral abnormalities were present in the whole group. About half of the cases had cleft lip/palate, anophthalmia/microphthalmia, or a cardiac defect. Mental retardation was found in five of the surviving 11 patients and early death occurred in one-third. We compared the cases with OAVS and hydrocephalus with published reports of OAVS and other cerebral anomalies and found no significant clinical differences. However, the clinical characteristics were clearly more severely expressed than generally found in patients with OAVS. Children with OAVS and more severe clinical features, especially anophthalmia/microphthalmia and cleft lip/palate, seem to be at an increased risk for cerebral malformations and for mental retardation. Images PMID:1583660

  5. Seasonal appearance of grass pollen allergen in natural, pauci-micronic aerosol of various size fractions. Relationship with airborne grass pollen concentration.

    PubMed

    Spieksma, F T; Nikkels, B H; Dijkman, J H

    1995-03-01

    In a study during the 1993 grass pollen season at Leiden, the relationship between atmospheric pollen allergen carried by five size fractions of pauci-micronic (few microns) particles and the grass pollen count was investigated. Sampling was carried out on dry days, and atmospheric pollen allergen in the particle fractions was assessed by a RAST-inhibition assay while grass pollen quantities were measured with a volumetric pollen trap. It appears that the atmospheric presence of grass pollen allergen in all size fractions is restricted mainly to the period of presence of grass pollen grains. Before and after the grass pollen season atmospheric grass pollen allergen quantities are generally very low. It is concluded that a routinely performed grass pollen count is a reliable measurement for the estimation of the amount of atmospheric grass pollen allergen, also in the pauci-micronic particle fraction. PMID:7788570

  6. Stability theory for the synchronized waving of marine grass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ravi; Mahadevan, Amala; Mandre, Shreyas; Mahadevan, L. M.

    2014-11-01

    Synchronized waving of grass blades in the presence of fluid flow has been observed in cases such as wheat field in wind, marine grass in tidal currents. The synchronous motion can have important environmental and ecological impact via mixing of fluid due to waving. When the hydrodynamic and elastic time scales are well separated, this waving is thought to be due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability resulting from an inflection point in the flow profile. We find that the inflection point is located near the tip of grass canopy. We extend the Orr-Sommerfeld equation for the stability of a shear flow to include a continuum mean-field approximation for the vegetation, thus capturing the essential ingredients for flow instability leading to coherent waving. Our linear stability analysis shows that the flow in presence of grass become unstable not only through a mechanism of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability but also through shear instability of flow above grass. We also find that flow with low submergence ratio of grass becomes unstable due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability whereas flow high submergence ratio becomes unstable due to shear instability of flow above the grass. Numerical results demonstrating these instability mechanism will also be presented.

  7. Epichloë grass endophytes in sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Miia; Saikkonen, Kari; Helander, Marjo; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Wäli, Piippa R

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides. Indeed, Epichloë endophytes have successfully been developed and commercialized for agricultural use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of the host grass species originate from Europe, which is a biodiversity hotspot for both grasses and endophytes. However, intentional use of endophyte-enhanced grasses in Europe is virtually non-existent. We suggest that the diversity of European Epichloë endophytes and their host grasses should be exploited for the development of sustainable agricultural, horticultural and landscaping practices, and potentially for bioremediation and bioenergy purposes, and for environmental improvement. PMID:27249195

  8. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brulfert, G.; Chemel, C.; Chaxel, E.; Chollet, J. P.

    2005-09-01

    Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys), to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the Chamonix and Maurienne valleys, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening). Modelling is one of the aspects of POVA and should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter. Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System), developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms) of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain. This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model) code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing.

    This paper focuses on modelling Chamonix valley using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry which makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the Chamonix valley (slope and valley winds) and to process chemistry at fine scale. The summer 2003 intensive campaign was used to validate the model and to study chemistry. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  9. Magnetic and gravity anomalies of the slow-spreading system in the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, M.; Fujimoto, H.; Tamaki, K.; Okino, K.

    2002-12-01

    The spreading system in the Gulf of Aden between Somalia, NE Africa, and Arabia has an ENE-WSW trend and its half spreading rate is about 1.0 cm/yr (e.g., Jestin et al., 1994). Previous studies (e.g., Tamsett and Searle, 1988) provided the general morphology of the spreading system. To reveal detailed morphology and tectonics of the spreading system in the Gulf of Aden, geophysical investigation was conducted along the spreading system between 45°30OE and 50°20OE by the R/V Hakuho-maru from December 2000 to January 2001. Bathymetric data were collected using an echo sounder SEA BEAM 2120 aboard R/V Hakuho-maru. Magnetic and gravity data were collected by towed proton magnetometer and shipboard gravimeter, respectively. The strike of the spreading centers east of 46°30OE is N65°W. The topographic expression of the spreading centers east of N46°30OE is an axial rift valley offset by transform faults siilar to that observed at slow spreading centers in other areas. The bathymetric feature of the spreading centers between 45°50OE and 46°30OE with a strike N80°E is N65°W trending en-echelon basins. The spreading center west of 45°50OE with a strike E-W is bouned by linear ridges and its bathymetric expression is N65°W trending en-echelon ridges. The axial rift valley west of N46°30OE is not offset by any prominent transform faults. Negative magnetic anomaly is dominant over the axial valleys. Its amplitude is about 500 nT and the wavelength is about 30 km. Prominent linear negative magnetic anomaly, which is more than 1000 nT, exists west of N46°30OE. The strike of the linear magnetic anomaly correlates with that of axial valleys west of N46°30OE. Mantle Bouguer gravity anomaly of the spreading centers increases eastward. This trend correlates with the eastward deepening of spreading centers.

  10. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  11. Crustal Thickness on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Bull's-Eye Gravity Anomalies and Focused Accretion.

    PubMed

    Tolstoy, M; Harding, A J; Orcutt, J A

    1993-10-29

    Spreading segments of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge show negative bull's-eye anomalies in the mantle Bouguer gravity field. Seismic refraction results from 33 degrees S indicate that these anomalies can be accounted for by variations in crustal thickness along a segment. The crust is thicker in the center and thinner at the end of the spreading segment, and these changes are attributable to variations in the thickness of layer 3. The results show that accretion is focused at a slow-spreading ridge, that axial valley depth reflects the thickness of the underlying crust, and that along-axis density variations should be considered in the interpretation of gravity data. PMID:17812339

  12. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  13. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  14. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  15. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  16. The Pioneer Valley Studies Summer Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabeck, Bernard A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes Greenfield Community College's Pioneer Valley Studies Summer Institute, which offers elementary and secondary school teachers in-depth exposure to the history, literature, science, art, and architecture of Pioneer Valley, Massachusetts. (DMM)

  17. A magnetic anomaly of possible economic significance in southeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zietz, Isidore

    1964-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey in southeastern Minnesota by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the State of Minnesota has revealed a high-amplitude, linear, and narrow magnetic feature that suggests a possible source of Precambrian iron-formation of economic value. For the past few years the U. S. Geological Survey has been conducting detailed geophysical studies of the midcontinent gravity anomaly--a broad, high-amplitude feature that extends from Lake Superior through the States of Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and part of Kansas. As part of this study an aeromagnetic survey of the southern part of the State was made in cooperation with the State of Minnesota during the summer of 1963, in which a linear high-amplitude anomaly of the order of 4,000 gammas was discovered. Because of the high amplitude, the linearity, and the narrowness of the magnetic feature, it is believed the source may be Precambrian iron-formation of possible economic value. The anomalous area is in Fillmore County, approximately between the towns of Lanesboro and Peterson in the extreme southeastern part of the State. (See figures 1 and 2.) At the site of the anomaly, Cambrian sedimentary rocks occur in the valley of the Root River, and Ordovician rocks (nearly flat lying) mantle the upland areas. The uplands are largely covered by glacial deposits, which are relatively thin (Paul K. Sims, written communication, 1964). Depths to the Precambrian are estimated to range from 500 feet to 1,000 feet below the surface. The aeromagnetic map shown in figure 2 was compiled from continuous magnetic profiles made along east-west flight lines 1,000 feet above ground, and spaced approximately 1 mile apart. Contour intervals of 20, 100, and 500 gammas were used depending on the intensity. The instrument for the survey was a flux-gate type magnetometer (AN/ASQ-3A) which measures total-field variations. The contour map displays variations in magnetic pattern which are typical of shallow Precambrian rocks

  18. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  19. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  20. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  1. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  2. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  3. Indicated preterm birth for fetal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Craigo, Sabrina D

    2011-10-01

    Between 2% and 3% of pregnancies are complicated by fetal anomalies. For most anomalies, there is no advantage to late preterm or early-term delivery. The risks of maternal or fetal complication are specific for each anomaly. Very few anomalies pose potential maternal risk. Some anomalies carry ongoing risks to the fetus, such as an increased risk of fetal death, hemorrhage, or organ damage. In a limited number of select cases, the advantages of late preterm or early-term birth may include avoiding an ongoing risk of fetal death related to the anomaly, allowing delivery in a controlled setting with availability of subspecialists and allowing direct care for the neonate with organ injury. The optimal gestational age for delivery cannot be determined for all pregnancies complicated by fetal anomalies. For most pregnancies complicated by anomalies, there is no change to obstetrical management regarding timing of delivery. For those that may benefit from late preterm or early-term delivery, variability exists such that each management plan should be individualized. PMID:21962626

  4. Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

    2010-02-19

    This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

  5. Estimated natural ground-water recharge, discharge, and budget for the Dixie Valley area, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrill, J.R.; Hines, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Dixie Valley area includes seven valleys in west-central Nevada (Dixie, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, Eastgate, Pleasant, and Jersey Valleys; total, 2,380 square miles). Dixie Valley receives surface-water and ground-water flow from Stingaree, Cowkick, Eastgate, Pleasant, and Jersey Valleys and subsurface flow from Fairview Valley, which is a topographically closed basin. The relation between precipitation and altitude was re-evaluated for the Dixie Valley area using new data, and empirical estimates of recharge were revised accordingly. The revised estimate of total recharge is 23,000 acre-feet per Re-evaluation of ground-water discharge focused on Dixie Valley as the largest basin in the study area. Phreatophytic vegetation was mapped and partitioned into nine zones on the basis of species composition and foliage density. For woody phreatophytes, annual evapotranspiration rates of 0.7 cubic feet of water per cubic foot of foliage for greasewood and 1.1 cubic feet of water per cubic foot of foliage for rabbitbrush were adapted from lysimeter studies near Winnemucca, Nevada. These rates were multiplied by the foliage density of the respective phreatophytes in each zone to estimate a specific rate for that zone. Rates for salt-grass (0.5 to 0.8 foot per year) and the playa surface (0.1 to 0.3 foot per year) were based on a range of rates. used in other recent studies in western and central Nevada. These rates were multiplied by the areas of the zones to produce estimates of the annual volume of ground water discharged. The discharge estimated for Dixie Valley is between 17,000 and 28,000 acre-feet per year. The revised discharge estimate for the entire Dixie Valley area is between 20,000 and 31,000 acre-feet per year. The revised ground-water budget for the entire Dixie Valley study area has a total recharge of about 23,000 acre-feet per year. This is within the range of estimates of natural discharge--from 20,000 to 31,000 acre-feet per year. For Dixie Valley

  6. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  7. Global magnetic anomaly and aurora of Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Andrew F.

    1990-01-01

    The large offset and tilt of Neptune's dipole magnetic field combine to create a global magnetic anomaly, analogous to but much more important than earth's South Atlantic Anomaly. Energetic particle precipitation loss within the Neptune anomaly creates 'atmospheric drift shadows' within which particle fluxes are greatly reduced. The energetic particle dropout observed by Voyager near closest approach occurred near the predicted times when Voyager passed within the atmospheric drift shadow. Extremely soft, structured bursts of ions and electrons within the drift shadow may result from plasma wave-induced pitch angle scattering of trapped particles confined near the magnetic equator. The dropout does not necessarily imply that Voyager passed through an earth-like discrete auroral zone, as earlier reported. The ion and electron fluxes observed within the dropout period correspond to particles that must precipitate to Neptune's atmosphere within the anomaly region. This anomaly precipitation can account for a major portion of the ultraviolet emissions previously identified as Neptune aurora.

  8. A New, Principled Approach to Anomaly Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A; Bridges, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Intrusion detection is often described as having two main approaches: signature-based and anomaly-based. We argue that only unsupervised methods are suitable for detecting anomalies. However, there has been a tendency in the literature to conflate the notion of an anomaly with the notion of a malicious event. As a result, the methods used to discover anomalies have typically been ad hoc, making it nearly impossible to systematically compare between models or regulate the number of alerts. We propose a new, principled approach to anomaly detection that addresses the main shortcomings of ad hoc approaches. We provide both theoretical and cyber-specific examples to demonstrate the benefits of our more principled approach.

  9. Spring Indian Ocean-western Pacific SST contrast and the East Asian summer rainfall anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jie; Lu, Riyu; Hu, Jinming; Wang, Hai

    2013-11-01

    After studying the relationship between SST in the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO), tropical western Pacific (TWP), and tropical eastern Pacific (TEP) and East Asian summer rainfall (EASR), using data provided by NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD and the National Climate Center of China for the period 1979-2008, an index, SSTDI, was defined to describe the SST difference between the TIO and TWP. In comparison with the winter ENSO, the spring SST contrast between the TIO and TWP was found to be more significantly associated with summer rainfall in East Asia, especially along the EASR band and in Northeast China. This spring SST contrast can persist into summer, resulting in a more significant meridional teleconnection pattern of lower-tropospheric circulation anomalies over the western North Pacific and East Asia. These circulation anomalies are dynamically consistent with the summer rainfall anomaly along the EASR band. When the SSTDI is higher (lower) than normal, the EASR over the Yangtze River valley, Korea, and central and southern Japan is heavier (less) than normal. The present results suggest that this spring SST contrast can be used as a new and better predictor of EASR anomalies.

  10. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  11. 27 CFR 9.105 - Cumberland Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cumberland Valley. 9.105... Cumberland Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Cumberland Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Cumberland...

  12. 27 CFR 9.105 - Cumberland Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cumberland Valley. 9.105... Cumberland Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Cumberland Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Cumberland...

  13. 27 CFR 9.105 - Cumberland Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cumberland Valley. 9.105... Cumberland Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Cumberland Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Cumberland...

  14. 27 CFR 9.105 - Cumberland Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cumberland Valley. 9.105... Cumberland Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Cumberland Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Cumberland...

  15. Structure of Hot Flow Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, A.; Vaisberg, O. L.

    2012-12-01

    Hot Flow Anomalies (HFAs) were first discovered in 1980s. These are active processes of hot plasma bulks formation that usually occur at planetary bow shocks. Though HFA were studied for long time it is still not clear if they are reforming structures and what defines particular internal structure of HFA. Our study is based on the Interball Tail Probe data. We used 10-sec measurements of complex plasma analyzer SCA-1 and 1-second magnetic field measurements, and ELECTRON spectrometer 2-dimensional measurements with 3,75-sec temporal resolution. Five anomalies that were observed on the basis of well resolved structure for which we obtained displacement velocity along bow shock, flow velocities within HFA, and estimated the size. We checked if main criteria of HFA formation were fulfilled for each case. The following criteria were satisfied: motional electric field direction was directed toward current sheet at least at one side of it, bow shock was quasi-perpendicular at least at one side of HFA, and angle between current sheet normal and solar wind velocity was large. Convection velocities of plasma within HFA were calculated by subtracting average velocity from measured ion convection velocities along spacecraft trajectory through anomaly. These convection velocities viewed in coordinate system of shock normal and calculated IMF current sheet normal clearly show separation of HFA region in 3 parts: leading part, narrow central part, and trailing part. Ion velocity distributions confirm this triple structure of HFA. Thomsen et al. [1986] identified the region within HFA that they called "internal recovery". It looks like central region that we call narrow central part. Vaisberg et al. [1999] discussed separation of HFA into 2 distinct parts that correspond to leading and trailing parts. Judging from plasma convection pattern within HFAs we assumed that "internal recovery" region is the source of energy and momentum around interplanetary current sheet crossing. HFA

  16. Anomaly Detection in Dynamic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, Melissa

    2014-10-14

    Anomaly detection in dynamic communication networks has many important security applications. These networks can be extremely large and so detecting any changes in their structure can be computationally challenging; hence, computationally fast, parallelisable methods for monitoring the network are paramount. For this reason the methods presented here use independent node and edge based models to detect locally anomalous substructures within communication networks. As a first stage, the aim is to detect changes in the data streams arising from node or edge communications. Throughout the thesis simple, conjugate Bayesian models for counting processes are used to model these data streams. A second stage of analysis can then be performed on a much reduced subset of the network comprising nodes and edges which have been identified as potentially anomalous in the first stage. The first method assumes communications in a network arise from an inhomogeneous Poisson process with piecewise constant intensity. Anomaly detection is then treated as a changepoint problem on the intensities. The changepoint model is extended to incorporate seasonal behavior inherent in communication networks. This seasonal behavior is also viewed as a changepoint problem acting on a piecewise constant Poisson process. In a static time frame, inference is made on this extended model via a Gibbs sampling strategy. In a sequential time frame, where the data arrive as a stream, a novel, fast Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) algorithm is introduced to sample from the sequence of posterior distributions of the change points over time. A second method is considered for monitoring communications in a large scale computer network. The usage patterns in these types of networks are very bursty in nature and don’t fit a Poisson process model. For tractable inference, discrete time models are considered, where the data are aggregated into discrete time periods and probability models are fitted to the

  17. Barnyard grasses were processed with rice around 10000 years ago.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Fuller, Dorian Q; Huan, Xiujia; Perry, Linda; Li, Quan; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Jianping; Ma, Zhikun; Zhuang, Yijie; Jiang, Leping; Ge, Yong; Lu, Houyuan

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is regarded as the only grass that was selected for cultivation and eventual domestication in the Yangtze basin of China. Although both macro-fossils and micro-fossils of rice have been recovered from the Early Neolithic site of Shangshan, dating to more than 10,000 years before present (BP), we report evidence of phytolith and starch microfossils taken from stone tools, both for grinding and cutting, and cultural layers, that indicating barnyard grass (Echinochloa spp.) was a major subsistence resource, alongside smaller quantities of acorn starches (Lithocarpus/Quercus sensu lato) and water chestnuts (Trapa). This evidence suggests that early managed wetland environments were initially harvested for multiple grain species including barnyard grasses as well as rice, and indicate that the emergence of rice as the favoured cultivated grass and ultimately the key domesticate of the Yangtze basin was a protracted process. PMID:26536839

  18. Genome sequencing and analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    2010-02-11

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae, Panicoideae and Pooideae, provide the bulk of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), which is, to our knowledge, the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes shows a precise history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grasses, and establishes a template for analysis of the large genomes of economically important pooid grasses such as wheat. The high-quality genome sequence, coupled with ease of cultivation and transformation, small size and rapid life cycle, will help Brachypodium reach its potential as an important model system for developing new energy and food crops. PMID:20148030

  19. Genome sequencing and analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaohan; Kalluri, Udaya C; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2010-01-01

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae, Panicoideae and Pooideae, provide the bulk of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), which is, to our knowledge, the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes shows a precise history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grasses, and establishes a template for analysis of the large genomes of economically important pooid grasses such as wheat. The high-quality genome sequence, coupled with ease of cultivation and transformation, small size and rapid life cycle, will help Brachypodium reach its potential as an important model system for developing new energy and food crops.

  20. Mineral transfer in a legume/grass association

    SciTech Connect

    Habben, J.E.; Blevins, D.G.

    1986-04-01

    Previous pasture research has indicated that in a legume/grass association the grass has a higher concentration of specific minerals than grass grown alone. The purpose of this study was to determine if a deeply rooted legume could transfer minerals to an associated shallow rooted grass plant via their root systems. A greenhouse study was conducted using alfalfa and maize plants grown in a double tube design. Plants were established such that the top tube contained both alfalfa and maize roots while the bottom tube contained only the alfalfa roots. Alfalfa roots in the lower tube were exposed to 1 mCi of one of three different isotopes (/sup 32/P, /sup 86/Rb and /sup 45/Ca) over a 40 day period. Under these conditions, radioactive analysis of maize tissue showed a significant transfer of /sup 86/Rb and /sup 32/P.

  1. Microwave backscattering and emission model for grass canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sasan S.; Lang, Roger H.; Levine, David M.

    1991-01-01

    A two-layer model is developed that treats the grass canopy as a collection of randomly oriented elliptical dielectric discs over a layer of thatch with underlying soil surface. The distorted Born approximation in conjunction with the Peake formulation is used to calculate the backscattering coefficient and the emissivity from the canopy. Two particular features of this model which are unique for grass canopies are the variation of the canopy structure and the presence of the thatch layer. The basic parameters in the model such as the size and orientation of grass blades, dielectric constant of soil and vegetation, and thickness and water content of the thatch layer have been obtained from ground truth data. To interpret the available experimental observations of grasslands, numerical results from both passive and active models at L-band (1.4 GHz) are generated and various scattering and emission properties of the grass canopies are discussed.

  2. How Many Blades of Grass Are on a Football Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Christina M.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the use of a problem-based instructional task in an elementary classroom. After estimating the number of blades of grass on a football field, students write letters to explain the results of their research.

  3. Gravity Perception and Response in Shoots of Cereal Grasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, P. B.; Song, I.; Bluncson, C.

    1985-01-01

    Two components of the gravitropic curvature response in cereal grass pulvini are studied. These two components are gravity perception and mechanism of response following the transduction phase. The effects of gravity, time lag, protein synthesis and enzyme production are included.

  4. Foreword to farming with grass: Achieving sustainable mixed agricultural landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Farming with Grass conference was developed to bring together diverse stakeholders in grassland environments to (a) help assess the current condition of agriculture, (b) consider alternative production scenarios for grassland agricultural ecosystems, (c) identify key issues hindering the develop...

  5. 6. WORKERS COLLECTING SAGO PONDWEED, RED TOP GRASS, LEAFY PONDWEED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. WORKERS COLLECTING SAGO PONDWEED, RED TOP GRASS, LEAFY PONDWEED, WATER MILFOIL, AND OTHER AQUATIC PLANTS FOR TRANSPLANTING FROM A COULEE SIX MILES AWAY FROM THE REFUGE - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  6. INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

  7. Barnyard grasses were processed with rice around 10000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Fuller, Dorian Q; Huan, Xiujia; Perry, Linda; Li, Quan; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Jianping; Ma, Zhikun; Zhuang, Yijie; Jiang, Leping; Ge, Yong; Lu, Houyuan

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is regarded as the only grass that was selected for cultivation and eventual domestication in the Yangtze basin of China. Although both macro-fossils and micro-fossils of rice have been recovered from the Early Neolithic site of Shangshan, dating to more than 10,000 years before present (BP), we report evidence of phytolith and starch microfossils taken from stone tools, both for grinding and cutting, and cultural layers, that indicating barnyard grass (Echinochloa spp.) was a major subsistence resource, alongside smaller quantities of acorn starches (Lithocarpus/Quercus sensu lato) and water chestnuts (Trapa). This evidence suggests that early managed wetland environments were initially harvested for multiple grain species including barnyard grasses as well as rice, and indicate that the emergence of rice as the favoured cultivated grass and ultimately the key domesticate of the Yangtze basin was a protracted process. PMID:26536839

  8. Diablo Valley College Trends, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Les; And Others

    This report provides 31 charts showing trends in enrollment; transfer students; and ethnic and gender characteristics of students, faculty, and staff at Diablo Valley College (DVC), in California, up to fall 1992. Following a brief introduction highlighting statewide trends, charts are provided for the following areas: (1) DVC fall enrollments…

  9. Navigating the valley of death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2014-11-01

    Taking an innovation from the lab to the market is hard in any discipline, but physics start-ups face some unique challenges crossing the so-called "valley of death". James Dacey speaks to scientists and business professionals in the Boston area of the US who have dared to take on this journey.

  10. McMurdo Dry Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the few areas of Antarctica not covered by thousands of meters of ice, the McMurdo Dry Valleys stand out in this satellite image. For a few weeks each summer temperatures are warm enough to melt glacial ice, creating streams that feed freshwater lakes that lie at the bottom of the valleys. Beneath a cap of ice these lakes remains unfrozen year-round, supporting colonies of bacteria and phytoplankton. Over the past 14 years, however, summers have been colder than usual, and the lakes are becoming more and more frozen. If the trend continues, the biological communities they support may go into hibernation. Most of Antarctica has cooled along with the Dry Valleys, in contrast to much of the rest of the Earth, which has warmed over the past 100 years. No one knows if the trend is related to global climate, or just a quirk in the weather. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument on December 18, 1999. For more information, visit: National Public Radio's Mixed Signals from Antarctica Declassified Satellite Imagery of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Image by Robert Simmon, based on data provided by the NASA GSFC Oceans and Ice Branch and the Landsat 7 Science Team

  11. Effects of low levels of herbicides on prairie species of the Willamette Valley, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, David; Blakeley-Smith, Matthew; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2013-11-01

    The relative sensitivity of 17 noncrop plant species from Oregon's Willamette Valley was determined in response to glyphosate, tribenuron methyl (tribenuron), and fluazifop-p-butyl (fluazifop) herbicides. For glyphosate, Elymus trachycaulus, Festuca arundinacea, Madia elegans, Potentilla gracilis, and Ranunculus occidentalis were the most sensitive species, based on a concentration calculated to reduce shoot dry weight by 25% (IC25 values) of 0.02 to 0.04 × a field application rate of 1112 g active ingredient (a.i.) per hectare. Clarkia amoena and Lupinus albicaulis were the most tolerant to glyphosate, with IC25 values near the field application rate. Clarkia amoena, Prunella vulgaris, and R. occidentalis were the most sensitive to tribenuron, with IC25 values of 0.001 to 0.004 × a field application rate of 8.7 g a.i. ha(-1) for shoot dry weight. Five grass species were tolerant to tribenuron with no significant IC25 values. For fluazifop, 2 native grasses, E. trachycaulus and Danthonia californica, were the most sensitive species, with IC25 values of 0.007 and 0.010 × a field application rate of 210 g a.i. ha(-1) , respectively, for shoot dry weight, while a native grass, Festuca roemeri, and nearly all forbs showed little or no response. These results also indicated that the 3 introduced species used in the present study may be controlled with 1 of the tested herbicides: glyphosate (F. arundinacea), tribenuron (Leucanthemum vulgare), and fluazifop (Cynosurus echinatus). PMID:23881750

  12. Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.

    1976-01-01

    Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

  13. The potential of cellulosic ethanol production from grasses in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85-38.51, 31.13-42.61, and 3.10-5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500-600 mg/g grasses (70-80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35 °C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values). PMID:23097596

  14. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values). PMID:23097596

  15. Architectural Evolution and its Implications for Domestication in Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Doust, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background The cereal crops domesticated from grasses provide a large percentage of the calories consumed by humans. Domestication and breeding in individual cereals has historically occurred in isolation, although this is rapidly changing with comparative genomics of the sequenced or soon-to-be sequenced genomes of rice, sorghum, maize and Brachypodium. Genetic information transferred through genomic comparisons is helping our understanding of genetically less tractable crops such as the hexaploid wheats and polyploid sugarcane, as well as the approx. 10 000 species of wild grasses. In turn, phylogenetic analysis helps put our knowledge of the morphology of cereal crops into an evolutionary context. Grass Architecture Domestication often involves a change in the pattern and timing of branching, which affects both vegetative and inflorescence architecture, and ultimately yield. Cereal grasses exhibit two main forms of vegetative architecture: the pooid and erhartoid cereals such as wheat and rice have multiple basal tillers, while panicoid cereals such as maize, sorghum and the millets have few tillers or even only a single main stem. These differences are reflected in the differences between the wild species of pooid and some erhartoid grasses, which emphasize basal branching over axillary branching, and the panicoid grasses, where axillary branching is more frequently found. A combination of phylogenetic and genomic analysis is beginning to reveal the similarities and differences between different cereal crops, and relate these to the diversity of wild grasses to which they are related. Recent work on genes controlling branching emphasizes that developmental genetics needs to be viewed in both an evolutionary and ecological framework, if it is to be useful in understanding how morphology evolves. Increasingly, exploring the phylogenetic context of the crop grasses will suggest new ways to identify and create combinations of morphological traits that will best

  16. Sonoran Desert ecosystem transformation by a C4 grass without the grass/fire cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsson, Aaryn D.; Betancourt, Julio; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Marsh, Stuart E.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Biological invasions facilitate ecosystem transformation by altering the structure and function, diversity, dominance and disturbance regimes. A classic case is the grass–fire cycle in which grass invasion increases the frequency, scale and/or intensity of wildfires and promotes the continued invasion of invasive grasses. Despite wide acceptance of the grass–fire cycle, questions linger about the relative roles that interspecific plant competition and fire play in ecosystem transformations. Location Sonoran Desert Arizona Upland of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, USA. Methods We measured species cover, density and saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) size structure along gradients of Pennisetum ciliare invasion at 10 unburned/ungrazed P. ciliare patches. Regression models quantified differences in diversity, cover and density with respect to P. ciliare cover, and residence time and a Fisher's exact test detected demographic changes in saguaro populations. Because P. ciliare may have initially invaded locations that were both more invasible and less diverse, we ran analyses with and without the plots in which initial infestations were located. Results Richness and diversity decreased with P. ciliare cover as did cover and density of most dominant species. Richness and diversity declined with increasing time since invasion, suggesting an ongoing transformation. The proportion of old-to-young Carnegiea gigantea was significantly lower in plots with dominant P. ciliare cover. Main conclusions Rich desert scrub (15–25 species per plot) was transformed into depauperate grassland (2–5 species per plot) within 20 years following P. ciliare invasion without changes to the fire regime. While the onset of a grass–fire cycle may drive ecosystem change in the later stages and larger scales of grass invasions of arid lands, competition by P. ciliare can drive small-scale transformations earlier in the invasion. Linking competition-induced transformation rates with

  17. Collie Eye Anomaly in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Walser-Reinhardt, L; Hässig, M; Spiess, B

    2009-12-01

    In this retrospective study, the results of 3'527 eye examinations in 6 different breeds affected with Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA) over a period of 8 years (1999 - 2007) are described. CEA was divided into three main ophthalmoscopic features, a) choroidal hypoplasia (CRH), b) CRH and coloboma and c) coloboma alone. Of the 101 Smooth Collies 8.9 % showed signs of CRH, whereas 36.9 % of Rough Collies were affected with CRH, 2.8 % with CRH and coloboma and 0.38 % with coloboma alone. Choroidal hypoplasia was present in 13.1 %, CRH and coloboma in 1.8 % and coloboma alone in 0.2 % of the Shetland Sheepdogs. Only one Australian Shepherd dog had CRH, while 0.7 % of the Border Collies were affected with CRH. None of the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers were affected with CEA. There were no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of CEA between males and females, nor was there any relation between coat colors. Significant differences could be shown between dogs younger or older than 8 weeks at first examination. CEA was more often diagnosed in dogs younger than 8 weeks within the Rough Collie and Shetland Sheepdog. PMID:19946851

  18. Data Mining for Anomaly Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Gautam; Mack, Daniel; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar; Bharadwaj, Raj

    2013-01-01

    The Vehicle Integrated Prognostics Reasoner (VIPR) program describes methods for enhanced diagnostics as well as a prognostic extension to current state of art Aircraft Diagnostic and Maintenance System (ADMS). VIPR introduced a new anomaly detection function for discovering previously undetected and undocumented situations, where there are clear deviations from nominal behavior. Once a baseline (nominal model of operations) is established, the detection and analysis is split between on-aircraft outlier generation and off-aircraft expert analysis to characterize and classify events that may not have been anticipated by individual system providers. Offline expert analysis is supported by data curation and data mining algorithms that can be applied in the contexts of supervised learning methods and unsupervised learning. In this report, we discuss efficient methods to implement the Kolmogorov complexity measure using compression algorithms, and run a systematic empirical analysis to determine the best compression measure. Our experiments established that the combination of the DZIP compression algorithm and CiDM distance measure provides the best results for capturing relevant properties of time series data encountered in aircraft operations. This combination was used as the basis for developing an unsupervised learning algorithm to define "nominal" flight segments using historical flight segments.

  19. Vitellointestinal Duct Anomalies in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Kadian, Yogender Singh; Verma, Anjali; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Kajal, Pardeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitellointestinal duct (VID) or omphalomesenteric duct anomalies are secondary to the persistence of the embryonic vitelline duct, which normally obliterates by weeks 5–9 of intrauterine life. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a total of 16 patients of symptomatic remnants of vitellointestinal duct from period of Jan 2009 to May 2013. Results: Male to female ratio (M:F) was 4.3:1 and mean age of presentation was 2 months and their mode of presentation was: patent VID in 9 (56.25%) patients, umbilical cyst in 2(12.25%), umbilical granuloma in 2 (12.25%), and Meckel diverticulum as content of hernia sac in obstructed umbilical hernia in 1 (6.25%) patient. Two patients with umbilical fistula had severe electrolyte disturbance and died without surgical intervention. Conclusion: Persistent VID may have varied presentations in infancy. High output umbilical fistula and excessive bowel prolapse demand urgent surgical intervention to avoid morbidity and mortality. PMID:27433448

  20. Hot Flow Anomaly Structure Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, A.; Vaisberg, O. L.

    2010-12-01

    Hot Flow Anomaly observed on Interball-Tail on 03.14.1996 is investigated. The normal to the interplanetary current sheet interacting with bow shock was determined in assumption of tangential discontinuity. Calculated motional electric field was directed towards current sheet. The bow shock before HFA arrival to the spacecraft was quasi-perpendicular, and was quasi-parallel after HFA passage. Respectively, of the shocks, bracketing HFA, were quasi-perpendicular before HFA passage and quasi-parallel after it. With averaged velocity of plasma within the body of HFA and duration of HFA observation we determined its size in normal to the current sheet direction as ~ 2.5 RE. HFA consists of two regions separated by thin layer with different plasma characteristics. Convection of plasma within HFA, as observed along spacecraft trajectory by subtracting averaged velocity from observed velocities, show that plasma in each of two regions is moving from separating layer. It indicates that separating layer is the site of energy deposition from interaction of the solar wind with ions reflected from the shock. This is confirmed by analysis of ion velocity distributions in this layer.

  1. Variations in Km(CO2) of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase among Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Hock-Hin; Badger, Murray R.; Watson, Leslie

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the Km(CO2) values of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from 60 grass species shows that enzyme from C3 grasses consistently exhibits lower Km(CO2) than does that from C4 grasses. Systematically ordered variation in Km(CO2) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylases from C3 and C4 grasses is also apparent and, among C4 grasses, this shows some correlation with C4 types. PMID:16661586

  2. Hydrocarbon occurrences near Kyle Hot Springs, Buena Vista Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ehni, W.J.; McCarthy, H.; Neumann, W.H.

    1995-06-01

    Buena Vista Valley is a small Tertiary Basin located in Northwestern Nevada. Oil was discovered in a mineral exploration hole drilled by Independence Mining Company Inc. (IMC) during October, 1993 near Kyle Hot Springs in Buena Vista Valley. The hole flowed unchecked for four and a half days, producing an estimated 500 barrels of oil with large volumes of hot water, before it was plugged and abandoned. In August of 1994 a continuous core hole was drilled by Barton/Evans to further evaluate the oil occurrences in the IMC hole. Two oil zones were found in the Barton/Evans hole, both of which have similar characteristics to the oil produced in the IMC hole. Pristane and phytane ratios (pr/ph) for oil samples from both holes are low (<0.1) which suggests that the source rock for this oil is from non marine lacustrine Tertiary sediments. There are no detectable hydrocarbons in the gas emanating from Kyle Hot Springs which indicates that the current day geothermal system is not in direct contact with any oil accumulations. Organic rich Triassic marine rocks which outcrop west of Buena Vista Valley, are over mature which supports the hypothesis that unexposed organic rich Tertiary rocks occurring in the deeper portions of the basin acted as the source for the oil occurrences in the IMC hole and in the Barton/Evans hole. In 1974, Standard Oil drilled an 11,000 foot well south of Buena Vista Valley in the Carson Sink and encountered organic rich Tertiary sediments at about 3500`. If this organic rich unit extends north into Buena Vista Valley, local geothermal anomalies might play an important role in the generation of oil. Earlier researches have reported that such anomalies do exist with temperature gradients approaching 100 C per kilometer west of Kyle Hot Springs in an area where gravity data suggest a relatively thick interval of Tertiary rocks have accumulated.

  3. Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M.; Stricker, J.A.; Anderson, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

  4. Topological spin and valley pumping in silicene

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Sheng, L.; Wang, B. G.; Xing, D. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We propose to realize adiabatic topological spin and valley pumping by using silicene, subject to the modulation of an in-plane ac electric field with amplitude Ey and a vertical electric field consisting of an electrostatic component and an ac component with amplitudes and . By tuning and , topological valley pumping or spin-valley pumping can be achieved. The low-noise valley and spin currents generated can be useful in valleytronic and spintronic applications. Our work also demonstrates that bulk topological spin or valley pumping is a general characteristic effect of two-dimensional topological insulators, irrelevant to the edge state physics. PMID:27507592

  5. Topological spin and valley pumping in silicene.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Sheng, L; Wang, B G; Xing, D Y

    2016-01-01

    We propose to realize adiabatic topological spin and valley pumping by using silicene, subject to the modulation of an in-plane ac electric field with amplitude Ey and a vertical electric field consisting of an electrostatic component and an ac component with amplitudes and . By tuning and , topological valley pumping or spin-valley pumping can be achieved. The low-noise valley and spin currents generated can be useful in valleytronic and spintronic applications. Our work also demonstrates that bulk topological spin or valley pumping is a general characteristic effect of two-dimensional topological insulators, irrelevant to the edge state physics. PMID:27507592

  6. Topological spin and valley pumping in silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Sheng, L.; Wang, B. G.; Xing, D. Y.

    2016-08-01

    We propose to realize adiabatic topological spin and valley pumping by using silicene, subject to the modulation of an in-plane ac electric field with amplitude Ey and a vertical electric field consisting of an electrostatic component and an ac component with amplitudes and . By tuning and , topological valley pumping or spin-valley pumping can be achieved. The low-noise valley and spin currents generated can be useful in valleytronic and spintronic applications. Our work also demonstrates that bulk topological spin or valley pumping is a general characteristic effect of two-dimensional topological insulators, irrelevant to the edge state physics.

  7. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Congxin; Guo, Xiao; Qin, Manzhong

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  8. Congenital basis of posterior fossa anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Cotes, Claudia; Bonfante, Eliana; Lazor, Jillian; Jadhav, Siddharth; Caldas, Maria; Swischuk, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    The classification of posterior fossa congenital anomalies has been a controversial topic. Advances in genetics and imaging have allowed a better understanding of the embryologic development of these abnormalities. A new classification schema correlates the embryologic, morphologic, and genetic bases of these anomalies in order to better distinguish and describe them. Although they provide a better understanding of the clinical aspects and genetics of these disorders, it is crucial for the radiologist to be able to diagnose the congenital posterior fossa anomalies based on their morphology, since neuroimaging is usually the initial step when these disorders are suspected. We divide the most common posterior fossa congenital anomalies into two groups: 1) hindbrain malformations, including diseases with cerebellar or vermian agenesis, aplasia or hypoplasia and cystic posterior fossa anomalies; and 2) cranial vault malformations. In addition, we will review the embryologic development of the posterior fossa and, from the perspective of embryonic development, will describe the imaging appearance of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. Knowledge of the developmental bases of these malformations facilitates detection of the morphological changes identified on imaging, allowing accurate differentiation and diagnosis of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. PMID:26246090

  9. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  10. Analysis of Renal Anomalies in VACTERL Association

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Bridget K.; Khromykh, Alina; Martinez, Ariel F.; Carney, Tyler; Hadley, Donald W.; Solomon, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    VACTERL association refers to a combination of congenital anomalies that can include: Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, Renal anomalies (typically structural renal anomalies), and Limb anomalies. We conducted a description of a case series to characterize renal findings in a cohort of patients with VACTERL association. Out of the overall cohort, 48 patients (with at least 3 component features of VACTERL and who had abdominal ultrasound performed) met criteria for analysis. Four other patients were additionally analyzed separately, with the hypothesis that subtle renal system anomalies may occur in patients who would not otherwise meet criteria for VACTERL association. Thirty-three (69%) of the 48 patients had a clinical manifestation affecting the renal system. The most common renal manifestation (RM) was vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in addition to a structural defect (present in 27%), followed by unilateral renal agenesis (24%), and then dysplastic/multicystic kidneys or duplicated collected system (18% for each). Twenty-two (88%) of the 25 patients with a structural RM had an associated anorectal malformation. Individuals with either isolated lower anatomic anomalies, or both upper and lower anatomic anomalies were not statistically more likely to have a structural renal defect than those with isolated upper anatomic anomalies (p=0.22, p=0.284 respectively). Given the high prevalence of isolated VUR in our cohort, we recommend a screening VCUG or other imaging modality be obtained to evaluate for VUR if initial renal US shows evidence of obstruction or renal scarring, as well as ongoing evaluation of renal health. PMID:25196458

  11. Differential expression of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and their response to grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Ju, C S; He, L B; Pei, Y Y; Jiang, Y; Huang, R; Li, Y M; Liao, L J; Jang, S H; Wang, Y P

    2016-02-01

    The cDNAs of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, galactose-binding lectin (galbl) and mannose-binding lectin (mbl), were cloned and analysed in this study. Both of them exhibited the highest expression level in liver, whereas their expression pattern differed in early phase of embryonic development. Following exposure to grass carp reovirus (GCRV), the mRNA expression level of galbl and mbl was significantly up-regulated in liver and intestine. PMID:26643267

  12. Resolving Large Pre-glacial Valleys Buried by Glacial Sediment Using Electric Resistivity Imaging (ERI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, D. R.; Welz, M.; Rokosh, C. D.; Pontbriand, M.-C.; Smith, D. G.

    2004-05-01

    results were obtained along the Sand Coulee and Onoway transects where the contrast between the bedrock and valley-fill was large and the surficial sediment was homogeneous. The effects of decreasing reliability with depth, 3-D anomalies, principles of equivalence and suppression, and surface inhomogeneity on the image quality are discussed.

  13. Considerations in the Interpretation of Cosmological Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2014-05-01

    Anomalies drive scientific discovery - they are associated with the cutting edge of the research frontier, and thus typically exploit data in the low signal-to-noise regime. In astronomy, the prevalence of systematics - both ``known unknowns'' and ``unknown unknowns'' - combined with increasingly large datasets, the widespread use of ad hoc estimators for anomaly detection, and the ``look-elsewhere'' effect, can lead to spurious false detections. In this informal note, I argue that anomaly detection leading to discoveries of new physics requires a combination of physical understanding, careful experimental design to avoid confirmation bias, and self-consistent statistical methods. These points are illustrated with several concrete examples from cosmology.

  14. Chromium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Abundances of the chromium isotopes in terrestrial and bulk meteorite samples are identical to 0.01 percent. However, Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende meteorite show endemic isotopic anomalies in chromium which require at least three nucleosynthetic components. Large anomalies at Cr-54 in a special class of inclusions are correlated with large anomalies at Ca-48 and Ti-50 and provide strong support for a component reflecting neutron-rich nucleosynthesis at nuclear statistical equilibrium. This correlation suggests that materials from very near the core of an exploding massive star may be injected into the interstellar medium.

  15. Crustal structure interpreted from magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Frey, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    This review, discusses publications during the last quadrennium (1987-1990) that used aeromagnetic data, marine magnetic data, satellite magnetic data, and rock magnetic and petrologic data to provide information on the sources of magnetic anomalies. The publications reviewed reflect increased integration of rock magnetic property and petrologic studies with magnetic anomaly interpretation studies, particularly in deep crustal magnetization, exploration for hydrocarbons, and inversion of marine magnetic anomalies. Interpretations of aeromagnetic data featuring image display techniques and using the horizontal gradient method for locating magnetization boundaries became standard.

  16. Magnetic and gravity anomalies in the Americas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The cleaning and magnetic tape storage of spherical Earth processing programs are reported. These programs include: NVERTSM which inverts total or vector magnetic anomaly data on a distribution of point dipoles in spherical coordinates; SMFLD which utilizes output from NVERTSM to compute total or vector magnetic anomaly fields for a distribution of point dipoles in spherical coordinates; NVERTG; and GFLD. Abstracts are presented for papers dealing with the mapping and modeling of magnetic and gravity anomalies, and with the verification of crustal components in satellite data.

  17. Non-standard symmetries and quantum anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Visinescu, Anca; Visinescu, Mihai

    2008-08-31

    Quantum anomalies are investigated on curved spacetimes. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and non-standard symmetries is pointed out. The gravitational anomalies are absent if the hidden symmetry is associated to a Killing-Yano tensor. The axial anomaly in a background gravitational field is directly related with the index of the Dirac operator. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures. The general results are applied to the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space.

  18. Analysis of gravity data in Central Valleys, Oaxaca, southern, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, T.; Ferrusquia, I.

    2015-12-01

    The region known as Central Valleys is located in the state of Oaxaca, southern, Mexico (16.3o- 17.7 o N Lat. and 96 o - 97 o W Long.) In its central portion is settled the capital of the state. There are very few published detailed geological studies.. Geomorphological and geological features, indicates that Central Valleys and surrounding mountains conform a graben structure. Its shape is an inverted Y, centred on Oaxaca City. The study area was covered by a detailed gravity survey with a homogenous distribution of stations. The Bouguer gravity map is dominated by a large gravity low, oriented NW-SE. In order to know the characteristics of anomalies observed gravity, data transformations were used. The use of spectral methods has increased in recent years, especially for the estimation of the depth of the source. Analysis of the gravity data sheds light on the regional depth of the Graben basement and the spatial distribution of the volcanic rocks

  19. Morphology of large valleys on Hawaii - Evidence for groundwater sapping and comparisons with Martian valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochel, R. Craig; Piper, Jonathan F.

    1986-01-01

    Morphometric data on the runoff and sapping valleys on the slopes of Hawaii and Molokai in Hawaii are analyzed. The analysis reveals a clear distinction between the runoff valleys and sapping valleys. The Hawaiian sapping valleys are characterized by: (1) steep valley walls and flat floors, (2) amphitheater heads, (3) low drainage density, (4) paucity of downstream tributaries, (5) low frequency of up-dip tributaries, and (6) structural and stratigraphic control on valley patterns. The characteristics of the Hawaiian sapping valleys are compared to Martian valleys and experimental systems, and good correlation between the data is detected. Flume experiments were also conducted to study the evolution of sapping valleys in response to variable structure and stratigraphy.

  20. GRASS GIS: The first Open Source Temporal GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbert, Sören; Leppelt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS is a full featured, general purpose Open Source geographic information system (GIS) with raster, 3D raster and vector processing support[1]. Recently, time was introduced as a new dimension that transformed GRASS GIS into the first Open Source temporal GIS with comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis, processing and visualization capabilities[2]. New spatio-temporal data types were introduced in GRASS GIS version 7, to manage raster, 3D raster and vector time series. These new data types are called space time datasets. They are designed to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped raster, 3D raster and vector map layers of any size. Time stamps can be defined as time intervals or time instances in Gregorian calendar time or relative time. Space time datasets are simplifying the processing and analysis of large time series in GRASS GIS, since these new data types are used as input and output parameter in temporal modules. The handling of space time datasets is therefore equal to the handling of raster, 3D raster and vector map layers in GRASS GIS. A new dedicated Python library, the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, was designed to implement the spatio-temporal data types and their management. The framework provides the functionality to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped map layers and their spatio-temporal topological relations. The framework supports reasoning based on the temporal granularity of space time datasets as well as their temporal topology. It was designed in conjunction with the PyGRASS [3] library to support parallel processing of large datasets, that has a long tradition in GRASS GIS [4,5]. We will present a subset of more than 40 temporal modules that were implemented based on the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, PyGRASS and the GRASS GIS Python scripting library. These modules provide a comprehensive temporal GIS tool set. The functionality range from space time dataset and time stamped map layer management

  1. Airborne Bacteria in the Atmospheric Surface Layer: Temporal Distribution above a Grass Seed Field

    PubMed Central

    Lighthart, B.; Shaffer, B. T.

    1995-01-01

    Temporal airborne bacterial concentrations and meteorological conditions were measured above a grass seed field in the Willamette River Valley, near Corvallis, Oreg., in the summer of 1993. The concentration of airborne bacteria had a maximum of 1,368.5 CFU/m(sup3), with a coefficient of variation of 90.5% and a mean of 121.3 CFU/m(sup3). The lowest concentration of bacteria occurred during the predawn hours, with an average of 32.2 CFU/m(sup3), while sunrise and early evening hours had the highest averages (164.7 and 158.1 CFU/m(sup3), respectively). The concentrations of bacteria in the atmosphere varied greatly, with a maximum difference between two 2-min samples of 1,995 CFU/m(sup3). The concentrations of bacteria in the atmosphere could be divided into five time periods during the day that were thought to be related to the local diurnal sea breeze and Pacific Coast monsoon weather conditions as follows: (i) the nighttime minimum concentration, i.e., 2300 to 0600 h; (ii) the sunrise peak concentration, i.e., 0600 to 0800 h; (iii) the midday accumulating concentration, i.e., 0800 to 1515 h; (iv) the late-afternoon sea breeze trough concentration, i.e., 1515 to 1700 h; and (v) the evening decrease to the nighttime minimum concentration, i.e., 1700 to 2300 h. The sunrise peak concentration (period ii) is thought to be a relatively general phenomenon dependent on ground heating by the sun, while the afternoon trough concentration is thought to be a relatively local phenomenon dependent on the afternoon sea breeze. Meteorological conditions are thought to be an important regulating influence on airborne bacterial concentrations in the outdoor atmosphere in the Willamette River Valley. PMID:16534998

  2. Geology and geophysics of the southern Raft River Valley geothermal area, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Paul L.; Mabey, Don R.; Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Hans, Ackerman; Hoover, Donald B.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Oriel, Steven S.

    1976-01-01

    The Raft River valley, near the boundary of the Snake River plain with the Basin and Range province, is a north-trending late Cenozoic downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. Pleistocene alluvium and Miocene-Pliocene tuffaceous sediments, conglomerate, and felsic volcanic rocks aggregate 2 km in thickness. Large gravity, magnetic, and total field resistivity highs probably indicate a buried igneous mass that is too old to serve as a heat source. Differing seismic velocities relate to known or inferred structures and to a suspected shallow zone of warm water. Resistivity anomalies reflect differences of both composition and degree of alteration of Cenozoic rocks. Resistivity soundings show a 2 to 5 ohm·m unit with a thickness of 1 km beneath a large part of the valley, and the unit may indicate partly hot water and partly clayey sediments. Observed self-potential anomalies are believed to indicate zones where warm water rises toward the surface. Boiling wells at Bridge, Idaho are near the intersection of north-northeast normal faults which have moved as recently as the late (?) Pleistocene, and an east-northeast structure, probably a right-lateral fault. Deep circulation of ground water in this region of relatively high heat flow and upwelling along faults is the probable cause of the thermal anomaly.

  3. Gravity and fault structures, Long Valley caldera, California

    SciTech Connect

    Carle, S.F.; Goldstein, N.E.

    1987-07-01

    The main and catastrophic phase of eruption in Long Valley occurred 0.73 m.y. ago with the eruption of over 600 km/sup 3/ of rhyolitic magma. Subsequent collapse of the roof rocks produced a caldera which is now elliptical in shape, 32 km east-west by 17 km north-south. The caldera, like other large Quarternary silicic ash-flow volcanoes that have been studied by various workers, has a nearly coincident Bouguer gravity low. Earlier interpretations of the gravity anomaly have attributed the entire anomaly to lower density rocks filling the collapsed structure. However, on the basis of many additional gravity stations and supporting subsurface data from several new holes, a much more complex and accurate picture has emerged of caldera structure. From a three-dimensional inversion of the residual Bouguer gravity data we can resolve discontinuities that seem to correlate with extensions of pre-caldera faults into the caldera and faults associated with the ring fracture. Some of these faults are believed related to the present-day hydrothermal upflow zone and the zone of youngest volcanic activity within the caldera.

  4. Understanding Magnetic Anomalies and Their Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, James H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise testing the Vine-Matthews-Morley hypothesis of plate tectonics. Includes 14 questions with explanations using graphs and charts. Provides a historical account of the current plate tectonic and magnetic anomaly theory. (MVL)

  5. Magnetosheath Flow Anomalies in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisberg, O. L.; Burch, J. L.; Smirnov, V. N.; Avanov, L. A.; Moore, T. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Skalsky, A. A.; Borodkova, N. L.; Coffey, V. N.; Gallagher, D. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of the plasma and magnetic field with high temporal resolution on the Interball Tail probe reveal many flow anomalies in the magnetosheath. They are usually seen as flow direction and number density variations, accompanied by magnetic field discontinuities. Large flow anomalies with number density variations of factor of 2 or more and velocity variations of 100 km/s or more are seen with periodicity of about I per hour. The cases of flow anomalies following in succession are also observed, and suggest their decay while propagating through the magnetosheath. Some magnetospheric disturbances observed in the outer magnetosphere after the satellite has crossed the magnetopause on the inbound orbit suggest their association with magnetosheath flow anomalies observed in the magnetosheath prior to magnetopause crossing.

  6. Tunguska Genetic Anomaly and Electrophonic Meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silagadze, Z. K.

    2005-03-01

    One of great mysteries of the Tunguska event is its genetic impact. Some genetic anomalies were reported in the plants, insects and people of the Tunguska region. Remarkably, the increased rate of biological mutations was found not only within the epicenter area, but also along the trajectory of the Tunguska Space Body (TSB). At that no traces of radioactivity were found, which could be reliably associated with the Tunguska event. The main hypotheses about the nature of the TSB, a stony asteroid, a comet nucleus or a carbonaceous chondrite, readily explain the absence of radioactivity but give no clues how to deal with the genetic anomaly. A choice between these hypotheses, as far as the genetic anomaly is concerned, is like to the choice between ``blue devil, green devil and speckled devil'', to quote late Academician N.V. Vasilyev. However, if another mysterious phenomenon, electrophonic meteors, is evoked, the origin of the Tunguska genetic anomaly becomes less obscure.

  7. Lunar magnetic anomalies and surface optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.; Schubert, G.

    1980-04-01

    Consideration is given to the influence of lunar magnetic anomalies on the darkening of the lunar surface by solar wind ion bombardment. It is shown that lunar magnetic anomalies with dipole moments much greater than 5 x 10 to the 13th gauss cu cm will strongly deflect the typical solar wind, producing local plasma voids at the lunar surface. Direct measurements of lunar magnetic fields have shown most lunar magnetic fields to have moments below this level, with the exception of anomalies detected in the areas of the Reiner Gamma albedo feature, the Van de Graaff-Aitken region and Mare Marginis. Such magnetic anomalies are shown to be capable of accounting for the higher albedo and swirl-like morphology f these features by the deflection and focusing incident solar wind ions, which tend to darken the surface upon impact.

  8. Flyby Anomaly Test Integrating Multiple Approaches (FATIMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levit, Creon; Jaroux, Belgacem Amar

    2014-01-01

    FATIMA is a mission concept for a small satellite to investigate the flyby anomaly - a possible velocity increase that has been observed in some earlier satellites when they have performed gravitational swingy maneuvers of the earth.

  9. Reduction of satellite magnetic anomaly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slud, E. V.; Smith, P. J.; Langel, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of global magnetic anomaly maps derived from satellite data is facilitated by inversion to the equivalent magnetization in a constant thickness magnetic crust or, equivalently, by reduction to the pole. Previous inversions have proven unstable near the geomagnetic equator. The instability results from magnetic moment distributions which are admissible in the inversion solution but which make only small contribution to the computed values of anomaly field. Their admissibility in the solution could result from noisy or incomplete data or from small poorly resolved anomalies. The resulting magnetic moments are unrealistically large and oscillatory. Application of the method of principal components (e.g. eigenvalue decomposition and selective elimination of less significant eigenvectors) is proposed as a way of overcoming the instability and the method is demonstrated by applying it to the region around the Bangui anomaly in Central Africa.

  10. US Aeromagnetic and Satellite Magnetic Anomaly Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W. (Principal Investigator); Sexton, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Scalar aeromagnetic data obtained by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NOO) Vector Magnetic Survey of the conterminous U.S. were screened for periods of intense diurnal magnetic activity and reduced to anomaly form, filtered, and continued upward. A number of correlations between the NOO, POGO and preliminary MAGSAT data are evident at satellite elevations, including a prominent transcontinental magnetic high which extends from the Anadarko Basin to the Cincinnati Arch. The transcontinental magnetic high is breached by negative anomalies located over the Rio Grande Rift and Mississippi River Aulacogen. Differentially reduced-to-pole NOO and POGO magnetic anomaly data show that the transcontinental magnetic high corresponds to a well-defined regional trend of negative free-air gravity and enhanced crustal thickness anomalies.

  11. Geologic analysis of averaged magnetic satellite anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, H. K.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Ridgway, J. R.; Hinze, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    To investigate relative advantages and limitations for quantitative geologic analysis of magnetic satellite scalar anomalies derived from arithmetic averaging of orbital profiles within equal-angle or equal-area parallelograms, the anomaly averaging process was simulated by orbital profiles computed from spherical-earth crustal magnetic anomaly modeling experiments using Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration. The results indicate that averaging can provide reasonable values at satellite elevations, where contributing error factors within a given parallelogram include the elevation distribution of the data, and orbital noise and geomagnetic field attributes. Various inversion schemes including the use of equivalent point dipoles are also investigated as an alternative to arithmetic averaging. Although inversion can provide improved spherical grid anomaly estimates, these procedures are problematic in practice where computer scaling difficulties frequently arise due to a combination of factors including large source-to-observation distances ( 400 km), high geographic latitudes, and low geomagnetic field inclinations.

  12. Method of Mapping Anomalies in Homogenous Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An electrical conductor and antenna are positioned in a fixed relationship to one another. Relative lateral movement is generated between the electrical conductor and a homogenous material while maintaining the electrical conductor at a fixed distance from the homogenous material. The antenna supplies a time-varying magnetic field that causes the electrical conductor to resonate and generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. Disruptions in at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses during this lateral movement are indicative of a lateral location of a subsurface anomaly. Next, relative out-of-plane movement is generated between the electrical conductor and the homogenous material in the vicinity of the anomaly's lateral location. Disruptions in at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses during this out-of-plane movement are indicative of a depth location of the subsurface anomaly. A recording of the disruptions provides a mapping of the anomaly.

  13. Renal Anomalies Associated with Ectopic Neurohypophysis

    PubMed Central

    Özen, Samim; Şişmek, Damla Gökşen; Önder, Asan; Darcan, Şükran

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although the etiology of ectopic neurohypophysis that leads to pituitary hormone deficiencies is not yet clearly understood, birth trauma or genetic factors have been considered responsible. Concurrent cranial and extracranial congenital anomalies have been reported in such cases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of renal anomalies in nonsyndromic cases with ectopic neurohypophysis. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 20 patients with ectopic neurohypophysis who were followed up between January 1990 and December 2007 in a tertiary University Hospital. Results: Renal anomalies were identified in three (15%) cases including unilateral renal agenesis in one case, renal hypoplasia in one case, and double collecting system and unilateral renal agenesis in one case. Conclusions: In the present study, the increased frequency of renal anomalies in cases of ectopic neurohypophysis was highlighted, and it was emphasized that there might be common genetic factors that lead to such associations. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21750632

  14. Design and Implementation of an Anomaly Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherjeiran, A; Cantu-Paz, E; Kamath, C

    2005-07-11

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a general-purpose anomaly detector for streaming data. Based on a survey of similar work from the literature, a basic anomaly detector builds a model on normal data, compares this model to incoming data, and uses a threshold to determine when the incoming data represent an anomaly. Models compactly represent the data but still allow for effective comparison. Comparison methods determine the distance between two models of data or the distance between a model and a point. Threshold selection is a largely neglected problem in the literature, but the current implementation includes two methods to estimate thresholds from normal data. With these components, a user can construct a variety of anomaly detection schemes. The implementation contains several methods from the literature. Three separate experiments tested the performance of the components on two well-known and one completely artificial dataset. The results indicate that the implementation works and can reproduce results from previous experiments.

  15. Zinc Isotope Anomalies in bulk Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, P. S.; Boyet, M.; Moynier, F.

    2014-09-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that Zn isotope anomalies are present in bulk primitive meteorites, consistent with the injection of material derived from a neutron-rich supernova source into the solar nebula.

  16. Chemical Compositions and Anomalies in Stellar Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    In summary, as the papers cited here and in earlier reports demonstrate, this award has enabled us to obtain a fairly good picture of the abundance anomalies in stellar coronae. The "inverse FIP" effect in very active stars has now been fleshed out as a more complex anomaly depending on FIP, whereas before it appeared only in terms of a general metal paucity, the recent solar abundance assessment of Asplund et a1 will, if correct, challenge some of the older interpretations of coronal abundance anomalies since they imply quite different relative abundances of CNO compared with Fe, Mg and Si. Further investigations have been in into the possibility of modeling some of the recent coronal abundance anomaly results in terms of Alfven wave-driven separation of neutrals and ions in the upper chromosphere. This work still remains in the seed stage, and future funding from a different program will be requested to pursue it further.

  17. Mycorrhizal fungi affect root stele tissue in grasses.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R. M.; Hetrick, B. A. D.; Wilson, G. W. T.; Environmental Research; Northern Iowa Univ.; Kansas State Univ.

    1997-01-01

    Although arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was initially believed to have little or no impact on root morphology, we now recognize that subtle changes do occur and that these changes may be of considerable consequence to host growth and nutrition, as well as functional growth strategy. In examining the stele and root diameters of C3 and C4 grasses, C4 grasses were demonstrated to have a significantly larger proportion of their fibrous roots occupied by stele tissue than do C3 grasses. In fact, functional growth strategy (C3 versus C4) was observed to be a relatively good predictor of stele area. Mycorrhizal fungi also influenced the amount of stele tissue, but the effect was not the same for both C3 and C4 grasses. The stele area of all C4 grasses except for Sorghastrum nutans was greater in the presence of mycorrhizal colonization. Among the C3 grasses, only Bromus inermis showed a significant increase, although Elymus cinereus and Lolium perenne displayed significant decreases in response to arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Changes in the stele area of the plant species were closely related to their responsiveness to mycorrhizal symbiosis and might in part explain both beneficial and detrimental responses of plants to mycorrhizae. An increase in stele circumference induced by mycorrhizae would allow for greater uptake and passage of water and nutrients to the vascular cylinder, and growth depressions could be a direct outcome of reduced stele circumference. Thus, differences in stele circumference represent a possible mechanism for mycorrhizal impacts on host plants. These findings indicate that structural differences among grasses are related to different functional capabilities and further emphasize the need for better integration of comparative anatomy and morphology procedures in the study of mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  18. [Optimized Spectral Indices Based Estimation of Forage Grass Biomass].

    PubMed

    An, Hai-bo; Li, Fei; Zhao, Meng-li; Liu, Ya-jun

    2015-11-01

    As an important indicator of forage production, aboveground biomass will directly illustrate the growth of forage grass. Therefore, Real-time monitoring biomass of forage grass play a crucial role in performing suitable grazing and management in artificial and natural grassland. However, traditional sampling and measuring are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, development of hyperspectral remote sensing provides the feasibility in timely and nondestructive deriving biomass of forage grass. In the present study, the main objectives were to explore the robustness of published and optimized spectral indices in estimating biomass of forage grass in natural and artificial pasture. The natural pasture with four grazing density (control, light grazing, moderate grazing and high grazing) was designed in desert steppe, and different forage cultivars with different N rate were conducted in artificial forage fields in Inner Mongolia. The canopy reflectance and biomass in each plot were measured during critical stages. The result showed that, due to the influence in canopy structure and biomass, the canopy reflectance have a great difference in different type of forage grass. The best performing spectral index varied in different species of forage grass with different treatments (R² = 0.00-0.69). The predictive ability of spectral indices decreased under low biomass of desert steppe, while red band based spectral indices lost sensitivity under moderate-high biomass of forage maize. When band combinations of simple ratio and normalized difference spectral indices were optimized in combined datasets of natural and artificial grassland, optimized spectral indices significant increased predictive ability and the model between biomass and optimized spectral indices had the highest R² (R² = 0.72) compared to published spectral indices. Sensitive analysis further confirmed that the optimized index had the lowest noise equivalent and were the best performing index in

  19. Effect of Morphological Traits on Intake Characteristics of Four Grass Species Found in Temperate Biodiverse Pasture Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four grass species (meadow fescue (MF), Festuca pratensis; orchard grass (ORG), Dactylis glomerata, L.; quack grass (QG), Agropyron repens; and reed canary grass (RCG), Phalaris arundinacea) were sown in micro-sward boxes (79 cm x 47 cm x 11.5 cm) to investigate intake characteristics of four grass ...

  20. Seasonal variation of birch and grass pollen loads and allergen release at two sites in the German Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochner, Susanne; Lüpke, Marvin; Laube, Julia; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; Pusch, Gudrun; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Menzel, Annette

    2015-12-01

    Less vegetated mountainous areas may provide better conditions for allergy sufferers. However, atmospheric transport can result in medically relevant pollen loads in such regions. The majority of investigations has focused on the pollen load, expressed as daily averages of pollen per cubic meter of air (pollen grains/m³); however, the severity of allergic symptoms is also determined by the actual allergen content of this pollen, its pollen potency, which may differ between high and low altitudes. We analysed airborne birch and grass pollen concentrations along with allergen content (birch: Bet v 1, grass: Phl p 5) at two different altitudes (734 and 2650 m a.s.l.) in the Zugspitze region (2009-2010). Back-trajectories were calculated for the high altitude site and for specific days with abrupt increases in pollen potency. We observed several days with medically relevant pollen concentrations at the highest site. In addition, a few days with pollen were not associated with allergens and vice versa. The calculated seasonal mean allergen release per pollen grain was 1.8-3.3 pg Bet v 1 and 5.7 pg Phl p 5 in the valley and 1.1-3.7 pg Bet v 1 and 0.7-1.5 pg Phl p 5 at the high altitude site. Back-trajectories revealed that high pollen potency at the higher site was generally associated with south-westerly to south-easterly (birch), or northerly (grass) wind directions. By investigating days with sudden increases in pollen potency, however, it was difficult to draw definitive conclusions on long- or short-range transport. Our findings suggest that people allergic to pollen might suffer less at higher altitudes and further indicate that a risk assessment relying on the actual concentration of airborne pollen does not necessarily reflect the actual allergy exposure of individuals.

  1. Mechanically and optically controlled graphene valley filter

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Fenghua; Jin, Guojun

    2014-05-07

    We theoretically investigate the valley-dependent electronic transport through a graphene monolayer modulated simultaneously by a uniform uniaxial strain and linearly polarized light. Within the Floquet formalism, we calculate the transmission probabilities and conductances of the two valleys. It is found that valley polarization can appear only if the two modulations coexist. Under a proper stretching of the sample, the ratio of the light intensity and the light frequency squared is important. If this quantity is small, the electron transport is mainly contributed by the valley-symmetric central band and the conductance is valley unpolarized; but when this quantity is large, the valley-asymmetric sidebands also take part in the transport and the valley polarization of the conductance appears. Furthermore, the degree of the polarization can be tuned by the strain strength, light intensity, and light frequency. It is proposed that the detection of the valley polarization can be realized utilizing the valley beam splitting. Thus, a graphene monolayer can be used as a mechanically and optically controlled valley filter.

  2. Classifying gauge anomalies through symmetry-protected trivial orders and classifying gravitational anomalies through topological orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we systematically study gauge anomalies in bosonic and fermionic weak-coupling gauge theories with gauge group G (which can be continuous or discrete) in d space-time dimensions. We show a very close relation between gauge anomalies for gauge group G and symmetry-protected trivial (SPT) orders (also known as symmetry-protected topological (SPT) orders) with symmetry group G in one-higher dimension. The SPT phases are classified by group cohomology class Hd+1(G,R/Z). Through a more careful consideration, we argue that the gauge anomalies are described by the elements in Free[Hd+1(G,R/Z)]⊕Hπ˙d+1(BG,R/Z). The well known Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies are classified by the free part of Hd+1(G,R/Z) (denoted as Free[Hd+1(G,R/Z)]). We refer to other kinds of gauge anomalies beyond Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies as non-ABJ gauge anomalies, which include Witten SU(2) global gauge anomalies. We introduce a notion of π-cohomology group, Hπ˙d+1(BG,R/Z), for the classifying space BG, which is an Abelian group and include Tor[Hd+1(G,R/Z)] and topological cohomology group Hd+1(BG,R/Z) as subgroups. We argue that Hπ˙d+1(BG,R/Z) classifies the bosonic non-ABJ gauge anomalies and partially classifies fermionic non-ABJ anomalies. Using the same approach that shows gauge anomalies to be connected to SPT phases, we can also show that gravitational anomalies are connected to topological orders (i.e., patterns of long-range entanglement) in one-higher dimension.

  3. Congenital Anomalies in Infant with Congenital Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Zahra; Yavarikia, Alireza; Torabian, Saadat

    2012-01-01

    Objective Congenital hypothyroidism is characterized by inadequate thyroid hormone production in newborn infants. Many infants with CH have co-occurring congenital malformations. This is an investigation on the frequency and types of congenital anomalies in infants with congenital hypothyroidism born from May 2006-2010 in Hamadan, west province of Iran. Methods The Iranian neonatal screening program for congenital hypothyroidism was initiated in May 2005. This prospective descriptive study was conducted in infants diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism being followed up in Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic of Besat Hospital, a tertiary care centre in Hamadan. Cases included all infants with congenital hypothyroidism diagnosed through newborn screening program or detected clinically. Anomalies were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, and X-ray of the hip during the infant’s first year of life. Results A total of 150 infants with biochemically confirmed primary congenital hypothyroidism (72 females and 78 males) were recruited during the period between May 2006-2010. Overall, 30 (20%) infants had associated congenital anomalies. The most common type of anomaly was Down syndrome. Seven infants (3.1%) had congenital cardiac anomalies such as: ASD (n=3), VSD (n=2), PS (n =1), PDA (n=1). Three children (2.6%) had developmental dysplasia of the hip (n=3). Conclusion The overall frequency of Down syndrome, cardiac malformation and other birth defect was high in infants with CH. This reinforces the need to examine all infants with congenital hypothyroidism for the presence of associated congenital anomalies. PMID:23074545

  4. IDENTIFYING ANOMALIES IN GRAVITATIONAL LENS TIME DELAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, Arthur B.; Keeton, Charles R.; Nordgren, C. Erik E-mail: keeton@physics.rutgers.ed

    2010-02-01

    We examine the ability of gravitational lens time delays to reveal complex structure in lens potentials. In a previous paper, we predicted how the time delay between the bright pair of images in a 'fold' lens scales with the image separation, for smooth lens potentials. Here we show that the proportionality constant increases with the quadrupole moment of the lens potential, and depends only weakly on the position of the source along the caustic. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine the range of time delays that can be produced by realistic smooth lens models consisting of isothermal ellipsoid galaxies with tidal shear. We can then identify outliers as 'time delay anomalies'. We find evidence for anomalies in close image pairs in the cusp lenses RX J1131 - 1231 and B1422+231. The anomalies in RX J1131 - 1231 provide strong evidence for substructure in the lens potential, while at this point the apparent anomalies in B1422+231 mainly indicate that the time delay measurements need to be improved. We also find evidence for time delay anomalies in larger-separation image pairs in the fold lenses, B1608+656 and WFI 2033 - 4723, and the cusp lens RX J0911+0551. We suggest that these anomalies are caused by some combination of substructure and a complex lens environment. Finally, to assist future monitoring campaigns we use our smooth models with shear to predict the time delays for all known four-image lenses.

  5. MAGSAT correlations with geoid anomalies. [magnetic anomalies in the western Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowin, C. O. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    A digital data library of MAGSAT data is described and its applications and capabilities are reviewed. Polynomial trends were removed from each half-orbit in order to estimate and remove ring current effects from the data. The MAGSAT data in the Gulf of Mexico region was analyzed to define better the possible relation of the negative MAGSAT anomaly there to the negative residual geoid anomaly in the western Gulf of Mexico. Since the shape and location of the negative magnetic anomaly are variable depending upon the particular polynomial surface and curve orders used, no definitive conclusion as to the degree of correspondance between the residual geoid and MAGSAT lithosphere anomalies is offered.

  6. Clustering and Recurring Anomaly Identification: Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntosh, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS). The Recurring Anomaly Detection System is a tool to analyze text reports, such as aviation reports and maintenance records: (1) Text clustering algorithms group large quantities of reports and documents; Reduces human error and fatigue (2) Identifies interconnected reports; Automates the discovery of possible recurring anomalies; (3) Provides a visualization of the clusters and recurring anomalies We have illustrated our techniques on data from Shuttle and ISS discrepancy reports, as well as ASRS data. ReADS has been integrated with a secure online search

  7. Enhanced precipitation variability decreases grass- and increases shrub-productivity

    PubMed Central

    Gherardi, Laureano A.; Sala, Osvaldo E.

    2015-01-01

    Although projections of precipitation change indicate increases in variability, most studies of impacts of climate change on ecosystems focused on effects of changes in amount of precipitation, overlooking precipitation variability effects, especially at the interannual scale. Here, we present results from a 6-y field experiment, where we applied sequences of wet and dry years, increasing interannual precipitation coefficient of variation while maintaining a precipitation amount constant. Increased precipitation variability significantly reduced ecosystem primary production. Dominant plant-functional types showed opposite responses: perennial-grass productivity decreased by 81%, whereas shrub productivity increased by 67%. This pattern was explained by different nonlinear responses to precipitation. Grass productivity presented a saturating response to precipitation where dry years had a larger negative effect than the positive effects of wet years. In contrast, shrubs showed an increasing response to precipitation that resulted in an increase in average productivity with increasing precipitation variability. In addition, the effects of precipitation variation increased through time. We argue that the differential responses of grasses and shrubs to precipitation variability and the amplification of this phenomenon through time result from contrasting root distributions of grasses and shrubs and competitive interactions among plant types, confirmed by structural equation analysis. Under drought conditions, grasses reduce their abundance and their ability to absorb water that then is transferred to deep soil layers that are exclusively explored by shrubs. Our work addresses an understudied dimension of climate change that might lead to widespread shrub encroachment reducing the provisioning of ecosystem services to society. PMID:26417095

  8. Enhanced precipitation variability decreases grass- and increases shrub-productivity.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, Laureano A; Sala, Osvaldo E

    2015-10-13

    Although projections of precipitation change indicate increases in variability, most studies of impacts of climate change on ecosystems focused on effects of changes in amount of precipitation, overlooking precipitation variability effects, especially at the interannual scale. Here, we present results from a 6-y field experiment, where we applied sequences of wet and dry years, increasing interannual precipitation coefficient of variation while maintaining a precipitation amount constant. Increased precipitation variability significantly reduced ecosystem primary production. Dominant plant-functional types showed opposite responses: perennial-grass productivity decreased by 81%, whereas shrub productivity increased by 67%. This pattern was explained by different nonlinear responses to precipitation. Grass productivity presented a saturating response to precipitation where dry years had a larger negative effect than the positive effects of wet years. In contrast, shrubs showed an increasing response to precipitation that resulted in an increase in average productivity with increasing precipitation variability. In addition, the effects of precipitation variation increased through time. We argue that the differential responses of grasses and shrubs to precipitation variability and the amplification of this phenomenon through time result from contrasting root distributions of grasses and shrubs and competitive interactions among plant types, confirmed by structural equation analysis. Under drought conditions, grasses reduce their abundance and their ability to absorb water that then is transferred to deep soil layers that are exclusively explored by shrubs. Our work addresses an understudied dimension of climate change that might lead to widespread shrub encroachment reducing the provisioning of ecosystem services to society. PMID:26417095

  9. TILLING in forage grasses for gene discovery and breeding improvement.

    PubMed

    Manzanares, Chloe; Yates, Steven; Ruckle, Michael; Nay, Michelle; Studer, Bruno

    2016-09-25

    Mutation breeding has a long-standing history and in some major crop species, many of the most important cultivars have their origin in germplasm generated by mutation induction. For almost two decades, methods for TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) have been established in model plant species such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), enabling the functional analysis of genes. Recent advances in mutation detection by second generation sequencing technology have brought its utility to major crop species. However, it has remained difficult to apply similar approaches in forage and turf grasses, mainly due to their outbreeding nature maintained by an efficient self-incompatibility system. Starting with a description of the extent to which traditional mutagenesis methods have contributed to crop yield increase in the past, this review focuses on technological approaches to implement TILLING-based strategies for the improvement of forage grass breeding through forward and reverse genetics. We present first results from TILLING in allogamous forage grasses for traits such as stress tolerance and evaluate prospects for rapid implementation of beneficial alleles to forage grass breeding. In conclusion, large-scale induced mutation resources, used for forward genetic screens, constitute a valuable tool to increase the genetic diversity for breeding and can be generated with relatively small investments in forage grasses. Furthermore, large libraries of sequenced mutations can be readily established, providing enhanced opportunities to discover mutations in genes controlling traits of agricultural importance and to study gene functions by reverse genetics. PMID:26924175

  10. Heavy metal levels of pasture grasses in metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luilo, G. B.; Othman, O. C.

    2003-05-01

    Urban agriculture is becoming an important lucrative activity in Dar es Salaam City even though the city is subject to traffic and industrial pollution pressures. Poor planning has left only limited spaces, particularly road reserves, for cultivation and foraging animals. While there is increasing road traffic no study bas been conducted determine levels of trace metals in pasture grasses. This study, therefore, reports on the levels of cadmium, manganese, lead and zinc of cynodon grasses in road vicinity in the city. Results show that the trace metal levels (ppm ± SDE) in Cynodon grass species were: Cd (0.24 ± 0.06-2.58 ± 0.15), Mn (41.5 ± 13.6-345.0 ± 124.3), Pb (1.15 ± 0.64-25.53 ± 1.29) and Zn (25.97 ± 3.69-95.36 ± 19.61). The mean levels of lead and zinc varied exponentially with distance off the road up to 15 m distance. Lead and zinc levels correlated with average daily traffic in the roads while cadmium and manganese did not. This suggests that lead and zinc in grasses owe their sources from the passing motor vehicles in agreement with other reported studies. It is recommended that pasture grasses in road vicinities must not be used for foraging dairy cattle and goats for public health reasons.

  11. Differences in grass pollen allergen exposure across Australia

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Paul J.; Katelaris, Constance H.; Medek, Danielle; Johnston, Fay H.; Burton, Pamela K.; Campbell, Bradley; Jaggard, Alison K.; Vicendese, Don; Bowman, David M.J.S.; Godwin, Ian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Erbas, Bircan; Green, Brett J.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Newbigin, Ed; Haberle, Simon G.; Davies, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are important chronic diseases posing serious public health issues in Australia with associated medical, economic, and societal burdens. Pollen are significant sources of clinically relevant outdoor aeroallergens, recognised as both a major trigger for, and cause of, allergic respiratory diseases. This study aimed to provide a national, and indeed international, perspective on the state of Australian pollen data using a large representative sample. Methods Atmospheric grass pollen concentration is examined over a number of years within the period 1995 to 2013 for Brisbane, Canberra, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, and Sydney, including determination of the ‘clinical’ grass pollen season and grass pollen peak. Results The results of this study describe, for the first time, a striking spatial and temporal variability in grass pollen seasons in Australia, with important implications for clinicians and public health professionals, and the Australian grass pollen-allergic community. Conclusions These results demonstrate that static pollen calendars are of limited utility and in some cases misleading. This study also highlights significant deficiencies and limitations in the existing Australian pollen monitoring and data. Implications Establishment of an Australian national pollen monitoring network would help facilitate advances in the clinical and public health management of the millions of Australians with asthma and allergic rhinitis. PMID:25648730

  12. Remote sensing of St. Augustine Decline (SAD) disease. [spectral reflectance of healthy and diseased grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odle, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field spectral reflectance measurements of healthy and infected St. Augustine grass were made using several different instruments. Spectral differences between healthy and infected grass occured in the visible and near infrared regions. Multiband and color infrared photographs were taken of healthy and diseased turf from ground-based platforms and low altitude aircraft. Qualitative (density slicing) and quantitative (transmission densitometry) analyses revealed distinct tonal differences between healthy and St. Augustine disease (SAD) infected grass. Similar experiments are described for determining if healthy and diseased grass can be distinguished from waterstressed grass and grass deficient in either nitrogen or iron.

  13. 77 FR 38793 - Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain Rural Electric Association, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Public... Association, Inc., Intermountain Rural Electric Association, and Tri-State Generation and...

  14. Morphology and downslope sediment displacement in a deep-sea valley, the Valencia Valley (Northwestern Mediterranean)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, S.; Alonso, B.; Kastens, K.A.; Maldonado, A.; Malinverno, A.; Nelson, C.H.; Palanques, A.; Ryan, William B. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Valencia Valley is a Quaternary, 200 km long deep-sea valley in the Valencia Trough, Western Mediterranean Sea. A swathmapping survey approximately mid-way along the valley length, where the floor has an average gradient of 1:250 (0.2??), shows valley walls that rise 200 to 350 m above the valley floor, with slopes of 2 to 18??. Sediment forming the walls is undergoing retrogressive, upslope-directed slumping with increasing bedding disruption along steeper walls. The valley exhibits a winding course with steep outer and gentler inner walls around bends, and bedforms on the valley floor. Lateral migration around bends is less than 5 km and the valley is deeply entrenched into Quaternary-bedded sediments. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  15. Whole exome sequence analysis of Peters anomaly.

    PubMed

    Weh, Eric; Reis, Linda M; Happ, Hannah C; Levin, Alex V; Wheeler, Patricia G; David, Karen L; Carney, Erin; Angle, Brad; Hauser, Natalie; Semina, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Peters anomaly is a rare form of anterior segment ocular dysgenesis, which can also be associated with additional systemic defects. At this time, the majority of cases of Peters anomaly lack a genetic diagnosis. We performed whole exome sequencing of 27 patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly to search for pathogenic mutations in currently known ocular genes. Among the eight previously recognized Peters anomaly genes, we identified a de novo missense mutation in PAX6, c.155G>A, p.(Cys52Tyr), in one patient. Analysis of 691 additional genes currently associated with a different ocular phenotype identified a heterozygous splicing mutation c.1025+2T>A in TFAP2A, a de novo heterozygous nonsense mutation c.715C>T, p.(Gln239*) in HCCS, a hemizygous mutation c.385G>A, p.(Glu129Lys) in NDP, a hemizygous mutation c.3446C>T, p.(Pro1149Leu) in FLNA, and compound heterozygous mutations c.1422T>A, p.(Tyr474*) and c.2544G>A, p.(Met848Ile) in SLC4A11; all mutations, except for the FLNA and SLC4A11 c.2544G>A alleles, are novel. This is the first study to use whole exome sequencing to discern the genetic etiology of a large cohort of patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly. We report five new genes associated with this condition and suggest screening of TFAP2A and FLNA in patients with Peters anomaly and relevant syndromic features and HCCS, NDP and SLC4A11 in patients with isolated Peters anomaly. PMID:25182519

  16. Whole exome sequence analysis of Peters anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Weh, Eric; Reis, Linda M.; Happ, Hannah C.; Levin, Alex V.; Wheeler, Patricia G.; David, Karen L.; Carney, Erin; Angle, Brad; Hauser, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Peters anomaly is a rare form of anterior segment ocular dysgenesis, which can also be associated with additional systemic defects. At this time, the majority of cases of Peters anomaly lack a genetic diagnosis. We performed whole exome sequencing of 27 patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly to search for pathogenic mutations in currently known ocular genes. Among the eight previously recognized Peters anomaly genes, we identified a de novo missense mutation in PAX6, c.155G>A, p.(Cys52Tyr), in one patient. Analysis of 691 additional genes currently associated with a different ocular phenotype identified a heterozygous splicing mutation c.1025+2T>A in TFAP2A, a de novo heterozygous nonsense mutation c.715C>T, p.(Gln239*) in HCCS, a hemizygous mutation c.385G>A, p.(Glu129Lys) in NDP, a hemizygous mutation c.3446C>T, p.(Pro1149Leu) in FLNA, and compound heterozygous mutations c.1422T>A, p.(Tyr474*) and c.2544G>A, p.(Met848Ile) in SLC4A11; all mutations, except for the FLNA and SLC4A11 c.2544G>A alleles, are novel. This is the frst study to use whole exome sequencing to discern the genetic etiology of a large cohort of patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly. We report five new genes associated with this condition and suggest screening of TFAP2A and FLNA in patients with Peters anomaly and relevant syndromic features and HCCS, NDP and SLC4A11 in patients with isolated Peters anomaly. PMID:25182519

  17. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  18. Structure of Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ehni, W.J.

    1987-08-01

    In 1976, the second oil field in Nevada - Trap Springs - was discovered in Railroad Valley. Since then, more than 100 oil wells have been drilled in Nye County, and most of these have been in Railroad Valley. This well-control helped to unravel the complex structure of Railroad Valley and enabled the construction of more accurate maps of this valley than any other. This information can be used to construct models for exploring other valleys in the Basin and Range Province of eastern Nevada. The basic stratigraphy of the valley consists of Paleozoic carbonates and shales overlain by Tertiary volcanics, overlain, in turn, by valley fill. The areal extent of Tertiary volcanics, which can be a good reservoir rock, is controlled by tensional normal faulting and paleotopography. In some areas, these volcanics can be in excess of 5000 ft thick, but absent within a few miles, owing to paleotopography and/or faulting. The Paleozoic rocks are deformed by a pre-basin and range compressional history that folded and faulted them. As a result, the structure within the Paleozoics is more complex. Thrust faulting played an important role in the deformation of these rocks. Crystalline basement rocks can be found juxtaposed between Paleozoic outcrops in the flanks of the valley, and Paleozoic rocks found in well control farther out in the valley. The geothermal history of Railroad Valley plays an important role in constructing a structural map of the valley, taking into account the Mesozoic thrust faulting and Tertiary normal faulting. Air photos, combined with good well control and published reports, assist in mapping the geologic structure in Railroad Valley.

  19. Persistent anomalies of the extratropical Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation - Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dole, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    A study identifying horizontal and vertical structures of low patterns occurring with persistent 500 mb height anomalies in the central North Pacific, eastern North Atlantic, and northern Soviet Union regions is presented. The flow patterns of positive and negative anomalies are compared. The relationship between persistent anomalies and small recurrent anomaly patterns is examined. The temporal fluctuations of the persistent patterns are analyzed.

  20. Keep on growing: building and patterning leaves in the grasses.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael W; Hake, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Monocot leaves have unique features that arise early in their development. Maturing leaves protectively enclose younger leaves and the meristem, the pool of founder cells from which a leaf emerges. Through the maturation process, proximal sheath and distal blade tissues differentiate and are separated by the ligule and auricle structures. Here we review current research focusing on the contribution of gene regulatory factors and phytohormones on the patterning and differentiation of monocot leaves primarily focusing on research in the grasses (Poaceae). The 10000 members of the grasses include the true grain cereals (wheat, rice, maize, etc.), biofuel crops such as sugarcane, pasture grasses, and bamboo. They are the most studied of the monocots due to their tremendous agricultural and agronomic importance. PMID:26751036

  1. Case report of chondroma in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Mesbah, Mehrzad; Rezaie, Annahita; Tulaby Dezfuly, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. Neoplasms in fishes are generally less aggressive than neoplasms in mammals and are most commonly discrete, focal and benign neoplasms. A 3-year-old grass carp with a big mass on the vertebrae was referred to the clinic. According to the owner's statements, the fish had no signs of lethargy, ataxia and abnormal behaviors. The size of the mass was 7 × 6 × 6 cm. It cut hardly with audible sounds. The consistency of the mass was as hard as a cartilage. Microscopic examination revealed numerous irregular crests of hyaline cartilage beneath the skin. According to histopathologic characteristics, chondroma on the vertebrae of grass carp was diagnosed. PMID:27482364

  2. Case report of chondroma in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    PubMed Central

    Mesbah, Mehrzad; Rezaie, Annahita; Tulaby Dezfuly, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. Neoplasms in fishes are generally less aggressive than neoplasms in mammals and are most commonly discrete, focal and benign neoplasms. A 3-year-old grass carp with a big mass on the vertebrae was referred to the clinic. According to the owner’s statements, the fish had no signs of lethargy, ataxia and abnormal behaviors. The size of the mass was 7 × 6 × 6 cm. It cut hardly with audible sounds. The consistency of the mass was as hard as a cartilage. Microscopic examination revealed numerous irregular crests of hyaline cartilage beneath the skin. According to histopathologic characteristics, chondroma on the vertebrae of grass carp was diagnosed. PMID:27482364

  3. Gravity anomaly at a Pleistocene lake bed in NW Alaska interpreted by analogy with Greenland's Lake Taserssauq and its floating ice tongue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    A possible example of a very deep glacial excavation is provided by a distinctive gravity low located at the front of a valley glacier that once flowed into glacial Lake Aniuk (formerly Lake Noatak) in the western Brooks Range. Geologic and geophysical data suggest that sediments or ice filling a glacially excavated valley are the most probable cause of the 30-50 mGal anomaly. Reasonable choices of geometric models and density contrasts indicate that the former excavation is now filled with a buried-ice thickness of 700 m or sediment thicknesses greater than 1 km. No direct evidence of efficient excavation was observed in Greenland, but efficient glacial erosion behind a floating polar ice tongue could explain the excavation that caused the Alaskan gravity anomaly. -from Author

  4. Variations of Roughness Coefficients with Flow Depth of Grassed Swale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustaffa, N.; Ahmad, N. A.; Razi, M. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Grassed swales are the best management practice (BMP), which has been widely used to reduce the peak flow, reduce water pollution through vegetated filtration, and improve the groundwater recharge. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) is using the approach of grassed swales recommended by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID) for reducing the risk of flooding and controlling the water pollution. This paper investigates the variations of roughness coefficients with the flow depth of grassed swales in the campus of UTHM. Fieldwork was carried out on the grassed swale to collect the hydraulic data, which including the levelling work, measuring the flow depth and flow velocity of the swale. The flow depth of swale was taken at three points divided along the width of swale and the flow velocity is captured three times at each of the point. The variations of roughness coefficients of grassed swales are presented in Manning's equation, and the results reveal that the n value increases with the increasing of flow depth. Manning's coefficient value found in this study is in the range of 0.110 to 0.756, which are higher than the value proposed by the Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA). The relationships of flow depth and velocity at each section of the swale are portrayed in graphs, which show that the velocity increases with the decreasing of flow depth. The outcomes of this study can be concluded that the variation of Manning's coefficient value is influenced by the swale profile, flow depth, flow velocity, and as well as the vegetation used in the grassed swale concerned.

  5. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... National Park Service Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death...: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs... environmental impact analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death...

  6. Climatology of atmospheric PM10 concentration in the Po Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigi, A.; Ghermandi, G.

    2014-01-01

    The limits to atmospheric pollutant concentration set by the European Commission provide a challenging target for the municipalities in the Po Valley, because of the characteristic climatic conditions and high population density of this region. In order to assess climatology and trends in the concentration of atmospheric particles in the Po Valley, a dataset of PM10 data from 41 sites across the Po Valley have been analysed, including both traffic and background sites (either urban, suburban or rural). Of these 41 sites, 18 with 10 yr or longer record have been analysed for long term trend in de-seasonalized monthly means, in annual quantiles and in monthly frequency distribution. A widespread significant decreasing trend has been observed at most sites, up to few percent per year, by Generalised Least Square and Theil-Sen method. All 41 sites have been tested for significant weekly periodicity by Kruskal-Wallis test for mean anomalies and by Wilcoxon test for weekend effect magnitude. A significant weekly periodicity has been observed for most PM10 series, particularly in summer and ascribed mainly to anthropic particulate emissions. A cluster analysis has been applied in order to highlight stations sharing similar pollution conditions over the reference period. Five clusters have been found, two gathering the metropolitan areas of Torino and Milano and their respective nearby sites and the other three clusters gathering north-east, north-west and central Po Valley sites respectively. Finally the observed trends in atmospheric PM10 have been compared to trends in provincial emissions of particulates and PM precursors, and analysed along with data on vehicular fleet age, composition and fuel sales. Significant basin-wide drop in emissions occurred for gaseous pollutants, contrarily to emissions of PM10 and PM2.5, whose drop resulted low and restricted to few provinces. It is not clear whether the decrease for only gaseous emissions is sufficient to explain the

  7. Geological reasons for change in intensity of linear magnetic anomalies of the Kursk magnetic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhavoronkin, I. A.; Kopayev, V. V.

    1985-01-01

    The geological reasons for fluctuations in the anomalous field intensity along the polar axes were examined. The Kursk magnetic anomaly is used as the basis for the study. A geological-geophysical section was constructed which used the results of the interpretation of gravimagnetic anomalies.

  8. Advanced Unsupervised Classification Methods to Detect Anomalies on Earthen Levees Using Polarimetric SAR Imagery.

    PubMed

    Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V; Younan, Nicolas H

    2016-01-01

    Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ₁, λ₂, and λ₃), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers. PMID:27322270

  9. Advanced Unsupervised Classification Methods to Detect Anomalies on Earthen Levees Using Polarimetric SAR Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2016-01-01

    Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ1, λ2, and λ3), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s (JPL’s) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers. PMID:27322270

  10. Giant negative magnetoresistance induced by the chiral anomaly in individual Cd3As2 nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cai-Zhen; Wang, Li-Xian; Liu, Haiwen; Wang, Jian; Liao, Zhi-Min; Yu, Da-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Dirac electronic materials beyond graphene and topological insulators have recently attracted considerable attention. Cd3As2 is a Dirac semimetal with linear dispersion along all three momentum directions and can be viewed as a three-dimensional analogue of graphene. By breaking of either time-reversal symmetry or spatial inversion symmetry, the Dirac semimetal is believed to transform into a Weyl semimetal with an exotic chiral anomaly effect, however the experimental evidence of the chiral anomaly is still missing in Cd3As2. Here we show a large negative magnetoresistance with magnitude of −63% at 60 K and −11% at 300 K in individual Cd3As2 nanowires. The negative magnetoresistance can be modulated by gate voltage and temperature through tuning the density of chiral states at the Fermi level and the inter-valley scatterings between Weyl nodes. The results give evidence of the chiral anomaly effect and are valuable for understanding the Weyl fermions in Dirac semimetals. PMID:26673625

  11. Giant negative magnetoresistance induced by the chiral anomaly in individual Cd3As2 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai-Zhen; Wang, Li-Xian; Liu, Haiwen; Wang, Jian; Liao, Zhi-Min; Yu, Da-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Dirac electronic materials beyond graphene and topological insulators have recently attracted considerable attention. Cd3As2 is a Dirac semimetal with linear dispersion along all three momentum directions and can be viewed as a three-dimensional analogue of graphene. By breaking of either time-reversal symmetry or spatial inversion symmetry, the Dirac semimetal is believed to transform into a Weyl semimetal with an exotic chiral anomaly effect, however the experimental evidence of the chiral anomaly is still missing in Cd3As2. Here we show a large negative magnetoresistance with magnitude of -63% at 60 K and -11% at 300 K in individual Cd3As2 nanowires. The negative magnetoresistance can be modulated by gate voltage and temperature through tuning the density of chiral states at the Fermi level and the inter-valley scatterings between Weyl nodes. The results give evidence of the chiral anomaly effect and are valuable for understanding the Weyl fermions in Dirac semimetals. PMID:26673625

  12. Geoelectrical Characterization of the Punta Banda System: A Possible Structural Control for the Geothermal Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arango-Galvan, C.; Flores-Marquez, E.; Prol-Ledesma, R.; Working Group, I.

    2007-05-01

    The lack of sufficient drinking water in México has become a very serious problem, especially in the northern desert regions of the country. In order to give a real solution to this phenomenon the IMPULSA research program has been created to develope novel technologies based on desalination of sea and brackish water using renewable sources of energy to face the problem. The Punta Banda geothermal anomaly is located towards the northern part of Baja California Peninsula (Mexico). High water temperatures in some wells along the coast depicted a geothermal anomaly. An audiomagnetotelluric survey was carried out in the area as a preliminary study, both to understand the process generating these anomalous temperatures and to assess its potential exploitation to supply hot water to desalination plants. Among the electromagnetic methods, the audiomagnetotellurics (AMT) method is appropriated for deep groundwater and geothermal studies. The survey consisted of 27 AMT stations covering a 5 km profile along the Agua Blanca Fault. The employed array allowed us to characterize the geoelectrical properties of the main structures up to 500 m depth. Two main geoelectrical zones were identified: 1) a shallow low resistivity media located at the central portion of the profile, coinciding with the Maneadero valley and 2) two high resitivity structures bordering the conductive zone possibly related to NS faulting, already identified by previous geophysical studies. These results suggest that the main geothermal anomalies are controlled by the dominant structural regime in the zone.

  13. Brachypodium distachyon: making hay with a wild grass.

    PubMed

    Opanowicz, Magdalena; Vain, Philippe; Draper, John; Parker, David; Doonan, John H

    2008-04-01

    Brachypodium distachyon is a wild grass with a short life cycle. Although it is related to small grain cereals such as wheat, its genome is only a fraction of the size. A draft genome sequence is currently available, and molecular and genetic tools have been developed for transformation, mutagenesis and gene mapping. Accessions collected from across its ancestral range show a surprising degree of phenotypic variation in many traits, including those implicated in domestication of the cereals. Thus, given its rapid cycling time and ease of cultivation, Brachypodium will be a useful model for investigating problems in grass biology. PMID:18343709

  14. An experimental study of flow around submerged grass vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Julia; Mandre, Shreyas; Singh, Ravi

    2014-11-01

    Mixing of fluids through submerged vegetation caused by tidal currents facilitate various environmental and ecological transport processes. This fluid-vegetation interaction is believed to result from a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability from an inflection point in the flow profile. Recent studies suggest that flow in presence of grass can also become unstable due to shear instability of flow above the grass. We devise a two-dimensional lab scale analog of the fluid-vegetation interaction using ABS plastic filaments immersed in a soap film. We employ PIV of the surrounding flow to gain an understanding of the role of instabilities in the flow.

  15. Geopotential field anomalies and regional tectonic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, Mioara; Korte, Monika

    2016-07-01

    Maps of both gravity and magnetic field anomalies offer crucial information about physical properties of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, required in understanding geological settings and tectonic structures. Density and magnetization represent independent rock properties and thus provide complementary information on compositional and structural changes. Two regions are considered: southern Africa (encompassing South Africa, Namibia and Botswana) and Germany. This twofold choice is motivated firstly by the fact that these regions represent rather diverse geological and geophysical conditions (old Archean crust with strong magnetic anomalies in southern Africa, and much younger, weakly magnetized crust in central Europe) and secondly by our intimate knowledge of the magnetic vector ground data from these two regions. We take also advantage of the recently developed satellite potential field models and compare magnetic and gravity gradient anomalies of some 200 km resolution. Comparing short and long wavelength anomalies and the correlation of rather large scale magnetic and gravity anomalies, and relating them to known lithospheric structures, we generally find a better agreement over the southern African region than the German territory. This probably indicates a stronger concordance between near-surface and deeper structures in the former area, which can be perceived to agree with a thicker lithosphere.

  16. Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection in Urban Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejas Ayuga, J. G.; Martínez Marín, R.; Marchamalo Sacristán, M.; Bonatti, J.; Ojeda, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the spectral features of reflectance and emissivity in the pattern recognition of urban materials in several single hyperspectral scenes through a comparative analysis of anomaly detection methods and their relationship with city surfaces with the aim to improve information extraction processes. Spectral ranges of the visible-near infrared (VNIR), shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) from hyperspectral data cubes of AHS sensor and HyMAP and MASTER of two cities, Alcalá de Henares (Spain) and San José (Costa Rica) respectively, have been used. In this research it is assumed no prior knowledge of the targets, thus, the pixels are automatically separated according to their spectral information, significantly differentiated with respect to a background, either globally for the full scene, or locally by image segmentation. Several experiments on urban scenarios and semi-urban have been designed, analyzing the behaviour of the standard RX anomaly detector and different methods based on subspace, image projection and segmentation-based anomaly detection methods. A new technique for anomaly detection in hyperspectral data called DATB (Detector of Anomalies from Thermal Background) based on dimensionality reduction by projecting targets with unknown spectral signatures to a background calculated from thermal spectrum wavelengths is presented. First results and their consequences in non-supervised classification and extraction information processes are discussed.

  17. Hyperbolic Orbits and the Planetary Flylby Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Blome, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Space probes in the Solar System have experienced unexpected changes in velocity known as the flyby anomaly [1], as well as shifts in acceleration referred to as the Pioneer anomaly [2-4]. In the case of Earth flybys, ESA s Rosetta spacecraft experienced the flyby effect and NASA s Galileo and NEAR satellites did the same, although MESSENGER did not possibly due to a latitudinal property of gravity assists. Measurements indicate that both anomalies exist, and explanations have varied from the unconventional to suggestions that new physics in the form of dark matter might be the cause of both [5]. Although dark matter has been studied for over 30 years, there is as yet no strong experimental evidence supporting it [6]. The existence of dark matter will certainly have a significant impact upon ideas regarding the origin of the Solar System. Hence, the subject is very relevant to planetary science. We will point out here that one of the fundamental problems in science, including planetary physics, is consistency. Using the well-known virial theorem in astrophysics, it will be shown that present-day concepts of orbital mechanics and cosmology are not consistent for reasons having to do with the flyby anomaly. Therefore, the basic solution regarding the anomalies should begin with addressing the inconsistencies first before introducing new physics.

  18. The Hubble Space Telescope attitude observer anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Arsdall, Morgan M.; Ramsey, Patrick R.; Swain, Scott R.

    2006-06-01

    In mid-2004, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) began experiencing occasional losses of lock during Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) guide star acquisitions, threatening a potential loss of science. These failures were associated with an increasing disparity between the FGS-derived estimates of gyro bias calculated in orbit day and those calculated in orbit night. Early efforts to mitigate the operational effects of this Attitude Observer Anomaly (AOA) succeeded; however, the magnitude of the anomaly continued to increase at a linear rate and operational problems resumed in mid-2005. Continued analysis led to an additional on-orbit mitigation strategy that succeeded in reducing the AOA signature. Before the investigation could be completed, HST began operations under the life-extending Two Gyro Science mode. This eliminated both the operational effects of and the visibility into the AOA phenomenon. Possible causes of the anomaly at the vehicle system level included component hardware failures, flight software errors in control law processing, distortion of the telescope optical path, and deformation of vehicle structure. Although the mechanism of the AOA was not definitively identified, the Anomaly Review Board (ARB) chartered to investigate the anomaly concluded that the most likely root cause lies within one of HST's 6 rate-integrating gyroscopes. This paper provides a summary of the initial paths of investigation, the analysis and testing performed to attempt to isolate the source, and a review of the findings of the ARB. The possibility of future operational impacts and available methods of on-orbit mitigation are also addressed.

  19. A magnetic investigation of the Round Mountain plug, Castle Valley, Grand County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, R.A.

    1953-01-01

    A magnetic survey was made in Castle Valley, Grand County, Utah, to determine if the Round Mountain plug was fed laterally from the La Sal Mountains or vertically from a source at depth. Additional measurements were made around the exposure of igneous rock to obtain the shape of the plug at depth. No indication of a buried lateral igneous feeder was detected on the magnetic profileso The magnetic contour map showed that the plug was much larger than indicated by the diorite porphyry outcrop, and that the buried part of the plug southeast of Round Mountain has a higher magnetic susceptibility than the diorite outcrop. Theoretical anomalies, calculated using the susceptibility of the diorite outcrop, indicate that a lateral feeder at a depth of greater than 200 feet could not be detected. The size and shape of the magnetic anomaly as shown on the contour map suggest that the plug was fed from a source at depth.

  20. Relevance of a 5-grass sublingual tablet for immunotherapy of patients with grass pollen allergy in North America.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, Philippe; Cox, Linda

    2016-06-01

    Grass pollen allergy is common and clinically consequential in North America. While it is frequently treated with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy, debate remains regarding whether allergen immunotherapy is best carried out using a single representative or multiple cross-reactive allergen(s). Patients are commonly exposed to pollens from multiple allergenic grass species belonging to the Pooideæ subfamily. Beyond the known IgE cross-reactivity, considerable molecular heterogeneity exists with respect to allergen content among grass species, with further evidence that these molecular variants can be detected by the patients' immune system. These observations provide a compelling scientific rationale for the use of mixed pollen allergen extracts to broaden the allergen repertoire, with the aim of reorienting inappropriate immune responses in allergic patients. PMID:26813047

  1. Liquefaction sites, Imperial Valley, California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Youd, T.L.; Bennett, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Sands that did and did not liquefy at two sites during the 1979 Imperial Valley, Calif., earthquake (ML = 6.6) are identified and their properties evaluated. SPT tests were used to evaluate liquefaction susceptibility. Loose fine sands in an abandoned channel liquefied and produced sand boils, ground fissures, and a lateral spread at the Heber Road sites. Evidence of liquefaction was not observed over moderately dense over-bank sand east of the channel nor over dense point-bar sand to the west. -from ASCE Publications Information

  2. Cell wall composition throughout development for the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate perennial grasses are important worldwide as livestock nutritive energy sources and potential feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. The annual temperate grass, Brachypodium distanchyon, has been championed as a useful model system to facilitate biological research in agricultur...

  3. Geologic history of the Yosemite Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matthes, Francois E.

    1930-01-01

    Projection of the longitudinal profiles of these hanging valleys forward to the axis of the Merced Canyon shows that they are closely accordant in height. Their profiles indicate a series of points on a former profile of the Merced with respect to which the side streams had graded their courses prior to the last uplift. This old profile can be extended upward into the glaciated part of the Merced Canyon above El Portal and even into the profoundly glaciated Yosemite Valley, accordant points being furnished by a number of hanging side valleys (due allowance being made for glacial erosion suffered by those valleys). However, not all the hanging valleys of the Yosemite region are accordant with this set. Several of them, including the upland valley of Yosemite Creek, constitute a separate set indicating another old profile of the Merced at a level 600 to 1,000 feet higher than the first. Others, including the hanging gulch of lower Bridalveil Creek, point to an old profile of the Merced about 1,200 feet lower than the first. There are thus three distinct sets of hanging valleys produced in three cycles of stream erosion. The valleys of the upper set, like those of the middle set, were left hanging as a result of rapid trenching by the Merced induced by an uplift of the range, there having been two such uplifts. Only the valleys of the lower set hang because of glacial deepening and widening of the Yosemite Valley, the cycle in which they were cut having been interrupted by the advent of the Pleistocene glaciers. They consequently indicate the preglacial depth of the Yosemite Valley. That depth, measured from the brow of El Capitan, was about 2,400 feet; measured from the rim at Glacier Point it was about 2,000 feet.

  4. Holocene intramontane lake development: A new model in the Jáchal River Valley, Andean Precordillera, San Juan, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Ferran; Busquets, Pere; Sole de Porta, Nuria; Limarino, Carlos Oscar; Heredia, Nemesio; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Luis Roberto; Alvarez-Marron, Joaquina

    2009-10-01

    The Jáchal River Valley displays a number of significant Holocene sedimentary accumulations made up of fine-grained materials. These deposits are interpreted as the sedimentary infill of shallow temporary lakes that were generated by slow growing episodes of alluvial fans that obstructed the Jáchal River Valley. The association of fossil remains through the Holocene sedimentary sequence suggests that the accumulation of lacustrine sediments was affected by climate variations. The predominant aridity was punctuated by very few humid episodes characterised by fresh-water gastropoda and the intercalations of muddy sediments. The high proportion of charcoal particles in some samples indicates periodic forest fires. Abundant non-pollen forest remains suggest that an open zone dominated by several types of grasses underwent a dry season during part of the year. The palynomorph associations found in the Jáchal River Valley Holocene lacustrine sediments suggest that the humid conditions were less intense than those in the San Juan River Valley located more than one hundred kilometres southwards. Our study suggests that lake formation could have been controlled by climate oscillation probably related to the ENSO variation at 30° south latitude.

  5. Leaf Photosynthesis and Plant Competitive Success in a Mixed-grass Prairie: With Reference to Exotic Grasses Invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Dr. Xuejun; Patton, J.; Gu, Lianhong; Wang, J.; Patton, B.

    2014-11-26

    The widespread invasion of exotic cool-season grasses in mixed-grass rangeland is diminishing the hope of bringing back the natural native plant communities. However, ecophysiological mechanisms explaining the relative competitiveness of these invasive grasses over the native species generally are lacking. In this study, we used experimental data collected in south-central North Dakota, USA to address this issue. Photosynthetic potential was obtained from the net assimilation (A) vs. internal CO2 (Ci) response curves from plants grown in a greenhouse. Plant success was defined as the average frequency measured over 25 years (1988 to 2012) on overflow range sites across five levels of grazing intensity. In addition, estimated leaf area index of individual species under field conditions was used to indicate plant success. The correlation between photosynthetic potential based on A/Ci curves and plant frequency was negative. The correlation between leaf photosynthesis and plant success (defined as leaf area within a unit land area) was also negative, although statistically weak. These results suggest that the two cool-season grasses, Poa pratensis and Bromus inermis, do not rely on superior leaf-level photosynthesis for competitive success. Instead, some other traits, such as early and late-season growth, may be more important for them to gain dominance in the mixed-grass prairie. We propose that the negative photosynthesis-frequency relation as observed in this study results from a strong competition for limited soil nutrients in the mixed-grass prairie. In conclusion, it has implications for the stability and productivity of the grassland under various human disruptions influencing the soil nutrient status.

  6. Leaf Photosynthesis and Plant Competitive Success in a Mixed-grass Prairie: With Reference to Exotic Grasses Invasion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dong, Dr. Xuejun; Patton, J.; Gu, Lianhong; Wang, J.; Patton, B.

    2014-11-26

    The widespread invasion of exotic cool-season grasses in mixed-grass rangeland is diminishing the hope of bringing back the natural native plant communities. However, ecophysiological mechanisms explaining the relative competitiveness of these invasive grasses over the native species generally are lacking. In this study, we used experimental data collected in south-central North Dakota, USA to address this issue. Photosynthetic potential was obtained from the net assimilation (A) vs. internal CO2 (Ci) response curves from plants grown in a greenhouse. Plant success was defined as the average frequency measured over 25 years (1988 to 2012) on overflow range sites across five levelsmore » of grazing intensity. In addition, estimated leaf area index of individual species under field conditions was used to indicate plant success. The correlation between photosynthetic potential based on A/Ci curves and plant frequency was negative. The correlation between leaf photosynthesis and plant success (defined as leaf area within a unit land area) was also negative, although statistically weak. These results suggest that the two cool-season grasses, Poa pratensis and Bromus inermis, do not rely on superior leaf-level photosynthesis for competitive success. Instead, some other traits, such as early and late-season growth, may be more important for them to gain dominance in the mixed-grass prairie. We propose that the negative photosynthesis-frequency relation as observed in this study results from a strong competition for limited soil nutrients in the mixed-grass prairie. In conclusion, it has implications for the stability and productivity of the grassland under various human disruptions influencing the soil nutrient status.« less

  7. A grassed waterway and earthen dams to control muddy floods from a cultivated catchment of the Belgian loess belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Olivier; Vandaele, Karel; van Wesemael, Bas; Bielders, Charles L.

    2008-08-01

    Muddy floods, i.e. runoff from cultivated areas carrying large quantities of soil, are frequent and widespread in the European loess belt. They are mainly generated in dry zero-order valleys and are nowadays considered as the most likely process transferring material eroded from cultivated hillslopes during the Holocene to the flood plain. The huge costs of muddy flood damages justify the urgent installation of control measures. In the framework of the 'Soil Erosion Decree' of the Belgian Flemish region, a 12 ha-grassed waterway and three earthen dams have been installed between 2002-2004 in the thalweg of a 300-ha cultivated dry valley in the Belgian loess belt. The measures served their purpose by preventing any muddy flood in the downstream village, despite the occurrence of several extreme rainfall events (with a maximum return period of 150 years). The catchment has been intensively monitored from 2005-2007 and 39 runoff events were recorded in that period. Peak discharge (per ha) was reduced by 69% between the upstream and the downstream extremities of the grassed waterway (GWW). Furthermore, runoff was buffered for 5-12 h behind the dams, and the lag time at the outlet of the catchment was thereby increased by 75%. Reinfiltration was also observed within the waterway, runoff coefficients decreasing by a mean of 50% between both extremities of the GWW. Sediment discharge was also reduced by 93% between the GWW's inflow and the outlet. Before the installation of the control measures, specific sediment yield (SSY) of the catchment reached 3.5 t ha - 1 yr - 1 and an ephemeral gully was observed nearly each year in the catchment. Since the control measures have been installed, no (ephemeral) gully has developed and the SSY of the catchment dropped to a mean of 0.5 t ha - 1 yr - 1 . Hence, sediment transfer from the cultivated dry valley to the alluvial plain should dramatically decrease. Total cost of the control measures that are built for a 20 year-period is

  8. Vascular anomalies: classification, diagnosis, and natural history.

    PubMed

    Marler, J J; Mulliken, J B

    2001-11-01

    In the past, patients with vascular anomalies went from one physician to another. No one seemed to understand the condition, and sometimes the child was harmed by the wrong treatment. Now interdisciplinary vascular anomalies centers are organizing. The disciplines may differ, depending on local interest and capabilities. Such teams form a critical mass for proper diagnosis, therapy, and clinical/basic research. The advances in genetics are leading the way to a molecular understanding of vascular anomalies, and someday, molecular-based, novel therapy. The Internet also has had a major impact on this field. Because of continued confusion about diagnosis and therapy, cyber-savvy parents will self-refer to specialists. Family support groups have arisen and provide commendable service to these patients. PMID:17590938

  9. Rectal ectasia associated with anorectal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Zia-ul-Miraj, M; Brereton, R J

    1997-04-01

    Rectal ectasia may be associated with anorectal anomalies. If not recognized at the time of surgical reconstruction it may lead to megarectosigmoid, resulting in severe constipation and overflow incontinence postoperatively. The authors treated four patients presenting with this condition. One patient born with a low anorectal anomaly and two with high anorectal anomalies experienced intractable constipation caused by megarectum despite otherwise adequate primary reconstructive procedures. A fourth patient had rectal stenosis in association with megarectosigmoid. The ectatic megarectum had to be resected in all the patients to achieve normal bowel actions. The authors feel that resection or tailoring of the ectatic segment should be an integral part of the primary reconstructive procedure. PMID:9126769

  10. Detecting data anomalies methods in distributed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosiej, Lukasz

    2009-06-01

    Distributed systems became most popular systems in big companies. Nowadays many telecommunications companies want to hold large volumes of data about all customers. Obviously, those data cannot be stored in single database because of many technical difficulties, such as data access efficiency, security reasons, etc. On the other hand there is no need to hold all data in one place, because companies already have dedicated systems to perform specific tasks. In the distributed systems there is a redundancy of data and each system holds only interesting data in appropriate form. Data updated in one system should be also updated in the rest of systems, which hold that data. There are technical problems to update those data in all systems in transactional way. This article is about data anomalies in distributed systems. Avail data anomalies detection methods are shown. Furthermore, a new initial concept of new data anomalies detection methods is described on the last section.

  11. Continental magnetic anomaly constraints on continental reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomalies mapped by the MAGSAT satellite for North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica and adjacent marine areas were adjusted to a common elevation of 400 km and differentially reduced to the radial pole of intensity 60,000 nT. These radially polarized anomalies are normalized for differential inclination, declination and intensity effects of the geomagnetic field, so that in principle they directly reflected the geometric and magnetic polarization attributes of sources which include regional petrologic variations of the crust and upper mantle, and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. Continental anomalies demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, they suggest further fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution of the continents and their reconstructions.

  12. How to quantify structural anomalies in fluids?

    PubMed

    Fomin, Yu D; Ryzhov, V N; Klumov, B A; Tsiok, E N

    2014-07-21

    Some fluids are known to behave anomalously. The so-called structural anomaly which means that the fluid becomes less structures under isothermal compression is among the most frequently discussed ones. Several methods for quantifying the degree of structural order are described in the literature and are used for calculating the region of structural anomaly. It is generally thought that all of the structural order determinations yield qualitatively identical results. However, no explicit comparison was made. This paper presents such a comparison for the first time. The results of some definitions are shown to contradict the intuitive notion of a fluid. On the basis of this comparison, we show that the region of structural anomaly can be most reliably determined from the behavior of the excess entropy. PMID:25053327

  13. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Experimental and analytical data on magnetic mineralogy was provided as an aid to the interpretation of magnetic anomaly maps. An integrated program, ranging from the chemistry of materials from 100 or more km depth within the Earth, to an examination of the MAGSAT anomaly maps at about 400 km above the Earth's surface, was undertaken. Within this framework, a detailed picture of the pertinent mineralogical and magnetic relationships for the region of West Africa was provided. Efforts were directed toward: (1) examining the geochemistry, mineralogy, magnetic properties, and phases relations of magnetic oxides and metal alloys in rocks demonstrated to have originated in the lower crust of upper mantle, (2) examining the assumption that these rocks portray the nature of their source regions; and (3) examining the regional geology, tectonics, gravity field and the MAGSAT anomaly maps for West Africa.

  14. Density variations and anomalies in palladium compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Back, D.; Jones, T.; Ransick, M.; Walburg, T.; Werkmeister, D.

    1992-05-14

    Low-density compacts of palladium powder have relative densities of about 30{plus_minus}10% TD. The variations in density are of concern for operations such as chemical/hydrogen pump systems because heat, mass, and momentum transport properties can be affected. Variations in density result from the inherent nature and interacting forces of UASA compaction of powder in cylinders. In addition to these expected variations, discontinuous density anomalies, such as cracks or high density ridges, are also found. An anomaly of particular concern was found to resemble a ``steer`s head.`` it is a symmetrical region of low density located at or near the center of a compact. Typically, this region is surrounded by a band of high density, compacted palladium that sometimes exceeds the density of the surrounding compact matrix by a factor of three. This report examines these density variations and anomalies both theoretically and empirically.

  15. Density variations and anomalies in palladium compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Back, D.; Jones, T.; Ransick, M.; Walburg, T.; Werkmeister, D.

    1992-05-14

    Low-density compacts of palladium powder have relative densities of about 30{plus minus}10% TD. The variations in density are of concern for operations such as chemical/hydrogen pump systems because heat, mass, and momentum transport properties can be affected. Variations in density result from the inherent nature and interacting forces of UASA compaction of powder in cylinders. In addition to these expected variations, discontinuous density anomalies, such as cracks or high density ridges, are also found. An anomaly of particular concern was found to resemble a steer's head.'' it is a symmetrical region of low density located at or near the center of a compact. Typically, this region is surrounded by a band of high density, compacted palladium that sometimes exceeds the density of the surrounding compact matrix by a factor of three. This report examines these density variations and anomalies both theoretically and empirically.

  16. Influence of ionospheric anomalies in the positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Caderot, G.; Moreno, B.; de Lacy, M. C.

    2009-04-01

    GNSS observables depend on the satellite-receiver distance, atmospheric effects, satellite and receiver offsets and phase ambiguities, as well as satellite and receiver equipment delays. GNSS observations specific to a receiver and a satellite (undifferenced observations) can be used to estimate the ionospheric effect. In this study, different procedures are used to estimate the ionospheric delay from GNSS data belonging to permanent GPS stations. In particular, these tests intend to detect ionospheric anomalies under certain conditions in equatorial geographical latitudes. From the Slant Total Electron Content (STEC) estimated between one GPS station and several satellites the contribution of the anomalies is isolated and its amplitude and duration are computed. Finally, an analysis of the possible influence of these anomalies in the positioning estimation is carried out.

  17. Satellite anomalies caused by disturbed space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. H.

    2003-04-01

    Seven types of satellite anomalies are discussed and examples are given from historical reports. Types of anomalies and their causes are: o Single Event Upsets (SEU) caused by penetrating energetic ions; o Deep dielectric ("bulk") charging (DDC) by high-energy electrons; o Surface charging by thermal electrons causing electrostatic discharge (ESD) and Phantom Commands (PC); o Magnetopause crossing events (MPE) that reverse ambient fields at geostationary satellite altitudes; o dB/dT of field-aligned currents causing satellite tumbling at lower altitudes; o Optical effects of high-energy ions on star-trackers and limb sensors; and o Power panel degradation from high-energy ions. Recent and older events are considered, in part because the problems recur even though technology has changed to take them into account and awareness of the conditions causing them seems widespread. Systematic anomaly reporting is requested to increase the significance of records collected for particular events.

  18. Trace anomaly on a quantum spacetime manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Spallucci, Euro; Smailagic, Anais; Nicolini, Piero

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we investigate the trace anomaly in a space-time where single events are delocalized as a consequence of short distance quantum coordinate fluctuations. We obtain a modified form of heat kernel asymptotic expansion which does not suffer from short distance divergences. Calculation of the trace anomaly is performed using an IR regulator in order to circumvent the absence of UV infinities. The explicit form of the trace anomaly is presented and the corresponding 2D Polyakov effective action and energy-momentum tensor are obtained. The vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor in the Boulware, Hartle-Hawking and Unruh vacua is explicitly calculated in a rt section of a recently found, noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like solution of the Einstein equations. The standard short distance divergences in the vacuum expectation values are regularized in agreement with the absence of UV infinities removed by quantum coordinate fluctuations.

  19. Anomaly Detection for Discrete Sequences: A Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, Varun; Banerjee, Arindam; Kumar, Vipin

    2012-01-01

    This survey attempts to provide a comprehensive and structured overview of the existing research for the problem of detecting anomalies in discrete/symbolic sequences. The objective is to provide a global understanding of the sequence anomaly detection problem and how existing techniques relate to each other. The key contribution of this survey is the classification of the existing research into three distinct categories, based on the problem formulation that they are trying to solve. These problem formulations are: 1) identifying anomalous sequences with respect to a database of normal sequences; 2) identifying an anomalous subsequence within a long sequence; and 3) identifying a pattern in a sequence whose frequency of occurrence is anomalous. We show how each of these problem formulations is characteristically distinct from each other and discuss their relevance in various application domains. We review techniques from many disparate and disconnected application domains that address each of these formulations. Within each problem formulation, we group techniques into categories based on the nature of the underlying algorithm. For each category, we provide a basic anomaly detection technique, and show how the existing techniques are variants of the basic technique. This approach shows how different techniques within a category are related or different from each other. Our categorization reveals new variants and combinations that have not been investigated before for anomaly detection. We also provide a discussion of relative strengths and weaknesses of different techniques. We show how techniques developed for one problem formulation can be adapted to solve a different formulation, thereby providing several novel adaptations to solve the different problem formulations. We also highlight the applicability of the techniques that handle discrete sequences to other related areas such as online anomaly detection and time series anomaly detection.

  20. Associated congenital anomalies among cases with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

    2015-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common congenital anomaly widely studied for at least 150 years. However, the type and the frequency of congenital anomalies associated with DS are still controversial. Despite prenatal diagnosis and elective termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies, in Europe, from 2008 to 2012 the live birth prevalence of DS per 10,000 was 10. 2. The objectives of this study were to examine the major congenital anomalies occurring in infants and fetuses with Down syndrome. The material for this study came from 402,532 consecutive pregnancies of known outcome registered by our registry of congenital anomalies between 1979 and 2008. Four hundred sixty seven (64%) out of the 728 cases with DS registered had at least one major associated congenital anomaly. The most common associated anomalies were cardiac anomalies, 323 cases (44%), followed by digestive system anomalies, 42 cases (6%), musculoskeletal system anomalies, 35 cases (5%), urinary system anomalies, 28 cases (4%), respiratory system anomalies, 13 cases (2%), and other system anomalies, 26 cases (3.6%). Among the cases with DS with congenital heart defects, the most common cardiac anomaly was atrioventricular septal defect (30%) followed by atrial septum defect (25%), ventricular septal defect (22%), patent ductus arteriosus (5%), coarctation of aorta (5%), and tetralogy of Fallot (3%). Among the cases with DS with a digestive system anomaly recorded, duodenal atresia (67%), Hirschsprung disease (14%), and tracheo-esophageal atresia (10%) were the most common. Fourteen (2%) of the cases with DS had an obstructive anomaly of the renal pelvis, including hydronephrosis. The other most common anomalies associated with cases with DS were syndactyly, club foot, polydactyly, limb reduction, cataract, hydrocephaly, cleft palate, hypospadias and diaphragmatic hernia. Many studies to assess the anomalies associated with DS have reported various results. There is no agreement in the literature as to

  1. Distribution of branchial anomalies in a paediatric Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Neville Wei Yang; Ibrahim, Shahrul Izham; Tan, Kun Kiaang Henry

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of the present study was to review the distribution and incidence of branchial anomalies in an Asian paediatric population and highlight the challenges involved in the diagnosis of branchial anomalies. METHODS This was a retrospective chart review of all paediatric patients who underwent surgery for branchial anomalies in a tertiary paediatric hospital from August 2007 to November 2012. The clinical notes were correlated with preoperative radiological investigations, intraoperative findings and histology results. Branchial anomalies were classified based on the results of the review. RESULTS A total of 28 children underwent surgery for 30 branchial anomalies during the review period. Two children had bilateral branchial anomalies requiring excision. Of the 30 branchial anomalies, 7 (23.3%) were first branchial anomalies, 5 (16.7%) were second branchial anomalies, 3 (10.0%) were third branchial anomalies, and 4 (13.3%) were fourth branchial anomalies (one of the four patients with fourth branchial anomalies had bilateral branchial anomalies). In addition, seven children had 8 (26.7%) branchial anomalies that were thought to originate from the pyriform sinus; however, we were unable to determine if these anomalies were from the third or fourth branchial arches. There was inadequate information on the remaining 3 (10.0%) branchial anomalies for classification. CONCLUSION The incidence of second branchial anomalies appears to be lower in our Asian paediatric population, while that of third and fourth branchial anomalies was higher. Knowledge of embryology and the related anatomy of the branchial apparatus is crucial in the identification of the type of branchial anomaly. PMID:25917471

  2. Meteoroid-Induced Anomalies on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic meteoroid background is directional (not isotropic) and accounts for 90 percent of the meteoroid risk to a typical spacecraft. Meteor showers get all the press, but account for only approximately10 percent of spacecraft risk. Bias towards assigning meteoroid cause to anomalies during meteor showers. Vast majority of meteoroids come from comets and have a bulk density of approximately 1 gram per cubic centimeter (ice). High speed meteoroids (approximately 50 kilometers per second) can induce electrical anomalies in spacecraft through discharging of charged surfaces (also EMP (electromagnetic pulse?).

  3. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  4. Modeling And Detecting Anomalies In Scada Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Nils; Wolthusen, Stephen

    The detection of attacks and intrusions based on anomalies is hampered by the limits of specificity underlying the detection techniques. However, in the case of many critical infrastructure systems, domain-specific knowledge and models can impose constraints that potentially reduce error rates. At the same time, attackers can use their knowledge of system behavior to mask their manipulations, causing adverse effects to observed only after a significant period of time. This paper describes elementary statistical techniques that can be applied to detect anomalies in critical infrastructure networks. A SCADA system employed in liquefied natural gas (LNG) production is used as a case study.

  5. The source of marine magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Christopher G. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Vine-Matthews hypothesis (1963) is examined. This hypothesis suggests that oceanic rocks become polarized in the direction of the magnetic field at the time of their formation, thus recording the polarity history of the earth's magnetic field. This produces the lineated magnetic anomalies on either side of the midoceanic ridge crests. The strength of these magnetic anomalies is studied to determine the strength of magnetization. Indirect determinations of the magnetization intensity of the oceanic crust and direct observations of the oceanic crust are compared. It is found that the average magnetization of a 6-km thick oceanic crust is 1.18 A/m.

  6. Techniques for interpretation of geoid anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    For purposes of geological interpretation, techniques are developed to compute directly the geoid anomaly over models of density within the earth. Ideal bodies such as line segments, vertical sheets, and rectangles are first used to calculate the geoid anomaly. Realistic bodies are modeled with formulas for two-dimensional polygons and three-dimensional polyhedra. By using Fourier transform methods the two-dimensional geoid is seen to be a filtered version of the gravity field, in which the long-wavelength components are magnified and the short-wavelength components diminished.

  7. Subsurface and petroleum geology of the southwestern Santa Clara Valley ("Silicon Valley"), California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Jachens, Robert C.; Lillis, Paul G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Hostettler, Frances D.; McDougall, Kristin A.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2002-01-01

    Gravity anomalies, historical records of exploratory oil wells and oil seeps, new organic-geochemical results, and new stratigraphic and structural data indicate the presence of a concealed, oil-bearing sedimentary basin beneath a highly urbanized part of the Santa Clara Valley, Calif. A conspicuous isostatic-gravity low that extends about 35 km from Palo Alto southeastward to near Los Gatos reflects an asymmetric, northwest-trending sedimentary basin comprising low-density strata, principally of Miocene age, that rest on higher-density rocks of Mesozoic and Paleogene(?) age. Both gravity and well data show that the low-density rocks thin gradually to the northeast over a distance of about 10 km. The thickest (approx 4 km thick) accumulation of low-density material occurs along the basin's steep southwestern margin, which may be controlled by buried, northeast-dipping normal faults that were active during the Miocene. Movement along these hypothetical normal faults may been contemporaneous (approx 17–14 Ma) with sedimentation and local dacitic and basaltic volcanism, possibly in response to crustal extension related to passage of the northwestward-migrating Mendocino triple junction. During the Pliocene and Quaternary, the normal faults and Miocene strata were overridden by Mesozoic rocks, including the Franciscan Complex, along northeastward-vergent reverse and thrust faults of the Berrocal, Shannon, and Monte Vista Fault zones. Movement along these fault zones was accompanied by folding and tilting of strata as young as Quaternary and by uplift of the modern Santa Cruz Mountains; the fault zones remain seismically active. We attribute the Pliocene and Quaternary reverse and thrust faulting, folding, and uplift to compression caused by local San Andreas Fault tectonics and regional transpression along the Pacific-North American Plate boundary. Near the southwestern margin of the Santa Clara Valley, as many as 20 exploratory oil wells were drilled between 1891

  8. Effects of Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing Anomalies on the Atmospheric Response to Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M.; Cess, Robert D.; Zhang, Ming-Hua

    1995-01-01

    The latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research community climate model (CCM2) has been used to investigate cloud radiative forcing (CRF) anomalies associated with equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and the effects of the longwave CRF (LWCRF) anomalies on the atmospheric response to the SST anomalies. The SST anomalies cause large CRF anomalies, both longwave and shortwave, as well as latent heat anomalies at low latitudes on a global scale. The relative magnitude of the simulated longwave and shortwave CRF anomalies is consistent with the result of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), implying that cloud height and cloud radiative properties such as emissivity and reflectivity are well simulated by the model. The LWCRF anomaly strongly enhances the precipitation anomaly in the whole tropical belt. The positive (negative) LWCRF anomaly warms (cools) the troposphere and destabilizes (stabilizes) the upper troposphere. The LWCRF anomaly enhances the Southern Oscillation and the related Walker circulation anomaly. The effects of the LWCRF anomaly are essential to the northern hemispheric extratropical circulation anomaly, the Pacific/North American pattern.

  9. Valley-dependent band structure and valley polarization in periodically modulated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei-Tao

    2016-08-01

    The valley-dependent energy band and transport property of graphene under a periodic magnetic-strained field are studied, where the time-reversal symmetry is broken and the valley degeneracy is lifted. The considered superlattice is composed of two different barriers, providing more degrees of freedom for engineering the electronic structure. The electrons near the K and K' valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices. It is found that the energy bands for both valleys are symmetric with respect to ky=-(AM+ξ AS) /4 under the symmetric superlattices. More finite-energy Dirac points, more prominent collimation behavior, and new crossing points are found for K' valley. The degenerate miniband near the K valley splits into two subminibands and produces a new band gap under the asymmetric superlattices. The velocity for the K' valley is greatly renormalized compared with the K valley, and so we can achieve a finite velocity for the K valley while the velocity for the K' valley is zero. Especially, the miniband and band gap could be manipulated independently, leading to an increase of the conductance. The characteristics of the band structure are reflected in the transmission spectra. The Dirac points and the crossing points appear as pronounced peaks in transmission. A remarkable valley polarization is obtained which is robust to the disorder and can be controlled by the strain, the period, and the voltage.

  10. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrook, C.J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Redwood Valley. 9.153 Section 9.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.153 Redwood Valley. (a) Name. The name of...

  12. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potter Valley. 9.82 Section 9.82 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.82 Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...

  13. 27 CFR 9.86 - Anderson Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anderson Valley. 9.86 Section 9.86 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.86 Anderson Valley. (a) Name. The name of...

  14. 27 CFR 9.212 - Leona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leona Valley. 9.212...) Approved maps. The four United States Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps used to determine the boundary of the Leona Valley viticultural area are titled: (1) Ritter Ridge, Calif.,...

  15. Valley Pearl’ table grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  16. 27 CFR 9.142 - Bennett Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bennett Valley. 9.142... Bennett Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bennett Valley”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Bennett...

  17. 27 CFR 9.142 - Bennett Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bennett Valley. 9.142... Bennett Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bennett Valley”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Bennett...

  18. 27 CFR 9.142 - Bennett Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bennett Valley. 9.142... Bennett Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bennett Valley”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Bennett...

  19. 27 CFR 9.142 - Bennett Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bennett Valley. 9.142... Bennett Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bennett Valley”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Bennett...

  20. 27 CFR 9.142 - Bennett Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bennett Valley. 9.142... Bennett Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bennett Valley”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Bennett...

  1. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  2. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  3. Detection and Response for Rift Valley fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever is a viral disease that impacts domestic livestock and humans in Africa and the Middle East, and poses a threat to military operations in these areas. We describe a Rift Valley fever Risk Monitoring website, and its ability to predict risk of disease temporally and spatially. We al...

  4. The San Joaquin Valley: 20 years later

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history of irrigation development and the need for disposal of saline drainage water in the San Joaquin Valley was described to provide background for the drainage water disposal problem that resulted from the closure of the Kesterson Reservoir. A 5 year study developed in Valley alternatives fo...

  5. Desegregation in the South San Joaquin Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Rodolfo G.

    Notably isolated from the large metropolitan centers by geography and predominantly agricultural in its economy, Kern County is California's third largest county in land area. About one-third of the county is situated on the flat valley floor at the extreme southern end of the San Joaquin Valley. The area relies heavily on Chicano and Black manual…

  6. Dry Matter Intake and Digestion of Perennial and Annual Cool-Season Grasses by Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess perennial cool-season grass production can be harvested as hay for feeding later. Thus a series of experiments were conducted to estimate DMI and digestibility of perennial cool-season grasses relative to an annual cool-season grass harvested as either high moisture (HM) hay or field dried (F...

  7. Grass hosts of cereal aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) between wheat-cropping cycles in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several grasses may serve as alternative hosts for cereal aphids during the interim between small-grain crops in South Dakota, but field studies to determine which grasses are important have not been undertaken. We sampled annual and perennial grasses for cereal aphids in 18 counties in South Dakot...

  8. Risk of exotic annual grass-fire cycle in Goose Creek milkvetch habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a concern that habitats surrounding Goose Creek milkvetch populations are at risk of exotic annual grass invasion leading to an exotic annual grass-fire cycle. We sampled plant community and site characteristics to evaluate the risk of these habitats developing an exotic annual grass-fire ...

  9. 26 CFR 56.4911-3 - Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots....4911-3 Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications. (a) Definition of term... lobbying communication's costs is a direct lobbying expenditure, what portion is a grass roots...

  10. 26 CFR 56.4911-6 - Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records of lobbying and grass roots... lobbying and grass roots expenditures. (a) Records of lobbying expenditures. An electing public charity... organization must keep a record include the following: (1) Expenditures for grass roots lobbying, as...

  11. 26 CFR 56.4911-6 - Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records of lobbying and grass roots... lobbying and grass roots expenditures. (a) Records of lobbying expenditures. An electing public charity... organization must keep a record include the following: (1) Expenditures for grass roots lobbying, as...

  12. 26 CFR 56.4911-6 - Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records of lobbying and grass roots... lobbying and grass roots expenditures. (a) Records of lobbying expenditures. An electing public charity... organization must keep a record include the following: (1) Expenditures for grass roots lobbying, as...

  13. 26 CFR 56.4911-6 - Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records of lobbying and grass roots... lobbying and grass roots expenditures. (a) Records of lobbying expenditures. An electing public charity... organization must keep a record include the following: (1) Expenditures for grass roots lobbying, as...

  14. 26 CFR 56.4911-6 - Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of lobbying and grass roots... lobbying and grass roots expenditures. (a) Records of lobbying expenditures. An electing public charity... organization must keep a record include the following: (1) Expenditures for grass roots lobbying, as...

  15. Development of eastern gamagrass into the desirable grass it is today

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern gamagrass is a robust, perennial warm-season bunch-grass native from the Texas panhandle to the east coast. It has long been recognized as a highly productive and palatable forage grass that begins growing earlier in the spring than most warm-season grasses and produces good growth followin...

  16. Grass Yield and Quality Affect Potential Stocking Rate and Milk Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality changes within grass canopies may influence pasture utilization and performance of grazing animals. Our objective was to determine changes in crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD) within vertical layers of diverse temperate grass swards. Grasses were assigned ...

  17. 1. ELEVATION OF BUILDING 223, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST. Mill Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ELEVATION OF BUILDING 223, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Civil Engineering Administration Office, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  18. Ecophysiological responses of Chihuahuan desert grasses to fire.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand the effects of fire in the Chihuahuan desert, gas exchange characteristics of two dominant grass species, Bouteloua eriopoda and Aristida purpurea, and soil nitrogen availability were studied in response to prescribed fire at the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico...

  19. G.R.A.S.S. is Available

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, William Dan; Gambrell, C. B.

    1976-01-01

    Florida Technical University's approximately 11,000 students use its Generalized Registration and Sectioning System (GRASS), which provides on-line advanced and regular registration, on-line add/drop and late registration with instant invoice and class schedule printing. Description of system capabilities, notes on development, and samples of…

  20. Fire Intensity and its Effects on Four Major Grass Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fuel and fire conditions needed to cause grass mortality are largely unknown. Individual plants of Hesperostipa comata, Carex filifolia, Bouteloua gracilis, and Pascopyrum smithii were collected from rangeland, potted, and acclimated to greenhouse conditions. Plants were exposed to fire in 1-by-0...

  1. Grass competition may benefit high density peach orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research demonstrated that grass competition dwarfed and reduced the yield of individual peach trees [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] grown in narrow vegetation free areas (VFA). In this report, the area-based yield of two peach cultivars, 'Redskin' and 'Jersey Dawn' on 'Lovell', was estimated...

  2. Chemotypic diversity of epichloae, fungal symbionts of grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epichloid fungi - comprising sexual Epichlo€e species and asexual Neotyphodium species - are symbionts of cool-season grasses (subfamily Po0oideae), mostly vertically transmissible (seedborne), and well known for production of anti-herbivore alkaloids. Four classes of alkaloids are known to be p...

  3. Grass invasion into switchgrass managed for biomass energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a warm-season perennial grass and is the model herbaceous perennial bioenergy feedstock. Although it is indigenous to North American grasslands east of the Rocky Mountains and has been planted for forage and conservation purposes for more than 75 years, there is con...

  4. New Genomic Resources for Pasture and Range Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the initial requirements of utilizing genomic approaches in plant improvements is the availability of DNA sequence information. Toward the goal of generating sequence information for forage and pasture grasses, we are developing EST libraries from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) and sever...

  5. Competitive Dynamics Among Crested Wheatgrass and Native Forbs and Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive monocultures of exotic crested wheatgrass (Agropyron spp.) in the interior western United States replaced former wildlife habitat and in many cases are susceptible to or currently invaded by exotic annual grasses and forbs. Approaches are being examined for adding native species to improve...

  6. Brachypodium distachyon, a New Model for the Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is a small annual grass with biological, physical and genomic attributes (e.g. rapid cycling, small stature, inbreeding, small genome, diploid accessions) suitable for use as a modern model system. In pursuit of this goal, researchers have made rapid progress i...

  7. Suppression of cheatgrass by established perennial grasses: I. mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheatgrass is often considered a competitive species. In a greenhouse experiment using rhizotrons, we tested the effect of established perennial grasses (Indian ricegrass, creeping wildrye, and Snake River wheatgrass) on the growth of cheatgrass. The soil was a sandy loam A horizon of a Xeric Haploc...

  8. Evaluating perennial grass competition as a management tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of plant competition is highly dependent on life stage and cycle. One of the largest problems that Great Basin rangelands face is the competitive nature of the exotic and invasive annual grass, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Advantages of cheatgrass are often attributed to large seed produ...

  9. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass.... During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm and... endosperm. During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the...

  10. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass.... During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm and... endosperm. During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the...

  11. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass.... During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm and... endosperm. During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the...

  12. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass.... During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm and... endosperm. During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the...

  13. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass.... During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm and... endosperm. During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the...

  14. Grass forages:Dynamics of digestion in the rumen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasses have been the mainstay of the diet of grazing ruminants for thousands of years. Ruminants evolved a multi-compartment stomach to provide an environment for microbial fermentation of the complex polysaccharides that comprise the carbohydrates in plant cell walls (what we nutritionists call fi...

  15. Chemotypic diversity of epichloae, fungal symbionts of grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epichloid fungi - comprising sexual Epichlo€e species and asexual Neotyphodium species - are symbionts of cool-season grasses (subfamily Po€oideae), mostly vertically transmissible (seedborne), and well known for production of anti-herbivore alkaloids. Four classes of alkaloids are known to be p...

  16. Napier grass as a field border and bioenergy source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To reduce dependence on foreign oil and on ethanol produced from starch, progress is being made on converting cellulosic feedstocks to ethanol. Napiergrass has been identified to be a high biomass producer and reduce minimal inputs for production. The tall bunch grass is also being tested as a buf...

  17. Weed-suppressive bacteria to reduce annual grass weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica L.) are exotic, annual grasses that negatively affect cereal production in cropland; reduce protein-rich forage for cattle; choke out native plants in the shrub-steppe habi...

  18. Investigating rust resistance with the model grass Brachypodium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has provided unique opportunities to explore and unravel many key biological features of plant biology including disease resistance. However, the inability of rust fungi of the genus Puccinia to infect Arabidopsis has prevented its use in exploring grass-rust int...

  19. Snakes in the Grass: Weaving Success for Everyone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Janet L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes "Snakes in the Grass," a weaving project used with special needs students. Discusses the preliminary skill-building activities used, the process for creating the students' individual snakes, and the preparation and process for how the students wove the snakes. (CMK)

  20. Perennial grass production for biofuels: Soil conservation considerations

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Bransby, D.I.; Parrish, D.

    1994-12-31

    The increased use of renewable fuels for energy offers the United States a mechanism for significantly reducing national dependency on imported oil, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving regional agricultural economies. As mandated by law, a wide range of issues have been raised regarding the net environmental impacts of implementation of these new technologies. While uncertainties regarding both positive and negative environmental influences still exist in many areas of this new technology, it is now possible to address with substantial certainty the positive aspects of perennial herbaceous energy crops on several important soil conservation issues. Past experience with forage grasses and recent research with switchgrass, a warm season perennial forage grass selected as one of the model bioenergy species, indicates that important benefits will be gained in the area of soil conservation as grasses replace energy-intensive annual row crops. These include reduced erosion, improved conservation of water and nutrients, and increased productivity of soil by the deep and vigorous rooting systems of perennial warm-season grasses.