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Sample records for anonymizing weighted social

  1. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rongjun; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity. PMID:26293456

  2. Social desirability, anonymity, and Internet-based questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Joinson, A

    1999-08-01

    It has been argued that behavior on the Internet differs from similar behavior in the "real world" (Joinson, 1998a). In the present study, participants completed measures of self-consciousness, social anxiety, self-esteem, and social desirability, using either the World-Wide Web (WWW) or pen and paper, and were assigned to either an anonymous or a nonanonymous condition. It was found that people reported lower social anxiety and social desirability and higher self-esteem when they were anonymous than when they were nonanonymous. Furthermore, participants also reported lower social anxiety and social desirability when they were using the Internet than when they were using paper-based methods. Contrast analyses supported the prediction that participants using the WWW anonymously would show the lowest levels of social desirability, whereas participants answering with pen and paper nonanonymously would score highest on the same measure. Implications for the use of the Internet for the collection of psychological data are discussed. PMID:10502866

  3. Social network variables in alcoholics anonymous: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Groh, D R; Jason, L A; Keys, C B

    2008-03-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most commonly used program for substance abuse recovery and one of the few models to demonstrate positive abstinence outcomes. Although little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms that make this program effective, one frequently cited aspect is social support. In order to gain insight into the processes at work in AA, this paper reviewed 24 papers examining the relationship between AA and social network variables. Various types of social support were included in the review such as structural support, functional support, general support, alcohol-specific support, and recovery helping. Overall, this review found that AA involvement is related to a variety of positive qualitative and quantitative changes in social support networks. Although AA had the greatest impact on friend networks, it had less influence on networks consisting of family members or others. In addition, support from others in AA was found to be of great value to recovery, and individuals with harmful social networks supportive of drinking actually benefited the most from AA involvement. Furthermore, social support variables consistently mediated AA's impact on abstinence, suggesting that social support is a mechanism in the effectiveness of AA in promoting a sober lifestyle. Recommendations are made for future research and clinical practice. PMID:17719158

  4. Anonymously Productive and Socially Engaged While Learning at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many concurrent variables appear to influence people when they interact anonymously, either face-to-face (F2F) or in computer-mediated communications (CMC).This paper presents the results of a small exploratory research, conducted in a medical company in Italy, to investigate how the use of pseudonyms influences CMC behaviours. The study involved…

  5. Making Meaning of Alcoholics Anonymous for Social Workers: Myths, Metaphors, and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane Rae; Jansen, Golie G.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses common critiques of Alcoholics Anonymous by offering a way of understanding it as a "normative narrative community" where identity transformation takes place through the use of metaphor and storytelling. Suggests alternative meanings of key metaphors, describes areas of program strength and potential barriers for social workers, and…

  6. Making meaning of Alcoholics Anonymous for social workers: myths, metaphors, and realities.

    PubMed

    Davis, D R; Jansen, G G

    1998-03-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), the increasingly popular mutual-help program for alcoholics, is often criticized for being just another substitute addiction, emphasizing "powerlessness" to already disenfranchised groups, being a religion or cult, adhering to a medical model of disease instead of a strengths perspective, and other such areas of concern to social workers. Many of these interpretations are based on viewing AA as an alternative treatment model or a rational service delivery model. This article addresses common critiques of AA by offering a way of understanding it as a "normative narrative community," where identity transformation takes place through the use of metaphor and storytelling. The article suggests alternative meanings of key metaphors, such as "powerlessness," describes areas of program strength and potential barriers for social workers, and reviews current research on AA effectiveness. PMID:9528391

  7. The role of Alcoholics Anonymous in mobilizing adaptive social network changes: A prospective lagged mediational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Stout, Robert L.; Magill, Molly; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective Many individuals entering treatment are involved in social networks and activities that heighten relapse risk. Consequently, treatment programs facilitate engagement in social recovery resources, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), to provide a low risk network. While it is assumed that AA works partially through this social mechanism, research has been limited in rigor and scope. This study used lagged mediational methods to examine changes in pro-abstinent and pro-drinking network ties and activities. Method Adults (N = 1,726) participating in a randomized controlled trial of alcohol use disorder treatment were assessed at intake, and 3, 9, and 15 months. Generalized linear modeling (GLM) tested whether changes in pro-abstinent and pro-drinking network ties and drinking and abstinent activities helped explain AA's effects. Results Greater AA attendance facilitated substantial decreases in pro-drinking social ties and significant, but less substantial increases in pro-abstinent ties. Also, AA attendance reduced engagement in drinking-related activities and increased engagement in abstinent activities. Lagged mediational analyses revealed that it was through reductions in pro-drinking network ties and, to a lesser degree, increases in pro-abstinent ties that AA exerted its salutary effect on abstinence, and to a lesser extent, on drinking intensity. Conclusions AA appears to facilitate recovery by mobilizing adaptive changes in the social networks of individuals exhibiting a broad range of impairment. Specifically by reducing involvement with pro-drinking ties and increasing involvement with pro-abstinent ties. These changes may aid recovery by decreasing exposure to alcohol-related cues thereby reducing craving, while simultaneously increasing rewarding social relationships. PMID:21035276

  8. Effects of Anonymity, Gender, and Erotophilia on the Quality of Data Obtained from Self-Reports of Socially Sensitive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Durant, Lauren E.; Carey, Michael P.; Schroder, Kerstin E. E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of anonymity, gender, and erotophilia on the quality of self-reports of socially sensitive health-related behaviors. A sample of 155 male and 203 female undergraduate students was randomly assigned to an anonymous and a confidential (i.e., non-anonymous) assessment condition. Gender, erotophilia, self-reports (on substance use, sexual behaviors, illegal activity), and perceived item threat were assessed by questionnaire. Data quality was strongly affected by experimental condition and gender. Thus, terminations were more frequent in the confidential condition and among women. In the confidential condition, women were significantly more likely to “prefer not to respond” to sensitive item compared to men. Both female gender and confidential condition were associated with lower frequency reports of sensitive health behaviors, and greater perceived threat of the assessment questions. Self-reported engagement in sensitive behaviors was positively related to both perceived question threat and erotophilia. Path analyses suggest that question threat mediates the effects of anonymity manipulations and gender on data quality (item refusal, termination), and that erotophilia mediates the effects of gender on incidence and frequency self-reports. The results indicate that anonymous assessments as well as male gender are associated with better data quality. PMID:12442560

  9. Multilayer weighted social network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Yohsuke; Török, János; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2014-11-01

    Recent empirical studies using large-scale data sets have validated the Granovetter hypothesis on the structure of the society in that there are strongly wired communities connected by weak ties. However, as interaction between individuals takes place in diverse contexts, these communities turn out to be overlapping. This implies that the society has a multilayered structure, where the layers represent the different contexts. To model this structure we begin with a single-layer weighted social network (WSN) model showing the Granovetterian structure. We find that when merging such WSN models, a sufficient amount of interlayer correlation is needed to maintain the relationship between topology and link weights, while these correlations destroy the enhancement in the community overlap due to multiple layers. To resolve this, we devise a geographic multilayer WSN model, where the indirect interlayer correlations due to the geographic constraints of individuals enhance the overlaps between the communities and, at the same time, the Granovetterian structure is preserved.

  10. Anonymity, Deindividuation and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert S.

    Several writers suggest that reducing one's sense of individuality reduces social restraints. The author suggests that the effect of uniformity of appearance on aggression is unclear when anonymity is held constant. This poses a problem of interpretation given that a distinction must be made between lack of individuality and anonymity. One must…

  11. Against anonymity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert

    2014-05-01

    In 'New Threats to Academic Freedom' Francesca Minerva argues that anonymity for the authors of controversial articles is a prerequisite for academic freedom in the Internet age. This argument draws its intellectual and emotional power from the author's account of the reaction to the on-line publication of ' After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?'--an article that provoked cascades of hostile postings and e-mails. Reflecting on these events, Minerva proposes that publishers should offer the authors of controversial articles the option of publishing their articles anonymously. This response reviews the history of anonymous publication and concludes that its reintroduction in the Internet era would recreate problems similar to those that led print journals to abandon the practice: corruption of scholarly discourse by invective and hate speech, masked conflicts of interest, and a diminution of editorial accountability. It also contends that Minerva misreads the intent of the hostile e-mails provoked by 'After-birth abortion,' and that ethicists who publish controversial articles should take responsibility by dialoguing with their critics--even those whose critiques are emotionally charged and hostile. PMID:24724540

  12. Social aspects of low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Dunn, H G

    1984-05-01

    The categories of low birth weigth infants, social vs. racial factors, factors increasing the risk of low birth weight, prevention of low birth weight, social factors in the development of low birth weight children, the influence of social factors vs. other variables, and implications for management are reviewed. In 1948 the World Health Assembly designated children who were born weighing 2500 g or less as "immature" and further stated that a liveborn infant with a period of gestation of less than 37 weeks or specified as "premature" may be considered as the equivalent of an immature event. In 1961 it was recommended that babies weighing 2500 g or less should no longer be referred to as being "premature" and that the concept of "prematurity" in the definition should give way to that of "low birth weight." Intrauterine growth curves for liveborn males and females were devised from data on birth weight and gestational age. Infants born prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation whose weight lies between the 10th and 90th percentiles on such curves may be called preterm with a weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA), whereas infants born after any length of gestation whose birth weight is at or below the 10th percentile may be named hypotrophic or small for gestational age (SGA). On a worldwide scale it has been estimated that about 22 million low birth weight babies, representing roughly 1/6 of all births, are born alive each day. Only about 1 million of them (mostly preterm) are born in developed countries; of the 21 million born in developing areas, roughly 16 million are SGA full-term and not preterm babies. Socioeconomic status appears as 1 of the most important dterminants of the ultimate level of brain function in children of low birth weight, and this is true with respect to neurologic, psychologic, and educational outcome. Social class also has an indirect effect through birth weight, frequency of perinatal brain injury, and other biological variables as

  13. Rapid Annotation of Anonymous Sequences from Genome Projects Using Semantic Similarities and a Weighting Scheme in Gene Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Paolo; Cestaro, Alessandro; Velasco, Riccardo; Formentin, Elide; Toppo, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Background Large-scale sequencing projects have now become routine lab practice and this has led to the development of a new generation of tools involving function prediction methods, bringing the latter back to the fore. The advent of Gene Ontology, with its structured vocabulary and paradigm, has provided computational biologists with an appropriate means for this task. Methodology We present here a novel method called ARGOT (Annotation Retrieval of Gene Ontology Terms) that is able to process quickly thousands of sequences for functional inference. The tool exploits for the first time an integrated approach which combines clustering of GO terms, based on their semantic similarities, with a weighting scheme which assesses retrieved hits sharing a certain number of biological features with the sequence to be annotated. These hits may be obtained by different methods and in this work we have based ARGOT processing on BLAST results. Conclusions The extensive benchmark involved 10,000 protein sequences, the complete S. cerevisiae genome and a small subset of proteins for purposes of comparison with other available tools. The algorithm was proven to outperform existing methods and to be suitable for function prediction of single proteins due to its high degree of sensitivity, specificity and coverage. PMID:19247487

  14. The bid to lose weight: impact of social media on weight perceptions, weight control and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Das, Leah; Mohan, Ranjini; Makaya, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the internet has come to permeate every aspect of our lives. With huge leaps in accessibility of the internet via mobile personal devices such as smart cellular phones and tablets, individuals are connected to the internet virtually all the time. It is no surprise therefore that social media now dominates the lives of many people within society. The authors take a look at how social media is influencing diabetes with particular focus on weight perception, weight management and eating behaviours. The authors explore the concept of how the advertising of Size 0 models and photo-shopping of images which are easily available on line and via social media is causing an increase in the number of young people with distorted body images. This has led to an increased number of people resorting to sometimes drastic weight loss programmes. We focus on the bid for 'low-fat' consumption and highlight how this could actually be leading to an increased risk for developing diabetes or worsening the complications of diabetes. We also discuss the increase of eating disorder in diabetes related to this distorted body image. PMID:25311196

  15. Anonymity in Voting Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonker, Hugo; Pieters, Wolter

    According to international law, anonymity of the voter is a fundamental precondition for democratic elections. In electronic voting, several aspects of voter anonymity have been identified. In this paper, we re-examine anonymity with respect to voting, and generalise existing notions of anonymity in e-voting. First, we identify and categorise the types of attack that can be a threat to anonymity of the voter, including different types of vote buying and coercion. This analysis leads to a categorisation of anonymity in voting in terms of a) the strength of the anonymity achieved and b) the extent of interaction between voter and attacker. Some of the combinations, including weak and strong receipt-freeness, are formalised in epistemic logic.

  16. An Anonymity Revocation Technology for Anonymous Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniou, Giannakis; Batten, Lynn; Parampalli, Udaya

    A number of privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) have been proposed in the last three decades offering unconditional communication anonymity to their users. Unconditional anonymity can, however, be a security threat because it allows users to employ a PET in order to act maliciously while hiding their identity. In the last few years, several technologies which revoke the identity of users who use PETs have been proposed. These are known as anonymity revocation technologies (ARTs). However, the construction of ARTs has been developed in an ad hoc manner without a theoretical basis outlining the goals and underlying principles. In this chapter we present a set of fundamental principles and requirements for construction of an ART, identifying the necessary features. We then propose an abstract scheme for construction of an ART based on these features.

  17. Quantum anonymous voting with anonymity check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoshko, Dmitri; Kilin, Sergei

    2011-02-01

    We propose a new protocol for quantum anonymous voting having serious advantages over the existing protocols: it protects both the voters from a curious tallyman and all the participants from a dishonest voter in unconditional way. The central idea of the protocol is that the ballots are given back to the voters after the voting process, which gives a possibility for two voters to check the anonymity of the vote counting process by preparing a special entangled state of two ballots. Any attempt of cheating from the side of the tallyman results in destroying the entanglement, which can be detected by the voters.

  18. True Anonymity Without Mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Jimenez, C.; Marshall, L.

    2002-04-01

    Anonymizers based on mix computers interposed between the sender and the receiver of an e-mail message have been used in the Internet for several years by senders of e-mail messages who do not wish to disclose their identity. Unfortunately, the degree of anonymity provided by this paradigm is limited and fragile. First, the messages sent are not truly anonymous but pseudo-anonymous since one of the mixes, at least, always knows the sender's identity. Secondly, the strength of the system to protect the sender's identity depends on the ability and the willingness of the mixes to keep the secret. If the mixes fail, the sender/'s anonymity is reduced to pieces. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sending truly anonymous messages over the Internet where the anonymous message is sent from a PDA which uses dynamically assigned temporary, non-personal, random IP and MAC addresses. Anonymous E-cash is used to pay for the service.

  19. Anonymous Signatures Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswat, Vishal; Yun, Aaram

    We revisit the notion of the anonymous signature, first formalized by Yang, Wong, Deng and Wang [10], and then further developed by Fischlin [4] and Zhang and Imai [11]. We present a new formalism of anonymous signature, where instead of the message, a part of the signature is withheld to maintain anonymity. We introduce the notion unpretendability to guarantee infeasibility for someone other than the correct signer to pretend authorship of the message and signature. Our definition retains applicability for all previous applications of the anonymous signature, provides stronger security, and is conceptually simpler. We give a generic construction from any ordinary signature scheme, and also show that the short signature scheme by Boneh and Boyen [2] can be naturally regarded as such a secure anonymous signature scheme according to our formalism.

  20. Quantum anonymous ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Liu, Bin; Su, Qi; Qin, Su-Juan; Gao, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Anonymous ranking is a kind of privacy-preserving ranking whereby each of the involved participants can correctly and anonymously get the rankings of his data. It can be utilized to solve many practical problems, such as anonymously ranking the students' exam scores. We investigate the issue of how quantum mechanics can be of use in maintaining the anonymity of the participants in multiparty ranking and present a series of quantum anonymous multiparty, multidata ranking protocols. In each of these protocols, a participant can get the correct rankings of his data and nobody else can match the identity to his data. Furthermore, the security of these protocols with respect to different kinds of attacks is proved.

  1. Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; McClary, Daniel; Moller, Arlen C.; Mukogo, Rufaro; Pellegrini, Christine A.; Coons, Michael J.; Davidson, Miriam; Mukherjee, Satyam; Nunes Amaral, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is heightening chronic disease risk globally. Online weight management (OWM) communities could potentially promote weight loss among large numbers of people at low cost. Because little is known about the impact of these online communities, we examined the relationship between individual and social network variables, and weight loss in a large, international OWM programme. We studied the online activity and weight change of 22 419 members of an OWM system during a six-month period, focusing especially on the 2033 members with at least one friend within the community. Using Heckman's sample-selection procedure to account for potential selection bias and data censoring, we found that initial body mass index, adherence to self-monitoring and social networking were significantly correlated with weight loss. Remarkably, greater embeddedness in the network was the variable with the highest statistical significance in our model for weight loss. Average per cent weight loss at six months increased in a graded manner from 4.1% for non-networked members, to 5.2% for those with a few (two to nine) friends, to 6.8% for those connected to the giant component of the network, to 8.3% for those with high social embeddedness. Social networking within an OWM community, and particularly when highly embedded, may offer a potent, scalable way to curb the obesity epidemic and other disorders that could benefit from behavioural changes. PMID:25631561

  2. Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss.

    PubMed

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; McClary, Daniel; Moller, Arlen C; Mukogo, Rufaro; Pellegrini, Christine A; Coons, Michael J; Davidson, Miriam; Mukherjee, Satyam; Nunes Amaral, Luis A

    2015-03-01

    The obesity epidemic is heightening chronic disease risk globally. Online weight management (OWM) communities could potentially promote weight loss among large numbers of people at low cost. Because little is known about the impact of these online communities, we examined the relationship between individual and social network variables, and weight loss in a large, international OWM programme. We studied the online activity and weight change of 22,419 members of an OWM system during a six-month period, focusing especially on the 2033 members with at least one friend within the community. Using Heckman's sample-selection procedure to account for potential selection bias and data censoring, we found that initial body mass index, adherence to self-monitoring and social networking were significantly correlated with weight loss. Remarkably, greater embeddedness in the network was the variable with the highest statistical significance in our model for weight loss. Average per cent weight loss at six months increased in a graded manner from 4.1% for non-networked members, to 5.2% for those with a few (two to nine) friends, to 6.8% for those connected to the giant component of the network, to 8.3% for those with high social embeddedness. Social networking within an OWM community, and particularly when highly embedded, may offer a potent, scalable way to curb the obesity epidemic and other disorders that could benefit from behavioural changes. PMID:25631561

  3. The role of social support in weight loss maintenance: results from the MedWeight study.

    PubMed

    Karfopoulou, Eleni; Anastasiou, Costas A; Avgeraki, Evangelia; Kosmidis, Mary H; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2016-06-01

    The role of social support in weight management is not fully understood, as more support has been linked to both favorable and unfavorable outcomes. We examined social support in relation to weight loss maintenance, comparing between maintainers and regainers of weight loss. The MedWeight study is a Greek registry of people who have intentionally lost ≥10 % of their weight and are either maintaining this loss for over a year (maintainers), or have regained weight (regainers). Demographics and lifestyle habits questionnaires are completed online. Dietary assessment is carried out by two telephone 24 h recalls. Perceived social support was assessed by validated scales examining support from family and friends regarding healthy eating and exercise. 289 maintainers and 122 regainers participated. Regainers received more support compared to maintainers. However, maintainers reported receiving compliments and active participation, whereas regainers receiving verbal instructions and encouragements. Maintainers who received diet support displayed improved dietary intakes, such as lower energy intake; regainers' diet was unaffected by support. Positive, rather than instructive, support appears beneficial in weight loss maintenance. PMID:26801339

  4. Anonymity in science.

    PubMed

    Neuroskeptic

    2013-05-01

    The history of science is replete with important works that were originally published without the author's legal name being revealed. Most modern scientists will have worked anonymously in their capacity as peer reviewers. But why is anonymity so popular? And is it a valid approach? I argue that pseudonymity and anonymity, although not appropriate for all forms of scientific communication, have a vital role to play in academic discourse. They can facilitate the free expression of interpretations and ideas, and can help to ensure that suggestions and criticisms are evaluated dispassionately, regardless of their source. PMID:23570959

  5. Trust in Anonymity Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Hamadou, Sardaouna; Yang, Mu

    Anonymity is a security property of paramount importance, as we move steadily towards a wired, online community. Its import touches upon subjects as different as eGovernance, eBusiness and eLeisure, as well as personal freedom of speech in authoritarian societies. Trust metrics are used in anonymity networks to support and enhance reliability in the absence of verifiable identities, and a variety of security attacks currently focus on degrading a user's trustworthiness in the eyes of the other users. In this paper, we analyse the privacy guarantees of the Crowds anonymity protocol, with and without onion forwarding, for standard and adaptive attacks against the trust level of honest users.

  6. Social Dynamics of a University Weight Room: A Microethnography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ittenbach, Richard F.; Chissom, Brad S.

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe and explain the social dynamics of America's second most popular recreational sport, weight lifting, as performed on a university campus. Data were collected and analyzed using the participant observation approach to grounded theory research. Several hypotheses evolved from this analysis: (1) it is…

  7. Birth Weight and Social Trust in Adulthood: Evidence for Early Calibration of Social Cognition.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene

    2015-11-01

    Social trust forms the fundamental basis for social interaction within societies. Understanding the cognitive architecture of trust and the roots of individual differences in trust is of key importance. We predicted that one of the factors calibrating individual levels of trust is the intrauterine flow of nutrients from mother to child as indexed by birth weight. Birth weight forecasts both the future external environment and the internal condition of the individual in multiple ways relevant for social cognition. Specifically, we predicted that low birth weight is utilized as a forecast of a harsh environment, vulnerable condition, or both and, consequently, reduces social trust. The results of the study reported here are consistent with this prediction. Controlling for many confounds through sibling and panel designs, we found that lower birth weight reduced social trust in adulthood. Furthermore, we obtained tentative evidence that this effect is mitigated if adult environments do not induce stress. PMID:26381505

  8. Spectral Anonymization of Data

    PubMed Central

    Lasko, Thomas A.; Vinterbo, Staal A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of data anonymization is to allow the release of scientifically useful data in a form that protects the privacy of its subjects. This requires more than simply removing personal identifiers from the data, because an attacker can still use auxiliary information to infer sensitive individual information. Additional perturbation is necessary to prevent these inferences, and the challenge is to perturb the data in a way that preserves its analytic utility. No existing anonymization algorithm provides both perfect privacy protection and perfect analytic utility. We make the new observation that anonymization algorithms are not required to operate in the original vector-space basis of the data, and many algorithms can be improved by operating in a judiciously chosen alternate basis. A spectral basis derived from the data’s eigenvectors is one that can provide substantial improvement. We introduce the term spectral anonymization to refer to an algorithm that uses a spectral basis for anonymization, and we give two illustrative examples. We also propose new measures of privacy protection that are more general and more informative than existing measures, and a principled reference standard with which to define adequate privacy protection. PMID:21373375

  9. Social stress at work and change in women's body weight.

    PubMed

    Kottwitz, Maria U; Grebner, Simone; Semmer, Norbert K; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions--specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work--on women's change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic. PMID:24429516

  10. Narcotics Anonymous: Understanding the "Bridge of Recovery."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronel, Natti

    1998-01-01

    Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is investigated as a subculture of recovery bridging the drug subculture and the prevailing culture. A phenomenological study of NA in Israel is reported. Innovation, cultural conflict, the value of recovery and its norms, supporting social mechanisms, limitations of the program, and intercultural attributes are…

  11. In Defence of Anonymity: Rejoining the Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    This article is a response to the growing criticisms of the British Educational Research Association (BERA) and Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) ethical guidelines on anonymity and pseudonymity as default positions for participants in qualitative educational research. It discusses and responds to those criticisms under four…

  12. Anonymous, Yet Trustworthy Auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanda, Prasit Bikash; Naessens, Vincent; de Decker, Bart

    An auction is an inevitable market mechanism to setup prices of goods or services in a competitive and dynamic environment. Anonymity of bidders is required to conceal their business strategies from competitors. However, it is also essential to provide the seller guarantees that a bidder is trustworthy and competent enough to perform certain tasks (e.g transports). This paper proposes an auction protocol where bidders will participate anonymously, yet prove to be trustworthy and competent and can be held accountable towards auctioneers and sellers. Moreover, the protocol introduces promises, bonuses and compensations to ensure the best price for the sellers, extra profit for bidders and opportunities for newcomers in the business. It also handles ties, and copes with last minute bidding. Finally, the auction’s fair proceedings and outcome can be verified by everyone.

  13. Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

  14. Social influences are associated with BMI and weight loss intentions in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Leahey, Tricia M.; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Fava, Joseph L.; Wing, Rena R.

    2011-01-01

    Christakis and colleagues have shown that health behaviors cluster in social networks and suggest social norms may account for the clustering. This study examined: 1) whether obesity clusters among young adults and whether social norms do in fact account for the clustering, and 2) among OW/OB young adults, whether number of social contacts trying to lose weight is associated with weight loss intentions and whether social norms for weight loss account for this effect. Normal weight (NW) and OW/OB young adults (N=288; 66%Female; 75%Caucasian) completed measures assessing number of OW social contacts and social norms for obesity. OW/OB young adults also indicated number of OW social contacts currently trying to lose weight, social norms for weight loss, and weight loss intentions. Compared to NW, OW/OB young adults were more likely to have OW romantic partners and best friends and had more OW casual friends and family members (p's<.05), but social norms for obesity did not differ between groups, and social norms did not mediate the relationship between OW social contacts and participants' weight status. However, among OW/OB young adults, having more social contacts trying to lose weight was associated with greater intention to lose weight (r=.20, p=.02) and social norms for weight loss fully mediated this effect (p<.01). This study is the first to show that social contacts and normative beliefs influence weight status and intentions for weight control in young adults. Findings underscore the importance of targeting social influence in the treatment and prevention of obesity in this high-risk age group. PMID:21164501

  15. Comments on ``Anonymous Reviews'' An Editor's View of Anonymous Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, John A.

    I have read with great interest the recent Forum commentaries in Eos by Myrl Beck, Charles Robinove, Robert Criss, and Anne Hofmeister regarding anonymous reviews. I heartily support their position that anonymous reviews should be avoided. I have not written an anonymous review in ages (and regret the few that I did), and have always appreciated and respected greatly anyone who signs a critical review of one of my own papers. However, I would like to add some perspective from the editorial standpoint. I have served as JGR associate editor for 3 years (never anonymously!), and as Eos editor for seismology and tectonophysics for 4. Over the years, I have rejected a fair number of papers, most of those based on anonymous reviews (fortunately, none of the above commentators was one of them). The vast majority of anonymous reviews I received were well considered. While I would wish that all reviews were signed, I don't think we can summarily dismiss the fear that many would have of enmity and reprisal over a critical review. Some of these fears are likely justified. On more than one occasion, have I witnessed overly aggressive responses on the part of authors to anonymous reviews that I considered to be entirely fair and constructive in their criticisms. I do think we need to do all we can to discourage anonymous reviews, but it will be difficult to completely remove that choice from the process.

  16. On Backward-Style Anonymity Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Yoshinobu; Mano, Ken; Sakurada, Hideki; Tsukada, Yasuyuki

    Many Internet services and protocols should guarantee anonymity; for example, an electronic voting system should guarantee to prevent the disclosure of who voted for which candidate. To prove trace anonymity, which is an extension of the formulation of anonymity by Schneider and Sidiropoulos, this paper presents an inductive method based on backward anonymous simulations. We show that the existence of an image-finite backward anonymous simulation implies trace anonymity. We also demonstrate the anonymity verification of an e-voting protocol (the FOO protocol) with our backward anonymous simulation technique. When proving the trace anonymity, this paper employs a computer-assisted verification tool based on a theorem prover.

  17. Your Health Buddies Matter: Preferential Selection and Social Influence on Weight Management in an Online Health Social Network.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jingbo

    2016-12-01

    A growing number of online social networks are designed with the intention to promote health by providing virtual space wherein individuals can seek and share information and support with similar others. Research has shown that real-world social networks have a significant influence on one's health behavior and outcomes. However, there is a dearth of studies on how individuals form social networks in virtual space and whether such online social networks exert any impact on individuals' health outcomes. Built on the Multi-Theoretical Multilevel (MTML) framework and drawing from literature on social influence, this study examined the mechanisms underlying the formation of an online health social network and empirically tested social influence on individual health outcomes through the network. Situated in a weight management social networking site, the study tracked a health buddy network of 709 users and their weight management activities and outcomes for 4 months. Actor-based modeling was used to test the joint dynamics of preferential selection and social influence among health buddies. The results showed that baseline, inbreeding, and health status homophily significantly predicted preferential selection of health buddies in the weight management social networking site, whereas self-interest in seeking experiential health information did not. The study also found peer influence of online health buddy networks on individual weight outcomes, such that an individual's odds of losing weight increased if, on average, the individual's health buddies were losing weight. PMID:27055008

  18. Privacy, anonymity and subjectivity in genomic research.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, Ian; Shomron, Noam

    2016-01-01

    The use of non-anonymized human genome data is becoming increasingly popular in research. Here we review the proceedings of a special meeting on this topic that took place at European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) in December 2014. The main points discussed centered on how to achieve 'anonymity,' 'trust,' and 'protection of data' in relation to new genomic technologies and research. Following our report of this meeting, we also raise three further issues for future consideration: the harmonization of international law in relation to genetic data protection; the complex issues around the 'dividual' nature of genetic data; and the growing commercial value of personal data. In conclusion, we stress the importance of scientists working in the area of genomic research engaging in interdisciplinary collaborations with humanities and social science scholars and addressing these complicated issues. PMID:26763729

  19. Anonymous Transactions in Computer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolev, Shlomi; Kopeetsky, Marina

    We present schemes for providing anonymous transactions while privacy and anonymity are preserved, providing user anonymous authentication in distributed networks such as the Internet. We first present a practical scheme for anonymous transactions while the transaction resolution is assisted by a Trusted Authority. This practical scheme is extended to a theoretical scheme where a Trusted Authority is not involved in the transaction resolution. Given an authority that generates for each player hard to produce evidence EVID (e. g., problem instance with or without a solution) to each player, the identity of a user U is defined by the ability to prove possession of said evidence. We use Zero-Knowledge proof techniques to repeatedly identify U by providing a proof that U has evidence EVID, without revealing EVID, therefore avoiding identity theft.

  20. Repeated Measures in Case Studies Relating Social Competence and Weight Loss in Two Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Sonia Beatriz; Barbosa, Debora Regina

    2007-01-01

    In individual behavior therapy two clients were evaluated using behavior categories created by the therapist. Both clients were observed to improve in terms of social competence. One demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between improvement of social competence and weight loss during treatment (16 sessions) and lost weight. The other…

  1. Repeated Measures in Case Studies Relating Social Competence and Weight Loss in Two Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Sonia Beatriz; Barbosa, Debora Regina

    2009-01-01

    In individual behavior therapy two clients were evaluated using behavior categories created by the therapist. Both clients were observed to improve in terms of social competence. One demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between improvement of social competence and weight loss during treatment (16 sessions) and lost weight. The other…

  2. Attitudinal Conformity and Anonymity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Herbert; Kaplowitz, Stan

    1977-01-01

    Tested college students for conformity when conditions contributing to conformity were absent. Found that social pressures (responding in public, being surveyed by fellow group members) are necessary to produce conformity. (RL)

  3. Birth weight, domestic violence, coping, social support, and mental health of young Iranian mothers in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Mozhdeh Nasseh Lotf; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Nygren, Lennart; Nojomi, Marzieh; Richter, Jörg

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of birth weight with sociodemographic variables, domestic violence, ways of coping, social support, and general mental health of Iranian mothers. Six hundred mothers aged 15 to 29 years participated between June 2009 and November 2010. t-Test, analysis of variance, Spearman's correlation, and multiple regression were used. The results showed that there was no significant association between birth weight and general mental health of the mothers. Prenatal care visits, the mothers' history of having children with low birth weight (LBW), and weight gain during pregnancy were significantly associated with birth weight. The women who reported physical abuse during pregnancy had infants with lower birth weight. Satisfaction with social support and use of positive reappraisal were significantly associated with higher birth weight. In conclusion, a high quality of prenatal care and screening of pregnant women are recommended. Social environments good enough during pregnancy have protective effects against LBW. PMID:23817159

  4. Nonresident Father Involvement, Social Class, and Adolescent Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menning, Chadwick L.; Stewart, Susan D.

    2008-01-01

    Body weight issues disproportionately affect children with nonresident fathers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors investigate the relationship between nonresident father involvement and adolescent weight, specifically adolescents' risk of being underweight, overweight, and obese. The results show…

  5. Technology for Anonymity: Names By Other Nyms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayner, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Provides a summary of some of the technical solutions for producing anonymous communication on the Internet and presents an argument that anonymity is as much a part of crime prevention as requiring people to provide their names. Discusses identity theft; the three major techniques that make anonymous cash possible; and anonymizing Internet…

  6. Anonymity and Historical-Anonymity in Location-Based Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, Claudio; Mascetti, Sergio; Wang, X. Sean; Freni, Dario; Jajodia, Sushil

    The problem of protecting user’s privacy in Location-Based Services (LBS) has been extensively studied recently and several defense techniques have been proposed. In this contribution, we first present a categorization of privacy attacks and related defenses. Then, we consider the class of defense techniques that aim at providing privacy through anonymity and in particular algorithms achieving “historical k- anonymity” in the case of the adversary obtaining a trace of requests recognized as being issued by the same (anonymous) user. Finally, we investigate the issues involved in the experimental evaluation of anonymity based defense techniques; we show that user movement simulations based on mostly random movements can lead to overestimate the privacy protection in some cases and to overprotective techniques in other cases. The above results are obtained by comparison to a more realistic simulation with an agent-based simulator, considering a specific deployment scenario.

  7. Benefits of recruiting participants with friends and increasing social support for weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Wing, R R; Jeffery, R W

    1999-02-01

    To determine the benefits of social support for weight loss and maintenance, this study recruited participants (N = 166) either alone or with 3 friends or family members and then randomly assigned them to a standard behavioral treatment (SBT) or SBT with social support strategies. Participants recruited with friends had greater weight losses at the end of the 4-month treatment and at Month 10 follow-up. Both recruitment strategy and the social support manipulation affected treatment completion and weight-loss maintenance. In those recruited alone and given SBT, 76% completed treatment and 24% maintained their weight loss in full from Months 4 to 10. Among those recruited with friends and given SBT plus social support, 95% completed treatment and 66% maintained their weight loss in full. PMID:10028217

  8. Weight Loss Attitudes and Social Forces in Urban Poor Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Keith, NiCole R.; Hemmerlein, Kimberly A.; Clark, Daniel O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore differences between Blacks and Whites in perceived influences on weight-related behaviors among obese urban poor women. Methods Participants (N = 27) received physician referrals to a weight loss program located in Federally Qualified Health Centers and either never attended or stopped attending. We conducted in-depth, in home interviews using a script informed by focus groups, pilot discussions, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to learn about participants’ weight loss attitudes, social forces and perceived behavioral control. Results White women reported having more social support and social pressure for weight management activities. Black women reported eating for positive reasons whereas white women associated eating with negative emotions. Conclusion Social networks and emotions may be critical factors in weight management and lifestyle program participation. PMID:25290595

  9. The Role of Social Media in Online Weight Management: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Vineet; Zhang, Catherine; Woolford, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    Background Social media applications are promising adjuncts to online weight management interventions through facilitating education, engagement, and peer support. However, the precise impact of social media on weight management is unclear. Objective The objective of this study was to systematically describe the use and impact of social media in online weight management interventions. Methods PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for English-language studies published through March 25, 2013. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of electronically retrieved articles. Randomized controlled trials of online weight management interventions that included a social media component for individuals of all ages were selected. Studies were evaluated using 2 systematic scales to assess risk of bias and study quality. Results Of 517 citations identified, 20 studies met eligibility criteria. All study participants were adults. Because the included studies varied greatly in study design and reported outcomes, meta-analysis of interventions was not attempted. Although message boards and chat rooms were the most common social media component included, their effect on weight outcomes was not reported in most studies. Only one study measured the isolated effect of social media. It found greater engagement of participants, but no difference in weight-related outcomes. In all, 65% of studies were of high quality; 15% of studies were at low risk of bias. Conclusions Despite the widespread use of social media, few studies have quantified the effect of social media in online weight management interventions; thus, its impact is still unknown. Although social media may play a role in retaining and engaging participants, studies that are designed to measure its effect are needed to understand whether and how social media may meaningfully improve weight management. PMID:24287455

  10. Reconstructing Spatial Distributions from Anonymized Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Horey, James L; Forrest, Stephanie; Groat, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and sensors are often equipped with GPS that accurately report a person's location. Combined with wireless communication, these devices enable a wide range of new social tools and applications. These same qualities, however, leave location-aware applications vulnerable to privacy violations. This paper introduces the Negative Quad Tree, a privacy protection method for location aware applications. The method is broadly applicable to applications that use spatial density information, such as social applications that measure the popularity of social venues. The method employs a simple anonymization algorithm running on mobile devices, and a more complex reconstruction algorithm on a central server. This strategy is well suited to low-powered mobile devices. The paper analyzes the accuracy of the reconstruction method in a variety of simulated and real-world settings and demonstrates that the method is accurate enough to be used in many real-world scenarios.

  11. Social Engagement in Adolescence Moderates the Association between Weight Status and Body Image

    PubMed Central

    Caccavale, Laura J.; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6,909 students in grades 6 to 10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status x social engagement). Adolescents’ overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engagement moderated the relationship between weight status and body image for girls but not for boys. Overweight/obese boys had more body dissatisfaction compared to their normal/underweight peers, regardless of their social engagement. However, overweight/obese girls with more social engagement were more likely to have body satisfaction compared to overweight/obese girls with less social engagement. Encouraging adolescent girls to develop healthy relationships with peers may prevent them from developing body dissatisfaction. PMID:22325852

  12. Information Processing Versus Social Cognitive Mediators of Weight Loss in a Podcast-Delivered Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Linda K.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Campbell, Marci K.

    2016-01-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss among overweight individuals. Data are from Pounds off Digitally, a study testing the efficacy of two weight loss podcast interventions (control podcast and theory-based podcast). Path models were constructed (n = 66). The IPTs—elaboration likelihood model, information control theory, and cognitive load theory—mediated the effect of a theory-based podcast on weight loss. The intervention was significantly associated with all IPTs. Information control theory and cognitive load theory were related to elaboration, and elaboration was associated with weight loss. Social cognitive theory constructs did not mediate weight loss. Future podcast interventions grounded in theory may be effective in promoting weight loss. PMID:24082027

  13. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  14. The intergenerational correlation in weight: How genetic resemblance reveals the social role of families*

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Molly A.

    2009-01-01

    According to behavioral genetics research, the intergenerational correlation in weight derives solely from shared genetic predispositions, but complete genetic determinism contradicts the scientific consensus that social and behavioral change underlies the modern obesity epidemic. To address this conundrum, this article utilizes sibling data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and extends structural equation sibling models to incorporate siblings’ genetic relationships to explore the role of families’ social characteristics for adolescent weight. The article is the first to demonstrate that the association between parents’ obesity and adolescent weight is both social and genetic. Furthermore, by incorporating genetic information, the shared and social origins of the correlation between inactivity and weight are better revealed. PMID:19569401

  15. The interplay between gender, race and weight status: self perceptions and social consequences.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses data from nearly 15,000 young adult respondents to the Add Health survey to examine racial and gender differences in the perceptions and social rewards to weight. The data include information on several typically unmeasured domains: self-perceptions of ideal weight, attractiveness ratings, and measured weight information, along with ties to a series of adult outcomes. Results show important gender and racial differences in ideal weight as well as differences for both self-perceived attractiveness and interviewer rated attractiveness. Findings also suggest the existence of large differences in socio-cultural rewards and sanctions for weight status. Black respondents, particularly women, appear to receive lower "obesity penalties" in both their self-perceived and interviewer accessed attractiveness ratings than other groups. These findings suggest the need to consider new classes of policies directed at shifting relative social benefits and consequences to weight status. PMID:22483443

  16. Information Processing Versus Social Cognitive Mediators of Weight Loss in a Podcast-Delivered Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Linda K.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Campbell, Marci K.

    2014-01-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss…

  17. Social Stress Increases Cortisol and Hampers Attention in Adolescents with Excess Weight

    PubMed Central

    Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Moreno-Padilla, Maria; Garcia-Rios, M. Carmen; Lopez-Torrecillas, Francisca; Delgado-Rico, Elena; Schmidt-Rio-Valle, Jacqueline; Fernandez-Serrano, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To experimentally examine if adolescents with excess weight are more sensitive to social stress and hence more sensitive to harmful effects of stress in cognition. Design and Methods We conducted an experimental study in 84 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old classified in two groups based on age adjusted Body Mass Index percentile: Normal weight (n=42) and Excess weight (n=42). Both groups were exposed to social stress as induced by the virtual reality version of the Trier Social Stress Task --participants were requested to give a public speech about positive and negative aspects of their personalities in front of a virtual audience. The outcome measures were salivary cortisol levels and performance in cognitive tests before and after the social stressor. Cognitive tests included the CANTAB Rapid Visual Processing Test (measuring attention response latency and discriminability) and the Iowa Gambling Task (measuring decision-making). Results Adolescents with excess weight compared to healthy weight controls displayed increased cortisol response and less improvement of attentional performance after the social stressor. Decision-making performance decreased after the social stressor in both groups. Conclusion Adolescents who are overweight or obese have increased sensitivity to social stress, which detrimentally impacts attentional skills. PMID:25898204

  18. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p < 0.05) and obese adolescents (p < 0.001) had a lower level of self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents. PMID:25476101

  19. Radical Reeducation: Alcoholics Anonymous as a Model in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossman, Lenard H.

    1980-01-01

    The peer self-help group approach used by Alcoholics Anonymous can be a model for other types of adult learning. The group's power, solidarity, experience sharing, and values clarification can provide positive social and educational experiences to others such as the chronically unemployed, illiterate adults, and high school dropouts. (SK)

  20. Toward Analysis of the Relations Among the Youth Counterculture, Telephone Hotlines, and Anonymity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baizerman, Michael

    1974-01-01

    During the 1960's, there emerged innovative human service programs for youth. Among the actual differences in these programs compared to their older, established human service agencies was (is) the prominent position of the social value of client anonymity. This anonymity is examined in an attempt to understand its role. (RC)

  1. Revocable Anonymous Access to the Internet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claessens, Joris; Diaz, Claudia; Goemans, Caroline; Preneel, Bart; Vandewalle, Joos; Dumortier, Jos

    2003-01-01

    Users of telecommunications networks are concerned about privacy, and desire anonymous access, while some organizations are concerned about how this anonymous access might be abused. Proposes a solution for revocable anonymous access to the Internet. Presents some legal background and motivation for such a solution. Indicates some difficulties and…

  2. Yahtzee: An Anonymized Group Level Matching Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason J.; Bond, Robert M.; Fariss, Christopher J.; Settle, Jaime E.; Kramer, Adam D. I.; Marlow, Cameron; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects ever more important. However, strict privacy procedures can hinder the process of joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being “leaked” or shared in either direction between two sources of data without need of a trusted third party. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as predicted by theoretical analysis when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records. PMID:23441156

  3. Workplace Social and Organizational Environments and Healthy-Weight Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Hipp, J. Aaron; Marx, Christine M.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important setting for health promotion including nutrition and physical activity behaviors to prevent obesity. This paper explores the relationship between workplace social environment and cultural factors and diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors and obesity among employees. Methods Between 2012 and 2013, telephone interviews were conducted with participants residing in four Missouri metropolitan areas. Questions included demographic characteristics, workplace socio/organizational factors related to activity and diet, and individual diet and PA behaviors, and obesity. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between the workplace socio/organizational environment and nutrition, PA, and obesity. Results There were differences in reported health behaviors and socio/organizational environment by gender, race, age, income, and worksite size. For example, agreement with the statement the ‘company values my health’ was highest among Whites, older employees, and higher income workers. As worksite size increased, the frequency of reporting seeing co-workers doing several types of healthy behaviors (eat fruits and vegetables, doing PA, and doing PA on breaks at work) increased. In adjusted analyses, employees agreeing the company values my health were more likely to engage in higher PA levels (aOR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.09-2.16) and less likely to be obese (aOR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.98). Seeing co-workers eating fruits and vegetables was associated with increased reporting of eating at least one vegetable per day (aOR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.06-1.91) and seeing co-workers being active was associated with higher PA levels (aOR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.19-2.05). Conclusions This research suggests that social/organizational characteristics of the workplace environment, particularly feeling the company values the workers’ health and to seeing co-workers engaging in healthy behaviors, may be related to nutrition and PA behaviors and

  4. Social support, perceptions of attractiveness, weight, and the CPI in socially anxious males and females.

    PubMed

    Haemmerlie, F M; Montgomery, R L; Melchers, J

    1988-05-01

    To see how socially anxious people function in a number of domains, Watson and Friend's (1969) Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SAD) was administered to 101 undergraduates along with the California Personality Inventory (CPI) and the Psychosocial Support Inventory (PSI), a measure of social support. Additionally, a perceived attractiveness measure and various measures related to being overweight were taken. SAD scores correlated significantly in a negative direction with 13 of the 18 CPI scales, and those with high SAD scores had poorer social support networks. High SAD scores also were related to the perception of being overweight, but not to perceived physical attractiveness or to actually being overweight. Gender differences showed that females had more intimate social interactions and that socially anxious females relied more on their family for social support than did other people. Overall, the results suggested that the socially anxious person may have deficits in a variety of personal and interpersonal domains. PMID:3384973

  5. Body weight decreases induced by estradiol in female rhesus monkeys are dependent upon social status

    PubMed Central

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wilson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus body weight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on body weight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female’s motivation to interact with conspecifics. PMID

  6. A review of Alcoholics Anonymous/ Narcotics Anonymous programs for teens.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The investigation of the applicability of Alcoholics Anonymous/Narcotics Anonymous (AA/NA) for teens has only been a subject of empirical research investigation since the early 1990s. In the present review, the author describes teen involvement in AA/NA programming, provides an exhaustive review of the outcomes of 19 studies that used an AA/NA model as part of their formal teen substance abuse treatment programs, and provides data on the effects of AA/NA attendance on abstinence at follow-up, on which youth tend to become involved in AA/NA, and on mediation of the benefits of AA/NA participation. In addition, the author suggests the reasons for somewhat limited participation by teens in more informal, community-based 12-step meetings, and makes suggestions for maximizing participation at meetings in the community. The author concludes that AA/ NA participation is a valuable modality of substance abuse treatment for teens and that much can be done to increase teen participation, though more research is needed. PMID:20164105

  7. Teacher and Friend Social Support: Association with Body Weight in African-American Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Jevetta; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Webb, Fern J; Lee, Jenny; Doldren, Michelle; Rathore, Mobeen

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect ecological influences of teacher and friend social support on body weight and diet behaviors in African-American adolescent females. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional research design, a convenience sample of 182 urban African-American adolescent females (12-17 years old) completed a 39-item questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed perceived teacher social support, friend social support, nutrition self-efficacy, and diet behaviors (with internal reliability values of scale items: alpha = 0.74, 0.81, 0.77, and 0.69 respectively). Anthropometric assessments were conducted to measure height and weight to compute BMI. Majority of the participants were in middle or early high school (65 %) and were overweight or obese (57.7 %). Both teacher social support and friend social support demonstrated a positive, indirect influence on child weight status through nutrition self-efficacy and diet behaviors following two different and specific paths of influence. Diet behaviors, in turn, demonstrated a positive, direct effect on child weight status. In the structural model, teacher social support had the greatest effect on diet behaviors, demonstrating a direct, positive influence on diet behaviors (B = 0.421, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy was not significant. Friend social support demonstrated a positive, direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy (B = 0.227, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on diet behaviors was not statistically significant. The study's findings call for actively addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the school environment by implementing health behavior change strategies at various social and ecological environmental levels. PMID:26863465

  8. An Anonymous Credit Card System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androulaki, Elli; Bellovin, Steven

    Credit cards have many important benefits; however, these same benefits often carry with them many privacy concerns. In particular, the need for users to be able to monitor their own transactions, as well as bank’s need to justify its payment requests from cardholders, entitle the latter to maintain a detailed log of all transactions its credit card customers were involved in. A bank can thus build a profile of each cardholder even without the latter’s consent. In this paper, we present a practical and accountable anonymous credit system based on ecash, with a privacy preserving mechanism for error correction and expense-reporting.

  9. Social Network Characteristics Associated with Weight Loss among Black and Hispanic Adults with Overweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Ginger; Phillips, Erica G.; Wethington, Elaine; Devine, Carol; Wells, Martin; Peterson, Janey C.; Hippolyte, Jessica; Ramos, Rosio; Martinez, Guillerma; Eldridge, Johanna; Charlson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine social network member characteristics associated with weight loss. Methods Cross-sectional examination of egocentric network data from 245 Black and Hispanic adults with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 enrolled in a small change weight loss study. The relationship between weight loss at 12 months and characteristics of helpful and harmful network members (relationship, contact frequency, living proximity and body size) were examined. Results There were 2,571 network members identified. Mean weight loss was -4.8 (±11.3) lbs. among participants with network help and no harm with eating goals vs. +3.4 (±7.8) lbs. among participants with network harm alone. In a multivariable regression model, greater weight loss was associated with help from a child with eating goals (p=.0002) and coworker help with physical activity (p=.01). Weight gain was associated with having network members with obesity living in the home (p=.048) and increased network size (p=.002). Conclusions There was greater weight loss among participants with support from children and coworkers. Weight gain was associated with harmful network behaviors and having network members with obesity in the home. Incorporating child and co-worker support, and evaluating network harm and the body size of network members should be considered in future weight loss interventions. PMID:26179578

  10. Culture or anonymity? Differences in proposer behaviour in Korea and Germany.

    PubMed

    Horak, Sven

    2015-10-01

    This study explores the proposer behaviour in an ultimatum game (UG) frame under anonymous and non-anonymous conditions among a Korean and German subject pool (n = 590) in comparison. Whereas the anonymous condition is represented by the standard UG, the non-anonymous condition integrates an aggregate of the Korean cultural context variables university affiliation, regional origin and seniority. The latter, a classic Confucian context variable, is measured by age differentials. The former two are impactful components of so-called Yongo networks, a unique Korean informal institution identical to Chinese Guanxi ties. Yongo networks, yet underrepresented in research, are said to be a central context variable to explain Korean social ties and decision-making behaviour. We observe significant differences between the offer behaviours of Korean and German subjects when exposing selected cultural variables. We argue that the behavioural differences observed are in fact due to culture not anonymity. PMID:25612150

  11. Anonymous HIV testing in the Canadian aboriginal population.

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    Reported numbers of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases among Canadian aboriginal peoples are currently relatively low. However, any increase in these numbers could have devastating human, social, and economic costs. Education and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus transmission are the most efficient and cost-effective measures available today. This paper discusses the role of anonymous HIV testing in effective HIV prevention in the Canadian aboriginal population. PMID:8828876

  12. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace. PMID:24724731

  13. Examining Social Influence on Participation and Outcomes among a Network of Behavioral Weight-Loss Intervention Enrollees

    PubMed Central

    Carson, T. L.; Eddings, K. E.; Krukowski, R. A.; Love, S. J.; Harvey-Berino, J. R.; West, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that social networks, social support, and social influence are associated with weight trajectories among treatment- and non-treatment-seeking individuals. This study examined the impact of having a social contact who participated in the same group behavioral weight-control intervention in the absence of specific social support training on women engaged in a weight-loss program. Participants (n = 92; 100% female; 54% black; mean age: 46 ± 10 years; mean BMI: 38 ± 6) were grouped based upon whether or not they reported a social contact enrolled previously/concurrently in our behavioral weight-control studies. Primary outcomes were 6-month weight change and treatment adherence (session attendance and self-monitoring). Half of the participants (53%) indicated that they had a social contact; black women were more likely to report a social contact than white women (67.3% versus 39.5%; P < 0.01). Among participants with a social contact, 67% reported at least one contact as instrumental in the decision to enroll in the program. Those with a contact lost more weight (5.9 versus 3.7 kg; P = 0.04), attended more group sessions (74% versus 54%; P < 0.01), and submitted more self-monitoring journals (69% versus 54%; P = 0.01) than those without a contact. Participants' weight change was inversely associated with social contacts' weight change (P = 0.04). There was no association between participant and contact's group attendance or self-monitoring. Social networks may be a promising vehicle for recruiting and engaging women in a behavioral weight-loss program, particularly black women. The role of a natural social contact deserves further investigation. PMID:23840944

  14. Legal Issues in Anonymity and Pseudonymity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froomkin, A. Michael

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of anonymous and pseudonymous communications is an important and contentious Internetrelated issues of the 21st century. Resolution of this controversy will effect freedom of speech, nature of electronic commerce, and capabilities of law enforcement. The legal constraints on anonymous communication, and the constitutional constraints on…

  15. Anonymity in Classroom Voting and Debating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; Gelmini-Hornsby, Giulia; Threapleton, Kate; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Buda, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The advent of networked environments into the classroom is changing classroom debates in many ways. This article addresses one key attribute of these environments, namely anonymity, to explore its consequences for co-present adolescents anonymous, by virtue of the computer system, to peers not to teachers. Three studies with 16-17 year-olds used a…

  16. Development and Validation of the Alcoholics Anonymous Intention Measure * (AAIM)

    PubMed Central

    Zemore, Sarah E.; Kaskutas, Lee Ann

    2009-01-01

    Background Drop-out from 12-step groups is notoriously high, yet the field lacks strong models and scales for addressing this problem. We aim to determine whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) can be applied to 12-step involvement, and to develop and validate a scale of 12-step readiness based on that theory: the Alcoholics Anonymous Intention Measure (AAIM). Method Data were from a longitudinal trial of a manual-guided 12-step facilitation intervention called Making AA Easier (MAAEZ) involving 2 treatment programs in California (N=508). Participants completed surveys at baseline, 7 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Surveys included the preliminary AAIM, a 12-step involvement measure, other readiness measures, and substance use outcomes. Results The final, 17-item AAIM measured attitudes (5-item α's=.75-.83), subjective norms (4-item α's=.56-.81), perceived control (5 item α's=.78-.85), and intentions (3-item α's=.80-.95) regarding attendance at 12-step groups. Components were correlated with each other and other readiness measures as expected, supporting the AAIM's validity. Scale components predicted 31% of the variance in Intention to attend 12-step groups at 6 months and 41% of the variance in 12-step involvement at 12 months. Social factors were among the strongest predictors of 12-step involvement. Results did not support the expectancy-value formulation of the TPB, as unweighted (vs. weighted) belief items performed optimally. Conclusions Results generally support the TPB as a model of 12-step involvement and suggest specific targets for 12-step facilitation interventions within attitude, norm, and control components. Findings also support the AAIM as a tool for identifying drop-out risks and tailoring individual interventions. PMID:19581057

  17. Trajectories of Childhood Weight Gain: The Relative Importance of Local Environment versus Individual Social and Early Life Factors

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Megan A.; Dubois, Lise; Tremblay, Mark S.; Taljaard, Monica; Jones, Bobby L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between local environmental factors with child weight status in a longitudinal study, using a semi-parametric, group-based method, while also considering social and early life factors. Methods Standardized, directly measured BMI from 4–10 y of age, and group-based trajectory modeling (PROC TRAJ) were used to estimate developmental trajectories of weight change in a Québec birth cohort (n = 1,566). Associations between the weight trajectories and living location, social cohesion, disorder, and material and social deprivation were estimated after controlling for social and early life factors. Results Four weight trajectory groups were estimated: low-increasing (9.7%); low-medium, accelerating (36.2%); medium-high, increasing (43.0%); and high-stable (11.1%). In the low-increasing and medium-high trajectory groups, living in a semi-urban area was inversely related to weight, while living in a rural area was positively related to weight in the high-stable group. Disorder was inversely related to weight in the low-increasing group only. Other important risk factors for high-stable weight included obesity status of the mother, smoking during pregnancy, and overeating behaviors. Conclusions In this study, associations between local environment factors and weight differed by trajectory group. Early life factors appear to play a more consistent role in weight status. Further work is needed to determine the influence of place on child weight. PMID:23077545

  18. The influence of body weight on social network ties among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Rizzo, John A

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of negative stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination towards obese individuals has been widely documented. However, the effect of a larger body size on social network ties or friendship formations is less well understood. In this paper, we explore the extent to which higher body weight results in social marginalization of adolescents. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models including school-level fixed effects that account for bi-directionality and unobserved confounders to ascertain the effect of body weight on social network ties. We find that obese adolescents have fewer friends and are less socially integrated than their non-obese counterparts. We also find that such penalties in friendship networks are present among whites but not African-Americans or Hispanics, with the largest effect among white females. These results are robust to common environmental influences at the school-level and to controls for preferences, risk attitudes, low self-esteem and objective measures of physical attractiveness. PMID:22056235

  19. The socially weighted encoding of spoken words: a dual-route approach to speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Meghan; Kim, Seung Kyung; King, Ed; McGowan, Kevin B.

    2014-01-01

    Spoken words are highly variable. A single word may never be uttered the same way twice. As listeners, we regularly encounter speakers of different ages, genders, and accents, increasing the amount of variation we face. How listeners understand spoken words as quickly and adeptly as they do despite this variation remains an issue central to linguistic theory. We propose that learned acoustic patterns are mapped simultaneously to linguistic representations and to social representations. In doing so, we illuminate a paradox that results in the literature from, we argue, the focus on representations and the peripheral treatment of word-level phonetic variation. We consider phonetic variation more fully and highlight a growing body of work that is problematic for current theory: words with different pronunciation variants are recognized equally well in immediate processing tasks, while an atypical, infrequent, but socially idealized form is remembered better in the long-term. We suggest that the perception of spoken words is socially weighted, resulting in sparse, but high-resolution clusters of socially idealized episodes that are robust in immediate processing and are more strongly encoded, predicting memory inequality. Our proposal includes a dual-route approach to speech perception in which listeners map acoustic patterns in speech to linguistic and social representations in tandem. This approach makes novel predictions about the extraction of information from the speech signal, and provides a framework with which we can ask new questions. We propose that language comprehension, broadly, results from the integration of both linguistic and social information. PMID:24550851

  20. A flexible approach to distributed data anonymization.

    PubMed

    Kohlmayer, Florian; Prasser, Fabian; Eckert, Claudia; Kuhn, Klaus A

    2014-08-01

    Sensitive biomedical data is often collected from distributed sources, involving different information systems and different organizational units. Local autonomy and legal reasons lead to the need of privacy preserving integration concepts. In this article, we focus on anonymization, which plays an important role for the re-use of clinical data and for the sharing of research data. We present a flexible solution for anonymizing distributed data in the semi-honest model. Prior to the anonymization procedure, an encrypted global view of the dataset is constructed by means of a secure multi-party computing (SMC) protocol. This global representation can then be anonymized. Our approach is not limited to specific anonymization algorithms but provides pre- and postprocessing for a broad spectrum of algorithms and many privacy criteria. We present an extensive analytical and experimental evaluation and discuss which types of methods and criteria are supported. Our prototype demonstrates the approach by implementing k-anonymity, ℓ-diversity, t-closeness and δ-presence with a globally optimal de-identification method in horizontally and vertically distributed setups. The experiments show that our method provides highly competitive performance and offers a practical and flexible solution for anonymizing distributed biomedical datasets. PMID:24333850

  1. A Mechanism for Anonymous Credit Card Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

    This paper proposes a mechanism for anonymous credit card systems, in which each credit card holder can conceal individual transactions from the credit card company, while enabling the credit card company to calculate the total expenditures of transactions of individual card holders during specified periods, and to identify card holders who executed dishonest transactions. Based on three existing mechanisms, i.e. anonymous authentication, blind signature and secure statistical data gathering, together with implicit transaction links proposed here, the proposed mechanism enables development of anonymous credit card systems without assuming any absolutely trustworthy entity like tamper resistant devices or organizations faithful both to the credit card company and card holders.

  2. Comments on ``Anonymous Reviews'' From D. Fisher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, David

    I'd like to suggest that the recent letters complaining about reviewers' anonymity are on the wrong track. What we need is more anonymity, not less: we need double-blind mandatory anonymity. The main argument proposed so far is the unfairness of not being able to confront the reviewers' criticisms. But you don't need to know who someone is to be able to argue against their ideas. Reviewers' reports are spelled out clearly and can be rebutted without getting into personalities.

  3. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael Z; Dunn, Alan M; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett

    2013-12-31

    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch. Logins are anonymous in the sense that the service cannot distinguish which user is logging in any better than random guessing. This implies unlinkability of a user across different logins. We find that a central tension in an anonymous subscription service is the service provider's desire for a long epoch (to reduce server-side computation) versus users' desire for a short epoch (so they can repeatedly "re-anonymize" their sessions). We balance this tension by having short epochs, but adding an efficient operation for clients who do not need unlinkability to cheaply re-authenticate themselves for the next time period. We measure performance of a research prototype of our protocol that allows an independent service to offer anonymous access to existing services. We implement a music service, an Android-based subway-pass application, and a web proxy, and show that adding anonymity adds minimal client latency and only requires 33 KB of server memory per active user. PMID:24504081

  4. Diet quality, social determinants and weight status in 12-year-old Puerto Rican children

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Santos, Elvia; Orraca, Luis; Elias, Augusto; Palacios, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Diet quality may be influenced by social determinants and weight status. This has not been studied in Puerto Rico (PR); therefore, this cross-sectional study examined if diet quality, assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), differs by social determinants (gender, school type and region) and weight status in children in PR. As part of an “island-wide” study to evaluate oral health in 1,550 12-year-old children, dietary intake was assessed in a representative subset (n=796) using a 24-hr diet recall. Diet quality was evaluated from the diet recall results using the HEI-2005. Overall mean HEI-2005 score was 40.9, out of a total maximum score of 100. Girls had significantly higher scores for whole fruit, total vegetables, whole grains, and sodium but lower scores for total grains and milk compared to boys (p<0.05). Children from public schools had higher scores for total fruit, whole fruit, dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, but lower scores for whole grains and milk compared to those from private schools (p<0.05). Children from the Central Mountains had higher scores for the dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes and whole fruit compared to the other regions (p<0.05). Overweight children had significantly higher scores for total vegetables and milk but lower scores for total fruit and sodium as compared to non-overweight children (p<0.01). In conclusion, some components of diet quality were associated with the social determinants studied and with weight status in this sample. Overall diet quality needs improvement in PR children so that it is better aligned with dietary recommendations. PMID:24656710

  5. On-Line Anonymity: A New Privacy Battle in Cyberspace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Laurie Thomas

    1996-01-01

    States that lawsuits are being filed that challenge anonymity and freedom of speech in cyberspace--is there a right to online anonymity? Examines the debate and issues associated with anonymous communications in cyberspace. Explores the "right of informational privacy" as it pertains to anonymity. Suggests some regulatory approaches for addressing…

  6. Association of Maternal Working Condition with Low Birth Weight: The Social Determinants of Health Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Z; Karimlou, M; Sajjadi, H; Dejman, M; Vameghi, M; Dolatian, M; Mahmoodi, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: The socioeconomic conditions have made more job opportunities available to women. This has created interest to conduct studies on the effect of working lifestyle on pregnancy outcomes. Aim: This study was conducted with the aim to assess the relationship between mothers' working status as a social determinant and the incidence of low birth weight (LBW) of the newborn. Subjects and Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 500 women with normal weight infants (control group) and 250 women with LBW infants (case group) in selected hospitals in Tehran. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire, designed to assess the effect of mothers' prenatal lifestyle, as a social determinant, on LBW of the newborn. A section of the questionnaire involved assessment of mother's working condition in terms of the work environment, activities, and job satisfaction. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and logistic regression tests. Results: LBW among employed mothers was 5 times more likely than unemployed ones (odds ratio = 5.35, P < 0.001). Unfavorable work conditions such as humid environment, contact with detergents, and being in one standing or sitting position for long hours were significantly associated with LBW (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study showed that unfavorable work conditions were associated with LBW; therefore, they need special attention. PMID:27057375

  7. DietBet: A Web-Based Program that Uses Social Gaming and Financial Incentives to Promote Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background Web-based commercial weight loss programs are increasing in popularity. Despite their significant public health potential, there is limited research on the effectiveness of such programs. Objective The objective of our study was to examine weight losses produced by DietBet and explore whether baseline and engagement variables predict weight outcomes. Methods DietBet is a social gaming website that uses financial incentives and social influence to promote weight loss. Players bet money and join a game. All players have 4 weeks to lose 4% of their initial body weight. At enrollment, players can choose to share their participation on Facebook. During the game, players interact with one another and report their weight loss on the DietBet platform. At week 4, all players within each game who lose at least 4% of initial body weight are declared winners and split the pool of money bet at the start of the game. Official weigh-in procedures are used to verify weights at the start of the game and at the end. Results From December 2012 to July 2013, 39,387 players (84.04% female, 33,101/39,387; mean weight 87.8kg, SD 22.6kg) competed in 1934 games. The average amount bet was US $27 (SD US $22). A total of 65.63% (25,849/39,387) provided a verified weight at the end of the 4-week competition. The average intention-to-treat weight loss was 2.6% (SD 2.3%). Winners (n=17,171) won an average of US $59 (SD US $35) and lost 4.9% (SD 1.0%) of initial body weight, with 30.68% (5268/17,171) losing 5% or more of their initial weight. Betting more money at game entry, sharing on Facebook, completing more weigh-ins, and having more social interactions during the game predicted greater weight loss and greater likelihood of winning (Ps<.001). In addition, weight loss clustered within games (P<.001), suggesting that players influenced each others’ weight outcomes. Conclusions DietBet, a social gaming website, reached nearly 40,000 individuals in just 7 months and produced

  8. How Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) Work: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Robinson, Elizabeth A. R.; Moore, Barbara C.; Kelly, John F.; Laudet, Alexandre B.; White, William L.; Zemore, Sarah E.; Kurtz, Ernest; Strobbe, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from multiple lines of research supports the effectiveness and practical importance of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Conference presenters discussed the relationship between 12-Step participation and abstinence among various populations, including adolescents, women, and urban drug users. Insight from the arts and humanities placed empirical findings in a holistic context. PMID:21785524

  9. How Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) Work: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Krentzman, Amy R; Robinson, Elizabeth A R; Moore, Barbara C; Kelly, John F; Laudet, Alexandre B; White, William L; Zemore, Sarah E; Kurtz, Ernest; Strobbe, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    Evidence from multiple lines of research supports the effectiveness and practical importance of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Conference presenters discussed the relationship between 12-Step participation and abstinence among various populations, including adolescents, women, and urban drug users. Insight from the arts and humanities placed empirical findings in a holistic context. PMID:21785524

  10. Performance evaluation of various K- anonymity techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwarkar, Nidhi; Pathak, Kshitij; Chourey, Vivekanand

    2011-12-01

    Today's advanced scenario where each information is available in one click, data security is the main aspect. Individual information which sometimes needs to be hiding is easily available using some tricks. Medical information, income details are needed to be kept away from adversaries and so, are stored in private tables. Some publicly released information contains zip code, sex, birth date. When this released information is linked with the private table, adversary can detect the whole confidential information of individuals or respondents, i.e. name, medical status. So to protect respondents identity, a new concept k-anonymity is used which means each released record has at least (k-1) other records in the release whose values are distinct over those fields that appear in the external data. K-anonymity can be achieved easily in case of single sensitive attributes i.e. name, salary, medical status, but it is quiet difficult when multiple sensitive attributes are present. Generalization and Suppression are used to achieve k-anonymity. This paper provides a formal introduction of k-anonymity and some techniques used with it l-diversity, t-closeness. This paper covers k-anonymity model and the comparative study of these concepts along with a new proposed concept for multiple sensitive attributes.

  11. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael Z.; Dunn, Alan M.; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch. Logins are anonymous in the sense that the service cannot distinguish which user is logging in any better than random guessing. This implies unlinkability of a user across different logins. We find that a central tension in an anonymous subscription service is the service provider’s desire for a long epoch (to reduce server-side computation) versus users’ desire for a short epoch (so they can repeatedly “re-anonymize” their sessions). We balance this tension by having short epochs, but adding an efficient operation for clients who do not need unlinkability to cheaply re-authenticate themselves for the next time period. We measure performance of a research prototype of our protocol that allows an independent service to offer anonymous access to existing services. We implement a music service, an Android-based subway-pass application, and a web proxy, and show that adding anonymity adds minimal client latency and only requires 33 KB of server memory per active user. PMID:24504081

  12. Effect of medical and social risk factors on outcome of prematurity and very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Leonard, C H; Clyman, R I; Piecuch, R E; Juster, R P; Ballard, R A; Behle, M B

    1990-04-01

    A cohort of 129 infants with birth weights less than or equal to 1250 gm was followed for more than 4 1/2 years (mean +/- SD: 60 +/- 10 months) to determine the independent effects of two medical risk factors--intracranial hemorrhage and severe chronic lung disease--and a parenting risk factor (abuse or neglect) on neurodevelopmental outcome. In infants without any intracranial hemorrhage or parenting risk factors, severe chronic lung disease was not related to neurologic or cognitive outcome. Infants with increasing grades of intracranial hemorrhage had increasing rates of neurologic and cognitive abnormalities. However, the factor associated with the highest incidence of later abnormality was the parenting risk factor. We conclude that infants with medical risk factors may have additional social risk factors, and that both of these influences must be considered in an examination of the long-term sequelae of neonatal complications. PMID:2319409

  13. Social Development Measures Associated with Problem Behaviours and Weight Status in Australian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joanne W; Canterford, Louise; Toumbourou, John W; Patton, George C; Catalano, Richard F

    2015-08-01

    During the adolescent years, substance use, anti-social behaviours and overweight/obesity are amongst the major public health concerns. We investigate if risk and protective factors associated with adolescent problem behaviours and substance use are also associated with weight status in young Australian adolescents. Data comes from the 2006 Healthy Neighbourhoods study, a cross-sectional survey of students attending primary (grade 6, mean age 11) and secondary (grade 8, mean age 12) schools in 30 communities across Australia. Adolescents were classified as not overweight, overweight or obese according to international definitions. Logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, gender and socio-economic disadvantage quartile, were used to quantify associations between weight status (or BMI z-score) and the cumulative number of problem behaviour risk and protective factors. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 22.6 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), 21.2-24.0 %) and 7.2 % (CI, 6.3-8.3 %). Average number of risk and protective factors present was 4.0 (CI, 3.7-4.2) and 6.2 (CI, 6.1-6.3). Independently, total number of risk factors present was positively associated with likelihood of overweight and obesity, while number of protective factors present was inversely associated with the likelihood of being above a healthy weight. When both risk and protective factors were included in a regression model, only risk factors were associated with the likelihood of being overweight or obese. Average BMI z-score increased by 0.03 units with each additional risk factor present. Prevention programmes targeting developmental risk and protective factors in adolescents that reduce substance use and problem behaviours may also benefit physical health. PMID:25912882

  14. "Dear Professor: I Hate You"--Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Flip through a stack of anonymous student evaluations of professors and the mild comments, even the compliments, tend to blend together. But often, hidden among them, is a dagger. Then there are the out-and-out insults. Students' comments can be more than simply mean. Sometimes student comments aren't cruel, just weird. In this article, some…

  15. Population weighted raster maps can communicate findings of social audits: examples from three continents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maps can portray trends, patterns, and spatial differences that might be overlooked in tabular data and are now widely used in health research. Little has been reported about the process of using maps to communicate epidemiological findings. Method Population weighted raster maps show colour changes over the study area. Similar to the rasters of barometric pressure in a weather map, data are the health occurrence – a peak on the map represents a higher value of the indicator in question. The population relevance of each sentinel site, as determined in the stratified last stage random sample, combines with geography (inverse-distance weighting) to provide a population-weighted extension of each colour. This transforms the map to show population space rather than simply geographic space. Results Maps allowed discussion of strategies to reduce violence against women in a context of political sensitivity about quoting summary indicator figures. Time-series maps showed planners how experiences of health services had deteriorated despite a reform programme; where in a country HIV risk behaviours were improving; and how knowledge of an economic development programme quickly fell off across a region. Change maps highlighted where indicators were improving and where they were deteriorating. Maps of potential impact of interventions, based on multivariate modelling, displayed how partial and full implementation of programmes could improve outcomes across a country. Scale depends on context. To support local planning, district maps or local government authority maps of health indicators were more useful than national maps; but multinational maps of outcomes were more useful for regional institutions. Mapping was useful to illustrate in which districts enrolment in religious schools – a rare occurrence - was more prevalent. Conclusions Population weighted raster maps can present social audit findings in an accessible and compelling way, increasing the use of

  16. Social support for healthy behaviors: scale psychometrics and prediction of weight loss among women in a behavioral program.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Michaela; Moore, Susan D; Schoffman, Danielle E; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C; Taylor, C Barr; Kiernan, Nancy E; Perri, Michael G

    2012-04-01

    Social support could be a powerful weight-loss treatment moderator or mediator but is rarely assessed. We assessed the psychometric properties, initial levels, and predictive validity of a measure of perceived social support and sabotage from friends and family for healthy eating and physical activity (eight subscales). Overweight/obese women randomized to one of two 6-month, group-based behavioral weight-loss programs (N = 267; mean BMI 32.1 ± 3.5; 66.3% White) completed subscales at baseline, and weight loss was assessed at 6 months. Internal consistency, discriminant validity, and content validity were excellent for support subscales and adequate for sabotage subscales; qualitative responses revealed novel deliberate instances not reflected in current sabotage items. Most women (>75%) "never" or "rarely" experienced support from friends or family. Using nonparametric classification methods, we identified two subscales-support from friends for healthy eating and support from family for physical activity-that predicted three clinically meaningful subgroups who ranged in likelihood of losing ≥5% of initial weight at 6 months. Women who "never" experienced family support were least likely to lose weight (45.7% lost weight) whereas women who experienced both frequent friend and family support were more likely to lose weight (71.6% lost weight). Paradoxically, women who "never" experienced friend support were most likely to lose weight (80.0% lost weight), perhaps because the group-based programs provided support lacking from friendships. Psychometrics for support subscales were excellent; initial support was rare; and the differential roles of friend vs. family support could inform future targeted weight-loss interventions to subgroups at risk. PMID:21996661

  17. Peer Feedback in Anonymous Peer Review in an EFL Writing Class in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coté, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a process of peer feedback through anonymous peer review in an EFL writing class. Numerous studies have reported on the benefits of peer review (PR) in the ESL/EFL writing classroom. However, the literature also identifies social issues that can negatively affect the outcome of face-to-face PR. In this…

  18. Effect of depressive symptoms and social support on weight and CD4 count increase at HIV clinic in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Hibret; Haile Mariam, Damen; Tsui, Amy; Ahmed, Saifudin; Shewamare, Aster

    2012-01-01

    Studies have reported an inverse relationship between depressive symptoms and weight and CD4 gain and a positive association between social support and weight and CD4 gain. The main objective of this study was to explore the effect of depressive symptoms and perceived social support on weight change and CD4 cell progression in an HIV clinic in Ethiopia. The study design was descriptive cross-sectional, with a sample of 1815 HIV-infected adults age 18 years or above. Depressive symptoms and perceived social support were the independent variables, while weight and CD4 cell count were the dependent variables. Regression modeling was the main statistical approach used for the analysis. A significant proportion of females reported depressive symptoms: being bothered by things that do not bother other people, they had been depressed, and their sleep had been restless for 5-7 days a week. A lesser proportion of males reported these problems. A significant proportion of study participants did not have someone to borrow a small amount of money (6 USD) from for immediate help and did not have somebody to support them if they were confined to bed for several weeks. Worse depressive symptoms had a negative effect on weight gain and CD4 cell progression, while better perceived social support had a positive effect on both weight gain and CD4 cell progression. Interventions that address both of these background factors need to be designed and implemented as part of the HAART program to improve weight gain and CD4 cell progression. PMID:22273149

  19. A Model of Onion Routing with Provable Anonymity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigenbaum, Joan; Johnson, Aaron; Syverson, Paul

    Onion routing is a scheme for anonymous communication that is designed for practical use. Until now, however, it has had no formal model and therefore no rigorous analysis of its anonymity guarantees. We give an IO-automata model of an onion-routing protocol and, under possibilistic definitions, characterize the situations in which anonymity and unlinkability are guaranteed.

  20. Academic freedom, public reactions, and anonymity.

    PubMed

    Häyry, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; that anonymity would not in most cases effectively protect the kind of immunity sought after; and that in some cases it would not even be desirable to protect scholars from public reactions to their controversial claims. PMID:24724541

  1. When overweight is the normal weight: an examination of obesity using a social media internet database.

    PubMed

    Kuebler, Meghan; Yom-Tov, Elad; Pelleg, Dan; Puhl, Rebecca M; Muennig, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Using a large social media database, Yahoo Answers, we explored postings to an online forum in which posters asked whether their height and weight qualify themselves as "skinny," "thin," "fat," or "obese" over time and across forum topics. We used these data to better understand whether a higher-than-average body mass index (BMI) in one's county might, in some ways, be protective for one's mental and physical health. For instance, we explored whether higher proportions of obese people in one's county predicts lower levels of bullying or "am I fat?" questions from those with a normal BMI relative to his/her actual BMI. Most women asking whether they were themselves fat/obese were not actually fat/obese. Both men and women who were actually overweight/obese were significantly more likely in the future to ask for advice about bullying than thinner individuals. Moreover, as mean county-level BMI increased, bullying decreased and then increased again (in a U-shape curve). Regardless of where they lived, posters who asked "am I fat?" who had a BMI in the healthy range were more likely than other posters to subsequently post on health problems, but the proportions of such posters also declined greatly as county-level BMI increased. Our findings suggest that obese people residing in counties with higher levels of BMI may have better physical and mental health than obese people living in counties with lower levels of BMI by some measures, but these improvements are modest. PMID:24058478

  2. Extraction and anonymity protocol of medical file.

    PubMed Central

    Bouzelat, H.; Quantin, C.; Dusserre, L.

    1996-01-01

    To carry out the epidemiological study of patients suffering from a given cancer, the Department of Medical Informatics (DIM) has to link information coming from different hospitals and medical laboratories in the Burgundy region. Demands from the French department for computerized information security (Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertés: CNIL), in regard to abiding by the law of January 6, 1978, completed by the law of July 1st, 1994 on nominal data processing in the framework of medical research have to be taken into account. Notably, the CNIL advised to render anonymous patient identities before the extraction of each establishment file. This paper describes a recently implemented protocol, registered with the French department for computerized information security (Service Central de la Sécurité des Systèmes d'information : SCSSI) whose purpose is to render anonymous medical files in view of their extraction. Once rendered anonymous, these files will be exportable so as to be merged with other files and used in a framework of epidemiological studies. Therefore, this protocol uses the Standard Hash Algorithm (SHA) which allows the replacement of identities by their imprints while ensuring a minimal collision rate in order to allow a correct linkage of the different information concerning the same patient. A first evaluation of the extraction and anonymity software with regard to the purpose of an epidemiological survey is described here. In this paper, we also show how it would be possible to implement this system by means of the Internet communication network. PMID:8947681

  3. Infrared observations of anonymous IRC sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strecker, D. W.; Ney, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Infrared (0.9 to 18 microns) observations of 232 anonymous 2-micron Sky survey (IRC) sources are reported. Most of the objects appear to be late-type stars with little or no long-wave excess. About ten percent exhibit large excesses. Thirty-one of the brightest 11-micron sources have been remeasured to determine variability. These brighter objects appear to fall into two groups; one group resembles NML Tauri, while the other is like NML Cygni.

  4. Self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety in a college sample: the moderating role of weight.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationships between self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety, as well as to examine the moderating role of weight between exogenous variables and social anxiety, 520 university students completed the self-report measures. Structural equation modeling revealed that individuals with low self-esteem, body-esteem, and emotional intelligence were more likely to report social anxiety. The findings indicated that obese and overweight individuals with low body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and self-esteem had higher social anxiety than others. Our results highlight the roles of body-esteem, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence as influencing factors for reducing social anxiety. PMID:25726711

  5. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-06-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature.

  6. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature. PMID:27247078

  7. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature. PMID:27247078

  8. Participant Anonymity in the Internet Age: From Theory to Practice

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Benjamin; Kitzinger, Jenny; Kitzinger, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative researchers attempting to protect the identities of their research participants now face a multitude of new challenges due to the wealth of information once considered private but now readily accessible online. We will draw on our research with family members of people with severe brain injury to discuss these challenges in relation to three areas: participant engagement with the mass media, the availability of court transcripts online, and participants’ use of social media. We suggest strategies for managing these challenges via disguise, refining informed consent, and discussion with interviewees. In the context of a largely theoretical literature on anonymization, this article offers concrete examples of the dilemmas we faced and will be of illustrative use to other researchers confronting similar challenges. PMID:25866484

  9. When Overweight Is the Normal Weight: An Examination of Obesity Using a Social Media Internet Database

    PubMed Central

    Kuebler, Meghan; Yom-Tov, Elad; Pelleg, Dan; Puhl, Rebecca M.; Muennig, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Using a large social media database, Yahoo Answers, we explored postings to an online forum in which posters asked whether their height and weight qualify themselves as “skinny,” “thin,” “fat,” or “obese” over time and across forum topics. We used these data to better understand whether a higher-than-average body mass index (BMI) in one’s county might, in some ways, be protective for one’s mental and physical health. For instance, we explored whether higher proportions of obese people in one’s county predicts lower levels of bullying or “am I fat?” questions from those with a normal BMI relative to his/her actual BMI. Most women asking whether they were themselves fat/obese were not actually fat/obese. Both men and women who were actually overweight/obese were significantly more likely in the future to ask for advice about bullying than thinner individuals. Moreover, as mean county-level BMI increased, bullying decreased and then increased again (in a U-shape curve). Regardless of where they lived, posters who asked “am I fat?” who had a BMI in the healthy range were more likely than other posters to subsequently post on health problems, but the proportions of such posters also declined greatly as county-level BMI increased. Our findings suggest that obese people residing in counties with higher levels of BMI may have better physical and mental health than obese people living in counties with lower levels of BMI by some measures, but these improvements are modest. PMID:24058478

  10. Design and Implementation of a Randomized Controlled Social and Mobile Weight Loss Trial for Young Adults (project SMART)

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, K; Marshall, SJ; Davila, EP; Kolodziejczyk, JK; Fowler, J; Calfas, KJ; Huang, J; Rock, CL; Griswold, W; Gupta, A; Merchant, G; Norman, GJ; Raab, F; Donohue, M; Fogg, BJ; Robinson, TN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the theoretical rationale, intervention design, and clinical trial of a two-year weight control intervention for young adults deployed via social and mobile media. Methods A total of 404 overweight or obese college students from three Southern California universities (Mage = 22(±4) years; MBMI=29(±2.8); 70% female) were randomized to participate in the intervention or to receive an informational web-based weight loss program. The intervention is based on behavioral theory and integrates intervention elements across multiple touch points, including Facebook, SMS, smartphone applications, blogs, and e-mail. Participants are encouraged to seek social support among their friends, self-monitor their weight weekly, post their health behaviors on Facebook, and e-mail their weight loss questions/concerns to a health coach. The intervention is adaptive because new theory-driven and iteratively tailored intervention elements are developed and released over the course of the two-year intervention in response to patterns of use and user feedback. Measures of body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SED), diet, weight management practices, smoking, alcohol, sleep, body image, self-esteem, and depression occur at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Currently, all participants have been recruited, and all are in the final year of the trial. Conclusion Theory-driven, evidence-based strategies for PA, SED, and dietary intake can be embedded in an intervention using social and mobile technologies to promote healthy weight-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:24215774

  11. An 8-Week Web-Based Weight Loss Challenge With Celebrity Endorsement and Enhanced Social Support: Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Background Initial engagement and weight loss within Web-based weight loss programs may predict long-term success. The integration of persuasive Web-based features may boost engagement and therefore weight loss. Objective To determine whether an 8-week challenge within a commercial Web-based weight loss program influenced weight loss, website use, and attrition in the short term, when compared to the standard program. Methods De-identified data for participants (mean age 36.7±10.3 years; 86% female) who enrolled in the Biggest Loser Club (BLC) (n=952) and the BLC’s Shannan Ponton Fast Track Challenge (SC) for 8 weeks (n=381) were compared. The BLC program used standard evidence-based website features, with individualized calorie and exercise targets to facilitate a weight loss of 0.5-1 kg per week (–500kcal/day less than estimated energy expenditure). SC used the same website features but in addition promoted greater initial weight loss using a 1200 kcal/day energy intake target and physical activity energy expenditure of 600 kcal/day. SC used persuasive features to facilitate greater user engagement, including offering additional opportunities for social support (eg, webinar meetings with a celebrity personal trainer and social networking) endorsed by a celebrity personal trainer. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 8 weeks. A primary analysis was undertaken using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with all available weight records for all participants included. Dropout (participants who cancelled their subscription) and nonusage (participants who stopped using the Web-based features) attrition rates at 8 weeks were calculated. The number of participants who accessed each website feature and the total number of days each feature was used were calculated. The difference between attrition rates and website use for the two programs were tested using chi-square and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests, respectively. Results

  12. Anonymity: An Impediment to Performance in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Karlsberg, Daniel W; Pierce, Read G

    2014-01-01

    Many teaching hospitals employ a care team structure composed of a broad range of healthcare providers with different skill sets. Each member of this team has a distinct role and a different level of training ranging from attending physician to resident, intern, and medical student. Often times, these different roles lead to greater complexity and confusion for both patients and nursing staff. It has been demonstrated that patients have a great degree of difficulty in identifying members of their care team. This anonymity also exists between nursing staff and other care providers. In order to better understand the magnitude of anonymity within the teaching hospital, a ten-question survey was sent to nurses across three different departments. Results from this survey demonstrated that 71% of nurses are “Always” or “Often” able to identify which care team is responsible for their patients, while 79% of nurses reported that they either “Often” or “Sometimes” page a provider who is not currently caring for a given patient. Furthermore, 33% of nurses felt that they were either “Rarely” or “Never” able to recognize, by face and name, attending level providers. Residents were “Rarely” or “Never” recognized by face and name 37% of the time, and interns 42% of the time. Contacting the wrong provider repeatedly leads to de facto delays in medication, therapy, and diagnosis. Additionally, these unnecessary interruptions slow workflow for both nurses and members of the care team, making hospital care less efficient and safe overall. Technological systems should focus on reducing anonymity within the hospital in order to enhance healthcare delivery. PMID:25114570

  13. Anonymity: an impediment to performance in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Karlsberg, Daniel W; Pierce, Read G

    2014-01-01

    Many teaching hospitals employ a care team structure composed of a broad range of healthcare providers with different skill sets. Each member of this team has a distinct role and a different level of training ranging from attending physician to resident, intern, and medical student. Often times, these different roles lead to greater complexity and confusion for both patients and nursing staff. It has been demonstrated that patients have a great degree of difficulty in identifying members of their care team. This anonymity also exists between nursing staff and other care providers. In order to better understand the magnitude of anonymity within the teaching hospital, a ten-question survey was sent to nurses across three different departments. Results from this survey demonstrated that 71% of nurses are "Always" or "Often" able to identify which care team is responsible for their patients, while 79% of nurses reported that they either "Often" or "Sometimes" page a provider who is not currently caring for a given patient. Furthermore, 33% of nurses felt that they were either "Rarely" or "Never" able to recognize, by face and name, attending level providers. Residents were "Rarely" or "Never" recognized by face and name 37% of the time, and interns 42% of the time. Contacting the wrong provider repeatedly leads to de facto delays in medication, therapy, and diagnosis. Additionally, these unnecessary interruptions slow workflow for both nurses and members of the care team, making hospital care less efficient and safe overall. Technological systems should focus on reducing anonymity within the hospital in order to enhance healthcare delivery. PMID:25114570

  14. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Courtney D.; Degeneffe, Dennis; Davey, Cynthia; Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Reicks, Marla

    2016-01-01

    Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40–60 years) increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354) in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185) received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169) received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48). Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change. PMID:27231927

  15. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment.

    PubMed

    Perry, Courtney D; Degeneffe, Dennis; Davey, Cynthia; Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Reicks, Marla

    2016-01-01

    Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40-60 years) increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354) in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185) received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169) received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48). Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change. PMID:27231927

  16. Our Anonymous Online Research Participants Are Not Always Anonymous: Is This a Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    When educational research is conducted online, we sometimes promise our participants that they will be anonymous--but do we deliver on this promise? We have been warned since 1996 to be careful when using direct quotes in Internet research, as full-text web search engines make it easy to find chunks of text online. This paper details an empirical…

  17. Relationships Between Birth Weight and Selected Social, Environmental, and Medical Care Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Based on an analysis of 46 small geographic areas, birth weight statistics were related to variables of income, home maintenance, medical and dental care, and aid to dependent children. It was suggested that birth weight statistics may be more effective than infant mortality statistics for many purposes where death data are now used. (EH)

  18. Distance learning strategies for weight management utilizing social media: A comparison of phone conference call versus social media platform. Rationale and design for a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Willis, Erik A; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Honas, Jeffery J; Al-Hihi, Eyad M; Lee, Robert; Vansaghi, Lisa; Washburn, Richard A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2016-03-01

    Management of obesity in the context of the primary care physician visit is of limited efficacy in part because of limited ability to engage participants in sustained behavior change between physician visits. Therefore, healthcare systems must find methods to address obesity that reach beyond the walls of clinics and hospitals and address the issues of lifestyle modification in a cost-conscious way. The dramatic increase in technology and online social networks may present healthcare providers with innovative ways to deliver weight management programs that could have an impact on health care at the population level. A randomized study will be conducted on 70 obese adults (BMI 30.0-45.0 kg/m(2)) to determine if weight loss (6 months) is equivalent between weight management interventions utilizing behavioral strategies by either a conference call or social media approach. The primary outcome, body weight, will be assessed at baseline and 6 months. Secondary outcomes including waist circumference, energy and macronutrient intake, and physical activity will be assessed on the same schedule. In addition, a cost analysis and process evaluation will be completed. PMID:26883282

  19. Intra- and intergenerational social mobility in relation to height, weight and body mass index in a British national cohort.

    PubMed

    Krzyżanowska, Monika; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2011-09-01

    Using a sample of 2090 father and son pairs, the extent of intra- and inter-generational social mobility (migration between social classes) was examined over a 42-year period in a British cohort in relation to height, weight and body mass index (BMI). The mean height difference between the highest and lowest social class decreased from about 4 cm in the fathers' generation to about 3 cm in the sons' generation, indicating a decline in heterogeneity in height between classes. For fathers downward intra-generational social mobility ranged between 11% and 18% while between 16% and 26% were upwardly mobile; for sons 15% were downwardly mobile and 21% upwardly mobile. On average downwardly mobile fathers were shorter by between 0.1 cm and 0.7 cm while upwardly mobile fathers were taller by, on average, 0.6 cm to 1.7 cm. For sons, the downwardly mobile were on average 0.7 cm shorter and the upwardly mobile 0.8 cm taller. For weight and BMI there were no consistent relationships with intra-generational mobility in either the fathers' or sons' generations. Inter-generationally, between 18% and 19% of sons were downwardly mobile and between 39% and 40% were upwardly mobile; the downwardly mobile were shorter by about 0.9 cm and the upwardly taller by between 0.6 cm and 1.2 cm. Sons with higher BMI were more likely to be inter-generationally downwardly mobile. PMID:21418729

  20. Divisible E-Cash Systems Can Be Truly Anonymous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canard, Sébastien; Gouget, Aline

    This paper presents an off-line divisible e-cash scheme where a user can withdraw a divisible coin of monetary value 2 L that he can parceled and spend anonymously and unlinkably. We present the construction of a security tag that allows to protect the anonymity of honest users and to revoke anonymity only in case of cheat for protocols based on a binary tree structure without using a trusted third party. This is the first divisible e-cash scheme that provides both full unlinkability and anonymity without requiring a trusted third party.

  1. Social Inequalities in Body Weight and Physical Activity: Exploring the Role of Fitness Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J.; McElgunn, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions of exclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this…

  2. Family factors and social support in the developmental outcomes of very low-birth weight children.

    PubMed

    Hogan, D P; Park, J M

    2000-06-01

    This study used data that were representative of the normative population of all infants born in 1988 and were followed during the first 3 years of life. Large developmental delays and limitations in function were common among children weighing less than 1500 g at birth. Among very low-birth weight infants, minority status and living in a household headed by a single mother further worsen the disadvantages associated with a very low birth weight. Nor could the disadvantages associated with very low birth weight be accounted for by controls for other risk factors or buffering statuses and behaviors. Among all children (including those of very low birth weight) poverty, reliance on Medicaid and other government sources for health insurance, a history of risky behaviors, and inadequate prenatal care are the major risk factors for developmental delays, limitations in function, and impairment at birth. State program benefit levels have no obvious effects on child outcomes, taking into account participation in individual programs. An important finding in light of TANF is that maternal work, the use of child care, and the form and cost of child care did not influence developmental delay, limitation in function, or impairment, the outcomes that we were able to measure during the first 3 years of life. TANF eligibility requirements, however, may increase difficulty in obtaining prenatal and other medical services for mothers and children in need--factors shown here to be related strongly to increased risk of low birth weight and developmental delays, limitations, and impairments. Race and ethnicity, poverty status, and family structure are fundamental factors in early child development and function. Minority status, poverty, and single-parent households greatly increase the likelihood that a mother will engage in risky behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, illegal drug use) during pregnancy and receive inadequate prenatal care. Risky behaviors and inadequate prenatal care are

  3. Longitudinal influences of neighbourhood built and social environment on children's weight status.

    PubMed

    Gose, Maria; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Willié, Bianca; Johannsen, Maike; Landsberg, Beate; Müller, Manfred J

    2013-10-01

    The objective was to examine longitudinal 4-year-relationships between neighbourhood social environment and children's body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) taking into account the built environment. Furthermore, we have analysed the influence of potential interactions between the social environment and family/social data on children's BMI-SDS. Between 2006-2008 and 2010-2012, anthropometric measurements were conducted among 485 children (age at baseline: 6.1 (5.8-6.4)). Socio-demographic characteristics and perception of residential environment were reported by parents. Geographic Information Systems were used to examine street length, number of food outlets and distance to the nearest playground and park/green space within an 800 m Euclidian buffer of each participant address point. Additional data on neighbourhood characteristics (e.g., traffic density, walkability, crime rates) were obtained from the State Capital of Kiel, Germany. In a multivariate model, walkability, street type, socioeconomic status of the district and perceived frequency of passing trucks/buses were associated with BMI-SDS over 4 years, but only neighbourhood SES had an effect on change in BMI-SDS. However, familial/social factors rather than neighbourhood environment (especially social environment) had an impact on children's BMI-SDS over 4 years. Thus, social inequalities in childhood overweight are only partially explained by social neighbourhood environment. PMID:24132135

  4. Gregory Bateson, Alcoholics Anonymous, and stoicism.

    PubMed

    Brundage, V

    1985-02-01

    In 1971 Gregory Bateson put forward an "entirely new epistemology," or view of the world, that he described as cybernetic. In a very influential article, which appeared in this journal, Bateson claimed that his cybernetic epistemology "coincides closely" with the epistemology of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), for which he claimed "the only outstanding record of success" in the treatment of alcoholism (1971, p. 310). However, Bateson's discussion of AA dealt with only four of the Twelve Steps of AA's program. Although the epistemology of cybernetics and AA congrue in some respects, they contradict each other in many others. Common ground is found in the ancient philosophical tradition of Stoicism. In Stoicism the contradictions between the two are sources for an ethics and psychology of great power. Stoicism offers the cybernetic epistemologist a solid base for theory. It offers the clinician who deals with chemical dependency practical insights into the process of recovery. PMID:3975305

  5. Design of Anonymous Attribute Authentication Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Fukushima, Kazuhide; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    Privacy remains an issue for IT services. Users are concerned that their history of service use may be traceable since each user is assigned a single identifier as a means of authentication.
    In this paper, we propose a perfectly anonymous attribute authentication scheme that is both unidentifiable and untraceable. Then, we present the evaluation results of a prototype system using a PC and mobile phone with the scheme. The proposed scheme employs a self-blindable certificate that a user can change randomly; thus the certificate is modified for each authentication, and the authentication scheme is unidentifiable and untraceable. Furthermore, our scheme can revoke self-blindable certificates without leaks of confidential private information and check the revocation status without online access.

  6. What Does Anonymization Mean? DataSHIELD and the Need for Consensus on Anonymization Terminology.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Susan E

    2016-06-01

    Anonymization is a recognized process by which identifiers can be removed from identifiable data to protect an individual's confidentiality and is used as a standard practice when sharing data in biomedical research. However, a plethora of terms, such as coding, pseudonymization, unlinked, and deidentified, have been and continue to be used, leading to confusion and uncertainty. This article shows that this is a historic problem and argues that such continuing uncertainty regarding the levels of protection given to data risks damaging initiatives designed to assist researchers conducting cross-national studies and sharing data internationally. DataSHIELD and the creation of a legal template are used as examples of initiatives that rely on anonymization, but where the inconsistency in terminology could hinder progress. More broadly, this article argues that there is a real possibility that there could be possible damage to the public's trust in research and the institutions that carry it out by relying on vague notions of the anonymization process. Research participants whose lack of clear understanding of the research process is compensated for by trusting those carrying out the research may have that trust damaged if the level of protection given to their data does not match their expectations. One step toward ensuring understanding between parties would be consistent use of clearly defined terminology used internationally, so that all those involved are clear on the level of identifiability of any particular set of data and, therefore, how that data can be accessed and shared. PMID:27219861

  7. Comments on “Anonymous reviewers” [“Anonymous reviews: Self-serving, counterproductive, and unacceptable”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinove, Charles J.

    Mryl Beck's Forum article denouncing anonymous reviews (Eos, 1 July 2003) is right on the money. Perhaps he read my letter in Applied Physics in 1990 also denouncing anonymous reviews.Some years ago, I received an anonymous review of a paper I had submitted for journal publication. The reviewer raised such interesting questions that I wanted to discuss them with him. I phoned the editor of the journal and asked if he would tell me the name of the reviewer. He politely declined, but when I told him I thought I recognized the handwriting of the reviewer and named him, he relented and said I was correct! I called the reviewer and he was generous enough to spend a wonderful hour on the phone with me discussing the paper. The paper was published with great consideration given to his ideas, much to its betterment. Now that's a reviewer whose interest is in improving the paper and helping the author, not just showing how smart he is or slapping down a junior colleague. The AGU motto,“unselfish cooperation in research,” can be well exemplified by those who wish to help rather than to tear down.

  8. Group Aggression: The Effects of Friendship Ties and Anonymity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabrack, Merle; Miller, Norman

    The degree of acquaintance among group members (friends or strangers) and the opportunity for group members to observe each other's actions (anonymous or non-anonymous) were manipulated in a 2 x 2 factorial design, to determine the amount of aversive stimulation that would be administered to a target person. When group members could not observe…

  9. An Applet-based Anonymous Distributed Computing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, David; Wills, Craig E.; Ciaraldi, Michael J.; Amorin, Kevin; Covati, Adam; Lee, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Defines anonymous distributed computing systems and focuses on the specifics of a Java, applet-based approach for large-scale, anonymous, distributed computing on the Internet. Explains the possibility of a large number of computers participating in a single computation and describes a test of the functionality of the system. (Author/LRW)

  10. Associations of Weight Status, Social Factors, and Active Travel among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Melissa; Behrens, Timothy K.; Velecina, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active travel (AT) is associated with various health benefits and may help prevent the decline in physical activity during college years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of several factors with AT to campus by weight status. Methods: Students at a large northeastern US campus completed an online…

  11. The Influence of Social Norms upon Behavioral Expressions of Implicit and Explicit Weight-Related Stigma in an Interactive Game

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, John B.; Reeder, Glenn D.; Wesselmann, Eric D.; Williams, Kipling D.; Wirth, James H.

    2013-01-01

    This research explored the roles of social influence and stigma-related attitudes in how people behaved toward an overweight female in an interactive computer game. Photographs were used to manipulate whether one of the players in the game was overweight or average weight. We found that both explicit and implicit anti-fat attitudes influenced interactions with an overweight player, but only when other players ostracized the overweight player, not when they included her. Under conditions of ostracism, explicit attitudes were better predictors of more controllable behaviors, while implicit attitudes were better predictors of more automatic behaviors. PMID:23766740

  12. The influence of social norms upon behavioral expressions of implicit and explicit weight-related stigma in an interactive game.

    PubMed

    Pryor, John B; Reeder, Glenn D; Wesselmann, Eric D; Williams, Kipling D; Wirth, James H

    2013-06-01

    This research explored the roles of social influence and stigma-related attitudes in how people behaved toward an overweight female in an interactive computer game. Photographs were used to manipulate whether one of the players in the game was overweight or average weight. We found that both explicit and implicit anti-fat attitudes influenced interactions with an overweight player, but only when other players ostracized the overweight player, not when they included her. Under conditions of ostracism, explicit attitudes were better predictors of more controllable behaviors, while implicit attitudes were better predictors of more automatic behaviors. PMID:23766740

  13. Location, Timing, and Social Structure Patterns Related to Physical Activity Participation in Weight Loss Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Jennifer L.; Trevarthen, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Less than half of the adults in the United States meet national guidelines for physical activity. Physical activity programs can induce short-term improvements in physical activity. To develop effective interventions, researchers and practitioners should consider the timing, location, and social structure patterns of participants. Using a pretest,…

  14. Understanding and Acting on the Growing Childhood and Adolescent Weight Crisis: A Role for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Shawn; Hazlett, Rebekah; Hightower, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual…

  15. Increasing Anonymity in Peer Assessment by Using Classroom Response Technology within Face-to-Face Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…

  16. Why Barbie feels heavier than Ken: the influence of size-based expectancies and social cues on the illusory perception of weight.

    PubMed

    Dijker, Anton J M

    2008-03-01

    In order to examine the relative influence of size-based expectancies and social cues on the perceived weight of objects, two studies were performed, using equally weighing dolls differing in sex-related and age-related vulnerability or physical strength cues. To increase variation in perceived size, stimulus objects were viewed through optical lenses of varying reducing power. Different groups of participants were required to provide magnitude estimates of perceived size, physical strength, or weight, or of expected weight. A size-weight illusion (SWI) was demonstrated, such that smaller objects felt heavier than larger ones, that was entirely accounted for by the mediating role of expected weight. Yet, perceived physical strength exerted an additional and more reactive influence on perceived weight independently of measured expectancies. Results are used to clarify the nature of "embodied", internal sensory-motor representations of physical and social properties. PMID:17599820

  17. The relationship between body mass index and unhealthy weight control behaviors among adolescents: the role of family and peer social support.

    PubMed

    Vander Wal, Jillon S

    2012-12-01

    Adolescents classified as overweight or obese are more likely to use unhealthy weight control behaviors such as skipping meals or fasting than their healthy weight peers. Adolescents with low perceived social support may be at particular risk. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between adolescent overweight and obesity, indices of perceived peer and family social support, and their interaction in the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors among adolescents. The present study used data from the 2001-2002 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children collaborative survey. Participants included 4598 adolescent girls and boys in the ninth and tenth grades. Results of binary logistic regression analyses showed that obese boys and girls were more likely to use unhealthy weight control behaviors than their healthy weight peers. Boys and girls who endorsed difficult communication with their parents, low levels of parent school support, or frequent bullying were more likely to engage in unhealthy weight control behaviors than relevant comparison groups. Among girls, poor classmate relationships were associated with increased use of unhealthy weight control behaviors whereas fewer friendships were associated with decreased use. Results suggest that adolescents are at high risk for use of unhealthy weight control behaviors and would benefit from interventions to increase knowledge and social support for achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. PMID:22609397

  18. Effects of prior destructive behavior, anonymity, and group presence on deindividuation and aggression.

    PubMed

    Diener, E

    1976-05-01

    Three of Zimbardo's deindividuation input variables (group presence, anonymity, and arousal) were manipulated in laboratory experiment, and their effects on aggression and deindividuation were measured. Only arousal produced a significant increase in aggression (p less than .05), while group presence produced a significant decrease in aggression (p less than .01). Anonymity had no significant effect on subjects' aggressiveness. Deindividuation per se was measured on a postsession questionnaire that assessed subjects' memory for their own aggressive behavior, self-consciousness, concern for social evaluation, and memory for central and peripheral cues. Only arousal condition participants showed deindividuation changes, but a factor analysis revealed that the deindividuation changes did not comprise a unified factor. Also it did not appear that the internal changes caused aggressive behavior, since the correlation between the two was low. PMID:1271222

  19. Social Cognitive Changes Following Weight Loss and Physical Activity Interventions in Obese, Older Adults in Poor Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Brawley, Lawrence; Gaukstern, Jill E.; Ambrosius, Walter T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The study objectives were to determine (a) the effects of group-mediated cognitive–behavioral interventions on change in performance self-efficacy, satisfaction with function, and with appearance among older, overweight/obese adults in poor cardiovascular health and (b) whether self-efficacy mediated change in 400-m walk time. Methods This translational, randomized controlled trial of physical activity and weight loss was conducted within community Cooperative Extension Centers. Participants were randomized to three intervention arms: Physical Activity, Weight Loss+ Physical Activity, or a Successful Aging education control. Results Across 18 months, the Weight Loss+Physical Activity intervention demonstrated greater improvements in self-efficacy, satisfaction with function, and appearance versus other trial arms. Physical Activity intervention participants also experienced significant improvements in self-efficacy and satisfaction with function versus those in Successful Aging. Self-efficacy mediated 400-m walk time at 18 months. Conclusions Both group-mediated cognitive–behavioral interventions yielded desirable improvements in social cognitions and preserved mobility improvements post-intervention. PMID:22773225

  20. Associations between the use of social networking sites and unhealthy eating behaviours and excess body weight in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A

    2015-12-14

    Unhealthy eating behaviour and excess body weight have been related to sedentary behaviour, particularly screen time, in adolescents; however, little is known about their associations with the use of social networking sites (SNS). We investigated the associations between time spent using SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours (including breakfast skipping, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and energy drinks) and body weight in adolescents. Data on 9858 students (mean age: 15·2 (SD 1·9) years) in grades 7 through 12 were derived from the 2013 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey--a cross-sectional school-based survey of middle and high school students. The majority (81·5%) of students reported daily use of SNS and an additional 10·7% reported using them on an irregular basis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the use of SNS was associated with increased odds of skipping breakfast (P trend<0·01) and consuming SSB (P trend<0·01) and energy drinks (P trend<0·01) in a dose-response manner with adjustments for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status, tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use as well as BMI. However, there was no evidence of a significant association between use of SNS and BMI before or after adjusting for all the covariates and unhealthy eating behaviours. In conclusion, our results suggest associations between the use of SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours among youth. Given the popularity of SNS, more efforts are needed to better understand the impact of social networks on eating behaviours and risk of excess weight. PMID:26400488

  1. An Enhanced Secure Authentication Scheme with Anonymity for Wireless Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Woongryul; Kim, Jeeyeon; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    As anonymity increasingly becomes a necessary and legitimate aim in many applications, a number of anonymous authentication schemes have been suggested over the years. Among the many schemes is Lee and Kwon's password-based authentication scheme for wireless environments. Compared with previous schemes, Lee and Kwon's scheme not only improves anonymity by employing random temporary IDs but also provides user-friendliness by allowing human-memorable passwords. In this letter, we point out that Lee and Kwon's scheme, despite its many merits, is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks and a forgery attack. In addition, we show how to eliminate these vulnerabilities.

  2. Anonymous reviews: Self-serving, counterproductive, and unacceptable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Myrl E., Jr.

    Recently I became involved in an incident in which a manuscript was rejected on the advice of two anonymous reviewers and an anonymous associate editor. This re-activated my long-standing disgust at the entire system of anonymous reviews and pushed me—finally—into doing something about it. A few weeks or months ago, I read a similar protest, somewhere—one much more persuasive than I am likely to write—but my high-mileage brain has misplaced its provenance. Consider this a “high-five” to that misplaced author.

  3. Use of anonymous Web communities and websites by medical consumers in Japan to research drug information.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Keiko; Fukushima, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the status of researching drug information online, and the type of Internet user who uses anonymous Web communities and websites. A Web-based cross-sectional survey of 10875 male and female Internet users aged 16 and over was conducted in March 2010. Of 10282 analyzed respondents, excluding medical professionals, about 47% reported that they had previously searched the Internet for drug information and had used online resources ranging from drug information search engines and pharmaceutical industry websites to social networking sites and Twitter. Respondents who had researched drug information online (n=4861) were analyzed by two multivariable logistic regressions. In Model 1, the use of anonymous websites associated with age (OR, 0.778; 95% CI, 0.742-0.816), referring to the reputation and the narrative of other Internet users on shopping (OR, 1.640; 95% CI, 1.450-1.855), taking a prescription drug (OR, 0.806; 95% CI, 0.705-0.922), and frequent consulting with non-professionals about medical care and health (OR, 1.613; 95% CI, 1.396-1.865). In Model 2, use of only anonymous websites was associated with age (OR, 0.753; 95% CI, 0.705-0.805), using the Internet daily (OR, 0.611; 95% CI, 0.462-0.808), taking a prescription drug (OR, 0.614; 95% CI, 0.505-0.747), and experience a side effect (OR, 0.526; 95% CI, 0.421-0.658). The analysis revealed the profiles of Internet users who researched drug information on social media sites where the information providers are anonymous and do not necessarily have adequate knowledge of medicine and online information literacy. PMID:21532265

  4. Hiding in Plain Sight: Exploiting Broadcast for Practical Host Anonymity

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, Craig A; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi

    2010-01-01

    Users are being tracked on the Internet more than ever before as Web sites and search engines gather pieces of information sufficient to identify and study their behavior. While many existing schemes provide strong anonymity, they are inappropriate when high bandwidth and low latency are required. In this work, we explore an anonymity scheme for end hosts whose performance makes it possible to have it always on. The scheme leverages the natural grouping of hosts in the same subnet and the universally available broadcast primitive to provide anonymity at line speeds. Our scheme is strongly resistant against all active or passive adversaries as long as they are outside the subnet. Even within the subnet, our scheme provides reasonable resistance against adversaries, providing anonymity that is suitable for common Internet applications.

  5. Pair Gamblers Anonymous with Other Treatments for Best Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Gamblers Anonymous helps people with gambling problems, and it's even more effective when used ... published between 2002 and 2015 that examined problem gambling. The research included data on various aspects of ...

  6. "Brother Anonymous" and the Quiet Revolution in Quebec Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.; Jones, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    This article offers a brief review of the writing of Jean-Paul Desbiens, an educational reformer and Quebec education official known as "Brother Anonymous." Juxtaposes two different articles by Desbiens, exposing the contradictions and conflicts between them. (JDH)

  7. Anonymization of DICOM electronic medical records for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Newhauser, Wayne; Jones, Timothy; Swerdloff, Stuart; Newhauser, Warren; Cilia, Mark; Carver, Robert; Halloran, Andy; Zhang, Rui

    2014-10-01

    Electronic medical records (EMR) and treatment plans are used in research on patient outcomes and radiation effects. In many situations researchers must remove protected health information (PHI) from EMRs. The literature contains several studies describing the anonymization of generic Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) files and DICOM image sets but no publications were found that discuss the anonymization of DICOM radiation therapy plans, a key component of an EMR in a cancer clinic. In addition to this we were unable to find a commercial software tool that met the minimum requirements for anonymization and preservation of data integrity for radiation therapy research. The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype software code to meet the requirements for the anonymization of radiation therapy treatment plans and to develop a way to validate that code and demonstrate that it properly anonymized treatment plans and preserved data integrity. We extended an open-source code to process all relevant PHI and to allow for the automatic anonymization of multiple EMRs. The prototype code successfully anonymized multiple treatment plans in less than 1min/patient. We also tested commercial optical character recognition (OCR) algorithms for the detection of burned-in text on the images, but they were unable to reliably recognize text. In addition, we developed and tested an image filtering algorithm that allowed us to isolate and redact alpha-numeric text from a test radiograph. Validation tests verified that PHI was anonymized and data integrity, such as the relationship between DICOM unique identifiers (UID) was preserved. PMID:25147130

  8. Anonymization of DICOM Electronic Medical Records for Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Newhauser, Wayne; Jones, Timothy; Swerdloff, Stuart; Newhauser, Warren; Cilia, Mark; Carver, Robert; Halloran, Andy; Zhang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMR) and treatment plans are used in research on patient outcomes and radiation effects. In many situations researchers must remove protected health information (PHI) from EMRs. The literature contains several studies describing the anonymization of generic Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) files and DICOM image sets but no publications were found that discuss the anonymization of DICOM radiation therapy plans, a key component of an EMR in a cancer clinic. In addition to this we were unable to find a commercial software tool that met the minimum requirements for anonymization and preservation of data integrity for radiation therapy research. The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype software code to meet the requirements for the anonymization of radiation therapy treatment plans and to develop a way to validate that code and demonstrate that it properly anonymized treatment plans and preserved data integrity. We extended an open-source code to process all relevant PHI and to allow for the automatic anonymization of multiple EMRs. The prototype code successfully anonymized multiple treatment plans in less than 1 minute per patient. We also tested commercial optical character recognition (OCR) algorithms for the detection of burned-in text on the images, but they were unable to reliably recognize text. In addition, we developed and tested an image filtering algorithm that allowed us to isolate and redact alpha-numeric text from a test radiograph. Validation tests verified that PHI was anonymized and data integrity, such as the relationship between DICOM unique identifiers (UID) was preserved. PMID:25147130

  9. [Self-disclosure on the Internet: the effects of anonymity of the self and the other].

    PubMed

    Sato, Hirotsune; Yoshida, Fujio

    2008-02-01

    The effects of anonymity on self-disclosure were investigated in a CMC (computer-mediated communication) situation by separately manipulating the anonymity of the self and the other. It was hypothesized that anonymity of the self would enhance disclosure, whereas anonymity of the other would decrease it. Female undergraduate students (n = 60) were randomly assigned to a 2 (self: anonymous or non-anonymous) x 2 (other: anonymous or non-anonymous) experimental design. The anonymity of the self and the other was manipulated in the profile, such as the photo, name, and sex of the self or the other, on the computer screen. The results indicated that anonymity of the self decreased the feeling of anxiety, but had no effect on disclosure, whereas anonymity of the other decreased the feeling of closeness and decreased the intimacy of disclosure. PMID:18402057

  10. Cost of care and social consequences of very low birth weight infants without premature- related morbidities in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Maria Caterina; Gugiatti, Attilio; Fattore, Giovanni; Gerzeli, Simone; Barbieri, Dario; Zanini, Rinaldo

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this study was to estimate the cost that is borne by the Italian National Health Service, families, and social security due to very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) without prematurity-related morbidities up to the age of 18 months. We followed up on 150 VLBWIs and 145 comparable full-term infants (FTIs) who were born in one of 25 different neonatal intensive care units upon discharge from the hospital and at six and 18 months of age. The average length of the primary hospitalisation of the VLBWIs was 59.7 days (SD 21.6 days), with a total cost of €20,502 (SD €8409), compared with three days (SD 0.4 days) with a total cost of €907 (SD €304) for the FTIs. The total societal cost of the VLBWIs for the first 18 months of life was €58,098 (SD €21,625), while the corresponding figure for FTIs was €24,209 (SD €15,557). Among VLBWIs, both low birth weight and gestational age were correlated with the length of hospitalisation after birth (r(2) = 0.61 and r(2) = 0.57, respectively; p values < 0.0005). Our findings highlight that the existing DRGs and tariffs inadequately reflect the actual costs for Italian National Health Service. PMID:26286526

  11. Efficient and Anonymous Two-Factor User Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks: Achieving User Anonymity with Lightweight Sensor Computation

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks). PMID:25849359

  12. Efficient and anonymous two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks: achieving user anonymity with lightweight sensor computation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks). PMID:25849359

  13. Socialization and selection effects in the association between weight conscious peer groups and thin-ideal internalization: A co-twin control study.

    PubMed

    VanHuysse, Jessica L; Burt, S Alexandra; O'Connor, Shannon M; Thompson, J Kevin; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-06-01

    Affiliation with weight conscious peer groups is theorized to increase thin-ideal internalization through socialization processes. However, selection effects could contribute if genetic and/or environmental predispositions lead to affiliation with weight conscious peers. Co-twin control methodology was used to examine socialization and selection effects in 614 female twins (ages 8-15) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR). Thin-ideal internalization and peer group characteristics were assessed via self-report questionnaires. Results suggested the presence of both socialization and selection effects. In terms of socialization, twins who reported increased exposure to weight conscious peers relative to their co-twins had elevated thin-ideal internalization scores, regardless of zygosity. However, associations between weight conscious peers and thin-ideal internationalization within twin pairs were attenuated, suggesting that genetic and shared environmental selection effects also contribute. Findings significantly extend previous work by confirming the presence of socialization processes and highlighting selection processes to be examined in future longitudinal research. PMID:26859605

  14. Persona: Network Layer Anonymity and Accountability for Next Generation Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallios, Yannis; Modi, Sudeep; Agarwala, Aditya; Johns, Christina

    Individual privacy has become a major concern, due to the intrusive nature of the services and websites that collect increasing amounts of private information. One of the notions that can lead towards privacy protection is that of anonymity. Unfortunately, anonymity can also be maliciously exploited by attackers to hide their actions and identity. Thus some sort of accountability is also required. The current Internet has failed to provide both properties, as anonymity techniques are difficult to fully deploy and thus are easily attacked, while the Internet provides limited level of accountability. The Next Generation Internet (NGI) provides us with the opportunity to examine how these conflicting properties could be efficiently applied and thus protect users’ privacy while holding malicious users accountable. In this paper we present the design of a scheme, called Persona that can provide anonymity and accountability in the network layer of NGI. More specifically, our design requirements are to combine these two conflicting desires in a stateless manner within routers. Persona allows users to choose different levels of anonymity, while it allows the discovery of malicious nodes.

  15. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context.

    PubMed

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms. PMID:26939060

  16. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context

    PubMed Central

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P.; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms. PMID:26939060

  17. Sepsis-induced morbidity in mice: effects on body temperature, body weight, cage activity, social behavior and cytokines in brain

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Jill I.; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Datta, Subhash C.; Raymond, Richard M.; Opp, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Infection negatively impacts mental health, as evidenced by the lethargy, malaise, and cognitive deficits experienced during illness. These changes in central nervous system processes, collectively termed sickness behavior, have been shown in animal models to be mediated primarily by the actions of cytokines in brain. Most studies of sickness behavior to date have used bolus injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or selective administration of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or IL-6 as the immune challenge. Such models, although useful for determining mechanisms responsible for acute changes in physiology and behavior, do not adequately represent the more complex effects on central nervous system (CNS) processes of a true infection with replicating pathogens. In the present study, we used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to quantify sepsis-induced alterations in several facets of physiology and behavior of mice. We determined the impact of sepsis on cage activity, body temperature, food and water consumption and body weights of mice. Because cytokines are critical mediators of changes in behavior and temperature regulation during immune challenge, we also quantified sepsis-induced alterations in cytokine mRNA and protein in brain during the acute period of sepsis onset. We now report that cage activity and temperature regulation in mice that survive are altered for up to 23 days after sepsis induction. Food and water consumption are transiently reduced, and body weight is lost during sepsis. Furthermore, sepsis decreases social interactions for 24 – 48 hours. Finally, mRNA and protein for IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) are upregulated in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and brain stem during sepsis onset, from 6–72 hour post sepsis induction. Collectively, these data indicate that sepsis not only acutely alters physiology, behavior and cytokine profiles in brain, but that some brain functions are

  18. Privacy in Social Networks: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleva, Elena; Getoor, Lise

    In this chapter, we survey the literature on privacy in social networks. We focus both on online social networks and online affiliation networks. We formally define the possible privacy breaches and describe the privacy attacks that have been studied. We present definitions of privacy in the context of anonymization together with existing anonymization techniques.

  19. On the Definitions of Anonymity for Ring Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Miyako; Abe, Masayuki

    This paper studies the relations among several definitions of anonymity for ring signature schemes in the same attack environment. It is shown that one intuitive and two technical definitions we consider are asymptotically equivalent, and the indistinguishability-based technical definition is the strongest, i. e., the most secure when achieved, when the exact reduction cost is taken into account. We then extend our result to the threshold case where a subset of members cooperate to create a signature. The threshold setting makes the notion of anonymity more complex and yields a greater variety of definitions. We explore several notions and observe certain relation does not seem hold unlike the simple single-signer case. Nevertheless, we see that an indistinguishability-based definition is the most favorable in the threshold case. We also study the notion of linkability and present a simple scheme that achieves both anonymity and linkability.

  20. Anonymous and Confidential Communications from an IP Addressless Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Jimenez, C.; Marshall, L.

    2002-04-01

    Anonymizers based on a mediating computer interposed between the sender and the receiver of an e-mail message have been used for several years by senders of e-mail messages who do not wish to disclose their identity to the receivers. In this model, the strength of the system to protect the identity of the sender depends on the ability and willingness of the mediator to keep the secret. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sending truly anonymous message over the Internet which does not depend on a third party. Our idea departs from the traditional approach by sending the anonymous messages from an Internet wireless and addressless computer, such as a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) bridged to the Internet by a Mobile Support Station (MSS).

  1. Anonymous pastoral care for problems pertaining to sexuality.

    PubMed

    van Drie, A; Ganzevoort, R R; Spiering, M

    2014-12-01

    Anonymous pastoral care is one of the options for help in problems pertaining to sexuality. This paper explores the topics they seek help for, the religious aspects involved, and the relation between the normativity of their church tradition on the one hand and sexual and spiritual health criteria on the other. We analyzed helpseeking questions of two protestant Christian organizations in the Netherlands providing anonymous pastoral care: Refoweb and EO-Nazorg. Sexual themes were addressed in 19 and 2.3 % of the submitted questions, respectively. Of the helpseekers, 56 % is female, 15 % male, and 29 % unknown. Questions and problems for which people seek anonymous pastoral care focus primarily on premarital abstinence, gender roles, contraception, sexual orientation and masturbation. The authority of the Bible seems to be important for questioners, especially when dealing with ethical questions. Different relations between the normativity of the church tradition and sexual and spiritual health are discussed. PMID:23784431

  2. Verifying Anonymous Credential Systems in Applied Pi Calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangxi; Zhang, Yu; Deng, Yuxin

    Anonymous credentials are widely used to certify properties of a credential owner or to support the owner to demand valuable services, while hiding the user's identity at the same time. A credential system (a.k.a. pseudonym system) usually consists of multiple interactive procedures between users and organizations, including generating pseudonyms, issuing credentials and verifying credentials, which are required to meet various security properties. We propose a general symbolic model (based on the applied pi calculus) for anonymous credential systems and give formal definitions of a few important security properties, including pseudonym and credential unforgeability, credential safety, pseudonym untraceability. We specialize the general formalization and apply it to the verification of a concrete anonymous credential system proposed by Camenisch and Lysyanskaya. The analysis is done automatically with the tool ProVerif and several security properties have been verified.

  3. Completely anonymous multi-recipient signcryption scheme with public verification.

    PubMed

    Pang, Liaojun; Li, Huixian; Gao, Lu; Wang, Yumin

    2013-01-01

    Most of the existing multi-recipient signcryption schemes do not take the anonymity of recipients into consideration because the list of the identities of all recipients must be included in the ciphertext as a necessary element for decryption. Although the signer's anonymity has been taken into account in several alternative schemes, these schemes often suffer from the cross-comparison attack and joint conspiracy attack. That is to say, there are few schemes that can achieve complete anonymity for both the signer and the recipient. However, in many practical applications, such as network conference, both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity should be considered carefully. Motivated by these concerns, we propose a novel multi-recipient signcryption scheme with complete anonymity. The new scheme can achieve both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity at the same time. Each recipient can easily judge whether the received ciphertext is from an authorized source, but cannot determine the real identity of the sender, and at the same time, each participant can easily check decryption permission, but cannot determine the identity of any other recipient. The scheme also provides a public verification method which enables anyone to publicly verify the validity of the ciphertext. Analyses show that the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length and possesses more advantages than existing schemes, which makes it suitable for practical applications. The proposed scheme could be used for network conferences, paid-TV or DVD broadcasting applications to solve the secure communication problem without violating the privacy of each participant. PMID:23675490

  4. Why Barbie Feels Heavier than Ken: The Influence of Size-Based Expectancies and Social Cues on the Illusory Perception of Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijker, Anton J. M.

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine the relative influence of size-based expectancies and social cues on the perceived weight of objects, two studies were performed, using equally weighing dolls differing in sex-related and age-related vulnerability or physical strength cues. To increase variation in perceived size, stimulus objects were viewed through optical…

  5. Knowledge Sharing Systems: Advantages of Public Anonymity and Private Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the benefits of the design elements of public anonymity and private accountability in classroom Knowledge Sharing Systems (KSS). The major findings of this study indicate that classroom KSS have the potential to allow for greater equity of input, reduce academic anxiety, increase teachers knowledge of student understanding …

  6. Student Feedback, Anonymity, Observable Change and Course Barometers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    A Course Barometer is a method for addressing the loss of informal feedback in a distance education setting. Originally proposed and used at the University of Trollhattan Uddevella this paper describes how the idea of a course barometer has been adopted by Central Queensland University. The paper suggests connections between anonymity, observable…

  7. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey. Portion of an anonymous watercolor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey. Portion of an anonymous watercolor painting of Fort McHenry bombardment of 1814. Peale Museum, Baltimore. View of southeast bastion and sally port. - Fort McHenry National Monument & Historic Shrine, East Fort Avenue at Whetstone Point, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  8. Policy-Aware Sender Anonymity in Location-Based Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyas, Avinash

    2011-01-01

    Sender anonymity in Location-based services (LBS) refers to hiding the identity of a mobile device user who sends requests to the LBS provider for services in her proximity (e.g. "find the nearest gas station etc."). The goal is to keep the requester's interest private even from attackers who (via hacking or subpoenas) gain access to the LBS…

  9. Online Role-Play: Anonymity, Engagement and Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of role-play focuses on a case study of an asynchronous, anonymous online role-play at an Australian university within a WebCT bulletin board that was designed as an alternative to an existing face-to-face workshop to offer more flexible access for participants. Suggests further research needs. (Author/LRW)

  10. Who Goes There? Staying Anonymous on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Don E.

    2009-01-01

    Privacy is a thing of the past. Monitoring is everywhere. If one is looking at this online, the author is sure that lots of information has been stored and linked to anyone about that action. Nevertheless, at least people can try to play with "their" minds and surf the web anonymously. In this article, the author discusses ways to try to hide…

  11. Anonymous Reviews: Self-serving, Counterproductive, and Unacceptable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Myrl E., Jr.

    Recently, I became involved in an incident in which a manuscript was rejected on the advise of two anonymous reviewers and an anonymous Associate Editor. This re-activated my long-standing disgust at the entire system of anonymous reviews and pushed me-finally-into doing something about it. A few weeks or months ago, I read a similar protest, somewhere-one much more persuasive than I am likely to write-but my high-mileage brain has misplaced its provenance. Consider this a ``high-five'' to that misplaced author. The system of reviewing is supposed to filter out junk science and provide useful feedback to authors of non-junk science who have submitted work that can be improved. These are honest, commendable endeavors that can be accomplished quite comfortably out in the open. Concealment, on the other hand, permits and invites all manner of dishonorable motives-not least of which is laziness-to creep in. Offhand I can think of four reasons for remaining anonymous in a review, none valid.

  12. A Survey on Non-transferable Anonymous Credentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pape, Sebastian

    There are at least two principal approaches to prevent users from sharing their anonymous credentials: adding valuable secrets into the system the user does not want to share or embedding biometric access control. This paper seeks to identify possible fields of application and to compare both approaches with respect to the credentials’ non-transferability.

  13. The Efficacy of Non-Anonymous Measures of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, John H. F.; Myron, Rowan; Crawshaw, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The Olweus checklist, along with most of the questionnaires commonly used in bullying research, is anonymous. The respondent is not required to put down his/her name. This has been accepted as the "best suited" method of assessing bullying. However, this assumption has not been adequately tested, and there is contrary evidence that this method is…

  14. Effects of Help, Anonymity, and Privacy on Children's Academic Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Lisa

    This study examined the effect of three aspects of the testing context--physical privacy, anonymity, and offers of help from a tester--on children's expectations. Performance of 96 11-year-old boys and girls on a pictorial recall memory task in a simulated test was evaluated. The subjects were divided into eight different groups varying on the…

  15. The Impact of Anonymization for Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Lottridge, Sue; Mayfield, Elijah

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of anonymizing text on predicted scores made by two kinds of automated scoring engines: one that incorporates elements of natural language processing (NLP) and one that does not. Eight data sets (N = 22,029) were used to form both training and test sets in which the scoring engines had access to both text and…

  16. Father-Daughter Incest: Data from an Anonymous Computerized Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel V. S.; Kommor, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self-interview. Nineteen were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 241 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The remaining 1,261 served as controls. Incest victims were…

  17. Anonymity versus Perceived Patron Identity in Virtual Reference Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Kristin Grabarek; Sobel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Librarians who provide virtual reference services often perceive that their patrons self-identify to some degree, even when transactions are anonymous. They also develop a sense of patrons' greatest research-related needs over time. In this article, two librarians analyze two years' worth of virtual reference transcripts to determine what patrons…

  18. Attitudes toward Spirituality and the Core Principles of Alcoholics Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, S. J.; Benshoff, John J.; Koch, D. Shane

    2006-01-01

    One-hundred and fifty-one students enrolled in substance abuse counselor training classes were surveyed on their attitudes about spirituality in substance abuse treatment and their beliefs about the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Significant correlations were found between the subjects' spirituality and their attitudes toward…

  19. Anonymity in Blended Learning: Who Would You like to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyazoe, Terumi; Anderson, Terry

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the learning outcomes associated with implementing discussion forums and blog writings using pseudonyms in blended learning. Although anonymity or masking one's identity has been used as a teaching strategy designed to induce higher writing production and lowering anxiety in face-to-face writing instruction, little research has…

  20. What drives the association between weight-conscious peer groups and disordered eating? Disentangling genetic and environmental selection from pure socialization effects.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Shannon M; Burt, S Alexandra; VanHuysse, Jessica L; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies suggest strong associations between exposure to weight-conscious peer groups and increased levels of disordered eating. This association has been attributed to socialization effects (i.e., membership leads to disordered eating); however, selection effects (i.e., selecting into peer groups based on genetic and/or environmental predispositions toward disordered eating) could contribute to or even account for these associations. The current study was the first to use a co-twin control design to disentangle these types of selection factors from socialization effects. Participants included 610 female twins (ages 8-14) drawn from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. To comprehensively examine a range of eating pathology, several disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (e.g., body dissatisfaction, binge eating) were examined via self-report questionnaires. Questionnaires also were used to assess peer group emphasis on body weight and shape. Replicating previous results, significant individual-level associations were found between membership in weight-conscious peer groups and disordered eating. However, co-twin control analyses indicated that these associations were largely due to genetic and/or shared environmental selection factors rather than pure socialization effects. Importantly, results remained unchanged when controlling for pubertal status, suggesting that effects do not vary across developmental stage. Overall, these findings question whether associations between weight-conscious peer groups and disordered eating are due entirely to socialization processes. Future studies are needed to identify the specific genetic and/or shared environmental factors that may drive selection into weight-conscious peer groups. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27043917

  1. What Drives the Association between Weight Conscious Peer Groups and Disordered Eating? Disentangling Genetic and Environmental Selection from Pure Socialization Effects

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Shannon M.; Burt, S. Alexandra; VanHuysse, Jessica L.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest strong associations between exposure to weight conscious peer groups and increased levels of disordered eating. This association has been attributed to socialization effects (i.e., membership leads to disordered eating); however, selection effects (i.e., selecting into peer groups based on genetic and/or environmental predispositions toward disordered eating) could contribute to or even account for these associations. The current study was the first to use a co-twin control design to disentangle these types of selection factors from socialization effects. Participants included 610 female twins (ages 8–14) drawn from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. To comprehensively examine a range of eating pathology, several disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (e.g., body dissatisfaction, binge eating) were examined via self-report questionnaires. Questionnaires also were used to assess peer group emphasis on body weight and shape. Replicating previous results, significant individual-level associations were found between membership in weight conscious peer groups and disordered eating. However, co-twin control analyses indicated that these associations were largely due to genetic and/or shared environmental selection factors rather than pure socialization effects. Importantly, results remained unchanged when controlling for pubertal status, suggesting that effects do not vary across developmental stage. Overall, these findings question whether associations between weight conscious peer groups and disordered eating are due entirely to socialization processes. Future studies are needed to identify the specific genetic and/or shared environmental factors that may drive selection into weight conscious peer groups. PMID:27043917

  2. Effects of Anonymous Peer Observation on Adolescents’ Preference for Immediate Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Weigard, Alexander; Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; Smith, Ashley; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that the presence of peers influences adolescent risk-taking by increasing the perceived reward value of risky decisions. While prior work has involved observation of participants by their friends, the current study examined whether observation by an anonymous peer could elicit similarly increased reward sensitivity. Late adolescent participants completed a delay discounting task either alone or under the belief that performance was being observed from a neighboring room by an unknown viewer of the same gender and age. Even in this limited social context, participants demonstrated a significantly increased preference for smaller, immediate rewards when they believed that they were being watched. This outcome challenges several intuitive accounts of the peer effect on adolescent risk taking, and indicates that the peer influence on reward sensitivity during late adolescence is not dependent on familiarity with the observer. The findings have both theoretical and practical implications for our understanding of social influences on adolescents’ risky behavior. PMID:24341973

  3. "I'd Be So Much More Comfortable Posting Anonymously": Identified versus Anonymous Participation in Student Discussion Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Rajah-Kanagasabai, Camilla J.

    2013-01-01

    Academic staff members encourage university students to use online student discussion boards within learning management systems to ask and answer questions, share information and engage in discussion. We explore the impact of anonymity on student posting behaviour. An online survey was completed by 131 second year undergraduate psychology students…

  4. Associations between program outcomes and adherence to Social Cognitive Theory tasks: process evaluation of the SHED-IT community weight loss trial for men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite rising international rates of obesity, men remain reluctant to participate in weight loss research. There is a lack of evidence to guide the development of effective weight loss interventions that engage men. The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive process evaluation of the SHED-IT (Self-Help, Exercise and Diet using Information Technology) weight loss program for men, as delivered in the SHED-IT community weight loss trial, and to identify key components associated with success. Methods In an assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial, 159 overweight and obese men (BMI 25.0-40.0 kg/m2) were randomised to one of two gender-tailored weight loss interventions with no face-to-face contact, or a control group. The interventions were informed by Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) with men encouraged to complete a Support Book containing SCT-based tasks including goal setting, reward setting, creation of social support strategies and self-monitoring of: i) weight, ii) physical activity, and iii) diet. At post-test, compliance with SCT tasks was examined and men also completed a process evaluation questionnaire. Results Both SHED-IT intervention groups demonstrated greater weight loss during the intervention compared to the control, with no difference between intervention groups. Most men engaged with the SCT tasks although compliance declined over time and utilisation of social support networks and reward selection was poor. In a multiple regression model, the number of goals set (β [95% CI] = -0.3 [-0.6, -0.1], p = 0.01) and the number of weight records documented (β [95% CI] = -0.2 [-0.4, -0.0], p = 0.03) independently predicted weight loss. The process evaluation indicated that men found the programs to be supportive, enjoyable and beneficial. Conclusions This process evaluation provides valuable information to inform the development of obesity treatment strategies that engage men. Future studies with

  5. Physical Activity Pattern and Personal-Social Factors of Mothers During Pregnancy And Infant Birth Weight Based On MET Scale: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Karimlou, Masoud; Sajjadi, Homeira; Dejman, Masoumeh; Vameghi, Meroe; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Baradarn Eftekhari, Monir

    2013-01-01

    Background Low birth weight is one of the most important public health issues in developing and developed countries and identifying its etiology is important for prevention. Objectives Considering the unknown impact of physical activity on low birth weight, this research was conducted to investigate the relationship between physical activity and low birth weight. Patients and Methods This research was conducted using a case-control design. The control group was made of 500 women with normal birth weight infants and the case group included 250 women with low birth weight infants from the selected hospitals in city of Tehran. The information was gathered using a researcher-made questionnaire which was prepared for determining the relationship between mothers’ lifestyle during pregnancy and infants' low birth weight using social determinants of health approach. In this questionnaire, scope of physical activity was investigated in three groups of athletic activities, activities at home and leisure activities. Activity intensity was determined using MET scale and the data were analyzed in SPSS software using independent t-test, Chi-square and logistic regression. Results In the present research, based on the results of multiple logistic regression test, an increase in the time spent on sport activities (OR = 2.20) and home activities (OR =1.44) (P = 0.003) was accompanied by increased chance of giving birth to low birth weight infants; in contrast, one hour increase of leisure activities decreased the probability of low birth weight infants by 0.32 (P = 0.008). Conclusions An increase in the time spent on sport and home activities, even after considering other influential factors, was related to low birth weight. PMID:24396576

  6. Social Environment Factors, Diet Quality, and Body Weight in 12-Year-Old Children from Four Public Schools in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Mónica; Torres, Roxana; Pérez, Cynthia M.; Palacios, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the association of social-environment (SE) factors and diet quality (DQ) with weight status in a group of children in Puerto Rico (PR). Methods A cross-sectional study in a sample of 114 12-year-old children enrolled in 4 public schools in the San Juan Metropolitan area in Puerto Rico (PR) during the 2012–2013 school year. These children completed a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and SE, with information on family meal patterns; parental feeding styles; parental, peer, and school support for healthy eating; physical activity (PA); and frequency of PA and sedentary times. The participants also completed at 24-hour dietary recall interview to determine DQ. This was assessed with the Healthy Eating Index (HIE)-2010, an instrument that evaluates compliance with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and categorized as healthy weight, overweight, or obese. Results 36% of participants were overweight/obese. In terms of DQ, 55% had “poor” DQ, 45% had diets that “need improvement”, and none had “good” DQ. Children of healthy weight (75.0%) reported more frequent family meals than did overweight/obese children (57.5%; p = 0.05). No other significant associations were found between SE factors and DQ or body weight status. Conclusion Most of the participants were of healthy weight but had poor quality diets. Having a healthy weight was positively associated with frequent family meals. PMID:24964643

  7. Reexamination of the Association between Anonymity and Self-Interested Unethical Behavior in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogami, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    The well-established notion that the frequency of self-interested unethical behavior increases among anonymous people was reexamined employing a more strict definition of anonymity, voluntary unethical behavior, and adult individuals. Anonymity was defined as nonassociability of the participant's traits with respect to unethical behavior. The…

  8. Cryptanalysis of an Improved User Authentication Scheme with User Anonymity for Wireless Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Eun-Jun; Yoo, Kee-Young

    A user identity anonymity is an important property for roaming services. In 2011, Kang et al. proposed an improved user authentication scheme that guarantees user anonymity in wireless communications. This letter shows that Kang et al.'s improved scheme still cannot provide user anonymity as they claimed.

  9. Moves on the Street: Classifying Crime Hotspots Using Aggregated Anonymized Data on People Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Lepri, Bruno; Staiano, Jacopo; Letouzé, Emmanuel; Oliver, Nuria; Pianesi, Fabio; Pentland, Alex

    2015-09-01

    The wealth of information provided by real-time streams of data has paved the way for life-changing technological advancements, improving the quality of life of people in many ways, from facilitating knowledge exchange to self-understanding and self-monitoring. Moreover, the analysis of anonymized and aggregated large-scale human behavioral data offers new possibilities to understand global patterns of human behavior and helps decision makers tackle problems of societal importance. In this article, we highlight the potential societal benefits derived from big data applications with a focus on citizen safety and crime prevention. First, we introduce the emergent new research area of big data for social good. Next, we detail a case study tackling the problem of crime hotspot classification, that is, the classification of which areas in a city are more likely to witness crimes based on past data. In the proposed approach we use demographic information along with human mobility characteristics as derived from anonymized and aggregated mobile network data. The hypothesis that aggregated human behavioral data captured from the mobile network infrastructure, in combination with basic demographic information, can be used to predict crime is supported by our findings. Our models, built on and evaluated against real crime data from London, obtain accuracy of almost 70% when classifying whether a specific area in the city will be a crime hotspot or not in the following month. PMID:27442957

  10. ARX - A Comprehensive Tool for Anonymizing Biomedical Data

    PubMed Central

    Prasser, Fabian; Kohlmayer, Florian; Lautenschläger, Ronald; Kuhn, Klaus A.

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration and data sharing have become core elements of biomedical research. Especially when sensitive data from distributed sources are linked, privacy threats have to be considered. Statistical disclosure control allows the protection of sensitive data by introducing fuzziness. Reduction of data quality, however, needs to be balanced against gains in protection. Therefore, tools are needed which provide a good overview of the anonymization process to those responsible for data sharing. These tools require graphical interfaces and the use of intuitive and replicable methods. In addition, extensive testing, documentation and openness to reviews by the community are important. Existing publicly available software is limited in functionality, and often active support is lacking. We present ARX, an anonymization tool that i) implements a wide variety of privacy methods in a highly efficient manner, ii) provides an intuitive cross-platform graphical interface, iii) offers a programming interface for integration into other software systems, and iv) is well documented and actively supported. PMID:25954407

  11. Faculty mentoring programme--ways of reducing anonymity.

    PubMed

    Woessner, R; Honold, M; Stehle, I; Stehr, S; Steudel, W I

    1998-07-01

    Increasing anonymity and the lack of personal contact between professor and student due to high enrolment is one of the major problems at German universities. Therefore, the Faculty of Medicine of the University of the Saarland started a pilot project in 1995. The intention was to reduce anonymity within the faculty by introducing a faculty mentoring programme (Studientutorium). A group of up to 12 students from different years is allocated a faculty member on a personal basis. The member responds to questions and problems concerning such areas as the curriculum, career planning or doctoral thesis as well as to personal problems. After 2 years participants were interviewed about the programme for the first time and the acceptance turned out to be high. PMID:9743811

  12. Anonymizing patient genomic data for public sharing association studies.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Lozano, Carlos; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo; Seoane, Jose A; Lopez-Alonso, Victoria; Dorado, Julian; Martín-Sanchez, Fernando; Pazos, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The development of personalized medicine is tightly linked with the correct exploitation of molecular data, especially those associated with the genome sequence along with these use of genomic data there is an increasing demand to share these data for research purposes. Transition of clinical data to research is based in the anonymization of these data so the patient cannot be identified, the use of genomic data poses a great challenge because its nature of identifying data. In this work we have analyzed current methods for genome anonymization and propose a one way encryption method that may enable the process of genomic data sharing accessing only to certain regions of genomes for research purposes. PMID:23920753

  13. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).

  14. An Anonymous Surveying Protocol via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseri, Mosayeb; Gong, Li-Hua; Houshmand, Monireh; Matin, Laleh Farhang

    2016-06-01

    A new experimentally feasible anonymous survey protocol with authentication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states is proposed. In this protocol, a chief executive officer (CEO) of a firm or company is trying to find out the effect of a possible action. In order to prepare a fair voting, the CEO would like to make an anonymous survey and is also interested in the total action for the whole company and he doesn't want to have a partial estimate for each department. In our proposal, there are two voters, Alice and Bob, voting on a question with a response of either "yes" or "no" and a tallyman, whose responsibility is to determine whether they have cast the same vote or not. In the proposed protocol the total response of the voters is calculated without revealing the actual votes of the voters.

  15. Alcoholics Anonymous-Related Helping and the Helper Therapy Principle

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Post, Stephen G.; Johnson, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    The helper therapy principle (HTP) observes the helper’s health benefits derived from helping another with a shared malady. The HTP is embodied by the program of Alcoholics Anonymous as a method to diminish egocentrism as a root cause of addiction. This article reviews recent evidence of the HTP in alcohol populations, extends to populations with chronic conditions beyond addiction, and concludes with new directions of empirical inquiry. PMID:23525280

  16. Can Anonymous Posters on Medical Forums be Reidentified?

    PubMed Central

    Bobicev, Victoria; El Emam, Khaled; Jafer, Yasser; Dewar, Brian; Jonker, Elizabeth; Matwin, Stan

    2013-01-01

    Background Participants in medical forums often reveal personal health information about themselves in their online postings. To feel comfortable revealing sensitive personal health information, some participants may hide their identity by posting anonymously. They can do this by using fake identities, nicknames, or pseudonyms that cannot readily be traced back to them. However, individual writing styles have unique features and it may be possible to determine the true identity of an anonymous user through author attribution analysis. Although there has been previous work on the authorship attribution problem, there has been a dearth of research on automated authorship attribution on medical forums. The focus of the paper is to demonstrate that character-based author attribution works better than word-based methods in medical forums. Objective The goal was to build a system that accurately attributes authorship of messages posted on medical forums. The Authorship Attributor system uses text analysis techniques to crawl medical forums and automatically correlate messages written by the same authors. Authorship Attributor processes unstructured texts regardless of the document type, context, and content. Methods The messages were labeled by nicknames of the forum participants. We evaluated the system’s performance through its accuracy on 6000 messages gathered from 2 medical forums on an in vitro fertilization (IVF) support website. Results Given 2 lists of candidate authors (30 and 50 candidates, respectively), we obtained an F score accuracy in detecting authors of 75% to 80% on messages containing 100 to 150 words on average, and 97.9% on longer messages containing at least 300 words. Conclusions Authorship can be successfully detected in short free-form messages posted on medical forums. This raises a concern about the meaningfulness of anonymous posting on such medical forums. Authorship attribution tools can be used to warn consumers wishing to post

  17. Efficient and Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2016-06-01

    As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%. PMID:27091755

  18. Utility-preserving transaction data anonymization with low information loss

    PubMed Central

    Loukides, Grigorios; Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2012-01-01

    Transaction data record various information about individuals, including their purchases and diagnoses, and are increasingly published to support large-scale and low-cost studies in domains such as marketing and medicine. However, the dissemination of transaction data may lead to privacy breaches, as it allows an attacker to link an individual’s record to their identity. Approaches that anonymize data by eliminating certain values in an individual’s record or by replacing them with more general values have been proposed recently, but they often produce data of limited usefulness. This is because these approaches adopt value transformation strategies that do not guarantee data utility in intended applications and objective measures that may lead to excessive data distortion. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for anonymizing data in a way that satisfies data publishers’ utility requirements and incurs low information loss. To achieve this, we introduce an accurate information loss measure and an effective anonymization algorithm that explores a large part of the problem space. An extensive experimental study, using click-stream and medical data, demonstrates that our approach permits many times more accurate query answering than the state-of-the-art methods, while it is comparable to them in terms of efficiency. PMID:22563145

  19. How to kill gamete donation: retrospective legislation and donor anonymity.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Guido

    2012-10-01

    Victoria (Australia) is considering retrospective legislation on the abolition of gamete donor anonymity. Retrospective legislation evokes many negative emotions mainly because it is considered unfair. It also makes it impossible for citizens to organize their life with reasonable certainty of the consequences. Introduction of this law for donor anonymity is defended by the right of the child to know its genetic origins. Against this law, people appeal to the right to privacy and confidentiality of the donor. This paper analyses the arguments for and against a retrospective law on donor anonymity by looking at the conditions that should be respected when two principles (the donor's right to privacy and the child's right to genetic information) have to be balanced. It is concluded that the justification for introducing retrospective law is lacking: the conditions are not fulfilled. Moreover, retroactive laws in the context of gamete donation may jeopardize the whole practice by destroying the trust of candidate donors and recipients in the government. PMID:22786778

  20. Guaranteeing anonymity when sharing medical data, the Datafly System.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, L

    1997-01-01

    We present a computer program named Datafly that maintains anonymity in medical data by automatically generalizing, substituting, and removing information as appropriate without losing many of the details found within the data. Decisions are made at the field and record level at the time of database access, so the approach can be used on the fly in role-based security within an institution, and in batch mode for exporting data from an institution. Often organizations release and receive medical data with all explicit identifiers, such as name, address and phone number, removed in the incorrect belief that patient confidentiality is maintained because the resulting data look anonymous; however, we show the remaining data can often be used to re-identify individuals by linking or matching the data to other databases or by looking at unique characteristics found in the fields and records of the database itself. When these less apparent aspects are taken into account, each released record can be made to ambiguously map to many possible people, providing a level of anonymity determined by the user. PMID:9357587

  1. [E-research: problems with anonymity and consent].

    PubMed

    Woolderink, Marla; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; van Schayck, Constant P; van Wijmen, Frans C B

    2013-01-01

    The Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO) requires that participants in medical-scientific studies provide written consent. This requirement makes e-research (online research) unnecessarily difficult and sometimes impossible. Much of e-research involves online interventions that focus on sensitive issues such as sexual dysfunction, addiction and child abuse, for which anonymity is an important condition. WMO procedures, however, strictly interpret the word "written" as "on paper", and participants are not permitted to give consent by email, for example. A second requirement, which mainly makes studies among minors between the ages of 12 and 18 more difficult, is that both parents or the guardian must provide written consent. This undermines anonymity to such an extent that virtually no subjects remain. Participants in medical-scientific studies must always be identifiable to the investigator. But, apart from this, he/she should be possible to guarantee anonymity within the regulatory framework. There is good reason to adapt legal regulations to today's needs. PMID:24345359

  2. Effects of medical risk and socioeconomic status on the rate of change in cognitive and social development for low birth weight children.

    PubMed

    Landry, S H; Denson, S E; Swank, P R

    1997-04-01

    Using Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) analysis, this study evaluated the effects of medical risk at birth and socioeconomic status (SES) on the rate of change in cognitive and social development over the first three years of life in premature children with low birth weight (LBW). Children with LBW (n = 79) with both high (HR) (n = 37) and low (LR) (n = 42) medical risk were compared to healthy full-term (FT) (n = 49) children. Children were assessed longitudinally at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months for cognitive development with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the McCarthy Scales for Children's Abilities, and for social initiative and responsiveness with observational measures. The HR LBW group had slower rates of increases in cognitive scores than did the LR LBW and FT groups and showed more deceleration in cognitive development by 36 months of age. Children with LBW, regardless of medical risk, had lower social initiating scores and slower rates of increase in initiating across the first 36 months than did FT children. As predicted, the groups did not show different rates of change for measures of social responsiveness. Higher SES was predictive of better cognitive and social development for all children. The difficulties encountered by children with LR and HR LBW in developing social initiating skills are discussed in relation to the link between learning to take initiative and early executive function skills. PMID:9240485

  3. Give or Take a Few? Comparing Measured and Self-Reported Height and Weight as Correlates of Social Physique Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Jennifer; Monsma, Eva V.; Torres-McGehee, Toni

    2009-01-01

    Statistically controlling for physical size is common practice, especially in self-perception studies uncovering the etiology of maladaptive behaviors, such as eating disorders. For example, social physique anxiety (SPA)--apprehension about social evaluations while presenting oneself in front of others (Leary, 1992)--is a prominent correlate of…

  4. Early-Life Social Origins of Later-Life Body Weight: The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors over the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ellis Scott; Richman, Aliza

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we apply structural equation modeling to examine gender-specific effects of family socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 on body weight at age 65. We further explore SES and health behaviors over the life course as mechanisms linking family background and later-life body weight. We find that early-life socioeconomic disadvantage is related to higher body weight at age 65 and a steeper weight increase between midlife and late life. These adverse effects are stronger among women than men. Significant mediators of the effect of parents' SES include adolescent body mass (especially among women) as well as exercise and SES in midlife. Yet, consistent with the critical period mechanism, the effect of early-life SES on late-life body weight persists net of all mediating variables. This study expands current understanding of life-course mechanisms that contribute to obesity and increase biological vulnerability to social disadvantage. PMID:24767590

  5. The implications of stigma and anonymity for self-disclosure in health blogs.

    PubMed

    Rains, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    The reported study examines the implications of anonymity and stigma in the form of illness-related embarrassment for self-disclosure in the context of health blogging. Drawing from theorizing about anonymous communication and stigma, anonymity is argued to be strategically used by individuals who are embarrassed by their illness and to moderate the relationship between embarrassment and self-disclosure. Data from 114 individuals who blog about their experiences coping with a health condition were examined to test study hypotheses. Illness-related embarrassment was positively associated with anonymity. Additionally, anonymity moderated the relationship between embarrassment and self-disclosure. Among bloggers with relatively higher levels of anonymity, illness-related embarrassment was positively associated with self-disclosure. The results suggest that anonymity is strategically used and fosters self-disclosure among individuals who are embarrassed by their illness. PMID:23356432

  6. Effects of personality and loss of anonymity on aggression: a reevaluation of deindividuation.

    PubMed

    Propst, L R

    1979-09-01

    Zimbardo's deindividuation hypothesis was reexamined by individuating some subjects. Twelve four-person groups administered shock to a confederate in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design with two levels of social individuation (subjects' level of anonymity to group members), two levels of nonsocial individuation (subjects' opportunity to give identifying information to the experimenter on a word association test) and two levels of individual differences. It was found that subjects, who individuated themselves by giving information to the experimenter on the word association test showed more, not less, antisocial behavior. Furthermore, this increased antisocial behavior was exhibited only by externally oriented subjects: those with an external locus of control and a low mysticism score. Some of those more antisocial subjects were also more likely to report feeling like they stood out from the group. It was concluded that antisocial behavior in this paradigm may thus be a response to experimenter demand felt most strongly when subjects felt most identifiable. PMID:490306

  7. ‘Fish out of water’: A cross-sectional study on the interaction between social and neighbourhood effects on weight management behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Green, Mark A; Subramanian, Sankaran V; Strong, Mark; Cooper, Cindy L; Loban, Amanda; Bissell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyse whether an individual’s neighbourhood influences the uptake of weight management strategies and if there is an interaction between individual socio-economic status (SES) and neighbourhood deprivation. Methodology Data were collected from the Yorkshire Health Study (2010-2012) for 27 806 individuals on the use of the following weight management strategies; ‘slimming clubs’, ‘healthy eating’, ‘increasing exercise’ and ‘controlling portion size’. A multi-level logistic regression was fit to analyse the use of these strategies, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, education, neighbourhood deprivation and neighbourhood population turnover (a proxy for neighbourhood social capital). A cross-level interaction term was included for education and neighbourhood deprivation. Lower Super Output Area was used as the geographical scale for the areal unit of analysis. Results Significant neighbourhood effects were observed for use of ‘slimming clubs’, ‘healthy eating’ and ‘increasing exercise’ as weight management strategies, independent of individual- and area-level covariates. A significant interaction between education and neighbourhood deprivation was observed across all strategies, suggesting that as an area becomes more deprived, individuals of the lowest education are more likely not to use any strategy compared to those of the highest education. Conclusions Neighbourhoods modify/amplify individual disadvantage and social inequalities, with individuals of low education disproportionally affected by deprivation. It is important to include neighbourhood-based explanations in the development of community based policy interventions to help tackle obesity. PMID:25088377

  8. Quantum anonymous ranking based on the Chinese remainder theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Song; Guo, Gong-De; Huang, Feng; Liu, Xiao-Fen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient quantum anonymous ranking protocol with single particles is proposed. A semitrusted server is introduced to help multiple users achieve this secure task. At the end of the protocol, each user can obtain the rankings of his private data, and keep these data secret. The Chinese remainder theorem is utilized to reduce the level of signal particles and to improve the efficiency of the presented protocol. Meanwhile, a secret transmission order of the signal particles is used to keep the traveling particles secure. Finally, we discuss the security of this protocol and prove it to be secure against certain common attacks under ideal conditions.

  9. Deindividuation, anonymity, and violence: findings from Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Silke, Andrew

    2003-08-01

    The author examined the relation between anonymity and aggression in violent interpersonal assaults that occurred in Northern Ireland. Of the 500 violent attacks that the author studied, 206 were carried out by offenders who wore disguises to mask their identities. The findings revealed that significant positive relationships existed between the use of disguises and several measures of aggression. Disguised offenders inflicted more serious physical injuries, attacked more people at the scene, engaged in more acts of vandalism, and were more likely to threaten victims after the attacks. The author discussed these results within the framework of deindividuation theory. PMID:12934837

  10. The emergence of age-dependent social cognitive deficits after generalized insult to the developing brain: a longitudinal prospective analysis using susceptibility-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Cooper, Janine M; Beare, Richard; Ditchfield, Michael; Coleman, Lee; Silk, Timothy; Crossley, Louise; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Anderson, Vicki A

    2015-05-01

    Childhood and adolescence are critical periods for maturation of neurobiological processes that underlie complex social and emotional behavior including Theory of Mind (ToM). While structural correlates of ToM are well described in adults, less is known about the anatomical regions subsuming these skills in the developing brain or the impact of cerebral insult on the acquisition and establishment of high-level social cognitive skills. This study aimed to examine the differential influence of age-at-insult and brain pathology on ToM in a sample of children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Children and adolescents with TBI (n = 112) were categorized according to timing of brain insult: (i) middle childhood (5-9 years; n = 41); (ii) late childhood (10-11 years; n = 39); and (iii) adolescence (12-15 years; n = 32) and group-matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status to a typically developing (TD) control group (n = 43). Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging including a susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequence 2-8 weeks postinjury and were assessed on a battery of ToM tasks at 6- and 24-months after injury. Results showed that for adolescents with TBI, social cognitive dysfunction at 6- and 24-months postinjury was associated with diffuse neuropathology and a greater number of lesions detected using SWI. In the late childhood TBI group, we found a time-dependent emergence of social cognitive impairment, linked to diffuse neuropathology. The middle childhood TBI group demonstrated performance unrelated to SWI pathology and comparable to TD controls. Findings indicate that the full extent of social cognitive deficits may not be realized until the associated skills reach maturity. Evidence for brain structure-function relationships suggests that the integrity of an anatomically distributed network of brain regions and their connections is necessary for the acquisition and establishment of high-level social

  11. The end of donor anonymity: how genetic testing is likely to drive anonymous gamete donation out of business.

    PubMed

    Harper, Joyce C; Kennett, Debbie; Reisel, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Thousands of people worldwide have been conceived using donor gametes, but not all parents tell their children of their origin. Several countries now allow donor-conceived offspring to potentially know their genetic parent if they are informed of their donor-conceived status. At the same time, personal genetic testing is a rapidly expanding field. Over 3 million people have already used direct-to-consumer genetic testing to find information about their ancestry, and many are participating in international genetic genealogy databases that will match them with relatives. The increased prevalence of these technologies poses numerous challenges to the current practice of gamete donation. (i) Whether they are donating in a country that practices anonymous donation or not, donors should be informed that their anonymity is not guaranteed, as they may be traced if their DNA, or that of a relative, is added to a database. (ii) Donor-conceived adults who have not been informed of their status may find out that they are donor-conceived. (iii) Parents using donor conception need to be fully informed that their children's DNA will identify that they are not the biological parents and they should be encouraged to disclose the use of donor gametes to their children. Together, these concerns make urgent a wide-ranging societal conversation about how to best safeguard and promote the interests of donor-conceived offspring and protect the rights of donors. Specifically, there is a need to ensure that new genetic information is communicated in a way that promotes both the safety and the privacy rights of offspring and donors alike. All parties concerned must be aware that, in 2016, donor anonymity does not exist. PMID:27073260

  12. Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media.

    PubMed

    Rost, Katja; Stahel, Lea; Frey, Bruno S

    2016-01-01

    Actors of public interest today have to fear the adverse impact that stems from social media platforms. Any controversial behavior may promptly trigger temporal, but potentially devastating storms of emotional and aggressive outrage, so called online firestorms. Popular targets of online firestorms are companies, politicians, celebrities, media, academics and many more. This article introduces social norm theory to understand online aggression in a social-political online setting, challenging the popular assumption that online anonymity is one of the principle factors that promotes aggression. We underpin this social norm view by analyzing a major social media platform concerned with public affairs over a period of three years entailing 532,197 comments on 1,612 online petitions. Results show that in the context of online firestorms, non-anonymous individuals are more aggressive compared to anonymous individuals. This effect is reinforced if selective incentives are present and if aggressors are intrinsically motivated. PMID:27315071

  13. Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Katja; Stahel, Lea; Frey, Bruno S.

    2016-01-01

    Actors of public interest today have to fear the adverse impact that stems from social media platforms. Any controversial behavior may promptly trigger temporal, but potentially devastating storms of emotional and aggressive outrage, so called online firestorms. Popular targets of online firestorms are companies, politicians, celebrities, media, academics and many more. This article introduces social norm theory to understand online aggression in a social-political online setting, challenging the popular assumption that online anonymity is one of the principle factors that promotes aggression. We underpin this social norm view by analyzing a major social media platform concerned with public affairs over a period of three years entailing 532,197 comments on 1,612 online petitions. Results show that in the context of online firestorms, non-anonymous individuals are more aggressive compared to anonymous individuals. This effect is reinforced if selective incentives are present and if aggressors are intrinsically motivated. PMID:27315071

  14. Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.

  15. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity.

    PubMed

    Rees, Anne

    2012-06-01

    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought. PMID:22908618

  16. Private anonymous fingerprinting for color images in the wavelet domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul, W.; Gaborit, P.; Carré, P.

    2010-01-01

    An online buyer of multimedia content does not want to reveal his identity or his choice of multimedia content whereas the seller or owner of the content does not want the buyer to further distribute the content illegally. To address these issues we present a new private anonymous fingerprinting protocol. It is based on superposed sending for communication security, group signature for anonymity and traceability and single database private information retrieval (PIR) to allow the user to get an element of the database without giving any information about the acquired element. In the presence of a semi-honest model, the protocol is implemented using a blind, wavelet based color image watermarking scheme. The main advantage of the proposed protocol is that both the user identity and the acquired database element are unknown to any third party and in the case of piracy, the pirate can be identified using the group signature scheme. The robustness of the watermarking scheme against Additive White Gaussian Noise is also shown.

  17. Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.

  18. Nonexposure accurate location K-anonymity algorithm in LBS.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jinying; Zhang, Fengli

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR. PMID:24605060

  19. Nonexposure Accurate Location K-Anonymity Algorithm in LBS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR. PMID:24605060

  20. Interest in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program among women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Simas, Tiffany A Moore; Xiao, Rui S; Whited, Matthew C; Busch, Andrew M; Evans, Martinus M; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2016-06-01

    Weight management through the childbearing years is important, yet few women have access to efficacious weight loss programs. Online social network-delivered programs may increase reach and thus impact. The aim of this study was to gauge interest in a Twitter-based weight loss intervention among women of childbearing age and the feasibility of recruitment via Twitter. We recruited English-speaking women aged 18-45 years (N = 63) from Twitter to complete an anonymous online survey including open-ended questions about program advantages and concerns. Forty percent of participants were obese and 83 % were trying to lose weight. Eighty-one percent were interested in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program. Interest was high in all subgroups (62-100 %). Participants (59 %) cited program advantages, including convenience, support/accountability, and privacy. Concerns (59 %) included questions about privacy, support/accountability, engagement, efficacy, and technology barriers. Research is needed to develop and evaluate social media-delivered interventions, and to develop methods for recruiting participants directly from Twitter. PMID:27356998

  1. Direct and social genetic effects on body weight at 270 days and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Rostellato, R; Sartori, C; Bonfatti, V; Chiarot, G; Carnier, P

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate covariance components for BW at 270 d (BW270) and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs using models accounting for social effects and to compare the ability of such models to fit the data relative to models ignoring social interactions. Phenotypic records were from 9,871 pigs sired by 293 purebred boars mated to 456 crossbred sows. Piglets were born and reared at the same farm and randomly assigned at 60 d of age to groups (6.1 pigs per group on average) housed in finishing pens, each having an area of 6 m(2). The average additive genetic relationship among group mates was 0.11. Pigs were slaughtered at 277 ± 3 d of age and 169.7 ± 13.9 kg BW in groups of nearly 70 animals each. Four univariate animal models were compared: a basic model (M1) including only direct additive genetic effects, a model (M2) with nonheritable social group (pen) effects in addition to effects in M1, a model (M3) accounting for litter effects in addition to M2, and a model (M4) accounting for social genetic effects in addition to effects in M3. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of covariance components were obtained for BW270; carcass backfat depth; carcass lean meat content (CLM); iodine number (IOD); and linoleic acid content (LIA) of raw ham subcutaneous fat; subcutaneous fat depth in the proximity of semimembranosus muscle (SFD1) and quadriceps femoris muscle (SFD2); and linear scores for ham round shape (RS), subcutaneous fat (SF), and marbling. Likelihood ratio tests indicated that, for all traits, M2 fit the data better than M1 and that M3 was superior to M2 except for SFD1 and SFD2. Model M4 was significantly better than M3 for BW270 (P < 0.001) and CLM, IOD, RS, and SF (P < 0.05). The contribution of social genetic effects to the total heritable variance was large for CLM and BW270, ranging from 33.2 to 35%, whereas the one for ham quality traits ranged from 6.8 (RS) to 11.2% (SF). Direct and social genetic effects on BW270

  2. Knockdown of ventral tegmental area mu-opioid receptors in rats prevents effects of social defeat stress: Implications for amphetamine cross-sensitization, social avoidance, weight regulation and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Caitlin E.; Herschel, Daniel; Lasek, Amy W.; Hammer, Ronald P.; Nikulina, Ella M.

    2014-01-01

    Social defeat stress causes social avoidance and long-lasting cross-sensitization to psychostimulants, both of which are associated with increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Moreover, social stress upregulates VTA mu-opioid receptor (MOR) mRNA. In the VTA, MOR activation inhibits GABA neurons to disinhibit VTA dopamine neurons, thus providing a role for VTA MORs in the regulation of psychostimulant sensitization. The present study determined the effect of lentivirus-mediated MOR knockdown in the VTA on the consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, a salient and profound stressor in humans and rodents. Social stress exposure induced social avoidance and attenuated weight gain in animals with non-manipulated VTA MORs, but both these effects were prevented by VTA MOR knockdown. Rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression exhibited cross-sensitization to amphetamine challenge (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), evidenced by a significant augmentation of locomotion. By contrast, knockdown of VTA MORs prevented stress-induced cross-sensitization without blunting the locomotor-activating effects of amphetamine. At the time point corresponding to amphetamine challenge, immunohistochemical analysis was performed to examine the effect of stress on VTA BDNF expression. Prior stress exposure increased VTA BDNF expression in rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression, while VTA MOR knockdown prevented stress-induced expression of VTA BDNF. Taken together, these results suggest that upregulation of VTA MOR is necessary for the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by social defeat stress. Elucidating VTA MOR regulation of stress effects on the mesolimbic system may provide new therapeutic targets for treating stress-induced vulnerability to substance abuse. PMID:25446676

  3. Evaluating alcoholics anonymous sponsor attributes using conjoint analysis.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Edward B; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-12-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) considers sponsorship an important element of the AA program, especially in early recovery. 225 adult individuals who had experience as either a sponsor, sponsee, or both, participated in a hypothetical sponsor ranking exercise where five attributes were varied across three levels. Conjoint analysis was used to compute part-worth utility of the attributes and their levels for experience, knowledge, availability, confidentiality, and goal-setting. Differences in utilities by attribute were found where confidentiality had the greatest overall possible impact on utility and sponsor knowledge had the least. These findings suggest qualitative differences in sponsors may impact their effectiveness. Future research on AA should continue to investigate sponsor influence on an individual's overall recovery trajectory. PMID:26186375

  4. Shared ideology in Alcoholics Anonymous: a grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Wright, K B

    1997-01-01

    This article uses grounded theory to explore the shared ideology espoused in Alcoholics Anonymous, specifically the nature and role of shared ideology in increasing the efficacy of the recovery process, and the features of the group's tenets and meetings that help facilitate members' indoctrination. Findings support Kassel and Wagner's (1993) contention of shared ideology's major role in the change process of the group, and Antze's (1976) categorizations of the AA ideology and alcoholics' characteristics. Antze's (1979) finding that AA ideology removes the concept of drinking from the voluntary sphere was also supported. The group was found to be a context in which members could change their assumptive worlds through reinterpreting life events, as Frank and Frank (1991) contended. Little support was found for Alexander and Rollins's (1984) comparison of AA to religious cults. The findings underscore the importance of human interaction as persuasion and reinforcement for AA ideology. PMID:10977242

  5. Robust anonymous authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Na

    2013-04-01

    Patient can obtain sorts of health-care delivery services via Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMIS). Authentication, security, patient's privacy protection and data confidentiality are important for patient or doctor accessing to Electronic Medical Records (EMR). In 2012, Chen et al. showed that Khan et al.'s dynamic ID-based authentication scheme has some weaknesses and proposed an improved scheme, and they claimed that their scheme is more suitable for TMIS. However, we show that Chen et al.'s scheme also has some weaknesses. In particular, Chen et al.'s scheme does not provide user's privacy protection and perfect forward secrecy, is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack and impersonation attack once user's smart card is compromised. Further, we propose a secure anonymity authentication scheme to overcome their weaknesses even an adversary can know all information stored in smart card. PMID:23321972

  6. Father-daughter incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    PubMed

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel V S; Kommor, Martin J

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self-interview. Nineteen were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 241 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The remaining 1,261 served as controls. Incest victims were more likely than controls to endorse feeling damaged, psychologically injured, estranged from one or both parents, and shamed by others when they tried to open up about their experience. They had been eroticized early on by the incest experience, and it interfered with their adult sexuality. Incest victims experienced coitus earlier than controls and after reaching age 18 had more sex partners and were more likely to have casual sex outside their primary relationship and engage in sex for money than controls. They also had worse scores on scales measuring depression, sexual satisfaction, and communication about sex than controls. PMID:22452300

  7. Watermarking medical images with anonymous patient identification to verify authenticity.

    PubMed

    Coatrieux, Gouenou; Quantin, Catherine; Montagner, Julien; Fassa, Maniane; Allaert, François-André; Roux, Christian

    2008-01-01

    When dealing with medical image management, there is a need to ensure information authenticity and dependability. Being able to verify the information belongs to the correct patient and is issued from the right source is a major concern. Verification can help to reduce the risk of errors when identifying documents in daily practice or when sending a patient's Electronic Health Record. At the same time, patient privacy issues may appear during the verification process when the verifier accesses patient data without appropriate authorization. In this paper we discuss the combination of watermarking with different identifiers ranging from DICOM standard UID to an Anonymous European Patient Identifier in order to improve medical image protection in terms of authenticity and maintainability. PMID:18487808

  8. Anonymity Versus Privacy: Selective Information Sharing in Online Cancer Communities

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Ivar E; Beekers, Nienke

    2014-01-01

    Background Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients approach online information sharing instrumentally, weighing privacy costs against participation benefits when deciding whether to share certain information. Consequently, we argue that patients prefer sharing clinical information over daily life and identity information that potentially compromises anonymity. Furthermore, we explore whether patients’ prior experiences, age, health, and gender affect perceived privacy costs and thus willingness to share information. Objective The goal of the present study is to document patient preferences for sharing information within online health platforms. Methods A total of 115 cancer patients reported sharing intentions for 15 different types of information, demographics, health status, prior privacy experiences, expected community utility, and privacy concerns. Results Factor analysis on the 15 information types revealed 3 factors coinciding with 3 proposed information categories: clinical, daily life, and identity information. A within-subject ANOVA showed a strong preference for sharing clinical information compared to daily life and identity information (F 1,114=135.59, P=.001, η2=.93). Also, adverse online privacy experiences, age, and health status negatively affected information-sharing intentions. Female patients shared information less willingly. Conclusions Respondents’ information-sharing intentions depend on dispositional and situational factors. Patients share medical details more willingly than daily life or identity

  9. The anonymity paradox in patient engagement: reputation, risk and web-based public feedback.

    PubMed

    Speed, Ewen; Davison, Charlie; Gunnell, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) has long espoused patient and public engagement. Recent years have seen increasing use of internet-based methods of collecting feedback about patient experience and public and staff views about NHS services and priorities. Often hailed as a means of facilitating participative democratic patient engagement, these processes raise a number of complex issues. A key aspect of it is the opportunity for comment to be made anonymously. Our research reveals an anonymity paradox whereby patients clearly demonstrate a perception that anonymity is a prerequisite for effective use of these feedback processes, whereas professionals demonstrate a perception that patient anonymity is a barrier to effective use. The risks of anonymity are constructed very differently by patients and professionals. Patient concerns around anonymity were not motivated by a general concern about a loss of privacy, but more that a positive identification might compromise future care. For professionals, concerns were voiced more around risks of reputational damage for specific practitioners or practices (in that anyone could say anything) and also that this anonymous feedback was available publicly and that it might go against the medical opinion of the professional. These concerns pointed to important differences in perceptions of patient and professional vulnerability. In the qualitative analysis that follows the key finding was that while anonymity makes service users feel less vulnerable, it can have the opposite effect on managers and clinical staff. This raises important implications for the use and utility of internet-based methods of collecting patient feedback. PMID:26879526

  10. Survey Confidentiality vs. Anonymity: Young Men's Self-Reported Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roland S.; Ames, Genevieve M.

    2002-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to see if respondents providing identification would be as forthcoming regarding substance use as anonymous respondents. No statistically significant differences were found between 2 groups' self-reported substance use over the previous 12 months. Findings suggest the lack of anonymity does not necessarily impede the same…

  11. Comparison of Anonymous versus Confidential Survey Procedures: Effects on Health Indicators in Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M.; Goldschmeding, Judith E. J.; de Wilde, Erik Jan

    2006-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires are frequently used in youth research, but doubt remains whether total anonymity affects the results. This study compared the responses of 704 mainly 16-17-year-old adolescents to self-report measures of various health indicators in 2 groups: anonymous and confidential collection. For most health indicators no…

  12. Anonymous Communication Policies for the Internet: Results and Recommendations of the AAAS Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Al; Frankel, Mark S.; Kling, Rob; Lee, Yaching

    1999-01-01

    Reports the results of a conference on the Internet and anonymous communication organized by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Discusses how anonymous communications can be shaped by the law, education, and public awareness, and highlights the importance of involving all affected interests in policy development.…

  13. What Do Adolescents Exposed to Alcoholic Anonymous Think about 12-Step Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John F.; Myers, Mark G.; Rodolico, John

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Referral to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is a common continuing care recommendation. Evidence suggests some youth benefit, yet, despite referrals, youth participation is low. Little is known about adolescents' experiences of AA/NA. Greater knowledge would inform and help tailor aftercare recommendations.…

  14. The Risk of a Halo Bias as a Reason to Keep Students Anonymous during Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Emmerton, Ashley J.; Schutte, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    Experts have advocated anonymous grading as a means of eliminating actual or perceived evaluator bias in subjective student assessment. The utility of anonymity in assessment rests on whether information derived from student identity can unduly influence evaluation. The halo effect provides a conceptual background for why a bias might occur. In…

  15. Preference for Anonymous Classroom Participation: Linking Student Characteristics and Reactions to Electronic Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Alyson; Hill, N. Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Electronic response systems (ERS) are a means to foster class participation by students who are reluctant to participate in class. In this study, we identify individual characteristics that relate to students' preference for anonymous classroom participation, and we also examine the extent to which preference for anonymity is related to their…

  16. Statistical disclosure limitation of health data based on Pk-anonymity.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Eizen; Chida, Koji; Ikarashi, Dai; Hamada, Koki; Ishihara, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The Act for the Protection of Personal Information in Japan considers as personal information any quasi-identifier that may be used to obtain information that identifies individuals through comparisons with datasets. Studies using health records are not widely conducted because of the concern regarding the safety of anonymized health records. To increase the safety of such records, we used the Pk-anonymity method. In this method, attributes are probabilistically randomized and then reconstructions are performed on the basis of statistical information from perturbed data. Hence, it is expected to provide more precise statistics and more reliably preserve privacy than the traditional "k-anonymity" method. We anonymized health records, performed cross tabulation, and assessed the error rate using original data. This study shows that the Pk-anonymity method can be used to perform safety statistical disclosures with low error rates, even in small cases. PMID:22874372

  17. Attribute Utility Motivated k-anonymization of datasets to support the heterogeneous needs of biomedical researchers.

    PubMed

    Ye, Huimin; Chen, Elizabeth S

    2011-01-01

    In order to support the increasing need to share electronic health data for research purposes, various methods have been proposed for privacy preservation including k-anonymity. Many k-anonymity models provide the same level of anoymization regardless of practical need, which may decrease the utility of the dataset for a particular research study. In this study, we explore extensions to the k-anonymity algorithm that aim to satisfy the heterogeneous needs of different researchers while preserving privacy as well as utility of the dataset. The proposed algorithm, Attribute Utility Motivated k-anonymization (AUM), involves analyzing the characteristics of attributes and utilizing them to minimize information loss during the anonymization process. Through comparison with two existing algorithms, Mondrian and Incognito, preliminary results indicate that AUM may preserve more information from original datasets thus providing higher quality results with lower distortion. PMID:22195223

  18. Social Security Polynomials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates how the uniqueness and anonymity of a student's Social Security number can be utilized to create individualized polynomial equations that students can investigate using computers or graphing calculators. Students write reports of their efforts to find and classify all real roots of their equation. (MDH)

  19. An environmental, economic, and social assessment of improving cattle finishing weight or average daily gain within U.S. beef production.

    PubMed

    White, R R; Capper, J L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess environmental impact, economic viability, and social acceptability of 3 beef production systems with differing levels of efficiency. A deterministic model of U.S. beef production was used to predict the number of animals required to produce 1 × 10(9) kg HCW beef. Three production treatments were compared, 1 representing average U.S. production (control), 1 with a 15% increase in ADG, and 1 with a 15% increase in finishing weight (FW). For each treatment, various socioeconomic scenarios were compared to account for uncertainty in producer and consumer behavior. Environmental impact metrics included feed consumption, land use, water use, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe), and N and P excretion. Feed cost, animal purchase cost, animal sales revenue, and income over costs (IOVC) were used as metrics of economic viability. Willingness to pay (WTP) was used to identify improvements or reductions in social acceptability. When ADG improved, feedstuff consumption, land use, and water use decreased by 6.4%, 3.2%, and 12.3%, respectively, compared with the control. Carbon footprint decreased 11.7% and N and P excretion were reduced by 4% and 13.8%, respectively. When FW improved, decreases were seen in feedstuff consumption (12.1%), water use (9.2%). and land use (15.5%); total GHGe decreased 14.7%; and N and P excretion decreased by 10.1% and 17.2%, compared with the control. Changes in IOVC were dependent on socioeconomic scenario. When the ADG scenario was compared with the control, changes in sector profitability ranged from 51 to 117% (cow-calf), -38 to 157% (stocker), and 37 to 134% (feedlot). When improved FW was compared, changes in cow-calf profit ranged from 67% to 143%, stocker profit ranged from -41% to 155% and feedlot profit ranged from 37% to 136%. When WTP was based on marketing beef being more efficiently produced, WTP improved by 10%; thus, social acceptability increased. When marketing was based on production

  20. iDASH: integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing

    PubMed Central

    Bafna, Vineet; Boxwala, Aziz A; Chapman, Brian E; Chapman, Wendy W; Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Day, Michele E; Farcas, Claudiu; Heintzman, Nathaniel D; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Kim, Hyeoneui; Kim, Jihoon; Matheny, Michael E; Resnic, Frederic S; Vinterbo, Staal A

    2011-01-01

    iDASH (integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing) is the newest National Center for Biomedical Computing funded by the NIH. It focuses on algorithms and tools for sharing data in a privacy-preserving manner. Foundational privacy technology research performed within iDASH is coupled with innovative engineering for collaborative tool development and data-sharing capabilities in a private Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-certified cloud. Driving Biological Projects, which span different biological levels (from molecules to individuals to populations) and focus on various health conditions, help guide research and development within this Center. Furthermore, training and dissemination efforts connect the Center with its stakeholders and educate data owners and data consumers on how to share and use clinical and biological data. Through these various mechanisms, iDASH implements its goal of providing biomedical and behavioral researchers with access to data, software, and a high-performance computing environment, thus enabling them to generate and test new hypotheses. PMID:22081224

  1. iDASH: integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing.

    PubMed

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Bafna, Vineet; Boxwala, Aziz A; Chapman, Brian E; Chapman, Wendy W; Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Day, Michele E; Farcas, Claudiu; Heintzman, Nathaniel D; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Kim, Hyeoneui; Kim, Jihoon; Matheny, Michael E; Resnic, Frederic S; Vinterbo, Staal A

    2012-01-01

    iDASH (integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing) is the newest National Center for Biomedical Computing funded by the NIH. It focuses on algorithms and tools for sharing data in a privacy-preserving manner. Foundational privacy technology research performed within iDASH is coupled with innovative engineering for collaborative tool development and data-sharing capabilities in a private Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-certified cloud. Driving Biological Projects, which span different biological levels (from molecules to individuals to populations) and focus on various health conditions, help guide research and development within this Center. Furthermore, training and dissemination efforts connect the Center with its stakeholders and educate data owners and data consumers on how to share and use clinical and biological data. Through these various mechanisms, iDASH implements its goal of providing biomedical and behavioral researchers with access to data, software, and a high-performance computing environment, thus enabling them to generate and test new hypotheses. PMID:22081224

  2. Maxwell and creation: Acceptance, criticism, and his anonymous publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Philip L.

    2007-08-01

    Although James Clerk Maxwell's religious views and discussions on atoms having the properties of ``manufactured articles'' have been discussed, some aspects of the responses by his contemporaries to his remarks on creation have been neglected. Various responses quoted here include a book from 1878 by ``Physicus'' (George John Romanes) attributing ``arrogance'' to Maxwell for his inferences. Relevant aspects of the evolution of the perspective of Romanes are noted. A response by B. F. Westcott indicated that Maxwell was the author of a related anonymous publication concerned with what eventually became known as the heat death of the universe. In his teaching to theology students, Westcott, a friend of Maxwell, emphasized Maxwell's reasoning based on the dissipation of energy. There are similarities between Maxwell's perspective on creation and Biblical commentaries by fellow Eranus Club members Westcott and J. B. Lightfoot. Interest in Maxwell's remarks extended into the twentieth century. The principal Baptist chapel attended by Maxwell and his wife when in London in the 1860s is identified and some relevant attributes of the chapel and of its pastor are described.

  3. Summarized data to achieve population-wide anonymized wellness measures.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Steele, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The growth in smartphone market share has seen the increasing emergence of individuals collecting quantitative wellness data. Beyond the potential health benefits for the individual in regards to managing their own health, the data is highly related to preventative and risk factors for a number of lifestyle related diseases. This data has often been a component of public health data collection and epidemiological studies due to its large impact on the health system with chronic and lifestyle diseases increasingly being a major burden for the health service. However, collection of this kind of information from large segments of the community in a usable fashion has not been specifically explored in previous work. In this paper we discuss some of the technologies that increase the ease and capability of gathering quantitative wellness data via smartphones, how specific and detailed this data needs to be for public health use and the challenges of such anonymized data collection for public health. Additionally, we propose a conceptual architecture that includes the necessary components to support this approach to data collection. PMID:23366349

  4. Sister-sister incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    PubMed

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Griffee, Karen; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Beard, Keith W; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using a computer-assisted self-interview. Thirty-one participants were victims of sister-sister incest, 40 were victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were victims of father-daughter incest, 8 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult female (including one mother), and 232 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult male other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The rest (1,203) served as controls. The victims of sister-sister incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures as adults. Victims of sister-sister incest were more depressed and more likely than controls to be distant from the perpetrator-sister and to have traded sex for money, experienced an unplanned pregnancy, engaged in four different types of masturbation, and engaged in 13 different same-sex behaviors. Our findings were consistent with other reports of early eroticization and persistent hypereroticization of incest victims. PMID:23924178

  5. AIB-OR: improving onion routing circuit construction using anonymous identity-based cryptosystems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changji; Shi, Dongyuan; Xu, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet applications has made communication anonymity an increasingly important or even indispensable security requirement. Onion routing has been employed as an infrastructure for anonymous communication over a public network, which provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis. However, existing onion routing protocols usually exhibit poor performance due to repeated encryption operations. In this paper, we first present an improved anonymous multi-receiver identity-based encryption (AMRIBE) scheme, and an improved identity-based one-way anonymous key agreement (IBOWAKE) protocol. We then propose an efficient onion routing protocol named AIB-OR that provides provable security and strong anonymity. Our main approach is to use our improved AMRIBE scheme and improved IBOWAKE protocol in onion routing circuit construction. Compared with other onion routing protocols, AIB-OR provides high efficiency, scalability, strong anonymity and fault tolerance. Performance measurements from a prototype implementation show that our proposed AIB-OR can achieve high bandwidths and low latencies when deployed over the Internet. PMID:25815879

  6. Anonymous Password-Authenticated Key Exchange: New Construction and Its Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    An anonymous password-authenticated key exchange (anonymous PAKE) protocol is designed to provide both password-only authentication and user anonymity against a semi-honest server, who follows the protocol honestly. Very recently, Yang and Zhang [25] have proposed a new anonymous PAKE (NAPAKE) protocol that is claimed efficient compared to the previous constructions. In this paper, we propose a very-efficient anonymous PAKE (called, VEAP) protocol that provides the most efficiency among their kinds in terms of computation and communication costs. The VEAP protocol guarantees semantic security of session keys in the random oracle model under the chosen target CDH problem, and unconditional user anonymity against a semi-honest server. If the pre-computation is allowed, both the user and the server are required to compute only one modular exponentiation, respectively. Surprisingly, this is the same computation cost of the well-known Diffie-Hellman protocol that does not provide authentication at all. In addition, we extend the VEAP protocol in two ways: the first is designed to reduce the communication costs of the VEAP protocol and the second shows that stripping off anonymity parts from the VEAP protocol results in a new PAKE protocol.

  7. Anonymous birth law saves babies-optimization, sustainability and public awareness.

    PubMed

    Grylli, Chryssa; Brockington, Ian; Fiala, Christian; Huscsava, Mercedes; Waldhoer, Thomas; Klier, Claudia M

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the impact of Austria's anonymous birth law from the time relevant statistical records are available and to evaluate the use of hatches versus anonymous hospital delivery. This study is a complete census of police-reported neonaticides (1975-2012) as well as anonymous births including baby hatches in Austria during 2002-2012. The time trends of neonaticide rates, anonymous births and baby hatches were analysed by means of Poisson and logistic regression model. Predicted and observed rates were derived and compared using a Bayesian Poisson regression model. Predicted numbers of neonaticides for the period of the active awareness campaign, 2002-2004, were more than three times larger than the observed number (p = 0.0067). Of the 365 women who benefitted from this legislation, only 11.5 % chose to put their babies in a baby hatch. Since the law was introduced, a significant decreasing tendency of numbers of anonymous births (p = 047) was observed, while there was significant increase of neonaticide rates (p = 0.0001). The implementation of the anonymous delivery law is associated with a decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides. The subsequent significantly decreasing numbers of anonymous births with an accompanying increase of neonaticides represents additional evidence for the effectiveness of the measure. PMID:26267063

  8. AIB-OR: Improving Onion Routing Circuit Construction Using Anonymous Identity-Based Cryptosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changji; Shi, Dongyuan; Xu, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet applications has made communication anonymity an increasingly important or even indispensable security requirement. Onion routing has been employed as an infrastructure for anonymous communication over a public network, which provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis. However, existing onion routing protocols usually exhibit poor performance due to repeated encryption operations. In this paper, we first present an improved anonymous multi-receiver identity-based encryption (AMRIBE) scheme, and an improved identity-based one-way anonymous key agreement (IBOWAKE) protocol. We then propose an efficient onion routing protocol named AIB-OR that provides provable security and strong anonymity. Our main approach is to use our improved AMRIBE scheme and improved IBOWAKE protocol in onion routing circuit construction. Compared with other onion routing protocols, AIB-OR provides high efficiency, scalability, strong anonymity and fault tolerance. Performance measurements from a prototype implementation show that our proposed AIB-OR can achieve high bandwidths and low latencies when deployed over the Internet. PMID:25815879

  9. Are 'anonymous' and 'non-directed' prerequisites for living altruistic donation? The views of transplant physicians from France and Québec.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Marie-Chantal; Dion-Labrie, Marianne; Hébert, Marie-Josée; Achille, Marie; Doucet, Hubert

    2008-07-01

    It can be argued that living altruistic donors should remain anonymous and should not express preferences in the selection of organ recipients. This study aimed to describe the views of transplant physicians in France and Québec regarding these issues. A total of 27 French and 19 Québec renal transplant physicians took part in individual, semi-directed interviews. Almost all of the physicians agreed that anonymity is mandatory in living altruistic donation (LAD). Regarding the issue of directed donation, most of the French physicians (78%) were opposed to any form of the practice, compared to only a third of their Québec colleagues (32%). We found that these positions were embedded in their respective cultural, legal and social contexts. These results afford a better understanding of these complex issues in two different cultural contexts, and will be useful in the development of international guidelines for LAD. PMID:18406031

  10. Seeking Insights About Cycling Mood Disorders via Anonymized Search Logs

    PubMed Central

    White, Ryen W; Horvitz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background Mood disorders affect a significant portion of the general population. Cycling mood disorders are characterized by intermittent episodes (or events) of the disease. Objective Using anonymized Web search logs, we identify a population of people with significant interest in mood stabilizing drugs (MSD) and seek evidence of mood swings in this population. Methods We extracted queries to the Microsoft Bing search engine made by 20,046 Web searchers over six months, separately explored searcher demographics using data from a large external panel of users, and sought supporting information from people with mood disorders via a survey. We analyzed changes in information needs over time relative to searches on MSD. Results Queries for MSD focused on side effects and their relation to the disease. We found evidence of significant changes in search behavior and interests coinciding with days that MSD queries are made. These include large increases (>100%) in the access of nutrition information, commercial information, and adult materials. A survey of patients diagnosed with mood disorders provided evidence that repeated queries on MSD may come with exacerbations of mood disorder. A classifier predicting the occurrence of such queries one day before they are observed obtains strong performance (AUC=0.78). Conclusions Observed patterns in search behavior align with known behaviors and those highlighted by survey respondents. These observations suggest that searchers showing intensive interest in MSD may be patients who have been prescribed these drugs. Given behavioral dynamics, we surmise that the days on which MSD queries are made may coincide with commencement of mania or depression. Although we do not have data on mood changes and whether users have been diagnosed with bipolar illness, we see evidence of cycling in people who show interest in MSD and further show that we can predict impending shifts in behavior and interest. PMID:24568936

  11. Weighted aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The use of a weighted aggregation technique to improve the precision of the overall LACIE estimate is considered. The manner in which a weighted aggregation technique is implemented given a set of weights is described. The problem of variance estimation is discussed and the question of how to obtain the weights in an operational environment is addressed.

  12. Security analysis and improvement of an anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngsook; Paik, Juryon

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.'s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1) it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2) it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3) it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.'s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme. PMID:25302330

  13. The relationship between young adults' beliefs about anonymity and subsequent cyber aggression.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2013-12-01

    Anonymity is considered a key motivator for cyber aggression, but few investigations have focused on the connection between anonymity and the subsequent engagement in aggression through the cyber context. The present longitudinal study utilized structural equation modeling to reveal indirect associations between two types of anonymity (i.e., punishment by authority figures and retaliation from the target) and later cyber aggression among 130 young adults. These relationships were examined through the influence of beliefs about not getting caught and not believing in the permanency of online content. Findings indicated that both forms of anonymity were related to cyber aggression 6 months later through two explanatory mechanisms (i.e., confidence with not getting caught and believing online content is not permanent), after controlling for gender and cyber aggression at Time 1. The implications of these findings are discussed, and an appeal for additional research investigating cyber aggression among young adults is given. PMID:23849002

  14. Security Analysis and Improvement of an Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Roaming Services

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngsook; Paik, Juryon

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.'s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1) it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2) it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3) it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.'s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme. PMID:25302330

  15. The effect of age at separation from the dam and presence of social companions on play behavior and weight gain in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Valníčková, B; Stěhulová, I; Šárová, R; Špinka, M

    2015-08-01

    Play behavior positively affects welfare of farm animals, yet impoverished social environment during early ontogeny may limit the opportunity or motivation to play. This study investigated the independent and the combined effects of the presence of the dam during the colostrum feeding period and subsequent group housing on play behavior and growth in dairy calves. Forty female calves were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments according to a 2×2 factorial design. The treatments were with or without mother during the 4d after birth and companion housing (single pens or grouped housing in pens of 4 calves between 1 and 8wk of age). After 8wk of age all calves were housed in groups of 4 calves. Play behavior of the calves was observed at 2, 5, and 12wk of age in the following situations: 6 h of spontaneous behavior in the home pen, a 15-min open-field test, and a 15-min social test with an unfamiliar calf. Additionally, play behavior after grouping or relocation at 8wk of age was recorded during two 2-h sessions. There were no significant effects of the mother by companion interaction either on the amount of play behavior in any of the tests or on the body weights of the calves. Presence of the mother after birth did not increase later playfulness, with the exception of higher spontaneous play at 12wk of age. When calves were housed in groups of 4, they played more in the home pen on wk 2 and 5 than individually housed calves of the same age. In contrast, individually housed calves were more playful during open-field tests and social tests on wk 2 and 5. At 8wk, single calves that were placed in a new pen with 3 unfamiliar calves played more than twice as much as grouped calves that were just moved to a new pen with familiar companions. These results show that single-housed calves are deprived of natural levels of play, as demonstrated by both their lower spontaneous play behavior and the higher rebound effect when they are exposed to larger spaces or larger spaces plus

  16. A Secure Construction for Threshold Anonymous Password-Authenticated Key Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    At Indocrypt 2005, Viet et al., [21] have proposed an anonymous password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE) protocol and its threshold construction both of which are designed for client's password-based authentication and anonymity against a passive server, who does not deviate the protocol. In this paper, we first point out that their threshold construction is completely insecure against off-line dictionary attacks. For the threshold t > 1, we propose a secure threshold anonymous PAKE (for short, TAP) protocol with the number of clients n upper-bounded, such that n\\leq 2 \\sqrt{N-1} -1, where N is a dictionary size of passwords. We rigorously prove that the TAP protocol has semantic security of session keys in the random oracle model by showing the reduction to the computational Diffie-Hellman problem. In addition, the TAP protocol provides unconditional anonymity against a passive server. For the threshold t=1, we propose an efficient anonymous PAKE protocol that significantly improves efficiency in terms of computation costs and communication bandwidth compared to the original (not threshold) anonymous PAKE protocol [21].

  17. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

  18. Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  19. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... to medicines, thyroid problems, heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

  20. Size matters: How population size influences genotype–phenotype association studies in anonymized data

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Joshua C.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Roden, Dan M.; Malin, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Electronic medical records (EMRs) data is increasingly incorporated into genome-phenome association studies. Investigators hope to share data, but there are concerns it may be “re-identified” through the exploitation of various features, such as combinations of standardized clinical codes. Formal anonymization algorithms (e.g., k-anonymization) can prevent such violations, but prior studies suggest that the size of the population available for anonymization may influence the utility of the resulting data. We systematically investigate this issue using a large-scale biorepository and EMR system through which we evaluate the ability of researchers to learn from anonymized data for genome- phenome association studies under various conditions. Methods We use a k-anonymization strategy to simulate a data protection process (on data sets containing clinical codes) for resources of similar size to those found at nine academic medical institutions within the United States. Following the protection process, we replicate an existing genome-phenome association study and compare the discoveries using the protected data and the original data through the correlation (r2) of the p-values of association significance. Results Our investigation shows that anonymizing an entire dataset with respect to the population from which it is derived yields significantly more utility than small study-specific datasets anonymized unto themselves. When evaluated using the correlation of genome-phenome association strengths on anonymized data versus original data, all nine simulated sites, results from largest-scale anonymizations (population ∼ 100;000) retained better utility to those on smaller sizes (population ∼ 6000—75;000). We observed a general trend of increasing r2 for larger data set sizes: r2 = 0.9481 for small-sized datasets, r2 = 0.9493 for moderately-sized datasets, r2 = 0.9934 for large-sized datasets. Conclusions This research implies that regardless of the

  1. Social epidemiology of excess weight and central adiposity in older Indians: analysis of Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sudipta; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dutta, Ambarish

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, represented by extra body weight and abdominal circumference, among older Indians; and to characterise the social pattern of obesity and measure the magnitude of hypertension attributable to it. Setting A nationally representative sample of older Indians was selected from 6 Indian states, including Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Maharashtra and Karnataka, as a part of the multicountry Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). Participants Indians aged 50 years or more (n=7273) were included in the first wave of the SAGE (2010), which we used in our study. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measures included excess weight (EW), defined by body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2, and central adiposity (CA), defined by waist circumference >90 cm for men and >80 cm for women. The secondary outcome included hypertension, defined by systolic blood pressure >139 or diastolic blood pressure >79 mm Hg, or by those receiving antihypertensive medications. Results 14% of older Indians possessed EW, whereas 35% possessed CA; 50.9% of the wealthier third and 27.7% of the poorer two-thirds have CA; the proportions being 69.1% and 46.2%, respectively, in older women. Mostly wealth (adjusted OR for CA: 4.36 (3.23 to 5.95) and EW: 4.39 (3.49 to 5.53)), but also urban residence, privileged caste, higher education, white-collared occupation and female gender, were important determinants. One of 17 older Indians overall and 1 of 18 in the poorer 70% suffered from CA-driven hypertension, independent of BMI. Conclusions The problem of CA and its allied diseases is already substantial and expected to rise across all socioeconomic strata of older Indians, though currently, CA affects the privileged more than the underprivileged, in later life. Population-based promotion of appropriate lifestyles, with special emphasis on women, is required to counteract prosperity

  2. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

  3. An E-Cash Based Implementation Model for Facilitating Anonymous Purchasing of Information Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Kim, K. H. (Kane); Kang, Myeong-Ho; Zhou, Tianran; Chung, Byung-Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyo; Lee, Seok-Joon

    The rapid growing of online purchasing of information products poses challenges of how to preserve the customer's privacy during the online transactions. The current widely used way of online shopping does not consider the customer's privacy protection. It exposes the customer's sensitive information unnecessarily. We propose a new five-party implementation model called 5PAPS that provides much enhanced protection of the customer's privacy. The model combines the advantages of the e-cash techniques, the mix technique, the anonymous-honoring merchant model, and the anonymity-protecting payment gateway model. It is aimed for protecting the customer's anonymity in all applicable aspects. Security and anonymity issues of the model have been analyzed. The results show that the model is robust against varieties of common attacks and the customer's anonymity can be protected even in the presence of some collusion among the parties involved in the transactions. Experimental prototyping of the essential parts yields partial validation of the practical nature of the 5PAPS model, and it has also produced reliable estimates of the storage and messaging volume requirements present in sizable purchasing systems.

  4. Attitudes and practice of genetic counselors regarding anonymous testing for BRCA1/2.

    PubMed

    Ader, Tammy; Susswein, Lisa R; Callanan, Nancy P; Evans, James P

    2009-12-01

    Patients and clinicians alike view anonymous testing as a potential way to avoid perceived risks of genetic testing such as insurance and employment discrimination and the potential loss of privacy. To assess their experience with and attitudes towards anonymous testing for BRCA1/2, genetic counselors were invited to complete an internet-based survey via the NSGC Familial Cancer Risk Counseling Special Interest Group (FCRC-SIG) listerv. A majority of the 115 respondents (70%) had received requests from patients for anonymous BRCA1/2 testing at some point in their careers and 43% complied with this request. Most counselors, however, encountered such requests infrequently, 1-5 times per year. Although genetic counselors do not generally encourage anonymous testing and over a third of respondents feel it should never be offered, a substantial subset support its use under specific circumstances. In general, a strong consensus exists among counselors that anonymous testing should not be offered routinely. In light of the current legislative landscape, it is of note that a substantial proportion of respondents (42.7%) cited the threat of life insurance discrimination as a reason for pursuing AT, and fewer cited health insurance (30.0%) or employment discrimination (29.1%) as justifications. Since there exists no federal legislative protections against discrimination by life insurance companies, it makes sense that genetic counselors were more responsive to this issue as opposed to the threat of discrimination in health insurance and employment. PMID:19798553

  5. Assessment and Quality Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Tom V.

    2003-01-01

    Those anonymous individuals who develop high-stakes tests by which educational quality is measured exercise great influence in defining educational quality. In this article, the author examines the impact of high-stakes testing on the welfare of the children and the quality of social studies instruction. He presents the benefits and drawbacks of…

  6. Anonymous indexing of health conditions for a similarity measure.

    PubMed

    Song, Insu; Marsh, Nigel V

    2012-07-01

    A health social network is an online information service which facilitates information sharing between closely related members of a community with the same or a similar health condition. Over the years, many automated recommender systems have been developed for social networking in order to help users find their communities of interest. For health social networking, the ideal source of information for measuring similarities of patients is the medical information of the patients. However, it is not desirable that such sensitive and private information be shared over the Internet. This is also true for many other security sensitive domains. A new information-sharing scheme is developed where each patient is represented as a small number of (possibly disjoint) d-words (discriminant words) and the d-words are used to measure similarities between patients without revealing sensitive personal information. The d-words are simple words like "food,'' and thus do not contain identifiable personal information. This makes our method an effective one-way hashing of patient assessments for a similarity measure. The d-words can be easily shared on the Internet to find peers who might have similar health conditions. PMID:22531815

  7. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions. PMID:26785867

  8. Database Design to Ensure Anonymous Study of Medical Errors: A Report from the ASIPS collaborative

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Wilson D.; Staton, Elizabeth W.; Higgins, Gregory S.; Main, Deborah S.; West, David R.; Harris, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    Medical error reporting systems are important information sources for designing strategies to improve the safety of health care. Applied Strategies for Improving Patient Safety (ASIPS) is a multi-institutional, practice-based research project that collects and analyzes data on primary care medical errors and develops interventions to reduce error. The voluntary ASIPS Patient Safety Reporting System captures anonymous and confidential reports of medical errors. Confidential reports, which are quickly de-identified, provide better detail than do anonymous reports; however, concerns exist about the confidentiality of those reports should the database be subject to legal discovery or other security breaches. Standard database elements, for example, serial ID numbers, date/time stamps, and backups, could enable an outsider to link an ASIPS report to a specific medical error. The authors present the design and implementation of a database and administrative system that reduce this risk, facilitate research, and maintain near anonymity of the events, practices, and clinicians. PMID:12925548

  9. RSSI-Based User Centric Anonymization for Location Privacy in Vehicular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yu-Chih; Chen, Yi-Ming; Shan, Hwai-Ling

    In Vehicular Networks, for enhancing driving safety as well as supporting other applications, vehicles periodically broadcast safety messages with their precise position information to neighbors. However, these broadcast messages make it easy to track specific vehicles and will likely lead to compromise of personal privacy. Unfortunately, current location privacy enhancement methodologies in VANET, including Pseudonymization, K-anonymity, Random silent period, Mix-zones and path confusion, all suffer some shortcomings. In this paper, we propose a RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator)-based user centric anonymization model, which can significantly enhance the location privacy and at the same time ensure traffic safety. Simulations are performed to show the advantages of the proposed method. In comparison with traditional random silent period method, our method can increase at least 47% of anonymity in both simple and correlation tracking.

  10. The French bioethics public consultation and the anonymity doctrine: empirical ethics and normative assumptions.

    PubMed

    Spranzi, Marta; Brunet, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    The French bioethics laws of 1994 contain the principles of the anonymity and non commodification of all donations of body parts and products including gametes in medically assisted reproduction. The two revisions of the law, in 2004 and 2011 have upheld the rule. In view of the latest revision process, the French government organized a large public consultation in 2009 ("Etats généraux de la bioéthique"). Within the event a "consensus conference" was held in Rennes about different aspects of assisted reproduction (access, anonymity, gratuity and surrogacy). In what follows we shall first describe the anonymity clause for gamete donations in the French law and the debates surrounding it. We shall then analyse the procedure used for the 2009 public consultation and the related consensus conference, as well as its upshot concerning the anonymity doctrine. In this respect we shall compare the citizens' own recommendations on the gamete anonymity issue and its translation in the consultation's final report drafted by a philosopher mandated by the organizing committee. Whereas the final report cited some fundamental ethical arguments as reason for upholding the provisions of the law-most notably the refusal of the 'all biological' approach to reproductive issues-citizens were more careful and tentative in their position although they also concluded that for pragmatic reasons the anonymity rule should continue to hold. We shall argue that the conservative upshot of the public consultation is due to some main underlying presuppositions concerning the citizens' role and expertise as well as to the specific design of the consensus conference. Our conclusion will be that public consultations and consensus conferences can only serve as an empirical support for devising suitable bioethics norms by using second-order normative assumptions. PMID:25783454

  11. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints.

    PubMed

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques. PMID:27355948

  12. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques. PMID:27355948

  13. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quit Smoking Benefits of Quitting Health Effects of Smoking Secondhand Smoke Withdrawal Ways to Quit QuitGuide Pregnancy & Motherhood Pregnancy & Motherhood Before Your Baby is Born From Birth to 2 Years Quitting for Two SmokefreeMom Healthy Kids Parenting & ... Weight Management Weight Management ...

  14. Efficient Anonymous Authentication Protocol Using Key-Insulated Signature Scheme for Secure VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngho; Sur, Chul; Jung, Chae Duk; Rhee, Kyung-Hyune

    In this paper, we propose an efficient authentication protocol with conditional privacy preservation for secure vehicular communications. The proposed protocol follows the system model to issue on-the-fly anonymous public key certificates to vehicles by road-side units. In order to design an efficient message authentication protocol, we consider a key-insulated signature scheme for certifying anonymous public keys of vehicles to such a system model. We demonstrate experimental results to confirm that the proposed protocol has better performance than other protocols based on group signature schemes.

  15. Weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

  16. Security Enhanced Anonymous Multiserver Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Using Smart Cards and Biometrics

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme. PMID:25276847

  17. What's in a Name? Some Reflections on the Sociology of Anonymity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Gary T.

    1999-01-01

    Presents seven types of identity knowledge. Identifies major rationales and contexts for anonymity and identifiability and suggests a principle which holds that those who use pseudonyms on the Internet in personal communications are obliged to indicate they are doing so. Suggests 13 procedural questions to guide the development and assessment of…

  18. Open and Anonymous Peer Review in a Digital Online Environment Compared in Academic Writing Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razi, Salim

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the impact of "open" and "anonymous" peer feedback as an adjunct to teacher-mediated feedback in a digital online environment utilising data gathered on an academic writing course at a Turkish university. Students were divided into two groups with similar writing proficiencies. Students peer reviewed papers…

  19. Bayesian modeling of consumer behavior in the presence of anonymous visits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Julie Esther

    Tailoring content to consumers has become a hallmark of marketing and digital media, particularly as it has become easier to identify customers across usage or purchase occasions. However, across a wide variety of contexts, companies find that customers do not consistently identify themselves, leaving a substantial fraction of anonymous visits. We develop a Bayesian hierarchical model that allows us to probabilistically assign anonymous sessions to users. These probabilistic assignments take into account a customer's demographic information, frequency of visitation, activities taken when visiting, and times of arrival. We present two studies, one with synthetic and one with real data, where we demonstrate improved performance over two popular practices (nearest-neighbor matching and deleting the anonymous visits) due to increased efficiency and reduced bias driven by the non-ignorability of which types of events are more likely to be anonymous. Using our proposed model, we avoid potential bias in understanding the effect of a firm's marketing on its customers, improve inference about the total number of customers in the dataset, and provide more precise targeted marketing to both previously observed and unobserved customers.

  20. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  1. Leadership Style, Anonymity, and Creativity in Group Decision Support Systems: The Mediating Role of Optimal Flow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosik, John J.; Kahai, Surinder S.; Avolio, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 159 undergraduates found that flow (a psychological state characterized by concentration, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation) mediated effects of leadership style on creativity in a Group Decision Support System (GDSS) context, and that its role may be moderated by anonymity. Results also indicated that both flow and anonymity…

  2. A Variation on the Use of Interactive Anonymous Quizzes in the Chemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an interesting variation on the use of interactive anonymous quizzes (IAQs) in the chemistry classroom. In this variation, IAQs are used to introduce new material or topics in a course, as opposed to their traditional use for reviewing previously covered material. Two examples of IAQs used to introduce new topics in a…

  3. Terminological Control of "Anonymous Groups" for Catalogues of Audiovisual Television Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the exceptional nature of the description of moving images for television archives, deriving from their audiovisual nature, and of the specifications in the queries of journalists as users of the Document Information System. It is suggested that there is a need to control completely "Anonymous Groups"--groups without any…

  4. The Rationality of Alcoholics Anonymous and the Spirituality of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velten, Emmett

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) share important rational objectives and numerous cognitive-behavioral methods. Both emphasize a philosophical shift as a principal ingredient for change. Provides definitions of rationality and spirituality and explains how REBT and smart recovery are spiritual…

  5. Understanding the Role of Storytelling in the Transformation of Female Cocaine Addicts in Narcotics Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventresca, Melissa Weida

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the role of storytelling in the transformation of female cocaine addicts in Narcotics Anonymous. For this research the primary investigator utilized a theoretical orientation of transformative learning theory and storytelling. The rationale for employing transformative learning theory is that…

  6. Medical Relabeling in Gamblers Anonymous: The Construction of an Ideal Member.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, David N.; Saunders, Danny

    1990-01-01

    Observed 2 Gamblers Anonymous (GA) groups in South Wales over a 12-month period. Determined 2 broad consequences arose from encountering fellow sufferers: acceptance of diagnosis and commitment to recovery and to will of GA, or rejection of the diagnosis with the knowledge that they are returning to the outside world with a reconstituted…

  7. The Impact of Anonymous and Assigned Use of Student Response Systems on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two approaches to use of student response systems (SRSs) on achievement in a study designed to better understand effective use of the devices. One condition was anonymous use of SRSs, in which graduate students selected a random clicker when entering the classroom. The second condition assigned devices to students…

  8. Personal Construct Theory and the Transformation of Identity in Alcoholics Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Lance Brendan

    2011-01-01

    The dominant theoretical approach to alcoholism research presumes linear, causal relationships between individual cognitions and behavioral outcomes. This approach has largely failed to account for the recovery some alcoholics achieve in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) because AA emphasizes the transformation of identity, framed in terms of…

  9. Evolutionary approach to violating group anonymity using third-party data.

    PubMed

    Tavrov, Dan; Chertov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    In the era of Big Data, it is almost impossible to completely restrict access to primary non-aggregated statistical data. However, risk of violating privacy of individual respondents and groups of respondents by analyzing primary data has not been reduced. There is a need in developing subtler methods of data protection to come to grips with these challenges. In some cases, individual and group privacy can be easily violated, because the primary data contain attributes that uniquely identify individuals and groups thereof. Removing such attributes from the dataset is a crude solution and does not guarantee complete privacy. In the field of providing individual data anonymity, this problem has been widely recognized, and various methods have been proposed to solve it. In the current work, we demonstrate that it is possible to violate group anonymity as well, even if those attributes that uniquely identify the group are removed. As it turns out, it is possible to use third-party data to build a fuzzy model of a group. Typically, such a model comes in a form of a set of fuzzy rules, which can be used to determine membership grades of respondents in the group with a level of certainty sufficient to violate group anonymity. In the work, we introduce an evolutionary computing based method to build such a model. We also discuss a memetic approach to protecting the data from group anonymity violation in this case. PMID:26844025

  10. Anonymity to Promote Peer Feedback: Pre-Service Teachers' Comments in Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Craig D.; Barrett, Andrew F.; Frick, Theodore W.

    2010-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental case study, we compared five sections of a basic undergraduate technology course. Within an asynchronous web forum, pre-service teachers wrote short critiques of websites designed by their classmates. This peer feedback was provided anonymously by students in two classes (n = 35) whereas providers and recipients of peer…

  11. Security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards and biometrics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme. PMID:25276847

  12. Pursuing the Anonymous User: Privacy Rights and Mandatory Registration of Prepaid Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, Gordon A.; Parisi, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been concern among law enforcement and national security organizations about the use of "anonymous" prepaid mobile phone service and its purported role in supporting criminal and terrorist activities. As a result, a number of countries have implemented registration requirements for such service. Privacy rights advocates…

  13. A Case Study on Measuring Statistical Data in the Tor Anonymity Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loesing, Karsten; Murdoch, Steven J.; Dingledine, Roger

    The Tor network is one of the largest deployed anonymity networks, consisting of 1500+ volunteer-run relays and probably hundreds of thousands of clients connecting every day. Its large user-base has made it attractive for researchers to analyze usage of a real deployed anonymity network. The recent growth of the network has also led to performance problems, as well as attempts by some governments to block access to the Tor network. Investigating these performance problems and learning about network blocking is best done by measuring usage data of the Tor network. However, analyzing a live anonymity system must be performed with great care, so that the users' privacy is not put at risk. In this paper we present a case study of measuring two different types of sensitive data in the Tor network: countries of connecting clients, and exiting traffic by port. Based on these examples we derive general guidelines for safely measuring potentially sensitive data, both in the Tor network and in other anonymity networks.

  14. Sexuality Information Needs of Latino and African American Ninth Graders: A Content Analysis of Anonymous Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angulo-Olaiz, Francisca; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    This study used qualitative content analysis to examine anonymous questions about sex and sexuality submitted by Latino and African American adolescents in Los Angeles, California, classrooms. The majority of questions asked about sexuality and sexual behavior, or anatomy and physiology, with fewer questions about pregnancy and pregnancy…

  15. Reconsiderations: Anonymity and Violence--Jane Tompkins's "Fighting Words" Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Gary

    2009-01-01

    In her influential 1988 essay, "Fighting Words," Jane Tompkins argued that the arguments typically made by literary critics are characterized by an aggressive competitiveness that amounts to violence. But, as Tompkins's own rhetorical strategies demonstrate, at least as deplorable are the practices whereby critics render certain people anonymous.…

  16. Anonymity and Motivation in Asynchronous Discussions and L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Nihat; Mancilla, Rae; Mahalingappa, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates L2 attainment in asynchronous online environments, specifically possible relationships among anonymity, L2 motivation, participation in discussions, quality of L2 production, and success in L2 vocabulary learning. It examines, in asynchronous discussions, (a) if participation and (b) motivation contribute to L2 vocabulary…

  17. Adolescent Substance Abuse in Mexico, Puerto Rico and The United States: Effect of Anonymous versus Confidential Survey Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, William W.; O'Brien, Megan S.; Vasquez, Marco A.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Rios-Bedoya, Carlos F.; Floyd, Leah J.

    2006-01-01

    Anonymous surveys have been widely used worldwide to describe adolescent substance use yet cannot elucidate causal drug abuse predictors. Studies in the U.S. have generally found that anonymous and confidential surveys yield comparable levels of self-reported substance use, yet the effect of survey format on youth self-report has not been…

  18. Emergence of Informal Educative Space out of an Anonymous Online Bulletin Board in Korea during the Global Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Dae Joong; Choi, Seon Joo; Lee, SeungHyeop

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how people learn and teach informally in an anonymous online bulletin board, the primary purpose of which is not learning and teaching. We conducted a qualitative analysis of comments and replies tagged to the most popular postings of an anonymous online bulletin board, during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009.…

  19. Adolescents' reply intent for sexual disclosure in cyberspace: gender differences and effects of anonymity and topic intimacy.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the effects of anonymity and topic intimacy on adolescents' reply intent for cyber partners' sexual disclosure on the Internet. Two hundred thirty-seven Taiwanese adolescents with sexual self-disclosure experiences on the Internet participated in an experimental study. Regardless of anonymity and topic intimacy, male adolescents were more willing than females to respond to cyber friends' sexual disclosure. The higher the anonymity was, the higher the reply intent for sexual self-disclosure. Participants exhibited higher reply intent when cyber friends self-disclosed sexual topics with higher intimacy. However, the effect of topic intimacy was moderated by anonymity. Topic intimacy displayed prominent influence on adolescents' reply intent in responding to cyber friends' sexual disclosure only when their disclosing condition was under moderate and high anonymity. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:17927545

  20. "The Weight of Class": Clients' Experiences of How Perceived Differences in Social Class between Counsellor and Client Affect the Therapeutic Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balmforth, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The impact of a difference in social class on the therapeutic relationship has received less attention than other differences between counsellor and client, such as gender, race and sexual orientation. In this qualitative research study six clients who identified as working class were interviewed about their experience of a therapeutic…

  1. An efficient anonymous authentication scheme for wireless body area networks using elliptic curve cryptosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenguo

    2014-02-01

    With the development of wireless networks and medical sensors, wireless body area networks are playing more and more important role in the field of healthcare service. The data transmitted in WBANs is very sensitive since it will be used in clinical diagnoses or measurements. Therefore, security and privacy of communication in WBANs derive increasing attentions from the academia and industry. In this paper, we propose an identity (ID)-based efficient anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs using elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC). Due to the ID-based concept, there is no certificate is needed in the proposed scheme. Moreover, the proposed scheme not only provides mutual authentication between the client and the application provider but also provides client anonymity. Performance analysis shows that improvements of 50.58% and 3.87% in the client side and the application provider side separately. Then the proposed scheme is more suitable for WBANs. PMID:24481718

  2. A historical review of perceptions of key aspects of spirituality and religion within alcoholics anonymous.

    PubMed

    Feigenbaum, Janice Cooke

    2013-01-01

    This historical research aimed to develop an accurate perception of the role of spirituality and religion within the history of Alcoholics Anonymous. Primary and secondary sources were reviewed. The study identified that Bill W. and Dr. Bob established the format for the support group based on the ideas of William James, which formed the base for the Oxford Groups. Alcoholics Anonymous was clearly viewed as a spiritual group and not a religion. The review also showed that the two founders had each experienced one of the two types of spiritual awakenings that James had addressed. These findings will help nurses clarify their own perceptions of this organization so they may accurately educate individuals who they are encouraging to participate in this program while recovering from an addiction. PMID:24335770

  3. Young People in Alcoholics Anonymous: the role of spiritual orientation and AA member affiliation.

    PubMed

    Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen; Santucci, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    Empirical findings characterizing long-term, committed Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) members are limited, particularly among younger members. The authors studied a sample of 266 highly committed attendees (mean age, 27 years) at an annual conference of Young People in Alcoholics Anonymous (YPAA), whose first encounter with AA was 6 years previously. Most (72%) had abused drugs and alcohol, and 36% had never received substance abuse treatment. They now reported a mean duration of abstinence of 44 months and had attended an average of 233 AA meetings in the previous year; 66% had served as AA sponsors, and 92% reported experiencing an AA "spiritual awakening," itself associated with a decreased likelihood of alcohol craving. Scores on AA beliefs, affiliation to other members, and the experience of spiritual awakening were associated with lower depression scores. These findings are discussed to clarify the nature of long-term AA membership. PMID:22540438

  4. Anonymous Three-Party Password-Authenticated Key Exchange Scheme for Telecare Medical Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Hu, Bin; Dong, Na; Wong, Duncan S.

    2014-01-01

    Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMIS) provide an effective way to enhance the medical process between doctors, nurses and patients. For enhancing the security and privacy of TMIS, it is important while challenging to enhance the TMIS so that a patient and a doctor can perform mutual authentication and session key establishment using a third-party medical server while the privacy of the patient can be ensured. In this paper, we propose an anonymous three-party password-authenticated key exchange (3PAKE) protocol for TMIS. The protocol is based on the efficient elliptic curve cryptosystem. For security, we apply the pi calculus based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our 3PAKE protocol for TMIS can provide anonymity for patient and doctor while at the same time achieves mutual authentication and session key security. The proposed scheme is secure and efficient, and can be used in TMIS. PMID:25047235

  5. Targeted and anonymized smartphone-based public health interventions in a participatory sensing system.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Steele, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Public health interventions comprising information dissemination to affect behavioral adjustment have long been a significant component of public health campaigns. However, there has been limited development of public health intervention systems to make use of advances in mobile computing and telecommunications technologies. Such developments pose significant challenges to privacy and security where potentially sensitive data may be collected. In our previous work we identified and demonstrated the feasibility of using mobile devices as anonymous public health data collection devices as part of a Health Participatory Sensing Network (HPSN). An advanced capability of these networks extended in this paper would be the ability to distribute, apply, report on and analyze the usage and effectiveness of targeted public health interventions in an anonymous way. In this paper we describe such a platform, its place in the HPSN and demonstrate its feasibility through an implementation. PMID:25570789

  6. Three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Hamed; Nikooghadam, Morteza

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, with comprehensive employment of the internet, healthcare delivery services is provided remotely by telecare medicine information systems (TMISs). A secure mechanism for authentication and key agreement is one of the most important security requirements for TMISs. Recently, Tan proposed a user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for TMIS. The present paper shows that Tan's scheme is vulnerable to replay attacks and Denial-of-Service attacks. In order to overcome these security flaws, a new and efficient three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS is proposed. Security and performance analysis shows superiority of the proposed scheme in comparison with previously proposed schemes that are related to security of TMISs. PMID:25352490

  7. How to ensure data security of an epidemiological follow-up: quality assessment of an anonymous record linkage procedure.

    PubMed

    Quantin, C; Bouzelat, H; Allaert, F A; Benhamiche, A M; Faivre, J; Dusserre, L

    1998-03-01

    A computerised record hash coding and linkage procedure is proposed to allow the chaining of medical information within the framework of epidemiological follow-up. Before their extraction, files are rendered anonymous using a one-way hash coding based on the standard hash algorithm (SHA) function, in order to respect the legislation on data privacy and security. To avoid dictionary attacks. two keys have been added to SHA coding. Once rendered anonymous, the linkage of patient information can be accomplished by means of a statistical model, taking into account several identification variables. Quality assessment of this anonymous record linkage procedure shows a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 95%. PMID:9723810

  8. Women's responses to postnatal self-report mood and experience measures: does anonymity make a difference?

    PubMed

    Matthey, Stephen; White, Tracey; Rice, Sarah

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether endorsement of "difficulty coping" questions on two self-report measures would be affected by whether or not women had to put their name on the questionnaires. In addition, a small survey of mental health professionals was conducted to see what they thought the study would find. Women (n= 211) attending maternal and child health clinics completed two self-report measures of mood and experience of motherhood. Women were either asked to write their name on the forms and were told that the project officer would check their forms once completed ("named" condition) or asked not to put their name on the forms and that the forms would not be looked at ("anonymous" condition). Perinatal mental health professionals (n= 44) completed an anonymous survey asking them what they considered the study would find. Most health professionals (77.3%) expected that the anonymous condition would result in more "honest" responding by women-that is, there would be a higher rate of women admitting to not coping in the anonymous condition. To the contrary, however, this was not found. There were no differences between the rates of endorsement of "not currently coping" by women in the two conditions, a finding only expected by 13.6% of the professionals. There was a small, but statistically significant, difference in women reporting whether they had a prior history of difficulty coping, with more women in the named condition endorsing this. Rates of postnatal distress or depression, based upon responses to self-report mood or similar questionnaires, are unlikely to be affected by whether participants are required to put their name on the measures or not or whether they anticipate that their responses will be scrutinized. This is an unexpected finding by a sample of mental health professionals interested in the perinatal mental health field, and thus, the study has "new knowledge" significance. PMID:20386941

  9. William James' legacy to Alcoholics Anonymous: an analysis and a critique.

    PubMed

    Walle, A H

    1992-01-01

    When evolving a philosophy and a "modus operandi" the pioneers of Alcoholics Anonymous made significant use of William James' Varieties of Religious Experience. Indeed, although AA carefully picked and chose various of James' ideas which seemed particularly relevant, James' imprint is clearly stamped upon AA philosophy and methodology. Here, I will review James' work and explore what specific ideas were particularly relevant to AA's evolution as a self-help movement. The implications of this heritage will be explored. PMID:1627669

  10. ZEA-TDMA: design and system level implementation of a TDMA protocol for anonymous wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Debasmit; Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-01

    Wireless sensor network used in military applications may be deployed in hostile environments, where privacy and security is of primary concern. This can lead to the formation of a trust-based sub-network among mutually-trusting nodes. However, designing a TDMA MAC protocol is very challenging in situations where such multiple sub-networks coexist, since TDMA protocols require node identity information for slot assignments. This paper introduces a novel distributed TDMA MAC protocol, ZEA-TDMA (Zero Exposure Anonymous TDMA), for anonymous wireless networks. ZEA-TDMA achieves slot allocation with strict anonymity constraints, i.e. without nodes having to exchange any identity revealing information. By using just the relative time of arrival of packets and a novel technique of wireless collision-detection and resolution for fixed packetsizes, ZEA-TDMA is able to achieve MAC slot-allocation which is described as follows. Initially, a newly joined node listens to its one-hop neighborhood channel usage and creates a slot allocation table based on its own relative time, and finally, selects a slot that is collision free within its one-hop neighborhood. The selected slot can however cause hidden collisions with a two-hop neighbor of the node. These collisions are resolved by a common neighbor of the colliding nodes, which first detects the collision, and then resolve them using an interrupt packet. ZEA-TDMA provides the following features: a) it is a TDMA protocol ideally suited for highly secure or strictly anonymous environments b) it can be used in heterogeneous environments where devices use different packet structures c) it does not require network time-synchronization, and d) it is insensitive to channel errors. We have implemented ZEA-TDMA on the MICA2 hardware platform running TinyOS and evaluated the protocol functionality and performance on a MICA2 test-bed.

  11. Cryptanalysis of the Kiyomoto-Fukushima-Tanaka Anonymous Attribute Authentication Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Haeryong

    Kiyomoto-Fukushima-Tanaka proposed a perfectly ano-nymous attribute authentication scheme that realizes unidentifiable and untraceable authentication with offline revocation checking. The Kiyomoto-Fukushima-Tanaka scheme uses a self-blindable certificate that a user can change randomly. Thus, the certificate is modified for each authentication and the authentication scheme has the unidentifiable property and the untraceable property. However, in this letter, we show that the Kiyomoto-Fukushima-Tanaka scheme is insecure against the impersonation attack.

  12. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Lihuan; Sun, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead. PMID:27213384

  13. Fortified anonymous communication protocol for location privacy in WSN: a modular approach.

    PubMed

    Abuzneid, Abdel-Shakour; Sobh, Tarek; Faezipour, Miad; Mahmood, Ausif; James, John

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of many hosts called sensors. These sensors can sense a phenomenon (motion, temperature, humidity, average, max, min, etc.) and represent what they sense in a form of data. There are many applications for WSNs including object tracking and monitoring where in most of the cases these objects need protection. In these applications, data privacy itself might not be as important as the privacy of source location. In addition to the source location privacy, sink location privacy should also be provided. Providing an efficient end-to-end privacy solution would be a challenging task to achieve due to the open nature of the WSN. The key schemes needed for end-to-end location privacy are anonymity, observability, capture likelihood, and safety period. We extend this work to allow for countermeasures against multi-local and global adversaries. We present a network model protected against a sophisticated threat model: passive /active and local/multi-local/global attacks. This work provides a solution for end-to-end anonymity and location privacy as well. We will introduce a framework called fortified anonymous communication (FAC) protocol for WSN. PMID:25763649

  14. Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol for Location Privacy in WSN: A Modular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Abuzneid, Abdel-Shakour; Sobh, Tarek; Faezipour, Miad; Mahmood, Ausif; James, John

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of many hosts called sensors. These sensors can sense a phenomenon (motion, temperature, humidity, average, max, min, etc.) and represent what they sense in a form of data. There are many applications for WSNs including object tracking and monitoring where in most of the cases these objects need protection. In these applications, data privacy itself might not be as important as the privacy of source location. In addition to the source location privacy, sink location privacy should also be provided. Providing an efficient end-to-end privacy solution would be a challenging task to achieve due to the open nature of the WSN. The key schemes needed for end-to-end location privacy are anonymity, observability, capture likelihood, and safety period. We extend this work to allow for countermeasures against multi-local and global adversaries. We present a network model protected against a sophisticated threat model: passive /active and local/multi-local/global attacks. This work provides a solution for end-to-end anonymity and location privacy as well. We will introduce a framework called fortified anonymous communication (FAC) protocol for WSN. PMID:25763649

  15. There is no ``I'' in referee: Why referees should be anonymous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucko, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    From the early days of modern science, it has been recognized that scientific claims must be verified by someone who is not the maker of those claims, and who furthermore has no stake in the matter. In other words, claims need to be evaluated objectively, by the community. The way in which this tends to be done is by peer review conducted by journals. Peer review as currently practiced touches on the themes of trust, where the trust is in institutions and procedures that emerge from expert communities. The practice of peer review is viewed as a citizenly duty of scientists in the scientific community, because all scientists take turns serving either as authors, referees, and editors in the peer review process We lack the resources to have a work evaluated by the entire community, so we substitute with a representative. Yet, in most examples of scientific review, the referee or referees are anonymous. This question is particularly important when the peer review process is brought to bear in order to evaluate matters beyond scientific validity, more ``subjective'' criteria such as relative importance, broadness of interest - criteria that do not appear to have an objective standard of comparison and validation. I will show that the anonymity of referees, far from endangering this trust, actually strengthens it. I will show that this anonymity is crucial in order to maintain any objectivity in scientific peer review, and why authors should not try to unmask the referee. Also at American Physical Society (APS).

  16. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Lihuan; Sun, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead. PMID:27213384

  17. Reliability and validity of young adults’ anonymous online reports of marijuana use and thoughts about use

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Liu, Howard; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2012-01-01

    With growing interest in online assessment of substance abuse behaviors, there is a need to formally evaluate the validity of the data gathered. The current investigation evaluated the reliability and validity of anonymous, online reports of young adults’ marijuana use and related cognitions. Young adults age 18 to 25 who had smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30 days were recruited over 14 months to complete an anonymous online survey. Of 3106 eligible cases, 1617 (52%) completed the entire survey. Of those, 54% (n = 884) reported past-month marijuana use (65% male, 70% Caucasian, mean age was 20.4 years [SD = 2.0]). Prevalence of marijuana use was reported reliably across three similar items, and inter-item correlations ranged from fair to excellent for measures of marijuana dependence symptoms and thoughts about marijuana use. Marijuana use frequency demonstrated good construct validity through expected correlations with marijuana use constructs, and non-significant correlations with thoughts about tobacco use. Marijuana frequency distinguished among stages of change for marijuana use and goals for use, but not among gender, ethnicity, or employment groups. Marijuana use and thoughts about use differed by stage of change in the hypothesized directions. Self-reported marijuana use and associated cognitions reported anonymously online from young adults are generally reliable and valid. Online assessments of substance use broaden the reach of addictions research. PMID:22082344

  18. Does the type of anonymity matter? The impact of visualization on information sharing in online groups.

    PubMed

    Wodzicki, Katrin; Schwämmlein, Eva; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2011-03-01

    Groups who share information in computer-mediated settings often have to deal with the issue of anonymity. Previous research has shown that only people with a prosocial orientation--that is, those whose main interest is to add to the benefit of the group as a whole--are willing to share information in anonymous situations. The willingness to share information by those people with a proself orientation--that is, those who put more emphasis on their personal benefit--can be increased by providing photographs of the other group members. The information-sharing behavior of prosocials, however, suffers from such a deletion of anonymity. In an online experiment, we examined how information-sharing behavior of proselfs may be increased without negatively influencing the information-sharing behavior of prosocials in an online setting. It was shown that even proselfs share information if the group members are visualized in a homogeneous way, while prosocials' information-sharing behavior is not impaired by this visualization. In addition, the results suggest that people's perceived homogeneity of the online group, as well as the importance of the collective goal, are the underlying processes of this effect. These results have important practical implications for the design of online information-sharing settings. PMID:20649445

  19. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  20. An ecological momentary assessment of the effects of weight and shape social comparisons on women with eating pathology, high body dissatisfaction, and low body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Leahey, Tricia M; Crowther, Janis H; Ciesla, Jeffrey A

    2011-06-01

    This research examined the effects of naturally occurring appearance comparisons on women's affect, body satisfaction, and compensatory cognitions and behaviors. Using ecological momentary assessment, women with high body dissatisfaction and eating pathology (EPHB), high body dissatisfaction (HB), or low body dissatisfaction (LB) recorded their reactions to appearance-focused social comparisons. EPHB and HB women made more upward appearance comparisons than LB women. All women experienced negative emotions and cognitions after upward comparisons, including increased guilt, body dissatisfaction, and thoughts of dieting. EPHB women were most negatively affected by comparisons; they experienced more intense negative emotions, more thoughts of dieting/exercising, and an increase in eating-disordered behavior after upward comparisons. HB women experienced more negative affective consequences and thoughts of dieting than LB women. Results are consistent with social comparison theory and provide important information that may be used to inform eating disorder treatment and prevention efforts. PMID:21496506

  1. Alcoholics Anonymous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Barbados Belarus Belgium Bermuda Bolivia Brazil Cambodia Cayman Islands Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Cyprus Czech ... Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Estonia Faroe Islands Finland France French Polynesia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala ...

  2. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  3. Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Final report: Report period, 15 April 1993--15 April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    This Report concludes the DOE Human Genome Program project, ``Identification of Genes in Anonymous DNA Sequence.`` The central goals of this project have been (1) understanding the problem of identifying genes in anonymous sequences, and (2) development of tools, primarily the automated identification system gm, for identifying genes. The activities supported under the previous award are summarized here to provide a single complete report on the activities supported as part of the project from its inception to its completion.

  4. The importance of community consultation and social support in adhering to an obesity reduction program: results from the Healthy Weights Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla R

    2015-01-01

    Background Few community-based obesity reduction programs have been evaluated. After 153 community consultations, the City of Moose Jaw, SK, Canada, decided to initiate a free comprehensive program. The initiative included 71 letters of support from the Mayor, every family physician, cardiologist, and internist in the city, and every relevant community group including the Heart and Stroke Foundation, the Canadian Cancer Society, and the Public Health Agency of Canada. Objective To promote strong adherence while positively influencing a wide range of physical and mental health variables measured through objective assessment or validated surveys. Methods The only inclusion criterion was that the individuals must be obese adults (body mass index >30 kg/m2). Participants were requested to sign up with a “buddy” who was also obese and identify three family members or friends to sign a social support contract. During the initial 12 weeks, each individual received 60 group exercise sessions, 12 group cognitive behavioral therapy sessions, and 12 group dietary sessions with licensed professionals. During the second 12-week period, maintenance therapy included 12 group exercise sessions (24 weeks in total). Results To date, 243 people have been referred with 229 starting. Among those who started, 183 completed the program (79.9%), while 15 quit for medical reasons and 31 quit for personal reasons. Mean objective reductions included the following: 31.0 lbs of body fat, 3.9% body fat, 2.9 in from the waist, 2.3 in from the hip, blood cholesterol by 0.5 mmol/L, systolic blood pressure by 5.9 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure by 3.2 mmHg (all P<0.000). There were no changes in blood sugar levels. There was also statistically significant differences in aerobic fitness, self-report health, quality of life measured by Short Form-36, and depressed mood measured by Beck Depression Inventory-II (all P<0.000). Independent risk factors for not completing the program were not

  5. Part of the Job? Workplace Violence in Massachusetts Social Service Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelnick, Jennifer R.; Slayter, Elspeth; Flanzbaum, Beth; Butler, Nanci Ginty; Domingo, Beryl; Perlstein, Judith; Trust, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Workplace violence is a serious and surprisingly understudied occupational hazard in social service settings. The authors of this study conducted an anonymous, Internet-based survey of Massachusetts social service agencies to estimate the incidence of physical assault and verbal threat of violence in social service agencies, understand how social…

  6. Faithful but Different: Clinical Social Workers Speak Out about Career Motivation and Professional Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Carolyn; Maschi, Tina; O'Brien, Helen; Morgen, Keith; Ward, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe licensed clinical social workers' (LCSWs) professional motivation to pursue a social work career and the decision to enter clinical practice. It used a probability sample of 245 New Jersey LCSWs and the Social Work Values Survey as part of an anonymous self-administered mail survey. Descriptive analyses…

  7. Blinded Anonymization: a method for evaluating cancer prevention programs under restrictive data protection regulations.

    PubMed

    Bartholomäus, Sebastian; Hense, Hans Werner; Heidinger, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating cancer prevention programs requires collecting and linking data on a case specific level from multiple sources of the healthcare system. Therefore, one has to comply with data protection regulations which are restrictive in Germany and will likely become stricter in Europe in general. To facilitate the mortality evaluation of the German mammography screening program, with more than 10 Million eligible women, we developed a method that does not require written individual consent and is compliant to existing privacy regulations. Our setup is composed of different data owners, a data collection center (DCC) and an evaluation center (EC). Each data owner uses a dedicated software that preprocesses plain-text personal identifiers (IDAT) and plaintext evaluation data (EDAT) in such a way that only irreversibly encrypted record assignment numbers (RAN) and pre-aggregated, reversibly encrypted EDAT are transmitted to the DCC. The DCC uses the RANs to perform a probabilistic record linkage which is based on an established and evaluated algorithm. For potentially identifying attributes within the EDAT ('quasi-identifiers'), we developed a novel process, named 'blinded anonymization'. It allows selecting a specific generalization from the pre-processed and encrypted attribute aggregations, to create a new data set with assured k-anonymity, without using any plain-text information. The anonymized data is transferred to the EC where the EDAT is decrypted and used for evaluation. Our concept was approved by German data protection authorities. We implemented a prototype and tested it with more than 1.5 Million simulated records, containing realistically distributed IDAT. The core processes worked well with regard to performance parameters. We created different generalizations and calculated the respective suppression rates. We discuss modalities, implications and limitations for large data sets in the cancer registry domain, as well as approaches for further

  8. Feedback from recently returned veterans on an anonymous web-based brief alcohol intervention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) are at increased risk for alcohol misuse, and innovative methods are needed to improve their access to alcohol screening and brief interventions (SBI). This study adapted an electronic SBI (e-SBI) website shown to be efficacious in college students for OEF/OIF veterans and reported findings from interviews with OEF/OIF veterans about their impressions of the e-SBI. Methods Outpatient veterans of OEF/OIF who drank ≥3 days in the past week were recruited from a US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Deployment Health Clinic waiting room. Veterans privately pretested the anonymous e-SBI then completed individual semistructured audio-recorded interviews. Their responses were analyzed using template analysis to explore domains identified a priori as well as emergent domains. Results During interviews, all nine OEF/OIF veterans (1 woman and 8 men) indicated they had received feedback for risky alcohol consumption. Participants generally liked the standard-drinks image, alcohol-related caloric and monetary feedback, and the website’s brevity and anonymity (a priori domains). They also experienced challenges with portions of the e-SBI assessment and viewed feedback regarding alcohol risk and normative drinking as problematic, but described potential benefits derived from the e-SBI (emergent domains). The most appealing e-SBIs would ensure anonymity and provide personalized transparent feedback about alcohol-related risk, consideration of the context for drinking, strategies to reduce drinking, and additional resources for veterans with more severe alcohol misuse. Conclusions Results of this qualitative exploratory study suggest e-SBI may be an acceptable strategy for increasing OEF/OIF veteran access to evidenced-based alcohol SBI. PMID:23186354

  9. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss-rapid weight loss; Overweight-rapid weight loss; Obesity-rapid weight loss; Diet-rapid weight loss ... for people who have health problems because of obesity. For these people, losing a lot of weight ...

  10. Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator You are here Home / Online Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Print Share Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Intro ...

  11. Patient Perspectives on Sharing Anonymized Personal Health Data Using a Digital System for Dynamic Consent and Research Feedback: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, Edgar A; Lund, David; Kaye, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic health records are widely acknowledged to provide an important opportunity to anonymize patient-level health care data and collate across populations to support research. Nonetheless, in the wake of public and policy concerns about security and inappropriate use of data, conventional approaches toward data governance may no longer be sufficient to respect and protect individual privacy. One proposed solution to improve transparency and public trust is known as Dynamic Consent, which uses information technology to facilitate a more explicit and accessible opportunity to opt out. In this case, patients can tailor preferences about whom they share their data with and can change their preferences reliably at any time. Furthermore, electronic systems provide opportunities for informing patients about data recipients and the results of research to which their data have contributed. Objective To explore patient perspectives on the use of anonymized health care data for research purposes. To evaluate patient perceptions of a Dynamic Consent model and electronic system to enable and implement ongoing communication and collaboration between patients and researchers. Methods A total of 26 qualitative interviews and three focus groups were conducted that included a video presentation explaining the reuse of anonymized electronic patient records for research. Slides and tablet devices were used to introduce the Dynamic Consent system for discussion. A total of 35 patients with chronic rheumatic disease with varying levels of illness and social deprivation were recruited from a rheumatology outpatient clinic; 5 participants were recruited from a patient and public involvement health research network. Results Patients were supportive of sharing their anonymized electronic patient record for research, but noted a lack of transparency and awareness around the use of data, making it difficult to secure public trust. While there were general concerns about

  12. An arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping with signer anonymity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Fan, Ming-Yu; Wang, Guang-Wei

    2012-12-01

    In this paper an arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping is proposed. In this scheme a message to be signed is coded with unitary operators. Combining quantum measurement with quantum encryption, the signer can generate the signature for a given message. Combining the entangled states generated by the TTP's Bell measurement with the signature information, the verifier can verify the authentication of a signature through a single quantum state measurement. Compared with previous schemes, our scheme is more efficient and less complex, furthermore, our scheme can ensure the anonymity of the signer.

  13. An improved biometrics-based remote user authentication scheme with user anonymity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumari, Saru

    2013-01-01

    The authors review the biometrics-based user authentication scheme proposed by An in 2012. The authors show that there exist loopholes in the scheme which are detrimental for its security. Therefore the authors propose an improved scheme eradicating the flaws of An's scheme. Then a detailed security analysis of the proposed scheme is presented followed by its efficiency comparison. The proposed scheme not only withstands security problems found in An's scheme but also provides some extra features with mere addition of only two hash operations. The proposed scheme allows user to freely change his password and also provides user anonymity with untraceability. PMID:24350272

  14. Photometry of the 'Seyfert Sextet' /VV 115/ and the anonymous galaxy 1558.2 + 2100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martins, D. H.; Chincarini, G.

    1976-01-01

    Photometric observations of the Seyfert Sextet (VV 115) are analyzed. Apparent integrated magnitudes are derived relative to the sky brightness, and isophotal maps are given for the field. No evidence for interaction between NGC 6027 and d is found. Luminosity profiles are given for NGC 6027, a, b, and d, with the d profile having been corrected for seeing effects in one dimension. The corrected profile parameters favor the interpretation of d as a highly luminous background galaxy at its cosmological distance. The nearby anonymous galaxy 1558.2 + 2100 is similarly studied, with no clear evidence of photometric peculiarities detected. Its interaction with the Seyfert Sextet appears to be excluded.

  15. Influence of the social and economical factors on the indicators of height and weight among the pupils, residents of the city and villages in eastern Georgia (Kakheti region).

    PubMed

    Kharabadze, M; Khetsuriani, R; Betaneli, M; Mekokishvili, L; Chkuaseli, N

    2012-11-01

    The research has been held in the city and its villages among schoolgirls and schoolboys out of them are city (n=613) and village (n=241) residents. The body height and mass, was calculated according to standard methods. Also research based on questionnaires has been held .This research determines social-economic statement, physical activities and diets of students. Statistical processing of data was done with the help of statistic method ANOVA. Data compared to WHO child grows standard percentage-charts, and to percentile diagram made for georgian children and adolescents in 2001-2003. Concerning the height indexes stunting was noticed among the village resident girls at the age 9-14 (8,9%) and 9-11 year old boys (3,8%) and it also prevails among girls that require further researches to reveal reasons. Also the amount of law height index among girls and boys is high in the cities as well as villages although it prevails in the villages, mostly among boys (30, 8%). Comparing with village residents high height index prevails among the city resident boys (18,7%) and among girls (11, 9%), and higher than 97 percentile indexes is revealed among 4,9% of boys living in the city. Mass deficiency was reveled among the city girls 2,4 % and the village resident girls 5,1%; accordingly it is prevailed among girls living in the villages. Mass deficiency among the boys was only revealed among the city residents and it was 3,9 %. According to our data, decrease of the body mass average index is fixed among girls but among the boys it increase. and among 2,4% of girls. So village resident girls are shorter and thinner, but boys are short and overweight, comparing with the city residents. Research based on questionnaires showed that city resident school children food ration, whose social-economic condition is better, is rich with proteins, when majority of village residents food ration lack proteins and mostly consist of those products which are rich of carbohydrates. According to

  16. Security improvement on an anonymous key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Kaiping; Hong, Peilin

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, Tseng et al. proposed a password sharing and chaotic map based key agreement protocol (Tseng et al.'s protocol). They claimed that the protocol provided mutual authentication between a server and a user, and allowed the user to anonymously interact with the server to establish a shared session key. However, in 2011, Niu et al. have proved that Tseng et al.'s protocol cannot guarantee user anonymity and protocol security when there is an internal adversary who is a legitimate user. Also it cannot provide perfect forward secrecy. Then Niu et al. introduced a trust third party (TTP) into their protocol designing (Niu et al.'s protocol). But according to our research, Niu et al.'s protocol is found to have several unsatisfactory drawbacks. Based on reconsidering Tseng et al.'s protocol without introducing TTP, we give some improvements to meet the original security and performance requirements. Meanwhile our proposed protocol overcomes the security flaws of Tseng et al.'s protocol.

  17. A robust uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fengtong

    2013-12-01

    User authentication plays an important role to protect resources or services from being accessed by unauthorized users. In a recent paper, Das et al. proposed a secure and efficient uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. This scheme uses three factors, e.g. biometrics, password, and smart card, to protect the security. It protects user privacy and is believed to have many abilities to resist a range of network attacks, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is compromised. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das et al.'s scheme, and show that the scheme is in fact insecure against the replay attack, user impersonation attacks and off-line guessing attacks. Then, we also propose a robust uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. Compared with the existing schemes, our protocol uses a different user authentication mechanism to resist replay attack. We show that our proposed scheme can provide stronger security than previous protocols. Furthermore, we demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme through the BAN (Burrows, Abadi, and Needham) logic. PMID:24146334

  18. A user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zuowen

    2014-03-01

    The telecare medicine information system enables the patients gain health monitoring at home and access medical services over internet or mobile networks. In recent years, the schemes based on cryptography have been proposed to address the security and privacy issues in the telecare medicine information systems. However, many schemes are insecure or they have low efficiency. Recently, Awasthi and Srivastava proposed a three-factor authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems. In this paper, we show that their scheme is vulnerable to the reflection attacks. Furthermore, it fails to provide three-factor security and the user anonymity. We propose a new three-factor authentication scheme for the telecare medicine information systems. Detailed analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme provides mutual authentication, server not knowing password and freedom of password, biometric update and three-factor security. Moreover, the new scheme provides the user anonymity. As compared with the previous three-factor authentication schemes, the proposed scheme is more secure and practical. PMID:24643750

  19. Experimental comparisons of face-to-face and anonymous real-time team competition in a networked gaming learning environment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fu-Yun; Han, Chialing; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2008-08-01

    This study investigates the impact of anonymous, computerized, synchronized team competition on students' motivation, satisfaction, and interpersonal relationships. Sixty-eight fourth-graders participated in this study. A synchronous gaming learning system was developed to have dyads compete against each other in answering multiple-choice questions set in accordance with the school curriculum in two conditions (face-to-face and anonymous). The results showed that students who were exposed to the anonymous team competition condition responded significantly more positively than those in the face-to-face condition in terms of motivation and satisfaction at the 0.050 and 0.056 levels respectively. Although further studies regarding the effects of anonymous interaction in a networked gaming learning environment are imperative, the positive effects detected in this preliminary study indicate that anonymity is a viable feature for mitigating the negative effects that competition may inflict on motivation and satisfaction as reported in traditional face-to-face environments. PMID:18721101

  20. Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain.

    PubMed

    Elfhag, K; Rössner, S

    2005-02-01

    Weight loss is difficult to achieve and maintaining the weight loss is an even greater challenge. The identification of factors associated with weight loss maintenance can enhance our understanding for the behaviours and prerequisites that are crucial in sustaining a lowered body weight. In this paper we have reviewed the literature on factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain. We have used a definition of weight maintenance implying intentional weight loss that has subsequently been maintained for at least 6 months. According to our review, successful weight maintenance is associated with more initial weight loss, reaching a self-determined goal weight, having a physically active lifestyle, a regular meal rhythm including breakfast and healthier eating, control of over-eating and self-monitoring of behaviours. Weight maintenance is further associated with an internal motivation to lose weight, social support, better coping strategies and ability to handle life stress, self-efficacy, autonomy, assuming responsibility in life, and overall more psychological strength and stability. Factors that may pose a risk for weight regain include a history of weight cycling, disinhibited eating, binge eating, more hunger, eating in response to negative emotions and stress, and more passive reactions to problems. PMID:15655039

  1. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248

  2. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12–17 years old; 2007–2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a “promotion focus” (to show an attractive body), or a “prevention focus” (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were “Not at all” concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248

  3. Bystander's willingness to report theft, physical assault, and sexual assault: the impact of gender, anonymity, and relationship with the offender.

    PubMed

    Nicksa, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    This research examines bystander willingness to report three different crimes to the police or campus authorities among a college student sample (n = 295). Twelve original vignettes varied anonymity when reporting, bystander's relationship with the offender (friend or stranger), and crime type. A factorial analysis of variance showed that main effects were found for crime type, bystander's gender, and bystander's relationship with the offender; anonymity was not significant. The physical assault was the most likely to be reported (4.47), followed by theft (3.26), and sexual assault (2.36). Women were more likely than men to report each crime type, and bystanders who were good friends of the offender were less likely to report than strangers. No two- or three-way interactions were significant, but a significant four-way interaction indicated that anonymity, relationship with the offender, and bystander's gender predicted willingness to report for the sexual assault scenario. PMID:24142441

  4. Effects of picture and even-a-penny-will-help appeals on anonymous donations to charity.

    PubMed

    Perrine, R M; Heather, S

    2000-04-01

    The present research explored the effectiveness of a picture and the phrase "even a penny will help" on contributions to charity. Two experiments were conducted, one in the laboratory and one in the field. In both experiments the manipulation of a pleasant picture and the phrase created four types of signs: (1) picture-no phrase, (2) phrase-no picture, (3) picture-phrase, and (4) no picture-no phrase. In the field experiment patrons of local business anonymously put money in a donation box that displayed one of the four signs. In the laboratory experiment, 129 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to view one of the four signs placed on a donation box for a local charity. Analyses for both studies showed that more money was donated when the boxes displayed pictures. The phrase "even a penny will help" had no significant effect on donations. PMID:10840912

  5. GOblet: a platform for Gene Ontology annotation of anonymous sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Detlef; Lehrach, Hans; Hennig, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    GOblet is a comprehensive web server application providing the annotation of anonymous sequence data with Gene Ontology (GO) terms. It uses a variety of different protein databases (human, murines, invertebrates, plants, sp-trembl) and their respective GO mappings. The user selects the appropriate database and alignment threshold and thereafter submits single or multiple nucleotide or protein sequences. Results are shown in different ways, e.g. as survey statistics for the main GO categories for all sequences or as detailed results for each single sequence that has been submitted. In its newest version, GOblet allows the batch submission of sequences and provides an improved display of results with the aid of Java applets. All output data, together with the Java applet, are packed to a downloadable archive for local installation and analysis. GOblet can be accessed freely at http://goblet.molgen.mpg.de. PMID:15215401

  6. Effects of Cultural Orientation on Attitude Toward Anonymity in E-Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yingqin; Liu, Na; Lim, John

    The important role of attitude in the acceptance and diffusion of technology has been widely acknowledged. Greater research efforts have been called for examining the relationships between cultural variables and attitude toward technology. In this regard, this study investigates the impact of cultural orientation (focusing on an individual's degree of collectivism) on attitude toward e-collaboration technology. A theoretical model is proposed and subsequently tested using a questionnaire survey involving 236 data points. Self-reliance, competitive success, and group work orientation are found as significant indicators reflecting an individual's degree of collectivism, which in turn influences willingness to participate, evaluation of collaborative effort, and preference for anonymity feature. Subsequently, the three variables are found to affect perceptions about decision quality, enjoyment, uncertainty, and pressure in e-collaboration.

  7. Improvement of a uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Liu, Wenhao; Wang, Shengbao; Han, Lidong; Hu, Bin; Wu, Ting

    2014-09-01

    Patient's privacy-preserving, security and mutual authentication between patient and the medical server are the important mechanism in connected health care applications, such as telecare medical information systems and personally controlled health records systems. In 2013, Wen showed that Das et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to the replay attack, user impersonation attacks and off-line guessing attacks, and then proposed an improved scheme using biometrics, password and smart card to overcome these weaknesses. However, we show that Wen's scheme is still vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks, does not provide user's anonymity and perfect forward secrecy. Further, we propose an improved scheme to fix these weaknesses, and use the applied pi calculus based formal verification tool ProVerif to prove the security and authentication. PMID:24994512

  8. Safe2Tell® : an anonymous, 24/7 reporting system for preventing school violence.

    PubMed

    Payne, Susan R T; Elliott, Delbert S

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread agreement that many school shootings could be prevented if authorities were informed that a student was planning or preparing to carry out an attack. A universal problem is that young people are highly reluctant to report on their peers. This code of silence represents a major barrier to prevention efforts. In response to the Columbine shooting, the state of Colorado established the Safe2Tell® anonymous, 24/7 reporting system for receiving and forwarding threats of violence, bullying, and other concerns. This article describes how the program has grown to the point that it now receives more than 100 calls per month. A series of case examples illustrates its success in responding to threatening situations, including twenty-eight potential school attacks. PMID:21491576

  9. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Jayant; Dutta, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008) at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%). Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  10. Suicidal ideation and sex differences in relation to 18 major psychiatric disorders in college and university students: anonymous web-based assessment.

    PubMed

    Tupler, Larry A; Hong, Jennifer Y; Gibori, Ron; Blitchington, Timothy F; Krishnan, K Ranga R

    2015-04-01

    College/university students are at high risk for psychiatric disorder and suicide secondary to age, campus stressors, and social pressures. We therefore report frequencies of 18 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision disorders and suicidal ideation (SI) acquired anonymously from a Web site receiving 113,181 visits from more than 1,500 predominantly US colleges/universities. Depression was foremost, followed by social phobia and eating disorders. Substance-related disorders were less frequent than expected. SI occurred in 47.1% of students, with women evidencing somewhat stronger findings than men. SI was more associated with substance, bipolar, and panic disorders than depression. Self-reported emotional volatility exceeded thoughts of self-harm for all disorders. The results support two subtypes of suicide risk: dysphoric premeditators and those primarily angry and/or impulsive. Clinicians and researchers should therefore consider suicide as an independent psychopathological phenomenon that includes emotional volatility as a risk factor and thoroughly evaluate psychiatric disorders potentially conferring greater suicidal propensity than depression. PMID:25784307

  11. Implementing Social Norm Pedagogy to Impact Students' Personal Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Mary M.; Stover, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative exploratory research study describes the incorporation of Social Norms as a unique pedagogical method in an undergraduate Health Behaviors course (N = 32). With the use of an audience response system (clickers), students anonymously answered health-behavior related questions. Aggregate data from the class was compared to state…

  12. Phenomenological Characteristics, Social Problems, and the Economic Impact Associated with Chronic Skin Picking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors collected data on the demographic characteristics, phenomenology, and social and economic impact of skin picking. A total of 92 participants completed an anonymous, Internet-based survey through a link to the Trichotillomania Learning Center's home page. Results indicated that skin pickers experienced social,…

  13. Jewish Israeli Social Work Students' Attitudes to the Prospect of Being Assigned an Israeli Arab Client

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Nehami

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to examine implications of political conflicts in social work with clients from the rival group. Using an anonymous, open-ended questionnaire, this study examines responses of 78 Jewish Israeli social work students to the hypothetical prospect of treating an Israeli Arab client. The vast majority expected cultural and political…

  14. Denial of AOD Use: An Issue for Social Workers and the Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Darcy Clay

    2003-01-01

    Investigated AOD (alcohol and other drug) use among social workers, examined its potential negative professional consequences and explored the denial that may facilitate AOD abuse. Results are reported from an anonymous survey of 751 NASW members in North Carolina. Research and practice implications for social workers, supervisors, and the…

  15. Questioning the Use of Alcoholics Anonymous with College Students: Is an Old Concept the Only Alternative for a New Generation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Ron, Sr.

    2000-01-01

    The recommended treatment for alcoholism in the past typically has been participation in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). However, the use of AA on college campuses has not been proven effective. With a new generation comes the opportunity to rethink this approach to the problem of alcohol abuse on campuses and to incorporate new methods in counseling…

  16. Anonymous nuclear markers data supporting species tree phylogeny and divergence time estimates in a cactus species complex in South America.

    PubMed

    Perez, Manolo F; Carstens, Bryan C; Rodrigues, Gustavo L; Moraes, Evandro M

    2016-03-01

    Supportive data related to the article "Anonymous nuclear markers reveal taxonomic incongruence and long-term disjunction in a cactus species complex with continental-island distribution in South America" (Perez et al., 2016) [1]. Here, we present pyrosequencing results, primer sequences, a cpDNA phylogeny, and a species tree phylogeny. PMID:26900589

  17. Attachment Styles and Changes among Women Members of Overeaters Anonymous Who Have Recovered from Binge-Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertz, Pnina; Addad, Moshe; Ronel, Natti

    2012-01-01

    In Overeaters Anonymous (OA), the 12-step self-help program for compulsive overeaters, binge eating is regarded as a physical, spiritual, and emotional disorder. Consequently, the program proposes recovery through the adoption of a lifestyle that leads to physical, spiritual, and emotional well-being. A qualitative phenomenological study that…

  18. Location Prediction Based on Transition Probability Matrices Constructing from Sequential Rules for Spatial-Temporal K-Anonymity Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao; Zhu, Yunhong; Wu, Chenxue

    2016-01-01

    Spatial-temporal k-anonymity has become a mainstream approach among techniques for protection of users’ privacy in location-based services (LBS) applications, and has been applied to several variants such as LBS snapshot queries and continuous queries. Analyzing large-scale spatial-temporal anonymity sets may benefit several LBS applications. In this paper, we propose two location prediction methods based on transition probability matrices constructing from sequential rules for spatial-temporal k-anonymity dataset. First, we define single-step sequential rules mined from sequential spatial-temporal k-anonymity datasets generated from continuous LBS queries for multiple users. We then construct transition probability matrices from mined single-step sequential rules, and normalize the transition probabilities in the transition matrices. Next, we regard a mobility model for an LBS requester as a stationary stochastic process and compute the n-step transition probability matrices by raising the normalized transition probability matrices to the power n. Furthermore, we propose two location prediction methods: rough prediction and accurate prediction. The former achieves the probabilities of arriving at target locations along simple paths those include only current locations, target locations and transition steps. By iteratively combining the probabilities for simple paths with n steps and the probabilities for detailed paths with n-1 steps, the latter method calculates transition probabilities for detailed paths with n steps from current locations to target locations. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments, and correctness and flexibility of our proposed algorithm have been verified. PMID:27508502

  19. An Anonymous Survey of Psychosomatic Medicine Fellowship Directors regarding Breaches of Contracts and a Proposal for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, James L.; Bialer, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied how often applicants accept positions at more than one program, or programs offer positions to applicants who have already signed contracts with other programs. Methods: An anonymous survey was distributed to all psychosomatic medicine fellowship program directors. Results: It is fairly common for applicants to sign…

  20. Alcoholics Anonymous and Relapse Prevention as Maintenance Strategies After Conjoint Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Men: 18-Month Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety men with alcohol problems and their female partners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient conjoint treatments: alcohol behavioral couples therapy (ABCT), ABCT with relapse prevention techniques (RP/ABCT), or ABCT with interventions encouraging Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement (AA/ABCT). Couples were followed for 18 months after…

  1. Location Prediction Based on Transition Probability Matrices Constructing from Sequential Rules for Spatial-Temporal K-Anonymity Dataset.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haitao; Chen, Zewei; Liu, Zhao; Zhu, Yunhong; Wu, Chenxue

    2016-01-01

    Spatial-temporal k-anonymity has become a mainstream approach among techniques for protection of users' privacy in location-based services (LBS) applications, and has been applied to several variants such as LBS snapshot queries and continuous queries. Analyzing large-scale spatial-temporal anonymity sets may benefit several LBS applications. In this paper, we propose two location prediction methods based on transition probability matrices constructing from sequential rules for spatial-temporal k-anonymity dataset. First, we define single-step sequential rules mined from sequential spatial-temporal k-anonymity datasets generated from continuous LBS queries for multiple users. We then construct transition probability matrices from mined single-step sequential rules, and normalize the transition probabilities in the transition matrices. Next, we regard a mobility model for an LBS requester as a stationary stochastic process and compute the n-step transition probability matrices by raising the normalized transition probability matrices to the power n. Furthermore, we propose two location prediction methods: rough prediction and accurate prediction. The former achieves the probabilities of arriving at target locations along simple paths those include only current locations, target locations and transition steps. By iteratively combining the probabilities for simple paths with n steps and the probabilities for detailed paths with n-1 steps, the latter method calculates transition probabilities for detailed paths with n steps from current locations to target locations. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments, and correctness and flexibility of our proposed algorithm have been verified. PMID:27508502

  2. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  3. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  4. Assessing Your Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measure and Interpret Weight Status Adult Body Mass Index or BMI Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person's weight in kilograms divided ... finding your height and weight in this BMI Index Chart 1 . If your BMI is less than ...

  5. Prevalence of disease related prion protein in anonymous tonsil specimens in Britain: cross sectional opportunistic survey

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Carole M; Andrews, Nick; Vogliqi, Kelly; Mallinson, Gary; Kaisar, Maria; Hilton, David A; Ironside, James W; Edwards, Philip; McCardle, Linda M; Ritchie, Diane L; Dabaghian, Reza; Ambrose, Helen E; Gill, O Noel

    2009-01-01

    Objective To establish with improved accuracy the prevalence of disease related prion protein (PrPCJD) in the population of Britain and thereby guide a proportionate public health response to limit the threat of healthcare associated transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Design Cross sectional opportunistic survey. Study samples Anonymised tonsil pairs removed at elective tonsillectomy throughout England and Scotland. Setting National anonymous tissue archive for England and Scotland. Main outcome measure Presence of PrPCJD determined by using two enzyme immunoassays based on different analytical principles, with further investigation by immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting of any samples reactive in either assay. Results Testing of 63 007 samples was completed by the end of September 2008. Of these, 12 753 were from the birth cohort in which most vCJD cases have arisen (1961-85) and 19 908 were from the 1986-95 cohort that would have been also exposed to bovine spongiform encephalopathy through infected meat or meat products. None of the samples tested was unequivocally reactive in both enzyme immunoassays. Only two samples were reactive in one or other enzyme immunoassay and equivocal in the other, and nine samples were equivocally reactive in both enzyme immunoassays. Two hundred and seventy six samples were initially reactive in one or other enzyme immunoassay; the repeat reactivity rate was 15% or less, depending on the enzyme immunoassay and cut-off definition. None of the samples (including all the 276 initially reactive in enzyme immunoassay) that were investigated by immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting was positive for the presence of PrPCJD. Conclusions The observed prevalence of PrPCJD in tonsils from the 1961-95 combined birth cohort was 0/32 661 with a 95% confidence interval of 0 to 113 per million. In the 1961-85 cohort, the prevalence of zero with a 95% confidence interval of 0 to 289 per million was lower than, but

  6. Weighting Relations Using Web Search Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Mizuki; Matsuo, Yutaka

    Measuring the weight of the relation between a pair of entities is necessary to use social networks for various purposes. Intuitively, a pair of entities has a stronger relation than another. It should therefore be weighted higher. We propose a method, using a Web search engine, to compute the weight of the relation existing between a pair of entities. Our method receives a pair of entities and various relations that exist between entities as input. It then outputs the weighted value for the pair of entities. The method explores how search engine results can be used as evidence for how strongly the two entities pertain to the relation.

  7. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  8. Parents' perception of self-advocacy of children with myositis: an anonymous online survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with complex medical issues experience barriers to the transition of care from pediatric to adult providers. We sought to identify these barriers by elucidating the experiences of patients with idiopathic inflammatory muscle disorders. Methods We collected anonymous survey data using an online website. Patients and their families were solicited from the US and Canada through established clinics for children with idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases as well as with the aid of a nonprofit organization for the benefit of such individuals. The parents of 45 older children/young adults suffering from idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases were surveyed. As a basis of comparison, we similarly collected data from the parents of 207 younger children with inflammatory muscle diseases. The survey assessed transition of care issues confronting families of children and young adults with chronic juvenile myositis. Results Regardless of age of the patient, respondents were unlikely to have a designated health care provider assigned to aid in transition of care and were unlikely to be aware of a posted policy concerning transition of care at their pediatrician's office. Additionally, regardless of age, patients and their families were unlikely to have a written plan for moving to adult care. Conclusions We identified deficiencies in the health care experiences of families as pertain to knowledge, self-advocacy, policy, and vocational readiness. Moreover, as children with complex medical issues grow up, parents attribute less self-advocacy to their children's level of independence. PMID:21649897

  9. [Through her anonymous works, Madame Thiroux d'Arconville, a woman writer and an enlightened chemist].

    PubMed

    Bardez, Elisabeth

    2009-10-01

    Self-taught and polygraph, philanthropist and moralist, Madame Thiroux d'Arconville (1720-1805) published thirty works or so, all of them anonymously. She devoted herself to science, in particular to chemistry, for about ten years. She translated two books from English, improving them with a number of useful notes: Robert Dossie's The Elaboratory laid open and Peter Shaw's Chemical lectures. In the latter book, she added a long preliminary discourse which amounts to a history of applied chemistry to arts. She also carried out the more than 300 experiments on the preservation of meat from putrefaction with the aim to obtain a theory on matter transformation, which was a subject of debate among physiologists and philosophers of her time. Her results were published in 1766 in the Essai pour servir à l'histoire de la putréfaction. From the analysis of her texts, both her large culture and her scientific qualities and ambition can be emphasized. PMID:20481121

  10. Cryptanalysis and improvement of a user authentication scheme preserving uniqueness and anonymity for connected health care.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lili; Wu, Fan

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, connected health care applications are used more and more in the world. Service through the applications can save the patients' time and expense, such as telecare medical information system (TMIS) and integrated electronic patient record (EPR) information system. In the applications, preserving patients' privacy, transmitting messages securely and keeping mutual authentication should all be paid attention. Many authentication schemes have been proposed to make a secure communicating environment. Recently Xie et al. showed that Wen's scheme was insecure because it was under the off-line password guessing attack and without user anonymity and forward security. They gave a new three-factor authentication scheme and claimed that it was secure. However, we find that Xie et al's scheme is vulnerable to the De-synchronization attack and the server has too much storage burden in the scheme. Then we present an improved scheme which overcomes the usual weaknesses and keeps ordinary security characters. Compared with recent schemes of the same kind, our scheme is secure and practical. PMID:25631840

  11. The universality of a self-help program of American origin: narcotics anonymous in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ronel, N

    1997-01-01

    A phenomenological field study of Narcotics Anonymous (NA) in Israel focused on the way a self-help program, based on American Christian ideology was adopted in Israel. Acculturation problems were anticipated, due to cultural, demographic and religious differences. Participant observations and open-ended interviews supplied the raw data. Emphasis was placed on the factors and processes definable as typically American: voluntarism and pragmatism, personal sharing as a basis for relationships, spiritual rather than religious faith, the idea of a "personal God" guiding individuals, faith in God without religious tradition and formal ritualism. The results showed that, for the substance-dependents, the issue is generally irrelevant, and they accepted most "American" components of the program unquestioningly. However, two discrete features of Christian ideology required conscious incorporation by NA's Israeli members: (1) the concept of a "Loving God" who is non-punitive, which for many members was opposed to their traditions and upbringing, and (2) kneeling to pray, a recommendation which many members initially found problematic. The conclusion denotes a factor facilitating the transfer of therapeutic programs from one culture to another--that of personal suffering as a universal domain. It transcends all cultural boundaries and generates willingness to accept foreign concepts which reveal suffering and propose a pragmatic way to end it. PMID:9358602

  12. Identification and characterization of anonymous nuclear markers for the double-striped cockroach, Blattella bisignata.

    PubMed

    Ren, Q-P; Fan, Z; Zhou, X-M; Jiang, G-F; Wang, Y-T; Liu, Y-X

    2013-02-01

    During the last decade, multilocus analysis has gradually become a powerful tool for the studies of population genetics and phylogeography. The double-striped cockroach, Blattella bisignata, is endemic to southeast Asia, and there is currently little genetic information available for the species. We chose it as the target species to investigate a biodiversity hotspot in southwest China. Here, we report the identification and characterization of 11 single-copy anonymous nuclear markers with an average length of 378bp. These loci, isolated from a genomic library of B. bisignata, can amplify in two additional Blattella species (B. germanica and B. lituricollis). While testing these markers in representative species of Blattellidae, Blattidae and Epilampridae, some of them can cross-amplify successfully. After sequencing 30 individuals collected from southern China per locus, we found relatively high variability (approximately 3.6 SNPs per 100bp). Finally, a small-scale study was also performed to show that these markers do indeed fulfill the expectations as phylogeographic markers. PMID:22697889

  13. Talking out of alcoholism: results from a survey of Alcoholics Anonymous in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Stuart; Robinson, David

    1978-01-01

    A national survey of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) produced data on the way AA members talk about their experiences and the role this plays in achieving and maintaining sobriety. The survey was based on self-completion questionnaires given to one in four members attending meetings of a one in ten random sample of AA groups operating in England and Wales. Only 1·8 per cent of current members had never spoken at a meeting, while 62·5 per cent spoke regularly. Hearing other people's personal stories was felt by members to be the most useful part of AA meetings. At some time 81·9 per cent of members had told their own story and there was some relationship between dropping out and not telling personal stories. The great majority of those who had told stories reported changes in their content over time; 58·0 per cent of these changes involved a shift of emphasis from drinking to recovery. The results suggest that AA enables people to change the way they perceive and evaluate themselves. It enables them to talk themselves out of alcoholism. PMID:702456

  14. Capturing genomic signatures of DNA sequence variation using a standard anonymous microarray platform

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, C. H.; Kua, C. S.; Lobenhofer, E. K.; Hurban, P.

    2006-01-01

    Comparative genomics, using the model organism approach, has provided powerful insights into the structure and evolution of whole genomes. Unfortunately, only a small fraction of Earth's biodiversity will have its genome sequenced in the foreseeable future. Most wild organisms have radically different life histories and evolutionary genomics than current model systems. A novel technique is needed to expand comparative genomics to a wider range of organisms. Here, we describe a novel approach using an anonymous DNA microarray platform that gathers genomic samples of sequence variation from any organism. Oligonucleotide probe sequences placed on a custom 44 K array were 25 bp long and designed using a simple set of criteria to maximize their complexity and dispersion in sequence probability space. Using whole genomic samples from three known genomes (mouse, rat and human) and one unknown (Gonystylus bancanus), we demonstrate and validate its power, reliability, transitivity and sensitivity. Using two separate statistical analyses, a large numbers of genomic ‘indicator’ probes were discovered. The construction of a genomic signature database based upon this technique would allow virtual comparisons and simple queries could generate optimal subsets of markers to be used in large-scale assays, using simple downstream techniques. Biologists from a wide range of fields, studying almost any organism, could efficiently perform genomic comparisons, at potentially any phylogenetic level after performing a small number of standardized DNA microarray hybridizations. Possibilities for refining and expanding the approach are discussed. PMID:17000641

  15. A more secure anonymous user authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fengtong

    2014-05-01

    Secure and efficient user mutual authentication is an essential task for integrated electronic patient record (EPR) information system. Recently, several authentication schemes have been proposed to meet this requirement. In a recent paper, Lee et al. proposed an efficient and secure password-based authentication scheme used smart cards for the integrated EPR information system. This scheme is believed to have many abilities to resist a range of network attacks. Especially, they claimed that their scheme could resist lost smart card attack. However, we reanalyze the security of Lee et al.'s scheme, and show that it fails to protect off-line password guessing attack if the secret information stored in the smart card is compromised. This also renders that their scheme is insecure against user impersonation attacks. Then, we propose a new user authentication scheme for integrated EPR information systems based on the quadratic residues. The new scheme not only resists a range of network attacks but also provides user anonymity. We show that our proposed scheme can provide stronger security. PMID:24760224

  16. Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Annual performance report, February 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, C.A.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this project is the development of practical software to automate the identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences from the human, and other higher eukaryotic genomes. A software system for automated sequence analysis, gm (gene modeler) has been designed, implemented, tested, and distributed to several dozen laboratories worldwide. A significantly faster, more robust, and more flexible version of this software, gm 2.0 has now been completed, and is being tested by operational use to analyze human cosmid sequence data. A range of efforts to further understand the features of eukaryoyic gene sequences are also underway. This progress report also contains papers coming out of the project including the following: gm: a Tool for Exploratory Analysis of DNA Sequence Data; The Human THE-LTR(O) and MstII Interspersed Repeats are subfamilies of a single widely distruted highly variable repeat family; Information contents and dinucleotide compostions of plant intron sequences vary with evolutionary origin; Splicing signals in Drosophila: intron size, information content, and consensus sequences; Integration of automated sequence analysis into mapping and sequencing projects; Software for the C. elegans genome project.

  17. Brother-sister incest: data from anonymous computer-assisted self interviews.

    PubMed

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The other 1,230 served as controls. The victims of brother-sister incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures (e.g., more likely than the controls to endorse feeling like damaged goods, thinking that they had suffered psychological injury, and having undergone psychological treatment for childhood sexual abuse). However, victims of brother-sister incest also had significantly less problematic outcomes than victims of father-daughter incest on some measures (e.g., significantly less likely than the father-daughter incest victims to endorse feeling like damaged goods, thinking that they had suffered psychological injury, and having undergone psychological treatment for childhood sexual abuse). PMID:23590349

  18. A uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Fen; Yu, Shih-Hui; Shiao, Ding-Rui

    2013-04-01

    Connected health care provides new opportunities for improving financial and clinical performance. Many connected health care applications such as telecare medicine information system, personally controlled health records system, and patient monitoring have been proposed. Correct and quality care is the goal of connected heath care, and user authentication can ensure the legality of patients. After reviewing authentication schemes for connected health care applications, we find that many of them cannot protect patient privacy such that others can trace users/patients by the transmitted data. And the verification tokens used by these authentication schemes to authenticate users or servers are only password, smart card and RFID tag. Actually, these verification tokens are not unique and easy to copy. On the other hand, biometric characteristics, such as iris, face, voiceprint, fingerprint and so on, are unique, easy to be verified, and hard to be copied. In this paper, a biometrics-based user authentication scheme will be proposed to ensure uniqueness and anonymity at the same time. With the proposed scheme, only the legal user/patient himself/herself can access the remote server, and no one can trace him/her according to transmitted data. PMID:23321970

  19. [Utilization of anonymous HIV testing by the federal health office--developments and motives].

    PubMed

    Scheibner, J; Waldvogel, B

    1993-01-01

    In the state-run health office in Ulm a survey of the frequency of anonymous HIV-antibody tests was taken between 1985 to 1991, of the age and gender representation from 1988 to 1991, of the test motives from 1.1.1990 to 1.3.1991. The result was a regressive trend following the test boom of 1987 and 1988, which is becoming more and more stable. The relation of men and women has been amounting to 6:4 in the last four years; the proportion of women receding slightly but constantly. The main motive of being tested was finding out about a high-risk or potentially high-risk sexual contact, mostly at the beginning of a new partnership. The motive ranking second in frequency was the investigation of the consequences of blood exposure, mostly relating to medical work. The third place was taken by irrational anxieties as a test motive. The article discusses the fact that test at the beginning of a new partnership frequently have the meaning of a sacrifice and a symbol of bondage in combination with a vow to be faithful. In case of irrational anxieties about AIDS the test-counsellor gets a chance to diagnose a possibly neurotic development at a very early stage, so that painful and expensive chronification and generalisation could be stopped or eased. PMID:8435542

  20. An Anonymous User Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme without Pairings for Multiserver Architecture Using SCPKs

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qiaoyan; Li, Wenmin; Jin, Zhengping; Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    With advancement of computer community and widespread dissemination of network applications, users generally need multiple servers to provide different services. Accordingly, the multiserver architecture has been prevalent, and designing a secure and efficient remote user authentication under multiserver architecture becomes a nontrivial challenge. In last decade, various remote user authentication protocols have been put forward to correspond to the multi-server scenario requirements. However, these schemes suffered from certain security problems or their cost consumption exceeded users' own constrained ability. In this paper, we present an anonymous remote user authentication with key agreement scheme for multi-server architecture employing self-certified public keys without pairings. The proposed scheme can not only retain previous schemes' advantages but also achieve user privacy concern. Moreover, our proposal can gain higher efficiency by removing the pairings operation compared with the related schemes. Through analysis and comparison with the related schemes, we can say that our proposal is in accordance with the scenario requirements and feasible to the multi-server architecture. PMID:23844397

  1. Intuitive presentation of clinical forensic data using anonymous and person-specific 3D reference manikins.

    PubMed

    Urschler, Martin; Höller, Johannes; Bornik, Alexander; Paul, Tobias; Giretzlehner, Michael; Bischof, Horst; Yen, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2014-08-01

    The increasing use of CT/MR devices in forensic analysis motivates the need to present forensic findings from different sources in an intuitive reference visualization, with the aim of combining 3D volumetric images along with digital photographs of external findings into a 3D computer graphics model. This model allows a comprehensive presentation of forensic findings in court and enables comparative evaluation studies correlating data sources. The goal of this work was to investigate different methods to generate anonymous and patient-specific 3D models which may be used as reference visualizations. The issue of registering 3D volumetric as well as 2D photographic data to such 3D models is addressed to provide an intuitive context for injury documentation from arbitrary modalities. We present an image processing and visualization work-flow, discuss the major parts of this work-flow, compare the different investigated reference models, and show a number of cases studies that underline the suitability of the proposed work-flow for presenting forensically relevant information in 3D visualizations. PMID:24952238

  2. Gestational weight gain among Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain. PMID:23456347

  3. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  4. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight through diet and exercise or have serious health problems caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the ...

  5. PREVENTING WEIGHT REGAIN AFTER WEIGHT LOSS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For most dieters, a regaining of lost weight is an all too common experience. Indeed, virtually all interventions for weight loss show limited or even poor long-term effectiveness. This sobering reality was reflected in a comprehensive review of nonsurgical treatments of obesity conducted by the Ins...

  6. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ramos, José L.; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M. Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things. PMID:26140349

  7. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ramos, José L; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2015-01-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things. PMID:26140349

  8. Simple Algorithms for Distributed Leader Election in Anonymous Synchronous Rings and Complete Networks Inspired by Neural Development in Fruit Flies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Jeavons, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks is a very practical problem in distributed computing. Previous algorithms for this problem are generally designed for a classical message passing model where complex messages are exchanged. However, the need to send and receive complex messages makes such algorithms less practical for some real applications. We present some simple synchronous algorithms for distributed leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks that are inspired by the development of the neural system of the fruit fly. Our leader election algorithms all assume that only one-bit messages are broadcast by nodes in the network and processors are only able to distinguish between silence and the arrival of one or more messages. These restrictions allow implementations to use a simpler message-passing architecture. Even with these harsh restrictions our algorithms are shown to achieve good time and message complexity both analytically and experimentally. PMID:26173905

  9. Club Drug Use among Young Adults Frequenting Dance Clubs and Other Social Venues in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Halkitis, Perry N.; Bimbi, David S.

    2006-01-01

    A convenience sample of young adults (ages 18-25) in New York City was recruited to complete anonymous surveys in social venues (either dance clubs or other social settings, such as coffee shops and university "hangouts") regarding their use of "club drugs" (e.g., MDMA/Ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, crystal methamphetamine, cocaine, and LSD).…

  10. An Extended Chaotic Maps-Based Three-Party Password-Authenticated Key Agreement with User Anonymity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Yixian

    2016-01-01

    User anonymity is one of the key security features of an authenticated key agreement especially for communicating messages via an insecure network. Owing to the better properties and higher performance of chaotic theory, the chaotic maps have been introduced into the security schemes, and hence numerous key agreement schemes have been put forward under chaotic-maps. Recently, Xie et al. released an enhanced scheme under Farash et al.'s scheme and claimed their improvements could withstand the security loopholes pointed out in the scheme of Farash et al., i.e., resistance to the off-line password guessing and user impersonation attacks. Nevertheless, through our careful analysis, the improvements were released by Xie et al. still could not solve the problems troubled in Farash et al‥ Besides, Xie et al.'s improvements failed to achieve the user anonymity and the session key security. With the purpose of eliminating the security risks of the scheme of Xie et al., we design an anonymous password-based three-party authenticated key agreement under chaotic maps. Both the formal analysis and the formal security verification using AVISPA are presented. Also, BAN logic is used to show the correctness of the enhancements. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the design thwarts most of the common attacks. We also make a comparison between the recent chaotic-maps based schemes and our enhancements in terms of performance. PMID:27101305

  11. An Extended Chaotic Maps-Based Three-Party Password-Authenticated Key Agreement with User Anonymity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Yixian

    2016-01-01

    User anonymity is one of the key security features of an authenticated key agreement especially for communicating messages via an insecure network. Owing to the better properties and higher performance of chaotic theory, the chaotic maps have been introduced into the security schemes, and hence numerous key agreement schemes have been put forward under chaotic-maps. Recently, Xie et al. released an enhanced scheme under Farash et al.’s scheme and claimed their improvements could withstand the security loopholes pointed out in the scheme of Farash et al., i.e., resistance to the off-line password guessing and user impersonation attacks. Nevertheless, through our careful analysis, the improvements were released by Xie et al. still could not solve the problems troubled in Farash et al‥ Besides, Xie et al.’s improvements failed to achieve the user anonymity and the session key security. With the purpose of eliminating the security risks of the scheme of Xie et al., we design an anonymous password-based three-party authenticated key agreement under chaotic maps. Both the formal analysis and the formal security verification using AVISPA are presented. Also, BAN logic is used to show the correctness of the enhancements. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the design thwarts most of the common attacks. We also make a comparison between the recent chaotic-maps based schemes and our enhancements in terms of performance. PMID:27101305

  12. How to interpret an anonymous bacterial genome: machine learning approach to gene identification.

    PubMed

    Hayes, W S; Borodovsky, M

    1998-11-01

    In this report we address the problem of accurate statistical modeling of DNA sequences, either coding or noncoding, for a bacterial species whose genome (or a large portion) was sequenced but not yet characterized experimentally. Availability of these models is critical for successful solution of the genome annotation task by statistical methods of gene finding. We present the method, GeneMark-Genesis, which learns the parameters of Markov models of protein-coding and noncoding regions from anonymous bacterial genomic sequence. These models are subsequently used in the GeneMark and GeneMark.hmm gene-finding programs. Although there is basically one model of a noncoding region for a given genome, several models of protein-coding region are automatically obtained by GeneMark-Genesis. The diversity of protein-coding models reflects the diversity of oligonucleotide compositions, particularly the diversity of codon usage strategies observed in genes from one and the same genome. In the simplest and the most important case, there are just two gene models-typical and atypical ones. We show that the atypical model allows one to predict genes that escape identification by the typical model. Many genes predicted by the atypical model appear to be horizontally transferred genes. The early versions of GeneMark-Genesis were used for annotating the genomes of Methanoccocus jannaschii and Helicobacter pylori. We report the results of accuracy testing of the full-scale version of GeneMark-Genesis on 10 completely sequenced bacterial genomes. Interestingly, the GeneMark.hmm program that employed the typical and atypical models defined by GeneMark-Genesis was able to predict 683 new atypical genes with 176 of them confirmed by similarity search. PMID:9847079

  13. Risk factors for father-daughter incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    PubMed

    Stroebel, Sandra S; Kuo, Shih-Ya; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Swindell, Sam; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective data from 2,034 female participants, provided anonymously using a computer-assisted self-interview, were used to identify risk factors for father-daughter incest (FDI). A total of 51 participants had reported having experienced FDI. The risk factors identified within the nuclear family by the multiple logistic regression analysis included the following: (a) Having parents whose relationship included verbal or physical fighting or brutality increased the likelihood of FDI by approximately 5 times; (b) families accepting father-daughter nudity as measured by a scale with values ranging from 0 to 4 increased the likelihood of FDI by approximately 2 times for each unit value increase of 1 above 0; (c) demonstrating maternal affection protected against FDI. The likelihood of being a victim of FDI was highest if the participant's mother never kissed or hugged her; it decreased by 0.44 for a 1-unit increase in affection and by 0.19 times for a 2-unit increase; and (d) being in homes headed by single-parent mothers or where divorce or death of the father had resulted in a man other than the biological father living in the home increased the risk of FDI by approximately 3.2 times. The results were consistent with the idea that FDI in many families was the cumulative result of a circular pattern of interactions, a finding that has implications for treatment of the perpetrator, the victim, and the families. The data also suggested it may be possible to design an information program for parents that will result in reducing the risk of FDI in families implementing the program's recommendations. PMID:23363491

  14. Etiological Risk Factors for Sibling Incest: Data From an Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self-Interview.

    PubMed

    Griffee, Karen; Swindell, Sam; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Stroebel, Sandra S; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Stroupe, Walter

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective data from 1,821 women and 1,064 men with one or more siblings, provided anonymously using a computer-assisted self-interview, were used to identify risk factors for sibling incest (SI); 137 were participants in SI. In order of decreasing predictive power, the risk factors identified by the multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a sibling, parent-child incest (PCI), family nudity, low levels of maternal affection, and ever having shared a tub bath with a sibling. The results were consistent with the idea that SI in many families was the cumulative result of four types of parental behaviors: (a) factors that lower external barriers to sexual behavior (e.g., permitting co-sleeping or co-bathing of sibling dyads), (b) factors that encourage nudity of children within the nuclear family and permit children to see the parent's genitals, (c) factors that lead to the siblings relying on one another for affection (e.g., diminished maternal affection), and (d) factors that eroticize young children (e.g., child sexual abuse [CSA] by a parent). Thirty-eight of the 137 SI participants were participants in coerced sibling incest (CSI). In order of decreasing predictive power, risk factors for CSI identified by multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a brother, PCI, witnessing parental physical fighting, and family nudity. SI was more likely to have been reported as CSI if the sibling had touched the reporting sibling's genitals, and less likely to have been reported as CSI if the siblings had shared a bed. PMID:25432976

  15. Sanduleak's Star (LMC Anonymous) - Its similarity in the far-ultraviolet with the luminous object Eta Carinae and SN 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalitsianos, A. G.; Kafatos, M.; Shore, S. N.

    1989-01-01

    Low-resolution IUE SWP spectra of the peculiar object LMC Anonymous (Sanduleak's Star) indicates strong evidence for CNO-processed nebula in the vicinity of the star. The far-UV spectrum of LMC Anonymous closely resembles that of the S Condensation of Eta Carinae. The similarity between LMC Anonymous and the S Condensation is apparent from the absolute intensity of the N V, semiforbidden N IV, and semiforbidden N III emission lines compared with the reduced strength of C IV or semiforbidden C III emission. IUE spectra of the S Condensation and SN 1987A may provide important clues concerning the nature of LMC Anonymous, which indicates departures from normal cosmic abundances of nitrogen relative to carbon that are extreme. This may suggest that carbon envelope burning and dredge-up occurred simultaneously during the helium-burning stage.

  16. Weight-loss medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...

  17. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  18. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... below the minimum number of calories you need. Breastfeeding If you are breastfeeding, you will want to lose weight slowly. Weight ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you ...

  19. Weighted network modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, Illés; Ábel, Dániel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás

    2007-06-01

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos Rényi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs.

  20. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine released updated guidelines for weight gain ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the ...

  1. Watching Your Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1993-01-01

    Describes an activity shared at an inservice teacher workshop and suitable for middle school in which students predict their ideal weight in kilograms based on tables giving ideal weights for given heights. (MDH)

  2. Cultural and psychosocial determinants of weight concerns.

    PubMed

    Rodin, J

    1993-10-01

    Several sociocultural and psychological factors underlie Western society's intense preoccupation with the body. These factors include the social value of attractiveness, the strong correlation between attractiveness and perceived fitness, the interrelation among attractiveness, a good body image, and feelings of self-worth, and the relation between pressures to succeed in both the appearance- and work-related domains. The strong societal emphasis on appearance and slimness has translated to both intense body preoccupation and a willingness to try almost any weight-loss strategy. Thus, dieting occurs across all weight categories in response to these powerful social and psychological motivators. PMID:8363189

  3. Is cyberbullying worse than traditional bullying? Examining the differential roles of medium, publicity, and anonymity for the perceived severity of bullying.

    PubMed

    Sticca, Fabio; Perren, Sonja

    2013-05-01

    Cyberbullying, a modern form of bullying performed using electronic forms of contact (e.g., SMS, MMS, Facebook, YouTube), has been considered as being worse than traditional bullying in its consequences for the victim. This difference was mainly attributed to some specific aspect that are believed to distinguish cyberbullying from traditional bullying: an increased potential for a large audience, an increased potential for anonymous bullying, lower levels of direct feedback, decreased time and space limits, and lower levels of supervision. The present studies investigated the relative importance of medium (traditional vs. cyber), publicity (public vs. private), and bully's anonymity (anonymous vs. not anonymous) for the perceived severity of hypothetical bullying scenarios among a sample of Swiss seventh- and eight-graders (study 1: 49% female, mean age = 13.7; study 2: 49% female, mean age = 14.2). Participants ranked a set of hypothetical bullying scenarios from the most severe one to the least severe one. The scenarios were experimentally manipulated based on the aspect of medium and publicity (study 1), and medium and anonymity (study 2). Results showed that public scenarios were perceived as worse than private ones, and that anonymous scenarios were perceived as worse than not anonymous ones. Cyber scenarios generally were perceived as worse than traditional ones, although effect sizes were found to be small. These results suggest that the role of medium is secondary to the role of publicity and anonymity when it comes to evaluating bullying severity. Therefore, cyberbullying is not a priori perceived as worse than traditional bullying. Implications of the results for cyberbullying prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:23184483

  4. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  5. [Comment on “Anonymous reviews: Self-serving, counterproductive, and unacceptable”] from R.E. Criss and A.M. Hofmeister

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criss, Robert E.; Hofmeister, Anne M.

    We share many of the experiences and most of the sentiments relayed by Myrl Beck in his 1 July contribution to the Eos Forum, as well as those of a similar nature expressed by Alexander McBirney in his March 2003 commentary in GSA Today. We are in fact delighted that senior scientists are speaking up about the unsatisfactory nature of anonymous reviews. However, we believe they understate the problems, partly because the situation is worsening with time. Moreover, the brunt of such problems is disproportionately felt not by emeritus professors but by young scientists, women, and minorities, and this is the crux of the issue.This year, we have, like Beck, received rejections based on comments by two anonymous reviewers and an anonymous associate editor. We have also received rejections from anonymous associate editors based on a single constructive review requesting minor revision, along with an anonymous hostile “review” that could have been written about any manuscript on any topic by any author. More common than these are rejections from identified associate editors based on one or two anonymous reviews, which more often than not err on most of the points made, and in two cases dispute work that resulted in Nobel Prizes. We have examples this year of each type where the senior authors are recent Ph.D.s, whose vulnerabilities underscore the reprehensible nature of this “process.”

  6. Kriging without negative weights

    SciTech Connect

    Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

    1987-08-01

    Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

  7. Characterization and modeling of weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthélemy, Marc; Barrat, Alain; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2005-02-01

    We review the main tools which allow for the statistical characterization of weighted networks. We then present two case studies, the airline connection network and the scientific collaboration network which are representatives of critical infrastructure and social system, respectively. The main empirical results are (i) the broad distributions of various quantities and (ii) the existence of weight-topology correlations. These measurements show that weights are relevant and that in general the modeling of complex networks must go beyond topology. We review a model which provides an explanation for the features observed in several real-world networks. This model of weighted network formation relies on the dynamical coupling between topology and weights, considering the rearrangement of new links are introduced in the system.

  8. Paved with good intentions: Paradoxical eating responses to weight stigma.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Laurence J; Eshleman, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Because body weight is largely seen as controllable, weight stigma-the social devaluation of those who are overweight-is not subject to the social norms that condemn open expression of racism and sexism. Indeed, rejection of peers based on perceptions of excess weight is normative. Since weight stigma is internalized, popular views (and often the views of physicians) have suggested that increasing the salience of weight stigma might produce a reduction in overeating and/or an increase in physical activity. However, that perspective is not rooted in scientific evidence. Recent randomized controlled designs demonstrate that stigma may promote overeating. Correlational evidence suggests that self-reported stigma experience is associated with risk for binge eating and decreased interest in physical exercise and dieting, for children and adults. In addition to reviewing these research studies, this paper examines the potential for intersectionality of stigma across multiple social identities and considers alternatives to stigmatizing weight loss interventions. PMID:26802721

  9. Social Media and HIV: A Systematic Review of Uses of Social Media in HIV Communication

    PubMed Central

    Grewe, Mary Elisabeth; Conserve, Donaldson F; Gliwa, Catherine; Roman Isler, Malika

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media, including mobile technologies and social networking sites, are being used increasingly as part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment efforts. As an important avenue for communication about HIV, social media use may continue to increase and become more widespread. Objective The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive systematic review of the current published literature on the design, users, benefits, and limitations of using social media to communicate about HIV prevention and treatment. Methods This review paper used a systematic approach to survey all literature published before February 2014 using 7 electronic databases and a manual search. The inclusion criteria were (1) primary focus on communication/interaction about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), (2) discusses the use of social media to facilitate communication, (3) communication on the social media platform is between individuals or a group of individuals rather than the use of preset, automated responses from a platform, (4) published before February 19, 2014, and (5) all study designs. Results The search identified 35 original research studies. Thirty studies had low or unclear risk of at least one of the bias items in the methodological quality assessment. Among the 8 social media platform types described, short message service text messaging was most commonly used. Platforms served multiple purposes including disseminating health information, conducting health promotion, sharing experiences, providing social support, and promoting medication adherence. Social media users were diverse in geographic location and race/ethnicity; studies commonly reported users aged 18-40 years and users with lower income. Although most studies did not specify whether use was anonymous, studies reported the importance of anonymity in social media use to communicate about HIV largely due to the stigma associated with HIV. The ability to share and

  10. Factors associated with shooting accuracy and wounding rate of four managed wild deer species in the UK, based on anonymous field records from deer stalkers.

    PubMed

    Aebischer, Nicholas J; Wheatley, Christopher J; Rose, Hugh R

    2014-01-01

    The amount of wounding during routine culling is an important factor in the welfare of wild deer. Little information exists on factors determining shooting accuracy and wounding rates under field conditions in the UK. In this study, 102 anonymous stalkers collected data on the outcomes and circumstances of 2281 shots. Using hot-deck imputation and generalised linear mixed modelling, we related the probability that a shot hit its target, and the probability that the shot killed the deer if it was hit, to 28 variables describing the circumstances of the shot. Overall, 96% of deer were hit, of which 93% were killed outright. A reduced probability of hitting the target was associated with an uncomfortable firing position, too little time available, shooting off elbows or freehand, taking the head or upper neck as point of aim, a heavily obscured target, a distant target, shooting at females, lack of shooting practice and a basic (or no) stalker qualification. An increase in the likelihood of wounding was associated with an uncomfortable firing position, shooting with insufficient time, a distant target (only when time was not sufficient), a bullet weight below 75 grains, a target concealed in thicket or on the move and an area rarely stalked. To maximise stalking success and deer welfare, we recommend that stalkers ensure a comfortable firing position, use a gun rest, aim at the chest, use bullets heavier than 75 grains, avoid taking a rushed shot, shoot a distant animal only if there is plenty of time, fire only when the target is stationary, avoid shooting at an obscured animal, take care when the ground is unfamiliar, and do shooting practice at least once a month. The high miss rate of basic-level stalkers suggests that training should include additional firing practice under realistic shooting conditions. PMID:25334012

  11. Factors Associated with Shooting Accuracy and Wounding Rate of Four Managed Wild Deer Species in the UK, Based on Anonymous Field Records from Deer Stalkers

    PubMed Central

    Aebischer, Nicholas J.; Wheatley, Christopher J.; Rose, Hugh R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of wounding during routine culling is an important factor in the welfare of wild deer. Little information exists on factors determining shooting accuracy and wounding rates under field conditions in the UK. In this study, 102 anonymous stalkers collected data on the outcomes and circumstances of 2281 shots. Using hot-deck imputation and generalised linear mixed modelling, we related the probability that a shot hit its target, and the probability that the shot killed the deer if it was hit, to 28 variables describing the circumstances of the shot. Overall, 96% of deer were hit, of which 93% were killed outright. A reduced probability of hitting the target was associated with an uncomfortable firing position, too little time available, shooting off elbows or freehand, taking the head or upper neck as point of aim, a heavily obscured target, a distant target, shooting at females, lack of shooting practice and a basic (or no) stalker qualification. An increase in the likelihood of wounding was associated with an uncomfortable firing position, shooting with insufficient time, a distant target (only when time was not sufficient), a bullet weight below 75 grains, a target concealed in thicket or on the move and an area rarely stalked. To maximise stalking success and deer welfare, we recommend that stalkers ensure a comfortable firing position, use a gun rest, aim at the chest, use bullets heavier than 75 grains, avoid taking a rushed shot, shoot a distant animal only if there is plenty of time, fire only when the target is stationary, avoid shooting at an obscured animal, take care when the ground is unfamiliar, and do shooting practice at least once a month. The high miss rate of basic-level stalkers suggests that training should include additional firing practice under realistic shooting conditions. PMID:25334012

  12. Using Discharge Abstracts to Evaluate a Regional Perinatal Network: Assessment of the Linkage Procedure of Anonymous Data

    PubMed Central

    Quantin, Catherine; Gouyon, Béatrice; Avillach, Paul; Ferdynus, Cyril; Sagot, Paul; Gouyon, Jean-Bernard

    2009-01-01

    To assess the Burgundy perinatal network (18 obstetrical units; 18 500 births per year), discharge abstracts and additional data were collected for all mothers and newborns. In accordance with French law, data were rendered anonymous before statistical analysis, and were linked to patients using a specific procedure. This procedure allowed data concerning each mother to be linked to those for her newborn(s). This study showed that all mothers and newborns were included in the regional database; the data for all mothers were linked to those for their infant(s) in all cases. Additional data (gestational age) were obtained for 99.9% of newborns. PMID:19125196

  13. Dogmatism and Social Desirability: How to Change "Personality" in Two Easy Sentences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Gary R.; Mulkey, Young J.

    This study describes the influence of social desirability on Rokeach Dogmatism scores and demonstrates how misleading self-report inventories can be. Dogmatism instruments with instructions suggesting either that commitment or control of personal beliefs is desirable were randomly distributed to 20 anonymous elementary teachers before a workshop…

  14. Social Workers' Final Act of Service: Respectful Burial Arrangements for Indigent, Unclaimed, and Unidentified People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castex, Graciela M.

    2007-01-01

    Social workers have long been involved in identifying resources and making final arrangements for clients who die without an estate or have no heirs, who may be institutionalized or unknown to the community, or whose body may be unclaimed for burial. Absent quick intervention, these individuals are often at risk for an anonymous potter's field…

  15. Power of Peer Review: An Online Collaborative Learning Assignment in Social Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cathey, Christie

    2007-01-01

    In a semester-long, peer review assignment, undergraduates enrolled in a social psychology course wrote essays that applied course concepts to life experiences. Students anonymously posted essays for the entire class to view, and peers posted commentaries on classmates' essays using an online discussion board. Students rated the assignment as…

  16. Attitudes toward Gay Men and Lesbian Women among Heterosexual Social Work Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chonody, Jill M.; Woodford, Michael R.; Brennan, David J.; Newman, Bernie; Wang, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This study reports results from a national Internet-based survey administered anonymously to a cross-section of social work faculty in the United States. Drawn from a sampling frame of 700 accredited or in candidacy schools, data were collected between November 2010 and March 2011. We investigate the role of sex, sexual orientation, race,…

  17. Writing the Social History of One's Family...Revised Guidelines for Faculty Members and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard; Hareven, Tamara K.

    The Anonymous Families History Project of the University of Minnesota developed guidelines for college students researching and writing the social histories of their families. Included in the guidelines are interview questions, tips for conducting an oral interview, a primary source list, and a bibliography of background reading. Question topics…

  18. Pacific Islanders in the U.S.: A Struggle Against Anonymity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Faye Untalen

    1976-01-01

    Asserts that an accurate examination and documentation of Pacific Islanders' educational, health, and socioeconomic status is needed. Argues that until Guamanians and Samoans are recognized as a legitimate responsibility of the United States and are provided governmental programs for educational, economic, and social development, this country is…

  19. A Class of Administrative Models for Maintaining Anonymity During Merge of Data Files. A Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boruch, Robert F.

    This report examines a series of general models that represent the process of merging records from separate files when it becomes essential to inhibit identifiability of records in at least one of the files. Models are illustrated symbolically by flow diagrams, and examples of each variation are taken from the social sciences. These variations…

  20. Anonymous nuclear loci in the white-faced storm-petrel Pelagodroma marina and their applicability to other Procellariiform seabirds.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mónica C; Duarte, Margarida A; Coelho, M Manuela

    2011-01-01

    Procellariiform seabirds are among the avian species with the fastest rates of extinction due to interactions with fisheries and introduction of alien predators to the breeding colonies. Conservation and management policies targeting populations of these species must include information on colony demographics and levels of isolation and genetic markers go a long way toward providing reliable estimates of these parameters. To this end, we report isolation and characterization of 14 anonymous nuclear loci, with average length of 657 bp, in the pelagic seabird White-faced Storm-petrel Pelagodroma marina, a species for which there is virtually no genetic information available. These loci, initially isolated from a genomic library built from P. marina, were further tested, for a range of conditions, in 7 other species representing all Procellariiform families. We found high levels of cross-species amplification success, varying between 79% and 86% in representatives of Diomedeidae, Procellariidae, Pelecanoididae, and other Hydrobatidae. We also sequenced 11 loci for 22 P. marina individuals and report higher levels of anonymous genetic variation (π = 0.002), with an average of 1 single nucleotide polymorphism every 100 bp surveyed, relative to the levels found on a typically variable intron in avian species. These markers will be a valuable tool in future population genetics and phylogenetic studies, particularly of nonmodel seabird species. PMID:21447754

  1. An Anonymous User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Based on a Symmetric Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaewook; Kim, Jiye; Choi, Younsung; Won, Dongho

    2016-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a registered user can login to the network and use a user authentication protocol to access data collected from the sensor nodes. Since WSNs are typically deployed in unattended environments and sensor nodes have limited resources, many researchers have made considerable efforts to design a secure and efficient user authentication process. Recently, Chen et al. proposed a secure user authentication scheme using symmetric key techniques for WSNs. They claim that their scheme assures high efficiency and security against different types of attacks. After careful analysis, however, we find that Chen et al.'s scheme is still vulnerable to smart card loss attack and is susceptible to denial of service attack, since it is invalid for verification to simply compare an entered ID and a stored ID in smart card. In addition, we also observe that their scheme cannot preserve user anonymity. Furthermore, their scheme cannot quickly detect an incorrect password during login phase, and this flaw wastes both communication and computational overheads. In this paper, we describe how these attacks work, and propose an enhanced anonymous user authentication and key agreement scheme based on a symmetric cryptosystem in WSNs to address all of the aforementioned vulnerabilities in Chen et al.'s scheme. Our analysis shows that the proposed scheme improves the level of security, and is also more efficient relative to other related schemes. PMID:27537890

  2. Chaotic maps and biometrics-based anonymous three-party authenticated key exchange protocol without using passwords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qi; Hu, Bin; Chen, Ke-Fei; Liu, Wen-Hao; Tan, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    In three-party password authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol, since two users use their passwords to establish a secure session key over an insecure communication channel with the help of the trusted server, such a protocol may suffer the password guessing attacks and the server has to maintain the password table. To eliminate the shortages of password-based AKE protocol, very recently, according to chaotic maps, Lee et al. [2015 Nonlinear Dyn. 79 2485] proposed a first three-party-authenticated key exchange scheme without using passwords, and claimed its security by providing a well-organized BAN logic test. Unfortunately, their protocol cannot resist impersonation attack, which is demonstrated in the present paper. To overcome their security weakness, by using chaotic maps, we propose a biometrics-based anonymous three-party AKE protocol with the same advantages. Further, we use the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our AKE protocol achieves authentication, security and anonymity, and an acceptable efficiency. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LZ12F02005), the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834205), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61070153).

  3. A quality improvement project to tackle under-reporting of hazards by doctors by using an anonymous telephone hotline

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    An anonymous hazard reporting hotline was established for doctors to use on two general medical wards at Weston General Hospital (WGH) in North Somerset in England during an eight day period in July/August 2014. Doctors were encouraged to report hazards and near misses or just start a conversation about a concern. The existing computer based significant event system remained alongside the hotline and was to be used where actual harm had come to a patient. A team of consultants and quality improvement administrators monitored the hotline on a daily basis, categorized the level of risk being reported and ensured, where possible, that action was taken to address the doctors' concerns. The hotline increased reporting rates from two per month to 25 in eight days. The system identified 13 amber (medium risk) and five red (high risk) hazards which would otherwise not have been known about. This author believes these five high risk reports alone make the case for a new, quicker, easier, and anonymous reporting system for doctors at WGH urgent and irrefutable. PMID:26893901

  4. [Comment on “Anonymous reviews: Self-serving, counterproductive, and unacceptable”] Anecdotal information is insufficient to claim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walder, Joseph S.

    I have read the recent Forum commentaries describing disgruntlement with particular anonymous reviews (1 July 2003 and 29 July 2003 issues), and nodded sympathetically. After all, who among us has not felt, at one time or another, that a reviewer badly misunderstood our contribution to the scientific literature or our grant proposal? But each of these recent Forum contributors in fact committed the elementary logical error of invoking anecdotal evidence to prove a point. I doubt that any of these correspondents would accept scientific claims based on anecdotes. Yet somehow they believe that anecdotes form a sufficient basis for claiming that anonymous reviewing is inherently a nasty business. These correspondents further employed the dubious rhetorical device of contrasting their own self-defined, high ethical standards with those of their adversaries, whom they variously described as rude, hostile, vindictive, lazy, cowardly, selfish, bigoted against women and minorities, and attired in “the costume of crooks.” The parallel with the discourse of political argument is hard to miss.

  5. The relationship between weight stigma and eating behavior is explained by weight bias internalization and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Latner, Janet D; Puhl, Rebecca M; Vartanian, Lenny R; Giles, Claudia; Griva, Konstadina; Carter, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including disordered eating, but the psychological mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood. The present study tested whether the association between weight stigma experiences and disordered eating behaviors (emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and loss-of-control eating) are mediated by weight bias internalization and psychological distress. Six-hundred and thirty-four undergraduate university students completed an online survey assessing weight stigma, weight bias internalization, psychological distress, disordered eating, along with demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, weight status). Statistical analyses found that weight stigma was significantly associated with all measures of disordered eating, and with weight bias internalization and psychological distress. In regression and mediation analyses accounting for age, gender and weight status, weight bias internalization and psychological distress mediated the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behavior. Thus, weight bias internalization and psychological distress appear to be important factors underpinning the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behaviors, and could be targets for interventions, such as, psychological acceptance and mindfulness therapy, which have been shown to reduce the impact of weight stigma. The evidence for the health consequences resulting from weight stigma is becoming clear. It is important that health and social policy makers are informed of this literature and encouraged develop anti-weight stigma policies for school, work, and medical settings. PMID:26898319

  6. Social Trust, Social Partner Time and Television Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patulny, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Social trust is an important phenomenon, but the influence of important time-based measures upon trust has not been examined. Such measures include social contact and anti-social activity, such as television watching, which allows for the co-presence of other people. This paper reports on associations between trust and weighted means of co-present…

  7. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to do so can have many causes. Metabolism slows down as you age . This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise. Drugs that can cause weight gain include: Birth control ...

  8. Weight loss and alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight gain in a couple of ways. First, alcohol is high in calories. Some mixed drinks can contain as many calories as a meal, but without the nutrients. You also may make poor food choices ... to cut out all alcohol if you are trying to lose weight, you ...

  9. Marijuana and body weight.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2014-07-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

  10. Exercise and Weight Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Victor L.

    This paper describes a number of factors which go into determining weight. The paper describes what calories are, how caloric expenditure is measured, and why caloric expenditure is different for different people. The paper then outlines the way the body tends to adjust food intake and exercise to maintain a constant body weight. It is speculated…

  11. Anthocyanins and weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review evaluated the available scientific literature relative to anthocyanins and weight loss and/or obesity with mention of other effects of anthocyanins on pathologies that are closely related to obesity. Although there is considerable popular press concerning anthocyanins and weight loss, th...

  12. Mathematics in Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the template method developed by Galileo for calculating areas of geometric shapes constructed of uniform density and thickness. The method compares the weight of a shape of known area to the weight of a shape of unknown area. Applies this hands-on method to problems involving calculus, Pythagorean's theorem, and cycloids. (MDH)

  13. Weight and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a person's diabetes management plan. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes If a person has type 1 diabetes but hasn't been treated yet, he or she often loses weight. In type 1 diabetes, the body can't use glucose (pronounced: GLOO- ...

  14. Labor Supply and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14…

  15. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... 22990030 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22990030 . Weight-control Information NetworkNational Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and ... www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/weight-control/very-low-calorie-diets/Pages/very-low-calorie- ...

  16. Maternal nutrition and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Martorell, R; Gonzalez-cossio, T

    1987-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) babies (2500 gm or less at birth) are more likely to die and suffer sequelae. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) babies also weight the same, but they are born at 37 weeks or over. Small for gestational age (SGA) is a related term used for babies weighing less than expected. 20.6 million LBW babies were born in 1979, most of then in developing countries. In the US, 12.1% of nonwhites vs. 6% of whites had LBW babies in 1980 (50% of infant deaths were attributed to LBWs). A study in Guatemala showed that LBWs accounted for 88% of neonatal deaths. 15-21% of the US decline in neonatal mortality since the 1960s was due to birth weight distribution. 50% of the decline in Alabama was attributable to improved obstetrical care from 1970 to 1980. 12,000 Finnish children were followed up for 14 years, and those born with weights below the mean had significantly higher mortality than normal weight children. The saving of very LBW babies by medical technology has raised ethical questions, as many have mental and physical retardation and the expenses are enormous. SGAs have smaller stature IUGR/low ponderal index infants had 2.9-5.7 times the mortality of full-term normal infants, and they also had poorer academic progress, but IUGR/adequate ponderal index babies fared even worse. Such afflictions carry across generations, as evidenced by a Seattle study on 748 white women indicating impaired reproductive performance of female infants. Some of the components producing LBW are: maternal genetic, social, cultural, and nutritional factors, smoking, and dieting during pregnancy, wars and famines (e.g., Leningrad and Wuppertal during and after World War II). Anthropometric studies indicate that mothers with greater body size have larger babies, but genetics also play a role here. Intervention studies confirmed the importance of nutrition: in a Mexican study and increase of 180 gm of birth weight and 29.6% reduction of LBW was produced by supplementation

  17. Doctoring the Genitals: Towards Broadening the Meaning of Social Medicine.

    PubMed

    Shweder, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Doctoring the genitals is compatible with a recognizable conception of social medicine. This commentary critically examines the distinction between medical and nonmedical procedures; presents an alternative account of Sohaila Bastami's personal reaction to the anonymous caller's request for referral information concerning hymen reconstruction surgery; and makes use of Yelp to simulate the caller's procedure for locating a helpful practitioner. Yelp is a very useful informational search engine that does not subject its users to a moral examination. PMID:26132069

  18. Light-weight plastination.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Hanno; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sawutti, Alimjan; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2008-11-20

    Plastination is an excellent technique which helps to keep the anatomical specimens in a dry, odourless state. Since the invention of plastination technique by von Hagens, research has been done to improve the quality of plastinated specimens. In this paper, we have described a method of producing light-weight plastinated specimens using xylene along with silicone and in the final step, substitute xylene with air. The finished plastinated specimens were light-weight, dry, odourless and robust. This method requires less use of resin thus making the plastination technique more cost-effective. The light-weight specimens are easy to carry and can easily be used for teaching. PMID:18752934

  19. The impact of psychosocial stressors on postpartum weight retention.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Neal D; Rogers, Stephanie; Ehrenthal, Deborah B

    2016-08-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention are implicated in future morbidity in women. To understand whether psychosocial stressors contribute to weight retention, we used data collected in a cohort of postpartum women and analyzed measures of stress, depression, social support, and health-related quality of life. Depressive symptoms at delivery and worse health-related quality of life and lower stress at 3 months postpartum were associated with 3-month weight retention. Interventions targeting depression and improving quality of life may further reduce weight retained. PMID:26907459

  20. [The "secret book" of Dr Friedrich Benjamin Osiander: anonymous births in the Göttingen Accouchierhaus, 1794-1819].

    PubMed

    Schlumbohm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The problem of anonymous or confidential deliveries, a subject of current controversy, has a long history. Some maternity hospitals offered the possibility for "clandestine" births as early as the 18th and 19th century. A recently emerged source about the maternity clinic of Göttingen University allows insight into the motives that led to keeping a birth secret and the consequences of such a clandestine birth for mother, father and child. The director of the institution, a professor of obstetrics, wrote case reports on the women, who paid a handsome sum for his help and the in-patient care they received. In return, these women could be admitted under a pseudonym, and thus falsify their child's birth certificate; moreover they were not used as teaching material for medical students and midwife apprentices, whereas "regular" patients had to give their names and, in return for being treated free of charge, be available for teaching purposes. The ten cases that have been painstakingly investigated reveal that the reasons that led the women and men to opt for an anonymous birth were manifold, that they used this offer in different ways and with different consequences. All of these pregnancies were illegitimate, of course. In one case the expectant mother was married. In several cases it would be the father who was married. Most of the women who gave birth secretly seem to have given the professor their actual details and he kept quiet about them--with the exception of one case where he revealed the contents of the case report many years later in an alimony suit. Only one of the men admitted paternity openly, but many revealed their identity implicitly by registering the pregnant woman or by accompanying her to the clinic. If the birth was to be kept secret the child needed to be handed over to foster parents. By paying a lump sum that covered the usual fourteen years of parenting, one mother was able to avoid any later contact with her son. In most cases contact seems

  1. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  2. Thyroid and Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Differences in BMRs are associated with changes in energy balance. Energy balance reflects the difference between the amount of ... such as amphetamines, animals often have a negative energy balance which leads to weight loss. Based on ...

  3. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... behavioral guidelines for post-partum weight control. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth . 2014;14. Accessed Nov. 24, 2014. Mottola MF. Exercise prescription for overweight and obese women: pregnancy and ...

  4. Weight loss - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... of laxatives Other causes such as: Eating disorders, anorexia nervosa that have not been diagnosed yet Diabetes that ... do not know the reason. You have other symptoms along with the weight loss.

  5. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  6. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  7. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese . Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

  8. Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolini, Moreno; Cercignani, Giovanni; Bauer, Carlo

    2000-11-01

    Very often, atomic or molecular weights are expressed as dimensionless quantities, but although the historical importance of their definition as "pure numbers" is acknowledged, it is inconsistent with experimental formulas and with the theory of measure in general. Here, we propose on the basis of clear-cut formulas that, contrary to customary statements, atomic and molecular weights should be expressed as dimensional quantities (masses) in which the Dalton (= 1.663 x 10-24 g) is taken as the unit.

  9. Vulnerability of weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Asta, Luca; Barrat, Alain; Barthélemy, Marc; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2006-04-01

    In real networks complex topological features are often associated with a diversity of interactions as measured by the weights of the links. Moreover, spatial constraints may also play an important role, resulting in a complex interplay between topology, weight, and geography. In order to study the vulnerability of such networks to intentional attacks, these attributes must therefore be considered along with the topological quantities. In order to tackle this issue, we consider the case of the worldwide airport network, which is a weighted heterogeneous network whose evolution and structure are influenced by traffic and geographical constraints. We first characterize relevant topological and weighted centrality measures and then use these quantities as selection criteria for the removal of vertices. We consider different attack strategies and different measures of the damage achieved in the network. The analysis of weighted properties shows that centrality driven attacks are capable of shattering the network's communication or transport properties even at a very low level of damage in the connectivity pattern. The inclusion of weight and traffic therefore provides evidence for the extreme vulnerability of complex networks to any targeted strategy and the need for them to be considered as key features in the finding and development of defensive strategies.

  10. An Attempt to Shorten the Quest for Weight Loss Predictors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David R.; And Others

    Health psychologists continue to have difficulty identifying prognostic indicators of weight loss success. Psychological, social, and demographic factors have been examined, but correlations with weight loss are disappointing. Actual behaviors or quantifications of specific actions and historical measures were examined for their validity in…

  11. Components of Effective Weight Loss Program: Theory, Research, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalodner, Cynthia R.; DeLucia, Janice L.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a review of behavioral, cognitive, social support, and nutritional components of comprehensive weight control programs. Includes rationale for each treatment component, description of techniques, and relevant research. Claims counselors may assess the individual needs of clients and develop effective weight control programs that match…

  12. A Policy Based Approach for the Management of Web Browser Resources to Prevent Anonymity Attacks in Tor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Arribas, Guillermo; Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin

    Web browsers are becoming the universal interface to reach applications and services related with these systems. Different browsing contexts may be required in order to reach them, e.g., use of VPN tunnels, corporate proxies, anonymisers, etc. By browsing context we mean how the user browsers the Web, including mainly the concrete configuration of its browser. When the context of the browser changes, its security requirements also change. In this work, we present the use of authorisation policies to automatise the process of controlling the resources of a Web browser when its context changes. The objective of our proposal is oriented towards easing the adaptation to the security requirements of the new context and enforce them in the browser without the need for user intervention. We present a concrete application of our work as a plug-in for the adaption of security requirements in Mozilla/Firefox browser when a context of anonymous navigation through the Tor network is enabled.

  13. 'Let me tell you what I really think about you'--evaluating nursing managers using anonymous staff feedback.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Ilya; Kigli-Shemesh, Ronit; Tabak, Nilli

    2006-07-01

    The evaluation of employees by their superiors is standard managerial practice but the value of the evaluation of superiors by their employees is much less recognized. This study describes a project where for 3 years (2000-02), in an Israeli mental health center, the Director of Nursing, clinical supervisors, ward head nurses and their deputies were evaluated by nurses and nursing aides. Feedback was gathered through anonymous questionnaires under conditions of confidentiality. Based on the findings, steps were taken to improve managers' performance. Evaluators were also requested to evaluate the project's contribution to themselves and the hospital in a second, open questionnaire. All parties, evaluators and evaluated, expressed satisfaction and recommended that the project continue on a regular basis. Nurses felt empowered and respected and that manager-subordinate relations were improved. Other results and recommendations are discussed. PMID:16787470

  14. Rapid identification of anonymous subjects in large criminal databases: problems and solutions in IAFIS III/FBI subject searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzleb, C. D.

    1997-02-01

    The high incidence of recidivism (repeat offenders) in the criminal population makes the use of the IAFIS III/FBI criminal database an important tool in law enforcement. The problems and solutions employed by IAFIS III/FBI criminal subject searches are discussed for the following topics: (1) subject search selectivity and reliability; (2) the difficulty and limitations of identifying subjects whose anonymity may be a prime objective; (3) database size, search workload, and search response time; (4) techniques and advantages of normalizing the variability in an individual's name and identifying features into identifiable and discrete categories; and (5) the use of database demographics to estimate the likelihood of a match between a search subject and database subjects.

  15. Humility and 12-Step Recovery: A Prolegomenon for the Empirical Investigation of a Cardinal Virtue in Alcoholics Anonymous

    PubMed Central

    Post, Stephen G.; Pagano, Maria E.; Lee, Matthew T.; Johnson, Byron R.

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) offers a live stage to study how humility is worn by thousands for another day of sobriety and more freedom from the bondage of self. It has been the coauthors’ intent to emphasize the significance of humility as a cardinal virtue across the 12-Step program and as essential to all its key elements. The coauthors have placed this emphasis in the context of a wider theological history of thought as this converged on Bill W. and AA. In addition, the coauthors have offered a constructive developmental interpretation of the 12 Steps that relies on a model of four modulations of humility. Finally, the coauthors have reviewed in brief some approaches to the measurement of humility in this context, and suggest several aims for future research. PMID:27429509

  16. A secure user anonymity-preserving three-factor remote user authentication scheme for the telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Das, Ashok Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Recent advanced technology enables the telecare medicine information system (TMIS) for the patients to gain the health monitoring facility at home and also to access medical services over the Internet of mobile networks. Several remote user authentication schemes have been proposed in the literature for TMIS. However, most of them are either insecure against various known attacks or they are inefficient. Recently, Tan proposed an efficient user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for TMIS. In this paper, we show that though Tan's scheme is efficient, it has several security drawbacks such as (1) it fails to provide proper authentication during the login phase, (2) it fails to provide correct updation of password and biometric of a user during the password and biometric update phase, and (3) it fails to protect against replay attack. In addition, Tan's scheme lacks the formal security analysis and verification. Later, Arshad and Nikooghadam also pointed out some security flaws in Tan's scheme and then presented an improvement on Tan's s scheme. However, we show that Arshad and Nikooghadam's scheme is still insecure against the privileged-insider attack through the stolen smart-card attack, and it also lacks the formal security analysis and verification. In order to withstand those security loopholes found in both Tan's scheme, and Arshad and Nikooghadam's scheme, we aim to propose an effective and more secure three-factor remote user authentication scheme for TMIS. Our scheme provides the user anonymity property. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis using random oracle models and the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool, we show that our scheme is secure against various known attacks, including the replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. Furthermore, our scheme is also efficient as compared to other related schemes. PMID:25677956

  17. Gamete donation and anonymity: disclosure to children conceived with donor gametes should not be optional.

    PubMed

    McGee, G; Brakman, S V; Gurmankin, A D

    2001-10-01

    The use of donor gametes in reproductive technology raises ethical, psychological and social questions that have been significant for the practice of adoption: that is, when, or if, to disclose biological origin to the child. The current wisdom is that adopted children should be told by their parents as early as possible that the family was created through adoption, and we argue that the same model should apply to the use of donor gametes. We argue that privacy concerns or other goals of parents who would prefer to avoid disclosure are outweighed by the negative consequences of holding such family secrets and by the child's right to, and medical need for, information about his/her origin. We believe fertility programmes and professional organizations ought to strongly encourage those using donor gametes to tell their child of their true origin as early as the child can understand reproduction in general. PMID:11574486

  18. Teachers' Reflections on Pedagogies that Enhance Learning in an Online Course on Teaching for Equity and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukpokodu, Omiunota Nelly

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' reflective perspectives on pedagogies that enhance learning in an online course on "Teaching for equity and social justice" in a teacher education program. Data were collected from survey, alternative anonymous course assessment, interview, and document analysis. Participants identified threaded discussions,…

  19. Popular weight reduction diets.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed. PMID:16407735

  20. Lorcaserin for weight management

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 or ≥27 kg/m2 with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837

  1. Increases in New Social Network Ties are Associated with Increased Cohesion among Intervention Participants

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Sabina B.; Barkin, Shari L.; Sommer, Evan C.; Thompson, Jessica R.; Valente, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many behavior change programs are delivered in group settings to manage implementation costs and to foster support and interactions among group members to facilitate behavior change. Understanding the group dynamics that evolve in group settings (e.g., weight management, Alcoholics Anonymous) is important, yet rarely measured. This paper examined the relationship between social network ties and group cohesion in a group-based intervention to prevent obesity in children. Method The data reported are process measures from an ongoing community-based randomized controlled trial. 305 parents with a child (3-6 years) at risk of developing obesity were assigned to an intervention that taught parents healthy lifestyles. Parents met weekly for 12 weeks in small consistent groups. Two measures were collected at weeks 3 and 6: a social network survey (people in the group with whom one discusses healthy lifestyles); and the validated Perceived Cohesion Scale (Bollen & Hoyle, 1990). We used lagged random and fixed effects regression models to analyze the data. Results Cohesion increased from 6.51 to 6.71 (t=4.4, p<0.01). Network nominations tended to increase over the 3-week period in each network. In the combined discussion and advice network, the number of nominations increased from 1.76 to 1.95 (z=2.59, p<0.01). Cohesion at week 3 was the strongest predictor of cohesion at week 6 (b=0.55, p<0.01). Number of new network nominations at week 6 was positively related to cohesion at week 6 (b=0.06, p<.01). In sum, being able to name new network contacts was associated with feelings of cohesion. Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate how network changes affect perceived group cohesion within a behavioral intervention. Given that many behavioral interventions occur in group settings, intentionally building new social networks could be promising to augment desired outcomes. PMID:26286298

  2. The weight of air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley-Hutchison, Doug

    2014-11-01

    Once a controversial idea, the fact that gases like air have weight can easily be demonstrated using reasonably precise scales in the modern teaching laboratory. But unlike a liquid, where a mechanical model suggests a pile of hard spheres resting on each other, gas molecules are in continual motion and can have minimal interaction. How should we think about the effect these molecules have on the scale? And more importantly, how should we explain it to students? Several models of gas behavior are employed to answer these questions and it is shown how the weight of a gas is, like electric current, an emergent phenomena in contrast to the weight of a liquid which is direct or causal.

  3. Weight management in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Bipin Kumar; Nagesh, V Sri

    2015-05-01

    Ramadan fasting is associated with significant weight loss in both men and women. Reduction in blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, body mass index and waist and hip circumference may also occur. However, benefits accrued during this month often reverse within a few weeks of cessation of fasting, with most people returning back to their pre-Ramadan body weights and body composition. To ensure maintenance of this fasting induced weight loss, health care professionals should encourage continuation of healthy dietary habits, moderate physical activity and behaviour modification, even after conclusion of fasting. It should be realized that Ramadan is an ideal platform to target year long lifestyle modification, to ensure that whatever health care benefits have been gained during this month, are perpetuated. PMID:26013789

  4. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  5. Weight for Stephen Finlay.

    PubMed

    Evers, Daan

    2013-04-01

    According to Stephen Finlay, 'A ought to X' means that X-ing is more conducive to contextually salient ends than relevant alternatives. This in turn is analysed in terms of probability. I show why this theory of 'ought' is hard to square with a theory of a reason's weight which could explain why 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es. I develop two theories of weight to illustrate my point. I first look at the prospects of a theory of weight based on expected utility theory. I then suggest a simpler theory. Although neither allows that 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es, this price may be accepted. For there remains a strong pragmatic relation between these claims. PMID:23576822

  6. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  7. Maternal stress predicts postpartum weight retention.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  8. Maternal Stress Predicts Postpartum Weight Retention

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Kara; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  9. A Comparison of Anonymous versus Identifiable e-Peer Review on College Student Writing Performance and the Extent of Critical Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Ruiling; Bol, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Peer review has become commonplace in composition courses and is increasingly employed in the context of telecommunication technology. The purpose of this experiment was to compare the effects of anonymous and identifiable electronic peer (e-peer) review on college student writing performance and the extent of critical peer feedback. Participants…

  10. The Impact of Counselor Recovery Status Similarity on Perceptions of Attractiveness with Members of Alcoholics Anonymous: An Exception to the Repulsion Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priester, Paul E.; Azen, Razia; Speight, Suzette; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the impact of counselor alcoholism recovery status on perceptions of recovering alcoholics who are active members of Alcoholics Anonymous. The participants (n = 116) were given a description of an analogue counselor and rated this counselor using the "Counselor Rating Form-Short." There were three forms of the analogue…

  11. Social networks and social norms are associated with obesity treatment outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Doyle, Caroline Y.; Xu, Xiaomeng; Bihuniak, Jessica; Wing, Rena R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether overweight social network members and normative influence for obesity are associated with weight loss outcomes during obesity treatment. Design and Methods Participants (N=214) in a behavioral weight loss trial reported (a) the weight status of various members of their social network and (b) level of obesogenic normative influence within their social network. Weight was objectively assessed before and after treatment. Results At baseline, participants with partners and best friends who were overweight and those with more children and relatives who were overweight had higher BMIs (p’s<.03). However, social norms for obesity were not associated with baseline BMI. During treatment, participants lost an average of 4.4% of initial body weight, and social influence factors were adversely associated with weight loss outcomes. Having more casual friends who were overweight at baseline and being part of a social network with stronger social norms for unhealthy eating predicted poorer weight losses (p’s<.023). Remaining social influence factors and changes in social influence were not associated with treatment outcomes. Conclusions Whereas weight status may “cluster” in social networks, only weight status of casual friends and normative influence for unhealthy eating were associated with obesity treatment outcomes. PMID:26150394

  12. Weight Loss and Black Women: A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Porter, Jerlym S.; Martin, Iman K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The excess burden of obesity among black women is well-documented. However, the behavioral weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender. Purpose The purpose of this article is to conduct a systematic review of all behavioral weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 and 2010 that included and reported results separately for black women. Methods The criteria for inclusion included: 1) participants age ≥18 years; 2) a behavioral weight loss intervention; 3) weight as an outcome variable; 4) inclusion of black women; and 5) weight loss results reported separately by ethnicity and gender. Results The literature search identified 25 studies that met inclusion criteria. Our findings suggest more intensive randomized behavioral weight loss trials with medically at-risk populations yield better results. Conclusions Well-designed and more intensive multi-site trials with medically at-risk populations currently offer the most promising results for black women. Still, black women lose less weight than other subgroups in behavioral weight loss interventions. It is now critical to expand on individual-level approaches and incorporate the biological, social, and environmental factors that influence obesity. This will help enable the adoption of healthier behaviors for this group of women disproportionately affected by obesity. PMID:22074195

  13. Average Weighted Receiving Time of Weighted Tetrahedron Koch Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Zhang, Danping; Ye, Dandan; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Lei

    2015-07-01

    We introduce weighted tetrahedron Koch networks with infinite weight factors, which are generalization of finite ones. The term of weighted time is firstly defined in this literature. The mean weighted first-passing time (MWFPT) and the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) are defined by weighted time accordingly. We study the AWRT with weight-dependent walk. Results show that the AWRT for a nontrivial weight factor sequence grows sublinearly with the network order. To investigate the reason of sublinearity, the average receiving time (ART) for four cases are discussed.

  14. Anorexia nervosa at normal body weight!--The abnormal normal weight control syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crisp, A H

    1981-01-01

    Disgust with "fatness" and a consequent preoccupation with body weight, coupled with an inability to reduce it to or sustain it at the desired low level, characterizes the abnormal normal weight control syndrome. Individuals remain sexually active in a biological sense and often also socially. Indeed their sexual behaviour may be as impulse ridden as is their eating behaviour, which often comprises phases of massive bingeing coupled with vomiting and/or purgation. The syndrome is unlike frank anorexia nervosa in that the latter involves a regression to a position of phobic avoidance of normal body weight and consequent low body weight control with inhibition of both biological and social sexual activity. In abnormal normal weight control there is a strong and sometimes desperate hedonistic and extrovert element that will often not be denied so long as body weight does not get too low. Individuals nevertheless feel desperately "out of control" and insecure beneath their bravura. The syndrome is much more common in females than in males. There is a clinical overlap with anorexia nervosa and obesity in many cases as the disorder evolves. Depression, stealing, drug dependence (including alcohol) and acute self-poisoning and self-mutilation are common complications. Clinic cases probably only represent the tip of the iceberg of the much more widespread morbidity within the general population. Like anorexia nervosa and for the same reasons the disorder is probably more common than it used to be. PMID:7309391

  15. Weighted Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation.

  16. Weighted Uncertainty Relations

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation. PMID:26984295

  17. Group Colocation Behavior in Technological Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Chloë; Lathia, Neal; Mascolo, Cecilia; Noulas, Anastasios; Blondel, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We analyze two large datasets from technological networks with location and social data: user location records from an online location-based social networking service, and anonymized telecommunications data from a European cellphone operator, in order to investigate the differences between individual and group behavior with respect to physical location. We discover agreements between the two datasets: firstly, that individuals are more likely to meet with one friend at a place they have not visited before, but tend to meet at familiar locations when with a larger group. We also find that groups of individuals are more likely to meet at places that their other friends have visited, and that the type of a place strongly affects the propensity for groups to meet there. These differences between group and solo mobility has potential technological applications, for example, in venue recommendation in location-based social networks. PMID:25148037

  18. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxygen into energy), and behavior or habits. Energy Balance Energy balance is important for maintaining a healthy weight. The ... OUT over time = weight stays the same (energy balance) More energy IN than OUT over time = weight ...

  19. MedlinePlus: Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapy and Weight Management (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish Weight Loss: Ready to Change Your Habits? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Weight-Loss and Nutrition Myths (National ...

  20. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Weight and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight and Diabetes Print A ... or type 2 diabetes. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes Undiagnosed or untreated, type 1 diabetes can make ...

  1. Brief report: Weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...

  2. The architecture of complex weighted networks

    PubMed Central

    Barrat, A.; Barthélemy, M.; Pastor-Satorras, R.; Vespignani, A.

    2004-01-01

    Networked structures arise in a wide array of different contexts such as technological and transportation infrastructures, social phenomena, and biological systems. These highly interconnected systems have recently been the focus of a great deal of attention that has uncovered and characterized their topological complexity. Along with a complex topological structure, real networks display a large heterogeneity in the capacity and intensity of the connections. These features, however, have mainly not been considered in past studies where links are usually represented as binary states, i.e., either present or absent. Here, we study the scientific collaboration network and the world-wide air-transportation network, which are representative examples of social and large infrastructure systems, respectively. In both cases it is possible to assign to each edge of the graph a weight proportional to the intensity or capacity of the connections among the various elements of the network. We define appropriate metrics combining weighted and topological observables that enable us to characterize the complex statistical properties and heterogeneity of the actual strength of edges and vertices. This information allows us to investigate the correlations among weighted quantities and the underlying topological structure of the network. These results provide a better description of the hierarchies and organizational principles at the basis of the architecture of weighted networks. PMID:15007165

  3. Implicit Bias about Weight and Weight Loss Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A; Hinman, Nova G; Hoffmann, Debra A; Burmeister, Jacob M; Borushok, Jessica E.; Marx, Jenna M; Ashrafioun, Lisham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of a weight loss intervention on implicit bias toward weight, as well as the relationship among implicit bias, weight loss behaviors, and weight loss outcomes. Additionally, of interest was the relationship among these variables when implicit weight bias was measured with a novel assessment that portrays individuals who are thin and obese engaged in both stereotypical and nonstereotypical health-related behaviors. Methods Implicit weight bias (stereotype consistent and stereotype inconsistent), binge eating, self-monitoring, and body weight were assessed among weight loss participants at baseline and post-treatment (N=44) participating in two weight loss programs. Results Stereotype consistent bias significantly decreased from baseline to post-treatment. Greater baseline stereotype consistent bias was associated with lower binge eating and greater self-monitoring. Greater post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with greater percent weight loss. Stereotype inconsistent bias did not change from baseline to post-treatment and was generally unrelated to outcomes. Conclusion Weight loss treatment may reduce implicit bias toward overweight individuals among weight loss participants. Higher post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with a higher percent weight loss, possibly suggesting that losing weight may serve to maintain implicit weight bias. Alternatively, great implicit weight bias may identify individuals motivated to make changes necessary for weight loss. PMID:25261809

  4. Weight Training Adds Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June

    1995-01-01

    Secondary level physical education teachers can have their students use math concepts while working out on the weight-room equipment. The article explains how students can reinforce math skills while weightlifting by estimating their strength, estimating their power, or calculating other formulas. (SM)

  5. Weight stigma and eating behavior: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Porter, Alexis M

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is a pervasive social problem, and this paper reviews the evidence linking weight stigma to eating behavior. Correlational studies consistently find that experiences with weight stigma are associated with unhealthy eating behaviors and eating pathology (such as binge eating, skipping meals), although results vary somewhat depending on the sample being studied and the specific stigma/eating constructs being assessed. Experimental studies consistently find that manipulations such as priming overweight stereotypes, exposure to stigmatizing content, and social exclusion all lead to increased food intake, but whether or not those manipulations capture the impact of weight stigma experiences per se is less clear. Finally, studies of stigma experiences in daily life show that more frequent stigma experiences are associated with decreased motivation to diet and with less healthy eating behaviors. Overall, this research highlights the potential for weight stigma to negatively impact individuals' eating behavior, which in turn could have consequences for their overall health and well-being. PMID:26829371

  6. The Weight of a Guilty Conscience: Subjective Body Weight as an Embodiment of Guilt

    PubMed Central

    Day, Martin V.; Bobocel, D. Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a “weight on one's conscience.” Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i) unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii) feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii) whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1–3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks. PMID:23936041

  7. Ideal Weight and Weight Satisfaction: Association With Health Practices

    PubMed Central

    Ardern, Chris I.; Church, Timothy S.; Hebert, James R.; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that individuals have become more tolerant of higher body weights over time. To investigate this issue further, the authors examined cross-sectional associations among ideal weight, examination year, and obesity as well as the association of ideal weight and body weight satisfaction with health practices among 15,221 men and 4,126 women in the United States. Participants in 1987 reported higher ideal weights than participants in 2001, an effect particularly pronounced from 1987 to 2001 for younger and obese men (85.5 kg to 94.9 kg) and women (62.2 kg to 70.5 kg). For a given body mass index, higher ideal body weights were associated with greater weight satisfaction but lower intentions to lose weight. Body weight satisfaction was subsequently associated with greater walking/jogging, better diet, and lower lifetime weight loss but with less intention to change physical activity and diet or lose weight (P < 0.01). Conversely, body mass index was negatively associated with weight satisfaction (P < 0.01) and was associated with less walking/jogging, poorer diet, and greater lifetime weight loss but with greater intention to change physical activity and diet or lose weight. Although the health implications of these findings are somewhat unclear, increased weight satisfaction, in conjunction with increases in societal overweight/obesity, may result in decreased motivation to lose weight and/or adopt healthier lifestyle behaviors. PMID:19546153

  8. Weight, Weight Perceptions and Health-Related Quality of Life among a National Sample of US Girls

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Summersett-Ringgold, Faith

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between three weight indices (weight status, perceived weight, weight status perception accuracy) and HRQOL. Methods Data are for girls in the 2009 Health Behaviors in School-Age Children survey, a nationally representative sample of students in grades 5-10 during the 2009/10 school-year (n=5,018). Controlling for sociodemographics, multivariate linear regressions examined associations between self-reported weight status (Underweight/Normal/Overweight/Obese), perceived weight (how children categorize their weight), weight status perception accuracy (Underestimate/Accurate perception/Overestimate) and dimensions of HRQOL including physical, emotional, social, and school functioning. Results While obesity was only associated with poor physical and emotional HRQOL, perceptions of being overweight were associated with worse physical, emotional, school and social HRQOL. Further, girls who overestimated their weight reported poorer HRQOL than those with accurate weight perceptions. Associations of perceptions of being overweight and weight status overestimation with poor HRQOL despite, in most instances, the absence of associations between weight status and HRQOL, suggest that weight status perceptions may not merely be a mediator of a weight status-HRQOL association, but a significant independent correlate of poor HRQOL. Conclusion These findings raise the issue of whether there is a need to prioritize intervention efforts to promote better HRQOL by re-defining the population of girls most at risk. Parents, teachers and clinicians should be aware that, rather that overweight status, perceptions of being overweight (accurately or not) are associated with a poor HRQOL among girls. Future research should examine the potential negative effect of using specific body image terminologies on adolescents' psychological health. PMID:25961900

  9. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  10. Reducing rotor weight

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  11. Weighted Configuration Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, M. Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián

    2005-06-01

    The configuration model is one of the most successful models for generating uncorrelated random networks. We analyze its behavior when the expected degree sequence follows a power law with exponent smaller than two. In this situation, the resulting network can be viewed as a weighted network with non trivial correlations between strength and degree. Our results are tested against large scale numerical simulations, finding excellent agreement.

  12. Light weight aluminum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catura, R. C.; Vieira, J. R.

    1985-09-01

    Light weight mirror blanks were fabricated by dip-brazing a core of low mass aluminum foam material to thin face sheets of solid aluminum. The blanks weigh 40% of an equivalent size solid mirror and were diamond turned to provide reflective surfaces. Optical interferometry was used to assess their dimensional stability over 7 months. No changes in flatness are observed (to the sensitivity of the measurements of a half wavelength of red light).

  13. (Bessel-) weighted asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard Musch, Alexey Prokudin

    2011-11-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering experiments allow us to probe the motion of quarks inside the proton in terms of so-called transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMD PDFs), but the information is convoluted with fragmentation functions (TMD FFs) and soft factors. It has long been known that weighting the measured event counts with powers of the hadron momentum before forming angular asymmetries de-convolutes TMD PDFs and TMD FFs in an elegant way, but this also entails an undesirable sensitivity to high momentum contributions. Using Bessel functions as weights, we find a natural generalization of weighted asymmetries that preserves the de-convolution property and features soft-factor cancellation, yet allows us to be less sensitive to high transverse momenta. The formalism also relates to TMD quantities studied in lattice QCD. We briefly show preliminary lattice results from an exploratory calculation of the Boer-Mulders shift using lattices generated by the MILC and LHP collaborations at a pion mass of 500 MeV.

  14. Weight Discrimination and Risk of Mortality.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Stephan, Yannick; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Discrimination based on weight is a stressful social experience linked to declines in physical and mental health. We examined whether this harmful association extends to risk of mortality. Participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; N = 13,692) and the Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS; N = 5,079) reported on perceived discriminatory experiences and attributed those experiences to a number of personal characteristics, including weight. Weight discrimination was associated with an increase in mortality risk of nearly 60% in both HRS participants (hazard ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval = [1.34, 1.84]) and MIDUS participants (hazard ratio = 1.59, 95% confidence interval = [1.09, 2.31]). This increased risk was not accounted for by common physical and psychological risk factors. The association between mortality and weight discrimination was generally stronger than that between mortality and other attributions for discrimination. In addition to its association with poor health outcomes, weight discrimination may shorten life expectancy. PMID:26420442

  15. Stigma and eating and weight disorders.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca; Suh, Young

    2015-03-01

    Although research has consistently documented the prevalence and negative health implications of weight stigma, little is known about the stigma associated with eating disorders. Given that weight stigma is a risk factor associated with disordered eating, it is important to address stigma across the spectrum of eating and weight disorders. The aim of this review is to systematically review studies in the past 3 years evaluating stigma in the context of obesity and eating disorders (including binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa). Physical and psychological health consequences of stigma for individuals with obesity and eating disorders are discussed. Recent studies on weight stigma substantiate the unique influence of stigma on psychological maladjustment, eating pathology, and physiological stress. Furthermore, research documents negative stereotypes and social rejection of individuals with eating disorder subtypes, while attributions to personal responsibility promote blame and further stigmatization of these individuals. Future research should examine the association of stigma related to eating disorders and physical and emotional health correlates, as well as its role in health-care utilization and treatment outcomes. Additional longitudinal studies assessing how weight stigma influences emotional health and eating disorders can help identify adaptive coping strategies and improve clinical care of individuals with obesity and eating disorders. PMID:25652251

  16. Tweeting it off: characteristics of adults who tweet about a weight loss attempt

    PubMed Central

    Pagoto, Sherry; Schneider, Kristin L; Evans, Martinus; Waring, Molly E; Appelhans, Brad; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Thind, Herpreet; Ziedonis, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe adults who use Twitter during a weight loss attempt and to compare the positive and negative social influences they experience from their offline friends, online friends, and family members. Materials and methods Participants (N=100, 80% female, mean age=37.65, SD=8.42) were recruited from Twitter. They completed a brief survey about their experiences discussing their weight loss attempt with their online and offline friends and provided responses to open-ended questions on the benefits and drawbacks of discussing weight on Twitter, Facebook, and weight-specific social networks. Results Participants rated their connections on Twitter and weight loss-specific social networks to be significantly greater sources of positive social influence for their weight loss (F(3)=3.47; p<0.001) and significantly lesser sources of negative social influence (F(3)=40.39 and F(3)=33.68 (both p<0.001)) than their offline friends, family, and Facebook friends. Greater positive social influence from Twitter and Facebook friends was associated with greater weight loss in participants’ most recent weight loss attempt (r=0.30, r=0.32; p<0.01). The most commonly reported benefits of tweeting about weight loss include social support, information, and accountability. The most common drawbacks reported are that interactions were too brief and lacked personal connection. Discussion People who discuss their weight loss on Twitter report more social support and less negativity from their Twitter friends than their Facebook friends and in-person relationships. Conclusions Online social networks should be explored as a tool for connecting patients who lack weight loss social support from their in-person relationships. PMID:24928175

  17. How anonymous is ‘anonymous’? Some suggestions towards a coherent universal coding system for genetic samples

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Harald; Callier, Shawneequa

    2012-01-01

    So-called ‘anonymous’ tissue samples are widely used in research. Because they lack externally identifying information, they are viewed as useful in reconciling conflicts between the control, privacy and confidentiality interests of those from whom the samples originated and the public (or commercial) interest in carrying out research, as reflected in ‘consent or anonymise’ policies. High level guidance documents suggest that withdrawal of consent and samples and the provision of feedback are impossible in the case of anonymous samples. In view of recent developments in science and consumer-driven genomics the authors argue that such statements are misleading and only muddle complex ethical questions about possible entitlements to control over samples. The authors therefore propose that terms such as ‘anonymised’, ‘anonymous’ or ‘non-identifiable’ be removed entirely from documents describing research samples, especially from those aimed at the public. This is necessary as a matter of conceptual clarity and because failure to do so may jeopardise public trust in the governance of large scale databases. As there is wide variation in the taxonomy for tissue samples and no uniform national or international standards, the authors propose that a numeral-based universal coding system be implemented that focuses on specifying incremental levels of identifiability, rather than use terms that imply that the reidentification of research samples and associated actions are categorically impossible. PMID:22345546

  18. Microbiological examination of ready-to-eat burgers sampled anonymously at the point of sale in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Little, C L; Gillespie, I A; Mitchell, R T

    2001-12-01

    During May and June 1999 a microbiological study of ready-to-eat burgers purchased anonymously from burger outlets (combined take-away and burger restaurants, take-away-only fixed premises, mobile vendors, temporary stalls and other burger outlets) was undertaken. The intention was to determine the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat burgers as purchased by customers of take-away premises and to ascertain, where information was available, whether the Chief Medical Officer's advice on cooking burgers was being followed. Examination of 3,128 ready-to-eat burgers found that 2,868 (92%) were of acceptable quality and 260 (8%) were of unsatisfactory quality. Unsatisfactory results were mostly due to high aerobic colony counts (ACCs). Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli O157 were not detected in any of the samples examined. Acceptable microbiological quality of ready-to-eat burgers was associated with outlets, such as combined take-away and burger restaurants and in particular national franchise outlets, which had management food hygiene training and hazard analysis in place. Poor microbiological quality was associated with undercooking and local outlets as indicated by Local Authority Inspectors' Consumers at Risk scores. PMID:12109398

  19. The ethics of unlinked anonymous testing of blood: views from in-depth interviews with key informants in four countries

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, Anthony S; Datta, Jessica; Wellings, Kaye; Perman, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In this study we explore the ethical issues around unlinked anonymous testing (UAT) of blood, a method of seroprevalence surveillance for infectious diseases. Our study focused on UAT for HIV, although UAT can be used for other infectious diseases. The objectives of the research were to gain a better understanding of the views of key informants in countries adopting different UAT testing strategies, and to use the findings of the research to inform health policy. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and ethical analysis. Setting Four countries using different strategies around UAT of blood for HIV (the UK, the USA, the Netherlands and Norway). Participants Twenty-three key informants in the four countries. Results Participants from the four countries have different views on UAT of blood, and the approaches and policies on UAT adopted by different countries have been historically and culturally determined. We use our findings to explore the relationship between public health policy and ethics, framing our discussion in relation to two important contemporary debates: informed consent for participation in medical and public health research; and the balance between the individual good and the public good. Conclusions Qualitative research and ethical analysis of UAT of blood in different countries has yielded important findings for consideration by policy makers. The policy of UAT of blood for HIV and other diseases in the UK needs reconsideration in the light of these findings. PMID:23263019

  20. A Comparison of Obese and Normal-Weight Families' Psychological Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Steven; Terry, Karen

    1985-01-01

    Assessed obese and normal-weight family members' perceptions of their nuclear family's social and environmental characteristics. Obese families perceived their homes as less cohesive, more conflictual, less interested in social and cultural activities, and less organized compared to normal-weight families, and obese parents perceived themselves as…