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Sample records for anonymous hiv workplace

  1. Anonymous HIV testing in the Canadian aboriginal population.

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    Reported numbers of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases among Canadian aboriginal peoples are currently relatively low. However, any increase in these numbers could have devastating human, social, and economic costs. Education and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus transmission are the most efficient and cost-effective measures available today. This paper discusses the role of anonymous HIV testing in effective HIV prevention in the Canadian aboriginal population. PMID:8828876

  2. Workplace discrimination. Helping the spread of HIV.

    PubMed

    Achmat, Z; Cameron, E

    1995-11-01

    South Africa's new Labor Relations Act represents a major advance in protecting persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) from workplace discrimination. In this document, HIV and AIDS are included as conditions protected from unfair labor practices. There remains, however, a gap between a theoretical rejection of HIV-based discrimination and actual labor practices. South African experts are in general agreement that pre-employment screening for HIV is unacceptable; moreover, there is no evidence of any potential for workplace transmission. Nonetheless, such testing remains widespread, as does dismissal or demotion of employees found to be HIV-infected. Also prevalent is discrimination in terms of employment benefits such as disability, group life insurance, medical insurance, and pension and provident funds. After 13 years of the AIDS epidemic, over 90% of South African employers have failed to develop HIV/AIDS policies or workplace educational programs. There is also a need for labor unions to launch a campaign to inform job applicants and employees of their rights to non-discrimination and confidentiality. Provision of condoms at every workplace is essential to AIDS prevention. Several major South African employers have taken the lead in this area and offer mandatory AIDS training courses, free condoms, educational materials, and peer education. PMID:12320240

  3. HIV risk practices by female sex workers according to workplace

    PubMed Central

    Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate differences in HIV infection- related risk practices by Female Sex Workers according to workplace and the effects of homophily on estimating HIV prevalence. METHODS Data from 2,523 women, recruited using Respondent-Driven Sampling, were used for the study carried out in 10 Brazilian cities in 2008-2009. The study included female sex workers aged 18 and over. The questionnaire was completed by the subjects and included questions on characteristics of professional activity, sexual practices, use of drugs, HIV testing, and access to health services. HIV quick tests were conducted. The participants were classified in two groups according to place of work: on the street or indoor venues, like nightclubs and saunas. To compare variable distributions by place of work, we used Chi-square homogeneity tests, taking into consideration unequal selection probabilities as well as the structure of dependence between observations. We tested the effect of homophily by workplace on estimated HIV prevalence. RESULTS The highest HIV risk practices were associated with: working on the streets, lower socioeconomic status, low regular smear test coverage, higher levels of crack use and higher levels of syphilis serological scars as well as higher prevalence of HIV infection. The effect of homophily was higher among sex workers in indoor venues. However, it did not affect the estimated prevalence of HIV, even after using a post-stratification by workplace procedure. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that strategies should focus on extending access to, and utilization of, health services. Prevention policies should be specifically aimed at street workers. Regarding the application of Respondent-Driven Sampling, the sample should be sufficient to estimate transition probabilities, as the network develops more quickly among sex workers in indoor venues. PMID:25119937

  4. HIV risk practices by female sex workers according to workplace.

    PubMed

    Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Souza Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges de

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate differences in HIV infection- related risk practices by Female Sex Workers according to workplace and the effects of homophily on estimating HIV prevalence. METHODS Data from 2,523 women, recruited using Respondent-Driven Sampling, were used for the study carried out in 10 Brazilian cities in 2008-2009. The study included female sex workers aged 18 and over. The questionnaire was completed by the subjects and included questions on characteristics of professional activity, sexual practices, use of drugs, HIV testing, and access to health services. HIV quick tests were conducted. The participants were classified in two groups according to place of work: on the street or indoor venues, like nightclubs and saunas. To compare variable distributions by place of work, we used Chi-square homogeneity tests, taking into consideration unequal selection probabilities as well as the structure of dependence between observations. We tested the effect of homophily by workplace on estimated HIV prevalence. RESULTS The highest HIV risk practices were associated with: working on the streets, lower socioeconomic status, low regular smear test coverage, higher levels of crack use and higher levels of syphilis serological scars as well as higher prevalence of HIV infection. The effect of homophily was higher among sex workers in indoor venues. However, it did not affect the estimated prevalence of HIV, even after using a post-stratification by workplace procedure. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that strategies should focus on extending access to, and utilization of, health services. Prevention policies should be specifically aimed at street workers. Regarding the application of Respondent-Driven Sampling, the sample should be sufficient to estimate transition probabilities, as the network develops more quickly among sex workers in indoor venues. PMID:25119937

  5. Barriers to workplace HIV testing in South Africa: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Weihs, Martin; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Low workplace HIV testing uptake makes effective management of HIV and AIDS difficult for South African organisations. Identifying barriers to workplace HIV testing is therefore crucial to inform urgently needed interventions aimed at increasing workplace HIV testing. This study reviewed literature on workplace HIV testing barriers in South Africa. Pubmed, ScienceDirect, PsycInfo and SA Publications were systematically researched. Studies needed to include measures to assess perceived or real barriers to participate in HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) at the workplace or discuss perceived or real barriers of HIV testing at the workplace based on collected data, provide qualitative or quantitative evidence related to the research topic and needed to refer to workplaces in South Africa. Barriers were defined as any factor on economic, social, personal, environmental or organisational level preventing employees from participating in workplace HIV testing. Four peer-reviewed studies were included, two with quantitative and two with qualitative study designs. The overarching barriers across the studies were fear of compromised confidentiality, being stigmatised or discriminated in the event of testing HIV positive or being observed participating in HIV testing, and a low personal risk perception. Furthermore, it appeared that an awareness of an HIV-positive status hindered HIV testing at the workplace. Further research evidence of South African workplace barriers to HIV testing will enhance related interventions. This systematic review only found very little and contextualised evidence about workplace HCT barriers in South Africa, making it difficult to generalise, and not really sufficient to inform new interventions aimed at increasing workplace HCT uptake. PMID:26560013

  6. [Utilization of anonymous HIV testing by the federal health office--developments and motives].

    PubMed

    Scheibner, J; Waldvogel, B

    1993-01-01

    In the state-run health office in Ulm a survey of the frequency of anonymous HIV-antibody tests was taken between 1985 to 1991, of the age and gender representation from 1988 to 1991, of the test motives from 1.1.1990 to 1.3.1991. The result was a regressive trend following the test boom of 1987 and 1988, which is becoming more and more stable. The relation of men and women has been amounting to 6:4 in the last four years; the proportion of women receding slightly but constantly. The main motive of being tested was finding out about a high-risk or potentially high-risk sexual contact, mostly at the beginning of a new partnership. The motive ranking second in frequency was the investigation of the consequences of blood exposure, mostly relating to medical work. The third place was taken by irrational anxieties as a test motive. The article discusses the fact that test at the beginning of a new partnership frequently have the meaning of a sacrifice and a symbol of bondage in combination with a vow to be faithful. In case of irrational anxieties about AIDS the test-counsellor gets a chance to diagnose a possibly neurotic development at a very early stage, so that painful and expensive chronification and generalisation could be stopped or eased. PMID:8435542

  7. Anonymous HIV surveillance with risk-factor elicitation: at Perth (for men) and Cornton Vale (for women) prisons in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Gore, S M; Bird, A G; Burns, S; Ross, A J; Goldberg, D

    1997-03-01

    434 male and 145 female prisoners were available to participate in cross-sectional, voluntary anonymous HIV surveillance (using saliva samples) with linked self-completion questionnaire at HMP (Her Majesty's Prison) Perth on 17 May and at HMP Cornton Vale on 18 May 1995. Three hundred and four men (70%) and 136 women (94%) completed a risk-factor questionnaire and 304 and 135 samples were received for HIV antibody testing. Two hundred and eighty-two and 132 questionnaires passed logical checks. Six saliva samples from Perth (all injectors) out of 304 and none from Cornton Vale out of 134 tested were HIV antibody positive. Four were presumptively from known HIV-infected male inmates; the other 2 were local men, under 26 years, who began injecting in 1989-91, and both reported having had a recent HIV test. Overall HIV prevalence was estimated at 2% compared to a known prevalence of 1.4% (6/434), giving a 1.5 ratio of overall: disclosed HIV prevalence at HMP Perth. HIV prevalence was estimated at 7% (6/82) for injector-participants and 14% (5/35) for local injector participants. At Cornton Vale, where both known HIV-infected inmates abstained, overall and disclosed HIV prevalence, were equal at 1.4%. At Perth Prison, 29% of prisoners had injected drugs (82/278); 85% of injector-inmates reported having injected inside (some prison and 31% (25/80) had started to inject while inside, 7 during their present sentence. Of all 21 injector-inmates who first injected after 1991, 10 had started to inject inside, including one of 69 male inmates who had never been inside before. The corresponding figures for Cornton Vale, where 46% of inmates were injectors (58/132), were that 57% of injector-inmates had injected inside (32/56) but only one woman, for whom this was not her first sentence, had started to inject inside. Twenty-eight per cent of male prisoners (78/277) and 57% of male injector-inmates (47/82) had had a personal HIV test since January 1993, as had 35% of female

  8. South African HIV/AIDS programming overlooks migration, urban livelihoods, and informal workplaces.

    PubMed

    Vearey, Jo; Richter, Marlise; Núñez, Lorena; Moyo, Khangelani

    2011-01-01

    South Africa has the largest population of people living with HIV globally and is associated with high population mobility. The majority of migrants move in search of improved livelihood opportunities, and many who migrate (both internally and across borders) move into urban areas, often through peripheral informal settlements where HIV prevalence is shown to be double that of urban formal areas. While the relationship between migration and the spread of HIV is acknowledged as complex, the context of migration may place individuals at increased risk for acquiring HIV. Studies have demonstrated the long-wave impact of HIV and AIDS on livelihood activities and, more recently, on patterns of migration. Many migrants engage in livelihood strategies situated within the urban 'informal economy'; these informal workplaces are often overlooked in global and national legislation governing workplace responses to health and HIV and AIDS. This study draws on existing research and limited primary data to explore the implications of HIV/AIDS programming for diverse migrant groups labouring in informal workplaces in Johannesburg, South Africa. We describe three case studies: waste-pickers at a dumpsite in a peripheral urban informal settlement; barmen and cleaners working in inner-city hotels where sex is also sold; and, migrants engaged in informal livelihood activities who are also members of burial societies. Given the importance of varied informal livelihood activities for diverse migrant groups, particularly in urban areas of South Africa, we propose that the national HIV/AIDS response can and should engage with internal and cross-border migrants in informal workplaces - which is in line with the principle of universal access and will strengthen the national response. Especially, we point out the potential for burial societies to provide an entry point for HIV/AIDS programming that targets migrant groups involved in the informal economy of South African cities. PMID:25865514

  9. Adoption of formal HIV and AIDS workplace policies: an analysis of industry/sector variations.

    PubMed

    Bakuwa, Rhoda

    2010-12-01

    Addressing HIV and AIDS is the responsibility of many stakeholders including private sector companies. However, increasing evidence reveals that the majority of companies around the world are yet to acknowledge and respond to HIV and AIDS as a workplace issue. One factor that has been identified in the literature as playing a role in determining whether a company responds to HIV and AIDS, or not, is the industry/sector in which a company operates. This study therefore sought to empirically examine whether in the context of Malawi there were significant variations in the adoption of formal HIV and AIDS workplace policies based on the industry/sector in which a company was operating, as well as analyse the dynamics underlying such variations. Using survey data collected from 152 randomly selected private sector companies in Malawi, the results of this study revealed significant variations in the adoption of HIV and AIDS workplace policies among companies operating in various sectors. Companies in the service sector were leading the adoption compared to companies in other sectors such as the trading sector. Furthermore, the evidence from this study showed that differences in staff participation in the activities of HIV and AIDS institutions may explain the industry/sector variations. These results provide an important avenue to scale up company responses to HIV and AIDS by intensifying staff participation in the activities of HIV and AIDS institutions. Such institutions appear to play a vital role of providing up to date HIV-and AIDS-related information upon which companies are able to develop a business case for responding to the epidemic. PMID:21409305

  10. Mathematical Analysis of the Effects of HIV-Malaria Co-infection on Workplace Productivity.

    PubMed

    Seidu, Baba; Makinde, Oluwole D; Seini, Ibrahim Y

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear dynamical system is proposed and qualitatively analyzed to study the dynamics and effects of HIV-malaria co-infection in the workplace. Basic reproduction numbers of sub-models are derived and are shown to have LAS disease-free equilibria when their respective basic reproduction numbers are less than unity. Conditions for existence of endemic equilibria of sub-models are also derived. Unlike the HIV-only model, the malaria-only model is shown to exhibit a backward bifurcation under certain conditions. Conditions for optimal control of the co-infection are derived using the Pontryagin's maximum principle. Numerical experimentation on the resulting optimality system is performed. Using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, it is observed that combining preventative measures for both diseases is the best strategy for optimal control of HIV-malaria co-infection at the workplace. PMID:25980477

  11. HIV and AIDS in Workplace: The role of behaviour antecedents on behavioural intentions

    PubMed Central

    Dipeolu, I. O.

    2015-01-01

    their organisations had a workplace HIV and AIDS policy (p<0.05). Conclusions Although the respondents would tolerate staff with HIV/AIDS, their attitudinal disposition are indicative of limited knowledge about the mode of transmission and prevention of HIV including workplace policy on HIV and AIDS. Health education strategies such as training and workplace HIV/AIDS education are needed to address these shortcomings. PMID:26688605

  12. The role of HIV/AIDS committees in effective workplace governance of HIV/AIDS in South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

    PubMed

    Vaas, Jocelyn R

    2008-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the role, status and scope of workplace HIV/AIDS committees as a means of effective workplace governance of the HIV/AIDS impact, and their role in extending social protective HIV/AIDS-related rights to employees. In-depth qualitative case studies were conducted in five South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that were actively implementing HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. Companies commonly implemented HIV/AIDS policies and programmes through a workplace committee dedicated to HIV/AIDS or a generic committee dealing with issues other than HIV/ AIDS. Management, through the human resources department and the occupational health practitioner often drove initial policy formulation, and had virtually sole control of the HIV/AIDS budget. Employee members of committees were mostly volunteers, and were often production or blue collar employees, while there was a notable lack of participation by white-collar employees, line management and trade unions. While the powers of workplace committees were largely consultative, employee committee members often managed in an indirect manner to secure and extend social protective rights on HIV/AIDS to employees, and monitor their effective implementation in practice. In the interim, workplace committees represented one of the best means to facilitate more effective workplace HIV/AIDS governance. However, the increased demands on collective bargaining as a result of an anticipated rises in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality might prove to be beyond the scope of such voluntary committees in the longer term. PMID:18496614

  13. Best practice workplace HIV/AIDS programmes in South Africa: A review of case studies and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background A group of experts attending a tripartite interregional meeting on best practices in HIV/AIDS workplace policies and programmes organised by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in Geneva, Switzerland, identified 34 best practice workplace HIV programmes from across the world. Method The ten criteria that were used for reviewing best practice workplace HIV/AIDS programmes in South Africa include acceptability, accessibility, ethical soundness, perceived impact, relevance, appropriateness, innovativeness, efficiency, sustainability and replicability. Results More than one-third (35.3%) of the 34 best practice workplace interventions identified were found in businesses and industries in South Africa. This constitutes a significant and encouraging effort to deal with HIV/AIDS in the workplace. Approximately 16.7% of the best practice workplace HIV/AIDS interventions focused on policy and legal frameworks, 50% of these interventions focused on prevention, 16.7% provided links beyond the workplace and a further 16.7% were interventions that focused on knowledge and evidence. A third (33.3%) of practices were found in the mining industry, 16.7% in the motor industry, 16.7% from workers’ unions, and the rest (33.3%) were found in a sugar company, an electricity supply company, a pharmaceutical company and the ministry of Public Service and Administration. Conclusion It is encouraging that over one-third of all best practice workplace HIV interventions identified by the ILO experts were found in South Africa. The majority of these policies and programmes were focused on HIV prevention.

  14. HIV / AIDS in the workplace: principles, planning, policy, programmes and project participation.

    PubMed

    Smart, R

    1999-01-01

    15 years ago, most business, labor, government, and nongovernment representatives would have had only a small idea of what AIDS was, and let alone why it should concern them. However, companies have since lost top managers, workers have lost colleagues, and considerable time, energy, and emotion have been spent upon issues of illness and loss. Entire families have collapsed, as companies struggle against a background of chronic poverty. The HIV/AIDS pandemic has forced a reconsideration of whether disease prevention and health promotion are business concerns. AIDS causes illness, disability, and death to workers, as well as severe economic and emotional disruptions to their families. It also increases the cost of doing business. As South Africa faces a large epidemic, business must take prompt and incisive action against AIDS. A list of 10 workplace principles is presented and a 3-stage process recommended to ensure optimal workplace HIV/AIDS/STD and tuberculosis policies and programs. PMID:12295124

  15. A lottery incentive system to facilitate dialogue and social support for workplace HIV counselling and testing: A qualitative inquiry

    PubMed Central

    Weihs, Martin; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Despite South African mid-sized companies' efforts to offer HIV counselling and testing (HCT) in the workplace, companies report relatively poor uptake rates. An urgent need for a range of different interventions aimed at increasing participation in workplace HCT has been identified. The aim of this study was to explore qualitatively the influence of a lottery incentive system (LIS) as an intervention to influence shop-floor workers' workplace HIV testing behaviour. A qualitative study was conducted among 17 shop-floor workers via convenience sampling in two mid-sized South African automotive manufacturing companies in which an LIS for HCT was implemented. The in-depth interviews employed a semi-structured interview schedule and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The interviews revealed that the LIS created excitement in the companies and renewed employees' personal interest in HCT. The excitement facilitated social interactions that resulted in a strong group cohesion pertaining to HCT that mitigated the burden of HIV stigma in the workplace. Open discussions allowed for the development of supportive social group pressure to seek HCT as a collective in anticipation of a reward. Lotteries were perceived as a supportive and innovative company approach to workplace HCT. The study identified important aspects for consideration by companies when using an LIS to enhance workplace HIV testing. The significance of inter- and intra-player dialogue in activating supportive social norms for HIV testing in collectivist African contexts was highlighted. PMID:25023208

  16. A lottery incentive system to facilitate dialogue and social support for workplace HIV counselling and testing: a qualitative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Weihs, Martin; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Despite South African mid-sized companies' efforts to offer HIV counselling and testing (HCT) in the workplace, companies report relatively poor uptake rates. An urgent need for a range of different interventions aimed at increasing participation in workplace HCT has been identified. The aim of this study was to explore qualitatively the influence of a lottery incentive system (LIS) as an intervention to influence shop-floor workers' workplace HIV testing behaviour. A qualitative study was conducted among 17 shop-floor workers via convenience sampling in two mid-sized South African automotive manufacturing companies in which an LIS for HCT was implemented. The in-depth interviews employed a semi-structured interview schedule and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The interviews revealed that the LIS created excitement in the companies and renewed employees' personal interest in HCT. The excitement facilitated social interactions that resulted in a strong group cohesion pertaining to HCT that mitigated the burden of HIV stigma in the workplace. Open discussions allowed for the development of supportive social group pressure to seek HCT as a collective in anticipation of a reward. Lotteries were perceived as a supportive and innovative company approach to workplace HCT. The study identified important aspects for consideration by companies when using an LIS to enhance workplace HIV testing. The significance of inter- and intra-player dialogue in activating supportive social norms for HIV testing in collectivist African contexts was highlighted. PMID:25023208

  17. Workplace and HIV-related sexual behaviours and perceptions among female migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Li, X; Stanton, B; Fang, X; Lin, D; Mao, R; Liu, H; Chen, X; Severson, R

    2005-10-01

    Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment establishments (e.g. restaurants, stalls, domestic service, factories, etc.). About 10% of women in the entertainment establishments reported having sold sex, 30% having multiple sexual partners and 40% having sex with men with multiple sexual partners. The rate of consistent condom use was less than 15%. They also tended to have a higher level of perceptions of both peer risk involvement and positive expectancy of risk behaviours, and lower perceptions of severity of STDs and HIV. For women who were not sexually experienced, those working in 'stalls' or 'domestic service' tended to perceive higher peer risk involvement, less severity of HIV infection, and less effectiveness of protective behaviour. The occupational pattern of sexual risk behaviours and perceptions observed in the current study indicates employment conditions are associated with HIV risk. Intervention strategies should be tailored to address occupational-related factors. PMID:16120499

  18. HIV/AIDS stigma at the workplace: exploratory findings from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Sajid

    2011-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are stigmatised socially. They are devalued and considered like outcasts by having lesser opportunities for education, treatment and housing, and in an organisational context they get reduced opportunities of selection, promotion and income. The phenomena have been extensively researched in developed countries but limited literature addresses the situation in underdeveloped countries like Pakistan, which is also facing spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. There are a number of groups who are carrying the disease but the problems being faced by PLHA employed in different organisations have rarely been analysed. Stigma at the workplace can generate a number of negative outcomes. The present study considers two such outcomes among stigmatised PLHA. These outcomes are organisational cynicism and breach of psychological contract. A questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 174 PLHA, having a work experience after identification of the epidemic, working in different organisations across Pakistan. These PLHA were identified and recruited through a scattered record available with some government/non-government organisations operating in Pakistan to control HIV/AIDS. Findings of the study extend the knowledge about HIV/AIDS stigma indicating that PLHA are subjected to stigma, which is significantly associated with a breach of psychological contract and organisational cynicism. There is a need at governmental and organisational level as well to increase awareness about the disease and formulate policies to reduce stigma against PLHA working in different organisations. PMID:23237730

  19. Against anonymity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert

    2014-05-01

    In 'New Threats to Academic Freedom' Francesca Minerva argues that anonymity for the authors of controversial articles is a prerequisite for academic freedom in the Internet age. This argument draws its intellectual and emotional power from the author's account of the reaction to the on-line publication of ' After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?'--an article that provoked cascades of hostile postings and e-mails. Reflecting on these events, Minerva proposes that publishers should offer the authors of controversial articles the option of publishing their articles anonymously. This response reviews the history of anonymous publication and concludes that its reintroduction in the Internet era would recreate problems similar to those that led print journals to abandon the practice: corruption of scholarly discourse by invective and hate speech, masked conflicts of interest, and a diminution of editorial accountability. It also contends that Minerva misreads the intent of the hostile e-mails provoked by 'After-birth abortion,' and that ethicists who publish controversial articles should take responsibility by dialoguing with their critics--even those whose critiques are emotionally charged and hostile. PMID:24724540

  20. Workplace prevention programs promote behavior change in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Henry, K

    1995-02-01

    An estimated 800,000 Tanzanians had been infected with HIV by the end of 1992. Since working-age people spend 75% of their time at work, the African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), the Tanzanian Council for Social Development, and the Organization of Tanzanian Trade Unions organize and implement workplace-based HIV/AIDS prevention programs. For example, anonymous HIV screening conducted by AMREF at Tanzania Breweries Limited in September 1993 found 11.4% of the brewery's truck drivers to be HIV-seropositive. The men subsequently participated in an informal AIDS education session conducted by peer educators with help from the brewery's STD/AIDS coordinator. These sessions are a regular part of workplace AIDS prevention programs supported by the US Agency of International Development's Tanzania AIDS Program implemented by the AIDS Control and Prevention Project (AIDSCAP). The author considers motivating managers, peer education, condoms, behavior change, and expansion and sustainability. PMID:12347575

  1. Patterns of disclosure and antiretroviral treatment adherence in a South African mining workplace programme and implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kaymarlin; Akintola, Olagoke; Petersen, Inge; George, Gavin; Johnstone, Leigh; Naidoo, Kerisha

    2011-01-01

    Social and psychological barriers to the disclosure of one's seropositive HIV status to significant others and poor adherence to taking medications pose significant challenges to the scaling-up of access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the workplace. Such barriers are predictive of sub-optimal treatment outcomes and bedevil HIV-prevention interventions at a societal level. Against this background, this article explores the lived experiences of 19 HIV-positive male participants, between the ages of 33 and 57 years, who were enrolled in an ART programme managed at an occupational health clinic at a mining company in South Africa. The majority of these mineworkers had been aware of their HIV status for between 5 and 7 years. The study explored psychological and relational factors, as aspects of these participants lived experiences, which had a bearing on their adherence to their ART regimen and the disclosure choices that they made regarding their HIV status. In our sample, those participants who were adherent demonstrated higher levels of control and acceptance of their HIV infection and were more confident in their ability to manage their treatment, while the group who were non-adherent presented with lower levels of adherence motivation and self-efficacy, difficulties in maintaining a healthy lifestyle and significant challenges in maintaining control over their lives. While most of the men favoured disclosing their HIV status to their partners for the sake of treatment support, they were less sure about disclosing to family members and non-family members, respectively, because of their need to protect these persons and due to their fear of being stigmatised. It was evident that treatment adherence choices and behaviours were impacted by psychological and relational factors, including disclosure decisions. We conclude with a bivariate model for understanding the adherence behaviours that influenced different patterns of ART adherence among the sample, and

  2. Cross-sectional study assessing HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior in the Namibian truck transport sector: Readjusting HIV prevention programs in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Kiderlen, Til R; Conteh, Michael; Roll, Stephanie; Seeling, Stefanie; Weinmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the current status of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior (KAB) of employees in the private transport sector in Namibia and to compare companies with established HIV workplace program (WPPs) with those that have recently initiated the implementation of such programs. The study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. Between January and March 2011, the survey was conducted in the Namibian truck transport sector in six companies of different sizes. The participants were selected randomly from the workforce. Data collection was based on a KAB questionnaire. The range of correct answers to the survey concerning the knowledge of HIV transmission was 67-95%. Twenty percent of the employees had never been tested for HIV. Additionally, risky sexual behaviors were quite prevalent and included having multiple concurrent partners and the use of sex for incentives. This study revealed that drivers and laborers were especially at risk for such behaviors. The employees of companies with established WPPs were tested for HIV more often than those of companies with new WPPs; however, aside from this difference, only minor differences were observed between the two groups. The findings of this study highlight the need for on-going HIV information and prevention campaigns that focus on the special needs of mobile and low-income workers. WPPs should be tailored accordingly and shift their focus to more practical approaches, such as voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), to increase their effectiveness. PMID:25805432

  3. Anonymity in Voting Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonker, Hugo; Pieters, Wolter

    According to international law, anonymity of the voter is a fundamental precondition for democratic elections. In electronic voting, several aspects of voter anonymity have been identified. In this paper, we re-examine anonymity with respect to voting, and generalise existing notions of anonymity in e-voting. First, we identify and categorise the types of attack that can be a threat to anonymity of the voter, including different types of vote buying and coercion. This analysis leads to a categorisation of anonymity in voting in terms of a) the strength of the anonymity achieved and b) the extent of interaction between voter and attacker. Some of the combinations, including weak and strong receipt-freeness, are formalised in epistemic logic.

  4. A decade of an HIV workplace programme in armed conflict zones; a social responsibility response of the International Committee of the Red Cross.

    PubMed

    Du Mortier, Stéphane; Mukangu, Silas; Sagna, Charles; Nyffenegger, Laurent; Aebischer Perone, Sigiriya

    2016-01-01

    The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) works in fragile States and in armed conflict zones. Some of them are affected by the HIV pandemic. Within the framework of its social responsibility programme concerning HIV affecting its staff members, the organization has implemented an HIV workplace programme since 2004. We carried out a retrospective analysis over 10 years. Data collected were initially essentially qualitative and process-oriented, but were complemented over the years by data on annual voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) uptake and on direct annual costs covering awareness, testing and antiretroviral therapy. The number of people covered by the programme grew from none in 2003 to 4,438 in 2015, with an increase in annual VCT uptake over the years increasing from 376 persons (14 %) in 2007 to 2,663 in 2015 (60 %). Over the years, the services were expanded from awareness raising to bringing VCT to the workplace, as well as offering testing and health coverage of other conditions and innovative approaches to facing challenges linked to situations of violence. Within its social responsibility framework, the ICRC has shown the importance and feasibility of a workplace HIV programme in conflict zones. A sustainable workplace programme in these conflict settings requires constant adaptation, with regular follow-up given the relatively high turnover of staff, and ensuring sustainable stocks of condoms and antiretroviral drugs. PMID:27247611

  5. An Anonymity Revocation Technology for Anonymous Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniou, Giannakis; Batten, Lynn; Parampalli, Udaya

    A number of privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) have been proposed in the last three decades offering unconditional communication anonymity to their users. Unconditional anonymity can, however, be a security threat because it allows users to employ a PET in order to act maliciously while hiding their identity. In the last few years, several technologies which revoke the identity of users who use PETs have been proposed. These are known as anonymity revocation technologies (ARTs). However, the construction of ARTs has been developed in an ad hoc manner without a theoretical basis outlining the goals and underlying principles. In this chapter we present a set of fundamental principles and requirements for construction of an ART, identifying the necessary features. We then propose an abstract scheme for construction of an ART based on these features.

  6. Quantum anonymous voting with anonymity check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoshko, Dmitri; Kilin, Sergei

    2011-02-01

    We propose a new protocol for quantum anonymous voting having serious advantages over the existing protocols: it protects both the voters from a curious tallyman and all the participants from a dishonest voter in unconditional way. The central idea of the protocol is that the ballots are given back to the voters after the voting process, which gives a possibility for two voters to check the anonymity of the vote counting process by preparing a special entangled state of two ballots. Any attempt of cheating from the side of the tallyman results in destroying the entanglement, which can be detected by the voters.

  7. Profiles of men-who-have-sex-with-men seeking anonymous voluntary HIV counseling and testing at a community-based centre in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Koh, K C; Kamarulzaman, A

    2011-12-01

    Community-based HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services is an effective alternative for mapping the local demographics of at-risk populations for HIV as well as provide an acceptable and reliable means of early detection of HIV. We describe the profiles of men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) who sought VCT services in a community based centre in Kuala Lumpur. PMID:22390108

  8. Working It Out: Workplace Experiences of Individuals with HIV and Individuals with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fesko, Sheila Lynch

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-two individuals with cancer or HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) were interviewed concerning their employment related experiences and concerns. Findings indicated that the decision to tell their supervisor and/or co-workers about their health status varied substantially between individuals with HIV and those with cancer. All study…

  9. True Anonymity Without Mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Jimenez, C.; Marshall, L.

    2002-04-01

    Anonymizers based on mix computers interposed between the sender and the receiver of an e-mail message have been used in the Internet for several years by senders of e-mail messages who do not wish to disclose their identity. Unfortunately, the degree of anonymity provided by this paradigm is limited and fragile. First, the messages sent are not truly anonymous but pseudo-anonymous since one of the mixes, at least, always knows the sender's identity. Secondly, the strength of the system to protect the sender's identity depends on the ability and the willingness of the mixes to keep the secret. If the mixes fail, the sender/'s anonymity is reduced to pieces. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sending truly anonymous messages over the Internet where the anonymous message is sent from a PDA which uses dynamically assigned temporary, non-personal, random IP and MAC addresses. Anonymous E-cash is used to pay for the service.

  10. Anonymity, Deindividuation and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert S.

    Several writers suggest that reducing one's sense of individuality reduces social restraints. The author suggests that the effect of uniformity of appearance on aggression is unclear when anonymity is held constant. This poses a problem of interpretation given that a distinction must be made between lack of individuality and anonymity. One must…

  11. Anonymous Signatures Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswat, Vishal; Yun, Aaram

    We revisit the notion of the anonymous signature, first formalized by Yang, Wong, Deng and Wang [10], and then further developed by Fischlin [4] and Zhang and Imai [11]. We present a new formalism of anonymous signature, where instead of the message, a part of the signature is withheld to maintain anonymity. We introduce the notion unpretendability to guarantee infeasibility for someone other than the correct signer to pretend authorship of the message and signature. Our definition retains applicability for all previous applications of the anonymous signature, provides stronger security, and is conceptually simpler. We give a generic construction from any ordinary signature scheme, and also show that the short signature scheme by Boneh and Boyen [2] can be naturally regarded as such a secure anonymous signature scheme according to our formalism.

  12. Quantum anonymous ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Liu, Bin; Su, Qi; Qin, Su-Juan; Gao, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Anonymous ranking is a kind of privacy-preserving ranking whereby each of the involved participants can correctly and anonymously get the rankings of his data. It can be utilized to solve many practical problems, such as anonymously ranking the students' exam scores. We investigate the issue of how quantum mechanics can be of use in maintaining the anonymity of the participants in multiparty ranking and present a series of quantum anonymous multiparty, multidata ranking protocols. In each of these protocols, a participant can get the correct rankings of his data and nobody else can match the identity to his data. Furthermore, the security of these protocols with respect to different kinds of attacks is proved.

  13. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  14. Anonymity in science.

    PubMed

    Neuroskeptic

    2013-05-01

    The history of science is replete with important works that were originally published without the author's legal name being revealed. Most modern scientists will have worked anonymously in their capacity as peer reviewers. But why is anonymity so popular? And is it a valid approach? I argue that pseudonymity and anonymity, although not appropriate for all forms of scientific communication, have a vital role to play in academic discourse. They can facilitate the free expression of interpretations and ideas, and can help to ensure that suggestions and criticisms are evaluated dispassionately, regardless of their source. PMID:23570959

  15. Trust in Anonymity Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Hamadou, Sardaouna; Yang, Mu

    Anonymity is a security property of paramount importance, as we move steadily towards a wired, online community. Its import touches upon subjects as different as eGovernance, eBusiness and eLeisure, as well as personal freedom of speech in authoritarian societies. Trust metrics are used in anonymity networks to support and enhance reliability in the absence of verifiable identities, and a variety of security attacks currently focus on degrading a user's trustworthiness in the eyes of the other users. In this paper, we analyse the privacy guarantees of the Crowds anonymity protocol, with and without onion forwarding, for standard and adaptive attacks against the trust level of honest users.

  16. Workplace discrimination and HIV/AIDS: the national EEOC ADA research project.

    PubMed

    Conyers, Liza; Boomer, K B; McMahon, Brian T

    2005-01-01

    This article utilizes data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's Integrated Mission System database to document the levels of employment discrimination involving individuals with HIV/AIDS. The researchers explore the theory that the nature of HIV/AIDS related employment discrimination is rooted in deeper stigmatization than discrimination against other disability groups. Researchers compare and contrast key demographic characteristics of Charging Parties and Respondents involved in HIV/AIDS related allegations of discrimination and their proportion of EEOC merit resolutions to those of persons with other physical, sensory, and neurological impairments. Findings indicate that, in contrast to the general disability group, HIV/AIDS was more likely to be male, ethnic minorities, between the ages of 25-44, in white collar jobs, in the South and West and to work for businesses with 15 to 100 employees. Additionally, the allegations in HIV/AIDS were more likely to receive merit resolution from the EEOC by a large difference of ten percent. PMID:16006674

  17. Spectral Anonymization of Data

    PubMed Central

    Lasko, Thomas A.; Vinterbo, Staal A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of data anonymization is to allow the release of scientifically useful data in a form that protects the privacy of its subjects. This requires more than simply removing personal identifiers from the data, because an attacker can still use auxiliary information to infer sensitive individual information. Additional perturbation is necessary to prevent these inferences, and the challenge is to perturb the data in a way that preserves its analytic utility. No existing anonymization algorithm provides both perfect privacy protection and perfect analytic utility. We make the new observation that anonymization algorithms are not required to operate in the original vector-space basis of the data, and many algorithms can be improved by operating in a judiciously chosen alternate basis. A spectral basis derived from the data’s eigenvectors is one that can provide substantial improvement. We introduce the term spectral anonymization to refer to an algorithm that uses a spectral basis for anonymization, and we give two illustrative examples. We also propose new measures of privacy protection that are more general and more informative than existing measures, and a principled reference standard with which to define adequate privacy protection. PMID:21373375

  18. Women and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... action on HIV/AIDS National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day – March 10 Programs Share your story Anonymous from Illinois says... Although I am HIV negative, I would like to share my story. ...

  19. Anonymous, Yet Trustworthy Auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanda, Prasit Bikash; Naessens, Vincent; de Decker, Bart

    An auction is an inevitable market mechanism to setup prices of goods or services in a competitive and dynamic environment. Anonymity of bidders is required to conceal their business strategies from competitors. However, it is also essential to provide the seller guarantees that a bidder is trustworthy and competent enough to perform certain tasks (e.g transports). This paper proposes an auction protocol where bidders will participate anonymously, yet prove to be trustworthy and competent and can be held accountable towards auctioneers and sellers. Moreover, the protocol introduces promises, bonuses and compensations to ensure the best price for the sellers, extra profit for bidders and opportunities for newcomers in the business. It also handles ties, and copes with last minute bidding. Finally, the auction’s fair proceedings and outcome can be verified by everyone.

  20. Transmitted HIV drug resistance at the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic in Bangkok: results from three consecutive years of annual surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Kantor, Rami; DeLong, Allison K.; Wongkunya, Rapeeporn; Mekprasan, Suwanna; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Sohn, Annette H.; Phanuphak, Praphan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to prospectively survey transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among recently infected individuals (mostly MSM). Methods TDR was determined in prospective annual cohorts of recently HIV-1-infected individuals consecutively recruited from 2008 to 2010. Resistance interpretation was carried out using Stanford Database tools and the WHO surveillance drug resistance mutation list. Kruskal–Wallis and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare demographic and laboratory outcomes. Results A total of 299 subjects were enrolled, with 89% MSM. Median viral load was significantly higher in 2010 than in 2008 (P = 0.004). Of the 284 analysable reverse transcriptase/protease sequences, TDR to any drug was found in 14/284 (4.9%); 4.0% in 2008, 5.9% in 2009 and 5.3% in 2010, with an increasing trend of TDR to NRTIs and NNRTIs from 2008 to 2010 (P = 0.07). Good correlation was found between our data and the WHO threshold surveillance method. Only rilpivirine had significantly higher (P < 0.05) predicted resistance in 2010 than in 2008 and 2009. Conclusions A trend towards an increase in TDR in Thailand where the major epidemic is among MSM was observed, but did not reach the WHO-defined high-level threshold (>15%). Attention to prevent the development and spread of drug resistance is needed. PMID:25525199

  1. HIV testing and attitudes among the working-age population of Japan: annual health checkups may offer an effective way forwards

    PubMed Central

    ISHIMARU, Tomohiro; WADA, Koji; SMITH, Derek R

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) for HIV has been recommended for people concerned about their infection risk, especially those in high-risk groups. Although HIV awareness has declined in this country somewhat during recent years, the number of newly-infected cases has been increasing. The purpose of the current study therefore, was to determine the prevalence of HIV testing, individuals’ reasons for being tested, and the overall acceptance of HIV testing among working-age Japanese. We utilized an anonymous, nationwide survey which was administered to a total of 3,055 participants aged 20–69 yr. The lifetime prevalence of HIV testing was 14% (2% within the past year). A gap was observed between a prior history of HIV testing and willingness to be tested in future (32%) or willingness to be tested during health checkups in the workplace (41%). HIV testing appears to have only been conducted among a limited number of working-age Japanese adults, even though some reported a willingness to be tested. Opportunities for VCT during workplace health checkups might offer an immediate and positive way forwards in the fight against HIV; however, privacy protection for test results and the acceptance of HIV-positive employees should be carefully considered in the workplace. PMID:26423333

  2. Comments on ``Anonymous Reviews'' An Editor's View of Anonymous Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, John A.

    I have read with great interest the recent Forum commentaries in Eos by Myrl Beck, Charles Robinove, Robert Criss, and Anne Hofmeister regarding anonymous reviews. I heartily support their position that anonymous reviews should be avoided. I have not written an anonymous review in ages (and regret the few that I did), and have always appreciated and respected greatly anyone who signs a critical review of one of my own papers. However, I would like to add some perspective from the editorial standpoint. I have served as JGR associate editor for 3 years (never anonymously!), and as Eos editor for seismology and tectonophysics for 4. Over the years, I have rejected a fair number of papers, most of those based on anonymous reviews (fortunately, none of the above commentators was one of them). The vast majority of anonymous reviews I received were well considered. While I would wish that all reviews were signed, I don't think we can summarily dismiss the fear that many would have of enmity and reprisal over a critical review. Some of these fears are likely justified. On more than one occasion, have I witnessed overly aggressive responses on the part of authors to anonymous reviews that I considered to be entirely fair and constructive in their criticisms. I do think we need to do all we can to discourage anonymous reviews, but it will be difficult to completely remove that choice from the process.

  3. On Backward-Style Anonymity Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Yoshinobu; Mano, Ken; Sakurada, Hideki; Tsukada, Yasuyuki

    Many Internet services and protocols should guarantee anonymity; for example, an electronic voting system should guarantee to prevent the disclosure of who voted for which candidate. To prove trace anonymity, which is an extension of the formulation of anonymity by Schneider and Sidiropoulos, this paper presents an inductive method based on backward anonymous simulations. We show that the existence of an image-finite backward anonymous simulation implies trace anonymity. We also demonstrate the anonymity verification of an e-voting protocol (the FOO protocol) with our backward anonymous simulation technique. When proving the trace anonymity, this paper employs a computer-assisted verification tool based on a theorem prover.

  4. Anonymous Transactions in Computer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolev, Shlomi; Kopeetsky, Marina

    We present schemes for providing anonymous transactions while privacy and anonymity are preserved, providing user anonymous authentication in distributed networks such as the Internet. We first present a practical scheme for anonymous transactions while the transaction resolution is assisted by a Trusted Authority. This practical scheme is extended to a theoretical scheme where a Trusted Authority is not involved in the transaction resolution. Given an authority that generates for each player hard to produce evidence EVID (e. g., problem instance with or without a solution) to each player, the identity of a user U is defined by the ability to prove possession of said evidence. We use Zero-Knowledge proof techniques to repeatedly identify U by providing a proof that U has evidence EVID, without revealing EVID, therefore avoiding identity theft.

  5. Technology for Anonymity: Names By Other Nyms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayner, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Provides a summary of some of the technical solutions for producing anonymous communication on the Internet and presents an argument that anonymity is as much a part of crime prevention as requiring people to provide their names. Discusses identity theft; the three major techniques that make anonymous cash possible; and anonymizing Internet…

  6. Anonymity and Historical-Anonymity in Location-Based Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, Claudio; Mascetti, Sergio; Wang, X. Sean; Freni, Dario; Jajodia, Sushil

    The problem of protecting user’s privacy in Location-Based Services (LBS) has been extensively studied recently and several defense techniques have been proposed. In this contribution, we first present a categorization of privacy attacks and related defenses. Then, we consider the class of defense techniques that aim at providing privacy through anonymity and in particular algorithms achieving “historical k- anonymity” in the case of the adversary obtaining a trace of requests recognized as being issued by the same (anonymous) user. Finally, we investigate the issues involved in the experimental evaluation of anonymity based defense techniques; we show that user movement simulations based on mostly random movements can lead to overestimate the privacy protection in some cases and to overprotective techniques in other cases. The above results are obtained by comparison to a more realistic simulation with an agent-based simulator, considering a specific deployment scenario.

  7. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  8. Revocable Anonymous Access to the Internet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claessens, Joris; Diaz, Claudia; Goemans, Caroline; Preneel, Bart; Vandewalle, Joos; Dumortier, Jos

    2003-01-01

    Users of telecommunications networks are concerned about privacy, and desire anonymous access, while some organizations are concerned about how this anonymous access might be abused. Proposes a solution for revocable anonymous access to the Internet. Presents some legal background and motivation for such a solution. Indicates some difficulties and…

  9. Workplace interventions to reduce HIV and TB stigma among health care workers - Where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jacob; Yassi, Annalee; Rau, Asta; Buxton, Jane A; Wouters, Edwin; Engelbrecht, Michelle C; Uebel, Kerry E; Nophale, Letshego E

    2015-01-01

    Fear of stigma and discrimination among health care workers (HCWs) in South African hospitals is thought to be a major factor in the high rates of HIV and tuberculosis infection experienced in the health care workforce. The aim of the current study is to inform the development of a stigma reduction intervention in the context of a large multicomponent trial. We analysed relevant results of four feasibility studies conducted in the lead up to the trial. Our findings suggest that a stigma reduction campaign must address community and structural level drivers of stigma, in addition to individual level concerns, through a participatory and iterative approach. Importantly, stigma reduction must not only be embedded in the institutional management of HCWs but also be attentive to the localised needs of HCWs themselves. PMID:25769042

  10. Dentistry and HIV/AIDS related stigma

    PubMed Central

    Elizondo, Jesus Eduardo; Treviño, Ana Cecilia; Violant, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze HIV/AIDS positive individual’s perception and attitudes regarding dental services. METHODS One hundred and thirty-four subjects (30.0% of women and 70.0% of men) from Nuevo León, Mexico, took part in the study (2014). They filled out structured, analytical, self-administered, anonymous questionnaires. Besides the sociodemographic variables, the perception regarding public and private dental services and related professionals was evaluated, as well as the perceived stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, through a Likert-type scale. The statistical evaluation included a factorial and a non-hierarchical cluster analysis. RESULTS Social inequalities were found regarding the search for public and private dental professionals and services. Most subjects reported omitting their HIV serodiagnosis and agreed that dentists must be trained and qualified to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. The factorial analysis revealed two elements: experiences of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments and feelings of concern regarding the attitudes of professionals or their teams concerning patients’ HIV serodiagnosis. The cluster analysis identified three groups: users who have not experienced stigma or discrimination (85.0%); the ones who have not had those experiences, but feel somewhat concerned (12.7%); and the ones who underwent stigma and discrimination and feel concerned (2.3%). CONCLUSIONS We observed a low percentage of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments; however, most HIV/AIDS patients do not reveal their serodiagnosis to dentists out of fear of being rejected. Such fact implies a workplace hazard to dental professionals, but especially to the very own health of HIV/AIDS patients, as dentists will not be able to provide them a proper clinical and pharmaceutical treatment. PMID:26538100

  11. The application of online surveys for workplace health research.

    PubMed

    Scriven, A; Smith-Ferrier, S

    2003-06-01

    Work has a synergistic relationship to health, and workplaces are increasingly the focus for both health promotion initiatives and health research. Electronic technologies are a common feature of many workplaces and as such are convenient low cost survey vehicles for the health researcher. The methods and the implications of employing Internet methods for health research are covered and a wide range of issues connected with online sampling and data collection are discussed. Because the workplace does not provide a neutral research environment, the security, anonymity and associated issues of using the two main forms of Internet surveys for workplace health research are examined and their advantages and disadvantages are debated. PMID:12852193

  12. A review of Alcoholics Anonymous/ Narcotics Anonymous programs for teens.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The investigation of the applicability of Alcoholics Anonymous/Narcotics Anonymous (AA/NA) for teens has only been a subject of empirical research investigation since the early 1990s. In the present review, the author describes teen involvement in AA/NA programming, provides an exhaustive review of the outcomes of 19 studies that used an AA/NA model as part of their formal teen substance abuse treatment programs, and provides data on the effects of AA/NA attendance on abstinence at follow-up, on which youth tend to become involved in AA/NA, and on mediation of the benefits of AA/NA participation. In addition, the author suggests the reasons for somewhat limited participation by teens in more informal, community-based 12-step meetings, and makes suggestions for maximizing participation at meetings in the community. The author concludes that AA/ NA participation is a valuable modality of substance abuse treatment for teens and that much can be done to increase teen participation, though more research is needed. PMID:20164105

  13. An Anonymous Credit Card System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androulaki, Elli; Bellovin, Steven

    Credit cards have many important benefits; however, these same benefits often carry with them many privacy concerns. In particular, the need for users to be able to monitor their own transactions, as well as bank’s need to justify its payment requests from cardholders, entitle the latter to maintain a detailed log of all transactions its credit card customers were involved in. A bank can thus build a profile of each cardholder even without the latter’s consent. In this paper, we present a practical and accountable anonymous credit system based on ecash, with a privacy preserving mechanism for error correction and expense-reporting.

  14. HIV

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sumit; Sahoo, Soumya Swaroop; Jain, Rambilas; Khanna, Pardeep; Mehta, Bharti; Singh, Inderjeet

    2014-01-01

    Getting to zero: zero new HIV infections, zero deaths from AIDS-related illness, zero discrimination is the theme of World AIDS Day 2012. Given the spread of the epidemic today, getting to zero may sound difficult, but significant progress is underway. The total annual loss for the entire country due to HIV is 7% of GDP, which exceeds India’s annual health expenditure in 2004. The additional loss due to loss of labor income and increased medical expenditure as measured by the external transfers, account for 5% of the country’s health expenditure and 0.23% of GDP. Given that the HIV incidence rate is only 0.27% in India, these losses are quite staggering. Despite the remarkable achievements in development of anti-retroviral therapies against HIV and the recent advances in new prevention technologies, the rate of new HIV infections continue to outpace efforts on HIV prevention and control. Thus, the development of a safe and effective vaccine for prevention and control of AIDS remains a global public health priority and the greatest opportunity to eventually end the AIDS pandemic. PMID:24056755

  15. Workplace violence: a study of Turkish workers.

    PubMed

    Aytac, Serpil; Bozkurt, Veysel; Bayram, Nuran; Yildiz, Selver; Aytac, Mustafa; Akinci, Fusun Sokullu; Bilgel, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted to address the experience of workplace violence of Turkish workers from different sectors and to investigate the impact of the exposed violence on their psychological well-being. Data were collected anonymously with printed questionnaires from the volunteer participants and depended on self-reporting. The response rate was 79.0% (1708/2161). The prevalence of workplace violence was found to be 44.8%. The most common type was verbal violence together with mobbing (bullying). Victims of physical violence were mostly males, whereas females were found to be victims of verbal, psychological and sexual violence. Most cases did not result in legal action and the victims remained silent. Psychological well-being of exposed workers in terms of depression, anxiety and stress seemed to deteriorate. Workplace violence remains a silent epidemic in Turkey. Preventive measures against workplace violence and social support for violated workers do not exist. PMID:22152504

  16. Workplace Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slagle, Sinda

    1991-01-01

    Washoe High School in Reno, Nevada, is reaching out into the community by establishing literacy classes in the workplace. The high school furnishes tutors and textbooks; employers contribute classroom space, inexpensive work materials, and students. (MLF)

  17. Legal Issues in Anonymity and Pseudonymity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froomkin, A. Michael

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of anonymous and pseudonymous communications is an important and contentious Internetrelated issues of the 21st century. Resolution of this controversy will effect freedom of speech, nature of electronic commerce, and capabilities of law enforcement. The legal constraints on anonymous communication, and the constitutional constraints on…

  18. Anonymity in Classroom Voting and Debating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; Gelmini-Hornsby, Giulia; Threapleton, Kate; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Buda, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The advent of networked environments into the classroom is changing classroom debates in many ways. This article addresses one key attribute of these environments, namely anonymity, to explore its consequences for co-present adolescents anonymous, by virtue of the computer system, to peers not to teachers. Three studies with 16-17 year-olds used a…

  19. A flexible approach to distributed data anonymization.

    PubMed

    Kohlmayer, Florian; Prasser, Fabian; Eckert, Claudia; Kuhn, Klaus A

    2014-08-01

    Sensitive biomedical data is often collected from distributed sources, involving different information systems and different organizational units. Local autonomy and legal reasons lead to the need of privacy preserving integration concepts. In this article, we focus on anonymization, which plays an important role for the re-use of clinical data and for the sharing of research data. We present a flexible solution for anonymizing distributed data in the semi-honest model. Prior to the anonymization procedure, an encrypted global view of the dataset is constructed by means of a secure multi-party computing (SMC) protocol. This global representation can then be anonymized. Our approach is not limited to specific anonymization algorithms but provides pre- and postprocessing for a broad spectrum of algorithms and many privacy criteria. We present an extensive analytical and experimental evaluation and discuss which types of methods and criteria are supported. Our prototype demonstrates the approach by implementing k-anonymity, ℓ-diversity, t-closeness and δ-presence with a globally optimal de-identification method in horizontally and vertically distributed setups. The experiments show that our method provides highly competitive performance and offers a practical and flexible solution for anonymizing distributed biomedical datasets. PMID:24333850

  20. A Mechanism for Anonymous Credit Card Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

    This paper proposes a mechanism for anonymous credit card systems, in which each credit card holder can conceal individual transactions from the credit card company, while enabling the credit card company to calculate the total expenditures of transactions of individual card holders during specified periods, and to identify card holders who executed dishonest transactions. Based on three existing mechanisms, i.e. anonymous authentication, blind signature and secure statistical data gathering, together with implicit transaction links proposed here, the proposed mechanism enables development of anonymous credit card systems without assuming any absolutely trustworthy entity like tamper resistant devices or organizations faithful both to the credit card company and card holders.

  1. Comments on ``Anonymous Reviews'' From D. Fisher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, David

    I'd like to suggest that the recent letters complaining about reviewers' anonymity are on the wrong track. What we need is more anonymity, not less: we need double-blind mandatory anonymity. The main argument proposed so far is the unfairness of not being able to confront the reviewers' criticisms. But you don't need to know who someone is to be able to argue against their ideas. Reviewers' reports are spelled out clearly and can be rebutted without getting into personalities.

  2. Changing Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    These four papers are from a symposium on changing workplaces. "Women Entrepreneurs: Maintaining Business Success through Human Resource Development" (Dominic G. Kamau , Gary N. McLean, Alexander Ardishvili) investigates contributions of human resource development (HRD) to business success and reports the following: (1) women can be successful in…

  3. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael Z; Dunn, Alan M; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett

    2013-12-31

    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch. Logins are anonymous in the sense that the service cannot distinguish which user is logging in any better than random guessing. This implies unlinkability of a user across different logins. We find that a central tension in an anonymous subscription service is the service provider's desire for a long epoch (to reduce server-side computation) versus users' desire for a short epoch (so they can repeatedly "re-anonymize" their sessions). We balance this tension by having short epochs, but adding an efficient operation for clients who do not need unlinkability to cheaply re-authenticate themselves for the next time period. We measure performance of a research prototype of our protocol that allows an independent service to offer anonymous access to existing services. We implement a music service, an Android-based subway-pass application, and a web proxy, and show that adding anonymity adds minimal client latency and only requires 33 KB of server memory per active user. PMID:24504081

  4. On-Line Anonymity: A New Privacy Battle in Cyberspace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Laurie Thomas

    1996-01-01

    States that lawsuits are being filed that challenge anonymity and freedom of speech in cyberspace--is there a right to online anonymity? Examines the debate and issues associated with anonymous communications in cyberspace. Explores the "right of informational privacy" as it pertains to anonymity. Suggests some regulatory approaches for addressing…

  5. HIV/AIDS Case Managers and Client HIV Status Disclosure: Perceived Client Needs, Practices, and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Klein, Susan J.; Kalichman, Moira O.; O'Connell, Daniel A.; Freedman, Jay A.; Eaton, Lisa; Cain, Demetria

    2007-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS often need assistance in deciding whether or how to disclose their HIV status to others, and case managers are in a unique position to offer this assistance. The current study surveyed 223 case managers providing services to people living with HIV/AIDS in New York State. The survey was conducted anonymously, and case…

  6. Workplace Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Anthropometric Source Book was developed based on Johnson Space Center project of anthropometry, the study of the size, shape and motion characteristics of the human body. Designed primarily for use by NASA, the military services and aerospace contractors, the book was also intended to help non-aerospace engineers, architects, and others engaged in design of clothing, equipment and workplaces. An example of its use by Eastman Kodak Company is the company's application of the data to design efficient, productive and comfortable workplaces for employees in the Rochester, NY processing laboratories. The sourcebook was used to determine such dimensions as leg space, work surface height and thickness, employee reach distances, proper height for computer terminal screen, seat height and knee space.

  7. How Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) Work: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Robinson, Elizabeth A. R.; Moore, Barbara C.; Kelly, John F.; Laudet, Alexandre B.; White, William L.; Zemore, Sarah E.; Kurtz, Ernest; Strobbe, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from multiple lines of research supports the effectiveness and practical importance of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Conference presenters discussed the relationship between 12-Step participation and abstinence among various populations, including adolescents, women, and urban drug users. Insight from the arts and humanities placed empirical findings in a holistic context. PMID:21785524

  8. How Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) Work: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Krentzman, Amy R; Robinson, Elizabeth A R; Moore, Barbara C; Kelly, John F; Laudet, Alexandre B; White, William L; Zemore, Sarah E; Kurtz, Ernest; Strobbe, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    Evidence from multiple lines of research supports the effectiveness and practical importance of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Conference presenters discussed the relationship between 12-Step participation and abstinence among various populations, including adolescents, women, and urban drug users. Insight from the arts and humanities placed empirical findings in a holistic context. PMID:21785524

  9. Performance evaluation of various K- anonymity techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwarkar, Nidhi; Pathak, Kshitij; Chourey, Vivekanand

    2011-12-01

    Today's advanced scenario where each information is available in one click, data security is the main aspect. Individual information which sometimes needs to be hiding is easily available using some tricks. Medical information, income details are needed to be kept away from adversaries and so, are stored in private tables. Some publicly released information contains zip code, sex, birth date. When this released information is linked with the private table, adversary can detect the whole confidential information of individuals or respondents, i.e. name, medical status. So to protect respondents identity, a new concept k-anonymity is used which means each released record has at least (k-1) other records in the release whose values are distinct over those fields that appear in the external data. K-anonymity can be achieved easily in case of single sensitive attributes i.e. name, salary, medical status, but it is quiet difficult when multiple sensitive attributes are present. Generalization and Suppression are used to achieve k-anonymity. This paper provides a formal introduction of k-anonymity and some techniques used with it l-diversity, t-closeness. This paper covers k-anonymity model and the comparative study of these concepts along with a new proposed concept for multiple sensitive attributes.

  10. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael Z.; Dunn, Alan M.; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch. Logins are anonymous in the sense that the service cannot distinguish which user is logging in any better than random guessing. This implies unlinkability of a user across different logins. We find that a central tension in an anonymous subscription service is the service provider’s desire for a long epoch (to reduce server-side computation) versus users’ desire for a short epoch (so they can repeatedly “re-anonymize” their sessions). We balance this tension by having short epochs, but adding an efficient operation for clients who do not need unlinkability to cheaply re-authenticate themselves for the next time period. We measure performance of a research prototype of our protocol that allows an independent service to offer anonymous access to existing services. We implement a music service, an Android-based subway-pass application, and a web proxy, and show that adding anonymity adds minimal client latency and only requires 33 KB of server memory per active user. PMID:24504081

  11. "Dear Professor: I Hate You"--Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Flip through a stack of anonymous student evaluations of professors and the mild comments, even the compliments, tend to blend together. But often, hidden among them, is a dagger. Then there are the out-and-out insults. Students' comments can be more than simply mean. Sometimes student comments aren't cruel, just weird. In this article, some…

  12. Narcotics Anonymous: Understanding the "Bridge of Recovery."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronel, Natti

    1998-01-01

    Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is investigated as a subculture of recovery bridging the drug subculture and the prevailing culture. A phenomenological study of NA in Israel is reported. Innovation, cultural conflict, the value of recovery and its norms, supporting social mechanisms, limitations of the program, and intercultural attributes are…

  13. In Defence of Anonymity: Rejoining the Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    This article is a response to the growing criticisms of the British Educational Research Association (BERA) and Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) ethical guidelines on anonymity and pseudonymity as default positions for participants in qualitative educational research. It discusses and responds to those criticisms under four…

  14. HIV prevalence in dental outpatients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, O P; de Souza Filho, F J; Scully, C; Line, S R; Porter, S

    1997-10-01

    A series of dental outpatients in Brazil was anonymously screened for HIV antibodies in whole unstimulated saliva with an immunoglobulin G antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Salivary HIV antibodies were detected in 40 patients in the control group who were known to be HIV-seropositive but were not detected in any of a series of 40 known HIV-seronegative patients in the control group, confirming the very high sensitivity and specificity of the immunoglobulin G antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Only one patient from 84 consecutive dental outpatients of unknown HIV serostatus who were examined anonymously for HIV by immunoglobulin G antibody-capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed HIV positivity (1.2% of the population). PMID:9347499

  15. Workplace Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. It is a short guide to workplace health and safety issues, laws, and regulations, especially in Massachusetts. Topics covered include the following: (1) safety issues--workplace ergonomics, the…

  16. AIDS and HIV Testing: Implications for Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Sandra Crouse

    1992-01-01

    The article makes health educators aware of issues raised by a move from anonymous to confidential HIV testing. It examines implications of contact tracing and notification and of reporting requirements that identify HIV-positive persons to public health departments. Implications for health education professionals responsible for HIV test…

  17. Lack of HIV Testing and Awareness of HIV Infection among Men Who Have Sex with Men, Beijing, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Lui, Hui; Guo, Yaqi; Han, Lei; Mandel, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    In China, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. However, little is known about their HIV testing behavior. From September 2001 to January 2002, we recruited 482 men through social networks and MSM venues. We conducted HIV testing and counseling, and anonymous, standardized face-to-face interviews. Eighty-two percent of…

  18. A Model of Onion Routing with Provable Anonymity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigenbaum, Joan; Johnson, Aaron; Syverson, Paul

    Onion routing is a scheme for anonymous communication that is designed for practical use. Until now, however, it has had no formal model and therefore no rigorous analysis of its anonymity guarantees. We give an IO-automata model of an onion-routing protocol and, under possibilistic definitions, characterize the situations in which anonymity and unlinkability are guaranteed.

  19. Academic freedom, public reactions, and anonymity.

    PubMed

    Häyry, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; that anonymity would not in most cases effectively protect the kind of immunity sought after; and that in some cases it would not even be desirable to protect scholars from public reactions to their controversial claims. PMID:24724541

  20. Privacy, anonymity and subjectivity in genomic research.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, Ian; Shomron, Noam

    2016-01-01

    The use of non-anonymized human genome data is becoming increasingly popular in research. Here we review the proceedings of a special meeting on this topic that took place at European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) in December 2014. The main points discussed centered on how to achieve 'anonymity,' 'trust,' and 'protection of data' in relation to new genomic technologies and research. Following our report of this meeting, we also raise three further issues for future consideration: the harmonization of international law in relation to genetic data protection; the complex issues around the 'dividual' nature of genetic data; and the growing commercial value of personal data. In conclusion, we stress the importance of scientists working in the area of genomic research engaging in interdisciplinary collaborations with humanities and social science scholars and addressing these complicated issues. PMID:26763729

  1. Extraction and anonymity protocol of medical file.

    PubMed Central

    Bouzelat, H.; Quantin, C.; Dusserre, L.

    1996-01-01

    To carry out the epidemiological study of patients suffering from a given cancer, the Department of Medical Informatics (DIM) has to link information coming from different hospitals and medical laboratories in the Burgundy region. Demands from the French department for computerized information security (Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertés: CNIL), in regard to abiding by the law of January 6, 1978, completed by the law of July 1st, 1994 on nominal data processing in the framework of medical research have to be taken into account. Notably, the CNIL advised to render anonymous patient identities before the extraction of each establishment file. This paper describes a recently implemented protocol, registered with the French department for computerized information security (Service Central de la Sécurité des Systèmes d'information : SCSSI) whose purpose is to render anonymous medical files in view of their extraction. Once rendered anonymous, these files will be exportable so as to be merged with other files and used in a framework of epidemiological studies. Therefore, this protocol uses the Standard Hash Algorithm (SHA) which allows the replacement of identities by their imprints while ensuring a minimal collision rate in order to allow a correct linkage of the different information concerning the same patient. A first evaluation of the extraction and anonymity software with regard to the purpose of an epidemiological survey is described here. In this paper, we also show how it would be possible to implement this system by means of the Internet communication network. PMID:8947681

  2. Infrared observations of anonymous IRC sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strecker, D. W.; Ney, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Infrared (0.9 to 18 microns) observations of 232 anonymous 2-micron Sky survey (IRC) sources are reported. Most of the objects appear to be late-type stars with little or no long-wave excess. About ten percent exhibit large excesses. Thirty-one of the brightest 11-micron sources have been remeasured to determine variability. These brighter objects appear to fall into two groups; one group resembles NML Tauri, while the other is like NML Cygni.

  3. [Use of illicit substances in the workplace].

    PubMed

    Lhermitte, M; Frimat, P; Labat, L; Haguenoer, J-M

    2012-01-01

    The development of addictive behaviors is a source of worry and concern for workplace and occupational physicians. To estimate the prevalence of behaviors, two types of surveys can be carried out: self-assessment surveys and biological testing in the workplace. For the latter, when a settlement is within the company, the prevalence is often lower compared to those enterprises that have not adapted this policy. Very few investigations have been published in France to date. Data published by the United Nations Office against Drugs and Crime (UNODC) shows a stable consumption of illicit substances in recent years. They reported consumption in the world among the general population (all subjects aged 15 to 64). For France, were described a prevalence estimated in 2005 to 8.6%, 0.6% and 0.2% for cannabis, cocaine and amphetamine derivatives, respectively, and in 2007 to 4.6% for opiates. Some prevalence in the workplace have been reported in Europe in chemical, petrochemical, metallurgical, automotive, in the transport sector and in medical and military fields. However, it appears that few surveys in the workplace have been published in France, this lack may be explained by a desire for anonymity on the subject at the level of company management and doctors work that focus on individual support with the problem of addiction. Screening for illicit substances is necessary because these psychotropic substances affect alertness and pose risks in the workplace, especially such that the association cannabis-alcohol further increases the risk. Knowledge of consumption is, moreover, an important factor in job security. It may be acquired if reliable methods, inexpensive to allow routine screening. Publication of results will reveal the extent of the problem and implement more effective campaigns of information and prevention in the workplace. PMID:22341004

  4. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-06-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature.

  5. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature. PMID:27247078

  6. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature. PMID:27247078

  7. [Workplace mobbing].

    PubMed

    Soljan, Ivana; Josipović-Jelić, Zeljka; Jelić Kis, I Anita

    2008-03-01

    Workplace mobbing is a hostile and unethical communication, systematically aimed from one or more individuals towards mostly one individual, who are forced into a helpless position and are held in it by constant bullying. This article describes some of the most important characteristics of mobbing: offensive behaviour, organizational and non-organizational causes of this behaviour, the victim and the consequences. Modern business environment is complex, dynamic, volatile, and requires better ability to adjust. Constant changes are a part of organizational reality, but they also produce an ideal environment for all kinds of conflicts. Conflicts are inevitable in every organization, but the task of its management is to identify them and resolve before they affect the workforce, productivity and costs. The idea is to avert psychological abuse and aberrant behaviour such as mobbing which that may cause physical and mental disorders. Mobbing is a problem of the modern society; as a violation of human rights it is relatively new and unrecognised in Croatia. Abuse is mostly psychological: it affects the victim's health and life, quality of work, productivity, profitability, and may lead to significant economic losses in the community. Mobbing can be averted by joint forces that would involve employee and management, medical and legal professionals, and even community as a whole. The more an organization pursues excellence based on trust and business ethics, the higher the probability that mobbing will be averted or stopped. PMID:18411493

  8. Ethical considerations of providers and clients on HIV testing campaigns in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Campaigns have been conducted in a number of low HIV prevalence African settings, as a strategy to expand HIV testing, and it is important to assess the extent to which individual rights and quality of care are protected during campaigns. In this article we investigate provider and client perceptions of ethical issues, including whether they think that accessibility of counseling and testing sites during campaigns may hinder confidentiality. Methods To examine how campaigns have functioned in Burkina Faso, we undertook a qualitative study based on individual interviews and focus group discussions with 52 people (providers and clients tested during or outside campaigns and individuals never tested). Thematic analysis was performed on discourse about perceptions and experiences of HIV-testing campaigns, quality of care and individual rights. Results Respondents value testing accessibility and attractiveness during campaigns; clients emphasize convenience, ripple effect, the sense of not being alone, and the anonymity resulting from high attendance. Confronted with numerous clients, providers develop context-specific strategies to ensure consent, counseling, confidentiality and retention in the testing process, and they adapt to workplace arrangements, local resources and social norms. Clients appreciate the quality of care during campaigns. However, new ethical issues arise about confidentiality and accessibility. Confidentiality of HIV-status may be jeopardized due to local social norms that encourage people to share their results with others, when HIV-positive people may not wish to do so. Providers’ ethical concerns are consistent with WHO norms known as the ‘5 Cs,’ though articulated differently. Clients and providers value the accessibility of testing for all during campaigns, and consider it an ethical matter. The study yields insights on the way global norms are adapted or negotiated locally. Conclusions Future global recommendations for HIV

  9. Part of the Job? Workplace Violence in Massachusetts Social Service Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelnick, Jennifer R.; Slayter, Elspeth; Flanzbaum, Beth; Butler, Nanci Ginty; Domingo, Beryl; Perlstein, Judith; Trust, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Workplace violence is a serious and surprisingly understudied occupational hazard in social service settings. The authors of this study conducted an anonymous, Internet-based survey of Massachusetts social service agencies to estimate the incidence of physical assault and verbal threat of violence in social service agencies, understand how social…

  10. Anonymity: An Impediment to Performance in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Karlsberg, Daniel W; Pierce, Read G

    2014-01-01

    Many teaching hospitals employ a care team structure composed of a broad range of healthcare providers with different skill sets. Each member of this team has a distinct role and a different level of training ranging from attending physician to resident, intern, and medical student. Often times, these different roles lead to greater complexity and confusion for both patients and nursing staff. It has been demonstrated that patients have a great degree of difficulty in identifying members of their care team. This anonymity also exists between nursing staff and other care providers. In order to better understand the magnitude of anonymity within the teaching hospital, a ten-question survey was sent to nurses across three different departments. Results from this survey demonstrated that 71% of nurses are “Always” or “Often” able to identify which care team is responsible for their patients, while 79% of nurses reported that they either “Often” or “Sometimes” page a provider who is not currently caring for a given patient. Furthermore, 33% of nurses felt that they were either “Rarely” or “Never” able to recognize, by face and name, attending level providers. Residents were “Rarely” or “Never” recognized by face and name 37% of the time, and interns 42% of the time. Contacting the wrong provider repeatedly leads to de facto delays in medication, therapy, and diagnosis. Additionally, these unnecessary interruptions slow workflow for both nurses and members of the care team, making hospital care less efficient and safe overall. Technological systems should focus on reducing anonymity within the hospital in order to enhance healthcare delivery. PMID:25114570

  11. Anonymity: an impediment to performance in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Karlsberg, Daniel W; Pierce, Read G

    2014-01-01

    Many teaching hospitals employ a care team structure composed of a broad range of healthcare providers with different skill sets. Each member of this team has a distinct role and a different level of training ranging from attending physician to resident, intern, and medical student. Often times, these different roles lead to greater complexity and confusion for both patients and nursing staff. It has been demonstrated that patients have a great degree of difficulty in identifying members of their care team. This anonymity also exists between nursing staff and other care providers. In order to better understand the magnitude of anonymity within the teaching hospital, a ten-question survey was sent to nurses across three different departments. Results from this survey demonstrated that 71% of nurses are "Always" or "Often" able to identify which care team is responsible for their patients, while 79% of nurses reported that they either "Often" or "Sometimes" page a provider who is not currently caring for a given patient. Furthermore, 33% of nurses felt that they were either "Rarely" or "Never" able to recognize, by face and name, attending level providers. Residents were "Rarely" or "Never" recognized by face and name 37% of the time, and interns 42% of the time. Contacting the wrong provider repeatedly leads to de facto delays in medication, therapy, and diagnosis. Additionally, these unnecessary interruptions slow workflow for both nurses and members of the care team, making hospital care less efficient and safe overall. Technological systems should focus on reducing anonymity within the hospital in order to enhance healthcare delivery. PMID:25114570

  12. Critters in the cube farm: perceived psychological and organizational effects of pets in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Wells, M; Perrine, R

    2001-01-01

    This article reports the findings of an exploratory study examining the perceived functions and psychological and organizational effects of pets in the workplace. Participants were 193 employees from 31 companies allowing pets in the workplace who completed anonymous questionnaires. Results indicated that participants perceived pets in the workplace to reduce stress and to positively affect employee health and the organization. Participants who brought their pets to work perceived greater benefits than participants who did not bring their pets to work and participants who did not own pets. PMID:11199259

  13. Importance of an Early HIV Antibody Differentiation Immunoassay for Detection of Dual Infection with HIV-1 and HIV-2

    PubMed Central

    Zbinden, Andrea; Dürig, Roland; Shah, Cyril; Böni, Jürg; Schüpbach, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV-2 is primarily endemic in West Africa and India, however, in time of global migration, a possible HIV-2 infection or co-infection with HIV-1 should be recognized right at the time of HIV diagnosis, in order to enable optimized antiretroviral treatment. Laboratory HIV testing consists of a combined HIV1/2/O antibody + antigen screening test and subsequent confirmation and type differentiation by a serological test formatted as a multi-line or multi-spot assay. CDC has proposed a revised alternative HIV diagnostic strategy which, in case of a reactive result in a combined HIV1/2/O antibody + antigen screening test, comprises an HIV-1 nucleic acid test (NAT) for HIV confirmation instead of an antibody differentiation immunoassay (ADI). Only a negative NAT must be further investigated by an ADI, thus saving expenses for ADI in most instances. We have investigated this alternative strategy with respect to its recognition of dual HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. Methods and Results Anonymized data of HIV notifications of patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Switzerland between 2007 and 2014 were analysed retrospectively. In a total of 4'679 notifications, we found 35 HIV-2 infections, 9 (25.7%) of which were dually infected with HIV-1. In 7 of the 9 dual HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections, HIV-1 RNA testing at the time of HIV diagnosis was positive with concentrations from 102 to 94'300 copies/mL plasma. HIV-1 RNA data were not available for the other two cases. Conclusions The alternative CDC strategy would have missed the concomitant HIV-2 infection in at least 7, but probably even more, of the 9 dually infected patients, as the detectable HIV-1 RNA would have precluded a supplemental ADI. Early ADI is mandatory for diagnosis of dual HIV-1/HIV-2 infection and guidance of appropriate therapy. PMID:27310138

  14. Unions and Workplace Reorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissen, Bruce, Ed.

    The 11 chapters in this book focus on "The New American Workplace" and assess its adequacy or inadequacy as a guide for the U.S. labor movement in relation to new work systems. "Unions and Workplace Reorganization" (Bruce Nissen) introduces the subject. "The New American Workplace: A Labor Perspective" (AFL-CIO Committee on the Evolution of Work,…

  15. Constituting the Workplace Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This paper advances some bases for a workplace curriculum. These are premised on conceptions of curriculum as intents directed to individual's progression towards full and effective workplace performance, yet whose enactment is shaped by workplace factors and is ultimately experienced by workers as learners. So whether the intentions will be…

  16. Our Anonymous Online Research Participants Are Not Always Anonymous: Is This a Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    When educational research is conducted online, we sometimes promise our participants that they will be anonymous--but do we deliver on this promise? We have been warned since 1996 to be careful when using direct quotes in Internet research, as full-text web search engines make it easy to find chunks of text online. This paper details an empirical…

  17. Yahtzee: An Anonymized Group Level Matching Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason J.; Bond, Robert M.; Fariss, Christopher J.; Settle, Jaime E.; Kramer, Adam D. I.; Marlow, Cameron; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects ever more important. However, strict privacy procedures can hinder the process of joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being “leaked” or shared in either direction between two sources of data without need of a trusted third party. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as predicted by theoretical analysis when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records. PMID:23441156

  18. AIDS in the Workplace: A Training for Managers and Supervisors. District of Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyree, Jimmy L.

    This document provides a summary of "AIDS in the Workplace for Court Managers," a 3-hour seminar that was presented to the District of Oregon. The document begins with a summary of the seminar goals and objectives, which included the following: reduce fears and anxieties about HIV/AIDS in the workplace; provide information about the fundamentals…

  19. AIDS: Workplace Issues. INFO-LINE. Practical Guidelines for Training and Development Professionals. Issue 9208.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Training and Development, Alexandria, VA.

    Practical guidelines are presented for training and development professionals dealing with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the workplace. The following topics are covered: AIDS in the workplace; AIDS basics, including information on the required corporate commitment and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); employment…

  20. Divisible E-Cash Systems Can Be Truly Anonymous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canard, Sébastien; Gouget, Aline

    This paper presents an off-line divisible e-cash scheme where a user can withdraw a divisible coin of monetary value 2 L that he can parceled and spend anonymously and unlinkably. We present the construction of a security tag that allows to protect the anonymity of honest users and to revoke anonymity only in case of cheat for protocols based on a binary tree structure without using a trusted third party. This is the first divisible e-cash scheme that provides both full unlinkability and anonymity without requiring a trusted third party.

  1. Gregory Bateson, Alcoholics Anonymous, and stoicism.

    PubMed

    Brundage, V

    1985-02-01

    In 1971 Gregory Bateson put forward an "entirely new epistemology," or view of the world, that he described as cybernetic. In a very influential article, which appeared in this journal, Bateson claimed that his cybernetic epistemology "coincides closely" with the epistemology of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), for which he claimed "the only outstanding record of success" in the treatment of alcoholism (1971, p. 310). However, Bateson's discussion of AA dealt with only four of the Twelve Steps of AA's program. Although the epistemology of cybernetics and AA congrue in some respects, they contradict each other in many others. Common ground is found in the ancient philosophical tradition of Stoicism. In Stoicism the contradictions between the two are sources for an ethics and psychology of great power. Stoicism offers the cybernetic epistemologist a solid base for theory. It offers the clinician who deals with chemical dependency practical insights into the process of recovery. PMID:3975305

  2. Design of Anonymous Attribute Authentication Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Fukushima, Kazuhide; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    Privacy remains an issue for IT services. Users are concerned that their history of service use may be traceable since each user is assigned a single identifier as a means of authentication.
    In this paper, we propose a perfectly anonymous attribute authentication scheme that is both unidentifiable and untraceable. Then, we present the evaluation results of a prototype system using a PC and mobile phone with the scheme. The proposed scheme employs a self-blindable certificate that a user can change randomly; thus the certificate is modified for each authentication, and the authentication scheme is unidentifiable and untraceable. Furthermore, our scheme can revoke self-blindable certificates without leaks of confidential private information and check the revocation status without online access.

  3. Reconstructing Spatial Distributions from Anonymized Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Horey, James L; Forrest, Stephanie; Groat, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and sensors are often equipped with GPS that accurately report a person's location. Combined with wireless communication, these devices enable a wide range of new social tools and applications. These same qualities, however, leave location-aware applications vulnerable to privacy violations. This paper introduces the Negative Quad Tree, a privacy protection method for location aware applications. The method is broadly applicable to applications that use spatial density information, such as social applications that measure the popularity of social venues. The method employs a simple anonymization algorithm running on mobile devices, and a more complex reconstruction algorithm on a central server. This strategy is well suited to low-powered mobile devices. The paper analyzes the accuracy of the reconstruction method in a variety of simulated and real-world settings and demonstrates that the method is accurate enough to be used in many real-world scenarios.

  4. Global Trends in Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin

    2012-01-01

    The paradigm of human resource development has shifted to workplace learning and performance. Workplace can be an organization, an office, a kitchen, a shop, a farm, a website, even a home. Workplace learning is a dynamic process to solve workplace problems through learning. An identification of global trends of workplace learning can help us to…

  5. What Does Anonymization Mean? DataSHIELD and the Need for Consensus on Anonymization Terminology.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Susan E

    2016-06-01

    Anonymization is a recognized process by which identifiers can be removed from identifiable data to protect an individual's confidentiality and is used as a standard practice when sharing data in biomedical research. However, a plethora of terms, such as coding, pseudonymization, unlinked, and deidentified, have been and continue to be used, leading to confusion and uncertainty. This article shows that this is a historic problem and argues that such continuing uncertainty regarding the levels of protection given to data risks damaging initiatives designed to assist researchers conducting cross-national studies and sharing data internationally. DataSHIELD and the creation of a legal template are used as examples of initiatives that rely on anonymization, but where the inconsistency in terminology could hinder progress. More broadly, this article argues that there is a real possibility that there could be possible damage to the public's trust in research and the institutions that carry it out by relying on vague notions of the anonymization process. Research participants whose lack of clear understanding of the research process is compensated for by trusting those carrying out the research may have that trust damaged if the level of protection given to their data does not match their expectations. One step toward ensuring understanding between parties would be consistent use of clearly defined terminology used internationally, so that all those involved are clear on the level of identifiability of any particular set of data and, therefore, how that data can be accessed and shared. PMID:27219861

  6. Comments on “Anonymous reviewers” [“Anonymous reviews: Self-serving, counterproductive, and unacceptable”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinove, Charles J.

    Mryl Beck's Forum article denouncing anonymous reviews (Eos, 1 July 2003) is right on the money. Perhaps he read my letter in Applied Physics in 1990 also denouncing anonymous reviews.Some years ago, I received an anonymous review of a paper I had submitted for journal publication. The reviewer raised such interesting questions that I wanted to discuss them with him. I phoned the editor of the journal and asked if he would tell me the name of the reviewer. He politely declined, but when I told him I thought I recognized the handwriting of the reviewer and named him, he relented and said I was correct! I called the reviewer and he was generous enough to spend a wonderful hour on the phone with me discussing the paper. The paper was published with great consideration given to his ideas, much to its betterment. Now that's a reviewer whose interest is in improving the paper and helping the author, not just showing how smart he is or slapping down a junior colleague. The AGU motto,“unselfish cooperation in research,” can be well exemplified by those who wish to help rather than to tear down.

  7. Group Aggression: The Effects of Friendship Ties and Anonymity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabrack, Merle; Miller, Norman

    The degree of acquaintance among group members (friends or strangers) and the opportunity for group members to observe each other's actions (anonymous or non-anonymous) were manipulated in a 2 x 2 factorial design, to determine the amount of aversive stimulation that would be administered to a target person. When group members could not observe…

  8. An Applet-based Anonymous Distributed Computing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, David; Wills, Craig E.; Ciaraldi, Michael J.; Amorin, Kevin; Covati, Adam; Lee, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Defines anonymous distributed computing systems and focuses on the specifics of a Java, applet-based approach for large-scale, anonymous, distributed computing on the Internet. Explains the possibility of a large number of computers participating in a single computation and describes a test of the functionality of the system. (Author/LRW)

  9. Workplace Discrimination, A Picture of Hope and Concern. Global Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World of Work, 2003

    2003-01-01

    An International Labour Organisation report finds that workplace discrimination is a persistent global problem. Although sex discrimination is most prevalent, discrimination in racial, HIV/AIDS, disability, religious, and age categories is rising. Progress is uneven, and inequalities within groups are widening. (SK)

  10. Burnout and workplace deviance among flight attendants in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liang, Su-Chiun; Hsieh, An-Tien

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between burnout and workplace deviance, identified as a component of job performance, was examined. Burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory which has three dimensions, Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Reduced Personal Accomplishment. Workplace deviance was defined as voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and threatens the well-being of an organization, its members, or both. This was assessed with the Workplace Deviance Scale, measuring the extent to which the participants had engaged in workplace deviant behavior such as taking property from work without permission, making fun of someone at work, or cursing at someone at work. Anonymous questionnaires with stamped envelopes were distributed to a sample of 1,470 Taiwanese flight attendants at the Arrival Hall of Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport. A response rate of 22.45% was obtained. After cases with missing data (n = 27) had been eliminated, the sample totaled 303, 17 men and 286 women. The average age was 28.7 yr. (SD = 4.6). Results of hierarchical regression showed that Depersonalization scores were significantly predictive of Workplace Deviance scores but not Emotional Exhaustion and Reduced Personal Accomplishment scores. Possible reasons and implications of these findings were discussed. PMID:18175485

  11. Combating Workplace Ageism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Sanders-Reio, Joanne

    1999-01-01

    Age discrimination in the workplace is widespread and often based on stereotypes. Research has demonstrated that older workers learn and perform well. Adult educators should eliminate ways in which educational practices perpetuate ageism, raise awareness of it in the workplace, and help older workers continue learning. (SK)

  12. Developing Workplace Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jennifer

    This guide, which is intended for project directors, coordinators, and other professional staff involved in developing/delivering workplace education programs, explains the process of developing a functional context workplace education curriculum. Discussed first are the following: the types of information needed to develop a functional context…

  13. Intervention as Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how workplace interventions may benefit from a simultaneous focus on individuals' learning and knowledge and on the situatedness of workplaces in the wider world of changing professional knowledge regimes. This is illustrated by the demand for evidence-based practice in health care.…

  14. Workplace Education Guide, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.

    These eight chapters share diverse experiences, lessons, and tips gleaned by the Massachusetts Workplace Literacy Consortium. "Workplace Needs Analysis (WNA)" (Harneen Chernow, Emily Singer, Jenny Lee Utech) focuses on the Worker Education Program's (WEP's) strategy, including tools, access, interviews and focus groups, presenting findings to the…

  15. Proactive Copyright: Workplace Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Rebecca P.; Parker, Preston

    2009-01-01

    Oftentimes, copyright is addressed in the workplace only after a blatant infringement is discovered or a cease-and-desist letter is received. Then, too, some workplaces may feel that they are immune to copyright issues due to their educational nature; while private organizations, businesses, and industry may feel that the term "fair use" will…

  16. Canadian Chefs' Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier-MacBurnie, Paulette; Doyle, Wendy; Mombourquette, Peter; Young, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the formal and informal workplace learning of professional chefs. In particular, it considers chefs' learning strategies and outcomes as well as the barriers to and facilitators of their workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology is based on in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured…

  17. An Enhanced Secure Authentication Scheme with Anonymity for Wireless Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Woongryul; Kim, Jeeyeon; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    As anonymity increasingly becomes a necessary and legitimate aim in many applications, a number of anonymous authentication schemes have been suggested over the years. Among the many schemes is Lee and Kwon's password-based authentication scheme for wireless environments. Compared with previous schemes, Lee and Kwon's scheme not only improves anonymity by employing random temporary IDs but also provides user-friendliness by allowing human-memorable passwords. In this letter, we point out that Lee and Kwon's scheme, despite its many merits, is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks and a forgery attack. In addition, we show how to eliminate these vulnerabilities.

  18. Anonymous reviews: Self-serving, counterproductive, and unacceptable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Myrl E., Jr.

    Recently I became involved in an incident in which a manuscript was rejected on the advice of two anonymous reviewers and an anonymous associate editor. This re-activated my long-standing disgust at the entire system of anonymous reviews and pushed me—finally—into doing something about it. A few weeks or months ago, I read a similar protest, somewhere—one much more persuasive than I am likely to write—but my high-mileage brain has misplaced its provenance. Consider this a “high-five” to that misplaced author.

  19. Employment discrimination and HIV stigma: survey results from civil society organisations and people living with HIV in Africa.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Laurel; Simon, Sara; Sprague, Courtenay

    2011-01-01

    The article presents findings from three surveys of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and civil society organisations about the experience of employment discrimination and stigma in the workplace. The work seeks to contribute to efforts by businesses and other organisations to effectively respond to the HIV epidemic within the world of work, and to deepen our understanding of the ways in which HIV stigma and employment discrimination persist in the workplace. The findings of global and regional surveys indicate the existence of high levels of employment discrimination based on HIV status worldwide, including forced disclosure of HIV status, exclusion in the workplace, refusals to hire or promote, and terminations of people known to be living with HIV. The survey findings show that employment discrimination based on HIV status is experienced in all African subregions. Country-level surveys conducted in Kenya and Zambia indicated that PLHIV face marked barriers to employment, including discrimination in hiring, loss of promotions, and termination because of HIV status. Additionally, large variances were found in the degree of support versus discrimination that employees living with HIV in those two countries received following their disclosure. The discussion emphasises the importance of the workplace as a site for intervention and behaviour change. To address this, we introduce a conceptual framework - the employment continuum - that maps multiple points of entry within the workplace to address HIV-related stigma and discrimination. Additional recommendations include: actions to ensure equal opportunity in hiring for PLHIV; ensuring that HIV testing is voluntary, never mandatory, and that disclosure is not necessary for employment; ensuring confidentiality of HIV status; communicating and enforcing HIV-related antidiscrimination policies; establishing support groups in the workplace; providing safe and confidential processes for resolving complaints of employment

  20. HIV disclosure among adults living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Mayfield Arnold, E; Rice, E; Flannery, D; Rotheram-Borus, M J

    2008-01-01

    Research on disclosure among heterosexual adult person(s) living with HIV (PLH) was reviewed, omitting disclosure of parental HIV to children. Disclosure has been studied within five additional relational contexts: with partners, family members, friends, healthcare professionals and in work settings. Disclosure is higher among women than men, among Latino and white compared to African-American families, and among younger compared to older HIV-positive adults. Most PLH disclose to their sexual partners and family members, yet there is a significant minority who do not disclose. Similarly, rates of disclosure to employers range from 27-68%, suggesting broad variability in perceived consequences of employment disclosures. Of concern, 40% of PLH do not consistently disclose to their healthcare professionals. Rather than examine HIV disclosures in the context of relationships, it is possible to understand disclosures around personal identity. Disclosure decisions are often made to tell everyone (making HIV status a central attribute of one's identity), no one (requiring strategies for securing social support while remaining anonymous) or some people (requiring strategic decisions based on context). Given that disclosure decisions are central to personal identity, future data on disclosure and interventions designed to increase disclosure or comfort with disclosure must focus on communication strategies adopted by PLH to present a coherent identity. PMID:18278618

  1. Hiding in Plain Sight: Exploiting Broadcast for Practical Host Anonymity

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, Craig A; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi

    2010-01-01

    Users are being tracked on the Internet more than ever before as Web sites and search engines gather pieces of information sufficient to identify and study their behavior. While many existing schemes provide strong anonymity, they are inappropriate when high bandwidth and low latency are required. In this work, we explore an anonymity scheme for end hosts whose performance makes it possible to have it always on. The scheme leverages the natural grouping of hosts in the same subnet and the universally available broadcast primitive to provide anonymity at line speeds. Our scheme is strongly resistant against all active or passive adversaries as long as they are outside the subnet. Even within the subnet, our scheme provides reasonable resistance against adversaries, providing anonymity that is suitable for common Internet applications.

  2. Pair Gamblers Anonymous with Other Treatments for Best Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Gamblers Anonymous helps people with gambling problems, and it's even more effective when used ... published between 2002 and 2015 that examined problem gambling. The research included data on various aspects of ...

  3. "Brother Anonymous" and the Quiet Revolution in Quebec Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.; Jones, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    This article offers a brief review of the writing of Jean-Paul Desbiens, an educational reformer and Quebec education official known as "Brother Anonymous." Juxtaposes two different articles by Desbiens, exposing the contradictions and conflicts between them. (JDH)

  4. Details for Manuscript Number SSM-D-07-01816R2 “Stigma in the workplace: Employer attitudes about people with HIV in Beijing, Hong Kong, and Chicago”

    PubMed Central

    Angell, Beth; Lam, Chow; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Studies of HIV stigma in China are becoming more prevalent, but these studies have seldom involved direct cross-cultural comparisons. Moreover, although researchers consider employers to be a key power group whose practices can significantly impact the adjustment and recovery of people with HIV, the attitudes of employers in China towards people with HIV have rarely been studied. The present study sought to investigate employers’ attitudes and hiring practices towards people with HIV across three culturally and linguistically distinct cities: Chicago, Beijing, and Hong Kong. One hundred employers from a broad spectrum of firm types were interviewed across the three cities, and their qualitative data were analyzed for information about the processes behind employer practices in hiring people with HIV. Employers from all three cities showed reluctance to hire people with HIV, but this trend was most pronounced with employers from Beijing and Hong Kong. Concerns about biological contagion were apparent in all three cities. Social contagion, or the belief that people with HIV could morally corrupt those around them, was a particular concern of employers from Beijing and Hong Kong. The concerns about hiring people with HIV in Hong Kong and Beijing may be related to specific cultural dynamics related to loss of ‘face’, level of contact and knowledge about people with HIV, and the psychological interconnectedness between people in society. In sum, employers in all three cities showed concerns about hiring people with HIV, but at the same time, their attitudes about discriminating against people with HIV differed widely across the cities. PMID:18760869

  5. Anonymization of DICOM electronic medical records for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Newhauser, Wayne; Jones, Timothy; Swerdloff, Stuart; Newhauser, Warren; Cilia, Mark; Carver, Robert; Halloran, Andy; Zhang, Rui

    2014-10-01

    Electronic medical records (EMR) and treatment plans are used in research on patient outcomes and radiation effects. In many situations researchers must remove protected health information (PHI) from EMRs. The literature contains several studies describing the anonymization of generic Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) files and DICOM image sets but no publications were found that discuss the anonymization of DICOM radiation therapy plans, a key component of an EMR in a cancer clinic. In addition to this we were unable to find a commercial software tool that met the minimum requirements for anonymization and preservation of data integrity for radiation therapy research. The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype software code to meet the requirements for the anonymization of radiation therapy treatment plans and to develop a way to validate that code and demonstrate that it properly anonymized treatment plans and preserved data integrity. We extended an open-source code to process all relevant PHI and to allow for the automatic anonymization of multiple EMRs. The prototype code successfully anonymized multiple treatment plans in less than 1min/patient. We also tested commercial optical character recognition (OCR) algorithms for the detection of burned-in text on the images, but they were unable to reliably recognize text. In addition, we developed and tested an image filtering algorithm that allowed us to isolate and redact alpha-numeric text from a test radiograph. Validation tests verified that PHI was anonymized and data integrity, such as the relationship between DICOM unique identifiers (UID) was preserved. PMID:25147130

  6. Anonymization of DICOM Electronic Medical Records for Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Newhauser, Wayne; Jones, Timothy; Swerdloff, Stuart; Newhauser, Warren; Cilia, Mark; Carver, Robert; Halloran, Andy; Zhang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMR) and treatment plans are used in research on patient outcomes and radiation effects. In many situations researchers must remove protected health information (PHI) from EMRs. The literature contains several studies describing the anonymization of generic Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) files and DICOM image sets but no publications were found that discuss the anonymization of DICOM radiation therapy plans, a key component of an EMR in a cancer clinic. In addition to this we were unable to find a commercial software tool that met the minimum requirements for anonymization and preservation of data integrity for radiation therapy research. The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype software code to meet the requirements for the anonymization of radiation therapy treatment plans and to develop a way to validate that code and demonstrate that it properly anonymized treatment plans and preserved data integrity. We extended an open-source code to process all relevant PHI and to allow for the automatic anonymization of multiple EMRs. The prototype code successfully anonymized multiple treatment plans in less than 1 minute per patient. We also tested commercial optical character recognition (OCR) algorithms for the detection of burned-in text on the images, but they were unable to reliably recognize text. In addition, we developed and tested an image filtering algorithm that allowed us to isolate and redact alpha-numeric text from a test radiograph. Validation tests verified that PHI was anonymized and data integrity, such as the relationship between DICOM unique identifiers (UID) was preserved. PMID:25147130

  7. [Self-disclosure on the Internet: the effects of anonymity of the self and the other].

    PubMed

    Sato, Hirotsune; Yoshida, Fujio

    2008-02-01

    The effects of anonymity on self-disclosure were investigated in a CMC (computer-mediated communication) situation by separately manipulating the anonymity of the self and the other. It was hypothesized that anonymity of the self would enhance disclosure, whereas anonymity of the other would decrease it. Female undergraduate students (n = 60) were randomly assigned to a 2 (self: anonymous or non-anonymous) x 2 (other: anonymous or non-anonymous) experimental design. The anonymity of the self and the other was manipulated in the profile, such as the photo, name, and sex of the self or the other, on the computer screen. The results indicated that anonymity of the self decreased the feeling of anxiety, but had no effect on disclosure, whereas anonymity of the other decreased the feeling of closeness and decreased the intimacy of disclosure. PMID:18402057

  8. Efficient and Anonymous Two-Factor User Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks: Achieving User Anonymity with Lightweight Sensor Computation

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks). PMID:25849359

  9. Efficient and anonymous two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks: achieving user anonymity with lightweight sensor computation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks). PMID:25849359

  10. MRSA and the Workplace

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH MRSA and the Workplace Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... infections from their healthcare provider Other FAQs About MRSA Signs and Symptoms What does a staph or ...

  11. Persona: Network Layer Anonymity and Accountability for Next Generation Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallios, Yannis; Modi, Sudeep; Agarwala, Aditya; Johns, Christina

    Individual privacy has become a major concern, due to the intrusive nature of the services and websites that collect increasing amounts of private information. One of the notions that can lead towards privacy protection is that of anonymity. Unfortunately, anonymity can also be maliciously exploited by attackers to hide their actions and identity. Thus some sort of accountability is also required. The current Internet has failed to provide both properties, as anonymity techniques are difficult to fully deploy and thus are easily attacked, while the Internet provides limited level of accountability. The Next Generation Internet (NGI) provides us with the opportunity to examine how these conflicting properties could be efficiently applied and thus protect users’ privacy while holding malicious users accountable. In this paper we present the design of a scheme, called Persona that can provide anonymity and accountability in the network layer of NGI. More specifically, our design requirements are to combine these two conflicting desires in a stateless manner within routers. Persona allows users to choose different levels of anonymity, while it allows the discovery of malicious nodes.

  12. Understanding HIV-related stigma among Indonesian nurses.

    PubMed

    Waluyo, Agung; Culbert, Gabriel J; Levy, Judith; Norr, Kathleen F

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates widespread stigmatization of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in Indonesia. Such attitudes among health care workers could impede the country's policies for effective diagnosis and medical treatment of PLWH. Nonetheless, research to guide interventions to reduce stigma in health care settings is lacking. Also, the contributions of workplace, religion, and HIV knowledge to nurses' HIV-related stigma are poorly understood. Our cross-sectional study aimed to describe factors associated with nurses' stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH. Four hundred nurses recruited from four hospitals in Jakarta, Indonesia, were surveyed using the Nurse AIDS Attitude Scale to measure stigma. Stigmatizing attitudes were significantly predicted by education, HIV training, perceived workplace stigma, religiosity, Islamic religious identification, and affiliation with the Islamic hospital. HIV knowledge was not a significant predictor of stigmatizing attitudes. Organization changes fostering workplace diversity are likely to substantially reduce stigmatizing attitudes in nurses. PMID:24759060

  13. Understanding HIV-related stigma among Indonesian nurses

    PubMed Central

    Waluyo, Agung; Culbert, Gabriel J.; Levy, Judith; Norr, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates widespread stigmatization of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in Indonesia. Such attitudes among health care workers could impede the country’s policies for effective diagnosis and medical treatment of PLWH. Nonetheless, research to guide interventions to reduce stigma in health care settings is lacking. Also, the contributions of workplace, religion, and HIV knowledge to nurses’ HIV-related stigma are poorly understood. Our cross-sectional study aimed to describe factors associated with nurses’ stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH. Four hundred nurses recruited from 4 hospitals in Jakarta, Indonesia, were surveyed using the Nurse AIDS Attitude Scale (NAAS) to measure stigma. Stigmatizing attitudes were significantly predicted by education, HIV training, perceived workplace stigma, religiosity, Islamic religious identification, and affiliation with the Islamic hospital. HIV knowledge was not a significant predictor of stigmatizing attitudes. Organization changes fostering workplace diversity are likely to substantially reduce stigmatizing attitudes in nurses. PMID:24759060

  14. Workplace in fluency management: factoring the workplace into fluency management.

    PubMed

    Cassar, M C; Neilson, M D

    1997-01-01

    This article addresses competency-based standards and guidelines for the involvement of speech-language pathologists in the workplace of clients who stutter. It advocates broadening customary practices in stuttering treatment and suggests that speech-language pathologists should extend their scope of service delivery to the workplace. It presents a sequence for the collaborative involvement of the employer and other workplace members and proposes strategies for evaluating workplace based fluency programs. Issues of fluency management, transfer, maintenance, and efficacy are discussed in the workplace context. Also addressed is workplace communication as well as such factors as stereotypes, discrimination, and resistance to change which may impinge on workplace intervention. It is argued that structured intervention, transfer, and generalization within a collaborative workplace framework facilitates best practice for the fluency clinician and more appropriate outcomes for the diversity of clients who stutter. PMID:9434336

  15. [Workplace-related anxiety, workplace phobia and disorders of participation].

    PubMed

    Muschalla, B; Linden, M

    2009-06-01

    Work is an important domain of life. It is therefore clear that problems at the workplace and mental disorders will have negative interactions. Job-related anxieties are of special importance as any workplace causes or intensifies anxiety by its very nature. A common final pathway of mental disorders in general and workplace-related anxieties in particular is workplace phobia. Similarly to agoraphobia, it is characterised by panic when approaching or even thinking of the stimulus, in this case the workplace. Workplace phobia has serious negative consequences for the further course of illness. It impairs the ability to work, and can lead to sick leave and early retirement. It requires special therapeutic interventions. This paper describes workplace-related anxieties and workplace phobia and gives a conceptual framework for their understanding. PMID:19544717

  16. On the Definitions of Anonymity for Ring Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Miyako; Abe, Masayuki

    This paper studies the relations among several definitions of anonymity for ring signature schemes in the same attack environment. It is shown that one intuitive and two technical definitions we consider are asymptotically equivalent, and the indistinguishability-based technical definition is the strongest, i. e., the most secure when achieved, when the exact reduction cost is taken into account. We then extend our result to the threshold case where a subset of members cooperate to create a signature. The threshold setting makes the notion of anonymity more complex and yields a greater variety of definitions. We explore several notions and observe certain relation does not seem hold unlike the simple single-signer case. Nevertheless, we see that an indistinguishability-based definition is the most favorable in the threshold case. We also study the notion of linkability and present a simple scheme that achieves both anonymity and linkability.

  17. Anonymous and Confidential Communications from an IP Addressless Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Jimenez, C.; Marshall, L.

    2002-04-01

    Anonymizers based on a mediating computer interposed between the sender and the receiver of an e-mail message have been used for several years by senders of e-mail messages who do not wish to disclose their identity to the receivers. In this model, the strength of the system to protect the identity of the sender depends on the ability and willingness of the mediator to keep the secret. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sending truly anonymous message over the Internet which does not depend on a third party. Our idea departs from the traditional approach by sending the anonymous messages from an Internet wireless and addressless computer, such as a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) bridged to the Internet by a Mobile Support Station (MSS).

  18. Anonymous pastoral care for problems pertaining to sexuality.

    PubMed

    van Drie, A; Ganzevoort, R R; Spiering, M

    2014-12-01

    Anonymous pastoral care is one of the options for help in problems pertaining to sexuality. This paper explores the topics they seek help for, the religious aspects involved, and the relation between the normativity of their church tradition on the one hand and sexual and spiritual health criteria on the other. We analyzed helpseeking questions of two protestant Christian organizations in the Netherlands providing anonymous pastoral care: Refoweb and EO-Nazorg. Sexual themes were addressed in 19 and 2.3 % of the submitted questions, respectively. Of the helpseekers, 56 % is female, 15 % male, and 29 % unknown. Questions and problems for which people seek anonymous pastoral care focus primarily on premarital abstinence, gender roles, contraception, sexual orientation and masturbation. The authority of the Bible seems to be important for questioners, especially when dealing with ethical questions. Different relations between the normativity of the church tradition and sexual and spiritual health are discussed. PMID:23784431

  19. Verifying Anonymous Credential Systems in Applied Pi Calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangxi; Zhang, Yu; Deng, Yuxin

    Anonymous credentials are widely used to certify properties of a credential owner or to support the owner to demand valuable services, while hiding the user's identity at the same time. A credential system (a.k.a. pseudonym system) usually consists of multiple interactive procedures between users and organizations, including generating pseudonyms, issuing credentials and verifying credentials, which are required to meet various security properties. We propose a general symbolic model (based on the applied pi calculus) for anonymous credential systems and give formal definitions of a few important security properties, including pseudonym and credential unforgeability, credential safety, pseudonym untraceability. We specialize the general formalization and apply it to the verification of a concrete anonymous credential system proposed by Camenisch and Lysyanskaya. The analysis is done automatically with the tool ProVerif and several security properties have been verified.

  20. Completely anonymous multi-recipient signcryption scheme with public verification.

    PubMed

    Pang, Liaojun; Li, Huixian; Gao, Lu; Wang, Yumin

    2013-01-01

    Most of the existing multi-recipient signcryption schemes do not take the anonymity of recipients into consideration because the list of the identities of all recipients must be included in the ciphertext as a necessary element for decryption. Although the signer's anonymity has been taken into account in several alternative schemes, these schemes often suffer from the cross-comparison attack and joint conspiracy attack. That is to say, there are few schemes that can achieve complete anonymity for both the signer and the recipient. However, in many practical applications, such as network conference, both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity should be considered carefully. Motivated by these concerns, we propose a novel multi-recipient signcryption scheme with complete anonymity. The new scheme can achieve both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity at the same time. Each recipient can easily judge whether the received ciphertext is from an authorized source, but cannot determine the real identity of the sender, and at the same time, each participant can easily check decryption permission, but cannot determine the identity of any other recipient. The scheme also provides a public verification method which enables anyone to publicly verify the validity of the ciphertext. Analyses show that the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length and possesses more advantages than existing schemes, which makes it suitable for practical applications. The proposed scheme could be used for network conferences, paid-TV or DVD broadcasting applications to solve the secure communication problem without violating the privacy of each participant. PMID:23675490

  1. SA's workplace programmes still poor, study finds.

    PubMed

    Mason, B

    1995-08-01

    In South Africa, a survey was conducted of 24 agencies that implement workplace HIV/AIDS programs to determine the range of programs, services, and resources offered by these agencies and the extent to which the programs observe generally-accepted strategies for AIDS and the workplace. The agencies were from the public sector (50%), the private sector (33%), and nongovernmental organizations (17%). Most of the programs consulted management but did not consult employee representatives at all levels. About 33% tried to talk to trade unions and fewer actually contacted them. Even though about 66% claimed to have provided peer educator training courses, most participants were health personnel, human resources personnel, or supervisors rather than peers of most employees. Most agencies either provided directly or facilitated access to resources (e.g., condoms and printed educational materials). Some agencies provided HIV testing and counseling. Almost 50% of agencies claimed that their audiovisual and printed materials were targeted to certain groups, yet none used evaluated media. More than 50% of agencies offered consultation on policy issues but few companies used this service. Less than 50% included follow-up as part of their program. 30-40% acknowledged the importance of follow-up and either advocated it to the companies or provided it on request. A formal evaluation of program effectiveness had been conducted of only one program. Less than 50% of programs claimed that informal evaluations of their programs had been done. A major reason for not conducting a formal evaluation was cost. These findings show that programs tend not to follow the generally-accepted strategies of AIDS and the workplace programs. Decision makers in management and in trade unions need to become familiar with guidelines for effective AIDS programs so they can make informed choices about programs and services. They should see that the company complies with those guidelines by insisting on a

  2. Workplace Safety: Indoor Environmental Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Workplace Safety & Health Topics Indoor Environmental Quality Health Hazard Evaluation ... Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH ...

  3. Simulated workplace neutron fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoste, V.; Taylor, G.; Röttger, S.

    2011-12-01

    The use of simulated workplace neutron fields, which aim at replicating radiation fields at practical workplaces, is an alternative solution for the calibration of neutron dosemeters. They offer more appropriate calibration coefficients when the mean fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion coefficients of the simulated and practical fields are comparable. Intensive Monte Carlo modelling work has become quite indispensable for the design and/or the characterization of the produced mixed neutron/photon fields, and the use of Bonner sphere systems and proton recoil spectrometers is also mandatory for a reliable experimental determination of the neutron fluence energy distribution over the whole energy range. The establishment of a calibration capability with a simulated workplace neutron field is not an easy task; to date only few facilities are available as standard calibration fields.

  4. Collaborative Workplace Development: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folinsbee, Sue; Jurmo, Paul

    This booklet, which is intended for educators, human resource specialists, and others responsible for training and education and workplace development, presents principles of good practice and steps for planning and implementing collaborative workplace development initiatives. A collaborative method of workplace development is detailed that…

  5. Education and Nutritional Status of Orphans and Children of HIV-Infected Parents in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Otieno, Fredrick; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth

    2007-01-01

    We examined whether orphaned and fostered children and children of HIV-infected parents are disadvantaged in schooling, nutrition, and health care. We analyzed data on 2,756 children aged 0-4 years and 4,172 children aged 6-14 years included in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with linked anonymous HIV testing, using multivariate…

  6. Anonymously Productive and Socially Engaged While Learning at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many concurrent variables appear to influence people when they interact anonymously, either face-to-face (F2F) or in computer-mediated communications (CMC).This paper presents the results of a small exploratory research, conducted in a medical company in Italy, to investigate how the use of pseudonyms influences CMC behaviours. The study involved…

  7. Knowledge Sharing Systems: Advantages of Public Anonymity and Private Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the benefits of the design elements of public anonymity and private accountability in classroom Knowledge Sharing Systems (KSS). The major findings of this study indicate that classroom KSS have the potential to allow for greater equity of input, reduce academic anxiety, increase teachers knowledge of student understanding …

  8. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rongjun; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity. PMID:26293456

  9. Student Feedback, Anonymity, Observable Change and Course Barometers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    A Course Barometer is a method for addressing the loss of informal feedback in a distance education setting. Originally proposed and used at the University of Trollhattan Uddevella this paper describes how the idea of a course barometer has been adopted by Central Queensland University. The paper suggests connections between anonymity, observable…

  10. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey. Portion of an anonymous watercolor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey. Portion of an anonymous watercolor painting of Fort McHenry bombardment of 1814. Peale Museum, Baltimore. View of southeast bastion and sally port. - Fort McHenry National Monument & Historic Shrine, East Fort Avenue at Whetstone Point, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  11. Policy-Aware Sender Anonymity in Location-Based Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyas, Avinash

    2011-01-01

    Sender anonymity in Location-based services (LBS) refers to hiding the identity of a mobile device user who sends requests to the LBS provider for services in her proximity (e.g. "find the nearest gas station etc."). The goal is to keep the requester's interest private even from attackers who (via hacking or subpoenas) gain access to the LBS…

  12. Online Role-Play: Anonymity, Engagement and Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of role-play focuses on a case study of an asynchronous, anonymous online role-play at an Australian university within a WebCT bulletin board that was designed as an alternative to an existing face-to-face workshop to offer more flexible access for participants. Suggests further research needs. (Author/LRW)

  13. Radical Reeducation: Alcoholics Anonymous as a Model in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossman, Lenard H.

    1980-01-01

    The peer self-help group approach used by Alcoholics Anonymous can be a model for other types of adult learning. The group's power, solidarity, experience sharing, and values clarification can provide positive social and educational experiences to others such as the chronically unemployed, illiterate adults, and high school dropouts. (SK)

  14. Who Goes There? Staying Anonymous on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Don E.

    2009-01-01

    Privacy is a thing of the past. Monitoring is everywhere. If one is looking at this online, the author is sure that lots of information has been stored and linked to anyone about that action. Nevertheless, at least people can try to play with "their" minds and surf the web anonymously. In this article, the author discusses ways to try to hide…

  15. Anonymous Reviews: Self-serving, Counterproductive, and Unacceptable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Myrl E., Jr.

    Recently, I became involved in an incident in which a manuscript was rejected on the advise of two anonymous reviewers and an anonymous Associate Editor. This re-activated my long-standing disgust at the entire system of anonymous reviews and pushed me-finally-into doing something about it. A few weeks or months ago, I read a similar protest, somewhere-one much more persuasive than I am likely to write-but my high-mileage brain has misplaced its provenance. Consider this a ``high-five'' to that misplaced author. The system of reviewing is supposed to filter out junk science and provide useful feedback to authors of non-junk science who have submitted work that can be improved. These are honest, commendable endeavors that can be accomplished quite comfortably out in the open. Concealment, on the other hand, permits and invites all manner of dishonorable motives-not least of which is laziness-to creep in. Offhand I can think of four reasons for remaining anonymous in a review, none valid.

  16. A Survey on Non-transferable Anonymous Credentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pape, Sebastian

    There are at least two principal approaches to prevent users from sharing their anonymous credentials: adding valuable secrets into the system the user does not want to share or embedding biometric access control. This paper seeks to identify possible fields of application and to compare both approaches with respect to the credentials’ non-transferability.

  17. The Efficacy of Non-Anonymous Measures of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, John H. F.; Myron, Rowan; Crawshaw, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The Olweus checklist, along with most of the questionnaires commonly used in bullying research, is anonymous. The respondent is not required to put down his/her name. This has been accepted as the "best suited" method of assessing bullying. However, this assumption has not been adequately tested, and there is contrary evidence that this method is…

  18. Effects of Help, Anonymity, and Privacy on Children's Academic Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Lisa

    This study examined the effect of three aspects of the testing context--physical privacy, anonymity, and offers of help from a tester--on children's expectations. Performance of 96 11-year-old boys and girls on a pictorial recall memory task in a simulated test was evaluated. The subjects were divided into eight different groups varying on the…

  19. The Impact of Anonymization for Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Lottridge, Sue; Mayfield, Elijah

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of anonymizing text on predicted scores made by two kinds of automated scoring engines: one that incorporates elements of natural language processing (NLP) and one that does not. Eight data sets (N = 22,029) were used to form both training and test sets in which the scoring engines had access to both text and…

  20. Father-Daughter Incest: Data from an Anonymous Computerized Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel V. S.; Kommor, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self-interview. Nineteen were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 241 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The remaining 1,261 served as controls. Incest victims were…

  1. Anonymity versus Perceived Patron Identity in Virtual Reference Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Kristin Grabarek; Sobel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Librarians who provide virtual reference services often perceive that their patrons self-identify to some degree, even when transactions are anonymous. They also develop a sense of patrons' greatest research-related needs over time. In this article, two librarians analyze two years' worth of virtual reference transcripts to determine what patrons…

  2. Attitudes toward Spirituality and the Core Principles of Alcoholics Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, S. J.; Benshoff, John J.; Koch, D. Shane

    2006-01-01

    One-hundred and fifty-one students enrolled in substance abuse counselor training classes were surveyed on their attitudes about spirituality in substance abuse treatment and their beliefs about the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Significant correlations were found between the subjects' spirituality and their attitudes toward…

  3. Anonymity in Blended Learning: Who Would You like to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyazoe, Terumi; Anderson, Terry

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the learning outcomes associated with implementing discussion forums and blog writings using pseudonyms in blended learning. Although anonymity or masking one's identity has been used as a teaching strategy designed to induce higher writing production and lowering anxiety in face-to-face writing instruction, little research has…

  4. The Changing American Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranard, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    An examination is made of the increasing educational demands of the modern workplace during a time when the makeup of an already shrinking workforce is becoming more composed of minorities, women, and immigrants. Articles in this newsletter issue discuss which jobs will grow and which will decline; the new educational demands and skills required…

  5. Workplace Diversity Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains three symposium papers on workplace diversity issues. "Expanding Theories of Career Development: Adding the Voices of African American Women in the White Academy" (Mary V. Alfred) questions the validity of existing career development models for women and minority groups and examines the professional development of five…

  6. Safety in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Addresses workplace safety needs and tips for helping an organization achieve a high level of safety. Tips include showing administration commitment, establishing retribution-free reporting of safety problems and violations, rewarding excellent safety effort, and allowing no compromises in following safety procedures. (GR)

  7. Marketing Manual: Workplace Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanshawe Coll., Strathroy (Ontario).

    This manual applies marketing concepts and methods, selling techniques and principles to the workplace literacy program for the purpose of assisting individuals involved in promoting and selling these programs. Part I provides a rationale for marketing and discusses the following: the role of the sponsor in marketing, market versus marketing,…

  8. Mathematics in Masons' Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Darlinda; Pardal, Eugénia

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents masons' professional practices, which are related to mathematics. It aims to contribute to the area of adult mathematics education and to enlarge knowledge about how mathematics is used at the workplace. Methodologically it was followed an ethnographic approach. The key informants of the study were four masons aged between 40…

  9. Diversity in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document contains three papers presented at a symposium on diversity in the workplace moderated by Sandra Johnson at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Diversity and Development: An Assessment of Equal Opportunities and the Role of HRD in the Police Service" (Rashmi Biswas, Penny Dick) examines aspects…

  10. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  11. Changing Families, Changing Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income…

  12. Workplace Counseling Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James J.; Woody, Connie; Burns, Naomi; Howard, Sherrie; Rice, Misty

    This publication describes counseling approaches supervisors and human resource professionals can use to help marginal employees become better adjusted and more productive in the workplace. Three case studies are also provided for training purposes. The counseling tools are as follows: (1) Adlerian counseling, involving the belief that humans'…

  13. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace. PMID:24724731

  14. "I'd Be So Much More Comfortable Posting Anonymously": Identified versus Anonymous Participation in Student Discussion Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Rajah-Kanagasabai, Camilla J.

    2013-01-01

    Academic staff members encourage university students to use online student discussion boards within learning management systems to ask and answer questions, share information and engage in discussion. We explore the impact of anonymity on student posting behaviour. An online survey was completed by 131 second year undergraduate psychology students…

  15. Reexamination of the Association between Anonymity and Self-Interested Unethical Behavior in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogami, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    The well-established notion that the frequency of self-interested unethical behavior increases among anonymous people was reexamined employing a more strict definition of anonymity, voluntary unethical behavior, and adult individuals. Anonymity was defined as nonassociability of the participant's traits with respect to unethical behavior. The…

  16. Cryptanalysis of an Improved User Authentication Scheme with User Anonymity for Wireless Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Eun-Jun; Yoo, Kee-Young

    A user identity anonymity is an important property for roaming services. In 2011, Kang et al. proposed an improved user authentication scheme that guarantees user anonymity in wireless communications. This letter shows that Kang et al.'s improved scheme still cannot provide user anonymity as they claimed.

  17. Learning in the Workplace. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul

    Research on changes and issues in workplace learning in Australia over the past 6 years was reviewed. Special attention was paid to four topics: importance of learning in the workplace; nature of workplace learning; factors affecting the quality of workplace learning; and recognition of workplace learning. Selected findings were as follows: (1)…

  18. Human factors workplace considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human factor. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human factors workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.

  19. ARX - A Comprehensive Tool for Anonymizing Biomedical Data

    PubMed Central

    Prasser, Fabian; Kohlmayer, Florian; Lautenschläger, Ronald; Kuhn, Klaus A.

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration and data sharing have become core elements of biomedical research. Especially when sensitive data from distributed sources are linked, privacy threats have to be considered. Statistical disclosure control allows the protection of sensitive data by introducing fuzziness. Reduction of data quality, however, needs to be balanced against gains in protection. Therefore, tools are needed which provide a good overview of the anonymization process to those responsible for data sharing. These tools require graphical interfaces and the use of intuitive and replicable methods. In addition, extensive testing, documentation and openness to reviews by the community are important. Existing publicly available software is limited in functionality, and often active support is lacking. We present ARX, an anonymization tool that i) implements a wide variety of privacy methods in a highly efficient manner, ii) provides an intuitive cross-platform graphical interface, iii) offers a programming interface for integration into other software systems, and iv) is well documented and actively supported. PMID:25954407

  20. Faculty mentoring programme--ways of reducing anonymity.

    PubMed

    Woessner, R; Honold, M; Stehle, I; Stehr, S; Steudel, W I

    1998-07-01

    Increasing anonymity and the lack of personal contact between professor and student due to high enrolment is one of the major problems at German universities. Therefore, the Faculty of Medicine of the University of the Saarland started a pilot project in 1995. The intention was to reduce anonymity within the faculty by introducing a faculty mentoring programme (Studientutorium). A group of up to 12 students from different years is allocated a faculty member on a personal basis. The member responds to questions and problems concerning such areas as the curriculum, career planning or doctoral thesis as well as to personal problems. After 2 years participants were interviewed about the programme for the first time and the acceptance turned out to be high. PMID:9743811

  1. Anonymizing patient genomic data for public sharing association studies.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Lozano, Carlos; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo; Seoane, Jose A; Lopez-Alonso, Victoria; Dorado, Julian; Martín-Sanchez, Fernando; Pazos, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The development of personalized medicine is tightly linked with the correct exploitation of molecular data, especially those associated with the genome sequence along with these use of genomic data there is an increasing demand to share these data for research purposes. Transition of clinical data to research is based in the anonymization of these data so the patient cannot be identified, the use of genomic data poses a great challenge because its nature of identifying data. In this work we have analyzed current methods for genome anonymization and propose a one way encryption method that may enable the process of genomic data sharing accessing only to certain regions of genomes for research purposes. PMID:23920753

  2. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).

  3. An Anonymous Surveying Protocol via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseri, Mosayeb; Gong, Li-Hua; Houshmand, Monireh; Matin, Laleh Farhang

    2016-06-01

    A new experimentally feasible anonymous survey protocol with authentication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states is proposed. In this protocol, a chief executive officer (CEO) of a firm or company is trying to find out the effect of a possible action. In order to prepare a fair voting, the CEO would like to make an anonymous survey and is also interested in the total action for the whole company and he doesn't want to have a partial estimate for each department. In our proposal, there are two voters, Alice and Bob, voting on a question with a response of either "yes" or "no" and a tallyman, whose responsibility is to determine whether they have cast the same vote or not. In the proposed protocol the total response of the voters is calculated without revealing the actual votes of the voters.

  4. Defining workplace bullying behaviour professional lay definitions of workplace bullying.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Paula; Huynh, Amy; Goodman-Delahunty, Jane

    2007-01-01

    As is commonly the case in new areas of research, workplace bullying researchers and practitioners have struggled to establish a single agreed-upon definition of this phenomenon. As a consequence, there are numerous definitions of workplace bullying currently in use around the world to investigate this serious workplace issue, to educate the workforce about this form of harassment and to assess claims involving allegations of workplace bullying. Additionally, little is known about how employees and people in general define workplace bullying behaviour, and whether current researcher, practitioner and legal definitions coincide with lay definitions of bullying. To compare researcher, practitioner and legal definitions of workplace bullying with lay definitions, the content of definitions composed by adults from diverse personal and professional backgrounds (N=1095) was analysed. Results confirmed that components commonly used by researchers and practitioners, including the occurrence of harmful and negative workplace behaviours, were frequently cited by participants as central defining components of bullying behaviour. In addition, lay definitions often included themes of fairness and respect. The emergence of these themes has important consequences for organisations responding to, and attempting to prevent the occurrence of workplace bullying behaviour in that organisations in which bullying is tolerated may violate both local laws as well as their ethical responsibility to provide employees with a safe, professional and respectful workplace. PMID:17692375

  5. Alcoholics Anonymous-Related Helping and the Helper Therapy Principle

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Post, Stephen G.; Johnson, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    The helper therapy principle (HTP) observes the helper’s health benefits derived from helping another with a shared malady. The HTP is embodied by the program of Alcoholics Anonymous as a method to diminish egocentrism as a root cause of addiction. This article reviews recent evidence of the HTP in alcohol populations, extends to populations with chronic conditions beyond addiction, and concludes with new directions of empirical inquiry. PMID:23525280

  6. Can Anonymous Posters on Medical Forums be Reidentified?

    PubMed Central

    Bobicev, Victoria; El Emam, Khaled; Jafer, Yasser; Dewar, Brian; Jonker, Elizabeth; Matwin, Stan

    2013-01-01

    Background Participants in medical forums often reveal personal health information about themselves in their online postings. To feel comfortable revealing sensitive personal health information, some participants may hide their identity by posting anonymously. They can do this by using fake identities, nicknames, or pseudonyms that cannot readily be traced back to them. However, individual writing styles have unique features and it may be possible to determine the true identity of an anonymous user through author attribution analysis. Although there has been previous work on the authorship attribution problem, there has been a dearth of research on automated authorship attribution on medical forums. The focus of the paper is to demonstrate that character-based author attribution works better than word-based methods in medical forums. Objective The goal was to build a system that accurately attributes authorship of messages posted on medical forums. The Authorship Attributor system uses text analysis techniques to crawl medical forums and automatically correlate messages written by the same authors. Authorship Attributor processes unstructured texts regardless of the document type, context, and content. Methods The messages were labeled by nicknames of the forum participants. We evaluated the system’s performance through its accuracy on 6000 messages gathered from 2 medical forums on an in vitro fertilization (IVF) support website. Results Given 2 lists of candidate authors (30 and 50 candidates, respectively), we obtained an F score accuracy in detecting authors of 75% to 80% on messages containing 100 to 150 words on average, and 97.9% on longer messages containing at least 300 words. Conclusions Authorship can be successfully detected in short free-form messages posted on medical forums. This raises a concern about the meaningfulness of anonymous posting on such medical forums. Authorship attribution tools can be used to warn consumers wishing to post

  7. Efficient and Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2016-06-01

    As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%. PMID:27091755

  8. Social desirability, anonymity, and Internet-based questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Joinson, A

    1999-08-01

    It has been argued that behavior on the Internet differs from similar behavior in the "real world" (Joinson, 1998a). In the present study, participants completed measures of self-consciousness, social anxiety, self-esteem, and social desirability, using either the World-Wide Web (WWW) or pen and paper, and were assigned to either an anonymous or a nonanonymous condition. It was found that people reported lower social anxiety and social desirability and higher self-esteem when they were anonymous than when they were nonanonymous. Furthermore, participants also reported lower social anxiety and social desirability when they were using the Internet than when they were using paper-based methods. Contrast analyses supported the prediction that participants using the WWW anonymously would show the lowest levels of social desirability, whereas participants answering with pen and paper nonanonymously would score highest on the same measure. Implications for the use of the Internet for the collection of psychological data are discussed. PMID:10502866

  9. Utility-preserving transaction data anonymization with low information loss

    PubMed Central

    Loukides, Grigorios; Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2012-01-01

    Transaction data record various information about individuals, including their purchases and diagnoses, and are increasingly published to support large-scale and low-cost studies in domains such as marketing and medicine. However, the dissemination of transaction data may lead to privacy breaches, as it allows an attacker to link an individual’s record to their identity. Approaches that anonymize data by eliminating certain values in an individual’s record or by replacing them with more general values have been proposed recently, but they often produce data of limited usefulness. This is because these approaches adopt value transformation strategies that do not guarantee data utility in intended applications and objective measures that may lead to excessive data distortion. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for anonymizing data in a way that satisfies data publishers’ utility requirements and incurs low information loss. To achieve this, we introduce an accurate information loss measure and an effective anonymization algorithm that explores a large part of the problem space. An extensive experimental study, using click-stream and medical data, demonstrates that our approach permits many times more accurate query answering than the state-of-the-art methods, while it is comparable to them in terms of efficiency. PMID:22563145

  10. How to kill gamete donation: retrospective legislation and donor anonymity.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Guido

    2012-10-01

    Victoria (Australia) is considering retrospective legislation on the abolition of gamete donor anonymity. Retrospective legislation evokes many negative emotions mainly because it is considered unfair. It also makes it impossible for citizens to organize their life with reasonable certainty of the consequences. Introduction of this law for donor anonymity is defended by the right of the child to know its genetic origins. Against this law, people appeal to the right to privacy and confidentiality of the donor. This paper analyses the arguments for and against a retrospective law on donor anonymity by looking at the conditions that should be respected when two principles (the donor's right to privacy and the child's right to genetic information) have to be balanced. It is concluded that the justification for introducing retrospective law is lacking: the conditions are not fulfilled. Moreover, retroactive laws in the context of gamete donation may jeopardize the whole practice by destroying the trust of candidate donors and recipients in the government. PMID:22786778

  11. Guaranteeing anonymity when sharing medical data, the Datafly System.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, L

    1997-01-01

    We present a computer program named Datafly that maintains anonymity in medical data by automatically generalizing, substituting, and removing information as appropriate without losing many of the details found within the data. Decisions are made at the field and record level at the time of database access, so the approach can be used on the fly in role-based security within an institution, and in batch mode for exporting data from an institution. Often organizations release and receive medical data with all explicit identifiers, such as name, address and phone number, removed in the incorrect belief that patient confidentiality is maintained because the resulting data look anonymous; however, we show the remaining data can often be used to re-identify individuals by linking or matching the data to other databases or by looking at unique characteristics found in the fields and records of the database itself. When these less apparent aspects are taken into account, each released record can be made to ambiguously map to many possible people, providing a level of anonymity determined by the user. PMID:9357587

  12. [E-research: problems with anonymity and consent].

    PubMed

    Woolderink, Marla; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; van Schayck, Constant P; van Wijmen, Frans C B

    2013-01-01

    The Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO) requires that participants in medical-scientific studies provide written consent. This requirement makes e-research (online research) unnecessarily difficult and sometimes impossible. Much of e-research involves online interventions that focus on sensitive issues such as sexual dysfunction, addiction and child abuse, for which anonymity is an important condition. WMO procedures, however, strictly interpret the word "written" as "on paper", and participants are not permitted to give consent by email, for example. A second requirement, which mainly makes studies among minors between the ages of 12 and 18 more difficult, is that both parents or the guardian must provide written consent. This undermines anonymity to such an extent that virtually no subjects remain. Participants in medical-scientific studies must always be identifiable to the investigator. But, apart from this, he/she should be possible to guarantee anonymity within the regulatory framework. There is good reason to adapt legal regulations to today's needs. PMID:24345359

  13. [Workplace related anxiety and phobia].

    PubMed

    Linden, M; Muschalla, B

    2007-01-01

    Work is an important aspect of life. Problems at the workplace must therefore have negative consequences on the mental status and mental problems will interfere with the working place. The relation between anxiety and the workplace is especially important because the workplace causes anxiety due to its very nature. A common final pathway of mental disorders in general, and work related anxieties in particular, are workplace phobias, with panic when approaching or even thinking of the workplace. This is a serious complication with negative consequences for the further course of illness. It makes special therapeutic intervention necessary. This paper describes the phenomenon of workplace related anxieties and phobia and provides a conceptual framework for their understanding. PMID:17106728

  14. The impact of workplace factors on evidence-based speech-language pathology practice for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Gladys; Trembath, David; Arciuli, Joanne; Togher, Leanne

    2013-08-01

    Although researchers have examined barriers to implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) at the level of the individual, little is known about the effects workplaces have on speech-language pathologists' implementation of EBP. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of workplace factors on the use of EBP amongst speech-language pathologists who work with children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study sought to (a) explore views about EBP amongst speech-language pathologists who work with children with ASD, (b) identify workplace factors which, in the participants' opinions, acted as barriers or enablers to their provision of evidence-based speech-language pathology services, and (c) examine whether or not speech-language pathologists' responses to workplace factors differed based on the type of workplace or their years of experience. A total of 105 speech-language pathologists from across Australia completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The results indicate that, although the majority of speech-language pathologists agreed that EBP is necessary, they experienced barriers to their implementation of EBP including workplace culture and support, lack of time, cost of EBP, and the availability and accessibility of EBP resources. The barriers reported by speech-language pathologists were similar, regardless of their workplace (private practice vs organization) and years of experience. PMID:22967045

  15. The implications of stigma and anonymity for self-disclosure in health blogs.

    PubMed

    Rains, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    The reported study examines the implications of anonymity and stigma in the form of illness-related embarrassment for self-disclosure in the context of health blogging. Drawing from theorizing about anonymous communication and stigma, anonymity is argued to be strategically used by individuals who are embarrassed by their illness and to moderate the relationship between embarrassment and self-disclosure. Data from 114 individuals who blog about their experiences coping with a health condition were examined to test study hypotheses. Illness-related embarrassment was positively associated with anonymity. Additionally, anonymity moderated the relationship between embarrassment and self-disclosure. Among bloggers with relatively higher levels of anonymity, illness-related embarrassment was positively associated with self-disclosure. The results suggest that anonymity is strategically used and fosters self-disclosure among individuals who are embarrassed by their illness. PMID:23356432

  16. The ethics of unlinked anonymous testing of blood: views from in-depth interviews with key informants in four countries

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, Anthony S; Datta, Jessica; Wellings, Kaye; Perman, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In this study we explore the ethical issues around unlinked anonymous testing (UAT) of blood, a method of seroprevalence surveillance for infectious diseases. Our study focused on UAT for HIV, although UAT can be used for other infectious diseases. The objectives of the research were to gain a better understanding of the views of key informants in countries adopting different UAT testing strategies, and to use the findings of the research to inform health policy. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and ethical analysis. Setting Four countries using different strategies around UAT of blood for HIV (the UK, the USA, the Netherlands and Norway). Participants Twenty-three key informants in the four countries. Results Participants from the four countries have different views on UAT of blood, and the approaches and policies on UAT adopted by different countries have been historically and culturally determined. We use our findings to explore the relationship between public health policy and ethics, framing our discussion in relation to two important contemporary debates: informed consent for participation in medical and public health research; and the balance between the individual good and the public good. Conclusions Qualitative research and ethical analysis of UAT of blood in different countries has yielded important findings for consideration by policy makers. The policy of UAT of blood for HIV and other diseases in the UK needs reconsideration in the light of these findings. PMID:23263019

  17. HIV Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov More information ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  18. Experienced Teachers' Informal Workplace Learning and Perceptions of Workplace Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Annemarieke; Korthagen, Fred; Brekelmans, Mieke; Beijaard, Douwe; Imants, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore in detail how teachers' perceptions of workplace conditions for learning are related to their informal workplace learning activities and learning outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: From a sample of 32 teachers, a purposeful sampling technique of maximal variation was used to select two cases…

  19. Workplace English: From Literature Classics to Workplace Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Krauss, Lisbeth; McClanahan, Linda

    This paper explains the rationale and methods for integrating workplace literacy with English literature instruction for high school or adult students. The workplace literacy/English literature activities presented include: (1) a newsletter format reporting on the major historical periods in English literature; (2) a business project report used…

  20. Monitoring HIV through sentinel surveillance in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Elharti, E; Zidouh, A; Mengad, R; Bennani, O; Elaouad, R

    2002-01-01

    HIV sentinel surveillance was performed in five provinces of Morocco in 1993, expanded to 10 provinces in 1996. The activity was done by unlinked anonymous testing procedures. We analysed the data from 1993 to 1999. The groups studied were sexually transmitted infections, clinic attendees, pregnant women and patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. The results show that overall HIV prevalence rate over the whole period in 10 cities was 0.10% (45/44,233). Casablanca had a significantly high rate with 0.39% (10/2567). The patients with pulmonary tuberculosis displayed the highest prevalence with 0.36% (9/2530). These data confirm the assumption that the HIV epidemic is low in Morocco. However, the increase of HIV prevalence lately calls for reinforcing preventive measures to limit its spread. PMID:15330569

  1. AIDS and the workplace: signs of hope from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Williams, G; Ray, S

    1994-01-01

    Strategies for Hope is a series of booklets and videos about innovative and practical approaches to AIDS management and prevention in developing countries. It is published by the UK development agency ACTIONAID and the African Medical and Research Foundation with technical and financial support from the World Health Organization Global Program on AIDS. More than 500,000 booklets and 5000 videos have been distributed worldwide. The authors describe what they learned while researching the eighth booklet in the series, Work Against AIDS, analyzing seven workplace-based AIDS programs in Zimbabwe. They argue that the workplace can play a far greater role in AIDS awareness and prevention than is generally realized. AIDS is already affecting the health and productivity of the workforce in Zimbabwe, where in some areas more than 15% of adults are estimated to be HIV-positive. Morbidity and mortality are rising with concomitant worker absenteeism, yet most workplaces in Zimbabwe do not have even a poster about AIDS on display. There are, however, some impressive education programs under way. These programs, run by a significant number of volunteer peer educators, are working to reduce the stigma attached with sexually transmitted diseases and promote low-cost or free treatment. The authors also note as most promising the program of the Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions training 700 Health and Safety representatives at shop-floor and branch levels in AIDS-related human rights issues at the workplace as well as AIDS awareness and prevention. PMID:12318814

  2. Black Boxes in Workplace Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julian; Wake, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    We ground Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) in studies of workplace practices from a mathematical point of view. We draw on multiple case study visits by college students and teacher-researchers to workplaces. By asking questions that "open boxes", we "outsiders and boundary-crossers" sought to expose contradictions between College and…

  3. Communication Skills for Workplace Assessors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Deborah

    This document is designed to help develop the communication skills of individuals training for the position of workplace assessor in Australia's National Training Framework and practicing workplace assessors who require additional assistance with on-the-job communication skills. The document consists of 11 units of study that each contain some or…

  4. Ohio Workplace Education Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest ABLE Resource Center, Toledo, OH.

    This manual is designed for adult basic education programs to use as a resource for workplace education (WE). It begins with a section of introductory materials, including a WE definition, scope of work, and survey results. The next section contains a program profile; director/coordinator profile; instructor profiles; Ohio ABLE workplace site…

  5. Workplace Literacy: A Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmino, Lucy Madsen; Byran, Valerie C.

    This resource book provides information on developing a workplace literacy program, descriptions of Florida Workplace Literacy Programs, and an annotated bibliography of resources. An introduction discusses the problem of basic skills deficiencies, projections that indicate the problem will increase, the Florida context, and benefits realized when…

  6. Experience, Competence and Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paloniemi, Susanna

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine employees' conceptions of the meaning of experience in job-competence and its development in workplace context. The aim is to bring out the variety of conceptions related to experience, competence and workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on interview data from six Finnish small and…

  7. Union Roles in Workplace Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Stephen Michael

    1993-01-01

    Discusses roles for labor unions in resolving workforce deficiencies, suggesting that labor, management, and government must work together to develop cooperative training initiatives. Describes labor's historic role in basic and workplace literacy training, lists skills workers need in the "new" workplace, describes exemplary union-management…

  8. Workplace Spirituality and Organizational Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Zamor, Jean-Claude

    2003-01-01

    Examines workplace spirituality in an historical context and compares it to religious beliefs and to established ethical theories and moral principles. Suggests how managers and administrators in both the public and private sectors can use workplace spirituality to increase performance and develop ethical organizations. (Contains 54 references.)…

  9. Adult Learning in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on adult learning in the workplace. "The Relationship between Workplace Learning and Employee Satisfaction in Small Businesses" (Robert W. Rowden, Shamsuddin Ahmad) reports the results of a study of the nature and extent of HRD, level of job satisfaction among workers, and correlation between HRD…

  10. The Toll of Workplace Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Bullying may be more common than most people think. According to a study commissioned by the Workplace Bullying Institute, one in three employees experience bullying in the workplace either as a victim or as a witness suffering collateral damage. Bullying is a serious problem. Directors, managers, and staff members need to ensure that it does not…

  11. Workplace incivility: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Abolfazl Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the meaning of the concept 'workplace incivility' and promote consistency in its application in nursing research and practice. The methodology introduced by Walker and Avant was used to analyze this concept. A total number of 50 studies that had essentially addressed the concept of incivility in employees' work environment was selected. Ambiguous intent, violation of mutual respect, low intensity and lack of physical assault were identified as the defining attributes of workplace incivility. The necessary antecedent of workplace incivility consisted of the presence of two or more people, with one or more as the source of the incivility, and another or others as its target in the workplace. Moreover, certain individual and organisational factors were the potential antecedents of workplace incivility. Possible negative outcomes for victims, witnesses, organisations, society and perpetrators of such behaviours, such as increased cost for the organisation, reduced citizenship performance, psychological distress and anxiety were identified as outcomes of workplace incivility. Results of the current concept analysis can guide nurse managers to design interventions so that the occurrence of workplace incivility can be reduced. Further studies can focus on testing the psychometric properties of the existing workplace incivility scales, especially uncivil behaviours experienced by nurses across different societies or cultures. PMID:26213258

  12. Workplace Literacy: A Labour Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbit, Tom

    The policies and practices of Canadian labor unions in the area of workplace literacy were examined through a comprehensive literature review and site visits to an unspecified number of labor-initiated workplace literacy programs representing different geographic areas, industries and types of occupations, levels of participation of equity groups,…

  13. The Workplace and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierre, Karin Domnick

    1986-01-01

    Findings of the Canadian Mental Health and the Workplace Project are that (1) the quality of interpersonal relations in the workplace is a major factor in emotional well-being and (2) work must be balanced with other parts of one's life. These findings imply the need for social support networks and alternative work patterns. (SK)

  14. HIV Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat HIV infection (called antiretroviral therapy, or ART) the right way, every day and his or ... way, every day, the medicine to treat HIV (ART) reduces the amount of HIV (called “viral ...

  15. Quantum anonymous ranking based on the Chinese remainder theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Song; Guo, Gong-De; Huang, Feng; Liu, Xiao-Fen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient quantum anonymous ranking protocol with single particles is proposed. A semitrusted server is introduced to help multiple users achieve this secure task. At the end of the protocol, each user can obtain the rankings of his private data, and keep these data secret. The Chinese remainder theorem is utilized to reduce the level of signal particles and to improve the efficiency of the presented protocol. Meanwhile, a secret transmission order of the signal particles is used to keep the traveling particles secure. Finally, we discuss the security of this protocol and prove it to be secure against certain common attacks under ideal conditions.

  16. Deindividuation, anonymity, and violence: findings from Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Silke, Andrew

    2003-08-01

    The author examined the relation between anonymity and aggression in violent interpersonal assaults that occurred in Northern Ireland. Of the 500 violent attacks that the author studied, 206 were carried out by offenders who wore disguises to mask their identities. The findings revealed that significant positive relationships existed between the use of disguises and several measures of aggression. Disguised offenders inflicted more serious physical injuries, attacked more people at the scene, engaged in more acts of vandalism, and were more likely to threaten victims after the attacks. The author discussed these results within the framework of deindividuation theory. PMID:12934837

  17. Workplace discrimination and cancer.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Maureen A; Fabian, Ellen; Hurley, Jessica E; McMahon, Brian T; West, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System database were analyzed with specific reference to allegations of workplace discrimination filed by individuals with cancer under ADA Title One. These 6,832 allegations, filed between July 27, 1992 and September 30, 2003, were compared to 167,798 allegations from a general disability population on the following dimensions: type of workplace discrimination; demographic characteristics of the charging parties (CPs); the industry designation, location, and size of employers; and the outcome or resolution of EEOC investigations. Results showed allegations derived from CPs with cancer were more likely than those in the general disability population to include issues involving discharge, terms and conditions of employment, lay-off, wages, and demotion. Compared to the general disability group, CPs with cancer were more likely to be female, older, and White. Allegations derived from CPs with cancer were also more likely to be filed against smaller employers (15-100 workers) or those in service industries. Finally, the resolution of allegations by CPs with cancer were more likely to be meritorious than those filed from the general disability population; that is, actual discrimination is more likely to have occurred. PMID:18057571

  18. The end of donor anonymity: how genetic testing is likely to drive anonymous gamete donation out of business.

    PubMed

    Harper, Joyce C; Kennett, Debbie; Reisel, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Thousands of people worldwide have been conceived using donor gametes, but not all parents tell their children of their origin. Several countries now allow donor-conceived offspring to potentially know their genetic parent if they are informed of their donor-conceived status. At the same time, personal genetic testing is a rapidly expanding field. Over 3 million people have already used direct-to-consumer genetic testing to find information about their ancestry, and many are participating in international genetic genealogy databases that will match them with relatives. The increased prevalence of these technologies poses numerous challenges to the current practice of gamete donation. (i) Whether they are donating in a country that practices anonymous donation or not, donors should be informed that their anonymity is not guaranteed, as they may be traced if their DNA, or that of a relative, is added to a database. (ii) Donor-conceived adults who have not been informed of their status may find out that they are donor-conceived. (iii) Parents using donor conception need to be fully informed that their children's DNA will identify that they are not the biological parents and they should be encouraged to disclose the use of donor gametes to their children. Together, these concerns make urgent a wide-ranging societal conversation about how to best safeguard and promote the interests of donor-conceived offspring and protect the rights of donors. Specifically, there is a need to ensure that new genetic information is communicated in a way that promotes both the safety and the privacy rights of offspring and donors alike. All parties concerned must be aware that, in 2016, donor anonymity does not exist. PMID:27073260

  19. Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.

  20. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity.

    PubMed

    Rees, Anne

    2012-06-01

    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought. PMID:22908618

  1. Private anonymous fingerprinting for color images in the wavelet domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul, W.; Gaborit, P.; Carré, P.

    2010-01-01

    An online buyer of multimedia content does not want to reveal his identity or his choice of multimedia content whereas the seller or owner of the content does not want the buyer to further distribute the content illegally. To address these issues we present a new private anonymous fingerprinting protocol. It is based on superposed sending for communication security, group signature for anonymity and traceability and single database private information retrieval (PIR) to allow the user to get an element of the database without giving any information about the acquired element. In the presence of a semi-honest model, the protocol is implemented using a blind, wavelet based color image watermarking scheme. The main advantage of the proposed protocol is that both the user identity and the acquired database element are unknown to any third party and in the case of piracy, the pirate can be identified using the group signature scheme. The robustness of the watermarking scheme against Additive White Gaussian Noise is also shown.

  2. Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.

  3. Nonexposure accurate location K-anonymity algorithm in LBS.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jinying; Zhang, Fengli

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR. PMID:24605060

  4. Nonexposure Accurate Location K-Anonymity Algorithm in LBS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR. PMID:24605060

  5. Challenges of educational and cultural diversity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Hyde, S; White, S

    1993-01-01

    In South Africa, the estimate of HIV-infected population was 300,000 in September 1993, with 500 new infections occurring daily, mostly in poor neighborhoods with illiteracy rates of 25-50%. The AIDS Education and Training (AET) targeted low-literate groups by developing an educational package for the workplace. The methodology included repetition of key messages, stories from their own culture with pictures, interaction in groups, and visual aids to retain information. The content involved biomedical aspects of HIV/AIDS, testing and counseling, safe sex, traditional healers, the needs of the infected, and workplace/community issues. The pictures depicted men and women of all racial varieties to drive home the message that the infection can infect everybody. 31 colorful laminated posters were developed for the AIDS flip chart kit, and over 100 flip chart sessions were conducted at workplaces. An evaluation of the flip chart sessions queried 143 English- and 897 Tswana-speaking people at one company. 58% of respondents considered condom use and reducing the number of partners the most important message. 28% deemed biomedical facts and latency of the infection important, 25% the deadly nature of the disease, and 15% the modes of transmission. 44% desired to learn about prevention and 30% appreciated the interactive method of learning. All participants sought more information on STDs, where to get an HIV test, and how to have safer sex. AET provides assistance to clients to become educators themselves by means of policy development, refresher courses for educators, and action planning (condom distribution, STD control, referral for testing, and follow-up). The flip chart is also used for other health and lifestyle education regarding family planning, tuberculosis, sexuality, and communication skills aimed at company managers, union officials, and supervisors. PMID:12345400

  6. Workplace bullying in nursing.

    PubMed

    Ovayolu, Ozlem; Ovayolu, Nimet; Karadag, Gulendam

    2014-09-01

    This research was designed to determine whether nurses are bullied by other staff members and the effects of such behaviors on the nurse victims. This study reports on nurses' interpersonal workplace relationships in a culturally unique environment. The study was conducted with 260 nurses working in three public hospitals. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The majority of nurses were female with bachelor's degrees and reported being assigned duties outside their usual responsibilities, held responsible for coworkers' mistakes, and criticized for job performance although they thought they had done their work properly. Most of the nurses who were bullied experienced health and sleep problems,did not want to go to work, and had communication problems with other staff members. Nearly all of the study nurses received psychological support to solve their problems and believed that the best way to prevent bullying was education. PMID:25102477

  7. Underreporting of Workplace Violence

    PubMed Central

    Arnetz, Judith E.; Hamblin, Lydia; Ager, Joel; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark J.; Russell, Jim; Essenmacher, Lynnette

    2016-01-01

    This study examined differences between self-report and actual documentation of workplace violence (WPV) incidents in a cohort of health care workers. The study was conducted in an American hospital system with a central electronic database for reporting WPV events. In 2013, employees (n = 2010) were surveyed by mail about their experience of WPV in the previous year. Survey responses were compared with actual events entered into the electronic system. Of questionnaire respondents who self-reported a violent event in the past year, 88% had not documented an incident in the electronic system. However, more than 45% had reported violence informally, for example, to their supervisors. The researchers found that if employees were injured or lost time from work, they were more likely to formally report a violent event. Understanding the magnitude of underreporting and characteristics of health care workers who are less likely to report may assist hospitals in determining where to focus violence education and prevention efforts. PMID:26002854

  8. Antiferromagnetic character of workplace stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Jun-Ichiro; Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo

    2011-07-01

    We study the nature of workplace stress from the aspect of human-human interactions. We investigated the distribution of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores, a measure of the degree of stress, in workplaces. We found that the degree of stress people experience when around other highly stressed people tends to be low, and vice versa. A simulation based on a model describing microlevel human-human interaction reproduced this observed phenomena and revealed that the energy state of a face-to-face communication network correlates with workplace stress macroscopically.

  9. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences. PMID:18793089

  10. Workplace bullying: the effectiveness of a workplace program.

    PubMed

    Stagg, Sharon J; Sheridan, Daniel J; Jones, Ruth A; Speroni, Karen Gabel

    2013-08-01

    Workplace bullying can not only cost thousands of dollars to replace an affected nurse, but also have detrimental economic effects on health care organizations. Occupational health nurses can provide leadership in preventing or eliminating workplace bullying. This pilot study determined that attendance at a cognitive rehearsal program decreased workplace bullying. The study used an Internet-based survey administered 6 months after nurses completed the 2-hour cognitive rehearsal program. Half of the nurses reported witnessing bullying behaviors since attending the program; 70% of the nurses reported changing their own behaviors following the course; and 40% of the nurses reported a decrease in bullying behaviors during the past 6 months. Although 70% of the nurses believed they could intervene in bullying situations, only 16% reported they responded to bullying at the time of occurrence. This study illuminates the need to continue searching for other effective methods to prevent and manage workplace bullying. PMID:23875566

  11. Diversity management: the treatment of HIV-positive employees.

    PubMed

    Yap, Matthew H T; Ineson, Elizabeth M

    2012-01-01

    Socio-demographic dimensions such as age, gender, sexual orientation, race and ethnicity are commonly included in diversity studies. With a view to helping Asian hospitality managers to manage HIV-positive employees in their workplaces through diversity management (DM) theory, this research extends the boundaries of previous diversity studies by considering Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection as a diverse characteristic. Both quantitative and qualitative primary data were collected from purposively selected Asian hospitality managers through postal questionnaire and follow-up telephone interviews. Transformed raw data were analysed using summary statistics and template analysis. Asian hospitality managers agreed that DM would be appropriate in the management of HIV-positive employees and that it could generate substantial benefits for employees and employers. However, they believe that the successful adoption and implementation of DM is not easy; it requires training and, ideally, the recruitment of experienced directors. Nevertheless, Asian hospitality managers are confident that implementing DM to manage HIV-positive employees can enhance tolerance, improve understanding and promote equality. The purposive sampling technique and the small number of respondents have impacted the external validity of the study. However, this exploratory study initiates an equality discussion to include HIV-positive employees in DM discourse beyond antidiscrimination legislation. It also supplements the sparse literature addressing HIV-positive employees in the Asian hospitality workplace. Asian hospitality managers are advised to understand and employ DM to treat HIV-positive employees fairly to overcome hospitality workplace marginalisation, discrimination and stigmatisation. PMID:22293097

  12. Ten-year trends in HIV prevalence among visitors to public health centers under the National HIV Surveillance System in Korea, 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Korea saw a sharp increase in HIV diagnosis from 2000. This serious public health concern must be monitored diligently. We identified the characteristics and trends in HIV prevalence among visitors to public health centers (PHCs) from 2000 to 2009. Methods We retrieved ten-year data of HIV tests from 253 PHCs. The HIV prevalence was analyzed by gender, age, nationality, region, and reason for HIV testing. Data were analyzed using logistic regression and score test for trend. Results HIV prevalence among PHCs’ visitors has rapidly increased for six years since 2000, decreased from 2006, and then remained stable. Approximately 50% of total HIV tests were performed for sexually transmitted infection risk group (STI RG), who were tested 1.4 times within a year. Women and the 20s comprised approximately 70% and 40% of PHCs’ visitors, respectively. The prevalence of voluntary test takers was the highest and showed most rapid increase (P = 0.007), but that of prisoners declined (P = 0.003). The prevalence of STI RG was lower than those of the other groups and remained stable throughout the ten-year period (P = 0.606). Percentage of anonymous tests was 2–3% of a total HIV tests, but overall HIV-positive rate showed a rapid increase (P < 0.001). Conclusions As voluntary or anonymous testing groups are actively engaged in learning their status of HIV, these groups showed the highest in HIV infection. Groups in the population with these characteristics should be located and encouraged to be tested, and offered anonymity. This study suggests that it is important to ascertain the characteristics of people choosing to take voluntary testing. PMID:23020818

  13. AIDS Education for the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Jeffrey A.

    1990-01-01

    Sun Life in Wellesley, Massachusetts, has an ongoing education program about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) that provides employees with facts and works to change attitudes about the implications of AIDS for the workplace. (SK)

  14. Stress within the academic workplace.

    PubMed

    Kenner, Carole A; Pressler, Jana L

    2014-01-01

    Many new nursing leaders assuming deanships, assistant deanships, or interim deanships have limited education, experience, or background to prepare them to deal with workplace stress. To assist new deans and those aspiring to be deans, the authors of this department offer survival tips based on their personal experiences and insights. They address common issues such as time management, handling workplace bullying, and negotiating deadlines and assignments. The authors welcome counterpoint discussions with readers. PMID:24743171

  15. LGBT Workplace Climate in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudi, B. S.; Danner, R.; Dixon, W. V.; Henderson, C. B.; Kay, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    The AAS Working Group on LGBTIQ Equality (WGLE) held a town hall meeting at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage to explore the workplace climate for LGBTIQ individuals working in Astronomy and related fields. Topics of discussion included anti-discrimination practices, general workplace climate, and pay and benefit policies. Four employment sectors were represented: industry, the federal government, private colleges, and public universities. We will summarize and expand on the town hall discussions and findings of the panel members.

  16. Visual ergonomics in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Anshel, Jeffrey R

    2007-10-01

    This article provides information about visual function and its role in workplace productivity. By understanding the connection among comfort, health, and productivity and knowing the many options for effective ergonomic workplace lighting, the occupational health nurse can be sensitive to potential visual stress that can affect all areas of performance. Computer vision syndrome-the eye and vision problems associated with near work experienced during or related to computer use-is defined and solutions to it are discussed. PMID:17969539

  17. Evaluating alcoholics anonymous sponsor attributes using conjoint analysis.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Edward B; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-12-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) considers sponsorship an important element of the AA program, especially in early recovery. 225 adult individuals who had experience as either a sponsor, sponsee, or both, participated in a hypothetical sponsor ranking exercise where five attributes were varied across three levels. Conjoint analysis was used to compute part-worth utility of the attributes and their levels for experience, knowledge, availability, confidentiality, and goal-setting. Differences in utilities by attribute were found where confidentiality had the greatest overall possible impact on utility and sponsor knowledge had the least. These findings suggest qualitative differences in sponsors may impact their effectiveness. Future research on AA should continue to investigate sponsor influence on an individual's overall recovery trajectory. PMID:26186375

  18. Shared ideology in Alcoholics Anonymous: a grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Wright, K B

    1997-01-01

    This article uses grounded theory to explore the shared ideology espoused in Alcoholics Anonymous, specifically the nature and role of shared ideology in increasing the efficacy of the recovery process, and the features of the group's tenets and meetings that help facilitate members' indoctrination. Findings support Kassel and Wagner's (1993) contention of shared ideology's major role in the change process of the group, and Antze's (1976) categorizations of the AA ideology and alcoholics' characteristics. Antze's (1979) finding that AA ideology removes the concept of drinking from the voluntary sphere was also supported. The group was found to be a context in which members could change their assumptive worlds through reinterpreting life events, as Frank and Frank (1991) contended. Little support was found for Alexander and Rollins's (1984) comparison of AA to religious cults. The findings underscore the importance of human interaction as persuasion and reinforcement for AA ideology. PMID:10977242

  19. Robust anonymous authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Na

    2013-04-01

    Patient can obtain sorts of health-care delivery services via Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMIS). Authentication, security, patient's privacy protection and data confidentiality are important for patient or doctor accessing to Electronic Medical Records (EMR). In 2012, Chen et al. showed that Khan et al.'s dynamic ID-based authentication scheme has some weaknesses and proposed an improved scheme, and they claimed that their scheme is more suitable for TMIS. However, we show that Chen et al.'s scheme also has some weaknesses. In particular, Chen et al.'s scheme does not provide user's privacy protection and perfect forward secrecy, is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack and impersonation attack once user's smart card is compromised. Further, we propose a secure anonymity authentication scheme to overcome their weaknesses even an adversary can know all information stored in smart card. PMID:23321972

  20. Participant Anonymity in the Internet Age: From Theory to Practice

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Benjamin; Kitzinger, Jenny; Kitzinger, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative researchers attempting to protect the identities of their research participants now face a multitude of new challenges due to the wealth of information once considered private but now readily accessible online. We will draw on our research with family members of people with severe brain injury to discuss these challenges in relation to three areas: participant engagement with the mass media, the availability of court transcripts online, and participants’ use of social media. We suggest strategies for managing these challenges via disguise, refining informed consent, and discussion with interviewees. In the context of a largely theoretical literature on anonymization, this article offers concrete examples of the dilemmas we faced and will be of illustrative use to other researchers confronting similar challenges. PMID:25866484

  1. Father-daughter incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    PubMed

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel V S; Kommor, Martin J

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self-interview. Nineteen were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 241 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The remaining 1,261 served as controls. Incest victims were more likely than controls to endorse feeling damaged, psychologically injured, estranged from one or both parents, and shamed by others when they tried to open up about their experience. They had been eroticized early on by the incest experience, and it interfered with their adult sexuality. Incest victims experienced coitus earlier than controls and after reaching age 18 had more sex partners and were more likely to have casual sex outside their primary relationship and engage in sex for money than controls. They also had worse scores on scales measuring depression, sexual satisfaction, and communication about sex than controls. PMID:22452300

  2. Watermarking medical images with anonymous patient identification to verify authenticity.

    PubMed

    Coatrieux, Gouenou; Quantin, Catherine; Montagner, Julien; Fassa, Maniane; Allaert, François-André; Roux, Christian

    2008-01-01

    When dealing with medical image management, there is a need to ensure information authenticity and dependability. Being able to verify the information belongs to the correct patient and is issued from the right source is a major concern. Verification can help to reduce the risk of errors when identifying documents in daily practice or when sending a patient's Electronic Health Record. At the same time, patient privacy issues may appear during the verification process when the verifier accesses patient data without appropriate authorization. In this paper we discuss the combination of watermarking with different identifiers ranging from DICOM standard UID to an Anonymous European Patient Identifier in order to improve medical image protection in terms of authenticity and maintainability. PMID:18487808

  3. Using Adult Education Principles for HIV/AIDS Awareness Intervention Strategies in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Julia; Ntseane, Gabo

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a mainly qualitative study into company strategies for HIV/AIDS information, education and communication (IEC) strategies in the Botswana workplace. The authors argue that HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention strategies in Botswana need a new approach. The research proposal hypothesized that IEC strategies need to take account…

  4. Anonymity Versus Privacy: Selective Information Sharing in Online Cancer Communities

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Ivar E; Beekers, Nienke

    2014-01-01

    Background Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients approach online information sharing instrumentally, weighing privacy costs against participation benefits when deciding whether to share certain information. Consequently, we argue that patients prefer sharing clinical information over daily life and identity information that potentially compromises anonymity. Furthermore, we explore whether patients’ prior experiences, age, health, and gender affect perceived privacy costs and thus willingness to share information. Objective The goal of the present study is to document patient preferences for sharing information within online health platforms. Methods A total of 115 cancer patients reported sharing intentions for 15 different types of information, demographics, health status, prior privacy experiences, expected community utility, and privacy concerns. Results Factor analysis on the 15 information types revealed 3 factors coinciding with 3 proposed information categories: clinical, daily life, and identity information. A within-subject ANOVA showed a strong preference for sharing clinical information compared to daily life and identity information (F 1,114=135.59, P=.001, η2=.93). Also, adverse online privacy experiences, age, and health status negatively affected information-sharing intentions. Female patients shared information less willingly. Conclusions Respondents’ information-sharing intentions depend on dispositional and situational factors. Patients share medical details more willingly than daily life or identity

  5. Targeting HIV services to male migrant workers in southern Africa would not reverse generalized HIV epidemics in their home communities: a mathematical modeling analysis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Daniel J.; Eckhoff, Philip A.; Bershteyn, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Migrant populations such as mine workers contributed to the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. We used a mathematical model to estimate the community-wide impact of targeting treatment and prevention to male migrants. Methods We augmented an individual-based network model, EMOD-HIV v0.8, to include an age-dependent propensity for males to migrate. Migrants were exposed to HIV outside their home community, but continued to participate in HIV transmission in the community during periodic visits. Results Migrant-targeted interventions would have been transformative in the 1980s to 1990s, but post-2015 impacts were more modest. When targetable migrants comprised 2% of adult males, workplace HIV prevention averted 3.5% of community-wide infections over 20 years. Targeted treatment averted 8.5% of all-cause deaths among migrants. When migrants comprised 10% of males, workplace prevention averted 16.2% of infections in the community, one-quarter of which were among migrants. Workplace prevention and treatment acted synergistically, averting 17.1% of community infections and 11.6% of deaths among migrants. These estimates do not include prevention of secondary spread of HIV or tuberculosis at the workplace. Conclusions Though cost-effective, targeting migrants cannot collapse generalized epidemics in their home communities. Such a strategy would only have been possible prior to the early 1990s. However, migrant-targeted interventions synergize with general-population expansion of HIV services. PMID:25733560

  6. Women and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... HIV? What should pregnant women know about HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  7. HIV-Related Risk Behaviors, Perceptions of Risk, HIV Testing, and Exposure to Prevention Messages and Methods among Urban American Indians and Alaska Natives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapidus, Jodi A.; Bertolli, Jeanne; McGowan, Karen; Sullivan, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe HIV risk behaviors, perceptions, testing, and prevention exposure among urban American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN). Interviewers administered a questionnaire to participants recruited through anonymous peer-referral sampling. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression were used to compare HIV…

  8. The anonymity paradox in patient engagement: reputation, risk and web-based public feedback.

    PubMed

    Speed, Ewen; Davison, Charlie; Gunnell, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) has long espoused patient and public engagement. Recent years have seen increasing use of internet-based methods of collecting feedback about patient experience and public and staff views about NHS services and priorities. Often hailed as a means of facilitating participative democratic patient engagement, these processes raise a number of complex issues. A key aspect of it is the opportunity for comment to be made anonymously. Our research reveals an anonymity paradox whereby patients clearly demonstrate a perception that anonymity is a prerequisite for effective use of these feedback processes, whereas professionals demonstrate a perception that patient anonymity is a barrier to effective use. The risks of anonymity are constructed very differently by patients and professionals. Patient concerns around anonymity were not motivated by a general concern about a loss of privacy, but more that a positive identification might compromise future care. For professionals, concerns were voiced more around risks of reputational damage for specific practitioners or practices (in that anyone could say anything) and also that this anonymous feedback was available publicly and that it might go against the medical opinion of the professional. These concerns pointed to important differences in perceptions of patient and professional vulnerability. In the qualitative analysis that follows the key finding was that while anonymity makes service users feel less vulnerable, it can have the opposite effect on managers and clinical staff. This raises important implications for the use and utility of internet-based methods of collecting patient feedback. PMID:26879526

  9. Survey Confidentiality vs. Anonymity: Young Men's Self-Reported Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roland S.; Ames, Genevieve M.

    2002-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to see if respondents providing identification would be as forthcoming regarding substance use as anonymous respondents. No statistically significant differences were found between 2 groups' self-reported substance use over the previous 12 months. Findings suggest the lack of anonymity does not necessarily impede the same…

  10. Toward Analysis of the Relations Among the Youth Counterculture, Telephone Hotlines, and Anonymity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baizerman, Michael

    1974-01-01

    During the 1960's, there emerged innovative human service programs for youth. Among the actual differences in these programs compared to their older, established human service agencies was (is) the prominent position of the social value of client anonymity. This anonymity is examined in an attempt to understand its role. (RC)

  11. Comparison of Anonymous versus Confidential Survey Procedures: Effects on Health Indicators in Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M.; Goldschmeding, Judith E. J.; de Wilde, Erik Jan

    2006-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires are frequently used in youth research, but doubt remains whether total anonymity affects the results. This study compared the responses of 704 mainly 16-17-year-old adolescents to self-report measures of various health indicators in 2 groups: anonymous and confidential collection. For most health indicators no…

  12. Anonymous Communication Policies for the Internet: Results and Recommendations of the AAAS Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Al; Frankel, Mark S.; Kling, Rob; Lee, Yaching

    1999-01-01

    Reports the results of a conference on the Internet and anonymous communication organized by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Discusses how anonymous communications can be shaped by the law, education, and public awareness, and highlights the importance of involving all affected interests in policy development.…

  13. What Do Adolescents Exposed to Alcoholic Anonymous Think about 12-Step Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John F.; Myers, Mark G.; Rodolico, John

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Referral to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is a common continuing care recommendation. Evidence suggests some youth benefit, yet, despite referrals, youth participation is low. Little is known about adolescents' experiences of AA/NA. Greater knowledge would inform and help tailor aftercare recommendations.…

  14. The Risk of a Halo Bias as a Reason to Keep Students Anonymous during Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Emmerton, Ashley J.; Schutte, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    Experts have advocated anonymous grading as a means of eliminating actual or perceived evaluator bias in subjective student assessment. The utility of anonymity in assessment rests on whether information derived from student identity can unduly influence evaluation. The halo effect provides a conceptual background for why a bias might occur. In…

  15. Preference for Anonymous Classroom Participation: Linking Student Characteristics and Reactions to Electronic Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Alyson; Hill, N. Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Electronic response systems (ERS) are a means to foster class participation by students who are reluctant to participate in class. In this study, we identify individual characteristics that relate to students' preference for anonymous classroom participation, and we also examine the extent to which preference for anonymity is related to their…

  16. Factors Associated with HIV Prevalence and HIV Testing in Sierra Leone: Findings from the 2008 Demographic Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Brima, Nataliya; Burns, Fiona; Fakoya, Ibidun; Kargbo, Brima; Conteh, Suleiman; Copas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background The Sierra Leone Demographic Health Survey 2008 found an HIV prevalence of 1.5%. This study investigates associations with HIV infection and HIV testing. Methods Households were selected using stratified multi-stage sampling. In all selected households women aged 15–49 were eligible. In every second household men aged 15–59 were also eligible. Participants were asked to consent for anonymous HIV testing. All participants interviewed and tested were analysed. Multiple logistic regression identified associations with HIV infection, undiagnosed infection and with ever having a voluntary HIV test among sexually active participants. Results Of 7495 invited 86% (6,475) agreed to an interview and HIV test. Among 96 HIV positive participants, 78% had never taken a voluntary HIV test so were unaware of their serostatus, and 86% were sexually active in the last 12 months among whom 96% did not use a condom at last intercourse. 11% of all participants had previously voluntarily tested. Among women who had tested, 60% did so in antenatal care. We found that those living in an urban area, and those previously married, were more likely to be HIV infected. Voluntary HIV testing was more common in those aged 25–44, living in an urban area, females, having secondary or higher education, having first sexual intercourse at age 17 years or older, and using condoms at last sex. Although 82% of men and 69% of women had heard of HIV, only 35% and 29% respectively had heard of antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions The HIV prevalence in Sierra Leone has been stable. HIV testing, however, is uncommon and most infected individuals are unaware of their serostatus. This could allow the epidemic to escalate as individuals with undiagnosed infection are unlikely to change their behaviour or access treatment. Improving knowledge and increasing testing need to remain central to HIV prevention interventions in Sierra Leone. PMID:26452051

  17. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (p<0.001). In the total sample, discrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  18. Statistical disclosure limitation of health data based on Pk-anonymity.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Eizen; Chida, Koji; Ikarashi, Dai; Hamada, Koki; Ishihara, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The Act for the Protection of Personal Information in Japan considers as personal information any quasi-identifier that may be used to obtain information that identifies individuals through comparisons with datasets. Studies using health records are not widely conducted because of the concern regarding the safety of anonymized health records. To increase the safety of such records, we used the Pk-anonymity method. In this method, attributes are probabilistically randomized and then reconstructions are performed on the basis of statistical information from perturbed data. Hence, it is expected to provide more precise statistics and more reliably preserve privacy than the traditional "k-anonymity" method. We anonymized health records, performed cross tabulation, and assessed the error rate using original data. This study shows that the Pk-anonymity method can be used to perform safety statistical disclosures with low error rates, even in small cases. PMID:22874372

  19. Attribute Utility Motivated k-anonymization of datasets to support the heterogeneous needs of biomedical researchers.

    PubMed

    Ye, Huimin; Chen, Elizabeth S

    2011-01-01

    In order to support the increasing need to share electronic health data for research purposes, various methods have been proposed for privacy preservation including k-anonymity. Many k-anonymity models provide the same level of anoymization regardless of practical need, which may decrease the utility of the dataset for a particular research study. In this study, we explore extensions to the k-anonymity algorithm that aim to satisfy the heterogeneous needs of different researchers while preserving privacy as well as utility of the dataset. The proposed algorithm, Attribute Utility Motivated k-anonymization (AUM), involves analyzing the characteristics of attributes and utilizing them to minimize information loss during the anonymization process. Through comparison with two existing algorithms, Mondrian and Incognito, preliminary results indicate that AUM may preserve more information from original datasets thus providing higher quality results with lower distortion. PMID:22195223

  20. Culture or anonymity? Differences in proposer behaviour in Korea and Germany.

    PubMed

    Horak, Sven

    2015-10-01

    This study explores the proposer behaviour in an ultimatum game (UG) frame under anonymous and non-anonymous conditions among a Korean and German subject pool (n = 590) in comparison. Whereas the anonymous condition is represented by the standard UG, the non-anonymous condition integrates an aggregate of the Korean cultural context variables university affiliation, regional origin and seniority. The latter, a classic Confucian context variable, is measured by age differentials. The former two are impactful components of so-called Yongo networks, a unique Korean informal institution identical to Chinese Guanxi ties. Yongo networks, yet underrepresented in research, are said to be a central context variable to explain Korean social ties and decision-making behaviour. We observe significant differences between the offer behaviours of Korean and German subjects when exposing selected cultural variables. We argue that the behavioural differences observed are in fact due to culture not anonymity. PMID:25612150

  1. HIV Awareness and Knowledge among Viewers of a Documentary Film about HIV among Racial- or Ethnic-Minority Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ebor, Megan; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline

    2015-08-01

    A documentary film on HIV was developed based on social cognitive theory and entertainment educational methods in an effort to increase awareness and encourage protective behavior change related to HIV among older adults. The documentary includes perspectives from racial- or ethnic-minority older adults who are living with HIV and those of health care providers, and was screened in several venues. Authors of this article conducted thematic content analysis of anonymous, written, open-ended responses from 341 film viewers (clinicians and laypeople) who described what they learned about HIV after viewing the film. Four key themes emerged from the analysis: (1) increased awareness about the epidemiology of HIV among older, minority groups and about sexuality among older people; (2) improved general HIV knowledge, including risk reduction strategies and details about HIV testing; (3) awareness of lack of sexual health education among health care providers, and that a call to action is needed; and (4) awareness that HIV reinfection can occur in certain circumstances with people who are already infected. Findings suggest that an educational documentary can be used to effectively increase awareness and knowledge about the impact of HIV among minority older adults, and may also encourage HIV prevention action steps by providers. PMID:26285361

  2. Social Media and HIV: A Systematic Review of Uses of Social Media in HIV Communication

    PubMed Central

    Grewe, Mary Elisabeth; Conserve, Donaldson F; Gliwa, Catherine; Roman Isler, Malika

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media, including mobile technologies and social networking sites, are being used increasingly as part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment efforts. As an important avenue for communication about HIV, social media use may continue to increase and become more widespread. Objective The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive systematic review of the current published literature on the design, users, benefits, and limitations of using social media to communicate about HIV prevention and treatment. Methods This review paper used a systematic approach to survey all literature published before February 2014 using 7 electronic databases and a manual search. The inclusion criteria were (1) primary focus on communication/interaction about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), (2) discusses the use of social media to facilitate communication, (3) communication on the social media platform is between individuals or a group of individuals rather than the use of preset, automated responses from a platform, (4) published before February 19, 2014, and (5) all study designs. Results The search identified 35 original research studies. Thirty studies had low or unclear risk of at least one of the bias items in the methodological quality assessment. Among the 8 social media platform types described, short message service text messaging was most commonly used. Platforms served multiple purposes including disseminating health information, conducting health promotion, sharing experiences, providing social support, and promoting medication adherence. Social media users were diverse in geographic location and race/ethnicity; studies commonly reported users aged 18-40 years and users with lower income. Although most studies did not specify whether use was anonymous, studies reported the importance of anonymity in social media use to communicate about HIV largely due to the stigma associated with HIV. The ability to share and

  3. Social media use and HIV transmission risk behavior among ethnically diverse HIV-positive gay men: results of an online study in three U.S. states.

    PubMed

    Hirshfield, Sabina; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2015-10-01

    Though Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk for HIV, few HIV risk reduction interventions that target HIV-positive MSM, and even fewer that use technology, have been designed to target these groups. Despite similar rates of social media and technology use across racial/ethnic groups, online engagement of minority MSM for HIV prevention efforts is low. Since minority MSM tend to have less representation in online HIV prevention studies, the goals of this online anonymous study of HIV-positive gay-identified men were to test the feasibility of conducting targeted recruitment by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, to assess technology and social media use, and to assess global HIV transmission risk. In 2011, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 463 members of an HIV-positive personals website. Emails were sent to a subset of HIV-positive male members who self-identified as gay. While 57 % were White, substantial proportions of participants were Black (20 %) or Hispanic (18 %). Median age was 46 (range 18-79). Men who reported using 3 or more websites or apps to meet sex partners were significantly more likely to report anal intercourse (AOR 4.43, p < .001) and condomless anal sex (CAS) (AOR 2.70, p < .05) in the past 3 months. The only predictor of CAS with HIV-negative or unknown status partners was being under age 30 (AOR 3.38, p < .01). This study helped to inform online targeted recruitment techniques, access to technology and social media use, and sexual risk among a diverse sample of HIV-positive gay men. Efficacy trials of technology-based HIV prevention interventions targeting high-risk minority HIV-positive MSM are warranted. PMID:26179596

  4. Bridging the Workplace and the Academy: Teaching Professional Genres through Classroom-Workplace Collaborations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakeslee, Ann M.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the effect of classroom-workplace collaborations on student learning. Explores how classroom-workplace collaborations help to teach professional genres. Examines how they replicate workplace activity and convey features of workplace genres and how they serve as transitional experiences for students. Examines students' reactions to the…

  5. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Workplace Safety and Health Topics Industries & Occupations Hazards & Exposures Diseases & ... Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH ...

  6. Workplace Safety and Health: Body Art

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Workplace Safety & Health Topics Body Art Get Vaccinated Prevent Needlestick ... Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH ...

  7. Innovation in Australian Workplaces: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The determinants of innovation were examined using data from 698 Australian workplaces. Results suggest that better employee-management communications are associated with more change and that workplaces with higher levels of training undergo more change. (Author/JOW)

  8. Asia: fighting HIV / AIDS makes business sense.

    PubMed

    1999-11-15

    Three Asian companies are investing in HIV/AIDS education and prevention schemes because they are starting to feel the effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on their workforces. A total of 17 companies from the region signed a document in the Fifth International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific committing to the fight against AIDS. The group said that effective workplace programs can prevent an increase in absenteeism, health care costs and labor turnover, a decrease in productivity, loss of experienced personnel and the need for increased resources to hire and retrain replacements. American International Assurance in Thailand accredits companies with effective HIV/AIDS campaigns in the workplace and gives them a 5-10% discount on premiums on group life insurance policies. At Freeport Mining in Indonesia, an HIV/AIDS campaign markedly improved condom usage rates and decreased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among workers. Meanwhile, India's Tata Tea Limited expanded its health services to include surveys, training, education, and counseling on HIV/AIDS and STDs. PMID:12295521

  9. iDASH: integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing

    PubMed Central

    Bafna, Vineet; Boxwala, Aziz A; Chapman, Brian E; Chapman, Wendy W; Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Day, Michele E; Farcas, Claudiu; Heintzman, Nathaniel D; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Kim, Hyeoneui; Kim, Jihoon; Matheny, Michael E; Resnic, Frederic S; Vinterbo, Staal A

    2011-01-01

    iDASH (integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing) is the newest National Center for Biomedical Computing funded by the NIH. It focuses on algorithms and tools for sharing data in a privacy-preserving manner. Foundational privacy technology research performed within iDASH is coupled with innovative engineering for collaborative tool development and data-sharing capabilities in a private Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-certified cloud. Driving Biological Projects, which span different biological levels (from molecules to individuals to populations) and focus on various health conditions, help guide research and development within this Center. Furthermore, training and dissemination efforts connect the Center with its stakeholders and educate data owners and data consumers on how to share and use clinical and biological data. Through these various mechanisms, iDASH implements its goal of providing biomedical and behavioral researchers with access to data, software, and a high-performance computing environment, thus enabling them to generate and test new hypotheses. PMID:22081224

  10. iDASH: integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing.

    PubMed

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Bafna, Vineet; Boxwala, Aziz A; Chapman, Brian E; Chapman, Wendy W; Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Day, Michele E; Farcas, Claudiu; Heintzman, Nathaniel D; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Kim, Hyeoneui; Kim, Jihoon; Matheny, Michael E; Resnic, Frederic S; Vinterbo, Staal A

    2012-01-01

    iDASH (integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing) is the newest National Center for Biomedical Computing funded by the NIH. It focuses on algorithms and tools for sharing data in a privacy-preserving manner. Foundational privacy technology research performed within iDASH is coupled with innovative engineering for collaborative tool development and data-sharing capabilities in a private Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-certified cloud. Driving Biological Projects, which span different biological levels (from molecules to individuals to populations) and focus on various health conditions, help guide research and development within this Center. Furthermore, training and dissemination efforts connect the Center with its stakeholders and educate data owners and data consumers on how to share and use clinical and biological data. Through these various mechanisms, iDASH implements its goal of providing biomedical and behavioral researchers with access to data, software, and a high-performance computing environment, thus enabling them to generate and test new hypotheses. PMID:22081224

  11. Maxwell and creation: Acceptance, criticism, and his anonymous publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Philip L.

    2007-08-01

    Although James Clerk Maxwell's religious views and discussions on atoms having the properties of ``manufactured articles'' have been discussed, some aspects of the responses by his contemporaries to his remarks on creation have been neglected. Various responses quoted here include a book from 1878 by ``Physicus'' (George John Romanes) attributing ``arrogance'' to Maxwell for his inferences. Relevant aspects of the evolution of the perspective of Romanes are noted. A response by B. F. Westcott indicated that Maxwell was the author of a related anonymous publication concerned with what eventually became known as the heat death of the universe. In his teaching to theology students, Westcott, a friend of Maxwell, emphasized Maxwell's reasoning based on the dissipation of energy. There are similarities between Maxwell's perspective on creation and Biblical commentaries by fellow Eranus Club members Westcott and J. B. Lightfoot. Interest in Maxwell's remarks extended into the twentieth century. The principal Baptist chapel attended by Maxwell and his wife when in London in the 1860s is identified and some relevant attributes of the chapel and of its pastor are described.

  12. Social network variables in alcoholics anonymous: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Groh, D R; Jason, L A; Keys, C B

    2008-03-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most commonly used program for substance abuse recovery and one of the few models to demonstrate positive abstinence outcomes. Although little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms that make this program effective, one frequently cited aspect is social support. In order to gain insight into the processes at work in AA, this paper reviewed 24 papers examining the relationship between AA and social network variables. Various types of social support were included in the review such as structural support, functional support, general support, alcohol-specific support, and recovery helping. Overall, this review found that AA involvement is related to a variety of positive qualitative and quantitative changes in social support networks. Although AA had the greatest impact on friend networks, it had less influence on networks consisting of family members or others. In addition, support from others in AA was found to be of great value to recovery, and individuals with harmful social networks supportive of drinking actually benefited the most from AA involvement. Furthermore, social support variables consistently mediated AA's impact on abstinence, suggesting that social support is a mechanism in the effectiveness of AA in promoting a sober lifestyle. Recommendations are made for future research and clinical practice. PMID:17719158

  13. Summarized data to achieve population-wide anonymized wellness measures.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Steele, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The growth in smartphone market share has seen the increasing emergence of individuals collecting quantitative wellness data. Beyond the potential health benefits for the individual in regards to managing their own health, the data is highly related to preventative and risk factors for a number of lifestyle related diseases. This data has often been a component of public health data collection and epidemiological studies due to its large impact on the health system with chronic and lifestyle diseases increasingly being a major burden for the health service. However, collection of this kind of information from large segments of the community in a usable fashion has not been specifically explored in previous work. In this paper we discuss some of the technologies that increase the ease and capability of gathering quantitative wellness data via smartphones, how specific and detailed this data needs to be for public health use and the challenges of such anonymized data collection for public health. Additionally, we propose a conceptual architecture that includes the necessary components to support this approach to data collection. PMID:23366349

  14. Sister-sister incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    PubMed

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Griffee, Karen; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Beard, Keith W; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using a computer-assisted self-interview. Thirty-one participants were victims of sister-sister incest, 40 were victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were victims of father-daughter incest, 8 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult female (including one mother), and 232 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult male other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The rest (1,203) served as controls. The victims of sister-sister incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures as adults. Victims of sister-sister incest were more depressed and more likely than controls to be distant from the perpetrator-sister and to have traded sex for money, experienced an unplanned pregnancy, engaged in four different types of masturbation, and engaged in 13 different same-sex behaviors. Our findings were consistent with other reports of early eroticization and persistent hypereroticization of incest victims. PMID:23924178

  15. Stimulant Use and HIV Risk Behavior: The Influence of Peer Support Group Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Thomas; Chandra, Gopika; Goldstein, Jerome

    2006-01-01

    This study examines 12-step groups for recovery from methamphetamine and cocaine use that are attended by men having sex with men and the impact of attendance on HIV risk behavior. Participants in Crystal Meth Anonymous and other 12-step groups were interviewed up to 3 months since their last substance use. Sixty-two initial interviews, and…

  16. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing among Rural Migrants in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Na; Zhang, Jinling; Yao, Jinjian; Tian, Xiuhong; Zhao, Genming; Jiang, Qingwu; Detels, Roger

    2009-01-01

    A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) among rural migrants was conducted in Shanghai, China. An anonymous questionnaire was administered face-to-face. Among 2,690 participants, 78% reported having had lifetime sexual intercourse with 41.3% of singles reporting sexual intercourse, 9.2%…

  17. AIB-OR: improving onion routing circuit construction using anonymous identity-based cryptosystems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changji; Shi, Dongyuan; Xu, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet applications has made communication anonymity an increasingly important or even indispensable security requirement. Onion routing has been employed as an infrastructure for anonymous communication over a public network, which provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis. However, existing onion routing protocols usually exhibit poor performance due to repeated encryption operations. In this paper, we first present an improved anonymous multi-receiver identity-based encryption (AMRIBE) scheme, and an improved identity-based one-way anonymous key agreement (IBOWAKE) protocol. We then propose an efficient onion routing protocol named AIB-OR that provides provable security and strong anonymity. Our main approach is to use our improved AMRIBE scheme and improved IBOWAKE protocol in onion routing circuit construction. Compared with other onion routing protocols, AIB-OR provides high efficiency, scalability, strong anonymity and fault tolerance. Performance measurements from a prototype implementation show that our proposed AIB-OR can achieve high bandwidths and low latencies when deployed over the Internet. PMID:25815879

  18. Anonymous Password-Authenticated Key Exchange: New Construction and Its Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    An anonymous password-authenticated key exchange (anonymous PAKE) protocol is designed to provide both password-only authentication and user anonymity against a semi-honest server, who follows the protocol honestly. Very recently, Yang and Zhang [25] have proposed a new anonymous PAKE (NAPAKE) protocol that is claimed efficient compared to the previous constructions. In this paper, we propose a very-efficient anonymous PAKE (called, VEAP) protocol that provides the most efficiency among their kinds in terms of computation and communication costs. The VEAP protocol guarantees semantic security of session keys in the random oracle model under the chosen target CDH problem, and unconditional user anonymity against a semi-honest server. If the pre-computation is allowed, both the user and the server are required to compute only one modular exponentiation, respectively. Surprisingly, this is the same computation cost of the well-known Diffie-Hellman protocol that does not provide authentication at all. In addition, we extend the VEAP protocol in two ways: the first is designed to reduce the communication costs of the VEAP protocol and the second shows that stripping off anonymity parts from the VEAP protocol results in a new PAKE protocol.

  19. Anonymous birth law saves babies-optimization, sustainability and public awareness.

    PubMed

    Grylli, Chryssa; Brockington, Ian; Fiala, Christian; Huscsava, Mercedes; Waldhoer, Thomas; Klier, Claudia M

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the impact of Austria's anonymous birth law from the time relevant statistical records are available and to evaluate the use of hatches versus anonymous hospital delivery. This study is a complete census of police-reported neonaticides (1975-2012) as well as anonymous births including baby hatches in Austria during 2002-2012. The time trends of neonaticide rates, anonymous births and baby hatches were analysed by means of Poisson and logistic regression model. Predicted and observed rates were derived and compared using a Bayesian Poisson regression model. Predicted numbers of neonaticides for the period of the active awareness campaign, 2002-2004, were more than three times larger than the observed number (p = 0.0067). Of the 365 women who benefitted from this legislation, only 11.5 % chose to put their babies in a baby hatch. Since the law was introduced, a significant decreasing tendency of numbers of anonymous births (p = 047) was observed, while there was significant increase of neonaticide rates (p = 0.0001). The implementation of the anonymous delivery law is associated with a decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides. The subsequent significantly decreasing numbers of anonymous births with an accompanying increase of neonaticides represents additional evidence for the effectiveness of the measure. PMID:26267063

  20. AIB-OR: Improving Onion Routing Circuit Construction Using Anonymous Identity-Based Cryptosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changji; Shi, Dongyuan; Xu, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet applications has made communication anonymity an increasingly important or even indispensable security requirement. Onion routing has been employed as an infrastructure for anonymous communication over a public network, which provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis. However, existing onion routing protocols usually exhibit poor performance due to repeated encryption operations. In this paper, we first present an improved anonymous multi-receiver identity-based encryption (AMRIBE) scheme, and an improved identity-based one-way anonymous key agreement (IBOWAKE) protocol. We then propose an efficient onion routing protocol named AIB-OR that provides provable security and strong anonymity. Our main approach is to use our improved AMRIBE scheme and improved IBOWAKE protocol in onion routing circuit construction. Compared with other onion routing protocols, AIB-OR provides high efficiency, scalability, strong anonymity and fault tolerance. Performance measurements from a prototype implementation show that our proposed AIB-OR can achieve high bandwidths and low latencies when deployed over the Internet. PMID:25815879

  1. Key Issues for Workplace Literacy Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Larry; And Others

    The research on workplace literacy programs during the past two decades has revealed a great deal about the requisites for successful workplace literacy programs. The following have been identified as characteristics of effective workplace literacy programs: active involvement by all project partners; employee involvement in the early stages of…

  2. Firefighter Workplace Learning: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite there being a significant amount of research investigating workplace learning, research exploring firefighter workplace learning is almost nonexistent. The purpose of this qualitative multi-case study was to explore how firefighters conceptualize, report, and practice workplace learning. The researcher also investigated how firefighters…

  3. Gratitude in Workplace Research: A Rossian Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Workplace learning is complex in form. It is explorative, social and creative enquiry, and because it is carried out in the socio-political domain of the workplace, it is potentially exploitative of all who contribute. This paper suggests that the workplace researcher might conceptualise the contributions of participants as benefits and/or gifts,…

  4. The Alert Collector. Workplace Violence: Information Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Janice S., Ed.; Stankus, Tony, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses workplace violence with a focus on disgruntled employees and library violence; reviews recent reports and recommended training. Highlights include workplace violence in general and violence in libraries. An annotated bibliography on workplace violence includes print indexes; electronic resources; journals and newsletters; and videotapes.…

  5. Combatting Racism in the Workplace. Readings Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Barb; Novogrodsky, Charles

    Readings and exercises for use with a course for Canadian workers on racism and the workplace are included in this book. The materials are organized to reflect the themes of the ten sessions of the course: (1) racism hurts workers; (2) analysing racial situations in the workplace; (3) the employer connection to racism in the workplace; (4)…

  6. Perspectives into Learning at the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynjala, Paivi

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a thematic review of the recent research on workplace learning. It is divided into two main sections. The first section asks what we know about learning at work, and states four propositions: (1) the nature of workplace learning is both different from and similar to school learning; (2) learning in the workplace can be…

  7. Workplace Learning of High Performance Sports Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rynne, Steven B.; Mallett, Clifford J.; Tinning, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Australian coaching workplace (to be referred to as the State Institute of Sport; SIS) under consideration in this study employs significant numbers of full-time performance sport coaches and can be accurately characterized as a genuine workplace. Through a consideration of the interaction between what the workplace (SIS) affords the…

  8. Workplace Learning in Malaysia: The Learner's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Idris, Khairuddin

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a scenario of workplace learning as practiced in Malaysia. Based on survey research, the article describes learner profiles, learning provision and pattern. The analysis shows that Malaysians participate in formal workplace learning as part of their employment activities. Workplace learning in Malaysia is contextual, promoted by…

  9. Mobbing: Workplace Violence in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, Jeanmarie; McDermott, J. Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Incidents of workplace violence are becoming all too common at colleges and universities. Generally, one thinks of shootings and assaults in relation to campus workplace violence. However, mobbing and bullying of faculty by other faculty are types of workplace violence that, while very common, are rarely discussed or reported. This article raises…

  10. Workplace Bullying: Curing the Cancer of the American Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glendinning, Peter M.

    2001-01-01

    A literature review concluded that supervisor/supervisee relationships are critical to job satisfaction; workplace bullying in the form of a management style of aggressive and intimidating behaviors is widespread; certain types of organizations foster bullying; and bullying has high costs for the targeted employee and the organization. (Contains…

  11. Workplace Participatory Practices: Conceptualising Workplaces as Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Arguing against a concept of learning as only a formal process occurring in explicitly educational settings like schools, the paper proposes a conception of the workplace as a learning environment focusing on the interaction between the affordances and constraints of the social setting, on the one hand, and the agency and biography of the…

  12. HIV risks and testing behavior among Asians and Pacific Islanders: results of the HIV Testing Survey, 2002-2003.

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, Erin M.; Freedman, Mark S.; Buskin, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The HIV Testing Survey (HITS) was developed to examine HIV testing and risk behavior in individuals at risk for HIV infection. The first Seattle HITS was conducted in 2000 (HITS-2000); HITS was conducted in Seattle again in 2002-2003 among Asians and Pacific Islanders (HITS-API). METHODS: Both HITS projects, HITS-API and HITS-2000, included anonymously targeted participants from at-risk populations. Data from the surveys were compared to see whether there were differences in HIV testing behavior between API and a general at-risk population in the Seattle area. Data were analyzed for 165 participants in HITS-API and 270 in HITS-2000. RESULTS: More API (90%) perceived themselves at some HIV risk relative to HITS-2000 participants (71%, chi2 p<0.05). In HITS-API and HITS-2000, participants reported significant HIV risks--no or inconsistent condom use with nonprimary partners or sharing injection equipment. Only 47% of HITS-API participants tested in the past year compared with 64% of HITS-2000. There was no association between HIV testing and risks in HITS-API. CONCLUSIONS: Based on self-report from HITS-API, the overall perceived risk for HIV infection was high, many engaged in high-risk behaviors, and HIV testing was suboptimal. PMID:16080452

  13. Development and Validation of the Alcoholics Anonymous Intention Measure * (AAIM)

    PubMed Central

    Zemore, Sarah E.; Kaskutas, Lee Ann

    2009-01-01

    Background Drop-out from 12-step groups is notoriously high, yet the field lacks strong models and scales for addressing this problem. We aim to determine whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) can be applied to 12-step involvement, and to develop and validate a scale of 12-step readiness based on that theory: the Alcoholics Anonymous Intention Measure (AAIM). Method Data were from a longitudinal trial of a manual-guided 12-step facilitation intervention called Making AA Easier (MAAEZ) involving 2 treatment programs in California (N=508). Participants completed surveys at baseline, 7 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Surveys included the preliminary AAIM, a 12-step involvement measure, other readiness measures, and substance use outcomes. Results The final, 17-item AAIM measured attitudes (5-item α's=.75-.83), subjective norms (4-item α's=.56-.81), perceived control (5 item α's=.78-.85), and intentions (3-item α's=.80-.95) regarding attendance at 12-step groups. Components were correlated with each other and other readiness measures as expected, supporting the AAIM's validity. Scale components predicted 31% of the variance in Intention to attend 12-step groups at 6 months and 41% of the variance in 12-step involvement at 12 months. Social factors were among the strongest predictors of 12-step involvement. Results did not support the expectancy-value formulation of the TPB, as unweighted (vs. weighted) belief items performed optimally. Conclusions Results generally support the TPB as a model of 12-step involvement and suggest specific targets for 12-step facilitation interventions within attitude, norm, and control components. Findings also support the AAIM as a tool for identifying drop-out risks and tailoring individual interventions. PMID:19581057

  14. Seeking Insights About Cycling Mood Disorders via Anonymized Search Logs

    PubMed Central

    White, Ryen W; Horvitz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background Mood disorders affect a significant portion of the general population. Cycling mood disorders are characterized by intermittent episodes (or events) of the disease. Objective Using anonymized Web search logs, we identify a population of people with significant interest in mood stabilizing drugs (MSD) and seek evidence of mood swings in this population. Methods We extracted queries to the Microsoft Bing search engine made by 20,046 Web searchers over six months, separately explored searcher demographics using data from a large external panel of users, and sought supporting information from people with mood disorders via a survey. We analyzed changes in information needs over time relative to searches on MSD. Results Queries for MSD focused on side effects and their relation to the disease. We found evidence of significant changes in search behavior and interests coinciding with days that MSD queries are made. These include large increases (>100%) in the access of nutrition information, commercial information, and adult materials. A survey of patients diagnosed with mood disorders provided evidence that repeated queries on MSD may come with exacerbations of mood disorder. A classifier predicting the occurrence of such queries one day before they are observed obtains strong performance (AUC=0.78). Conclusions Observed patterns in search behavior align with known behaviors and those highlighted by survey respondents. These observations suggest that searchers showing intensive interest in MSD may be patients who have been prescribed these drugs. Given behavioral dynamics, we surmise that the days on which MSD queries are made may coincide with commencement of mania or depression. Although we do not have data on mood changes and whether users have been diagnosed with bipolar illness, we see evidence of cycling in people who show interest in MSD and further show that we can predict impending shifts in behavior and interest. PMID:24568936

  15. New Jersey’s HIV Exposure Law and the HIV-Related Attitudes, Beliefs, and Sexual and Seropositive Status Disclosure Behaviors of Persons Living With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Glasman, Laura R.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; DiFranceisco, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We explored associations between awareness of New Jersey’s HIV exposure law and the HIV-related attitudes, beliefs, and sexual and seropositive status disclosure behaviors of HIV-positive persons. Methods. A statewide convenience sample (n = 479) completed anonymous written surveys during 2010. We recruited participants through networks of community-based organizations in the state’s 9 health sectors. The survey assessed participants' awareness of New Jersey's HIV exposure law, their sexual and serostatus disclosure behavior in the past year, and their HIV-related attitudes and beliefs. We compared responses of participants who were and were not aware of the law through univariate analyses. Results. Fifty-one percent of participants knew about the HIV exposure law. This awareness was not associated with increased sexual abstinence, condom use with most recent partner, or seropositive status disclosure. Contrary to hypotheses, persons who were unaware of the law experienced greater stigma and were less comfortable with positive serostatus disclosure. Conclusions. Criminializing nondisclosure of HIV serostatus does not reduce sexual risk behavior. Although the laws do not appear to increase stigma, they are also not likely to reduce HIV transmission. PMID:22994175

  16. Workshop III: Improving the Workplace Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gledhill, Igle; Butcher, Gillian

    2015-12-01

    Research has shown that companies with more diversity and a better workplace perform better. So what makes a good workplace in physics, where women and men can work to their full potential? In the Improving the Workplace Environment workshop of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, participants heard about initiatives taking place in Canada, the UK, Japan, and India to improve the workplace environment and shared good practices from around the world. Some of the less tangible aspects of the workplace environment, such as unconscious bias and accumulation of advantage and disadvantage, were explored.

  17. Basic Skills for the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.; And Others

    This book is a practitioner's guide to developing literacy training programs for workers. Titles of the 28 chapters and epilogue are as follows: "Understanding the History and Definitions of Workplace Literacy" (Askov, Aderman); "Understanding Literacy in the Canadian Business Context: Conference Board of Canada Study" (Hart); "Understanding Basic…

  18. Workplace Literacy Tutor Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janney-Pace, Priscilla; Fox, Laurie

    This manual contains a workshop curriculum that offers background information and activities rooted in the whole language approach. It is designed to address needs of employees with skill levels below fifth grade. Section I is an introduction to the changing workplace environment. Sections II-V cover problem solving, communication (speaking…

  19. Evaluating Workplace English Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekkens, Kristin; Winke, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Companies across the United States provide workplace English classes to non-native-English-speaking employees to increase productivity, retention, and on-the-job safety. Institutions that financially support the programs often require evidence of learning through standardized tests as a prerequisite for continued funding. However, the tests…

  20. Health & Hygiene in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snapp, Mary

    Developed by educators from the Emily Griffith Opportunity School with input from employees--both workplace literacy students and nonstudents--this guide contains activities for teaching health and hygiene on the job. Flowing from a perspective of respecting cultural diversity and guided by a common thread of good work practices, the activities…

  1. Workplace Education: Twenty State Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, James T.

    2007-01-01

    From 1989 until 1998 the U.S. Department of Education administered the National Workplace Literacy Demonstration Program. During that period, over $130 million supported some 300 projects where adult education programs partnered with thousands of businesses, agencies, and organizations to provide work-based skills to employees. While only seven…

  2. Cognitive Skills in Workplace Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiter, Alison

    This philosophical and empirical investigation explored whether cognitive skills can be acquired in a workplace setting. A preliminary investigation looked at views of knowledge in liberal humanism where knowledge is a matter for individuals with transcendent minds with objects of knowledge being matters for which there is clear perceptual…

  3. Flipped Learning in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederveld, Allison; Berge, Zane L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to serve as a summary of resources on flipped learning for workplace learning professionals. A recent buzzword in the training world is "flipped". Flipped learning and the flipped classroom are hot topics that have emerged in K-12 education, made their way to the university and are now being noticed…

  4. Expansive Learning across Workplace Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerosuo, Hannele; Toiviainen, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses a collaborative effort of learning across workplace boundaries in a regional learning network of South Savo, Finland. The focus is on the "Forum of In-house Development" in the network. Our objective is to highlight a dialectical approach to boundaries that draws from the ideas of cultural-historical activity theory. Expansive…

  5. Adult Development and the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, James M.

    Little attention has been given to how adults develop through their lifetimes and what roles their workplace environments play in that development. Research and theory regarding adult psychosocial development have confirmed the developmental life-cycle phases of adulthood. These are: leaving the family (ages 16-22), getting into the adult world…

  6. Adult Learning in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning in the workplace. The first paper, "Measuring Critical Thinking: Is There a Single Instrument?" (Patricia K. Leitsch, Carol A. Lentz), examines two issues: the relationship between tests measuring critical thinking and those measuring readiness for self-directed learning and the…

  7. Self-Directed Workplace Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on self-directed workplace learning. "Self-Directed Work Teams: Implementation and Performance" (Marcel van der Klink, Hilde ter Horst) discusses the results of a study examining the implementation and effects of self-directed work teams in a land register office and the role of the department's…

  8. Making Spaces: Teacher Workplace Topologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Studies of the workplace of teachers commonly focus on the spaces of the classroom, staffroom and school as pre-given and bounded entities. This article explores the possibilities of moving beyond such topographies of enclosure, towards seeing space(-time) as recursively constructed with social relations and so made and remade. Boundaries are then…

  9. Anger Management in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazak, Daniel L.

    This presentation offered counselors and therapists an opportunity to comment on the invisible aspects of anger in the workplace. An argument is made that anxiety is a foundational construct that supports rage, violence, and anger. An audience of 35 participants were asked to describe the one situation that best illustrated the most anger observed…

  10. Workplace Training at SBS Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Lynette

    2001-01-01

    Notes that at Australia's Special Broadcasting Services Radio, workplace training is an essential requirement for on-air staff but a degree in journalism or communications is an enormous advantage. Describes several in-house accredited competency-based modules in journalism and broadcasting. (RS)

  11. Epistemological Agency in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report and discuss research that sought to explore how the individually purposeful nature of new employee workplace learning might be understood through its conception as epistemological agency, that is, the personally mediated construction of knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: Using a sociocultural…

  12. Workplace Education: The Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.

    The 23 chapters of this book are as follows: "A Framework for Developing Partnerships" (Wendy M. Doughty); "Partnership Building in Nova Scotia" (Marjorie Davison, Paul Temple); "What Makes a Successful Workplace Education Partnership?" (Rob Despins et al.); "Building Linkages in Large Organizations: The Syncrude Canada Ltd. Experience" (Lloyd…

  13. Diversity in the Workplace. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Three papers comprise this symposium on diversity in the workplace. "Factors That Assist and Barriers That Hinder the Success of Diversity Initiatives in Multinational Corporations" (Rose Mary Wentling) reports that factors that assisted in the success were classified under diversity department, human, and work environment; barriers were those of…

  14. Foreign Language in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Richard D., Ed.; Moore, Sarah Jane, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Articles in this theme issue of the journal, devoted to the subject of languages in the workplace, include: "Language Use in International Research" (Eugene Garfield, Alfred Welljams-Dorof); "The Foreign Language Needs of U.S.-Based Corporations" (Carol S. Fixman); "Foreign Language Use Among International Business Graduates" (Richard D. Lambert);…

  15. Listening Skills in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grognet, Allene; Van Duzer, Carol

    This article examines the listening process and factors affecting listening. It also suggests general guidelines for teaching and assessing listening and gives examples of activities for practicing and developing listening skills for the workplace. Listening is a demanding process that involves the listener, speaker, message content, and…

  16. Computation. Workplace Education Program Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jennifer; Sullivan, Mark

    The BUILD Program (Businesses United to Increase Literacy Development) was conducted from June 1991 through December 1992 as a cooperative workplace literacy program joining Arapahoe Community College and four companies in Littleton, Colorado. This document consists of two modules for the mathematics (computation) classes of the program. The first…

  17. Workplace Violence in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Edward D.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses workplace violence prevention, beginning by defining violence, why people become violent, and the cycle of violence. Then discusses steps in prevention, including pre-incident planning, an incident management team, threat management, assessment, post-incident response, and training. (EV)

  18. Workplace Testing: Who's Testing Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Eric Rolfe

    1989-01-01

    A survey conducted by the American Management Association on workplace-testing policies included questions about drug testing, polygraphs, and testing for the human immunodeficiency virus. The survey found that testing increased from 21 percent in 1986 to 37 percent in 1987 and 48 percent in the 1988 survey. (JOW)

  19. Patient Relations and Workplace Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Career Resources Development Center, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    The workbook contains lessons and exercises in patient relations and workplace communication in a medical services office, particularly for interactions involving one or more non-native speaker of English. Seven units address these topics: (1) greetings and basic assistance, greeting established patients, and measuring height and weight and taking…

  20. Workplace Readiness for Communicating Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Clive

    1996-01-01

    Proposes a model for communicating change about diversity using a workplace-readiness approach. Discusses ways organizational change agents can assess the company's current interpersonal and social dynamics, use appropriate influence strategies, and create effective messages that will appeal to employees and help to achieve the desired acceptance…

  1. Information Literacy in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Julie N.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the need for information literacy in the workplace in the face of information overload and problems related to end user information skills. Explains how to improve information literacy by assessing the organization's infrastructure, including available information technologies and information processes; considering demographics; and…

  2. Results Orientated Workplace Literacy Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Virginia, Comp.

    Cuyahoga Community College's (CCC) Unified Technologies Center (UTC) collaborated with three Cleveland area manufacturing companies in a workplace literacy project. The project provided job-related mathematics and communications programs for 302 employees who needed basic skills upgrading to improve their job performance. The project…

  3. Canadian Accountants: Examining Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Elizabeth; Bagg, Robert; Doyle, Wendy; Young, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine workplace learning strategies, learning facilitators and learning barriers of public accountants in Canada across three professional levels--trainees, managers, and partners. Design/methodology/approach: Volunteer participants from public accounting firms in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick completed a demographic…

  4. Internet Gambling in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to overview the issues, concerns and challenges relating to gambling--and more specifically internet gambling--in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Using psychological literature, this paper outlines a number of important and inter-related areas including brief overviews of gambling and problem gambling,…

  5. Get Tested for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for HIV Browse Sections The Basics Overview What Is HIV? ... 1 of 7 sections The Basics: What Is HIV? What is HIV? HIV stands for human immunodeficiency ...

  6. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  7. Understanding Patients’ Perspectives on Opt-Out, Incentivized, and Mandatory HIV Testing

    PubMed Central

    Noland, Carey M; Vaughn, Nicole A; Sun, Sirena; Schlecht, Hans P

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, widespread HIV testing is the best preventive action against further spread of the HIV epidemic. However, over 40% of the U.S. population has never been tested for HIV and 25% of those with HIV have never been tested. To increase testing rates, in 2006 the CDC advised healthcare settings to conduct testing on an opt-out basis. Methods Qualitative, semi-structured interviews with ten seropositive patients and ten seronegative were conducted to address the lack of studies investigating patients’ acceptance of and attitude towards this and more novel testing models, e.g. incentivized or anonymous mandatory testing. Participants were asked about their HIV testing history and attitudes towards opt-out, incentivized, and mandatory anonymous HIV testing. Results Major themes were identified using grounded theory data analysis. All participants were receptive to opt-out testing, and saw the removal of separate written consent as beneficial as long as patients were given the opportunity to consent in some form. Conclusion Ultimately, both mandatory and opt-out testing were equally indicated by participants as being the most effective testing model at increasing testing rates. A firm understanding of patients’ perspectives allows for development of effective HIV testing initiatives that are patient-sensitive and can substantially reduce HIV infection rates. PMID:26609294

  8. Workplace bullying: an emergent issue.

    PubMed

    Essen, S Donovan; Esquivel, Cynthia; Jha, Pankaj

    2014-09-01

    All companies, including dentists, rely on their staff to represent their firms in the most positive and effective manner. Today's managers face a multitude of issues, and as such, they must walk a fine line of fostering a productive, harmonious and safe working environment for their employees. Over the last several decades it is apparent that on the- job sexual harassment is no longer the leading issue of employee complaints. Rather, the organization issue which was investigated is workplace bullying, also commonly referred to as employee harassment. Risk management is no longer limited to avoiding malpractice issues but also preventing litigation created by poor organizational behavior. The primary purpose of this paper is to explore the background of workplace bullying and how it affects today's managers and their employees, customers and suppliers. In other words, the scope of this paper will feature research on past studies, results and conclusions. Since workplace bullying affects all levels of a corporation, it must be stated that the concern and focus of this paper is for today's manager to understand the background and history of workplace bullying, and what they can do to foster a safe working environment and prevent the bully from creating mental and physical harm to their employees. This paper details the history of workplace bullying and how management, employees and suppliers deal with and address the issue. Lastly, this treatise looks at risk management from a manger/dentist's perspective, the assessment/conclusion summarizes the implications for managers regarding how they must handle the issue or risk harm to the employee and/or serious legal ramifications. PMID:25284567

  9. Security analysis and improvement of an anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngsook; Paik, Juryon

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.'s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1) it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2) it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3) it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.'s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme. PMID:25302330

  10. The relationship between young adults' beliefs about anonymity and subsequent cyber aggression.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2013-12-01

    Anonymity is considered a key motivator for cyber aggression, but few investigations have focused on the connection between anonymity and the subsequent engagement in aggression through the cyber context. The present longitudinal study utilized structural equation modeling to reveal indirect associations between two types of anonymity (i.e., punishment by authority figures and retaliation from the target) and later cyber aggression among 130 young adults. These relationships were examined through the influence of beliefs about not getting caught and not believing in the permanency of online content. Findings indicated that both forms of anonymity were related to cyber aggression 6 months later through two explanatory mechanisms (i.e., confidence with not getting caught and believing online content is not permanent), after controlling for gender and cyber aggression at Time 1. The implications of these findings are discussed, and an appeal for additional research investigating cyber aggression among young adults is given. PMID:23849002

  11. Security Analysis and Improvement of an Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Roaming Services

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngsook; Paik, Juryon

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.'s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1) it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2) it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3) it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.'s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme. PMID:25302330

  12. A Secure Construction for Threshold Anonymous Password-Authenticated Key Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    At Indocrypt 2005, Viet et al., [21] have proposed an anonymous password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE) protocol and its threshold construction both of which are designed for client's password-based authentication and anonymity against a passive server, who does not deviate the protocol. In this paper, we first point out that their threshold construction is completely insecure against off-line dictionary attacks. For the threshold t > 1, we propose a secure threshold anonymous PAKE (for short, TAP) protocol with the number of clients n upper-bounded, such that n\\leq 2 \\sqrt{N-1} -1, where N is a dictionary size of passwords. We rigorously prove that the TAP protocol has semantic security of session keys in the random oracle model by showing the reduction to the computational Diffie-Hellman problem. In addition, the TAP protocol provides unconditional anonymity against a passive server. For the threshold t=1, we propose an efficient anonymous PAKE protocol that significantly improves efficiency in terms of computation costs and communication bandwidth compared to the original (not threshold) anonymous PAKE protocol [21].

  13. Crack, crack house sex, and HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Inciardi, J A

    1995-06-01

    Limited attention has been focused on HIV risk behaviors of crack smokers and their sex partners, yet there is evidence that the crack house and the crack-using life-style may be playing significant roles in the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. The purposes of this research were to study the attributes and patterns of "sex for crack" exchanges, particularly those that occurred in crack houses, and to assess their potential impact on the spread of HIV. Structured interviews were conducted with 17 men and 35 women in Miami, Florida, who were regular users of crack and who had exchanged sex for crack (or for money to buy crack) during the past 30 days. In addition, participant observation was conducted in 8 Miami crack houses. Interview and observational data suggest that individuals who exchange sex for crack do so with considerable frequency, and through a variety of sexual activities. Systematic data indicated that almost a third of the men and 89% of the women had had 100 or more sex partners during the 30-day period prior to study recruitment. Not only were sexual activities anonymous, extremely frequent, varied, uninhibited (often undertaken in public areas of crack houses), and with multiple partners but, in addition, condoms were not used during the majority of contacts. Of the 37 subjects who were tested for HIV and received their test results 31% of the men and 21% of the women were HIV seropositive. PMID:7611845

  14. Size matters: How population size influences genotype–phenotype association studies in anonymized data

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Joshua C.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Roden, Dan M.; Malin, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Electronic medical records (EMRs) data is increasingly incorporated into genome-phenome association studies. Investigators hope to share data, but there are concerns it may be “re-identified” through the exploitation of various features, such as combinations of standardized clinical codes. Formal anonymization algorithms (e.g., k-anonymization) can prevent such violations, but prior studies suggest that the size of the population available for anonymization may influence the utility of the resulting data. We systematically investigate this issue using a large-scale biorepository and EMR system through which we evaluate the ability of researchers to learn from anonymized data for genome- phenome association studies under various conditions. Methods We use a k-anonymization strategy to simulate a data protection process (on data sets containing clinical codes) for resources of similar size to those found at nine academic medical institutions within the United States. Following the protection process, we replicate an existing genome-phenome association study and compare the discoveries using the protected data and the original data through the correlation (r2) of the p-values of association significance. Results Our investigation shows that anonymizing an entire dataset with respect to the population from which it is derived yields significantly more utility than small study-specific datasets anonymized unto themselves. When evaluated using the correlation of genome-phenome association strengths on anonymized data versus original data, all nine simulated sites, results from largest-scale anonymizations (population ∼ 100;000) retained better utility to those on smaller sizes (population ∼ 6000—75;000). We observed a general trend of increasing r2 for larger data set sizes: r2 = 0.9481 for small-sized datasets, r2 = 0.9493 for moderately-sized datasets, r2 = 0.9934 for large-sized datasets. Conclusions This research implies that regardless of the

  15. A Men's Workplace Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven T.; Stolp, Sean; Seaton, Cherisse; Sharp, Paul; Caperchione, Cristina M.; Bottorff, Joan L.; Oliffe, John L.; Jones-Bricker, Margaret; Lamont, Sonia; Medhurst, Kerensa; Errey, Sally; Healy, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore physical activity and eating behaviors among men following the implementation of a gender-sensitive, workplace health promotion program. Methods: Using a pre-post within-subjects design, computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) was used to collect health-related information along with physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake at baseline and after 6 months. Results: At baseline, participants (N = 139) consumed 3.58 servings of fruit and vegetables/day and engaged in an average of 229.77 min/week moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). At 6 months, daily fruit/vegetable intake did not increase, whereas MVPA increased by 112.3 min/week. Conclusions: The POWERPLAY program successfully increased weekly MVPA. Engaging men in health promotion can be a challenge; here, the workplace served as a valuable environment for achieving positive change. PMID:27281710

  16. Workplace bullying, emotions, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Glasø, Lars; Notelaers, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This study examines emotional experiences as potential mediators between exposure to workplace bullying and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intention to leave the organization, respectively. A total of 5,520 respondents participated in the study. Drawing upon affective events theory (AET), the results show that emotions partly mediate these relationships and, hence, support the notion that emotions play a central part in the relationship between bullying and essential occupational outcomes. PMID:22852437

  17. Legal liability and workplace violence.

    PubMed

    Brakel, S J

    1998-01-01

    Workplace violence is a growing social problem. Some of this growth may be perceptual, reflecting our new awareness of what constitutes violence in the workplace. Furthermore, much of what falls under its current rubric does not correspond to the classic image of worker-on-worker or worker-on-employer mayhem. Nevertheless, the total number of incidents is alarmingly large; the problem is real. It is natural to consider law (i.e., legal liability) as a potential solution. Aiming the liability threat at the employer may be the most effective and efficient strategy. There are ample theories to choose from: negligence (tort) law, agency law, contract, civil rights, and regulatory law. Judges and juries appear eager to hold employers accountable for violent incidents in the workplace, sometimes in the face of other, more logical constructions of the facts or theory. One's best hope is that the fear this strikes in the hearts of employers will make for maximum preventive results. PMID:9894212

  18. Sexual assault in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Linda H

    2011-01-01

    Women are sexually assaulted at an alarming rate, and the workplace is a frequent arena for assault. However, in recent decades, attention has been given to improving responses to sexual assault. Sexual assault is a frequent cause of injury and death for women in the United States. One in five American women admit they have experienced a completed rape during their lifetime. These estimates are conservative because sexual assault and sexual violence are both underreported and underprosecuted. Fear of job loss and discrimination are frequent reasons women do not report sexual assault in the workplace. Women are entering the workplace in greater numbers due in part to more single parent families and the depressed economy. Also, women are entering work environments that have traditionally been the domain of male workers: corporate headquarters, semi trucks, health care providers' offices, rural farms, and rural factories. Employers must have a plan to protect female employees and effectively address any incidents of sexual assault or violence. Occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners can assist both employees and employers to prevent sexual assault and resolve the aftermath of sexual assault. However, to accomplish this goal, occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners must be trained in sexual assault and violence response as well as preventive interventions. PMID:21175106

  19. Motivation in a multigenerational radiologic science workplace.

    PubMed

    Kalar, Traci

    2008-01-01

    For the first time in history, radiologic science (RS) workplaces consist of 4 generational cohorts. As each cohort possess their own attitudes, values, work habits, and expectations, motivating a generational diverse workplace is challenging. Through the understanding of generational differences, managers are better able to accommodate individual as well as generational needs and help create a more productive and higher performing workplace. The purpose of this paper is to assist managers in the understanding and utilization of generational differences to effectively motivate staff in an RS workplace. Generational cohorts will be defined and discussed along with an in-depth discussion on each of the generations performing in today's RS workplace. Motivators and how they impact the different generational cohorts will be addressed along with how to best motivate a multigenerational RS workplace. PMID:18714760

  20. Role ambiguity, employee gender, and workplace friendship.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Yu; Mao, Hsiao-Yen; Hsieh, An-Tien

    2012-06-01

    The importance of workplace friendship is recognized by researchers and practitioners, but its antecedents with respect to work roles are not well understood. Employees' gender might moderate a relationship between work roles and friendships. Data from a survey of 221 international tourist hotel employees showed that a key aspect of job support, role ambiguity, was negatively related to having workplace friendships. However, employees' gender did not moderate this relationship. Role clarity (the opposite of role ambiguity) may facilitate workplace friendships. PMID:22897079

  1. HIV Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... pre-chewed by an HIV-infected person. The contamination occurs when infected blood from a caregiver’s mouth ... pre-chewed by an HIV-infected person. The contamination occurs when infected blood from a caregiver’s mouth ...

  2. Relationship between HIV Stigma and Self-Isolation among People Living with HIV in Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Audet, Carolyn M.; McGowan, Catherine C.; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Kipp, Aaron M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HIV stigma is a contributing factor to poor patient outcomes. Although HIV stigma has been documented, its impact on patient well-being in the southern US is not well understood. Methods Thirty-two adults participated in cognitive interviews after completing the Berger HIV or the Van Rie stigma scale. Participant responses were probed to ensure the scales accurately measured stigma and to assess the impact stigma had on behavior. Results Three main themes emerged regarding HIV stigma: (1) negative attitudes, fear of contagion, and misperceptions about transmission; (2) acts of discrimination by families, friends, health care providers, and within the workplace; and (3) participants’ use of self-isolation as a coping mechanism. Overwhelming reluctance to disclose a person’s HIV status made identifying enacted stigma with a quantitative scale difficult. Discussion Fear of discrimination resulted in participants isolating themselves from friends or experiences to avoid disclosure. Participant unwillingness to disclose their HIV status to friends and family could lead to an underestimation of enacted HIV stigma in quantitative scales. PMID:23950897

  3. Relevance of workplace social mixing during influenza pandemics: an experimental modelling study of workplace cultures.

    PubMed

    Timpka, T; Eriksson, H; Holm, E; Strömgren, M; Ekberg, J; Spreco, A; Dahlström, Ö

    2016-07-01

    Workplaces are one of the most important regular meeting places in society. The aim of this study was to use simulation experiments to examine the impact of different workplace cultures on influenza dissemination during pandemics. The impact is investigated by experiments with defined social-mixing patterns at workplaces using semi-virtual models based on authentic sociodemographic and geographical data from a North European community (population 136 000). A simulated pandemic outbreak was found to affect 33% of the total population in the community with the reference academic-creative workplace culture; virus transmission at the workplace accounted for 10·6% of the cases. A model with a prevailing industrial-administrative workplace culture generated 11% lower incidence than the reference model, while the model with a self-employed workplace culture (also corresponding to a hypothetical scenario with all workplaces closed) produced 20% fewer cases. The model representing an academic-creative workplace culture with restricted workplace interaction generated 12% lower cumulative incidence compared to the reference model. The results display important theoretical associations between workplace social-mixing cultures and community-level incidence rates during influenza pandemics. Social interaction patterns at workplaces should be taken into consideration when analysing virus transmission patterns during influenza pandemics. PMID:26847017

  4. An E-Cash Based Implementation Model for Facilitating Anonymous Purchasing of Information Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Kim, K. H. (Kane); Kang, Myeong-Ho; Zhou, Tianran; Chung, Byung-Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyo; Lee, Seok-Joon

    The rapid growing of online purchasing of information products poses challenges of how to preserve the customer's privacy during the online transactions. The current widely used way of online shopping does not consider the customer's privacy protection. It exposes the customer's sensitive information unnecessarily. We propose a new five-party implementation model called 5PAPS that provides much enhanced protection of the customer's privacy. The model combines the advantages of the e-cash techniques, the mix technique, the anonymous-honoring merchant model, and the anonymity-protecting payment gateway model. It is aimed for protecting the customer's anonymity in all applicable aspects. Security and anonymity issues of the model have been analyzed. The results show that the model is robust against varieties of common attacks and the customer's anonymity can be protected even in the presence of some collusion among the parties involved in the transactions. Experimental prototyping of the essential parts yields partial validation of the practical nature of the 5PAPS model, and it has also produced reliable estimates of the storage and messaging volume requirements present in sizable purchasing systems.

  5. Attitudes and practice of genetic counselors regarding anonymous testing for BRCA1/2.

    PubMed

    Ader, Tammy; Susswein, Lisa R; Callanan, Nancy P; Evans, James P

    2009-12-01

    Patients and clinicians alike view anonymous testing as a potential way to avoid perceived risks of genetic testing such as insurance and employment discrimination and the potential loss of privacy. To assess their experience with and attitudes towards anonymous testing for BRCA1/2, genetic counselors were invited to complete an internet-based survey via the NSGC Familial Cancer Risk Counseling Special Interest Group (FCRC-SIG) listerv. A majority of the 115 respondents (70%) had received requests from patients for anonymous BRCA1/2 testing at some point in their careers and 43% complied with this request. Most counselors, however, encountered such requests infrequently, 1-5 times per year. Although genetic counselors do not generally encourage anonymous testing and over a third of respondents feel it should never be offered, a substantial subset support its use under specific circumstances. In general, a strong consensus exists among counselors that anonymous testing should not be offered routinely. In light of the current legislative landscape, it is of note that a substantial proportion of respondents (42.7%) cited the threat of life insurance discrimination as a reason for pursuing AT, and fewer cited health insurance (30.0%) or employment discrimination (29.1%) as justifications. Since there exists no federal legislative protections against discrimination by life insurance companies, it makes sense that genetic counselors were more responsive to this issue as opposed to the threat of discrimination in health insurance and employment. PMID:19798553

  6. HIV prevalence among high school learners - opportunities for schools-based HIV testing programmes and sexual reproductive health services

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Young girls in sub Saharan Africa are reported to have higher rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared to boys in the same age group. Knowledge of HIV status amongst high schools learners provides an important gateway to prevention and treatment services. This study aimed at determining the HIV prevalence and explored the feasibility of HIV testing among high school learners. Methods Between September 2010 and February 2011, a linked, anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted in two public sector high schools in the rural KwaZulu-Natal midlands. Following written informed consent, dried blood spot samples (DBS) were collected and tested for HIV. The overall and age-specific HIV prevalence were compared with select demographic variables. Results The HIV prevalence in learners aged 12 to 25 in school A was 4.7% (95% CI 2.8-6.5) compared to 2.5% (95% CI 1.6-3.5) in school B, (p = 0.04). Whilst the HIV prevalence was similar for boys at 1.3% (95% CI 0-2.8) in school A and 1.7% (95% CI 0.5-2.8) in school B, the prevalence in girls was consistently higher and was 7.7% (95% CI 4.5-10.9) in school A and 3.2% (95% CI 1.8-4.6) in school B. The age-specific HIV prevalence in girls increased 1.5 to 2 fold for each two year age category, while for boys the prevalence was stable across all age groups. Conclusions The high HIV prevalence in female learners underscores the importance of sexual reproductive health and schools-based HIV testing programs as an important gateway to prevention and treatment services. PMID:22439635

  7. Drivers of workplace discrimination against people with disabilities: the utility of Attribution Theory.

    PubMed

    Chan, Fong; McMahon, Brian T; Cheing, Gladys; Rosenthal, David A; Bezyak, Jill

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine what drives workplace discrimination against people with disabilities. These findings are then compared to available literature on attribution theory, which concerns itself with public perceptions of the controllability and stability of various impairments. The sample included 35,763 allegations of discriminations filed by people with disabilities under the employment provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Group A included impairments deemed by Corrigan et al. [1988] to be uncontrollable but stable: visual impairment (representing 13% of the total allegations in this study), cancer (12%), cardiovascular disease (19%), and spinal cord injuries (5%). The controllable but unstable impairments in group B included depression (38%), schizophrenia (2%), alcohol and other drug abuse (4%), and HIV/AIDS (7%). The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission had resolved all allegations in terms of merit Resolutions (a positive finding of discrimination) and Resolutions without merit. Allegations of workplace discrimination were found to center mainly on hiring, discharge, harassment, and reasonable accommodation issues. Perceived workplace discrimination (as measured by allegations filed with EEOC) does occur at higher levels in Group B, especially when serious issues involving discharge and disability harassment are involved. With the glaring exception of HIV/AIDS, however, actual discrimination (as measured by EEOC merit Resolutions) occurs at higher levels for Group A. PMID:16006678

  8. Collective efficacy and HIV prevention in South African townships

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Demetria; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Eaton, Lisa; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Harel, Ofer; Simbayi, Leickness C.; Mwaba, Kelvin; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2013-01-01

    South African townships have high HIV prevalence and a strong need for collective action to change normative sexual risk behaviors. This study investigated the relationship between perceptions of individuals about collective efficacy in the community’s ability to prevent HIV and their personal HIV risk behaviors. Men (n=1581) and women (n=718) completed anonymous surveys within four Black African Townships in Cape Town, South Africa from June 2008 to December 2010. Measures included demographics, alcohol use, attitudinal and behavioral norms, sexual health communications, and sexual risk behaviors. In multivariate logistic regressions, men were more likely to endorse collective efficacy if they were married, drank less often in alcohol serving establishments, believed that fewer men approve of HIV risk behaviors, talk more with others about HIV/AIDS, and had more sex partners in the past month. Women were more likely to endorse collective efficacy if they drank alcohol less often, talked more with others about HIV/AIDS, had more sex partners in the past month, but reported fewer unprotected sex acts in the past month. Community level interventions that strengthen collective efficacy beliefs will have to consider both protective and risk behaviors associated with believing that the community is ready and capable of preventing HIV. PMID:23660646

  9. HIV Medication Adherence

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Medication Adherence (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Medication adherence means sticking ... exactly as prescribed. Why is adherence to an HIV regimen important? Adherence to an HIV regimen gives ...

  10. HIV among Transgender People

    MedlinePlus

    ... of transgender Virginians . Richmond, VA: Virginia HIV Community Planning Committee and Virginia Department of Health; 2007. Accessed April 14, 2016. Additional ... HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS ...

  11. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions. PMID:26785867

  12. Database Design to Ensure Anonymous Study of Medical Errors: A Report from the ASIPS collaborative

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Wilson D.; Staton, Elizabeth W.; Higgins, Gregory S.; Main, Deborah S.; West, David R.; Harris, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    Medical error reporting systems are important information sources for designing strategies to improve the safety of health care. Applied Strategies for Improving Patient Safety (ASIPS) is a multi-institutional, practice-based research project that collects and analyzes data on primary care medical errors and develops interventions to reduce error. The voluntary ASIPS Patient Safety Reporting System captures anonymous and confidential reports of medical errors. Confidential reports, which are quickly de-identified, provide better detail than do anonymous reports; however, concerns exist about the confidentiality of those reports should the database be subject to legal discovery or other security breaches. Standard database elements, for example, serial ID numbers, date/time stamps, and backups, could enable an outsider to link an ASIPS report to a specific medical error. The authors present the design and implementation of a database and administrative system that reduce this risk, facilitate research, and maintain near anonymity of the events, practices, and clinicians. PMID:12925548

  13. RSSI-Based User Centric Anonymization for Location Privacy in Vehicular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yu-Chih; Chen, Yi-Ming; Shan, Hwai-Ling

    In Vehicular Networks, for enhancing driving safety as well as supporting other applications, vehicles periodically broadcast safety messages with their precise position information to neighbors. However, these broadcast messages make it easy to track specific vehicles and will likely lead to compromise of personal privacy. Unfortunately, current location privacy enhancement methodologies in VANET, including Pseudonymization, K-anonymity, Random silent period, Mix-zones and path confusion, all suffer some shortcomings. In this paper, we propose a RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator)-based user centric anonymization model, which can significantly enhance the location privacy and at the same time ensure traffic safety. Simulations are performed to show the advantages of the proposed method. In comparison with traditional random silent period method, our method can increase at least 47% of anonymity in both simple and correlation tracking.

  14. The French bioethics public consultation and the anonymity doctrine: empirical ethics and normative assumptions.

    PubMed

    Spranzi, Marta; Brunet, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    The French bioethics laws of 1994 contain the principles of the anonymity and non commodification of all donations of body parts and products including gametes in medically assisted reproduction. The two revisions of the law, in 2004 and 2011 have upheld the rule. In view of the latest revision process, the French government organized a large public consultation in 2009 ("Etats généraux de la bioéthique"). Within the event a "consensus conference" was held in Rennes about different aspects of assisted reproduction (access, anonymity, gratuity and surrogacy). In what follows we shall first describe the anonymity clause for gamete donations in the French law and the debates surrounding it. We shall then analyse the procedure used for the 2009 public consultation and the related consensus conference, as well as its upshot concerning the anonymity doctrine. In this respect we shall compare the citizens' own recommendations on the gamete anonymity issue and its translation in the consultation's final report drafted by a philosopher mandated by the organizing committee. Whereas the final report cited some fundamental ethical arguments as reason for upholding the provisions of the law-most notably the refusal of the 'all biological' approach to reproductive issues-citizens were more careful and tentative in their position although they also concluded that for pragmatic reasons the anonymity rule should continue to hold. We shall argue that the conservative upshot of the public consultation is due to some main underlying presuppositions concerning the citizens' role and expertise as well as to the specific design of the consensus conference. Our conclusion will be that public consultations and consensus conferences can only serve as an empirical support for devising suitable bioethics norms by using second-order normative assumptions. PMID:25783454

  15. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints.

    PubMed

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques. PMID:27355948

  16. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques. PMID:27355948

  17. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... A positive result on a screening test does not confirm that the person has HIV infection. More tests are needed to confirm HIV infection. A negative test ...

  18. Question box: a tool for gathering information about HIV and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Kazembe, Abigail

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention have used surveys. This study used the question box method to create a safe environment for collecting information on knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention. The aim was to encourage young people to ask questions about HIV, which they would otherwise not ask because of fear of being judged negatively, ridiculed, punished or stigmatized. Seven question boxes were placed at each community secondary school in Lilongwe Rural West District of Malawi. In total participants asked 394 questions. Six categories of questions emerged and included: general questions about HIV, sexual practices, perinatal transmission, other modes of transmission, contact/sharing items and prevention and condom use. The question box method created a safe environment for asking sensitive questions anonymously about HIV and AIDS. PMID:21785661

  19. HIV/AIDS awareness and attitudes of tour guides in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Avcikurt, Cevdet; Koroglu, Ozlem; Koroglu, Ahmet; Avcikurt, Ayla Solmaz

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain Turkish tour guides' awareness and attitudes regarding HIV and AIDS. A sample of 516 tour guides registered in Turkey who verbally consented to participate in this study responded to an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The respondents typically exhibited a reasonable to excellent degree of knowledge about HIV and AIDS. However, the survey revealed some common misconceptions, indicating that tour guides require additional training in the mechanisms of HIV transmission. We also observed some differences in the level of HIV-related knowledge between different demographic groups. The knowledge level of male respondents was better than that of the female respondents. We also observed that knowledge levels increased with both age and work experience. These results are discussed within the framework of critical studies on HIV-related knowledge. Implications for the development of curricula and in-service training programmes for tour guide organisations and institutions are discussed. PMID:21058083

  20. Workplace prevention and promotion strategies.

    PubMed

    Vézina, Michel; Bourbonnais, Renée; Brisson, Chantal; Trudel, Louis

    2004-01-01

    Psychosocial factors refer to all organizational factors and interpersonal relationships in the workplace that may affect the health of the workers. Currently, two psychosocial risk models are universally recognized for producing solid scientific knowledge regarding the vital link between social or psychological phenomena at work and the development of several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases or depression. The first is the "job demand-contro-support" model, which was defined by Karasek and to which the concept of social support has been added; the second is the "effort/reward imbalance" model defined by Siegrist. The public health perspective calls for theoretical models based on certain psychosocial attributes of the work environment for which there is empirical evidence of their pathogenic potential for exposed workers. Not only do these models reduce the complexity of the psychosocial reality of the work to components that are significant in terms of health risks, but they also facilitate the development and implementation of workplace interventions. Psychosocial risk intervention strategies currently implemented by companies are predominantly individual-oriented and aim chiefly at reducing the effects of stressful work situations by improving individual ability to adapt to the situation and manage stress. Like personal protection equipment for exposure to physical or chemical risks, these secondary prevention measures are commendable but insufficient, because they aim to reduce only the symptoms and not the cause of problems. Any intervention program for these risks should necessarily include a primary prevention component with a view to eliminating, or at least reducing, the psychosocial pathogenic agents in the workplace. Several authors have suggested that well-structured organizational approaches are most effective and should generate more important, longer-lasting effects than individual approaches. However, the evidence should be strengthened by

  1. A Developmental Perspective on College & Workplace Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Laura; Atienza, Astrid; Rivers, Andrew; Keith, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a developmental perspective on what competencies young people need to be ready for college, the workplace, and the transition to adulthood. National hand-wringing about the lack of preparedness of high school graduates for college and the workplace has catalyzed researchers, educators, and policymakers to define the skills and…

  2. Workplace Engagement and Generational Differences in Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schullery, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes literature on workplace engagement, an issue that affects organizations' financial results and individuals' personal lives. The newest of the four generations in the workplace, Millennials, were recently shown to have different values than the other two prevalent generations. Surveys taken by 16,000 high school seniors of…

  3. Educating Managers to Create Healthy Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbreath, Brad

    2012-01-01

    This article provides management educators with a comprehensive, research-based set of concepts they can use to enrich students' understanding of how to create healthy workplaces. To assist with that endeavor, learning objectives related to creating healthy workplaces are provided. Work environment stressors are discussed along with human and…

  4. Family Systems Theory in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Vivian

    This paper presents a summary of Murray Brown's family systems theory as it applies to the workplace, lists some indicators of when a system is working well, and cites some other guidelines for gauging and improving one's own functioning in the work system. Major concepts of Bowen's theory include: (1) the family and the workplace are systems; (2)…

  5. Creating a Comprehensive Workplace TESOL & Literacy Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Robert

    The evolution of the Workplace Education Service that operates in South Australia is chronicled. Begun as a single program designed to integrate workplace literacy, English as a Second Language, and literacy education for both native and non-native English-speakers in an automobile plant, the project grew into a network of programs and services in…

  6. Examining Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of Workplace Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Alison; Deaney, Rosemary; Wilson, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper, taking a participatory perspective of learning, seeks to look at the interaction between individuals and their workplace, focusing on the perceptions of workplaces and self by beginning teachers in terms of support for their learning. Design/methodology/approach: The study presents an analysis of 37 interviews from 17…

  7. The Advising Workplace: Generational Differences and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Virginia; Steele, Peg

    2005-01-01

    The American workplace today is unlike any other in history because for the first time it is made up of four distinct generations. The advising workplaces on today's college campuses mirror this generational diversity. Four generations and their different perceptions of work attitudes and values, management expectations, communication patterns,…

  8. Surviving (Even Thriving?) in a Toxic Workplace.

    PubMed

    White, Paul E; Schoonover-Shoffner, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Anything toxic is poisonous and harmful-including a toxic workplace. Surveys of hundreds of individuals and organizations reveal three primary areas that are common in unhealthy work environments: sick systems, toxic leaders, and dysfunctional colleagues. This article draws from research and offers practical steps on how to survive, if not change and thrive, in toxic workplaces. PMID:27295230

  9. Piecing Together the "Workplace Multilingualism" Jigsaw Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Multilingualism in the workplace is different from multilingualism at home or in other domains of social life. It has more direct, yet entangled, economic and social implications and serves interactional purposes which can be at any point on the continuum of goal-orientation and relationship-building. Multilingualism in the workplace is both a…

  10. Workplace Skills Enhancement Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle-King County Private Industry Council, Seattle, WA.

    The Workplace Skills Enhancement Project was provided by the Seattle-King County Private Industry Council in Partnership with the Employment Opportunities Center and the Refugee Federation Service Center. Of the 150 participants in the program, 137 were Asian. Workplace literacy training was generally advertised as a voluntary program available to…

  11. Consider Workplace Needs When Purchasing Office Furniture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Examines furniture-buying tips, involving workplace-needs assessment, that can help make the organization's workplace more effective. Stresses the importance of planning, tying the furniture purchasing into the strategic business, considering alternatives to furniture ownership, evaluating employee health and safety, and understanding any added…

  12. Murder-suicide in workplace violence.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2014-08-01

    In an analysis of 105 incidents of workplace violence in the USA from 1982 to 2002, the murderers who killed themselves after the incident killed more victims than those arrested. The workplace violence occurring at schools resulted in significantly more injured victims, but not more deceased victims. PMID:25153948

  13. New Work: The Revolution in Today's Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Economics Trends, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. economy, workplace, and work are in the midst of historic change. New ways of organizing and managing the workplace and new ways of working are becoming increasingly common. Large companies are giving way to smaller and leaner organizations. Today, the typical business establishment employs 15 people. Across all industries, smaller…

  14. Workplace Literacy and Power: Preliminary Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Raises the following questions: who participates in workplace literacy; how do literacy programs change workers' participation in workplace culture; how does the culture change; how do literacy programs affect industrial relations; what is the role of unions; and how will power relations of literacy programs be affected by changes in modes of…

  15. Practicum Learning: Perils of the Authentic Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Examination of the workplace as a learning environment reveals it is far from ideal and poses unique challenges to the practicum supervisor, especially when that role is assumed by a workplace supervisor. Specific interests of student and employee may not coincide, and the interests of both diverge from those of organizations and owners. (MSE)

  16. Preparing for Workplace Numeracy: A Modelling Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    The starting point of this article is the question, "how might we inform an epistemology of numeracy from the point of view of better preparing young people for workplace competence?" To inform thinking illustrative data from two projects that researched into mathematics in workplace activity and the teaching and learning of modelling in…

  17. 10 CFR 835.1003 - Workplace controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Workplace controls. 835.1003 Section 835.1003 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Design and Control § 835.1003 Workplace controls. During routine operations, the combination of engineered and administrative controls shall provide...

  18. 10 CFR 835.1003 - Workplace controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Workplace controls. 835.1003 Section 835.1003 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Design and Control § 835.1003 Workplace controls. During routine operations, the combination of engineered and administrative controls shall provide...

  19. Self-Directed Learning in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sunyoung

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores the concept of self-directed learning (SDL) in the workplace. This paper introduces a definition and argument for the importance of SDL, presents conditions that promote SDL, and suggests how future issues and implications should be applied for greater understanding and utilization of SDL in the workplace. The significance of…

  20. Federal Workplace Literacy Project. Internal Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matuszak, David J.

    This report describes the following components of the Nestle Workplace Literacy Project: six job task analyses, curricula for six workplace basic skills training programs, delivery of courses using these curricula, and evaluation of the process. These six job categories were targeted for training: forklift loader/checker, BB's processing systems…

  1. Routine-Generating and Regenerative Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kira, Mari

    2010-01-01

    The research discussed in this article focuses on workplace learning in industrial manufacturing work. Everyday work episodes contributing to workplace learning are investigated in four companies operating in the Finnish and Swedish package-supplier sectors. The research adopts a qualitative, interpretive approach. Interviews with employees and…

  2. Workplace Education Initiative: Year Two Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperazi, Laura; Astrein, Bruce

    Site visits to 17 workplace education projects funded in the second year of the Massachusetts Workplace Education Initiative are reported for year 1 and year 2 projects. The year one projects are as follows: EASCO Handtool Company (Springfield), T.J. Maxx Distribution Center (Worcester), laundry workers (Boston/Lynn), AT&T (Lawrence), and Columbia…

  3. Workplace Basics: The Skills Employers Want.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; And Others

    A two-year research project was conducted to determine the skills employers consider necessary for the workplace. Recent changes in the economy have made employers begin to realize that they must assist their current and future workers in achieving competency in workplace basics if they are to be competitive. Employers have come to realize the…

  4. 10 CFR 835.1003 - Workplace controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Workplace controls. 835.1003 Section 835.1003 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Design and Control § 835.1003 Workplace controls. During routine operations, the combination of engineered and administrative controls shall provide...

  5. Workplace Learning in Dual Higher Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poortman, Cindy L.; Reenalda, Marloes; Nijhof, Wim J.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    2014-01-01

    Workplace learning is considered an effective strategy for the development of vocation, career and professional identity. Dual training programs, in which learning at a vocational school and learning at work in a company are combined, are seen as strong carriers for skill formation processes. In this study we explore workplace learning in dual…

  6. Significant Workplace Change: Perspectives of Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohut, Ann Marie

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing pace of workplace change is well documented in the literature, yet little is known about how an individual adapts to significant change in the workplace. Continuous learning is key to successful adaptation; however, are employees' adaptation to change influenced by their approaches to learning? The purpose of this study was to…

  7. The Embedded Character of Workplace Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenkel, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    The workplace is embedded in three force fields: the macro field of globalization/technology, the meso field of transnational production networks, and the micro field of local labor markets and organizations. Each field influences the way flexibility and cost reduction are prioritized and has consequences for workplace structures and relations.…

  8. Workplace Friendship in the Electronically Connected Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Patricia M.; Pedersen, Hannah; Gallagher, Erin B.; Kopaneva, Irina

    2012-01-01

    This study examined information communication technologies and workplace friendship dynamics. Employees reported factors that influenced their initiation of friendship with a coworker and reported patterns and perceptions of communication with their workplace friend via different communication methods. Results indicated that personality, shared…

  9. Efficient Anonymous Authentication Protocol Using Key-Insulated Signature Scheme for Secure VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngho; Sur, Chul; Jung, Chae Duk; Rhee, Kyung-Hyune

    In this paper, we propose an efficient authentication protocol with conditional privacy preservation for secure vehicular communications. The proposed protocol follows the system model to issue on-the-fly anonymous public key certificates to vehicles by road-side units. In order to design an efficient message authentication protocol, we consider a key-insulated signature scheme for certifying anonymous public keys of vehicles to such a system model. We demonstrate experimental results to confirm that the proposed protocol has better performance than other protocols based on group signature schemes.

  10. HIV among Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS ... HIV infection—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2013 . HIV Surveillance Special Report 13 . Accessed January ...

  11. [Serological and Behavioral Survey on HIV/AIDS among prisoners in Nouakchott (Mauritania)].

    PubMed

    Ba, K; Keita, M; Fall-Malick, F Z; Mint Beibakar, M; Diallo, M; Lo, B B

    2015-08-01

    In Mauritania, epidemiological data estimate national HIV prevalence to less than 1%. Our study is the first joint survey on HIV/AIDS conducted among prisoners in Mauritania. It is a cross-sectional survey with anonymity and informed consent. The study covered a sample of 296 prisoners enrolled in a population of 706 prisoners held in Nouakchott. The sex ratio was 14.6. The refusal rate of blood sample was 4.7%. HIV prevalence in the sample was 3.9%. 53.37% of prisoners knew the concept of seropositivity but only 7.4% had a perfect knowledge of the ways of HIV transmission untainted by false beliefs. The results showed that 99% of prisoners knew that the condom is a means of protection against HIV infection, but they also showed many false beliefs about protection against HIV in the majority of prisoners. Indeed, 98.49% of respondents said they protected themselves by avoiding sex with strangers and 94.97% of them thought that sex with young girls or virgins are protection against HIV. Nearly one quarter of the prisoners did not have a good perception of risk of contracting HIV in prison although homosexual relations between prisoners have been reported. This study showed that prisoners in Mauritania are a vulnerable group to HIV because the prevalence of HIV in this group was higher than the national prevalence and this sub-population was unfamiliar with the disease and adopt risk behaviors. PMID:26141499

  12. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  13. Fatigue management in the workplace

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Yazdi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Workers’ fatigue is a significant problem in modern industry, largely because of high demand jobs, long duty periods, disruption of circadian rhythms, and accumulative sleep debt that are common in many industries. Fatigue is the end result of integration of multiple factors such as time awake, time of day, and workload. Then, the full understanding of circadian biologic clock, dynamics of transient and cumulative sleep loss, and recovery is required for effective management of workplace fatigue. It can be more investigated in a new field of sleep medicine called occupational sleep medicine. Occupational sleep medicine is concerned with maintaining best productivity and safety in the industrial settings. The fatigue risk management system (FRMS) is a comprehensive approach that is based on applying scientific evidence of sleep knowledge to manage workers fatigue. It is developing rapidly in the highly safety demand jobs; especially truck drivers, pilots, and power plant workers. The objective of this review is to explain about fatigue in the workplace with emphasis on its association work performance and errors/accidents. Also, we discussed about different methods of fatigue measurement and management. PMID:26257477

  14. Fatigue management in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Yazdi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Workers' fatigue is a significant problem in modern industry, largely because of high demand jobs, long duty periods, disruption of circadian rhythms, and accumulative sleep debt that are common in many industries. Fatigue is the end result of integration of multiple factors such as time awake, time of day, and workload. Then, the full understanding of circadian biologic clock, dynamics of transient and cumulative sleep loss, and recovery is required for effective management of workplace fatigue. It can be more investigated in a new field of sleep medicine called occupational sleep medicine. Occupational sleep medicine is concerned with maintaining best productivity and safety in the industrial settings. The fatigue risk management system (FRMS) is a comprehensive approach that is based on applying scientific evidence of sleep knowledge to manage workers fatigue. It is developing rapidly in the highly safety demand jobs; especially truck drivers, pilots, and power plant workers. The objective of this review is to explain about fatigue in the workplace with emphasis on its association work performance and errors/accidents. Also, we discussed about different methods of fatigue measurement and management. PMID:26257477

  15. Security Enhanced Anonymous Multiserver Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Using Smart Cards and Biometrics

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme. PMID:25276847

  16. What's in a Name? Some Reflections on the Sociology of Anonymity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Gary T.

    1999-01-01

    Presents seven types of identity knowledge. Identifies major rationales and contexts for anonymity and identifiability and suggests a principle which holds that those who use pseudonyms on the Internet in personal communications are obliged to indicate they are doing so. Suggests 13 procedural questions to guide the development and assessment of…

  17. Open and Anonymous Peer Review in a Digital Online Environment Compared in Academic Writing Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razi, Salim

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the impact of "open" and "anonymous" peer feedback as an adjunct to teacher-mediated feedback in a digital online environment utilising data gathered on an academic writing course at a Turkish university. Students were divided into two groups with similar writing proficiencies. Students peer reviewed papers…

  18. Bayesian modeling of consumer behavior in the presence of anonymous visits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Julie Esther

    Tailoring content to consumers has become a hallmark of marketing and digital media, particularly as it has become easier to identify customers across usage or purchase occasions. However, across a wide variety of contexts, companies find that customers do not consistently identify themselves, leaving a substantial fraction of anonymous visits. We develop a Bayesian hierarchical model that allows us to probabilistically assign anonymous sessions to users. These probabilistic assignments take into account a customer's demographic information, frequency of visitation, activities taken when visiting, and times of arrival. We present two studies, one with synthetic and one with real data, where we demonstrate improved performance over two popular practices (nearest-neighbor matching and deleting the anonymous visits) due to increased efficiency and reduced bias driven by the non-ignorability of which types of events are more likely to be anonymous. Using our proposed model, we avoid potential bias in understanding the effect of a firm's marketing on its customers, improve inference about the total number of customers in the dataset, and provide more precise targeted marketing to both previously observed and unobserved customers.

  19. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  20. Leadership Style, Anonymity, and Creativity in Group Decision Support Systems: The Mediating Role of Optimal Flow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosik, John J.; Kahai, Surinder S.; Avolio, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 159 undergraduates found that flow (a psychological state characterized by concentration, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation) mediated effects of leadership style on creativity in a Group Decision Support System (GDSS) context, and that its role may be moderated by anonymity. Results also indicated that both flow and anonymity…

  1. A Variation on the Use of Interactive Anonymous Quizzes in the Chemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an interesting variation on the use of interactive anonymous quizzes (IAQs) in the chemistry classroom. In this variation, IAQs are used to introduce new material or topics in a course, as opposed to their traditional use for reviewing previously covered material. Two examples of IAQs used to introduce new topics in a…

  2. Peer Feedback in Anonymous Peer Review in an EFL Writing Class in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coté, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a process of peer feedback through anonymous peer review in an EFL writing class. Numerous studies have reported on the benefits of peer review (PR) in the ESL/EFL writing classroom. However, the literature also identifies social issues that can negatively affect the outcome of face-to-face PR. In this…

  3. Terminological Control of "Anonymous Groups" for Catalogues of Audiovisual Television Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the exceptional nature of the description of moving images for television archives, deriving from their audiovisual nature, and of the specifications in the queries of journalists as users of the Document Information System. It is suggested that there is a need to control completely "Anonymous Groups"--groups without any…

  4. The Rationality of Alcoholics Anonymous and the Spirituality of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velten, Emmett

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) share important rational objectives and numerous cognitive-behavioral methods. Both emphasize a philosophical shift as a principal ingredient for change. Provides definitions of rationality and spirituality and explains how REBT and smart recovery are spiritual…

  5. Understanding the Role of Storytelling in the Transformation of Female Cocaine Addicts in Narcotics Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventresca, Melissa Weida

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the role of storytelling in the transformation of female cocaine addicts in Narcotics Anonymous. For this research the primary investigator utilized a theoretical orientation of transformative learning theory and storytelling. The rationale for employing transformative learning theory is that…

  6. Medical Relabeling in Gamblers Anonymous: The Construction of an Ideal Member.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, David N.; Saunders, Danny

    1990-01-01

    Observed 2 Gamblers Anonymous (GA) groups in South Wales over a 12-month period. Determined 2 broad consequences arose from encountering fellow sufferers: acceptance of diagnosis and commitment to recovery and to will of GA, or rejection of the diagnosis with the knowledge that they are returning to the outside world with a reconstituted…

  7. The Impact of Anonymous and Assigned Use of Student Response Systems on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two approaches to use of student response systems (SRSs) on achievement in a study designed to better understand effective use of the devices. One condition was anonymous use of SRSs, in which graduate students selected a random clicker when entering the classroom. The second condition assigned devices to students…

  8. Personal Construct Theory and the Transformation of Identity in Alcoholics Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Lance Brendan

    2011-01-01

    The dominant theoretical approach to alcoholism research presumes linear, causal relationships between individual cognitions and behavioral outcomes. This approach has largely failed to account for the recovery some alcoholics achieve in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) because AA emphasizes the transformation of identity, framed in terms of…

  9. Evolutionary approach to violating group anonymity using third-party data.

    PubMed

    Tavrov, Dan; Chertov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    In the era of Big Data, it is almost impossible to completely restrict access to primary non-aggregated statistical data. However, risk of violating privacy of individual respondents and groups of respondents by analyzing primary data has not been reduced. There is a need in developing subtler methods of data protection to come to grips with these challenges. In some cases, individual and group privacy can be easily violated, because the primary data contain attributes that uniquely identify individuals and groups thereof. Removing such attributes from the dataset is a crude solution and does not guarantee complete privacy. In the field of providing individual data anonymity, this problem has been widely recognized, and various methods have been proposed to solve it. In the current work, we demonstrate that it is possible to violate group anonymity as well, even if those attributes that uniquely identify the group are removed. As it turns out, it is possible to use third-party data to build a fuzzy model of a group. Typically, such a model comes in a form of a set of fuzzy rules, which can be used to determine membership grades of respondents in the group with a level of certainty sufficient to violate group anonymity. In the work, we introduce an evolutionary computing based method to build such a model. We also discuss a memetic approach to protecting the data from group anonymity violation in this case. PMID:26844025

  10. Anonymity to Promote Peer Feedback: Pre-Service Teachers' Comments in Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Craig D.; Barrett, Andrew F.; Frick, Theodore W.

    2010-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental case study, we compared five sections of a basic undergraduate technology course. Within an asynchronous web forum, pre-service teachers wrote short critiques of websites designed by their classmates. This peer feedback was provided anonymously by students in two classes (n = 35) whereas providers and recipients of peer…

  11. Security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards and biometrics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme. PMID:25276847

  12. Pursuing the Anonymous User: Privacy Rights and Mandatory Registration of Prepaid Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, Gordon A.; Parisi, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been concern among law enforcement and national security organizations about the use of "anonymous" prepaid mobile phone service and its purported role in supporting criminal and terrorist activities. As a result, a number of countries have implemented registration requirements for such service. Privacy rights advocates…

  13. A Case Study on Measuring Statistical Data in the Tor Anonymity Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loesing, Karsten; Murdoch, Steven J.; Dingledine, Roger

    The Tor network is one of the largest deployed anonymity networks, consisting of 1500+ volunteer-run relays and probably hundreds of thousands of clients connecting every day. Its large user-base has made it attractive for researchers to analyze usage of a real deployed anonymity network. The recent growth of the network has also led to performance problems, as well as attempts by some governments to block access to the Tor network. Investigating these performance problems and learning about network blocking is best done by measuring usage data of the Tor network. However, analyzing a live anonymity system must be performed with great care, so that the users' privacy is not put at risk. In this paper we present a case study of measuring two different types of sensitive data in the Tor network: countries of connecting clients, and exiting traffic by port. Based on these examples we derive general guidelines for safely measuring potentially sensitive data, both in the Tor network and in other anonymity networks.

  14. Sexuality Information Needs of Latino and African American Ninth Graders: A Content Analysis of Anonymous Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angulo-Olaiz, Francisca; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    This study used qualitative content analysis to examine anonymous questions about sex and sexuality submitted by Latino and African American adolescents in Los Angeles, California, classrooms. The majority of questions asked about sexuality and sexual behavior, or anatomy and physiology, with fewer questions about pregnancy and pregnancy…

  15. Making Meaning of Alcoholics Anonymous for Social Workers: Myths, Metaphors, and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane Rae; Jansen, Golie G.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses common critiques of Alcoholics Anonymous by offering a way of understanding it as a "normative narrative community" where identity transformation takes place through the use of metaphor and storytelling. Suggests alternative meanings of key metaphors, describes areas of program strength and potential barriers for social workers, and…

  16. Reconsiderations: Anonymity and Violence--Jane Tompkins's "Fighting Words" Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Gary

    2009-01-01

    In her influential 1988 essay, "Fighting Words," Jane Tompkins argued that the arguments typically made by literary critics are characterized by an aggressive competitiveness that amounts to violence. But, as Tompkins's own rhetorical strategies demonstrate, at least as deplorable are the practices whereby critics render certain people anonymous.…

  17. Anonymity and Motivation in Asynchronous Discussions and L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Nihat; Mancilla, Rae; Mahalingappa, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates L2 attainment in asynchronous online environments, specifically possible relationships among anonymity, L2 motivation, participation in discussions, quality of L2 production, and success in L2 vocabulary learning. It examines, in asynchronous discussions, (a) if participation and (b) motivation contribute to L2 vocabulary…

  18. HIV-infected People in Sudan Moving Toward Chronic Poverty: Possible Interventions.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Salwa Muddthir; Eisa, Ammar Abobakre; Ibrahim, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify the socioeconomic impact on people living with HIV (PLWH) in Sudan. Focus group discussions were used to collect data and identify the most outstanding domains of HIV impact on PLWH and the survival mechanisms that may be common to a group of diverse HIV-infected persons (n = 30). The findings indicated that the most striking financial and social impacts were due to stigma associated with HIV in the conservative Sudanese society, which led to loss of work with all its consequences (e.g., children's education and health care expenses were affected). The socioeconomic impacts of HIV on infected populations are discussed, and suggestions for possible interventions to mitigate harmful impacts and stigma within the society, the workplace, and health care settings are highlighted. We concluded that HIV has intensified the existing problems of infected people, contributing to their vulnerability to poverty. PMID:26190419

  19. Adolescent Substance Abuse in Mexico, Puerto Rico and The United States: Effect of Anonymous versus Confidential Survey Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, William W.; O'Brien, Megan S.; Vasquez, Marco A.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Rios-Bedoya, Carlos F.; Floyd, Leah J.

    2006-01-01

    Anonymous surveys have been widely used worldwide to describe adolescent substance use yet cannot elucidate causal drug abuse predictors. Studies in the U.S. have generally found that anonymous and confidential surveys yield comparable levels of self-reported substance use, yet the effect of survey format on youth self-report has not been…

  20. Emergence of Informal Educative Space out of an Anonymous Online Bulletin Board in Korea during the Global Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Dae Joong; Choi, Seon Joo; Lee, SeungHyeop

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how people learn and teach informally in an anonymous online bulletin board, the primary purpose of which is not learning and teaching. We conducted a qualitative analysis of comments and replies tagged to the most popular postings of an anonymous online bulletin board, during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009.…

  1. 40 CFR 36.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 36.635 Section 36... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 36.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a...

  2. 22 CFR 312.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Drug-free workplace. 312.635 Section 312.635 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work...

  3. 36 CFR 1212.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1212.635... RULES GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1212.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in...

  4. 22 CFR 133.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 133.635 Section 133.635 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  5. 45 CFR 1155.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1155.635 Section 1155.635... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the...

  6. 21 CFR 1405.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1405.635 Section 1405.635 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means...

  7. 45 CFR 630.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 630.635 Section 630.635... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a...

  8. 24 CFR 21.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 21.635 Section... Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a...

  9. 32 CFR 26.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 26.635 Section 26.635... REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 26.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in...

  10. 49 CFR 32.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 32.635 Section 32.635 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  11. 45 CFR 630.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 630.635 Section 630.635... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a...

  12. 38 CFR 48.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 48...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a...

  13. 22 CFR 1509.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Drug-free workplace. 1509.635 Section 1509.635 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  14. 45 CFR 1173.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1173.635 Section 1173.635... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1173.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  15. 32 CFR 26.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 26.635 Section 26.635... REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 26.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in...

  16. 22 CFR 133.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 133.635 Section 133.635 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  17. 22 CFR 210.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 210.635 Section 210.635 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  18. 41 CFR 105-74.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 105... Administration 74-GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 105-74.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done...

  19. 28 CFR 83.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 83.635 Section 83.635 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site...

  20. 34 CFR 84.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 84.635 Section 84.635 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  1. 34 CFR 84.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 84.635 Section 84.635 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  2. 45 CFR 1155.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1155.635 Section 1155.635... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the...

  3. 38 CFR 48.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 48...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a...

  4. 22 CFR 1008.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Drug-free workplace. 1008.635 Section 1008.635 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the...

  5. 24 CFR 21.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 21.635 Section... Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a...

  6. 22 CFR 210.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 210.635 Section 210.635 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  7. 43 CFR 43.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 43.635 Section 43.635 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 43.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a...

  8. 7 CFR 3021.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 3021.635 Section 3021.635..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 3021.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work...

  9. Current Issues and New Agendas in Workplace Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boud, David, Ed.

    This book contains nine papers on current issues and new agendas in workplace learning in Australia. The first paper, "A New Focus on Workplace Learning Research" (David Boud), examines the rise of interest in and conceptions of workplace learning. The next three papers focus on different conceptions of workplace learning: "Fusing Learning and…

  10. 45 CFR 1155.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1155.635 Section 1155.635... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the...

  11. 7 CFR 3021.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 3021.635 Section 3021.635..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 3021.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work...

  12. 2 CFR 1401.235 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1401.235 Section 1401... INTERIOR REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1401.235 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a...

  13. 22 CFR 1008.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Drug-free workplace. 1008.635 Section 1008.635 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the...

  14. 29 CFR 94.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 94.635 Section 94.635 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 94.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done...

  15. 22 CFR 1509.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1509.635 Section 1509.635 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  16. 34 CFR 84.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 84.635 Section 84.635 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  17. 32 CFR 26.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 26.635 Section 26.635... REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 26.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in...

  18. 38 CFR 48.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 48...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a...

  19. 20 CFR 439.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 439.635 Section 439.635 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 439.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  20. 41 CFR 105-74.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 105... Administration 74-GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 105-74.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done...

  1. 29 CFR 1472.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1472.635 Section 1472.635 Labor... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1472.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific award...

  2. 2 CFR 182.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 182.635 Section 182.635... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 182.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a...

  3. 22 CFR 1008.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1008.635 Section 1008.635 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the...

  4. 29 CFR 94.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Drug-free workplace. 94.635 Section 94.635 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 94.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done...

  5. 22 CFR 312.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Drug-free workplace. 312.635 Section 312.635 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work...

  6. 22 CFR 312.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Drug-free workplace. 312.635 Section 312.635 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work...

  7. 29 CFR 94.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 94.635 Section 94.635 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 94.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done...

  8. 22 CFR 1509.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Drug-free workplace. 1509.635 Section 1509.635 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  9. 45 CFR 1155.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1155.635 Section 1155.635... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the...

  10. 49 CFR 32.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 32.635 Section 32.635 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  11. 45 CFR 1155.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1155.635 Section 1155.635... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the...

  12. 22 CFR 1509.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Drug-free workplace. 1509.635 Section 1509.635 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  13. 2 CFR 182.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 182.635 Section 182.635... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 182.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a...

  14. 36 CFR 1212.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1212.635... RULES GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1212.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in...

  15. 22 CFR 1509.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Drug-free workplace. 1509.635 Section 1509.635 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  16. 45 CFR 630.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 630.635 Section 630.635... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a...

  17. 49 CFR 32.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 32.635 Section 32.635 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  18. 34 CFR 84.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 84.635 Section 84.635 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  19. 21 CFR 1405.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1405.635 Section 1405.635 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means...

  20. 22 CFR 312.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Drug-free workplace. 312.635 Section 312.635 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work...

  1. 22 CFR 133.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 133.635 Section 133.635 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  2. 28 CFR 83.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 83.635 Section 83.635 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site...

  3. 7 CFR 3021.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 3021.635 Section 3021.635..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 3021.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work...

  4. 45 CFR 630.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 630.635 Section 630.635... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a...

  5. 34 CFR 84.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 84.635 Section 84.635 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  6. 38 CFR 48.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 48...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a...

  7. 29 CFR 94.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 94.635 Section 94.635 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 94.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done...

  8. 10 CFR 607.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 607.635 Section 607.635 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  9. 21 CFR 1405.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1405.635 Section 1405.635 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means...

  10. 41 CFR 105-74.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 105... Administration 74-GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 105-74.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done...

  11. 29 CFR 1472.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1472.635 Section 1472.635 Labor... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1472.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific award...

  12. 36 CFR 1212.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1212.635... RULES GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1212.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in...

  13. 32 CFR 26.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 26.635 Section 26.635... REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 26.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in...

  14. 22 CFR 1008.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Drug-free workplace. 1008.635 Section 1008.635 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the...

  15. 41 CFR 105-74.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 105... Administration 74-GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 105-74.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done...

  16. 22 CFR 133.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 133.635 Section 133.635 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  17. 2 CFR 1401.235 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1401.235 Section 1401... INTERIOR REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1401.235 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a...

  18. 22 CFR 133.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 133.635 Section 133.635 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...

  19. 28 CFR 83.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 83.635 Section 83.635 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site...

  20. 49 CFR 32.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 32.635 Section 32.635 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for...