Science.gov

Sample records for anrep effect requires

  1. Effective Schools Require Effective Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Michelle; Davis, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    At long last, scholars and policy makers have come to realize what most school administrators have known for years--that effective schools require both outstanding teachers and strong leaders. Although there is considerable research about the characteristics of effective school leaders and the strategies principals can use to help manage…

  2. Requirements for Effective Interviewing Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.; And Others

    Supervisory behaviors considered effective by medical students were identified and organized into descriptive categories. A second study objective was to compare the supervisory behaviors of family physicians and those of behavioral scientists. Eighty-four sophomore medical students completed a critical incident report form at the end of an…

  3. 45 CFR 86.6 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of other requirements. 86.6 Section 86.6... § 86.6 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by...) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with this part is...

  4. 34 CFR 106.6 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of other requirements. 106.6 Section 106.6... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 106.6 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal...; 20 U.S.C. 1681, 1682, 1685) (b) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation...

  5. 34 CFR 106.6 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Effect of other requirements. 106.6 Section 106.6... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 106.6 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal...; 20 U.S.C. 1681, 1682, 1685) (b) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation...

  6. 45 CFR 86.6 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of other requirements. 86.6 Section 86.6... § 86.6 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by...) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with this part is...

  7. 34 CFR 106.6 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Effect of other requirements. 106.6 Section 106.6... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 106.6 Effect of other requirements. (a) Effect of other Federal...; 20 U.S.C. 1681, 1682, 1685) (b) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation...

  8. Effective healthcare teams require effective team members: defining teamwork competencies

    PubMed Central

    Leggat, Sandra G

    2007-01-01

    Background Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. Methods Members of a state branch of the professional association of Australian health service managers participated in a teamwork survey. Results The 37% response rate enabled identification of a management teamwork competency set comprising leadership, knowledge of organizational goals and strategies and organizational commitment, respect for others, commitment to working collaboratively and to achieving a quality outcome. Conclusion Although not part of the research question the data suggested that the competencies for effective teamwork are perceived to be different for management and clinical teams, and there are differences in the perceptions of effective teamwork competencies between male and female health service managers. This study adds to the growing evidence that the focus on individual skill development and individual accountability and achievement that results from existing models of health professional training, and which is continually reinforced by human resource management practices within healthcare systems, is not consistent with the competencies required for effective teamwork. PMID:17284324

  9. 21 CFR 1302.05 - Effective dates of labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.05 Effective dates of labeling requirements. All... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of labeling requirements. 1302.05..., on or before the effective date established in the final order for the transfer or addition....

  10. Removing Remediation Requirements: Effectiveness of Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Anne; Duggan, Mickle; Braddy, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Remediation of incoming college freshman students is a national concern because remediated students are at higher risk of failing to complete their degrees. Some Oklahoma higher education institutions are working to assist K-12 systems in finding ways to reduce the number of incoming college freshman students requiring remediation. This study…

  11. 24 CFR 200.640 - Effect on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect on other requirements. 200.640 Section 200.640 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Regulations § 200.640 Effect on other requirements. The requirement for compliance with this part is...

  12. 24 CFR 200.640 - Effect on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect on other requirements. 200.640 Section 200.640 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Regulations § 200.640 Effect on other requirements. The requirement for compliance with this part is...

  13. Response requirements modulate tactile spatial congruency effects.

    PubMed

    Gallace, Alberto; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Dalton, Polly; Kreukniet, Bas; Spence, Charles

    2008-11-01

    Several recent studies have provided support for the view that tactile stimuli/events are remapped into an abstract spatial frame of reference beyond the initial somatotopic representation present in the primary somatosensory cortex. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the extent to which this remapping of tactile stimuli takes place is dependent upon the particular demands imposed by the task that participants have to perform. Participants in the present study responded to either the elevation (up vs. down) or to the anatomical location (finger vs. thumb) of vibrotactile targets presented to one hand, while trying to ignore distractors presented simultaneously to the other hand. The magnitude and direction of the target-distractor congruency effect was measured as participants adopted one of two different postures with each hand (palm-up or palm-down). When the participants used footpedal responses (toe vs. heel; Experiment 1), congruency effects were determined by the relative elevation of the stimuli in external coordinates (same vs. different elevation), regardless of whether the relevant response feature was defined externally or anatomically. Even when participants responded verbally (Experiment 2), the influence of the relative elevation of the stimuli in external space, albeit attenuated, was still observed. However, when the task involved responding with the stimulated finger (four-alternative forced choice; Experiment 3), congruency effects were virtually eliminated. These findings support the view that tactile events can be remapped according to an abstract frame of reference resulting from multisensory integration, but that the frame of reference that is used while performing a particular task may depend to a large extent on the nature of the task demands. PMID:18709500

  14. 24 CFR 200.121 - Requirements and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Requirements and effectiveness. (a) Multifamily mortgagees, which are required by 24 CFR part 207 to report.... Failure on the part of mortgagees to report this information as required by 24 CFR part 207 and this section may result in HUD's application of the sanctions and surcharges specified in 24 CFR part 207....

  15. 45 CFR 86.6 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with this part is not obviated or alleviated by any State or local law or other requirement which would render any applicant or... any occupation or profession. (c) Effect of rules or regulations of private organizations....

  16. 16 CFR 1109.5 - Conditions, requirements, and effects generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conditions, requirements, and effects generally. 1109.5 Section 1109.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CONDITIONS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR RELYING ON COMPONENT PART TESTING OR CERTIFICATION, OR ANOTHER PARTY'S FINISHED PRODUCT...

  17. 7 CFR 15a.5 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...); and any other act of Congress or Federal regulation. (b) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with this part is not obviated or alleviated by any State or local law... compliance with HEW regulations. If a recipient is covered by the title IX regulations issued by HEW, 45...

  18. Requirements for effective use of CFD in aerospace design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Pradeep

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective on the requirements that Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology must meet for its effective use in aerospace design. General observations are made on current aerospace design practices and deficiencies are noted that must be rectified for the U.S. aerospace industry to maintain its leadership position in the global marketplace. In order to rectify deficiencies, industry is transitioning to an integrated product and process development (IPPD) environment and design processes are undergoing radical changes. The role of CFD in producing data that design teams need to support flight vehicle development is briefly discussed. An overview of the current state of the art in CFD is given to provide an assessment of strengths and weaknesses of the variety of methods currently available, or under development, to produce aerodynamic data. Effectiveness requirements are examined from a customer/supplier view point with design team as customer and CFD practitioner as supplier. Partnership between the design team and CFD team is identified as an essential requirement for effective use of CFD. Rapid turnaround, reliable accuracy, and affordability are offered as three key requirements that CFD community must address if CFD is to play its rightful role in supporting the IPPD design environment needed to produce high quality yet affordable designs.

  19. Coverage Metrics for Requirements-Based Testing: Evaluation of Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staats, Matt; Whalen, Michael W.; Heindahl, Mats P. E.; Rajan, Ajitha

    2010-01-01

    In black-box testing, the tester creates a set of tests to exercise a system under test without regard to the internal structure of the system. Generally, no objective metric is used to measure the adequacy of black-box tests. In recent work, we have proposed three requirements coverage metrics, allowing testers to objectively measure the adequacy of a black-box test suite with respect to a set of requirements formalized as Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) properties. In this report, we evaluate the effectiveness of these coverage metrics with respect to fault finding. Specifically, we conduct an empirical study to investigate two questions: (1) do test suites satisfying a requirements coverage metric provide better fault finding than randomly generated test suites of approximately the same size?, and (2) do test suites satisfying a more rigorous requirements coverage metric provide better fault finding than test suites satisfying a less rigorous requirements coverage metric? Our results indicate (1) only one coverage metric proposed -- Unique First Cause (UFC) coverage -- is sufficiently rigorous to ensure test suites satisfying the metric outperform randomly generated test suites of similar size and (2) that test suites satisfying more rigorous coverage metrics provide better fault finding than test suites satisfying less rigorous coverage metrics.

  20. Alignment techniques required by precise measurement of effective focal length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of false color imagery produced by instrumentation on earth resource mapping satellites are examined. The spatial fidelity of the imagery is dependent upon the geometric accuracy (GA) and the band-to-band registration (BBR) with which the telescope instrument is assembled. BBR and GA require knowledge of telescope effective focal length (EFL) to one part in 10,000 in order that the next generation of earth mappers be able to carry out their missions. The basis for this level of precision is briefly considered, and a description is given of the means by which such precise EFL measurements have been carried out. Attention is given to accuracy requirements, the technique used to measure effective focal length, possible sources of error in the EFL measurement, approaches for eliminating errors, and the results of the efforts to control measurement errors in EFL determinations.

  1. What Conditions are Required to Initiate the Lenr Effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storms, Edmund

    2005-12-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that previous understanding of the environment in which the Pons-Fleischmann effect occurs is wrong. The environment is not highly loaded β-PdD. Instead, it is a complex alloy that may or may not contain palladium. In addition, the size of the domains in which the nuclear reactions take place is critically important. This new insight requires different explanations and experimental approaches than have been previously used.

  2. Effects of Varying Trait Inconsistency and Response Requirements on the Primacy Effect in Impression Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, Clyde; Costantini, Arthur F.

    1970-01-01

    Suggests that serial presentation of inconsistent information results in a primacy effect in subjects, and that the experimenter.s response requirements are responsible for any recency effects obtained. The results are interpreted in terms of attention redistribution. (RW)

  3. The effect of requirements prioritization on avionics system conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorentz, John

    project schedule, resulting in greater success during system deployment and operational testing. This dissertation will discuss the data and findings from participant studies, present a literature review of systems engineering and design processes, and test the hypothesis that the prioritization process had no effect on stakeholder sentiment related to the conceptual design. In addition, the "Requirements Rationalization" process will be discussed in detail. Avionics, like many other systems, has transitioned from a discrete electronics engineering, hard engineering discipline to incorporate software engineering as a core process of the technology development cycle. As with other software-based systems, avionics now has significant soft system attributes that must be considered in the design process. The boundless opportunities that exist in software design demand prioritization to focus effort onto the critical functions that the software must provide. This has been a well documented and understood phenomenon in the software development community for many years. This dissertation will attempt to link the effect of software integrated avionics to the benefits of prioritization of requirements in the problem space and demonstrate the sociological and technical benefits of early prioritization practices.

  4. Active prospective control is required for effective sensorimotor learning.

    PubMed

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Casserly, Elizabeth; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2013-01-01

    Passive modeling of movements is often used in movement therapy to overcome disabilities caused by stroke or other disorders (e.g. Developmental Coordination Disorder or Cerebral Palsy). Either a therapist or, recently, a specially designed robot moves or guides the limb passively through the movement to be trained. In contrast, action theory has long suggested that effective skill acquisition requires movements to be actively generated. Is this true? In view of the former, we explicitly tested the latter. Previously, a method was developed that allows children with Developmental Coordination Disorder to produce effective movements actively, so as to improve manual performance to match that of typically developing children. In the current study, we tested practice using such active movements as compared to practice using passive movement. The passive movement employed, namely haptic tracking, provided a strong test of the comparison, one that showed that the mere inaction of the muscles is not the problem. Instead, lack of prospective control was. The result was no effective learning with passive movement while active practice with prospective control yielded significant improvements in performance. PMID:24194891

  5. Active Prospective Control Is Required for Effective Sensorimotor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Casserly, Elizabeth; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2013-01-01

    Passive modeling of movements is often used in movement therapy to overcome disabilities caused by stroke or other disorders (e.g. Developmental Coordination Disorder or Cerebral Palsy). Either a therapist or, recently, a specially designed robot moves or guides the limb passively through the movement to be trained. In contrast, action theory has long suggested that effective skill acquisition requires movements to be actively generated. Is this true? In view of the former, we explicitly tested the latter. Previously, a method was developed that allows children with Developmental Coordination Disorder to produce effective movements actively, so as to improve manual performance to match that of typically developing children. In the current study, we tested practice using such active movements as compared to practice using passive movement. The passive movement employed, namely haptic tracking, provided a strong test of the comparison, one that showed that the mere inaction of the muscles is not the problem. Instead, lack of prospective control was. The result was no effective learning with passive movement while active practice with prospective control yielded significant improvements in performance. PMID:24194891

  6. Identifying Requirements for Effective Human-Automation Teamwork

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; John O'Hara; Heather D. Medema; Johanna H. Oxstrand

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that poorly designed human-automation collaboration, such as poorly designed communication protocols, often leads to problems for the human operators, such as: lack of vigilance, complacency, and loss of skills. These problems often lead to suboptimal system performance. To address this situation, a considerable amount of research has been conducted to improve human-automation collaboration and to make automation function better as a “team player.” Much of this research is based on an understanding of what it means to be a good team player from the perspective of a human team. However, the research is often based on a simplified view of human teams and teamwork. In this study, we sought to better understand the capabilities and limitations of automation from the standpoint of human teams. We first examined human teams to identify the principles for effective teamwork. We next reviewed the research on integrating automation agents and human agents into mixed agent teams to identify the limitations of automation agents to conform to teamwork principles. This research resulted in insights that can lead to more effective human-automation collaboration by enabling a more realistic set of requirements to be developed based on the strengths and limitations of all agents.

  7. The Impact on Space Radiation Requirements and Effects on ASIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Johnston, A.; Swift, G.

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of highly miniaturized electronic and mechanical systems will be accompanied by new problems and issues regarding the radiation response of these systems in the space environment. In this paper we discuss some of the more prominent radiation problems brought about by miniaturization. For example, autonomous micro-spacecraft will require large amounts of high density memory, most likely in the form of stacked, multichip modules of DRAM's, that must tolerate the radiation environment. However, advanced DRAM's (16 to 256 Mbit) are quite susceptible to radiation, particularly single event effects, and even exhibit new radiation phenomena that were not a problem for older, less dense memory chips. Another important trend in micro-spacecraft electronics is toward the use of low-voltage microelectronic systems that consume less power. However, the reduction in operating voltage also caries with it an increased susceptibility to radiation. In the case of application specific integrated microcircuits (ASIM's), advanced devices of this type, such as high density field programmable gate arrays (FPGA's) exhibit new single event effects (SEE), such as single particle reprogramming of anti-fuse links. New advanced bipolar circuits have been shown recently to degrade more rapidly in the low dose rate space environment than in the typical laboratory total dose radiation test used to qualify such devices. Thus total dose testing of these parts is no longer an appropriately conservative measure to be used for hardness assurance. We also note that the functionality of micromechanical Si-based devices may be altered due to the radiation-induced deposition of charge in the oxide passivation layers.

  8. Can Current Electronic Systems Meet Drug Safety and Effectiveness Requirements?

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Anne; Grootendorst, Paul; Willison, Don; Goldsmith, Charles; Sebaldt, Rolf; Keshavjee, Karim

    2005-01-01

    Background Every health policy jurisdiction is endeavoring to enhance its ability to evaluate drug effectiveness, safety and cost in the real world (pharmacosurveillance). Methods A nominal group consensus conference of stakeholders finalized data items deemed necessary for pharmacosurveillance. Large administrative datasets (LADs), electronic health records (EHRs) and electronic patient registries (PRs), were investigated as sources of this information and for their vulnerability to methodologic bias. Health data privacy legislation and research guidelines were systematically reviewed for their constraint to linked data resource analyses. Results More than 129 data items were strongly recommended for routine pharmacosurveillance. LADs had very complete information, but restricted to a small number of required data items. EHRs, especially with e-pharmacy links, offer by far the most complete set of health information domains but data entry completeness is highly variable. Adjustment methods for channeling bias are inadequate to mimic randomized trials. Anonymized, linked data held within a secure academic research environment, poses the least privacy concerns. Conclusions Notwithstanding major technical, methodologic and privacy challenges, individual-level linkage of health data resources poses the best option for pharmacosurveillance today. In future, drug regulators and reimbursement agencies should consider mandatory post-marketing randomized trials. PMID:16779057

  9. Effect of particulate adjuvant on the anthrax protective antigen dose required for effective nasal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Bento, Dulce; Staats, Herman F; Borges, Olga

    2015-07-17

    Successful vaccine development is dependent on the development of effective adjuvants since the poor immunogenicity of modern subunit vaccines typically requires the use of potent adjuvants and high antigen doses. In recent years, adjuvant formulations combining both immunopotentiators and delivery systems have emerged as a promising strategy to develop effective and improved vaccines. In this study we investigate if the association of the mast cell activating adjuvant compound 48/80 (C48/80) with chitosan nanoparticles would promote an antigen dose sparing effect when administered intranasally. Even though the induction of strong mucosal immunity required higher antigen doses, incorporation of C48/80 into nanoparticles provided significant dose sparing when compared to antigen and C48/80 in solution with no significant effect on serum neutralizing antibodies titers. These results suggest the potential of this novel adjuvant combination to improve the immunogenicity of a vaccine and decrease the antigen dose required for vaccination. PMID:26087299

  10. 14 CFR § 1253.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. § 1253.535 Section § 1253.535 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Prohibited § 1253.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements. (a) Prohibitory requirements....

  11. Thermal dose requirement for tissue effect: experimental and clinical findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewhirst, Mark; Viglianti, Benjamin L.; Lora-Michiels, Michael; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hanson, Margaret A.

    2003-06-01

    In this review we have summarized the basic principles that govern the relationships between thermal exposure (temperature and time of exposure) and thermal damage, with an emphasis on normal tissue effects. We have also attempted to identify specific thermal dose information (for safety and injury) for a variety of tissues in a variety of species. We address the use, accuracy and difficulty of conversion of an individual time and temperature (thermal dose) to a standardized value (eg equivalent minutes at 43degC) for comparison of thermal treatments. Although, the conversion algorithm appears to work well within a range of moderately elevated temperatures (2-15degC) above normal physiologic baseline (37-39degC) there is concern that conversion accuracy does not hold up for temperatures which are minimally or significantly above baseline. An extensive review of the literature suggests a comprehensive assessment of the "thermal dose-to-tissue effect" has not previously been assembled for most individual tissues and never been viewed in a semi-comprehensive (tissues and species) manner. Finally, we have addressed the relationship of thermal dose-to-effect vs. baseline temperature. This issues is important since much of the thermal dose-to-effect information has been accrued in animal models with baseline temperatures 1-2 deg higher than that of humans.

  12. 78 FR 44559 - Effective Date of Revised Company Registration Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Register, 78 FR 10,614 (February 14, 2013), requesting public comments by April 15, 2013. DATES: Effective... share its company registration password.\\2\\ Under the new system, the filer will maintain a list of e... Technical Conference, 142 FERC ] 61,097 (2013). \\2\\ A company with an existing CID will use its password...

  13. Butcher, Baker, Candlestick Maker: Skills Required for Effective Multimedia Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hon, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents a matrix of skills necessary for multimedia development. Skills are identified in business, artistic, and technical areas. These skills are then applied to the following reasons for multimedia use: to condense time and material; to effect rapid skills transfer; and to manage feedback and evaluation. (MES)

  14. Effects of Nakagami fading on antijam performance requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hussaini, E. K.

    1988-02-01

    The effect of fading on antijam (AJ) performance is considered when the envelopes of both the desired signal and the jamming signal fade with a Nakagami distribution. Two cases are analyzed for conventional systems. In the first case, the fading is assumed to be slow compared with the duration of the message. In the second case, the fading is assumed to be slow compared with the symbol duration but fast compared with the message duration. For both cases numerical results are also included.

  15. Angular glint effects generation for false naval target verisimility requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostis, Theodoros G.; Galanis, Konstantinos G.; Katsikas, Sokratis K.

    2009-10-01

    A stimulating problem in the generation of coherent countermeasures for high range resolution radar systems is the inclusion of angular glint effects in the preparation of the false target mask. Since angular glint is representative of extended naval targets, this inclusion increases the credibility factor of the decoy playback signal at the adversary radar-operator station. In this paper, the ability of an interferometric inverse synthetic aperture radar (InISAR) simulator to provide a proof of concept towards the clarification of this challenging task is ascertained. The solution consists of three novel vector representations of the generated data, which are proven to behave according to the laws of physics governing the glint phenomenon. The first depiction is the angular glint injection at the target which is followed by the representation of the wavefront distortion at the radar. A value-added time procession integration of the target in pure roll motion provides an expected by ISAR theory side-view image of the naval extended false target. The effectiveness of the proposed approach through verification and validation of the results by using the method of pictorial evidence is established. A final argument is raised on the usage of this software tool for actual obfuscation and deception actions for air defence at sea applications.

  16. Clutter effects on airborne tracking resolution requirements for urban vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Aaron L.; Miller, Brian; Richardson, Phillip; Ra, Chun

    2010-04-01

    This paper details the development, experimentation, collected data and the results of research designed to gain an understanding of the effects of clutter on the temporal and spatial image collection guidelines for tracking urban vehicles. More specifically, a quantitative understanding of the relationship between human observer performance and the spatial and temporal resolution is sought. Performance is measured as a function of the number of video frames per second, imager spatial resolution and the ability of the observer to accurately determine the destination of a moving vehicle target as it encounters vehicles with similar infrared signatures. The research is restricted to data and imagery collected from altitudes typical of modern low to mid altitude persistent surveillance platforms using a wide field of view. The ability of the human observer to perform an unaided track of the vehicle was determined by their completion of carefully designed perception experiments. In these experiments, the observers were presented with simulated imagery from Night Vision's EOSim urban terrain simulator. The details of the simulated targets and backgrounds, the design of the experiments and their associated results are included in this treatment.

  17. Effects of exercise on chromium levels. Is supplementation required?

    PubMed

    Clarkson, P M

    1997-06-01

    It is estimated that most individuals are not ingesting sufficient amounts of chromium in their diets. Although there is little information on chromium intake in athletes, many athletes ingest more calories than do non-athletes so their chromium intake should be adequate. However, athletes who restrict calories to maintain low bodyweights could compromise their chromium status. Some evidence also shows that exercise may increase chromium loss into the urine. At present, it is not known whether this loss necessitates additional chromium in the diet or whether the body will increase retention in response to the loss. Chromium deficiency is thought to contribute to glucose intolerance and unhealthy blood lipid profiles. The primary function of chromium is to potentiate the effects of insulin, and thereby alter glucose, amino acid and fat metabolism. Chromium supplements have been purported to increase muscle mass and decrease body fat. However, the preponderance of evidence has not supported this claim. There is little information available on the long term use of chromium supplements, but at present, supplements within the Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Allowance (ESADDI) level do not appear harmful. The prudent course of action for athletes would be to ingest foods rich in chromium and perhaps take a multivitamin/mineral supplement containing no more than the ESADDI of chromium. PMID:9219318

  18. 10 CFR 1040.64 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 1040.64 Section 1040.64 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL... State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. (a) The obligation...

  19. 14 CFR 1253.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1253.535 Section 1253.535 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... of state or local law or other requirements. (a) Prohibitory requirements. The obligation to...

  20. 14 CFR 1253.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1253.535 Section 1253.535 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... of state or local law or other requirements. (a) Prohibitory requirements. The obligation to...

  1. 10 CFR 1042.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1042.535 Section 1042.535 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS... state or local law or other requirements. (a) Prohibitory requirements. The obligation to comply...

  2. 10 CFR 1042.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1042.535 Section 1042.535 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS... state or local law or other requirements. (a) Prohibitory requirements. The obligation to comply...

  3. 18 CFR 1317.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1317.535 Section 1317.535 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements....

  4. 18 CFR 1317.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1317.535 Section 1317.535 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements....

  5. 18 CFR 1317.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1317.535 Section 1317.535 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements....

  6. 18 CFR 1317.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1317.535 Section 1317.535 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements....

  7. 18 CFR 1317.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1317.535 Section 1317.535 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements....

  8. 29 CFR 453.25 - Effective date of the bonding requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date of the bonding requirement. 453.25 Section... LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE BONDING REQUIREMENTS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Miscellaneous Provisions § 453.25 Effective date of the...

  9. 29 CFR 453.25 - Effective date of the bonding requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effective date of the bonding requirement. 453.25 Section... LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE BONDING REQUIREMENTS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Miscellaneous Provisions § 453.25 Effective date of the...

  10. 45 CFR 618.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements... SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING... Activities Prohibited § 618.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements. (a)...

  11. 45 CFR 618.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements... SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING... Activities Prohibited § 618.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements. (a)...

  12. 15 CFR 8b.10 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 8b.10 Section 8b.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of... other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. (a) The obligation to comply with this part... employment opportunities in any occupation or profession are or may be more limited for...

  13. 22 CFR 142.10 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 142.10 Section 142.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF... requirements and effect of employment opportunities. (a) The obligation to comply with this part is not... is not obviated or alleviated because employment opportunities in any occupation or profession are...

  14. 38 CFR 18.410 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 18.410 Section 18.410 Pensions... law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. (a) The obligation to comply with... this part is not obviated or alleviated because employment opportunities in any occupation...

  15. Effects of Differing Response-Force Requirements on Food-Maintained Responding in CD-1 Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarcone, Troy J.; Chen, Rong; Fowler, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of force requirements on response effort was examined using outbred (CD-1) mice trained to press a disk with their snout. Lateral peak forces greater than 2 g were defined as threshold responses (i.e., all measured responses). Different force requirements were used to define criterion responses (a subclass of threshold responses) that…

  16. The Effect of Lift on Entry Corridor Depth and Guidance Requirements for the Return Lunar Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Thomas J.; Slye, Robert E.

    1961-01-01

    Corridors for manned vehicles are defined consistent with requirements for avoiding radiation exposure and for limiting values of peak deceleration. Use of lift increases the depth of the entry corridor. Mid-course guidance requirements appear to be critical only for the flight-path angle. Increasing the energy of the transport orbit increases the required guidance accuracy for the flight-path angle. Corrective thrust applied essentially parallel to the local horizontal produces the maximum change in perigee altitude for a given increment of velocity. Energy required to effect a given change in perigee altitude varies inversely with range measured from the center of the earth.

  17. 29 CFR 32.10 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... effect of employment opportunities. 32.10 Section 32.10 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor... Provisions § 32.10 Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities... is not obviated or alleviated because employment opportunities in any occupation or profession are...

  18. 45 CFR 1170.4 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and effect of employment opportunities. 1170.4 Section 1170.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... Provisions § 1170.4 Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities... employment opportunities in any occupation or profession are or may be more limited for handicapped...

  19. 34 CFR 104.10 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... effect of employment opportunities. 104.10 Section 104.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. (a) The... opportunities in any occupation or profession are or may be more limited for handicapped persons than...

  20. 14 CFR 1251.109 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 1251.109 Section 1251.109 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP General Provisions § 1251.109 Effect of State or local law or...

  1. 14 CFR 1251.109 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 1251.109 Section 1251.109 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP General Provisions § 1251.109 Effect of State or local law or...

  2. Nursing Home Staffing Requirements and Input Substitution: Effects on Housekeeping, Food Service, and Activities Staff

    PubMed Central

    Bowblis, John R; Hyer, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of minimum nurse staffing requirements on the subsequent employment of nursing home support staff. Data Sources Nursing home data from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) System merged with state nurse staffing requirements. Study Design Facility-level housekeeping, food service, and activities staff levels are regressed on nurse staffing requirements and other controls using fixed effect panel regression. Data Extraction Method OSCAR surveys from 1999 to 2004. Principal Findings Increases in state direct care and licensed nurse staffing requirements are associated with decreases in the staffing levels of all types of support staff. Conclusions Increased nursing home nurse staffing requirements lead to input substitution in the form of reduced support staffing levels. PMID:23445455

  3. Effect of drugs on response-duration differentiation VII: response-force requirements.

    PubMed Central

    McClure, G Y; Hardwick, W C; McMillan, D E

    2000-01-01

    Rats were trained to press a lever for at least 1 s but for less than 1.3 s. The force required to press the lever was then increased or decreased by 10, 15, or 20 g. Increases in the force requirements for lever pressing decreased timing accuracy, but decreases in the force requirement had the opposite effect. Accuracy decreases at increasing force requirements were characterized by an increase in the relative frequency of responses that were too short to meet the reinforcement criterion. In contrast, increases in accuracy when the force requirements were decreased were characterized by increases in response durations that met the reinforcement criterion and decreases in the relative frequency of responses that were too short to produce the reinforcer. Phencyclidine (PCP) and methamphetamine produced dose-dependent decreases in accuracy that were associated primarily with increases in the relative frequency of short response durations, although methamphetamine also produced increases in long response durations at some doses. When the effects of PCP were determined with the force requirement increased by 10 g or decreased by 15 g, the cumulative response-duration distribution shifted toward even shorter response durations. When the effects of methamphetamine were determined with the force requirement on the lever increased by 10 g, the cumulative frequency distribution was shifted toward shorter response durations to about the same extent as it had been before force requirements increased; however, when the force required to press the lever was decreased by 15 g, these shifts toward shorter response durations almost completely disappeared. These results show that increases and decreases in the force requirements for lever pressing have different effects on the accuracy of temporal response differentiation. PMID:11218227

  4. 21 CFR 892.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 892.3 Section 892.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 892.3 Effective dates...

  5. 21 CFR 892.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 892.3 Section 892.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 892.3 Effective dates...

  6. 21 CFR 892.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 892.3 Section 892.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 892.3 Effective dates...

  7. 21 CFR 892.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 892.3 Section 892.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 892.3 Effective dates...

  8. 21 CFR 868.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 868.3 Section 868.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 868.3 Effective dates...

  9. 21 CFR 868.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 868.3 Section 868.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 868.3 Effective dates...

  10. 21 CFR 868.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 868.3 Section 868.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 868.3 Effective dates...

  11. 21 CFR 868.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 868.3 Section 868.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 868.3 Effective dates...

  12. 21 CFR 868.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 868.3 Section 868.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 868.3 Effective dates...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 872.3 Section 872.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES General Provisions § 872.3 Effective dates...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 872.3 Section 872.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES General Provisions § 872.3 Effective dates...

  15. Effects of Required and Optional Exchange Tasks in Online Language Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandl, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of an optional and required (jigsaw) task on learners' quantity and quality of use of language under synchronous and asynchronous conditions. The question raised is: Does performing either of these task types under synchronous conditions cause a compounding effect that either positively or negatively impacts…

  16. 21 CFR 886.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 886.3 Section 886.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES General Provisions § 886.3 Effective dates...

  17. 21 CFR 892.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 892.3 Section 892.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 892.3 Effective dates...

  18. 10 CFR 5.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 5.535 Section 5.535 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.535 Effect of state or local law or...

  19. 42 CFR 456.652 - Requirements for an effective utilization control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for an effective utilization control... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Penalty for Failure To Make a Satisfactory Showing of an Effective Institutional Utilization Control Program §...

  20. Changing Perceptions of Diversity and Oppression: MSW Students Discuss the Effects of a Required Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Betty; Van Soest, Dorothy

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 43 master's social work students enrolled in a required course on diversity and oppression investigated the course's effect on their understanding of their social identity, on cognitive and affective changes as students considered the effects of discrimination and oppression, and on students' discoveries about barriers to and resources…

  1. 10 CFR 5.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 5.535 Section 5.535 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.535 Effect of state or local law or...

  2. Effects of differing response-force requirements on food-maintained responding in CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Zarcone, Troy J; Chen, Rong; Fowler, Stephen C

    2007-11-01

    The effect of force requirements on response effort was examined using outbred (CD-1) mice trained to press a disk with their snout. Lateral peak forces greater than 2 g were defined as threshold responses (i.e., all measured responses). Different force requirements were used to define criterion responses (a subclass of threshold responses) that exceeded the requirement. The reinforcer was sweetened, condensed milk, and it was delivered upon response termination. All mice were exposed to two ascending series of criterion force requirements (2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 g). Increasing the force requirement decreased criterion response rates, but increased threshold response rates. The time-integral of force (area under the force-time curve for individual responses, which is proportional to energy expenditure for each response) increased with the increase in the force requirement. These results conflict with the hypothesis that higher force requirements have aversive qualities and suggest that increased force requirements are more analogous to intermittent schedules of reinforcement. These data suggest that estimations of effort or energy expenditure should be measured independently of the force requirement. Individual differences in responding were found for the CD-1 outbred stock. PMID:18047228

  3. Low-dose radiation, scientific scrutiny, and requirements for demonstrating effects.

    PubMed

    Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Recent nuclear accidents have prompted renewed interest in the fitness consequences of low-dose radiation. Hiyama et al. provided information on such effects in the Japanese pale grass blue butterfly in a paper that has been viewed more than 300,000 times, prompting a barrage of criticism. These exchanges highlight the role of scrutiny in studies with potential effects on humans, but also raise questions about minimum requirements for demonstrating biological effects. PMID:23987799

  4. 45 CFR 84.10 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and effect of employment opportunities. 84.10 Section 84.10 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. (a) The obligation to comply with this part... comply with this part is not obviated or alleviated because employment opportunities in any occupation...

  5. 10 CFR 1040.64 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... effect of employment opportunities. 1040.64 Section 1040.64 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL... State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. (a) The obligation to... obligation to comply with this part is not obviated or alleviated because employment opportunities in...

  6. 22 CFR 217.10 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 217.10 Section 217.10 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR... effect of employment opportunities. (a) The obligation to comply with this part is not obviated or... obviated or alleviated because employment opportunities in any occupation or profession are or may be...

  7. 14 CFR § 1251.109 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. § 1251.109 Section § 1251.109 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP General...

  8. 14 CFR 1251.109 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 1251.109 Section 1251.109 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP General Provisions §...

  9. 14 CFR 1251.109 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 1251.109 Section 1251.109 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP General Provisions §...

  10. 45 CFR 605.10 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 605.10 Section 605.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP...

  11. 45 CFR 605.10 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 605.10 Section 605.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 862.3 Section 862.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES General...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 862.3 Section 862.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES General...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 862.3 Section 862.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES General...

  15. 28 CFR 54.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.535 Effect... or other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one sex...

  16. 24 CFR 3.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 3.535 Section 3.535 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS...

  17. 21 CFR 862.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 862.3 Section 862.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES General...

  18. 21 CFR 862.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 862.3 Section 862.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES General...

  19. 21 CFR 876.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 876.3 Section 876.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 876.3...

  20. The Competencies Required for Effective Performance in a University e-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Mitchell; Reading, Christine; Stein, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and rate the importance of the competencies required by students for effective performance in a university e-learning environment mediated by a learning management system. Two expert panels identified 58 e-learning competencies considered to be essential for e-learning. Of these competencies, 22 were related…

  1. 21 CFR 878.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 878.3 Section 878.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  2. 21 CFR 878.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 878.3 Section 878.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  3. 49 CFR 25.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.535 Effect... or other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one sex...

  4. 26 CFR 1.527-8 - Effective date; filing requirements; and miscellaneous provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective date; filing requirements; and miscellaneous provisions. 1.527-8 Section 1.527-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Farmers' Cooperatives §...

  5. 26 CFR 1.527-8 - Effective date; filing requirements; and miscellaneous provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Effective date; filing requirements; and miscellaneous provisions. 1.527-8 Section 1.527-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Farmers' Cooperatives §...

  6. 26 CFR 1.527-8 - Effective date; filing requirements; and miscellaneous provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective date; filing requirements; and miscellaneous provisions. 1.527-8 Section 1.527-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Farmers' Cooperatives §...

  7. 21 CFR 874.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 874.3 Section 874.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES General Provisions § 874.3...

  8. 21 CFR 874.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 874.3 Section 874.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES General Provisions § 874.3...

  9. 21 CFR 874.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 874.3 Section 874.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES General Provisions § 874.3...

  10. 21 CFR 874.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 874.3 Section 874.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES General Provisions § 874.3...

  11. 21 CFR 874.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 874.3 Section 874.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES General Provisions § 874.3...

  12. 12 CFR 1008.109 - Effective date of state requirements imposed on individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effective date of state requirements imposed on individuals. 1008.109 Section 1008.109 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION S.A.F.E... obtaining state licenses within one year....

  13. 40 CFR 5.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements. 5.535 Section 5.535 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.535 Effect...

  14. 26 CFR 1.527-8 - Effective date; filing requirements; and miscellaneous provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Effective date; filing requirements; and miscellaneous provisions. 1.527-8 Section 1.527-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Farmers' Cooperatives §...

  15. Effects of Requiring Students to Meet High Expectation Levels within an On-Line Homework Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, William J., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    On-line homework is becoming a larger part of mathematics classrooms each year. Thus, ways to maximize the effectiveness of on-line homework for both students and teachers must be investigated. This study sought to provide one possible answer to this aim, by requiring students to achieve at least 50% for any on-line homework assignment in order to…

  16. Development and Assessment of the Effectiveness of an Undergraduate General Education Foreign Language Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; Walther, Ingeborg; Tufts, Clare; Lee, Kunshan Carolyn; Paredes, Liliana; Fellin, Luciana; Andrews, Edna; Serra, Matt; Hill, Jennifer L.; Tate, Eleanor B.; Schlosberg, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a faculty-led, multiyear process of formulating learning objectives and assessing the effectiveness of a foreign language requirement for all College of Arts and Sciences undergraduates at a research university. Three interrelated research questions were addressed: (1) What were the levels and patterns of language courses…

  17. 40 CFR 5.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.535 Effect of... other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one sex that are...

  18. Aptitude Test Score Validity: No Moderating Effect Due to Job Ability Requirement Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gwen E.; Ree, Malcolm James

    1998-01-01

    This study tested the specificity-generality hypothesis regarding moderation of aptitude test validity by job ability requirement differences using 24,482 Air Force enlistees in 37 jobs. Moderating effects due to job differences were not found, and job ability differences did not moderate the relationship between the amount of "g" measured by a…

  19. 21 CFR 878.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 878.3 Section 878.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  20. 21 CFR 878.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 878.3 Section 878.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  1. 21 CFR 878.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 878.3 Section 878.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 866.3 Section 866.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 866.3 Section 866.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 866.3 Section 866.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 866.3 Section 866.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 866.3 Section 866.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  7. 78 FR 40773 - Order Imposing Requirements for the Protection of Certain Safeguards Information (Effective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... entities participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR... COMMISSION Order Imposing Requirements for the Protection of Certain Safeguards Information (Effective... Information Described Herein I The Licensee, identified in Attachment 1 \\1\\ to this Order, holds a ]...

  8. 17 CFR 201.153 - Filing of papers: Signature requirement and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Filing of papers: Signature requirement and effect. 201.153 Section 201.153 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.153 Filing of papers:...

  9. 21 CFR 876.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 876.3 Section 876.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 876.3...

  10. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  11. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  12. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  13. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  14. 14 CFR 377.10 - Requirements for, and effect of, renewal applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for, and effect of, renewal applications. 377.10 Section 377.10 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS CONTINUANCE OF EXPIRED AUTHORIZATIONS BY OPERATION OF LAW PENDING FINAL DETERMINATION...

  15. 14 CFR 1253.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1253.535 Section 1253.535 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of...

  16. 14 CFR 377.10 - Requirements for, and effect of, renewal applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for, and effect of, renewal applications. 377.10 Section 377.10 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS CONTINUANCE OF EXPIRED AUTHORIZATIONS BY OPERATION OF LAW...

  17. 14 CFR 1253.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1253.535 Section 1253.535 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of...

  18. 14 CFR 377.10 - Requirements for, and effect of, renewal applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for, and effect of, renewal applications. 377.10 Section 377.10 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS CONTINUANCE OF EXPIRED AUTHORIZATIONS BY OPERATION OF LAW...

  19. 14 CFR 377.10 - Requirements for, and effect of, renewal applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for, and effect of, renewal applications. 377.10 Section 377.10 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS CONTINUANCE OF EXPIRED AUTHORIZATIONS BY OPERATION OF LAW...

  20. 14 CFR 377.10 - Requirements for, and effect of, renewal applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for, and effect of, renewal applications. 377.10 Section 377.10 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS CONTINUANCE OF EXPIRED AUTHORIZATIONS BY OPERATION OF LAW...

  1. 21 CFR 864.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 864.3 Section 864.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 864.3...

  2. 21 CFR 864.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 864.3 Section 864.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 864.3...

  3. 21 CFR 864.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 864.3 Section 864.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 864.3...

  4. 21 CFR 864.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 864.3 Section 864.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 864.3...

  5. 21 CFR 864.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 864.3 Section 864.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 864.3...

  6. [Achromatic watercolor effect: about requirement of formation of sumi painting effect].

    PubMed

    Takashima, Midori

    2008-10-01

    The watercolor effect (Pinna, Brelstaff, & Spillmann, 2001) is a new color spreading phenomenon. Pinna et al. (2001) proposed that the watercolor effect is a new Gestalt factor because it determines figure-ground organization more strongly than classical Gestalt factors. We used achroriatic watercolor patterns and varied the lightness of the background and two border lines to study the relationship between the color spreading effect and figure-ground organization. The results demonstrated (a)a bidirectional color spreading phenomenon when the background lightness was between the two border-lines' lightness, and that (b) some patterns elicit only a color spreading effect without organization of figure-ground, while others elicit only figure-ground organization without a color spreading effect. PMID:19069121

  7. 43 CFR 17.209 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 17.209 Section 17.209 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... employment opportunities. (a) The obligation to comply with this subpart is not obviated or alleviated by the... alleviated because employment opportunities in any occupation or profession are or may be more limited...

  8. 41 CFR 101-8.304 - Effect of State or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 101-8.304 Section 101-8.304 Public... of employment opportunities. (a) The obligation to comply with this subpart is not obviated or... obviated or alleviated because employment opportunities in any occupation or profession are or may be...

  9. The Implementation and Effects of High School Graduation Requirements: First Steps toward Curricular Reform. CPRE Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clune, William H.; And Others

    The focus of this study is the implementation and effects of high school graduation requirements enacted as a result of the recent wave of state reforms of education. The study concentrates on high school graduation course requirements. Interview data on the intent and effects of the requirements were gathered in six states, 24 districts, 32 high…

  10. Effects of pre-trial response requirements on self-control choices by rats and pigeons.

    PubMed

    Mazur, James E

    2012-03-01

    Parallel experiments with rats and pigeons examined whether the size of a pre-trial ratio requirement would affect choices in a self-control situation. In different conditions, either 1 response or 40 responses were required before each trial. In the first half of each experiment, an adjusting-ratio schedule was used, in which subjects could choose a fixed-ratio schedule leading to a small reinforcer, or an adjusting-ratio schedule leading to a larger reinforcer. The size of the adjusting ratio requirement was increased and decreased over trials based on the subject's responses, in order to estimate an indifference point-a ratio at which the two alternatives were chosen about equally often. The second half of each experiment used an adjusting-delay procedure-fixed and adjusting delays to the small and large reinforcers were used instead of ratio requirements. In some conditions, particularly with the reinforcer delays, the rats had consistently longer adjusting delays with the larger pre-trial ratios, reflecting a greater tendency to choose the larger, delayed reinforcer when more responding was required to reach the choice point. No consistent effects of the pre-trial ratio were found for the pigeons in any of the conditions. These results may indicate that rats are more sensitive to the long-term reinforcement rates of the two alternatives, or they may result from a shallower temporal discounting rate for rats than for pigeons, a difference that has been observed in previous studies. PMID:22389527

  11. Integrating Adults' Characteristics and the Requirements for Their Effective Learning in an e-Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korres, Maria Pavlis; Karalis, Thanassis; Leftheriotou, Piera; Barriocanal, Elena García

    Learning technology, through e-learning, allows adults to adapt learning to their own time, place and pace. On the other hand, the adults' specific characteristics as learners and the requirements for their effective learning must be integrated in the design and the development of any learning environment addressed to them. Adults in an online environment have also to deal with new barriers related to access to the courses, the sense of isolation and the sense of immediacy with educator and other learners. This paper is dealing with the way through which an online environment can overcome these barriers and can integrate adults' characteristics and requirements for effective learning. The use of the appropriate communication tools by designers, developers and educators seem to provide the answers as these tools promote immediacy and interaction, both considered very important factors in online educational environments and affect the nature and the quality of communication and learning.

  12. Effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride on the propofol dose requirement and Bispectral Index for loss of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Peng; Zhang, Yanju; Yu, Hai; Liu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PH), a new anticholinerigic drug associated with few cardiovascular side effects, was used widely as premedication in China. There is no information on the pharmacodynamic interaction between PH and anesthetics for loss of consciousness (LOC). This study was designed to determine the effects of premedicated PH on the propofol dose requirement for LOC and Bispectral Index (BIS) during target-controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol. Forty patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups to receive PH (Group PH) or normal saline (Group NS). TCI propofol was administered 30 min after PH or normal saline was given. During study period, BIS value, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and the Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) rating scale were recorded. Predicted effect-site propofol concentrations (Ce) and the total propofol dose were recorded when end-point was achieved. The time to reach end point was also noted. The time to reach LOC was shorter in Group PH than Group NS (p < 0.05). The predicted propofol Ce and consumption based on body weight of each patient were lower in Group PH than Group NS (p < 0.05). BIS values were not significantly changed before propofol infusion, and decreased gradually as propofol Ce increased and were not significantly different when LOC was reached between two groups (p > 0.05). We conclude that premedicated PH reduces the propofol Ce and dose requirement for LOC, but has no effect on BIS. PMID:25232414

  13. Effect of power system technology and mission requirements on high altitude long endurance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis was performed to determine how various power system components and mission requirements affect the sizing of a solar powered long endurance aircraft. The aircraft power system consists of photovoltaic cells and a regenerative fuel cell. Various characteristics of these components, such as PV cell type, PV cell mass, PV cell efficiency, fuel cell efficiency, and fuel cell specific mass, were varied to determine what effect they had on the aircraft sizing for a given mission. Mission parameters, such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power, were also altered to determine how mission constraints affect the aircraft sizing. An aircraft analysis method which determines the aircraft configuration, aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass, for maximum endurance or minimum required power based on the stated power system and mission parameters is presented. The results indicate that, for the power system, the greatest benefit can be gained by increasing the fuel cell specific energy. Mission requirements also substantially affect the aircraft size. By limiting the time of year the aircraft is required to fly at high northern or southern latitudes, a significant reduction in aircraft size or increase in payload capacity can be achieved.

  14. Effects of dehulling and storage conditions on cooking requirements and chemical composition of soybeans.

    PubMed

    Cabral, L C; Serna-Saldivar, S O; Tinsley, A M

    1995-03-01

    Changes in cooking requirements and chemical composition of whole and dehulled soybeans, stored in 2 different environments [25 degrees C /75% R.H. (Environment 1) and 38 degrees C /90% R.H. (Environment 2)], were studied. Rate of water absorption and solid losses during cooking were higher for the dehulled soybeans at both storage conditions. However, cooking requirements to achieve the same degree of texture in the cotyledons were similar for whole and dehulled seeds. Cooking time increased with prolonged storage; the effect was more noticeable in samples stored under Environment 2. Samples kept for 6 months required almost twice as much cooking than control samples. Dehulled soybeans had a lower fiber content, relatively higher amounts of protein and fat, but similar amino acid compositions than whole soybeans. Cooking caused losses of carbohydrates and ash and, therefore, significantly increased levels of protein and fat reflected by losses of solids during soaking and cooking. Among the amino acids, only cysteine suffered substantial decrease as a result of cooking. Cooking and storage inactivated 99% and from 20-35% of the trypsin inhibitors, respectively; the latter effect was more accentuated in samples stored under Environment 2. PMID:8729250

  15. Retrieval effects on ventilation and cooling requirements for a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hambley, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) and the regulations promulgated in Title 10, Part 60 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR60) by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for an underground repository for spent fuel and high level nuclear waste (HLW) require that it is possible to retrieve waste, for whatever reason, from such a facility for a period of 50 years from initial storage or until the completion of the performance confirmation period, whichever comes first. This paper considers the effects that the retrievability option mandates on ventilation and cooling systems required for normal repository operations. An example is given for a hypothetical repository in salt. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Prostatic Acid Phosphatase Is Required for the Antinociceptive Effects of Thiamine and Benfotiamine

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Julie K.; Coleman, Jennifer L.; Fitzpatrick, Brendan J.; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Bridges, Arlene S.; Vihko, Pirkko; Zylka, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Thiamine (Vitamin B1) is an essential vitamin that must be obtained from the diet for proper neurological function. At higher doses, thiamine and benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate, BT)–a phosphorylated derivative of thiamine–have antinociceptive effects in animals and humans, although how these compounds inhibit pain is unknown. Here, we found that Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP) can dephosphorylate BT in vitro, in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and in primary-afferent axon terminals in the dorsal spinal cord. The dephosphorylated product S-benzoylthiamine (S-BT) then decomposes to O-benzoylthiamine (O-BT) and to thiamine in a pH-dependent manner, independent of additional enzymes. This unique reaction mechanism reveals that BT only requires a phosphatase for conversion to thiamine. However, we found that the antinociceptive effects of BT, thiamine monophosphate (TMP) and thiamine–a compound that is not phosphorylated–were entirely dependent on PAP at the spinal level. Moreover, pharmacokinetic studies with wild-type and Pap−/− mice revealed that PAP is not required for the conversion of BT to thiamine in vivo. Taken together, our study highlights an obligatory role for PAP in the antinociceptive effects of thiamine and phosphorylated thiamine analogs, and suggests a novel phosphatase-independent function for PAP. PMID:23119057

  17. The Anorectic Effect of CNTF Does Not Require Action in Leptin-Responsive Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Stefater, M. A.; MacLennan, A. J.; Lee, N.; Patterson, C. M.; Haller, A.; Sorrell, J.; Myers, M.; Woods, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    Leptin resistance is a feature of obesity that poses a significant therapeutic challenge. Any treatment that is effective to reduce body weight in obese patients must overcome or circumvent leptin resistance, which promotes the maintenance of excess body fat in obese individuals. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is unique in its ability to reduce food intake and body weight in obese, leptin-resistant humans and rodents. Although attempts to use CNTF as an obesity therapy failed due to the development of neutralizing antibodies to the drug, efforts to understand mechanisms for CNTF's anorectic effects provide an opportunity to develop new drugs for leptin-resistant individuals. CNTF and leptin share several structural, anatomic, and signaling properties, but it is not understood whether or how the two cytokines might interact to affect energy balance. Here, we conditionally deleted the CNTF receptor (CNTFR) subunit, CNTFRα, in cells expressing leptin receptors. We found that CNTFR signaling in leptin-responsive neurons is not required for endogenous maintenance of energy balance and is not required for the anorectic response to exogenous administration of a CNTF agonist. These results indicate that despite anatomical overlap for CNTF and leptin action, CNTF appears to act within a distinct neuronal population to elicit its potent anorectic effect. PMID:22518062

  18. Improving cost-effectiveness and mitigating risks of renewable energy requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, James P.

    Policy makers at the federal and state levels of government are debating actions to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on oil as an energy source. Several concerns drive this debate: sharp rises in energy prices, increasing unease about the risks of climate change, energy security, and interest in expanding the domestic renewable energy industry. Renewable energy requirements are frequently proposed to address these concerns, and are currently in place, in various forms, at the federal and state levels of government. These policies specify that a certain portion of the energy supply come from renewable energy sources. This dissertation focuses on a specific proposal, known as 25 X 25, which requires 25% of electricity and motor vehicle transportation fuels supplied to U.S. consumers to come from renewable energy sources, such as wind power and ethanol, by 2025. This dissertation builds on prior energy policy analysis, and more specifically analyses of renewable energy requirements, by assessing the social welfare implications of a 25 x 25 policy and applying new methods of uncertainty analysis to multiple policy options decision makers can use to implement the policy. These methods identify policy options that can improve the cost-effectiveness and reduce the risks of renewable energy requirements. While the dissertation focuses on a specific policy, the research methods and findings are applicable to other renewable energy requirement policies. In the dissertation, I analyze six strategies for implementing a 25 x 25 policy across several hundred scenarios that represent plausible futures for uncertainties in energy markets, such as renewable energy costs, energy demand, and fossil fuel prices. The strategies vary in the availability of resources that qualify towards the policy requirement and the use of a "safety valve" that allows refiners and utilities to pay a constant fee after renewable energy costs reach a predetermined threshold. I test

  19. Effect of subacute exposure to NO/sub 2/ on lymphocytes required for antibody responses

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimaki, H.; Shimizu, F.; Kubota, K.

    1982-12-01

    BALB/c mice were continuously exposed to 0.4 and 1.6 ppm NO/sub 2/ for 4 weeks and the effects on lymphocytes which are required for primary and secondary antibody responses to sheep red blood cells were examined in vitro. The primary antibody response was significantly suppressed by both concentrations of NO/sub 2/, whereas the secondary antibody response was slightly stimulated by 1.6 ppm NO/sub 2/ exposure. In reconstitution experiments no significant differences were observed in the activities of T and B lymphocytes from mice exposed to 1.6 ppm NO/sub 2/.

  20. 29 CFR 2.35 - Effect of DOL support on Title VII employment nondiscrimination requirements and on other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effect of DOL support on Title VII employment nondiscrimination requirements and on other existing statutes. 2.35 Section 2.35 Labor Office of the Secretary of... Effect of DOL support on Title VII employment nondiscrimination requirements and on other...

  1. Effect of high-dose Ascorbic acid on vasopressor's requirement in septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Zabet, Mohadeseh Hosseini; Mohammadi, Mostafa; Ramezani, Masoud; Khalili, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Effects of ascorbic acid on hemodynamic parameters of septic shock were evaluated in nonsurgical critically ill patients in limited previous studies. In this study, the effect of high-dose ascorbic acid on vasopressor drug requirement was evaluated in surgical critically ill patients with septic shock. Methods: Patients with septic shock who required a vasopressor drug to maintain mean arterial pressure >65 mmHg were assigned to receive either 25 mg/kg intravenous ascorbic acid every 6 h or matching placebo for 72 h. Vasopressor dose and duration were considered as the primary outcomes. Duration of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay and 28-day mortality has been defined as secondary outcomes. Findings: During the study period, 28 patients (14 in each group) completed the trial. Mean dose of norepinephrine during the study period (7.44 ± 3.65 vs. 13.79 ± 6.48 mcg/min, P = 0.004) and duration of norepinephrine administration (49.64 ± 25.67 vs. 71.57 ± 1.60 h, P = 0.007) were significantly lower in the ascorbic acid than the placebo group. No statistically significant difference was detected between the groups regarding the length of ICU stay. However, 28-day mortality was significantly lower in the ascorbic acid than the placebo group (14.28% vs. 64.28%, respectively; P = 0.009). Conclusion: High-dose ascorbic acid may be considered as an effective and safe adjuvant therapy in surgical critically ill patients with septic shock. The most effective dose of ascorbic acid and the best time for its administration should be determined in future studies. PMID:27162802

  2. Effect of buprenorphine on total intravenous anesthetic requirements during spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Khelemsky, Yury; Schauer, Jacob; Loo, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Buprenorphine is a partial mu receptor agonist and kappa/delta antagonist commonly used for the treatment of opioid dependence or as an analgesic. It has a long plasma half-life and a high binding affinity for opioid receptors. This affinity is so high, that the effects are not easily antagonized by competitive antagonists, such as naloxone. The high affinity also prevents binding of other opioids, at commonly used clinical doses, to receptor sites - preventing their analgesic and likely minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) reducing benefits. This case report contrasts the anesthetic requirements of a patient undergoing emergency cervical spine surgery while taking buprenorphine with anesthetic requirements of the same patient undergoing a similar procedure after weaning of buprenorphine. Use of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring prevented use of paralytics and inhalational anesthetics during both cases, therefore total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) was maintained with propofol and remifentanil infusions. During the initial surgery, intraoperative patient movement could not be controlled with very high doses of propofol and remifentanil. The patient stopped moving in response to surgical stimulation only after the addition of a ketamine. Buprenorphine-naloxone was discontinued postoperatively. Five days later the patient underwent a similar cervical spine surgery. She had drastically reduced anesthetic requirements during this case, suggesting buprenorphine's profound effect on anesthetic dosing. This case report elegantly illustrates that discontinuation of buprenorphine is likely warranted for patients who present for major spine surgery, which necessitates the avoidance of volatile anesthetic and paralytic agents. The addition of ketamine may be necessary in patients maintained on buprenorphine in order to ensure a motionless surgical field. PMID:25794231

  3. Data requirements for simulation of hydrogeologic effects of liquid waste injection, Harrison and Jackson Counties, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rebich, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Available literature and data were reviewed to quantify data requirements for computer simulation of hydrogeologic effects of liquid waste injection in southeastern Mississippi. Emphasis of each review was placed on quantifying physical properties of current Class I injection zones in Harrison and Jackson Counties. Class I injection zones are zones that are used for injection of hazardous or non-hazardous liquid waste below a formation containing the lowermost underground source of drinking water located within one-quarter of a mile of the injection well. Several mathematical models have been developed to simulate injection effects. The Basic Plume Method was selected because it is commonly used in permit applications, and the Intercomp model was selected because it is generally accepted and used in injection-related research. The input data requirements of the two models were combined into a single data requirement list inclusive of physical properties of injection zones only; injected waste and well properties are not included because such information is site-specific by industry, which is beyond the scope of this report. Results of the reviews of available literature and data indicated that Class I permit applications and standard-reference chemistry and physics texts were the primary sources of information to quantify physical properties of injection zones in Harrison and Jackson Counties. With the exception of a few reports and supplementary data for one injection zone in Jackson County, very little additional information pertaining to physical properties of the injection zones was available in sources other than permit applications and standard-reference texts.

  4. BMP9-Induced Survival Effect in Liver Tumor Cells Requires p38MAPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    García-Álvaro, María; Addante, Annalisa; Roncero, Cesáreo; Fernández, Margarita; Fabregat, Isabel; Sánchez, Aránzazu; Herrera, Blanca

    2015-01-01

    The study of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) role in tumorigenic processes, and specifically in the liver, has gathered importance in the last few years. Previous studies have shown that BMP9 is overexpressed in about 40% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. In vitro data have also shown evidence that BMP9 has a pro-tumorigenic action, not only by inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration, but also by promoting proliferation and survival in liver cancer cells. However, the precise mechanisms driving these effects have not yet been established. In the present work, we deepened our studies into the intracellular mechanisms implicated in the BMP9 proliferative and pro-survival effect on liver tumor cells. In HepG2 cells, BMP9 induces both Smad and non-Smad signaling cascades, specifically PI3K/AKT and p38MAPK. However, only the p38MAPK pathway contributes to the BMP9 growth-promoting effect on these cells. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that p38MAPK activation, although dispensable for the BMP9 proliferative activity, is required for the BMP9 protective effect on serum withdrawal-induced apoptosis. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the signaling pathways involved in the BMP9 pro-tumorigenic role in liver tumor cells. PMID:26343646

  5. Heparan sulfate mimetic PG545-mediated antilymphoma effects require TLR9-dependent NK cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Todd V.; Lin, Liwen; Brandstadter, Joshua D.; Rendell, Victoria R.; Dredge, Keith; Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which serves as a barrier to tumor invasion and metastasis. Heparanase promotes tumor growth by cleaving HS chains of proteoglycan and releasing HS-bound angiogenic growth factors and facilitates tumor invasion and metastasis by degrading the ECM. HS mimetics, such as PG545, have been developed as antitumor agents and are designed to suppress angiogenesis and metastasis by inhibiting heparanase and competing for the HS-binding domain of angiogenic growth factors. However, how PG545 exerts its antitumor effect remains incompletely defined. Here, using murine models of lymphoma, we determined that the antitumor effects of PG545 are critically dependent on NK cell activation and that NK cell activation by PG545 requires TLR9. We demonstrate that PG545 does not activate TLR9 directly but instead enhances TLR9 activation through the elevation of the TLR9 ligand CpG in DCs. Specifically, PG545 treatment resulted in CpG accumulation in the lysosomal compartment of DCs, leading to enhanced production of IL-12, which is essential for PG545-mediated NK cell activation. Overall, these results reveal that PG545 activates NK cells and that this activation is critical for the antitumor effect of PG545. Moreover, our findings may have important implications for improving NK cell–based antitumor therapies. PMID:26649979

  6. JNK3 Is Required for the Cytoprotective Effect of Exendin 4

    PubMed Central

    Ezanno, Hélène; Pawlowski, Valérie; Abdelli, Saida; Boutry, Raphael; Gmyr, Valery; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Bonny, Christophe; Pattou, François

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of beta cell against apoptosis is one of the therapeutic benefits of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) antidiabetic mimetics for preserving the functional beta cell mass exposed to diabetogenic condition including proinflammatory cytokines. The mitogen activated protein kinase 10 also called c-jun amino-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3) plays a protective role in insulin-secreting cells against death caused by cytokines. In this study, we investigated whether the JNK3 expression is associated with the protective effect elicited by the GLP1 mimetic exendin 4. We found an increase in the abundance of JNK3 in isolated human islets and INS-1E cells cultured with exendin 4. Induction of JNK3 by exendin 4 was associated with an increased survival of INS-1E cells. Silencing of JNK3 prevented the cytoprotective effect of exendin 4 against apoptosis elicited by culture condition and cytokines. These results emphasize the requirement of JNK3 in the antiapoptotic effects of exendin 4. PMID:25025079

  7. JNK3 is required for the cytoprotective effect of exendin 4.

    PubMed

    Ezanno, Hélène; Pawlowski, Valérie; Abdelli, Saida; Boutry, Raphael; Gmyr, Valery; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Bonny, Christophe; Pattou, François; Abderrahmani, Amar

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of beta cell against apoptosis is one of the therapeutic benefits of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) antidiabetic mimetics for preserving the functional beta cell mass exposed to diabetogenic condition including proinflammatory cytokines. The mitogen activated protein kinase 10 also called c-jun amino-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3) plays a protective role in insulin-secreting cells against death caused by cytokines. In this study, we investigated whether the JNK3 expression is associated with the protective effect elicited by the GLP1 mimetic exendin 4. We found an increase in the abundance of JNK3 in isolated human islets and INS-1E cells cultured with exendin 4. Induction of JNK3 by exendin 4 was associated with an increased survival of INS-1E cells. Silencing of JNK3 prevented the cytoprotective effect of exendin 4 against apoptosis elicited by culture condition and cytokines. These results emphasize the requirement of JNK3 in the antiapoptotic effects of exendin 4. PMID:25025079

  8. Heparan sulfate mimetic PG545-mediated antilymphoma effects require TLR9-dependent NK cell activation.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Todd V; Lin, Liwen; Brandstadter, Joshua D; Rendell, Victoria R; Dredge, Keith; Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which serves as a barrier to tumor invasion and metastasis. Heparanase promotes tumor growth by cleaving HS chains of proteoglycan and releasing HS-bound angiogenic growth factors and facilitates tumor invasion and metastasis by degrading the ECM. HS mimetics, such as PG545, have been developed as antitumor agents and are designed to suppress angiogenesis and metastasis by inhibiting heparanase and competing for the HS-binding domain of angiogenic growth factors. However, how PG545 exerts its antitumor effect remains incompletely defined. Here, using murine models of lymphoma, we determined that the antitumor effects of PG545 are critically dependent on NK cell activation and that NK cell activation by PG545 requires TLR9. We demonstrate that PG545 does not activate TLR9 directly but instead enhances TLR9 activation through the elevation of the TLR9 ligand CpG in DCs. Specifically, PG545 treatment resulted in CpG accumulation in the lysosomal compartment of DCs, leading to enhanced production of IL-12, which is essential for PG545-mediated NK cell activation. Overall, these results reveal that PG545 activates NK cells and that this activation is critical for the antitumor effect of PG545. Moreover, our findings may have important implications for improving NK cell-based antitumor therapies. PMID:26649979

  9. An Assessment of Dust Effects on Planetary Surface Systems to Support Exploration Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    Apollo astronauts learned first hand how problems with dust impact lunar surface missions. After three days, lunar dust contamination on EVA suit bearings led to such great difficulty in movement that another EVA would not have been possible. Dust clinging to EVA suits was transported into the Lunar Module. During the return trip to Earth, when micro gravity was reestablished, the dust became airborne and floated through the cabin. Crews inhaled the dust and it irritated their eyes. Some mechanical systems aboard the spacecraft were damaged due to dust contamination. Study results obtained by Robotic Martian missions indicate that Martian surface soil is oxidative and reactive. Exposures to the reactive Martian dust will pose an even greater concern to the crew health and the integrity of the mechanical systems. As NASA embarks on planetary surface missions to support its Exploration Vision, the effects of these extraterrestrial dusts must be well understood and systems must be designed to operate reliably and protect the crew in the dusty environments of the Moon and Mars. The AIM Dust Assessment Team was tasked to identify systems that will be affected by the respective dust, how they will be affected, associated risks of dust exposure, requirements that will need to be developed, identified knowledge gaps, and recommended scientific measurements to obtain information needed to develop requirements, and design and manufacture the surface systems that will support crew habitation in the lunar and Martian outposts.

  10. Modeling Requirements for Simulating the Effects of Extreme Acts of Terrorism: A White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.; Hiebert-Dodd, K.; Marozas, D.; Paananen, O.; Pryor, R.J.; Reinert, R.K.

    1998-10-01

    This white paper presents the initial requirements for developing a new computer model for simulating the effects of extreme acts of terrorism in the United States. General characteristics of the model are proposed and the level of effort to prepare a complete written description of the model, prior to coding, is detailed. The model would simulate the decision processes and interactions of complex U. S. systems engaged in responding to and recovering from four types of terrorist incidents. The incident scenarios span the space of extreme acts of terrorism that have the potential to affect not only the impacted area, but also the entire nation. The model would be useful to decision-makers in assessing and analyzing the vulnerability of the nation's complex infrastructures, in prioritizing resources to reduce risk, and in planning strategies for immediate response and for subsequent recovery from terrorist incidents.

  11. Effect of crash pulse shape on seat stroke requirements for limiting loads on occupants of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study was made to provide comparative information on various crash pulse shapes that potentially could be used to test seats under conditions included in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats, show the effects that crash pulse shape can have on the seat stroke requirements necessary to maintain a specified limit loading on the seat/occupant during crash pulse loadings, compare results from certain analytical model pulses with approximations of actual crash pulses, and compare analytical seat results with experimental airplace crash data. Structural and seat/occupant displacement equations in terms of the maximum deceleration, velocity change, limit seat pan load, and pulse time for five potentially useful pulse shapes were derived; from these, analytical seat stroke data were obtained for conditions as specified in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats.

  12. Effect of acute exercise on cognitive control required during an Eriksen flanker task.

    PubMed

    Davranche, Karen; Hall, Ben; McMorris, Terry

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to determine how cognitive control, engaged in a task requiring selective inhibition, is affected by acute steady-state exercise. An adapted version of the Eriksen flanker task, involving three types of trials that varied according to their level of congruency (congruent trials, stimulus-incongruent trials, and response-incongruent trials) was performed during 2 periods of 20-min cycling at a carefully controlled intensity (50% of maximal aerobic power). The results indicated that moderate exercise improves reaction time (RT) performance on the Eriksen flanker task. This facilitating effect appeared to be neither dependent on the nature of the interference (stimulus level conflict vs. response level conflict) nor on the amount of cognitive control engaged in the task (congruent vs. incongruent trials). Distributional RT analyses did not highlight any sign of impairment in the efficiency of cognitive control. PMID:20016112

  13. Antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation require astrocyte-dependent adenosine mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Hines, D J; Schmitt, L I; Hines, R M; Moss, S J; Haydon, P G

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is a debilitating condition with a lifetime risk of ten percent. Most treatments take several weeks to achieve clinical efficacy, limiting the ability to bring instant relief needed in psychiatric emergencies. One intervention that rapidly alleviates depressive symptoms is sleep deprivation; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. Astrocytes regulate responses to sleep deprivation, raising the possibility that glial signaling mediates antidepressive-like actions of sleep deprivation. Here, we found that astrocytic signaling to adenosine (A1) receptors was required for the robust reduction of depressive-like behaviors following 12 hours of sleep deprivation. As sleep deprivation activates synaptic A1 receptors, we mimicked the effect of sleep deprivation on depression phenotypes by administration of the A1 agonist CCPA. These results provide the first mechanistic insight into how sleep deprivation impacts mood, and provide a novel pathway for rapid antidepressant development by modulation of glial signaling in the brain. PMID:23321809

  14. Requirement Changes and Project Success: The Moderating Effects of Agile Approaches in System Engineering Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maierhofer, Sabine; Stelzmann, Ernst; Kohlbacher, Markus; Fellner, Björn

    This paper reports the findings of an empirical study on the influence agile development methods exert on the success of projects. The goal is to determine whether agile methods are able to mitigate negative effects requirement changes have on the performance of Systems Engineering projects, i.e. projects where systems consisting of hard- and software are developed. Agile methods have been proven to successfully support development projects in the field of traditional software engineering, but with an ever expending market of integrated systems manufacturers their usability for those complex projects has yet to be examined. This study focuses on 16 specific agile practices and their ability to improve the success of complex hard- and software projects.

  15. A comparison of immunotoxic effects of nanomedicinal products with regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements.

    PubMed

    Giannakou, Christina; Park, Margriet Vdz; de Jong, Wim H; van Loveren, Henk; Vandebriel, Rob J; Geertsma, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are attractive for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications because of their unique physicochemical and biological properties. A major application area of NMs is drug delivery. Many nanomedicinal products (NMPs) currently on the market or in clinical trials are most often based on liposomal products or polymer conjugates. NMPs can be designed to target specific tissues, eg, tumors. In virtually all cases, NMPs will eventually reach the immune system. It has been shown that most NMs end up in organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system, notably liver and spleen. Adverse immune effects, including allergy, hypersensitivity, and immunosuppression, have been reported after NMP administration. Interactions of NMPs with the immune system may therefore constitute important side effects. Currently, no regulatory documents are specifically dedicated to evaluate the immunotoxicity of NMs or NMPs. Their immunotoxicity assessment is performed based on existing guidelines for conventional substances or medicinal products. Due to the unique properties of NMPs when compared with conventional medicinal products, it is uncertain whether the currently prescribed set of tests provides sufficient information for an adequate evaluation of potential immunotoxicity of NMPs. The aim of this study was therefore, to compare the current regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements with the accumulating knowledge on immunotoxic effects of NMPs in order to identify potential gaps in the safety assessment. This comparison showed that immunotoxic effects, such as complement activation-related pseudoallergy, myelosuppression, inflammasome activation, and hypersensitivity, are not readily detected by using current testing guidelines. Immunotoxicity of NMPs would be more accurately evaluated by an expanded testing strategy that is equipped to stratify applicable testing for the various types of NMPs. PMID:27382281

  16. A comparison of immunotoxic effects of nanomedicinal products with regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements

    PubMed Central

    Giannakou, Christina; Park, Margriet VDZ; de Jong, Wim H; van Loveren, Henk; Vandebriel, Rob J; Geertsma, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are attractive for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications because of their unique physicochemical and biological properties. A major application area of NMs is drug delivery. Many nanomedicinal products (NMPs) currently on the market or in clinical trials are most often based on liposomal products or polymer conjugates. NMPs can be designed to target specific tissues, eg, tumors. In virtually all cases, NMPs will eventually reach the immune system. It has been shown that most NMs end up in organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system, notably liver and spleen. Adverse immune effects, including allergy, hypersensitivity, and immunosuppression, have been reported after NMP administration. Interactions of NMPs with the immune system may therefore constitute important side effects. Currently, no regulatory documents are specifically dedicated to evaluate the immunotoxicity of NMs or NMPs. Their immunotoxicity assessment is performed based on existing guidelines for conventional substances or medicinal products. Due to the unique properties of NMPs when compared with conventional medicinal products, it is uncertain whether the currently prescribed set of tests provides sufficient information for an adequate evaluation of potential immunotoxicity of NMPs. The aim of this study was therefore, to compare the current regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements with the accumulating knowledge on immunotoxic effects of NMPs in order to identify potential gaps in the safety assessment. This comparison showed that immunotoxic effects, such as complement activation-related pseudoallergy, myelosuppression, inflammasome activation, and hypersensitivity, are not readily detected by using current testing guidelines. Immunotoxicity of NMPs would be more accurately evaluated by an expanded testing strategy that is equipped to stratify applicable testing for the various types of NMPs. PMID:27382281

  17. Effect of Blade Cutout on Power Required by Helicopters Operating at High Tip-Speed Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gessow, Alfred; Gustafson, F. B.

    1960-01-01

    A numerical study was made of the effects of blade cutout on the power required by a sample helicopter rotor traveling at tip-speed ratios of 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5. The amount of cutout varied from 0 to 0.5 of the rotor radius and the calculations were carried out for a thrust coefficient-solidity ratio of 0.04. In these calculations the blade within the cutout radius was assumed to have zero chord. The effect of such cutout on profile-drag power ranged from almost no effect at a tip-speed ratio of 0.3 to as much as a 60 percent reduction at a tip-speed ratio of 0.5. Optimum cutout was about 0.3 of the rotor radius. Part of the large power reduction at a tip-speed ratio of 0.5 resulted from a reduction in tip-region stall, brought about by cutout. For tip-speed ratios greater than 0.3, cutout also effected a significant increase in the ability of the rotor to overcome helicopter parasite drag. It is thus seen that the adverse trends (at high tip-speed ratios) indicated by the uniform-chord theoretical charts are caused in large measure by the center portion of the rotor. The extent to which a modified-design rotor can actually be made more efficient at high speeds than a uniform-chord rotor will depend in practice on the degree of success in minimizing the blade plan form near the center and on special modifications in center-section profiles. A few suggestions and estimates in regard to such modifications are included herein.

  18. Characterizations of how species mediate ecosystem properties require more comprehensive functional effect descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, R.; Mavrogordato, M. N.; Tolhurst, T. J.; Solan, M.

    2014-09-01

    The importance of individual species in mediating ecosystem process and functioning is generally accepted, but categorical descriptors that summarize species-specific contributions to ecosystems tend to reference a limited number of biological traits and underestimate the importance of how organisms interact with their environment. Here, we show how three functionally contrasting sediment-dwelling marine invertebrates affect fluid and particle transport - important processes in mediating nutrient cycling - and use high-resolution reconstructions of burrow geometry to determine the extent and nature of biogenic modification. We find that individual functional effect descriptors fall short of being able to adequately characterize how species mediate the stocks and flows of important ecosystem properties and that, in contrary to common practice and understanding, they are not substitutable with one another because they emphasize different aspects of species activity and behavior. When information derived from these metrics is combined with knowledge of how species behave and modify their environment, however, detailed mechanistic information emerges that increases the likelihood that a species functional standing will be appropriately summarized. Our study provides evidence that more comprehensive functional effect descriptors are required if they are to be of value to those tasked with projecting how altered biodiversity will influence future ecosystems.

  19. Effects of Differing Response-Force Requirements on Food-Maintained Responding in C57BL/6J Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarcone, Troy J.; Chen, Rong; Fowler, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of force requirements on response effort was examined using inbred C57BL/6J mice trained to press a disk with their snout. Lateral peak forces greater than 2 g were defined as responses (i.e., all responses above the measurement threshold). Different, higher force requirements were used to define criterion responses (a subclass of all…

  20. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  3. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  4. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  5. The Effects of Increased Academic Requirements for Graduation on Secondary Vocational Enrollments in Colorado. Research Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, B. Harold; Brouillette, Mary DeMaio

    A study examined the effects of increased academic requirements for graduation on secondary vocational enrollments in Colorado. After identifying 111 of the school districts in Colorado that have recently increased their graduation requirements (representing 61 percent of the 180 school districts in the State), researchers randomly selected five…

  6. Determination of energy and protein requirement for maintenance and growth and evaluation for the effects of gender upon nutrient requirement in Dorper × Hu Crossbred Lambs.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hai Tao; Zhang, Hao; You, Ji Hao; Wang, Feng

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine energy and protein requirement of Dorper × Hu crossbred lambs and further to evaluate the effect of gender upon nutrient requirement parameters. Forty-two female lambs (18.60 ± 1.57 kg) and 42 male lambs (18.30 ± 1.28 kg) were used. In comparative slaughter trial, 30 of animals from each gender group were randomly selected and assigned to ad libitum (AL), low restriction (LR) and high restriction (HR) group, and then were slaughtered when lambs under AL treatment reached target BW of 20, 28, and 35 kg, to determine body energy and nitrogen retained. In digestibility trial, remaining 12 female (18.01 ± 1.66 kg) and 12 male lambs (18.43 ± 1.17 kg) were randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm; 400.61 ± 20.31 vs. 427.24 ± 18.70 kJ kg(-1) of shrunk BW(0.75); SBW(0.75)), partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (k m; 0.64 ± 0.02 vs. 0.65 ± 0.03), partial efficiency of ME utilization for growth (k g ; 0.42 ± 0.03 vs. 0.44 ± 0.02), and net protein (NP) requirement for maintenance (NPm; 1.83 ± 0.17 vs. 1.99 ± 0.28 g kg(-1) of SBW(0.75)) did not differ (P > 0.05) due to gender; although not statistically different, the mean value of Net energy (NE) requirement for maintenance (NEm) for male lambs (260.62 ± 13.21 kJ kg(-1) of SBW(0.75)) were 5 % greater than that (274.16 ± 11.99 kJ kg(-1) of SBW(0.75)) of female lambs. Additionally, rams have greater amounts of NP requirement for growth (NPg, 15.94 to 44.32 g d(-1)) than those of ewes (13.07 to 32.95 g d(-1)) at the similar condition of BW and ADG. In conclusion, we suggested that our results of energy and protein requirement for growth ranged between the NRC

  7. Effect of Spermidine Analogues on Cell Growth of Escherichia coli Polyamine Requiring Mutant MA261

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Taketo; Sakamoto, Akihiko; Terui, Yusuke; Takao, Koichi; Sugita, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira; Igarashi, Kazuei; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    The effects of spermidine analogues [norspermidine (NSPD, 33), spermidine (SPD, 34), homospermidine (HSPD, 44) and aminopropylcadaverine (APCAD, 35)] on cell growth were studied using Escherichia coli polyamine-requiring mutant MA261. Cell growth was compared at 32°C, 37°C, and 42°C. All four analogues were taken up mainly by the PotABCD spermidine-preferential uptake system. The degree of stimulation of cell growth at 32°C and 37°C was NSPD ≥ SPD ≥ HSPD > APCAD, and SPD ≥ HSPD ≥ NSPD > APCAD, respectively. However, at 42°C, it was HSPD » SPD > NSPD > APCAD. One reason for this is HSPD was taken up effectively compared with other triamines. In addition, since natural polyamines (triamines and teteraamines) interact mainly with RNA, and the structure of RNA is more flexible at higher temperatures, HSPD probably stabilized RNA more tightly at 42°C. We have thus far found that 20 kinds of protein syntheses are stimulated by polyamines at the translational level. Among them, synthesis of OppA, RpoE and StpA was more strongly stimulated by HSPD at 42°C than at 37°C. Stabilization of the initiation region of oppA and rpoE mRNA was tighter by HSPD at 42°C than 37°C determined by circular dichroism (CD). The degree of polyamine stimulation of OppA, RpoE and StpA synthesis by NSPD, SPD and APCAD was smaller than that by HSPD at 42°C. Thus, the degree of stimulation of cell growth by spermidine analogues at the different temperatures is dependent on the stimulation of protein synthesis by some components of the polyamine modulon. PMID:27434546

  8. Pharmaceutical strategic purchasing requirements in Iran: Price interventions and the related effective factors

    PubMed Central

    Bastani, Peivand; Dinarvand, Rasoul; SamadBeik, Mahnaz; Pourmohammadi, Kimia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pharmaceutical access for the poor is an essential factor in developing countries that can be improved through strategic purchasing. This study was conducted to identify the elements affecting price in order to enable insurance organizations to put strategic purchasing into practice. Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted through content analysis with an inductive approach applying a five-stage framework analysis (familiarization, identifying a thematic framework, indexing, mapping, and interpretation). Data analysis was started right after transcribing each interview applying ATLAS.ti. Data were saturated after 32 semi-structured interviews by experts. These key informants were selected purposefully and through snowball sampling. Findings: Findings showed that there are four main themes as Pharmaceutical Strategic Purchasing Requirements in Iran as follows essential and structural factors, international factors, economical factors, and legal factors. Moreover, totally 14 related sub-themes were extracted in this area as the main effective variables. Conclusion: It seems that paying adequate attention to the four present themes and 14 sub-themes affecting price can enable health system policy-makers of developing countries like Iran to make the best decisions through strategic purchasing of drugs by the main insurers in order to improve access and health in the country. PMID:26985434

  9. Effects of cimetidine on fluid requirement during resuscitation of third-degree burns.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Wada, T; Simazaki, S; Hanumadass, M; Reyes, H M; Matsuda, T

    1991-01-01

    Seventy percent body surface area third-degree burns were produced in four groups of six guinea pigs each, after which all were resuscitated with Ringer's lactate solution. Group 1 received 4 ml/kg/%burn. Group 2 received 1 ml/kg/%burn with cimetidine, which was begun at 0.5 hours after burn injury. Group 3 received 1 ml/kg/%burn with cimetidine, which was begun at 1 hour after burn injury. Group 4 received 1 ml/kg/%burn without cimetidine. There were no significant differences among any of the groups in blood pressures or heart rates during the study period. Group 4 showed significantly higher hematocrit values than group 2 at 4 hours after burn injury and thereafter. The cardiac outputs of group 2 were the same statistically as those of group 1. The cardiac outputs of group 3 were significantly lower than those that received cimetidine early (group 2), though still higher than those of the 1 ml control group (group 4) at 4 hours after burn injury and thereafter. At 24 hours after burn injury, the water content of the burned skin of group 2 was significantly lower than that of the other groups. We conclude that in third-degree burns, cimetidine therapy can effectively reduce burn edema and the amount of required resuscitation fluid. Early administration is better than late administration of cimetidine. PMID:1752876

  10. Heating requirements and nonadiabatic surface effects for a model in the NTF cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macha, J. M.; Landrum, D. B.; Pare, L. A., III; Johnson, C. B.

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of the severity of nonadiabatic surface conditions arising from internal heat sources within a model in a cryogenic wind tunnel. Local surface heating is recognized as having an effect on the development of the boundary layer, which can introduce changes in the flow about the model and affect the wind tunnel data. The geometry was based on the NTF Pathfinder I wind tunnel model. A finite element heat transfer computer code was developed and used to compute the steady state temperature distribution within the body of the model, from which the surface temperature distribution was extracted. Particular three dimensional characteristics of the model were represented with various axisymmetric approximations of the geometry. This analysis identified regions on the surface of the model susceptible to surface heating and the magnitude of the respective surface temperatures. It was found that severe surface heating may occur in particular instances, but could be alleviated with adequate insulating material. The heat flux through the surface of the model was integrated to determine the net heat required to maintain the instrumentation cavity at the prescribed temperature. The influence of the nonadiabatic condition on boundary layer properties and on the validity of the wind tunnel simulation was also investigated.

  11. Characterization of parameters required for effective use of tamoxifen-regulated recombination.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Ben; Scharenberg, Andrew M

    2008-01-01

    Conditional gene targeting using the Cre-loxp system is a well established technique in numerous in vitro and in vivo systems. Ligand regulated forms of Cre have been increasingly used in these applications in order to gain temporal and spatial control over conditional targeting. The tamoxifen-regulated Cre variant mer-Cre-mer (mCrem) is widely utilized because of its reputation for tight regulation in the absence of its tamoxifen ligand. In the DT40 chicken B cell line, we generated an mCrem-based reversible switch for conditional regulation of a transgene, and in contrast with previous work, observed significant constitutive activity of mCrem. This prompted us to use our system for analysis of the parameters governing tamoxifen-regulated mCrem recombination of a genomic target. We find that robust mCrem expression correlates with a high level of tamoxifen-independent Cre activity, while clones expressing mCrem at the limit of western blot detection exhibit extremely tight regulation. We also observe time and dose-dependent effects on mCrem activity which suggest limitations on the use of conditional targeting approaches for applications which require tight temporal coordination of Cre action within a cell population. PMID:18810268

  12. Durations required to distinguish noise and tone: Effects of noise bandwidth and frequency.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Armin; Moore, Brian C J; Edler, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    Perceptual audio coders exploit the masking properties of the human auditory system to reduce the bit rate in audio recording and transmission systems; it is intended that the quantization noise is just masked by the audio signal. The effectiveness of the audio signal as a masker depends on whether it is tone-like or noise-like. The determination of this, both physically and perceptually, depends on the duration of the stimuli. To gather information that might improve the efficiency of perceptual coders, the duration required to distinguish between a narrowband noise and a tone was measured as a function of center frequency and noise bandwidth. In experiment 1, duration thresholds were measured for isolated noise and tone bursts. In experiment 2, duration thresholds were measured for tone and noise segments embedded within longer tone pulses. In both experiments, center frequencies were 345, 754, 1456, and 2658 Hz and bandwidths were 0.25, 0.5, and 1 times the equivalent rectangular bandwidth of the auditory filter at each center frequency. The duration thresholds decreased with increasing bandwidth and with increasing center frequency up to 1456 Hz. It is argued that the duration thresholds depended mainly on the detection of amplitude fluctuations in the noise bursts. PMID:27250144

  13. Is alcohol required for effective pancreatic cyst ablation? The prospective randomized CHARM trial pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Matthew T.; Dye, Charles E.; Sharzehi, Setareh; Ancrile, Brooke; Mathew, Abraham; McGarrity, Thomas J.; Gusani, Niraj; Yee, Nelson; Wong, Joyce; Levenick, John; Dougherty-Hamod, Brandy; Mathers, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: In this study, we aim to determine the safety and feasibility of an alcohol-free approach to pancreatic cyst ablation using a chemotherapeutic ablation cocktail. Patients and methods: In this prospective, randomized, double-blinded pilot study, 10 patients with known mucinous type pancreatic cysts underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration and then lavage with either 80 % ethanol or normal saline. Both groups were then treated with a cocktail of paclitaxel and gemcitabine. Primary outcomes were reduction in cyst volume and rates of complications. Results: At 6 months, patients randomized to the alcohol arm had an 89 % average volume reduction, with a 91 % reduction noted in the alcohol-free arm. Complete ablation was achieved in 67 % of patients in the alcohol-free arm at both 6 and 12 months, whereas the alcohol group recorded complete ablation rates of 50 % and 75 % at 6 and 12 months, respectively. One patient in the alcohol arm developed acute pancreatitis (20 %) with no adverse events in the alcohol-free arm. Conclusions: This study revealed similar ablation rates between the alcohol ablation group and the alcohol-free arm and demonstrates the safety and feasibility of an alcohol-free ablation protocol. This pilot study suggests that alcohol may not be required for effective cyst ablation. PMID:27227122

  14. [Effect of climate change on rice irrigation water requirement in Songnen Plain, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi-gang; Wang, Xiao-li; Xiao, Ye; Yang, Fei; Wang, Chen-xi

    2015-01-01

    Based on meteorological data from China national weather stations and climate scenario grid data through regional climate model provided by National Climate Center, rice water requirement was calculated by using McCloud model and Penman-Monteith model combined with crop coefficient approach. Then the rice irrigation water requirement was estimated by water balance model, and the changes of rice water requirement were analyzed. The results indicated that either in historical period or in climate scenario, rice irrigation water requirement contour lines during the whole growth period and Lmid period decreased along southwest to northeast, and the same irrigation water requirement contour line moved north with decade alternation. Rice irrigation water requirement during the whole growth period increased fluctuantly with decade alternation at 44.2 mm . 10 a-1 in historical period and 19.9 mm . 10 a-1 in climate scenario. The increase in rice irrigation water requirement during the Lmid period with decade alternation was significant in historical period, but not significant in climate scenario. Contribution rate of climate change to rice irrigation water requirement would be fluctuantly increased with decade alternation in climate scenario. Compared with 1970s, contribution rates of climate change to rice irrigation water requirement were 23.6% in 2000s and 34.4% in 2040s, which increased 14.8 x 10(8) m3 irrigation water in 2000s and would increase 21.2 x 10(8) m3 irrigation water in 2040s. PMID:25985678

  15. Michigan State Code Adoption Analysis: Cost-Effectiveness of Lighting Requirements - ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.

    2006-09-29

    This report documents PNNL's analysis of the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004 if this energy code is adopted in the state of Michigan, instead of the current standard.

  16. The ACT of Enrollment: The College Enrollment Effects of State-Required College Entrance Exam Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasik, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Since 2001 Colorado, Illinois, and Maine have all enacted policies that require high school juniors to take college entrance exams--the SAT or the ACT. One goal of these policies was to increase college enrollment based on the belief that requiring students to take these exams would make students more likely to consider college as a viable option.…

  17. Effects of Pre-Trial Response Requirements on Self-Control Choices by Rats and Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Parallel experiments with rats and pigeons examined whether the size of a pre-trial ratio requirement would affect choices in a self-control situation. In different conditions, either 1 response or 40 responses were required before each trial. In the first half of each experiment, an adjusting-ratio schedule was used, in which subjects could…

  18. Effective disposal of nitrogen waste in blood-fed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes requires alanine aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Mazzalupo, Stacy; Isoe, Jun; Belloni, Virginia; Scaraffia, Patricia Y

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms responsible for the success of female mosquitoes in their disposal of excess nitrogen, we investigated the role of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) in blood-fed Aedes aegypti. Transcript and protein levels from the 2 ALAT genes were analyzed in sucrose- and blood-fed A. aegypti tissues. ALAT1 and ALAT2 exhibit distinct expression patterns in tissues during the first gonotrophic cycle. Injection of female mosquitoes with either double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-ALAT1 or dsRNA ALAT2 significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of ALAT1 or ALAT2 in fat body, thorax, and Malpighian tubules compared with dsRNA firefly luciferase-injected control mosquitoes. The silencing of either A. aegypti ALAT1 or ALAT2 caused unexpected phenotypes such as a delay in blood digestion, a massive accumulation of uric acid in the midgut posterior region, and a significant decrease of nitrogen waste excretion during the first 48 h after blood feeding. Concurrently, the expression of genes encoding xanthine dehydrogenase and ammonia transporter (Rhesus 50 glycoprotein) were significantly increased in tissues of both ALAT1- and ALAT2-deficient females. Moreover, perturbation of ALAT1 and ALAT2 in the female mosquitoes delayed oviposition and reduced egg production. These novel findings underscore the efficient mechanisms that blood-fed mosquitoes use to avoid ammonia toxicity and free radical damage.-Mazzalupo, S., Isoe, J., Belloni, V., Scaraffia, P. Y. Effective disposal of nitrogen waste in blood-fed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes requires alanine aminotransferase. PMID:26310269

  19. Effects of differing response-force requirements on food-maintained responding in C57Bl/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Zarcone, Troy J; Chen, Rong; Fowler, Stephen C

    2009-09-01

    The effect of force requirements on response effort was examined using inbred C57BL/6J mice trained to press a disk with their snout. Lateral peak forces greater than 2 g were defined as responses (i.e., all responses above the measurement threshold). Different, higher force requirements were used to define criterion responses (a subclass of all responses) that exceeded the requirement and produced a reinforcer. The reinforcer was sweetened, condensed milk, delivered upon response termination. All mice were exposed to two ascending series of criterion force requirements (2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 g). Increasing the force requirement initially decreased criterion response rates, but criterion response rates recovered with continued exposure, except at the 32-g requirement. Response rates for all measured responses initially increased with increasing force requirements, but then decreased with continued exposure. The second exposure series produced more stable response rate changes than the first series. The time-integral of force (area under the force-time curve for individual responses, which is proportional to energy expenditure for each response) increased with the increase in the force requirement. The C57BL/6J inbred strain generated average force output similar to CD-1 outbred stock mice trained on the same force requirements. C57BL/6J inbred strain mice differed from CD-1 mice in initial response rates (for all responses above threshold) and had lower response rates at the 16 and 32 g requirements resulting in lower total force output. These data show for both mice types that increased force requirements resulted in increased overall responding (all measured responses), which contradicts a punishment interpretation of criterion response decrements. C57BL\\6 inbred mice showed individual differences comparable to the outbred CD-1 stock. C57BL/6 mice did not maintain responding as well at the higher force requirements, which may be due to their small body size and

  20. Design Tools for Cost-Effective Implementation of Planetary Protection Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Louise; Belz, Andrea; Evans, Michael; Kastner, Jason; Satter, Celeste; Spry, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Since the Viking missions to Mars in the 1970s, accounting for the costs associated with planetary protection implementation has not been done systematically during early project formulation phases, leading to unanticipated costs during subsequent implementation phases of flight projects. The simultaneous development of more stringent planetary protection requirements, resulting from new knowledge about the limits of life on Earth, together with current plans to conduct life-detection experiments on a number of different solar system target bodies motivates a systematic approach to integrating planetary protection requirements and mission design. A current development effort at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is aimed at integrating planetary protection requirements more fully into the early phases of mission architecture formulation and at developing tools to more rigorously predict associated cost and schedule impacts of architecture options chosen to meet planetary protection requirements.

  1. Monitoring groundwater: optimising networks to take account of cost effectiveness, legal requirements and enforcement realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.; Spray, C.

    2013-12-01

    The quality of monitoring networks and modeling in environmental regulation is increasingly important. This is particularly true with respect to groundwater management, where data may be limited, physical processes poorly understood and timescales very long. The powers of regulators may be fatally undermined by poor or non-existent networks, primarily through mismatches between the legal standards that networks must meet, actual capacity and the evidentiary standards of courts. For example, in the second and third implementation reports on the Water Framework Directive, the European Commission drew attention to gaps in the standards of mandatory monitoring networks, where the standard did not meet the reality. In that context, groundwater monitoring networks should provide a reliable picture of groundwater levels and a ';coherent and comprehensive' overview of chemical status so that anthropogenically influenced long-term upward trends in pollutant levels can be tracked. Confidence in this overview should be such that 'the uncertainty from the monitoring process should not add significantly to the uncertainty of controlling the risk', with densities being sufficient to allow assessment of the impact of abstractions and discharges on levels in groundwater bodies at risk. The fact that the legal requirements for the quality of monitoring networks are set out in very vague terms highlights the many variables that can influence the design of monitoring networks. However, the quality of a monitoring network as part of the armory of environmental regulators is potentially of crucial importance. If, as part of enforcement proceedings, a regulator takes an offender to court and relies on conclusions derived from monitoring networks, a defendant may be entitled to question those conclusions. If the credibility, reliability or relevance of a monitoring network can be undermined, because it is too sparse, for example, this could have dramatic consequences on the ability of a

  2. Requiring suspended drunk drivers to install alcohol interlocks to reinstate their licenses: effective?

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Tippetts, S. Scott; Fisher, Deborah; Grosz, Milton

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate a new method being used by some states for motivating interlock installation by requiring it as a prerequisite to reinstatement of the driver’s license. Design The driving records of Florida DWI offenders convicted between July 2002 and June 2008 were analyzed to determine the proportion of offenders subject to the interlock requirement who installed interlocks. Setting Most driving-while-impaired (DWI) offenders succeed in avoiding state laws requiring the installation of a vehicle alcohol interlock. Participants A total of 82 318 Florida DWI offenders. Findings Due to long periods of complete suspension when no driving was permitted and the failure to complete all the requirements imposed by the court, only 21 377 of the 82 318 offenders studied qualified for reinstatement, but 93% of those who qualified did install interlocks to be reinstated. Conclusions Because of the lengthy license suspensions and other barriers that the offenders face in qualifying for reinstatement, it is not clear that requiring a period on the interlock as a prerequisite to reinstating will greatly increase the current installment rate. PMID:20528811

  3. High density bit transition requirements versus the effects on BCH error correcting code. [bit synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, F. M.; Schoggen, W. O.

    1982-01-01

    The design to achieve the required bit transition density for the Space Shuttle high rate multiplexes (HRM) data stream of the Space Laboratory Vehicle is reviewed. It contained a recommended circuit approach, specified the pseudo random (PN) sequence to be used and detailed the properties of the sequence. Calculations showing the probability of failing to meet the required transition density were included. A computer simulation of the data stream and PN cover sequence was provided. All worst case situations were simulated and the bit transition density exceeded that required. The Preliminary Design Review and the critical Design Review are documented. The Cover Sequence Generator (CSG) Encoder/Decoder design was constructed and demonstrated. The demonstrations were successful. All HRM and HRDM units incorporate the CSG encoder or CSG decoder as appropriate.

  4. 77 FR 37573 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for an Implantable Pacemaker Pulse Generator

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... subject to the requirements of premarket approval. In the Federal Register of May 6, 1994 (59 FR 23731... premarket approval. ] In the Federal Register of July 27, 2011 (76 FR 44872) (the July 27, 2011, proposed... submitted in response to the 515(i) Order, (April 9, 2009 (74 FR 16214)), and any additional...

  5. 78 FR 17890 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Automated External Defibrillator System.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ...-month period has expired (see 68 FR 61342, October 28, 2003). If a PMA is not filed for such devices... order (74 FR 16214, April 9, 2009) requiring manufacturers to submit information about a number of... thus, AEDs were classified as class III devices. On October 28, 2003 (68 FR 61342), FDA published...

  6. The Effects of Requiring Study Group Participation Associated with Students' Attitudes and Achievements in Developmental Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Clayton D.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely publicized that student attitudes and achievement in math in the United States require improvement. U.S. students have shown lackluster mathematics achievement scores compared to their international peers in other developed countries. As a former high school math instructor, this author observed that the attitude of many high school…

  7. The Effects of Finite Sampling Corrections on State Assessment Sample Requirements. NAEP Validity Studies (NVS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chromy, James R.

    States participating in the National Assessment of Educational Progress State Assessment program (state NAEP) are required to sample at least 2,500 students from at least 100 schools per subject assessed. In this ideal situation, 25 students are assessed for a subject in each school selected for that subject. Two problems have arisen: some states…

  8. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Issuance, Limitations, and Conditions of Licenses and... plants. The requirements of this section are applicable during all conditions of plant operation, including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  9. 71 FR 34249 - Prescription Drug Marketing Act Pedigree Requirements; Effective Date and Compliance Policy Guide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-06-14

    ...), 1988N-0258 (Formerly 88N- 0258), 2006D-0226] Prescription Drug Marketing Act Pedigree Requirements... provisions of the final regulation published in the Federal Register of ] December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720). The... of a new compliance policy guide (CPG) 160.900 entitled ``Prescription Drug Marketing Act...

  10. Adequacy of Material Resources Required for Effective Implementation of Upper Basic Education Business Studies Curriculum in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoli, B. E.; Okorie, Ogbonnaya

    2015-01-01

    This work is a descriptive survey of the adequacy of the material resources required for effective implementation of upper basic education business studies curriculum in Ebonyi State. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The entire population of two hundred and forty-one (241) business studies teachers were used for the…

  11. The Effect of Required Cooperative Education (Co-Op) on the Pursuit of an Undergraduate Engineering Degree for Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Vickie L.

    2009-01-01

    Female enrollment in engineering has been historically low. Researchers claim chilly classroom environments and societal expectations of gender and work as reasons why so few women pursue engineering. This qualitative study explores the effects of required cooperative education on a female student's choice of and persistence in an undergraduate…

  12. 45 CFR 2516.830 - What types of activities are required of Corporation grantees to evaluate the effectiveness of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What types of activities are required of Corporation grantees to evaluate the effectiveness of their subgrantees? 2516.830 Section 2516.830 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING...

  13. 45 CFR 2516.830 - What types of activities are required of Corporation grantees to evaluate the effectiveness of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What types of activities are required of Corporation grantees to evaluate the effectiveness of their subgrantees? 2516.830 Section 2516.830 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING...

  14. Why Pigeons Say What They Do: Reinforcer Magnitude and Response Requirement Effects on Say Responding in Say-Do Correspondence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, Stephanie P.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of reinforcer magnitude and response requirement on pigeons' say choices in an experimental homologue of human say-do correspondence were assessed in two experiments. The procedure was similar to a conditional discrimination procedure except the pigeons chose both a sample stimulus (the say component) and a comparison stimulus that…

  15. Assessment of Antishivering Medication Requirements During Therapeutic Normothermia: Effect of Cooling Methods.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Andrew; McDaniel, Cara; Szarlej, Dorota; Rincon, Fred

    2016-08-01

    Shivering during targeted temperature management (TTM) should be minimized because it can cause cerebral and metabolic stress. It has been proposed that surface cooling (SC) may result in more shivering than endovascular cooling (EC) methods. The purpose of this study was to compare antishivering medication requirements and degree of shivering in these groups during TTM to Normothermia (NT). This was a retrospective single-center cohort study of patients treated with protocolized TTM through SC and EC methods to achieve NT (37.0-37.5°C). The number of interventions and daily dose of antishivering medications, per institutional protocol, were compared between the two groups. The intensity of shivering was assessed with the Bedside Shivering Assessment Scale. Patients in the EC group (n = 23) had more antishivering interventions per patient day than those in the SC group (n = 43) (3.28 vs. 2.67, p = 0.002). Acetaminophen (81% vs. 59%, p < 0.001), buspirone (75% vs. 53%, p < 0.001), and magnesium infusions (52% vs. 36%, p = 0.012) were used on more patient days in the EC group. Patients treated with SC required more patient days of propofol (35% vs. 19%, p = 0.006) and higher average dexmedetomidine dosing per patient-day (0.70 vs. 0.56 μg/[kg·h], p = 0.03). Dosing of other medications was similar. There were no observed differences in degree or intensity of shivering. In our cohort, patients in EC group required more antishivering interventions, but less sedation, during TTM than patients in SC group. Optimizing nonsedating medications, such as acetaminophen, buspirone, and magnesium infusions, may decrease the requirement for sedatives to control shivering in both SC and EC. PMID:26990844

  16. Effective date of requirement for premarket approval for automated external defibrillator systems. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-01-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is issuing a final order to require the filing of premarket approval applications (PMA) for automated external defibrillator (AED) systems, which consist of an AED and those AED accessories necessary for the AED to detect and interpret an electrocardiogram and deliver an electrical shock (e.g., pad electrodes, batteries, adapters, and hardware keys for pediatric use). PMID:25730922

  17. Effects of various radiation source characteristics on shielding requirements at the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.W.; Miller, D.D.; Hill, R.R.

    1992-02-01

    This radiation shielding study provides dose rate information that can be used to estimate required shielding thicknesses for different repository configurations, including various hot cells and vaults in the waste-handling building, the boreholes in the underground emplacement area, and the transfer casks. The study determines gamma and neutron source strengths for various waste types and source geometries representative of conditions at the repository and determines dose rates as a function of shielding thickness for selected materials.

  18. Effects of Cocaine on Performance under Fixed-Interval Schedules with a Small Tandem Ratio Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Branch, Marc N.

    2004-01-01

    Daily administration of cocaine often results in the development of tolerance to its effects on responding maintained by fixed-ratio schedules. Such effects have been observed to be greater when the ratio value is small, whereas less or no tolerance has been observed at large ratio values. Similar schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance, however,…

  19. 24 CFR 3288.215 - Effect on other manufactured home program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect on other manufactured home... COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROGRAM State Dispute Resolution Programs in Non-HUD Administered States § 3288.215 Effect on other manufactured...

  20. 24 CFR 3288.215 - Effect on other manufactured home program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect on other manufactured home... COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROGRAM State Dispute Resolution Programs in Non-HUD Administered States § 3288.215 Effect on other manufactured...

  1. 24 CFR 3288.215 - Effect on other manufactured home program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect on other manufactured home... COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROGRAM State Dispute Resolution Programs in Non-HUD Administered States § 3288.215 Effect on other manufactured...

  2. Ad libitum feeding following ovariectomy in female Beagle dogs: effect on maintenance energy requirement and on blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Jeusette, I; Detilleux, J; Cuvelier, C; Istasse, L; Diez, M

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate the effect of ovariectomy on daily energy requirement in Beagle dogs, and (ii) to evaluate the effects of ad libitum feeding with a high energy diet on energy consumption, body weight gain and blood metabolites in these spayed dogs. Four young adult female Beagle dogs were used. Ovariectomy induced a significant decrease of daily energy requirement in dogs. Ad libitum feeding, initiated 6 months after spaying, induced a significant increase in consumption in spayed dogs. This overconsumption was greatest during the first month of ad libitum feeding but continued for the entire 4 months of this period. When fed ad libitum, dogs gained excess body weight without significant effect on plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and insulin, at short term. These data suggest that energy intake should be strictly controlled to avoid excess weight gain in spayed dogs. PMID:15059235

  3. Spark Ignition of Flowing Gases. 2: Effect of Electrode Parameters on Energy Required to Ignite a Propane-Air Mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swett, Clyde. C., Jr.

    1951-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effect of the electrode parameters of spacing, configuration, and material' on the energy required for ignition of a flowing propane-air mixture. In addition, the data were used to indicate the energy distribution along the spark length and to confirm previous observations concerning the effect of spark duration on ignition energy requirements. The data were obtained with a mixture at a fuel-air ratio of 0.0835 (by weight), a pressure of 3 inches of mercury absolute, a temperature of 80 F, and a mixture velocity of 5 feet per second. Results showed that the energy required for ignition decreased as the electrode spacing was increased; a minimum energy occurred at. a spacing of 0.65 inch for large electrodes. For small electrodes, the spacing for minimum energy was not sharply defined. Small-diameter electrodes required less energy than large-diameter electrodes if the spacing was less than the optimum distance of 0.65 inch; at a spacing equal to the optimum distance, no difference was noted. Significant effects of electrode material on ignition energy were ascribed to differences in the type of spark discharges produced; glow discharges required higher energy than the arc-glow discharges. With pure glow discharges, the ignition energy was substantially constant for lead, cadmium, brass, aluminum, and tungsten electrodes. A method is described for determining the energy distribution along a glow discharge. It was found that one-third to one-half of the energy in the spark was concentrated in a small region near the cathode electrode, and the remainder was uniformly distributed across the spark gap. It was impossible to ascertain the dependence of ignition on. this distribution. It was also observed that long-duration (600 microsec) sparks required much less energy for ignition than did short-duration (1 microsec) sparks.

  4. Melatonin antiproliferative effects require active mitochondrial function in embryonal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Rute; Magalhães-Novais, Silvia; Mesquita, Katia A.; Baldeiras, Ines; Sousa, Isabel S.; Tavares, Ludgero C.; Barbosa, Ines A.; Oliveira, Paulo J.; Vega-Naredo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Although melatonin oncostatic and cytotoxic effects have been described in different types of cancer cells, the specific mechanisms leading to its antitumoral effects and their metabolic context specificity are still not completely understood. Here, we evaluated the effects of melatonin in P19 embryonal carcinoma stem cells (CSCs) and in their differentiated counterparts, cultured in either high glucose medium or in a galactose (glucose-free) medium which leads to glycolytic suppression and increased mitochondrial metabolism. We found that highly glycolytic P19 CSCs were less susceptible to melatonin antitumoral effects while cell populations relying on oxidative metabolism for ATP production were more affected. The observed antiproliferative action of melatonin was associated with an arrest at S-phase, decreased oxygen consumption, down-regulation of BCL-2 expression and an increase in oxidative stress culminating with caspase-3-independent cell death. Interestingly, the combined treatment of melatonin and dichloroacetate had a synergistic effect in cells grown in the galactose medium and resulted in an inhibitory effect in the highly resistant P19 CSCs. Melatonin appears to exert its antiproliferative activity in P19 carcinoma cells through a mitochondrially-mediated action which in turn allows the amplification of the effects of dichloroacetate, even in cells with a more glycolytic phenotype. PMID:26025920

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis: should it be required for drug registration and beyond?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Renée J Goldberg

    2007-11-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is applied in situations where trade-offs exist, typically, greater benefit for an increased cost over an alternative therapy or strategic option versus usual care. CEA is useful where a new strategy is more costly but expected to be more effective or where a new strategy is less costly but less effective. A good example for the relevance of CEA is the unanimous recommendation of a US federal vaccine advisory panel to vaccinate 11-year-old girls against cervical cancer. This recommendation was at least partly because of data showing the relative cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccine. In this era of finite budgets, CEA may facilitate drug development, drug approval, patient segmentation and pricing model development throughout the drug lifecycle continuum. PMID:17993415

  6. Hippocampal neurogenesis is not required for behavioral effects of environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Meshi, Dar; Drew, Michael R; Saxe, Michael; Ansorge, Mark S; David, Denis; Santarelli, Luca; Malapani, Chariklia; Moore, Holly; Hen, René

    2006-06-01

    Environmental enrichment increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and alters hippocampal-dependent behavior in rodents. To investigate a causal link between these two observations, we analyzed the effect of enrichment on spatial learning and anxiety-like behavior while blocking adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We report that environmental enrichment alters behavior in mice regardless of their hippocampal neurogenic capability, providing evidence that the newborn cells do not mediate these effects of enrichment. PMID:16648847

  7. Effect of NLTE emissivity models on NIF ignition hohlraum power requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, L.; Hansen, S.; Rosen, M.; Springer, P.; Callahan, D.

    2008-11-01

    It's well known that the NLTE atomic physics model can significantly affect the power requirements and plasma conditions in ignition hohlraums. This is because the emissivity(Te,ne) is a significant factor in determining the time dependent coronal temperature of the hot blow-off plasma filling ignition hohlraums which, in turn, determines the total energy stored in that coronal plasma at any instant. In this talk we present best estimates of NLTE emissivity using the SCRAM model, including the range of uncertainty, and compare them with the emissivity of the model used to design NIF ignition hohlraums and set the NIF pulse shape. We then present pulse shapes derived from hohlraum simulations using an atomic physics model that approximates the SCRAM emissivities. We discuss the differences in coronal energetics and show how this affects the pulse shape and decreases the peak power requirement. Finally, we present design simulations of potential NIF-commissioning scaling experiments that could distinguish among emissivity models. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Effective reinforcement learning following cerebellar damage requires a balance between exploration and motor noise

    PubMed Central

    Therrien, Amanda S.; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    See Miall and Galea (doi: 10.1093/awv343) for a scientific commentary on this article. Reinforcement and error-based processes are essential for motor learning, with the cerebellum thought to be required only for the error-based mechanism. Here we examined learning and retention of a reaching skill under both processes. Control subjects learned similarly from reinforcement and error-based feedback, but showed much better retention under reinforcement. To apply reinforcement to cerebellar patients, we developed a closed-loop reinforcement schedule in which task difficulty was controlled based on recent performance. This schedule produced substantial learning in cerebellar patients and controls. Cerebellar patients varied in their learning under reinforcement but fully retained what was learned. In contrast, they showed complete lack of retention in error-based learning. We developed a mechanistic model of the reinforcement task and found that learning depended on a balance between exploration variability and motor noise. While the cerebellar and control groups had similar exploration variability, the patients had greater motor noise and hence learned less. Our results suggest that cerebellar damage indirectly impairs reinforcement learning by increasing motor noise, but does not interfere with the reinforcement mechanism itself. Therefore, reinforcement can be used to learn and retain novel skills, but optimal reinforcement learning requires a balance between exploration variability and motor noise. PMID:26626368

  9. Direct effects of ionizing radiation on integral membrane proteins. Noncovalent energy transfer requires specific interpeptide interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Jhun, E.; Jhun, B.H.; Jones, L.R.; Jung, C.Y. )

    1991-05-25

    The 12 transmembrane alpha helices (TMHs) of human erythrocyte glucose transporter were individually cut by pepsin digestion as membrane-bound 2.5-3.5-kDa peptide fragments. Radiation-induced chemical degradation of these fragments showed an average target size of 34 kDa. This is 10-12 x larger than the average size of an individual TMH, demonstrating that a significant energy transfer occurs among these TMHs in the absence of covalent linkage. Heating this TMH preparation at 100{degree}C for 15 min reduced the target size to 5 kDa or less, suggesting that the noncovalent energy transfer requires specific helix-helix interactions. Purified phospholamban, a small (6-kDa) integral membrane protein containing a single TMH, formed a pentameric assembly in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The chemical degradation target size of this phospholamban pentamer was 5-6 kDa, illustrating that not all integral membrane protein assemblies permit intersubunit energy transfer. These findings together with other published observations suggest strongly that significant noncovalent energy transfer can occur within the tertiary and quaternary structure of membrane proteins and that as yet undefined proper molecular interactions are required for such covalent energy transfer. Our results with pepsin-digested glucose transporter also illustrate the importance of the interhelical interaction as a predominating force in maintaining the tertiary structure of a transmembrane protein.

  10. Effective reinforcement learning following cerebellar damage requires a balance between exploration and motor noise.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Amanda S; Wolpert, Daniel M; Bastian, Amy J

    2016-01-01

    Reinforcement and error-based processes are essential for motor learning, with the cerebellum thought to be required only for the error-based mechanism. Here we examined learning and retention of a reaching skill under both processes. Control subjects learned similarly from reinforcement and error-based feedback, but showed much better retention under reinforcement. To apply reinforcement to cerebellar patients, we developed a closed-loop reinforcement schedule in which task difficulty was controlled based on recent performance. This schedule produced substantial learning in cerebellar patients and controls. Cerebellar patients varied in their learning under reinforcement but fully retained what was learned. In contrast, they showed complete lack of retention in error-based learning. We developed a mechanistic model of the reinforcement task and found that learning depended on a balance between exploration variability and motor noise. While the cerebellar and control groups had similar exploration variability, the patients had greater motor noise and hence learned less. Our results suggest that cerebellar damage indirectly impairs reinforcement learning by increasing motor noise, but does not interfere with the reinforcement mechanism itself. Therefore, reinforcement can be used to learn and retain novel skills, but optimal reinforcement learning requires a balance between exploration variability and motor noise. PMID:26626368

  11. Performance under dichoptic versus binocular viewing conditions - Effects of attention and task requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Gopher, Daniel; Rubin, Yifat; Raij, David

    1993-01-01

    Three experiments investigated subjects' ability to allocate attention and cope with task requirements under dichoptic versus binocular viewing conditions. Experiments 1 and 2 employed a target detection task in compound and noncompound stimuli, and Experiment 3 employed a relative-proximity judgment task. The tasks were performed in a focused attention condition in which subjects had to attend to the stimulus presented to one eye or field (under dichoptic and binocular viewing conditions, respectively) while ignoring the stimulus presented to the other eye or field, and in a divided attention condition in which subjects had to attend to the stimuli presented to both eyes or fields. Subjects' performance was affected by the interaction of attention conditions with task requirements, but it was generally the same under dichoptic and binocular viewing conditions. The more dependent the task was on finer discrimination, the more performance was impaired by divided attention. These results suggest that at least with discrete tasks and relatively short exposure durations, performance when each eye is presented with a separate stimulus is the same as when the entire field of stimulation is viewed by both eyes.

  12. Understanding Teacher Effectiveness: Significant State Data Capacity Is Required to Measure and Improve Teacher Effectiveness. Data for Action 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    States are increasingly focused on understanding and improving teacher effectiveness. There are several funding opportunities that incentivize states to use data to inform measurements of teacher effectiveness. Local, state, and federal efforts support using data to improve teacher preparation programs. Preparation programs seek "access to data…

  13. Studies on Kochiae Fructus. V. Antipruritic effects of oleanolic acid glycosides and the structure-requirement.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Dai, Y; Ido, Y; Murakami, T; Matsuda, H; Yoshikawa, M; Kubo, M

    1998-11-01

    We examined the antipruritic effects of various oleanolic acid glycosides from natural medicines such as Kochiae Fructus (the fruit of Kochia scoparia SCHRAD.) and Momordicae Radix (the roots of Momordica cochinchinensis SPRENG.) using a compound 48/80-induced pruritic model in mice. Oleanolic acid 3-O-monodesmosides showed an antipruritic effect, while oleanolic acid 3,28-O-bisdesmosides and their common sapogenol oleanolic acid lacked the activity. This evidence indicated that the 3-O-glycoside moiety and the 28-carboxyl group in oleanolic acid glycosides were essential for exhibiting the antipruritic effect. Furthermore, it was found that the 3-O-glucuronides showed more potent activity than the corresponding 3-O-glucosides. PMID:9853421

  14. 77 FR 41697 - Stay of the Effectiveness of Requirements; Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... standards) and the 1997 fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) NAAQS (the ``NM FIP Rule'', 76 FR 52388). In that... addition, EPA implemented sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) hourly emission limits at the SJGS, to minimize the... FR 52388). This stay of effectiveness will remain in place for 90 days from today. This action adds...

  15. Effectiveness of a Required Course in Career Planning for Psychology Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, James H.; McDaniel, Cyndi R.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effectiveness of a course in career planning for psychology majors. Study 1 used a quasi-experimental design. Students who completed a corequisite research methods course in the year before the department added the careers course to the curriculum served as a comparison group. Analyses showed that students in the…

  16. Global climatic change effects on irrigation requirements for the Central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising carbon dioxide and other green house gasses (water vapor, nitrous oxide, methane, etc.) are predicted to have an effect on future climates. These gasses impact crops and global and local weather. The carbon dioxide increase is generally considered to be favorable to agriculture as it increas...

  17. Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

    2015-10-01

    Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity. PMID:25487536

  18. Associative priming in perceptual identification: effects of prime-processing requirements.

    PubMed

    Burt, J S; Walker, M B; Humphreys, M S; Tehan, G

    1993-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the effects of prime-processing instructions on associative priming in word identification and episodic memory for primes. In Experiment 1, groups instructed to read the prime silently or generate silently an associate of the prime showed a larger accuracy benefit for related over unrelated targets than did a group that decided whether an asterisk was to the right or left of the prime. The asterisk-search group showed a weaker repetition effect on a subsequent identification test of primes, indicating that the weaker priming in this group was a result of poorer perceptual processing. On a cued-recall test for primes, the generate group was superior to the other groups. In Experiment 2, we found that with weak prime-target associations, priming was comparable for read and generate groups and stronger than estimated for a guessing strategy, on the basis of single predictions made from each prime by an additional group. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that the read and generate instructions produced similar mispriming and inhibitory effects. The results suggest that the depths of prime-processing manipulations do not have parallel effects on priming and episodic memory, and that associative priming in word identification, as in other tasks, may involve an expectancy process. PMID:8433643

  19. 78 FR 66841 - Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... (78 FR 44878), corrected October 25, 2013 (78 FR 63872), is confirmed. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Federal Register of July 25, 2013 (78 FR 44878 at 44879), FDA solicited comments concerning the direct... effective date of ``January 16, 2014.'' In the Federal Register of October 25, 2013 (78 FR 63872),...

  20. A Flux Balance of Glucose Metabolism Clarifies the Requirements of the Warburg Effect.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ziwei; Shestov, Alexander A; Lai, Luhua; Locasale, Jason W

    2016-09-01

    The Warburg effect, or aerobic glycolysis, is marked by the increased metabolism of glucose to lactate in the presence of oxygen. Despite its widespread prevalence in physiology and cancer biology, the causes and consequences remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that a simple balance of interacting fluxes in glycolysis creates constraints that impose the necessary conditions for glycolytic flux to generate lactate as opposed to entering into the mitochondria. These conditions are determined by cellular redox and energy demands. By analyzing the constraints and sampling the feasible region of the model, we further study how cell proliferation rate and mitochondria-associated NADH oxidizing and ATP producing fluxes are interlinked. Together this analysis illustrates the simplicity of the origins of the Warburg effect by identifying the flux distributions that are necessary for its instantiation. PMID:27602736

  1. A platform for effective requirements management and collaboration in nuclear compliance and licensing

    SciTech Connect

    Fechtelkotter, P. L.

    2012-07-01

    Buoyed by its promise as a cost effective and low-carbon-footprint source of electricity, the nuclear industry is in the midst of a world-wide renaissance. However, significant challenges, including responding to increased safety and regulatory mandates, making a smooth transition to next-generation reactor technology, and dealing with the adoption of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems that rely heavily on software must be effectively addressed to ensure the momentum continues. New technology solutions, such as those developed by IBM's Rational business unit, coupled with well codified processes, policies and best practices leveraged across the nuclear ecosystem's participants have been shown to aid in overcoming these obstacles. This paper will highlight some of the compliance and collaboration challenges facing the extended nuclear ecosystem, describe a potential solution that can aid in addressing the challenges, and present several examples of where the solution has been implemented in the nuclear space. (authors)

  2. The cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination in elderly Australians: an exploratory analysis of the vaccine efficacy required.

    PubMed

    Newall, Anthony T; Dehollain, Juan Pablo

    2014-03-10

    It is important to consider the value for money offered by existing elderly influenza vaccination programs, particularly as doubts persist about the magnitude of the effectiveness of such programs. An informative approach to explore the value of vaccination is to consider what vaccine efficacy would be required for a program to be considered cost-effective. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of the current elderly (65+ years) influenza vaccination program in Australia, we modelled how the hypothetical removal of vaccination would increase current disease burden estimates depending on alternative vaccine efficacy assumptions. The base-case results of the analysis found that the existing elderly vaccination program is likely to be cost-effective (under A$50,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained) if the vaccine efficacy is above ∼30%. This study offers reassurance that the influenza vaccination of elderly Australians is likely to offer value for money. PMID:24486359

  3. Capturing Safety Requirements to Enable Effective Task Allocation Between Humans and Automaton in Increasingly Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neogi, Natasha A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a current drive towards enabling the deployment of increasingly autonomous systems in the National Airspace System (NAS). However, shifting the traditional roles and responsibilities between humans and automation for safety critical tasks must be managed carefully, otherwise the current emergent safety properties of the NAS may be disrupted. In this paper, a verification activity to assess the emergent safety properties of a clearly defined, safety critical, operational scenario that possesses tasks that can be fluidly allocated between human and automated agents is conducted. Task allocation role sets were proposed for a human-automation team performing a contingency maneuver in a reduced crew context. A safety critical contingency procedure (engine out on takeoff) was modeled in the Soar cognitive architecture, then translated into the Hybrid Input Output formalism. Verification activities were then performed to determine whether or not the safety properties held over the increasingly autonomous system. The verification activities lead to the development of several key insights regarding the implicit assumptions on agent capability. It subsequently illustrated the usefulness of task annotations associated with specialized requirements (e.g., communication, timing etc.), and demonstrated the feasibility of this approach.

  4. Effect of cold exposure on water requirements on three species of small mammals.

    PubMed

    Deavers, D R; Hudson, J W

    1977-07-01

    Water turnover rate (WTR) was determined from tritiated water (3H2O) loss in the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), red-backed vole (Clethrionomys gapperi), and white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). When given ad libitum water at Ta of 20 degrees, B. brevicauda, C. gapperi, and P. leucopus turned over 16.2, 13.8, and 6.2 ml/day, respectively; minimum WTR was 9.9, 7.8, and 3.5 ml/day, respectively. When they were given ad libitum water at 5 degrees C, WTR was 1.4 to 1.6 times higher than at 20 degrees C. On minimum water rations, WTR at 5 degrees C was 1.7 to 1.9 times higher than at 20 degrees C. Since increases in VO2 at 5 degrees C and at 20 degrees C were of about the same magnitude, increased metabolic rates may have caused increased water requirements. Total body water (TBW) was calculated from 3H2O dilution. On minimum water rations, the three species at both Ta's showed decreases in TBW and body weight, but percent body H2O increased. PMID:330486

  5. Mental Health Services Required after Disasters: Learning from the Lasting Effects of Disasters

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, A. C.; Williams, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Disasters test civil administrations' and health services' capacity to act in a flexible but well-coordinated manner because each disaster is unique and poses unusual challenges. The health services required differ markedly according to the nature of the disaster and the geographical spread of those affected. Epidemiology has shown that services need to be equipped to deal with major depressive disorder and grief, not just posttraumatic stress disorder, and not only for victims of the disaster itself but also the emergency service workers. The challenge is for specialist advisers to respect and understand the existing health care and support networks of those affected while also recognizing their limitations. In the initial aftermath of these events, a great deal of effort goes into the development of early support systems but the longer term needs of these populations are often underestimated. These services need to be structured, taking into account the pre-existing psychiatric morbidity within the community. Disasters are an opportunity for improving services for patients with posttraumatic psychopathology in general but can later be utilized for improving services for victims of more common traumas in modern society, such as accidents and interpersonal violence. PMID:22811897

  6. Effects of prehospital hypothermia on transfusion requirements and outcomes: a retrospective observatory trial

    PubMed Central

    Klauke, Nora; Gräff, Ingo; Fleischer, Andreas; Boehm, Olaf; Guttenthaler, Vera; Baumgarten, Georg; Meybohm, Patrick; Wittmann, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Prehospital hypothermia is defined as a core temperature <36.0°C and has been shown to be an independent risk factor for early death in patients with trauma. In a retrospective study, a possible correlation between the body temperature at the time of admission to the emergency room and subsequent in-hospital transfusion requirements and the in-hospital mortality rate was explored. Setting This is a retrospective single-centre study at a primary care hospital in Germany. Participants 15 895 patients were included in this study. Patients were classified by admission temperature and transfusion rate. Excluded were ambulant patients and patients with missing data. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome values were length of stay (LOS) in days, in-hospital mortality, the transferred amount of packed red blood cells (PRBCs), and admission to an intensive care unit. Secondary influencing variables were the patient's age and the Glasgow Coma Scale. Results In 22.85% of the patients, hypothermia was documented. Hypothermic patients died earlier in the course of their hospital stay than non-hypothermic patients (p<0.001). The administration of 1–3 PRBC increased the LOS significantly (p<0.001) and transfused patients had an increased risk of death (p<0.001). Prehospital hypothermia could be an independent risk factor for mortality (adjusted OR 8.521; p=0.001) and increases the relative risk for transfusion by factor 2.0 (OR 2.007; p=0.002). Conclusions Low body temperature at hospital admission is associated with a higher risk of transfusion and death. Hence, a greater awareness of prehospital temperature management should be established. PMID:27029772

  7. Effects of VKORC1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Warfarin Maintenance Dose Requirement in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaojuan; Yang, Feng; Zhou, Hanyun; Zhang, Hongshen; Liu, Jianfei; Ma, Kezhong; Li, Yi; Zhu, Jun; Ding, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background VKORC1 is reported to be capable of treating several diseases with thrombotic risk, such as cardiac valve replacement. Some single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VKORC1 are documented to be associated with clinical differences in warfarin maintenance dose. This study explored the correlations of VKORC1–1639 G/A, 1173 C/T and 497 T/G genetic polymorphisms with warfarin maintenance dose requirement in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement. Material/Methods A total of 298 patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement were recruited. During follow-up, clinical data were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied to detect VKORC1–1639 G/A, 1173 C/T and 497 T/G polymorphisms, and genotypes were analyzed. Results Correlations between warfarin maintenance dose and baseline characteristics revealed statistical significances of age, gender and operation methods with warfarin maintenance dose (all P<0.05). Warfarin maintenance dose in VKORC1–1639 G/A AG + GG carriers was obviously higher than in AA carriers (P<0.001). As compared with patients with TT genotype in VKORC1 1173 C/T, warfarin maintenance dose was apparently higher in patients with CT genotype (P<0.001). Linear regression analysis revealed that gender, operation method, method for heart valve replacement, as well as VKORC1–1639 G/A and 1173 C/T gene polymorphisms were significantly related to warfarin maintenance dose (all P<0.05). Conclusions VKORC1 gene polymorphisms are key genetic factors to affect individual differences in warfarin maintenance dose in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement; meanwhile, gender, operation method and method for heart valve replacement might also be correlate with warfarin maintenance dose. PMID:26583785

  8. Effects of VKORC1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Warfarin Maintenance Dose Requirement in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaojuan; Yang, Feng; Zhou, Hanyun; Zhang, Hongshen; Liu, Jianfei; Ma, Kezhong; Li, Yi; Zhu, Jun; Ding, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND VKORC1 is reported to be capable of treating several diseases with thrombotic risk, such as cardiac valve replacement. Some single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VKORC1 are documented to be associated with clinical differences in warfarin maintenance dose. This study explored the correlations of VKORC1-1639 G/A, 1173 C/T and 497 T/G genetic polymorphisms with warfarin maintenance dose requirement in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 298 patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement were recruited. During follow-up, clinical data were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied to detect VKORC1-1639 G/A, 1173 C/T and 497 T/G polymorphisms, and genotypes were analyzed. RESULTS Correlations between warfarin maintenance dose and baseline characteristics revealed statistical significances of age, gender and operation methods with warfarin maintenance dose (all P<0.05). Warfarin maintenance dose in VKORC1-1639 G/A AG + GG carriers was obviously higher than in AA carriers (P<0.001). As compared with patients with TT genotype in VKORC1 1173 C/T, warfarin maintenance dose was apparently higher in patients with CT genotype (P<0.001). Linear regression analysis revealed that gender, operation method, method for heart valve replacement, as well as VKORC1-1639 G/A and 1173 C/T gene polymorphisms were significantly related to warfarin maintenance dose (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS VKORC1 gene polymorphisms are key genetic factors to affect individual differences in warfarin maintenance dose in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement; meanwhile, gender, operation method and method for heart valve replacement might also be correlate with warfarin maintenance dose. PMID:26583785

  9. Influence of esmolol on requirement of inhalational agent using entropy and assessment of its effect on immediate postoperative pain score

    PubMed Central

    Bhawna; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Lalitha, K; Dhar, Purnima; Kumar, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Background and Context: Beta-blockers have been used for attenuation of stress response, decreasing anaesthetic requirement and augmentation of the effect of opioids during general anaesthesia. Aims and Objectives: The present study aims to evaluate the influence of esmolol on the requirement of an inhalational agent while monitoring the depth of anaesthesia by entropy and also its effect on immediate postoperative pain score. Methods: Fifty American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) I and II patients, between 25 and 65 years of age who underwent lower abdominal surgeries were randomly allocated to two groups: Group E and Group S of 25 patients each. Group E received esmolol infusion while Group S received the same volume of saline infusion. Demographic data, haemodynamics, amount of isoflurane used, end-tidal isoflurane concentration, postoperative pain score and total dose of morphine consumed in immediate postoperative period of 30 min were analyzed by using appropriate statistical tests. Value of P<0.05 was considered significant and P<0.001 as highly significant. Results: The two groups were comparable with respect to age, weight, ASA physical status, duration of surgery and amount of isoflurane used during anaesthesia. Assessment of postoperative pain was assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) which showed significant difference at 30 min. The total dose of morphine consumption was significantly less (P<0.05) in Group E for relief of postoperative pain. Conclusions: We conclude that in light of depth of anaesthesia monitor esmolol has no effect on requirement of isoflurane, but it decreases the postoperative pain as well as postoperative requirement of morphine without increasing the risk of awareness. PMID:23325937

  10. Sirt1 Is Required for Resveratrol-Mediated Chemopreventive Effects in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Buhrmann, Constanze; Shayan, Parviz; Popper, Bastian; Goel, Ajay; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Sirt1 is a NAD+-dependent protein-modifying enzyme involved in regulating gene expression, DNA damage repair, metabolism and survival, as well as acts as an important subcellular target of resveratrol. The complex mechanisms underlying Sirt1 signaling during carcinogenesis remain controversial, as it can serve both as a tumor promoter and suppressor. Whether resveratrol-mediated chemopreventive effects are mediated via Sirt1 in CRC growth and metastasis remains unclear; which was the subject of this study. We found that resveratrol suppressed proliferation and invasion of two different human CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner, and interestingly, this was accompanied with a significant decrease in Ki-67 expression. By transient transfection of CRC cells with Sirt1-ASO, we demonstrated that the anti-tumor effects of resveratrol on cells was abolished, suggesting the essential role of this enzyme in the resveratrol signaling pathway. Moreover, resveratrol downregulated nuclear localization of NF-κB, NF-κB phosphorylation and its acetylation, causing attenuation of NF-κB-regulated gene products (MMP-9, CXCR4) involved in tumor-invasion and metastasis. Finally, Sirt1 was found to interact directly with NF-κB, and resveratrol did not suppress Sirt1-ASO-induced NF-κB phosphorylation, acetylation and NF-κB-regulated gene products. Overall, our results demonstrate that resveratrol can suppress tumorigenesis, at least in part by targeting Sirt1 and suppression of NF-κB activation. PMID:26959057