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1

Reading Comprehension Student Template: Question-Answer Relationship  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This template is an instructional tool that can be used to guide elementary students (grades 2-5) through the reading strategy of questioning. The template is based on the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) approach in which students classify questions according to type and then provide answers from text. The template was designed to be used with the Feature Story, The Dance of Life, by students in grades 2-5. It is a PDF document that can be copied and distributed to students.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

2

Improving comprehension of science content: Generating self-explanation questions and creating explanatory answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emphasis on learning in content area classrooms is heavily dependent on remembering facts and memorizing definitions. Because of this, students often achieve shallow levels of comprehension and are deficient in the skills necessary to achieve deeper comprehension. Teaching students to generate self-explanation questions and answers related to teacher lectures and from reading text can improve comprehension. Students who attempt to explain what the content means understand it better and at a deeper level. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of teaching students to ask self-explanation questions as a means for improving comprehension. Eighth-grade students from three heterogeneous science classrooms participated in one of the treatment or comparison groups. The first treatment group was taught to generate self-explanation questions while the second treatment group was taught to generate self-explanation questions and to create explanatory answers using a rubric. The comparison group received their regular science instruction. Self-explanation question/answer participants scored significantly higher than the regular instruction group more often than the self-explanation question only group, on memory and essay measures. Analyses were performed with MANCOVA on all three groups' scores as a set. ANCOVA was used to determine if differences existed between groups on each of the dependent variables, and Bonferonni's post-hoc contrasts were used to determine where differences existed among treatment and comparison groups. Results revealed that students who were taught to generate self-explanation questions and/or to create explanatory answers outperformed the regular instruction students on some of the memory and essay measures. Additionally, teaching students a self-explanation strategy resulted in improved ability to respond to essay questions two weeks following the conclusion of the study compared to students who received regular instruction.

Clelland, Peggie L.

3

Evaluating Interactive Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume is filled with a variety of innovative approaches to helping users answer questions. In much of the research,\\u000a however, one part of the solution is missing, namely the user. This chapter describes evaluation of interactive question answering\\u000a with a focus on two initiatives: the Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) Interactive Track and studies in the medical domain.\\u000a As is

William Hersh

4

CAT questions and answers  

SciTech Connect

This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions.

Not Available

1993-02-01

5

Knowledge based question answering  

SciTech Connect

The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

1983-01-01

6

Question answering using constraint satisfaction  

E-print Network

QA-by-Dossier-with-Constraints is a new approach to Question Answering whereby candidate answers ’ confidences are adjusted by asking auxiliary questions whose answers constrain the original answers. These constraints emerge naturally from the domain of interest, and enable application of real-world knowledge to QA. We show that our approach significantly improves system performance (75 % relative improvement in F-measure on select question types) and can create a “dossier ” of information about the subject matter in the original question.

John Prager

2004-01-01

7

Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Share Compartir Antibiotic Resistance Questions & Answers On this Page Questions about Bacteria, ... of antibiotic resistance. Top of Page Questions about Antibiotic Resistance Q: What is antibiotic resistance? A: Antibiotic resistance ...

8

Predicting Best Answerers for New Questions in Community Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Community question answering (CQA) has become a very popular web service to provide a platform for people to share knowledge.\\u000a In current CQA services, askers post their questions to the system and wait for answerers to answer them passively. This procedure\\u000a leads to several drawbacks. Since new questions are presented to all users in the system, the askers can not

Mingrong Liu; Yicen Liu; Qing Yang

2010-01-01

9

Automated question answering for clinical comparison questions   

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development and evaluation of new automated Question Answering (QA) methods tailored to clinical comparison questions that give clinicians a rank-ordered list of MEDLINE® abstracts targeted to ...

Leonhard, Annette Christa

2012-06-25

10

Lexical validation of answers in Question Answering  

E-print Network

be given: Hypothesis: Yasser Arafat was Palestine Liber- ation Organization Chairman 2 Snippet: President Clinton appealed personally to Palestine Liberation Organization Chairman Yasser Arafat and angry of the question "Who was Yasser Arafat?" containing the answer given by a system "Palestine Liberation

Ligozat, Anne-Laure

11

From Question Answering to Visual Exploration  

SciTech Connect

Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

2006-08-11

12

ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

13

Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... we will post answers to questions of general public interest. Please enter the characters you see in the box below, in order and separated by a space. This helps prevent automated programs from misusing this ...

14

Answering Your Questions about AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

Kalichman, Seth C.

15

Question Answering Using Question Classification and Document Tagging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question answering (QA) is a relatively new area of research. We took the approach of designing a question answering system that is based on question classification and document tagging. Question classification extracts useful information from the question about how to answer the question. Document tagging extracts useful information from the documents, which are used to find the answer to the

Yllias Chali

2009-01-01

16

Answering Questions About Underage Drinking  

MedlinePLUS

... to Alcohol Answering Questions About Underage Drinking Alcohol Advertising Who Can Help Reduce Underage Drinking, and How? Related Items What can you say to people who think teen drinking is not a serious problem? Despite the law, the statistics, and the science, some people still think teen ...

17

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER  

E-print Network

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER Q: What are the early signs of lung cancer? How would I know I have it? A: Some of the early warning signs of lung cancer are: · A cough that doesn't go away what may be causing these symptoms. Q: How is lung cancer diagnosed? A: Your doctor may do one or more

18

Finding similar questions in large question and answer archives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has recently been a significant increase in the number of community-based question and answer services on the Web where people answer other peoples' questions. These services rapidly build up large archives of questions and answers, and these archives are a valuable linguistic resource. One of the major tasks in a question and answer service is to find questions in

Jiwoon Jeon; Joon Ho Lee

2005-01-01

19

Descriptive Question Answering with Answer Type Independent Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a supervised learning method to seek out answers to the most frequently asked descriptive questions: reason, method, and definition questions. Most of the previous systems for question answering focus on factoids, lists or definitional questions. However, descriptive questions such as reason questions and method questions are also frequently asked by users. We propose a system for these types of questions. The system conducts an answer search as follows. First, we analyze the user's question and extract search keywords and the expected answer type. Second, information retrieval results are obtained from an existing search engine such as Yahoo or Google. Finally, we rank the results to find snippets containing answers to the questions based on a ranking SVM algorithm. We also propose features to identify snippets containing answers for descriptive questions. The features are adaptable and thus are not dependent on answer type. Experimental results show that the proposed method and features are clearly effective for the task.

Yoon, Yeo-Chan; Lee, Chang-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Ki; Jang, Myung-Gil; Ryu, Pum Mo; Park, So-Young

20

Lessons about Asking, Answering Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the web-based lessons highlighted in this article, students learn how to pose questions before, during, and after reading nonfiction, fiction, and diagrams. This reading comprehension strategy is included in the literacy column of the magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, a free, online publication for K-5 teachers.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

21

A Web-based Question Answering System  

E-print Network

The Web is apparently an ideal source of answers to a large variety of questions, due to the tremendous amount of information available online. This paper describes a Web-based question answering system LAMP, which is ...

Zhang, Dell

22

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

SciTech Connect

Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

2004-10-03

23

Probabilistic question answering on the web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web-based search engines such as Google and NorthernLight return documents that are relevant to a user query, not answers to user questions. We have developed an architecture that augments existing search engines so that they support natural language question answering. The process entails five steps: query modulation, document retrieval, passage extraction, phrase extraction, and answer ranking. In this paper we

Dragomir R. Radev; Weiguo Fan; Hong Qi; Harris Wu; Amardeep Grewal

2002-01-01

24

Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

25

What Can Be Learned from Previously Answered Questions? A Corpus-Based Approach to Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present corpus-based approach to question answering, which en- ables our system to classify a question category, generate a query and verify answer candidates. The system uses the Internet to nd information required to provide an answer. The role of the corpus-based modules is to support the system with knowledge that provides the means to eectiv ely use previously answered

Marcin Skowron; Kenji Araki

2004-01-01

26

A topic clustering approach to finding similar questions from large question and answer archives.  

PubMed

With the blooming of Web 2.0, Community Question Answering (CQA) services such as Yahoo! Answers (http://answers.yahoo.com), WikiAnswer (http://wiki.answers.com), and Baidu Zhidao (http://zhidao.baidu.com), etc., have emerged as alternatives for knowledge and information acquisition. Over time, a large number of question and answer (Q&A) pairs with high quality devoted by human intelligence have been accumulated as a comprehensive knowledge base. Unlike the search engines, which return long lists of results, searching in the CQA services can obtain the correct answers to the question queries by automatically finding similar questions that have already been answered by other users. Hence, it greatly improves the efficiency of the online information retrieval. However, given a question query, finding the similar and well-answered questions is a non-trivial task. The main challenge is the word mismatch between question query (query) and candidate question for retrieval (question). To investigate this problem, in this study, we capture the word semantic similarity between query and question by introducing the topic modeling approach. We then propose an unsupervised machine-learning approach to finding similar questions on CQA Q&A archives. The experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24595052

Zhang, Wei-Nan; Liu, Ting; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Rongrong

2014-01-01

27

Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.  

PubMed

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

28

Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services  

PubMed Central

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

29

Answers to Health Questions in Physical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culled from the answers of physical education teachers and coaches, this booklet attempts to indicate the scope of health problems and suggests some directions which the solutions may take. It is divided into three parts. Part 1, Health and Safety in Activity Programs, answers questions on first aid, excused absences, and desirability of…

Kaplan, Robert, Ed.

30

Get Answers to Common Questions About...  

Cancer.gov

Get Answers to Common Questions About... Biological Specimens Drug Availability, Labeling and Distribution Ethics Indemnity Insurance Planning Clinical Trials and Navigating Regulatory Requirements Protocols Quality Assurance and Monitoring Software

31

Questions and Answers: Smallpox Vaccine and Monkeypox  

MedlinePLUS

... QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Smallpox Vaccine and Monkeypox Download PDF version formatted for print (132 KB/2 pages) How effective is the smallpox vaccine in preventing monkeypox? Past data from Africa suggests that the smallpox vaccine is at least ...

32

Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

Gibbon, Alan

33

Building a question answering test collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC-8 Question Answering (QA) Track was the first large-scale evaluation of domain-independent question answering systems. In addition to fostering research on the QA task, the track was used to investigate whether the evaluation methodology used for document retrieval is appropriate for a different natural language processing task. As with document relevance judging, assessors had legitimate differences of opinions as

Ellen M. Voorhees; Dawn M. Tice

2000-01-01

34

Ten questions and answers about superconductivity  

E-print Network

This work answers the basic questions of superconductivity in a question-and-answer format. We extend a basic hypothesis to various superconductors. This hypothesis is that superconductivity requires that the pairing gap locates around the Fermi level. On the basis of this hypothesis our calculations give the so-called three factor theory with which some key problems of the high temperature superconductivity are explained.

Tian De Cao

2012-11-13

35

Scaling question answering to the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wealth of information on the web makes it an attractive resource for seeking quick answers to simple, factual questions such as "e;who was the first American in space?"e; or "e;what is the second tallest mountain in the world?"e; Yet today's most advanced web search services (e.g., Google and AskJeeves) make it surprisingly tedious to locate answers to such questions.

Cody C. T. Kwok; Oren Etzioni; Daniel S. Weld

2001-01-01

36

Scaling question answering to the web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wealth of information on the web makes it an attractive resource for seeking quick answers to simple, factual questions such as "e;who was the first American in space?"e; or "e;what is the second tallest mountain in the world?"e; Yet today's most advanced web search services (e.g., Google and AskJeeves) make it surprisingly tedious to locate answers to such questions.

Cody Kwok; Oren Etzioni; Daniel S. Weld

2001-01-01

37

The TREC8 Question Answering Track Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC-8 Question Answering track was the first large-scale evaluation of systems that returnanswers, as opposed to lists of documents, in response to a question. As a first evaluation, it is importantto examine the evaluation methodology itself to understand any limits on the conclusions that can bedrawn from the evaluation and possibly to find ways to improve subsequent evaluations. This

Ellen M. Voorhees; Dawn M. Tice

1999-01-01

38

Questions & Answers about Aeronautics and Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Answers to 27 questions about aeronautics, space, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are provided in this pamphlet. Among the topics dealt with in these questions are: costs of the space program; NASA's role in aeronautics; benefits received from the space program; why the United States hasn't developed means of rescuing…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

39

From Asking to Answering: Making Questions Explicit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"From Asking To Answering: Making Questions Explicit" describes a pedagogical procedure the author has used in writing classes (expository, technical and creative) to help students better understand the purpose, and effect, of text-questions. It accomplishes this by means of thirteen discrete categories (e.g., CLAIMS, COMMITMENT, ANAPHORA, or…

Washington, Gene

2006-01-01

40

DICK'S HOUSE Questions and answers to frequently  

E-print Network

DICK'S HOUSE FAQ Questions and answers to frequently asked questions at the Geisel School of Medicine Always identify yourself as a Geisel student when you contact Dick's House!! Updated: December 2013 #12;Dick's House FAQ Contents How do I find what I need quickly in this document? 2 Mental Health

Myers, Lawrence C.

41

A comparison of study strategies for passages: rereading, answering questions, and generating questions.  

PubMed

Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a practice phase. They then read three passages and did one of three tasks on each passage: reread the passage, answered questions set by the experimenter, or generated and answered their own questions. Passages were 575-word (Experiments 1 and 2) or 350-word (Experiment 3) texts on topics such as Venice, the Taj Mahal, and the singer Cesaria Evora. After each task, participants predicted their performance on a later test, which followed the same format as the practice phase test (a short-answer test in Experiments 1 and 2, and a free recall test in Experiment 3). In all experiments, best performance was predicted after generating and answering questions. We show, however, that generating questions led to no improvement over answering comprehension questions, but that both of these tasks were more beneficial than rereading. This was the case on an immediate short-answer test (Experiment 1), a short-answer test taken 2 days after study (Experiment 2), and an immediate free recall test (Experiment 3). Generating questions took at least twice as long as answering questions in all three experiments, so although it is a viable alternative to answering questions in the absence of materials, it is less time-efficient. PMID:20853989

Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B; Roediger, Henry L

2010-09-01

42

Overview of the TREC 2006 Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC 2006 Question Answering (QA) track contained two tasks: the main question answering task, and the complex interactive question answering (ciQA) task. In the main task, question series were used to define a set of targets. Each series was about a single target and contained factoid and list questions. In contrast to previous years, factoid and list answers were

Hoa Trang Dang; Jimmy Lin; Diane Kelly

43

Using AOBP for Definitional Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents an integrated system for the task of definitional question answering. Firstly, we extract question-related\\u000a knowledge as much as possible which include 3 categories. The first is based on language model. We train our language model\\u000a on four different corpora. The second resource is the syntax dependency relations, which are extracted by Minipar. And the\\u000a third resource contains

Junkuo Cao; Weihua Wang; Yuanzhong Shu

2010-01-01

44

Sea Level : Frequently Asked Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can find answers to frequently asked questions regarding sea level and sea level changes. Topics addressed include how mean sea level is defined, how much sea level would rise if all the worlds ice were to melt, differences in sea level between oceans and at different latitudes, the meaning of altitude above sea level, and others.

2007-12-12

45

American Indians Today: Answers to Your Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet attempts to answer briefly the most common questions about American Indians asked by students, people who believe they have Indian ancestors, individuals who want to visit or volunteer to work on a reservation, or those who want to know the current Indian policy. Separate sections outline President Reagan's American Indian policy;…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

46

Question and Answers Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans  

E-print Network

Question and Answers Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans PON-13-603 September 3, 2013 Eligibility Q1 to readiness plans? A1 This solicitation is limited to readiness planning only for alternative fuels. Q2 In regards to PON-13-603 - Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans, is electricity used for transportation

47

Children's School Research Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

and run their own small scale studies at the Children's School. · In all cases involving direct in the Children's School, a parent must sign a consent form allowing the child to participate in approved researchChildren's School Research Questions and Answers 2012-2013 Who conducts the research? · The primary

48

Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

49

Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

2000-01-01

50

Student Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty  

E-print Network

Student Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty What is the SFU Student Learning Commons? The Student Learning Commons (SLC), is an academic learning centre which provides peer-based assistance with library reference, computer assistance, and other student academic support services. SLC programs

51

National Wetland Plant List Question and Answers  

E-print Network

for the names included within the proposed list, National List of Vascular Plant Species that Occur in WetlandsNational Wetland Plant List Question and Answers May 2012 Q1: How will the updated list affect as a result of the changes to the updated plant list. Approximately 12% of the wetland plant indicator

US Army Corps of Engineers

52

Questions and Answers Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans  

E-print Network

Questions and Answers Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans PON-13-603 November 1, 2013 Eligibility Q1 The City of Davis is considering a partnership proposal with UC Davis in response to PON-13-603. Are campus and designating an authorized representative to sign (page 22 of PON-13-603). Application Q1 In the Scope of Work

53

Question Answering in Biomedicine Pierre Zweigenbaum  

E-print Network

: French "Internat" questions: learn answers by heart, no use for QA PZweigenbaum,APHôpParis&ERM202 knowledge is about 7 years (2 years for biomedical knowledge) Continuous medical education Bibliographic in which order; which articles to read thoroughly; how thoroughly Failure of a seemingly appropriate

Zweigenbaum, Pierre

54

Question Answering in Biomedicine Pierre Zweigenbaum  

E-print Network

material online at medical schools Note: French ``Internat'' questions: learn answers by heart, no use knowledge) â Continuous medical education â Bibliographic databases (Medline, etc.) â Direct Web search P thoroughly; how thoroughly â Failure of a seemingly appropriate resource to cover the topic â Uncertainty

Zweigenbaum, Pierre

55

Children answered 24 questions in 3 sections  

E-print Network

Children answered 24 questions in 3 sections: · General knowledge ­ e.g. how many minutes month comes after August? Short-Term Tasks Children completed two computer tasks designed using Kinelab: · Sequencing: Children saw six shapes in succession, before having to indicate the order they were presented

Haase, Markus

56

Question Answering Using a Large NLP System  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThere is a separate report in this volume on the Microsoft Research Cambridge participation in the Filtering and Query tracks(Robertson and Walker 2001).The Microsoft Research question-answering system for TREC-9 was based on a combination of the Okapi retrieval engine,Microsoft's natural language processing system (NLPWin), and a module for matching logical forms. There is no recentpublished account of NLPWin, although a

David Elworthy

2000-01-01

57

Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers  

SciTech Connect

This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

NONE

1995-11-01

58

Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions  

ScienceCinema

contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

Hinchliffe, Ian

2013-05-29

59

Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions  

SciTech Connect

contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

Hinchliffe, Ian

2012-01-01

60

Overview of the TREC 2005 Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC 2005 Question Answering (QA) track contained three tasks: the main question answering task, the document ranking task, and the relationship task. In the main task, question series were used to dene a set of targets. Each series was about a single target and contained factoid and list questions. The nal question in the series was an ìOtherî question

Ellen M. Voorhees; Hoa Trang Dang

2005-01-01

61

Trustworthiness and relevance in web-based clinical question answering.  

PubMed

Question answering systems try to give precise answers to a user's question posed in natural language. It is of utmost importance that the answers returned are relevant to the user's question. For clinical QA, the trustworthiness of answers is another important issue. Limiting the document collection to certified websites helps to improve the trustworthiness of answers. On the other hand, limited document collections are known to harm the relevancy of answers. We show, however, in a comparative evaluation, that promoting trustworthiness has no negative effect on the relevance of the retrieved answers in our clinical QA system. On the contrary, the answers found are in general more relevant. PMID:22874315

Cruchet, Sarah; Boyer, Célia; van der Plas, Lonneke

2012-01-01

62

Model Answers to Lipid Membrane Questions  

PubMed Central

Ever since it was discovered that biological membranes have a core of a bimolecular sheet of lipid molecules, lipid bilayers have been a model laboratory for investigating physicochemical and functional properties of biological membranes. Experimental and theoretical models help the experimental scientist to plan experiments and interpret data. Theoretical models are the theoretical scientist’s preferred toys to make contact between membrane theory and experiments. Most importantly, models serve to shape our intuition about which membrane questions are the more fundamental and relevant ones to pursue. Here we review some membrane models for lipid self-assembly, monolayers, bilayers, liposomes, and lipid–protein interactions and illustrate how such models can help answering questions in modern lipid cell biology. PMID:21610116

Mouritsen, Ole G.

2011-01-01

63

Model answers to lipid membrane questions.  

PubMed

Ever since it was discovered that biological membranes have a core of a bimolecular sheet of lipid molecules, lipid bilayers have been a model laboratory for investigating physicochemical and functional properties of biological membranes. Experimental and theoretical models help the experimental scientist to plan experiments and interpret data. Theoretical models are the theoretical scientist's preferred toys to make contact between membrane theory and experiments. Most importantly, models serve to shape our intuition about which membrane questions are the more fundamental and relevant ones to pursue. Here we review some membrane models for lipid self-assembly, monolayers, bilayers, liposomes, and lipid-protein interactions and illustrate how such models can help answering questions in modern lipid cell biology. PMID:21610116

Mouritsen, Ole G

2011-09-01

64

Named Entity Recognition in Question Answering of Speech Data  

E-print Network

. This way we aim at high recall by al- lowing multiple interpretations of problematic strings that could and how it impacts on the accuracy of the final ques- tion answering system. AnswerFinder was adapted in the QAst track. AnswerFinder AnswerFinder is a question answering system that focuses on shal- low semantic

Aliod, Diego Mollá

65

Quantitative evaluation of passage retrieval algorithms for question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passage retrieval is an important component common to many question answering systems. Because most evaluations of question answering systems focus on end-to-end performance, comparison of common components becomes difficult. To address this shortcoming, we present a quantitative evaluation of various passage retrieval algorithms for question answering, implemented in a framework called Pauchok. We present three important findings: Boolean querying schemes

Stefanie Tellex; Boris Katz; Jimmy J. Lin; Aaron Fernandes; Gregory Marton

2003-01-01

66

Question/Answer Adjacency Pairs in a Performance Appraisal Interview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the conversational structure of questions and answers in a performance appraisal interview between a manager and an employee. Results demonstrated that both the manager and employee used question-and-answer pairs to demonstrate their understanding of the expectancy to ask and answer questions and to provide sequential implicativeness and…

Adams, Katherine L.

1981-01-01

67

Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part I. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief analyses are provided of presentations at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues, and application. Papers…

Miller, C. C.; And Others

1982-01-01

68

"How do You Know This Answer?"--Children's Use of Text Data and General Knowledge in Story Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how, and to what extent, young readers (7-8 year-olds) use text information or their prior knowledge when answering comprehension questions about narrative texts. The children were asked to explain how they found out their responses by answering the following question: "how do you know this answer?" Their answers and…

Brandao, Ana Carolina Perrusi; Oakhill, Jane

2005-01-01

69

VideoQA: question answering on news video  

Microsoft Academic Search

When querying a news video archive, the users are interested in retrieving precise answers in the form of a summary that best answers the query. However, current video retrieval systems, including the search engines on the web, are designed to retrieve documents instead of precise answers. This research explores the use of question answering (QA) techniques to support personalized news

Hui Yang; Lekha Chaisorn; Yunlong Zhao; Shi-Yong Neo; Tat-Seng Chua

2003-01-01

70

NUFACT11 Round Table Discussion — Questions & Answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model; it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large ?13 makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses; it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R&D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and associated detectors, with a variety of (mostly) complementary baselines, proceeding in an incremental way. The ultimate precision and verification of the neutrino mixing picture requires new types of neutrino beams based on storage rings. For low energy neutrinos, the beta-beam is a possible (but substantial) intermediate step. The Neutrino Factory offers the best precision and best sensitivity to deviations from the standard picture. Coordinated international R&D is pursued. International collaboration at the top level would be beneficial in acknowledging the process, so as make sure that intermediate steps are effectively building up in complementary fashion towards the ultimate goals.

Blondel, A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; participants, NUFACT11

2013-02-01

71

Answering Clinical Questions with Knowledge-Based and Statistical Techniques  

E-print Network

Answering Clinical Questions with Knowledge-Based and Statistical Techniques Dina Demner physicians. Experiments on a collection of real-world clinical questions show that our approach significantly to explore complex question answering in the domain of clinical medicine. This article presents a system

Lin, Jimmy

72

Learning search engine specific query transformations for question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a method for learning query transformations that im- proves the ability to retrieve answers to questions from an informa- tion retrieval system. During the training stage the method involves automatically learning phrase features for classifying questions into different types, automatically generating candidate query transfor- mations from a training set of question\\/answer pairs, and automat- ically evaluating the candidate

Eugene Agichtein; Steve Lawrence; Luis Gravano

2001-01-01

73

Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions Past Issues / ... Drug Abuse during their first Drug Facts Chat Day. Photo courtesy of NIDA The questions poured in… ...

74

QuestionHolic: Hot topic discovery and trend analysis in community question answering systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community question answering (CQA) has recently become a popular social media where users can post questions on any topic of interest and get answers from enthusiasts. The variation of topics in questions and answers indicate the change of users’ interests over time. It can help users focus on the most popular products or events and track their changes by exploiting

Zhongfeng Zhang; Qiudan Li

2011-01-01

75

Quality Circles: Answers to 100 Frequently Asked Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains frequently asked questions--and their answers--about "quality circles," a factory program first introduced in Japan in which workers participate voluntarily in quality control and management decisions through various means of communication. Following an introductory chapter, the remainder of the booklet answers questions

Dewar, Donald L.

76

OSU Domestic Student Health Insurance Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

OSU Domestic Student Health Insurance Questions and Answers OSU's Student Health Services Welcomes You! Here are some common questions and answers regarding OSU's Student Health Services as well as what you can expect with your OSU health insurance coverage. Does Aetna Student Health Insurance cover

Tullos, Desiree

77

Relation of Questions and Answers in Kennedy's Press Conferences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the questions posed by reporters and the answers given by President John F. Kennedy in his formal press conferences. Concludes that questions that followed the rules for interviewing set forth by experts produced better answers than those that did not follow rules. (FL)

Ostman, Ronald E.; And Others

1981-01-01

78

ASKING AND ANSWERING QUESTIONS Guidelines for Asking Good Questions  

E-print Network

involves critical thinking, and focuses on the substance or content of what a person has said. A question question because it involves no critical thinking on the questioner's part (however, these questions could) The critical thinking required in asking a good, substantive question involves making a careful analysis

Wagner, Diane

79

Question Answering in Biomedicine Pierre Zweigenbaum  

E-print Network

: learn answers by heart, no use for QA PZweigenbaum,APHôpParis&ERM202INSERMEACL2003NLP4QA The Task: Which for biomedical knowledge) Continuous medical education Bibliographic databases (Medline, etc.) Direct Web thoroughly; how thoroughly Failure of a seemingly appropriate resource to cover the topic Uncertainty about

Zweigenbaum, Pierre

80

RACAI's Question Answering System at QA@CLEF2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a pattern-based question answering system for Romanian that participated in the Romanian monolingual task of the\\u000a QA@CLEF 2007 track. We aim to prove that working with a good Boolean searching engine and using question type driven answer\\u000a extraction heuristics and structural matching between the linkage representations of the question and candidate sentences,\\u000a one can achieve acceptable results (30%

Dan Tufis; Dan Stefanescu; Radu Ion; Alexandru Ceausu

2007-01-01

81

Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

Frana, Ilaria

2010-01-01

82

Negative answers to some positivity questions  

E-print Network

We construct counterexamples to a number of questions related to positivity properties of line bundles on algebraic varieties. The examples are based on studying the geometry of varieties that admit pseudo automorphisms ...

Lesieutre, John

2014-01-01

83

Asking and Answering Questions during a Programming Change Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the specific kinds of questions programmers ask when evolving a code base and how well existing tools support those questions. To better support the activity of programming, answers are needed to three broad research questions: 1) What does a programmer need to know about a code base when evolving a software system? 2) How does a

Jonathan Sillito; Gail C. Murphy; Kris De Volder

2008-01-01

84

Semantic Decomposition for Question Answering Sven Hartrumpf1  

E-print Network

Semantic Decomposition for Question Answering Sven Hartrumpf1 Abstract. Appeared in In Proceedings to a simpler, revised question. We present six decomposition classes, which are employed for an- notating the 996 different German QA@CLEF questions from 2004 till 2008 and trigger different decomposition methods

Helbig, Hermann

85

WRONG QUESTIONS, NO ANSWERS JASON ROSENHOUSE  

E-print Network

questions are three in number: Is it wrong to mix science and religion, or is such mixing inescapable in this light, what could it possibly mean to mix science and religion? If the world's religious traditions science and religion: As with the supposed "scientific finding" that humans have no unique moral

Rosenhouse, Jason D.

86

Answering Lord Perry's question: dissecting regulatory overfishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, in response to the distressed condition of the British fishing industry, the House of Lords held a series of hearings on “Fish Stock Conservation and Management.” Lord Perry of Walton posed the straightforward question of why regulation was not succeeding: If one takes all the management systems into account—TACs [total allowable catches, or annual quotas], number of days

Josh Eagle; Barton H Thompson

2003-01-01

87

Questions and Answers For PON-10-604  

E-print Network

Questions and Answers For PON-10-604 Buy Down Incentives for Natural Gas and Propane Vehicles: For purposes of this Program Opportunity Notice (PON-10-604), the OEM is defined as the entity a dealer outside of California? ANSWER: No. For purposes of this PON, an OEM must designate a dealer

88

Comparing Improved Language Models for Sentence Retrieval in Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrieval system is a very important part in a question answering framework. It reduces the number of documents to be considered for finding an answer . For further refinement, the documents are split up into smaller chunks to deal with topic variability in larger documents. In our case, we divided the documents into single sentences. Then a language model

Andreas Merkel; Dietrich Klakow

89

Priberam's question answering system for Carlos Amaral, Helena Figueira,  

E-print Network

Priberam's question answering system for Portuguese Carlos Amaral, Helena Figueira, Andr´e Martins, Afonso Mendes, Pedro Mendes, Cl´audia Pinto Priberam Inform´atica Av. Defensores de Chaves, 32 - 3o Esq

Xing, Eric P.

90

Questions and answers based on revised 10 CFR Part 20  

SciTech Connect

NUREG/CR-6204 is a collection of questions and answers that were originally issued in seven sets and which pertain to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions came from both outside and within the NRC. The answers were compiled and provided by NRC staff within the offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Nuclear Regulatory Research, the Office of State Programs, and the five regional offices. Although all of the questions and answers have been reviewed by attorneys in the NRC Office of the General Counsel, they do not constitute official legal interpretations relevant to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions and answers do, however, reflect NRC staff decisions and technical options on aspects of the revised 10 CFR Part 20 regulatory requirements. This NUREG is being made available to encourage communication among the public, industry, and NRC staff concerning the major revisions of the NRC`s standards for protection against radiation.

Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carter, D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-05-01

91

Tie strength in question answer on social network sites  

E-print Network

Asking friends, colleagues, or other trusted people to help answer a question or find information is a familiar and tried-and-true concept. Widespread use of online social networks has made social information seeking easier, ...

Panovich, Katrina Marie

92

Information Extraction for Question Answering: Improving Recall Through Syntactic Patterns  

E-print Network

, for questions like When was Gandhi born?, typical phrases containing the answer are Gandhi was born in 1869 and Gandhi (1869--1948). These examples suggest that text patterns such as ``name was born in birth date

Jijkoun, Valentin

93

Information Extraction for Question Answering: Improving Recall Through Syntactic Patterns  

E-print Network

, for questions like When was Gandhi born?, typical phrases containing the answer are Gandhi was born in 1869 and Gandhi (1869­1948). These examples suggest that text patterns such as "name was born in birth date

de Rijke, Maarten

94

Cervical Caps or Diaphragms: Answering Your Patients' Questions  

PubMed Central

Cervical caps and diaphragms offer a plausible contraceptive alternative for some women. Selection of patients, advantages, disadvantages, and fitting techniques are discussed in order to help answer those difficult patient questions. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:21263962

Donlevy, Mary J.

1987-01-01

95

NOAA Climate Service -Questions and Answers Updated: April 20, 2010  

E-print Network

NOAA Climate Service - Questions and Answers Updated: April 20, 2010 Contents Big Picture.............................................................................................................................................2 Q: What is the NOAA Climate Service?..................................................................................................................2 Q: What will a climate service do

96

Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions  

ScienceCinema

In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

Walker, Iain

2013-11-14

97

Automatic Acquisition of Semantic-Based Question Reformulations for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we present a method for the automatic acquisition of semantic-based reformulations from natural language questions.\\u000a Our goal is to find useful and generic reformulation patterns, which can be used in our question answering system to find\\u000a better candidate answers. We used 1343 examples of different types of questions and their corresponding answers from the TREC-8,\\u000a TREC-9 and

Jamileh Yousefi; Leila Kosseim

2006-01-01

98

Questions about how plants die leads to climate change answers  

E-print Network

- 1 - Questions about how plants die leads to climate change answers March 12, 2012 How trees die in drought key to plant, climate change questions How plants die during drought is one of the largest uncertainties in determining how plants will succumb to changing climate. 3:01 Tree Death Study's Climate Change

99

Medical marijuana: more questions than answers.  

PubMed

With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

Hill, Kevin P

2014-09-01

100

Developing Good Clinical Questions and Finding the Best Evidence to Answer Those Questions  

PubMed Central

Evidence based medicine (EBM) involves the integration of the best scientific evidence available with physician experience and patient preferences. One of the first steps in EBM involves developing a question based on issues encountered with patients or a disease and finding evidence to answer the question. This paper is a guide to plastic surgeons in how to begin the practice of EBM by developing clinical questions and finding evidence to answer these questions. PMID:20679843

Burns, Patricia B.; Chung, Kevin C.

2015-01-01

101

A Comparison of Study Strategies for Passages: Rereading, Answering Questions, and Generating Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a…

Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B.; Roediger, Henry L., III

2010-01-01

102

78 FR 69671 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment; Notice AGENCY: Office...Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment that were proposed...

2013-11-20

103

78 FR 16765 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment; Notice AGENCY: Office...Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment to address several...

2013-03-18

104

Coping With Alternate Formulations Of Questions And Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present in this chapter the QALC system which has participated in the four TREC QA evaluations. We focus here on the problem\\u000a of linguistic variation in order to be able to relate questions and answers. We present first, variation at the term level\\u000a which consists in retrieving questions terms in document sentences even if morphologic, syntactic or semantic variations

Brigitte Grau; Olivier Ferret; Martine Hurault-Plantet; Christian Jacquemin; Laura Monceaux; Isabelle Robba; Anne Vilnat

105

MRCPsych examination technique: the short answer question paper.  

PubMed

Many candidates expect to pass the short answer question paper of the MRCPsych Part II examination using a straightforward regurgitation of facts. They are surprised by the need for good technique in order to do well in this paper. PMID:8907879

Trigwell, P; Williams, C; Yeomans, D

106

2011 Scholarship Awards Questions and Answers about Scholarships and Awards  

E-print Network

2011 Scholarship Awards Questions and Answers about Scholarships and Awards What is the difference between scholarships and awards? The difference between scholarships and awards is that students apply for scholarships and are nominated for awards. At Cal State Fullerton, both scholarships and awards are a means

de Lijser, Peter

107

Questions and Answers from the University Librarian April 30, 2012  

E-print Network

Questions and Answers from the University Librarian April 30, 2012 Why re-envision the Library is the role of the librarian in a re-envisioned library? Professionally-trained library staff, such as librarians and archivists, build library collections, make those resources discoverable, and teach

California at Berkeley, University of

108

A Multitude of Answers: Embedded Questions in Typed Inquisitive Semantics  

E-print Network

A Multitude of Answers: Embedded Questions in Typed Inquisitive Semantics MSc Thesis is formulated is based on inquisitive semantics: it is shown how the inquisitive conception of sentence meaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 T Y P E D I N Q U I S I T I V E S E M A N T I C S 9 2.1 Basic inquisitive semantics

Amsterdam, University of

109

The Effects of Daycare: Persistent Questions, Elusive Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite nearly half a century of research on the effects of daycare on children, the fundamental question of whether non-parental daycare adversely affects young children has not been answered conclusively. This article explores the conceptual and methodological difficulties associated with daycare research and how the unique socio-historical…

Shpancer, Noam

2006-01-01

110

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS FROM WPS Regarding Health Coverage Under the  

E-print Network

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS FROM WPS Regarding Health Coverage Under the Medical College of Wisconsin of Claim language and file your claim with WPS Health Insurance, P.O. Box 8190, Madison, WI 53708 for processing. Contact WPS at 1-800-221-5632. Most medical providers outside of the U.S. will require payment

111

Questions and Answers For PON-10-604  

E-print Network

Questions and Answers For PON-10-604 Buy Down Incentives for Natural Gas and Propane Vehicles May a dealer/distributor for purposes of this PON and may reserve buy-down incentives if the following, as specified on pages 5-6 of the PON. · The actual sale must be made at a California dealership

112

Soft pattern matching models for definitional question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore probabilistic lexico-syntactic pattern matching, also known as soft pattern matching, in a definitional question answering system. Most current systems use regular expression-based hard matching patterns to identify definition sentences. Such rigid surface matching often fares poorly when faced with language variations. We propose two soft matching models to address this problem: one based on bigrams and the other

Hang Cui; Min-yen Kan; Tat-seng Chua

2007-01-01

113

Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

114

What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,…

Laird, Valerie

2001-01-01

115

Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.

Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

2010-01-01

116

9 questions: the underlined 6 questions shall be discussed, for the other 3 questions the answer is enclosed here.  

E-print Network

transfer & separation technology Räkneövningar / Classroom exercises 2014-2 25.3.2014 10.15-12.00 (Ri) kurs9 questions: the underlined 6 questions shall be discussed, for the other 3 questions the answer) and Reynolds number Re: 2 53 nd D h D d f dn P Remed/with),(Re, med ömrörarens varvfrekvens n (1/s

Zevenhoven, Ron

117

(Circle your answer to each of these questions) Time Management  

E-print Network

? NUMBER OF A's and B's circled _____ Your Study Environment 1. Do you regularly study at the same time? 2 D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D (Circle your answer to each of these questions) Time Management 1. Do you make a Master Schedule for each semester? 2. Do you

118

A Constraint Grammar Based Question Answering System for Portuguese  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper describes a linguistic, NLP based Information Extraction (IE) system for Portuguese text. The system focuses on\\u000a the natural language Question Answering task (QA) and relies on full syntactic tree parses, exploiting both lexico-semantic\\u000a information, syntactic pattern matching and named entity subtyping. Context driven Constraint Grammar rules (CG) are used\\u000a not only for PoS disambiguation, but also to assign

Eckhard Bick

2003-01-01

119

Effects of Question-Generation Training on Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the effects of training in question generation on comprehension question performance, on quality and form of generated questions, and on accuracy of predicted comprehension. Sixth-grade students trained in question generation outperformed four comparison groups on several comprehension and metacomprehension measures. (Author/LMO)

Davey, Beth; McBride, Susan

1986-01-01

120

Public library patrons' use of collaborative chat reference service: The effectiveness of question answering by question type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effectiveness of question answering by question types in the inter-institutional collaborative chat reference service at a public library system. In particular, this study examined whether subject-based research type questions are answered as effectively as simple factual type questions, and whether local-specific questions are answered as effectively as non-local questions in the inter-institutional chat reference service. Effectiveness

Nahyun Kwon

2007-01-01

121

AskHERMES: An online question answering system for complex clinical questions  

PubMed Central

Objective Clinical questions are often long and complex and take many forms. We have built a clinical question answering system named AskHERMES to perform robust semantic analysis on complex clinical questions and output question-focused extractive summaries as answers. Design This paper describes the system architecture and a preliminary evaluation of AskHERMES, which implements innovative approaches in question analysis, summarization, and answer presentation. Five types of resources were indexed in this system: MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central full-text articles, eMedicine documents, clinical guidelines and Wikipedia articles. Measurement We compared the AskHERMES system with Google (Google and Google Scholar) and UpToDate and asked physicians to score the three systems by ease of use, quality of answer, time spent, and overall performance. Results AskHERMES allows physicians to enter a question in a natural way with minimal query formulation and allows physicians to efficiently navigate among all the answer sentences to quickly meet their information needs. In contrast, physicians need to formulate queries to search for information in Google and UpToDate. The development of the AskHERMES system is still at an early stage, and the knowledge resource is limited compared with Google or UpToDate. Nevertheless, the evaluation results show that AskHERMES’ performance is comparable to the other systems. In particular, when answering complex clinical questions, it demonstrates the potential to outperform both Google and UpToDate systems. Conclusions AskHERMES, available at http://www.AskHERMES.org, has the potential to help physicians practice evidence-based medicine and improve the quality of patient care. PMID:21256977

Cao, YongGang; Liu, Feifan; Simpson, Pippa; Antieau, Lamont; Bennett, Andrew; Cimino, James J.; Ely, John; Yu, Hong

2012-01-01

122

Effects of Question-Generation Training on Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we explored the effects of training in question generation on comprehension question performance, on quality and form of generated questions, and on accuracy of predicted comprehension. Sixth-grade students were instructed during five sessions to generate good think-type questions for expository passages. The group trained in question generation outperformed four comparison groups (no-question control, question-generation practice, literal question-response

Beth Davey; Susan McBride

1986-01-01

123

Post-conditioning: Promising answers and more questions  

PubMed Central

Volatile anesthetic agents have been used for decades in the peri-operative setting. Data from the past 15 years have shown that pre-injury administration of volatile anesthetic can decrease the impact of ischemia-reperfusion injury on the heart, brain, and kidney. Recent data demonstrated that volatile agents administered shortly after injury can decrease the ischemia-reperfusion injury. Several questions need to be answered to optimize this therapeutic target, but this is a promising era of secondary injury mitigation. PMID:23176148

2012-01-01

124

Global parallel unification for large question-answering systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An efficient means of storing data in a first-order predicate calculus theorem-proving system is described. The data structure is oriented for large scale question-answering (QA) systems. An algorithm is outlined which uses the data structure to unify a given literal in parallel against all literals in all clauses in the data base. The data structure permits a compact representation of data within a QA system. Some suggestions are made for heuristics which can be used to speed-up the unification algorithm in systems.

Auguston, J. G.; Minker, J.

1974-01-01

125

PrimeAnswers: A Practical Interface for Answering Primary Care Questions  

PubMed Central

This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. Results of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem. PMID:15905488

Ketchell, Debra S.; St. Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

2005-01-01

126

Rats answer an unexpected question after incidental encoding  

PubMed Central

Summary A fundamental aspect of episodic memory is that retrieval of information can occur when encoding is incidental and memory assessment is unexpected [1–4]. These features are difficult to model in animals because behavioral training likely gives rise to well-learned expectations about the sequence of events. Thus, the possibility remains that animals may solve an episodic-memory test by using well-learned semantic rules without remembering the episode at memory assessment. Here we show that rats can answer an unexpected question after incidental encoding in a hippocampal-dependent manner, consistent with the use of episodic memory. Rats were initially trained to report about a recent event (food vs. no-food) and separately searched for food where there was no expectation of being asked about the presence of food. To test episodic memory, rats were given the opportunity to incidentally encode the presence or absence of food and were unexpectedly asked to report about the recent event. Temporary inactivation of the CA3 region of the hippocampus with bilateral infusions of lidocaine selectively eliminated the ability of rats to answer the unexpected, but not the expected, question. Our studies suggest that rats remember an earlier episode after incidental encoding based upon hippocampal-dependent episodic memory. PMID:22633809

Zhou, Wenyi; Hohmann, Andrea G.; Crysta, Jonathon D.

2012-01-01

127

Immediate Feedback and Opportunity to Revise Answers to Open-Ended Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examine the psychometric effects of providing immediate feedback on the correctness of answers to open-ended questions, and allowing participants to revise their answers following feedback. Participants answering verbal and math questions are able to correct many of their initial incorrect answers, resulting in higher revised…

Attali, Yigal; Powers, Don

2010-01-01

128

MURAX: a robust linguistic approach for question answering using an on-line encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust linguistic methods are applied to the task of answering closed-class questions using a corpus of natural language. The methods are illustrated in a broad domain: answering general-knowledge questions using an on-line encyclopedia.A closed-class question is a question stated in natural language, which assumes some definite answer typified by a noun phrase rather than a procedural answer. The methods hypothesize

Julian Kupiec

1993-01-01

129

Extraction of Correspondences between Questions and Answers from Web Message Boards  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a method to extract a lot of correspondences between questions and answers from a Web message board automatically. We use Web message boards as information sources because Web messasge boards have a lot of articles posted by general users. We extract correspondences between questions and answers that can be used in question answering systems to support natural language

Yusuke Suzuki; Hayato Yokota; Hiroyuki Sakai; Shigeru Masuyama

2010-01-01

130

Optical imaging and automated melanoma detection: questions and answers.  

PubMed

Early detection and prompt excision of cutaneous melanoma is of paramount importance to improve patient survival, and the clinician should be aware of the clinical features that suggest the presence of a malignant lesion. The clinical diagnosis is mainly based on observation of the colour and shape of a given skin lesion. Unfortunately, evaluation of a pigmented lesion is to a large extent subjective and is closely related to the experience of the clinician. To overcome this problem, optical imaging techniques using different instrumentation (i.e. colour video camera, epiluminescence microscopy, reflectance spectrophotometry) and computer image analysis have been proposed in an attempt to provide quantitative measurements in an objective and reproducible fashion. The different procedures employed to perform the diagnosis automatically all have a common denominator: mimicking the eye and the brain of the clinician by image processing and computerized analysis programs, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity data reported in the literature suggest that the computer-based diagnosis of melanoma does not greatly differ from the diagnostic capability of an expert clinician, and is independent of the optical acquisition method employed to analyse the lesions. Most of the computer-processed morphometric variables useful in automated diagnosis are not recognizable nor can be objectively evaluated by the human eye, except that of lesion dimension. However, several questions should be answered before assessing the actual usefulness, including the potential and limitations, of computer-based diagnostic procedures. The purpose of this study was to briefly review the different kinds of instrumentation being used to diagnose melanoma, and to raise questions and whenever possible provide answers in an attempt to establish whether there will be a future for these computerized systems. PMID:12140385

Marchesini, R; Bono, A; Bartoli, C; Lualdi, M; Tomatis, S; Cascinelli, N

2002-06-01

131

If bone is the answer, then what is the question?  

PubMed Central

In the 19th century, several scientists attempted to relate bone trabecular morphology to its mechanical, load-bearing function. It was suggested that bone architecture was an answer to requirements of optimal stress transfer, pairing maximal strength to minimal weight, according to particular mathematical design rules. Using contemporary methods of analysis, stress transfer in bones was studied and compared with anatomical specimens, from which it was hypothesised that trabecular architecture is associated with stress trajectories. Others focused on the biological processes by which trabecular architectures are formed and on the question of how bone could maintain the relationship between external load and architecture in a variable functional environment. Wilhelm Roux introduced the principle of functional adaptation as a self-organising process based in the tissues. Julius Wolff, anatomist and orthopaedic surgeon, entwined these 3 issues in his book The Law of Bone Remodeling (translation), which set the stage for biomechanical research goals in our day. ‘Wolff's Law’ is a question rather than a law, asking for the requirements of structural optimisation. In this article, based on finite element analysis (FEA) results of stress transfer in bones, it is argued that it was the wrong question, putting us on the wrong foot. The maximal strength/minimal weight principle does not provide a rationale for architectural formation or adaptation; the similarity between trabecular orientation and stress trajectories is circumstantial, not causal. Based on computer simulations of bone remodelling as a regulatory process, governed by mechanical usage and orchestrated by osteocyte mechanosensitivity, it is shown that Roux's paradigm, conversely, is a realistic proposition. Put in a quantitative regulatory context, it can predict both trabecular formation and adaptation. Hence, trabecular architecture is not an answer to Wolff's question, in the sense of this article's title. There are no mathematical optimisation rules for bone architecture; there is just a biological regulatory process, producing a structure adapted to mechanical demands by the nature of its characteristics, adequate for evolutionary endurance. It is predicted that computer simulation of this process can help us to unravel its secrets. PMID:11005707

HUISKES, R.

2000-01-01

132

29 CFR 2509.75-5 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...questions and answers, relating them...Index key to question prefixes D...d) of this question, such persons...in response to question FR-1. The...employees of a corporation designate the...qualified under the laws of more...stated in the answer to FR-6...

2010-07-01

133

Effects of Teaching a Questioning Strategy on Reading Comprehension of Learning Disabled Adolescents  

E-print Network

the dream? Why? or Do you think the author of th i s story believes in UFOs? Did this story convince you that UFOs are real ? Looking back through the text the student answered comprehension questions that had been taken from the Manual . Students were...

Alley, Gordon R.; Hori, Ann K. O.

1981-06-01

134

Structural answers and persistent questions about how nicotinic receptors work  

PubMed Central

The electron diffraction structure of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo marmorata and the X-ray crystallographic structure of acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) are providing new answers to persistent questions about how nAChRs function as biophysical machines and as participants in cellular and systems physiology. New high-resolution information about nAChR structures might come from advances in crystallography and NMR, from extracellular domain nAChRs as high fidelity models, and from prokaryotic nicotinoid proteins. At the level of biophysics, structures of different nAChRs with different pharmacological profiles and kinetics will help describe how agonists and antagonists bind to orthosteric binding sites, how allosteric modulators affect function by binding outside these sites, how nAChRs control ion flow, and how large cytoplasmic domains affect function. At the level of cellular and systems physiology, structures of nAChRs will help characterize interactions with other cellular components, including lipids and trafficking and signaling proteins, and contribute to understanding the roles of nAChRs in addiction, neurodegeneration, and mental illness. Understanding nAChRs at an atomic level will be important for designing interventions for these pathologies. PMID:18508600

Wells, Gregg B.

2008-01-01

135

An Analysis of Lyrics Questions on Yahoo! Answers: Implications for Lyric \\/ Music Retrieval Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes 237 questions posted to Yahoo! Answers, a popular community-driven question and answer service. The questions are all natural language and are self-categorized by their poster as being related to music lyrics, and as such they provide a rich context for understanding lyrics- related information behavior outside the constraints imposed by specific lyrics retrieval systems. We categorize the

Sally Jo Cunningham; Simon Laing

136

26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following questions and answers relate to withholding...Amendments of 1992 (Public Law 102- 318, 106 Stat...respectively. List of Questions Q-1: What are...rollover? Questions and Answers Q-1: What are...securities of the employer corporation within the meaning...

2010-04-01

137

Selective Benefits of Question Self-Generation and Answering for Remembering Expository Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined possible memory and metacomprehension benefits of using a combined question self-generation and answering technique, relative to rereading, as a study strategy for expository passages. In the 2 question self-generation and answering conditions (detail or conceptual questions), participants were prompted on how to…

Bugg, Julie M.; McDaniel, Mark A.

2012-01-01

138

Explorative search of distributed bio-data to answer complex biomedical questions  

PubMed Central

Background The huge amount of biomedical-molecular data increasingly produced is providing scientists with potentially valuable information. Yet, such data quantity makes difficult to find and extract those data that are most reliable and most related to the biomedical questions to be answered, which are increasingly complex and often involve many different biomedical-molecular aspects. Such questions can be addressed only by comprehensively searching and exploring different types of data, which frequently are ordered and provided by different data sources. Search Computing has been proposed for the management and integration of ranked results from heterogeneous search services. Here, we present its novel application to the explorative search of distributed biomedical-molecular data and the integration of the search results to answer complex biomedical questions. Results A set of available bioinformatics search services has been modelled and registered in the Search Computing framework, and a Bioinformatics Search Computing application (Bio-SeCo) using such services has been created and made publicly available at http://www.bioinformatics.deib.polimi.it/bio-seco/seco/. It offers an integrated environment which eases search, exploration and ranking-aware combination of heterogeneous data provided by the available registered services, and supplies global results that can support answering complex multi-topic biomedical questions. Conclusions By using Bio-SeCo, scientists can explore the very large and very heterogeneous biomedical-molecular data available. They can easily make different explorative search attempts, inspect obtained results, select the most appropriate, expand or refine them and move forward and backward in the construction of a global complex biomedical query on multiple distributed sources that could eventually find the most relevant results. Thus, it provides an extremely useful automated support for exploratory integrated bio search, which is fundamental for Life Science data driven knowledge discovery. PMID:24564278

2014-01-01

139

A weighted string pattern matching-based passage ranking algorithm for video question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video question answering aims to pinpoint answers in response to user's specified questions. However, most question answering tech- nologies involve in integrating rich specific external knowledge such as syntactic parsers, which are often unavailable for many languages. In this paper, we present a new string pattern matching-based passage ranking algorithm for extending traditional text Q\\/A toward videoQ\\/A. Users interact with

Yu-chieh Wu; Jie-chi Yang; Yue-shi Lee

2008-01-01

140

Reducing Our Ignorance: Finding Answers to Certain Epistemic Questions for Software Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In previous papers, we asserted that software system safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. We also enumerated a set of 21 foundational epistemic questions, discussed some of the difficulties that exist in answering these questions adequately today, and speculated briefly on possible research that may provide improved confidence in the sufficiency of answers in the future. This paper focuses on three of the foundational questions. For each of these questions, current answers are discussed and potential research is proposed to help increase the justifiable level of confidence.

Holloway, C. Michael; Johnson, Christopher W.

2011-01-01

141

Use of social network sites for question and answer behavior  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we look at the behavior of posting questions as status updates on popular social network sites like Twitter and Facebook. This question asking behavior is similar to the use of search engines, question and ...

Panovich, Katrina (Katrina Marie)

2011-01-01

142

Extraction of Correspondences between Questions and Answers from Web Message Boards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method to extract a lot of correspondences between questions and answers from a Web message board automatically. We use Web message boards as information sources because Web messasge boards have a lot of articles posted by general users. We extract correspondences between questions and answers that can be used in question answering systems to support natural language sentence input. At first, our proposed method classifies messages of a Web message board into either questions or others. Next, our method extracts a set of root-node pairs from the thread tree of a Web message board, where we define the thread tree when the root is an article classified as a question, and nodes are articles classified as answer candidates. Our method finds correspondences between questions and answers using two clues, (1)similarity between their articles, (2)link count between their articles. We experimented the proposed method, discussed results, and analyzed errors.

Suzuki, Yusuke; Yokota, Hayato; Sakai, Hiroyuki; Masuyama, Shigeru

143

Analyzing Electronic Question/Answer Services: Framework and Evaluations of Selected Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report develops an analytical framework based on systems analysis for evaluating electronic question/answer or AskA services operated by a wide range of types of organizations, including libraries. Version 1.0 of this framework was applied in June 1999 to a selective sample of 11 electronic question/answer services, which cover a range of…

White, Marilyn Domas, Ed.

144

Hints for Students (and Examiners) on Answering MCQ Questions of the Multiple True/False Type.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some difficulties that medical students experience in taking exams containing multiple choice questions. Differentiates between multiple true/false type questions, in which several answers may be true, and one-out-of-four type, in which only one answer is correct. Provides tips for taking and making multiple choice tests. (TW)

Biran, Leonard A.

1986-01-01

145

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FOR THE "AT-RISK" EMPLOYEE  

E-print Network

1 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FOR THE "AT-RISK" EMPLOYEE The following are 21 questions and answers specifically for employees who have been placed "at risk" by their State Of Wisconsin employer of the information regarding at risk situations. What does it mean to be at risk? Employees may be designated

Sheridan, Jennifer

146

Data-Intensive Question Answering Eric Brill, Jimmy Lin, Michele Banko, Susan Dumais and Andrew Ng  

E-print Network

. For instance, it is not difficult to match the question "Who killed Abraham Lincoln" with the text "John Wilkes Booth killed Abraham Lincoln," but it is more challenging to find the answer to this question the bullet that ended Abraham Lincoln's life." #12;The TREC corpus has considerably less answer redundancy

Ng, Andrew Y.

147

Acquisition of Intraverbal Behavior: Teaching Children with Autism to Mand for Answers to Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four boys with autism were taught via echoic prompting and constant prompt delay to mand for answers to questions by saying "I don't know please tell me" (IDKPTM). This intervention resulted in acquisition of the IDKPTM response for all 4 participants and in acquisition of correct answers to most of the previously unknown questions for 2…

Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Hollobaugh, Tatia

2010-01-01

148

ASQA: Academia Sinica Question Answering System for NTCIR-5 CLQA Cheng-Wei Lee12  

E-print Network

ASQA: Academia Sinica Question Answering System for NTCIR-5 CLQA Cheng-Wei Lee12 , Cheng-Wei Shih1 , Shih-Hung Wu3 , Wen-Lian Hsu1§ 1 Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, R.O.C 2 C-C (Cross Language Question Answering from Chinese to Chinese) Task. Our system, the Academia

Day, Min-Yuh

149

Questions and Answers about AFTERSCHOOL CARE: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Afterschool Care, and answers the following questions about afterschool programs: (1) How does afterschool care help children?; (2) How…

Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2008

2008-01-01

150

Web Question Answering by Exploiting Wide-Coverage Lexical Resources  

E-print Network

are parsed, e.g.: "By 1832 Samuel FB Morse had invented the telegraph." Because the system knows where- ceding "had", thus: "Samuel FB Morse" For the given example, the system was able to find the correct, exact answer and the open proposition from above can now be completed: invent_272(Cognizer = "Samuel FB

Narasayya, Vivek

151

SPECIMEN ANSWERS TO INSURANCE/INDEMNITY QUESTIONS ON IRAS APPLICATION  

E-print Network

on 01225 385129 Only use these answers if University of Bath is the research sponsor and it is not a drugs (Other insurance or indemnity arrangements will apply) and add: The University of Bath has arranged staff (including the Trust's responsibility for University of BATH employees acting in connection

Burton, Geoffrey R.

152

Answering the Complex Question of "How Good Is Good Enough?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Imagine that a student--let's call him Michael--has earned a score of 55 on an examination. How well did he do? Was his score good enough for him to pass the examination, or pass the course, or be deemed at least minimally competent in whatever the exam was assessing? Michael's score alone, in the absence of any other information, cannot answer

Suskie, Linda

2007-01-01

153

Answering the right question - integration of InSAR with other datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capabilities of satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are well known, and utilized across a wide range of academic and commercial applications. However there is a tendency, particularly in commercial applications, for users to ask 'What can we study with InSAR?'. When establishing a new technique this approach is important, but InSAR has been possible for 20 years now and, even accounting for new and innovative algorithms, this ground has been thoroughly explored. Too many studies conclude 'We show the ground is moving here, by this much', and mention the wider context as an afterthought. The focus needs to shift towards first asking the right questions - in fields as diverse as hazard awareness, resource optimization, financial considerations and pure scientific enquiry - and then working out how to achieve the best possible answers. Depending on the question, InSAR (and ground deformation more generally) may provide a large or small contribution to the overall solution, and there are usually benefits to integrating a number of techniques to capitalize on the complementary capabilities and provide the most useful measurements. However, there is still a gap between measurements and answers, and unlocking the value of the data relies heavily on appropriate visualization, integrated analysis, communication between technique and application experts, and appropriate use of modelling. We present a number of application examples, and demonstrate how their usefulness can be transformed by moving from a focus on data to answers - integrating complementary geodetic, geophysical and geological datasets and geophysical modeling with appropriate visualization, to enable comprehensive solution-focused interpretation. It will also discuss how forthcoming developments are likely to further advance realisation of the full potential satellite InSAR holds.

Holley, Rachel; McCormack, Harry; Burren, Richard

2014-05-01

154

To Show or Not to Show: The Effects of Item Stems and Answer Options on Performance on a Multiple-Choice Listening Comprehension Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine whether the choice between three multiple-choice listening comprehension test formats results in any difference in listening comprehension test performance. The three formats entail (a) allowing test takers to preview both the question stem and answer options prior to listening; (b) allowing test takers to…

Yanagawa, Kozo; Green, Anthony

2008-01-01

155

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial: Questions and Answers  

Cancer.gov

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large, randomized study to determine whether the use of certain screening tests will reduce the risk of dying of those four cancers. In addition to answering questions about the screening tests, the PLCO asked questions about many aspects of the study participants’ health and collected biospecimens (blood and some tissues) to answer many other questions about cancer.

156

S.K. Worm - Answers to Questions on Soil & Stuff  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains the basic process of soil formation and describes some of the characteristics of soils for elementary school children. The information is provided in the form of 13 questions about soil, with the final questions addressing the issue of soil conservation. Once the student has read all 13 informational sections they are awarded a Soil Diploma.

157

Answering definitional question by dependency-based knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current systems apply flat pattern and flat centroid words, which are extracted only by relative position to question target, to identify definition sentences. In contrast to the flat knowledge, we propose dependency-based knowledge, including dependency pattern and dependency centroid word, which are extracted by dependency relation to question target. Specifically, we use the improved ultraconservative online algorithm, binary margin

Junkuo Cao; Xuanjing Huang

2008-01-01

158

Agree or Disagree? Cognitive Processes in Answering Contrastive Survey Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey designers have long assumed that respondents who disagree with a negative question ("This policy is bad.": "Yes" or "No"; 2-point scale) will agree with an equivalent positive question ("This policy is good.": "Yes" or "No"; 2-point scale). However, experimental evidence has proven otherwise: Respondents are more likely to disagree with…

Kamoen, Naomi; Holleman, Bregje; Mak, Pim; Sanders, Ted; Van Den Bergh, Huub

2011-01-01

159

Answers to Sample Questions for the Chemistry Placement Exam  

E-print Network

acid, is a strong acid. NH3, ammonia, is a weak base. In a solution of NaHCO3, sodium hydrogenF3H according to the following reaction? GeH4 + GeF4 4 GeF3H Answer a) 2.00 b) 4.00 c) 8.00 d) 16 the elements in the fluorine column are nonmetals. 5. Which of the following species is neither acidic nor

Walker, Lawrence R.

160

Discourse Processing for Context Question Answering Based on Linguistic Knowledge  

E-print Network

is Hawaii located? Q2: What is the state fish? Q3: Is it endangered? Q4: Any other endangered species? We endangered species in Hawaii. This example in- dicates that each of these questions needs to be interpreted

161

Astronaut Jeff Williams Answers Your Questions - Duration: 6:50.  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams, aboard the International Space Station 220 miles above Earth, responds to questions posted on YouTube concerning the station's orientation, life in space and ...

162

More questions and Answers I've continued to be flooded with questions. Here are a few more responses  

E-print Network

23.4.14 More questions and Answers I've continued to be flooded, in the question we are given changes in a local temperatures. Using the three) Finally there is a specific problem with the Greenland cores in the last 10000

Lovejoy, Shaun

163

A combined IR\\/NLP approach to question answering against large text collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an approach to finding literal answer strings to natural language questions in large text collections. The approach involves linking an IR system with an NLP system that performs reasonably thorough linguistic analysis. The IR system treats the question as a query and returns a set of t op ranked documents or passages. The NLP system parses the question

Robert Gaisauskas; Kevin Humphreys

2000-01-01

164

ES2A7 -Fluid Mechanics Example Classes Model Answers to Example Questions (Set III)  

E-print Network

ES2A7 - Fluid Mechanics Example Classes Model Answers to Example Questions (Set III) Question 1 10610 40031.8 -- Ã?=Ã?= Ã? Ã? == APN RT d Question 2: Type of Fluid #12;Consider 2 identical vertical tubes are filled with the same height of fluid: A Newtonian fluid is used with tube X whereas a non-Newtonian fluid

Thomas, Peter J.

165

Answerers' Motivations and Strategies for Providing Information and Social Support in Social Q&A an Investigation of Health Question Answering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social Q&A allows people to ask and answer questions for each other and to solve problems in everyday life collaboratively. The purpose of the current study is to understand the motivations and strategies of answerers in social Q&A. Thus, three research questions were investigated: (1) Why do answerers participate and contribute in social Q&A? (2)…

Oh, Sanghee

2010-01-01

166

The Answers to Questions That Teachers Most Frequently Ask.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a teacher's responses to various real questions asked by student teachers and beginning teachers. The nine chapters are: (1) "It Don't Mean a Thing if It Ain't Got That Swing: Teacher Attitude"; (2) "Who, What, When, Where, and Why, Oh Why, Me?: Organization"; (3) "A Little Song, A Little Dance, A Little Quiz Tomorrow: Delivery…

Anderson, Julie Wofford

167

Theorizing the Entrepreneurial University: Open Questions and Possible Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article attempts to address theoretical questions regarding the transition towards an entrepreneurial university and the changes associated with this process, namely the increased commodification, the competitive quest for private funding and the introduction of business management practices. The important theoretical advances made in the…

Sotiris, Panagiotis

2012-01-01

168

Question Answering Techniques for the World Wide Web  

E-print Network

? QA Techniques for the WWW: Introduction Different Types of Questions Gone with the Wind (1939) was directed by George Cukor, Victor Fleming, and Sam Wood. What does Cog look like? Who directed Gone with the Wind? How many cars left the garage yesterday between noon and 1pm? What were the causes of the French

Lin, Jimmy

169

Organizer Influence on Children's Answers to Questions of Physical Causality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There were no differences in the types of responses given by children in response to the question What makes clouds move?'' whether they were interviewed by telephone, by a person in normal dress, or by someone wearing clerical dress. The responses were similar to those reported by Piaget. (AL)

Harding, James; Jones, Howard

1972-01-01

170

Answering Hard Questions: "Wh"-Movement across Dialects and Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large-scale study of complex "wh"-questions with 1,000 subjects aged 4-9 years is reported. The subjects' dialects were Mainstream American English or African American English, and approximately one-third were language impaired. The study examined when children permit long distance "wh"-movement, and when they respect a variety of syntactic…

De Villiers, Jill; Roeper, Thomas; Bland-Stewart, Linda; Pearson, Barbara

2008-01-01

171

Learning to Find Answers to Questions on the Web EUGENE AGICHTEIN  

E-print Network

Learning to Find Answers to Questions on the Web EUGENE AGICHTEIN Columbia University STEVE (answers.- google.com) facilitate interaction with human experts. Authors' addresses: Eugene Agichtein (eugene@cs.columbia.edu), Steve Lawrence (lawrence@necmail.com), Luis Gravano (gravano

Agichtein, Eugene

172

An automatic question answering and knowledge summarization approach for Q&A services  

Microsoft Academic Search

With regard to the drastic development of information technologies, the communication channels between enterprises and customers have become more and more complicated. Many enterprises have realized that electronic CRM mechanisms can provide efficient and cost?effective customer services. In order to automatically answer customer queries via contact centers, this paper proposes an integrated model with automatic question answering and knowledge summarization

2009-01-01

173

76 FR 64175 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Flood...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. OP-1431] FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION [RIN 3064-ZA00] FARM...Questions and Answers Regarding Flood Insurance AGENCIES: Office of the Comptroller...Reserve System (Board); Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC); Farm Credit...

2011-10-17

174

Questions and Answers about the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes (DPPOS) Study  

MedlinePLUS

... For Reporters Media Contacts Questions & Answers about the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes (DPPOS) Study Page Content October 2009 What is the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)? The DPP was a randomized, ...

175

78 FR 44483 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...production systems that provide laying hens with access to the outdoors, including questions and answers...www.regulations.gov. IV. Electronic Access Persons with access to the Internet may obtain the draft guidance at...

2013-07-24

176

Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Campaign About our Partner Spread the Word Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Overview Transmission Symptoms Testing Treatment Overview What is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It ...

177

Brig. Gen. Richard F. Abel and Col. Natan J. Lindsay answering questions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brigadier General Richard F. Abel, right, director of public affairs for the Air Force, and Colonel Nathan J. Lindsay of the USAF's space division, answer questions concerning STS-4 during a press conference at JSC on May 20, 1982.

1982-01-01

178

75 FR 29350 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2009-D-0260...Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as Established by the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of...

2010-05-25

179

The E-Learning Question and Answer Book: A Survival Guide for Trainers and Business Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book answers more than 70 key questions that business managers and trainers ask about using e-learning in their company as a business tool. Chapters 1 and 3-11 are comprised of questions and answers related to these topics: what e-learning is all about; what e-learning costs; applying e-learning to the business; what today's e-learning…

Henderson, Allan J.

180

26 CFR 301.6621-2T - Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION...6621-2T Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on...

2014-04-01

181

26 CFR 301.6621-2T - Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION...6621-2T Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on...

2013-04-01

182

26 CFR 301.6621-2T - Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Underpayments § 301.6621-2T Questions and answers relating to the increased...temporary). The following questions and answers relate to the increased...that was incurred by an S corporation, any deduction...

2010-04-01

183

26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the treatment...Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.165-13T Questions and answers relating to the treatment...the Act restates existing law applicable to...

2010-04-01

184

Actions, Answers, and Uncertainty: A Decision-Making Perspective on Web-Based Question Answering  

E-print Network

David Azari Computer Science & Engineering University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195-2350 azari is an extended version of the conference article, D. Azari, E. Horvitz, S. Dumais, E. Brill. Web-based question

Horvitz, Eric

185

Ethanol-BDNF interactions: Still More Questions than Answers  

PubMed Central

Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) has emerged as a regulator of development, plasticity and, recently, addiction. Decreased neurotrophic activity may be involved in ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the adult brain and in the etiology of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders. This can occur through decreased expression of BDNF or through inability of the receptor to transduce signals in the presence of ethanol. In contrast, recent studies implicate region-specific up-regulation of BDNF and associated signaling pathways in anxiety, addiction and homeostasis after ethanol exposure. Anxiety and depression are precipitating factors for substance abuse and these disorders also involve region-specific changes in BDNF in both pathogenesis and response to pharmacotherapy. Polymorphisms in the genes coding for BDNF and its receptor TrkB are linked to affective, substance abuse and appetitive disorders and therefore may play a role in the development of alcoholism. This review summarizes historical and pre-clinical data on BDNF and TrkB as it relates to ethanol toxicity and addiction. Many unresolved questions about region-specific changes in BDNF expression and the precise role of BDNF in neuropsychiatric disorders and addiction remain to be elucidated. Resolution of these questions will require significant integration of the literature on addiction and comorbid psychiatric disorders that contribute to the development of alcoholism. PMID:18394710

Davis, Margaret I.

2008-01-01

186

Questioning the Free Will Comprehension Question Edward T. Cokely (cokely@mpib-berlin.mpg.de)  

E-print Network

Questioning the Free Will Comprehension Question Edward T. Cokely (cokely@mpib-berlin.mpg.de) Max Understanding the folk notion of free will and moral responsibility is important for a host of applied on folk intuitions concerning determinism's relation to free will and moral responsibility. However

Cokely, Edward T.

187

Heterologous embryo transfer: Magisterial answers and metaphysical questions  

PubMed Central

The debate regarding the morality of heterologous embryo transfer (HET) as a solution for the fate of cryopreserved embryos remains active. This paper endeavors to show that the magisterial instructions on bioethical issues can only lead to the conclusion that HET is always morally illicit. I begin by showing that the text of Dignitas personae recognizes HET as a procedure accomplishing a procreative function, and I indicate that it is through gestation that this procreative function occurs. I further show that the previous Instruction, Donum vitae, implicitly points to an ontological or spiritual consideration at play during gestation. This consideration is likely related to the procreative function identified in Dignitas personae. Finally, I place these two textual arguments in the context of the debate concerning HET and conclude that metaphysical questions must be clarified in order for the immorality of HET to be understood from a suitable anthropological perspective and gain more widespread acceptance. PMID:24899737

Accad, Michel

2014-01-01

188

Acquisition of intraverbal behavior: teaching children with autism to mand for answers to questions.  

PubMed

Four boys with autism were taught via echoic prompting and constant prompt delay to mand for answers to questions by saying "I don't know please tell me" (IDKPTM). This intervention resulted in acquisition of the IDKPTM response for all 4 participants and in acquisition of correct answers to most of the previously unknown questions for 2 participants. For 1 participant, tangible reinforcement resulted in increased frequency of correct answers, and direct prompting of correct answers was eventually conducted for the final participant. The IDKPTM response generalized to untargeted unknown questions with 3 participants. Results of person and setting generalization probes varied, but some generalization eventually occurred for all participants following additional training or interspersal of probe trials with training trials. PMID:20808492

Ingvarsson, Einar T; Hollobaugh, Tatia

2010-03-01

189

Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2  

SciTech Connect

This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

Not Available

1984-03-01

190

Effects of Three Questioning Strategies on EFL Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of three classroom questioning strategies on the reading comprehension of learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Subjects were 86 first-year EFL students in the school of education of Suez Canal University (Egypt), randomly assigned to three treatment groups. The same instructor taught the three groups…

El-Koumy, Abdel Salam A.

191

Accessing heterogeneous sources of evidence to answer clinical questions.  

PubMed

The large and rapidly growing number of information sources relevant to health care, and the increasing amounts of new evidence produced by researchers, are improving the access of professionals and students to valuable information. However, seeking and filtering useful, valid information can be still very difficult. An online information system that conducts searches based on individual patient data can have a beneficial influence on the particular patient's outcome and educate the healthcare worker. In this paper, we describe the underlying model for a system that aims to facilitate the search for evidence based on clinicians' needs. This paper reviews studies of information needs of clinicians, describes principles of information retrieval, and examines the role that standardized terminologies can play in the integration between a clinical system and literature resources, as well as in the information retrieval process. The paper also describes a model for a digital library system that supports the integration of clinical systems with online information sources, making use of information available in the electronic medical record to enhance searches and information retrieval. The model builds on several different, previously developed techniques to identify information themes that are relevant to specific clinical data. Using a framework of evidence-based practice, the system generates well-structured questions with the intent of enhancing information retrieval. We believe that by helping clinicians to pose well-structured clinical queries and including in them relevant information from individual patients' medical records, we can enhance information retrieval and thus can improve patient-care. PMID:11515415

Mendonça, E A; Cimino, J J; Johnson, S B; Seol, Y H

2001-04-01

192

Where To Go For Answers Question Who to See Where to Go Contact  

E-print Network

Where To Go For Answers Question Who to See Where to Go Contact Jeannie Steigler Sage 2106 x 6269 Archway x 6636 #12;Question Who to See Where to Go Contact Registrar Academy Hall 2000 level x 6231 Grades level x 6231 Undergraduate Admissions Admissions Staff Admissions Office x 6216 Undergraduate Research

Julius, Anak Agung

193

Records--The Achilles' Heel of School Nursing: Answers to Bothersome Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation. Because the issues have been posed by practicing school nurses, the article is in Question and Answer (Q&A) format. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: ownership and storage location of student health records when the…

Schwab, Nadine C.; Pohlman, Katherine J.

2004-01-01

194

The Varieties of Student Experience--An Open Research Question and Some Ways to Answer It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on meetings of the Society for Research into Higher Education's Student Experience Network over the past three years, the genuinely open research question is posed whether there is one or more undergraduate student experience within English higher education. Answering this question depends on whether what is taught or what is learnt is…

Ainley, Patrick

2008-01-01

195

Data-Intensive Question Answering Eric Brill, Jimmy Lin, Michele Banko, Susan Dumais and Andrew Ng  

E-print Network

. For instance, it is not difficult to match the question "Who killed Abraham Lincoln" with the text "John Wilkes Booth killed Abraham Lincoln," but it is more challenging to find the answer to this question the bullet that ended Abraham Lincoln's life." In Proceedings of the Tenth Text REtrieval Conference (TREC

Lin, Jimmy

196

Researching the Quest: Are Community College Students Motivated by Question-and-Answer Reviews?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any effort to assess the motivational techniques employed by community college faculty is complicated by the inter-connectedness of motivational techniques and teaching techniques, as improved teaching results in improved motivation. Nonetheless, this research poses a motivation-related question: Does the use of daily question-and-answer reviews…

Cavendish, Don F., Jr.

2010-01-01

197

Selecting Information to Answer Questions: Strategic Individual Differences when Searching Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to explore students' selection of information strategies in a task-oriented reading situation. 72 secondary school students read two texts and answered six questions per text, three of which were manipulated to induce a misleading matching between the wording of the question and distracting pieces of information in the…

Cerdan, Raquel; Gilabert, Ramiro; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo

2011-01-01

198

The Big Story: Ten Questions and Answers about the Booming Career Field of Journalism and Communications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten questions about careers in journalism and communications are asked and answered in this booklet. The questions are: Is journalism mainly newspaper work? What opportunities are there today? How is the pay in journalism? Are there incentives besides pay? What about working conditions? What about opportunities for women? What about advancement in…

Sigma Delta Chi, Chicago, IL.

199

Question-Answering-Technique to Support Freshman and Senior Engineers in Processes of Engineering Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experimental studies, the influence of question-based reflection on the quality of design solutions was investigated. Students and experts with different know-how and professional experience had to design an artefact that should meet a list of requirements. Subsequently, they were asked to answer a system of interrogative questions

Winkelmann, Constance; Hacker, Winfried

2010-01-01

200

Langerhans cell histiocytosis in adults: more questions than answers?  

PubMed

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) may affect patients of any age but in adults the features of this disease are still poorly defined. Most reports are based on single-specialty experience and there are only a few describing relatively large series of patients. Although child and adult patients share several features of the disease, and may either have localised or disseminated disease, the proportion of cases with lung involvement is much higher in adults and is partly explained by cigarette smoking. Persisting uncertainty about the pathogenesis of LCH has certainly limited current treatment alternatives. In particular, no clinical trial has been conducted in adults so far and most information derives from description of one or a few cases, often reported retrospectively. On the basis of the background provided by the data collected in its International Registry, the Histiocyte Society is about to start the first prospective, cooperative adult LCH study, aimed at: (a) establishing a common platform for clinical evaluation; (b) testing in adult patients the efficacy of the best standard chemotherapy regimen for children-a combination of prednisone and vinblastine-developed by the Society's trials; (c) describing the natural history of the disease, the impact of cigarette smoking withdrawal and the efficacy of steroid monotherapy in pulmonary LCH. Research studies, ancillary to this trial, offer unique opportunities of addressing some of the open questions in LCH including: the genetic component of the disease as supported by evidence of familial clustering and chromosomal instability, the issue of 'LCH cells' clonality, the relation between pulmonary disease, cigarette smoking, and immune system polymorphisms that might increase individual susceptibility to LCH. A concerted joint effort between paediatricians and adult specialists could be the key to the development of insights into LCH in all age groups affected by this distressing and often debilitating condition. PMID:15196529

Aricò, M

2004-07-01

201

Cerebrovascular disease associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: more questions than answers  

PubMed Central

Neurological syndromes occur in a significant number of patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. The optimal management for these patients however remains uncertain. Our study is a descriptive analysis looking retrospectively at 45 patients who presented to the principal tertiary referral centre in the Australian Capital Territory, with either cerebral arterial or venous thrombosis for which there was no obvious cause for their presentation when initially reviewed. The diagnosis was based on the clinical findings made by one of three neurologists attached to our centre. Radiological findings and the presence of either IgM or IgG anticardiolipin antibodies, IgG anti-beta-2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies or a lupus anticoagulant were then documented. In this group of patients three subgroups were identified: 1. Individuals that fulfilled the Sapporo Classification Criteria 2. Individuals with transiently positive antiphospholipid antibodies and 3. Individuals with persistently low positive antiphospholipid antibodies. The most interesting of these three groups are those individuals with transiently positive antiphospholipid antibodies. A potential cause for presentation was identified in only one patient of this group with documented infective endocarditis and bacteraemia. Comparison with the other two groups suggested that there was little in terms of clinical presentation, radiological findings or intercurrent risk factors for thrombotic disease to distinguish between them. With disappearance of antiphospholipid antibodies, the individuals within this group have not had further thrombotic events. Our observations emphasise the problems that continue to exist in relation to the occurrence of cerebrovascular disease in the context of antiphospholipid antibodies and the optimal management of these stratified groups. Our findings also raise an as yet unanswered question as to the signficance of these transiently positive antiphospholipid antibodies. In the absence of significant intercurrent risk factors our findings would suggest that in the group we describe that they are likely to be of clinical significance. PMID:16573816

Hawkins, Carolyn; Gatenby, Paul; Tuck, Roger; Danta, Gytis; Andrews, Colin

2006-01-01

202

Automatically Acquiring Causal Expression Patterns from Relation-annotated Corpora to Improve Question Answering for why-Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our approach for answering why-questions that we initially introduced at NTCIR-6 QAC-4. The approach automatically acquires causal expression patterns from relation- annotated corpora by abstracting text spans annotated with a causal relation and by mining syntactic patterns that are useful for distinguishing sentences annotated with a causal relation from those annotated with other relations. We use these

Ryuichiro Higashinaka; Hideki Isozaki

2008-01-01

203

Effects of Wh-Question Graphic Organizers on Reading Comprehension Skills of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with autism spectrum disorders often have difficulty with reading comprehension. This study used a delayed multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effects of graphic organizers on the accuracy of wh-questions answered following short passage reading. Participants were three elementary-age students with autism spectrum…

Bethune, Keri S.; Wood,Charles L.

2013-01-01

204

Part II: Short Answer Questions. Write a brief, but complete answer to each question, confining your answer to the space provided.  

E-print Network

cans) improve the efficiency of your fuel consumption (better gas mileage or hybrid car, better home your answer to the space provided. (8) 1. Coal is the major fuel used to produce electricity in the U. mechanical energy (energy provided by steam to turn the turbine) 4. electrical energy (energy produced

Viola, Ronald

205

Chinese Automatic Question Answering System of Specific-domain Based on Vector Space Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to meet the demand to acquire necessary information efficiently from large electronic text, the Question and Answering (QA) technology to show a clear reply automatically to a question asked in the user's natural language has widely attracted attention in recent years. Although the research of QA system in China is later than that in western countries and Japan, it has attracted more and more attention recently. In this paper, we propose a Question-Answering construction, which synthesizes the answer retrieval to the questions asked most frequently based on common knowledge, and the document retrieval concerning sightseeing information. In order to improve reply accuracy, one must consider the synthetic model based on statistic VSM and the shallow semantic analysis, and the domain is limited to sightseeing information. A Chinese QA system about sightseeing based on the proposed method has been built. The result is obtained by evaluation experiments, where high accuracy can be achieved when the results of retrieval were regarded as correct, if the correct answer appeared among those of the top three resemblance degree. The experiments proved the efficiency of our method and it is feasible to develop Question-Answering technology based on this method.

Hu, Haiqing; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

206

The five underlined questions shall be discussed, for the two other questions the answer is enclosed.  

E-print Network

and air can be expressed as yA = 2,53 xA, with acetone mole fraction in air yA and in water xA. a) What component. Svar/answer: 1.38 bar; yT = 0.387; yB = 0.436; yX = 0.177 Värme- och strömningsteknik / Thermal benzen (B), 40 %- mol toluen (T) och 40 %-mol xylen (X). Beräkna totaltrycket av gasen som är i jämvikt

Zevenhoven, Ron

207

Analysis of the question–answer service of the Emma Children’s Hospital information centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information centre of the Emma Children’s Hospital AMC (EKZ AMC) is a specialised information centre where paediatric\\u000a patients and persons involved with the patient can ask questions about all aspects of disease and its social implications.\\u000a The aim of the study was to evaluate the question–answer service of this information centre in order to determine the role\\u000a of a

Frea H. Kruisinga; Richard C. Heinen; Hugo S. A. Heymans

2010-01-01

208

Let's Talk About Food. Answers to your Questions About Foods and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book on the subject of nutrition is written in the form of often-asked questions and detailed, informative answers. In ten chapters the following range of nutrition topics is covered: (1) meaning of RDA, nutrition labeling, calorie tables, nutrient density; (2) adequate diet, pregnancy, physical fitness, vitamins, diet for athletes, baby…

White, Philip L., Ed.; Selvey, Nancy, Ed.

209

Questions and Answers About Kidney CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION  

E-print Network

Questions and Answers About Kidney CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION What is kidney cancer? Kidney cancer is a malignant tumor that develops from the cells of the kidney It accounts for only about 2% of all cancers in the U.S. There are three main types of kidney cancer: renal cell

210

The Use of Electronic Question and Answer Forums in Mathematics Teacher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many mathematics educators share a view of mathematics as a social and cultural phenomenon and believe that the learning of mathematics concepts is developed and enhanced through the use of learning communities. Electronic discussion boards provide one avenue for supporting such social learning. This paper discusses the use of a Question and Answer section of a discussion board in a

Sandra Schuck

211

Olympian Parents Answer the Question of How Parents Contribute towards Their Child's Academic Productivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do parents contribute toward their child's academic productivity? This article analyzes studies conducted over the last 30 years on this topic. During these three decades a number of theories and theoretical frameworks have been developed to answer this fundamental question. There have been nine national studies published and six reviews of…

Campbell, James Reed

2011-01-01

212

The CSD–450,000 answers?…?but what are the questions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief survey about the development of knowledge of crystal and molecular structure based on the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is given. The CSD may be considered as a database of answers to the question as to which polymorph will form under given crystallization conditions. The emphasis of research over the years has moved from molecular structural geometry, to intermolecular

W. D. Samuel Motherwell

2008-01-01

213

Answers to Commonly-Asked Questions Regarding the UF Cardiothoracic Patient Breach  

E-print Network

a UF Cardiothoracic surgeon who sent patient social security numbers to a national database sponsored by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS). Disclosures of patient social security numbers have been madeAnswers to Commonly-Asked Questions Regarding the UF Cardiothoracic Patient Breach Q: What happened

Florida, University of

214

Who Wants to Know? Question-asking and Answering Practices among Facebook Users  

E-print Network

Who Wants to Know? Question-asking and Answering Practices among Facebook Users Rebecca Gray1@umd.edu ABSTRACT Research has identified a link between Facebook use and bridging social capital, which speaks through which Facebook may help individuals mobilize these embedded informational and support resources

Michigan, University of

215

Public Records Brief: Questions and Answers on Access to Public Records in Maryland  

E-print Network

records o hospital records o student records (public schools) o medical, psychological or sociologicalPublic Records Brief: Questions and Answers on Access to Public Records in Maryland As an entity provide public access to its records unless certain exceptions apply. The following is a brief summary

Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

216

Factors associated with successful answering of clinical questions using an information retrieval system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Despite the growing use of on-line databases by clinicians, there is very little research documenting how effectively they are used. This study assessed the ability of medical and nurse practitioner students to answer clinical questions and attempted to identify factors associated with that ability. Objective: Identify the demographic, experience, cognitive, personality, search mechanics, and user satisfaction factors associated with

William R. Hersh; Lynetta Sacherek; David Hickam; Linda Rose; Charles Friedman

217

Exploring the Learning Mechanism of Web-Based Question-Answering Systems and Their Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, a number of models concerning question-answering (QA) systems have been put forward. But many of them stress technology and neglect the research of QA itself. In this paper, we analyse the essence of QA and discuss the relationship between technology and QA. On that basis, we propose that when designing web-based QA systems, more…

Zhang, Yin

2010-01-01

218

Low-Level Annotations and Summary Representations of Opinions for Multi-Perspective Question Answering  

E-print Network

Department of Computer Science Cornell University Intelligent Systems Program Ithaca, NY 14850, USA of import to the Intelligence Community which includes but is not limited to the CIA, DIA, NSA, NIMA, and NRO. #12;techniques to support the answering of opinion-based questions of the following sort: · What

Cardie, Claire

219

Questions and Answers About Female Breast CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION  

E-print Network

Questions and Answers About Female Breast CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION What. What are the early signs of breast cancer? Some of the warning signs of breast cancer include: · A lump provides the best means of reducing the risk of dying from breast cancer. What is a mammogram? A screening

220

A 3D Audio-Visual Animated Agent for Expressive Conversational Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the ACQA (Animated agent for Conversational Question Answering) project conducted at LIMSI. The aim is to design an expressive animated conversational agent (ACA) for conducting research along two main lines: 1\\/ perceptual experiments (eg perception of expressivity and 3D movements in both audio and visual channels): 2\\/ design of human-computer interfaces requiring head models at different

J.-C. Martin; C. Jacquemin; L. Pointal; B. Katz; C. d'Alessandro; A. Max; M. Courgeon

221

A Questioning-Answering Program for Simple Kernel Sentences (QUE2).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

QUE2 is a recently devised, natural language, questioning-answering program written in LISP1-5. It deals in simple, kernel sentences and employs the theory that the semantic content of a sentence is the set of relationships between conceptual objects (represented by the words in it), which the sentence and its structure imply. The data base of the…

Alexander, Bill

222

Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

US Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

223

Questions and Answers for March 8, 2012 PON11609: Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure  

E-print Network

1 Questions and Answers for March 8, 2012 PON11609: Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure Renewable Hydrogen 1. What if a proposal meets (or exceeds) the renewable hydrogen content requirement through for renewable hydrogen, does there have to be a physical pathway, or can there be credits that can be traded

224

Out of State Employee Report Complete this document if you answer no to both questions below.  

E-print Network

Out of State Employee Report Complete this document if you answer no to both questions below their work outside of Montana. (This could be their state or another state or a foreign country.) This form must also be completed if a current employee changes residency status from Montana to another state

Dyer, Bill

225

Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention Answers the Most Frequently Asked Questions About Drug Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet attempts to provide clear answers to many of the questions currently being raised about the abuse of drugs, and to assist Americans of all ages to inform themselves about this critical problem. Issued by the Federal Government, it contains statements by President Nixon and Jerome H. Jaffe, M.D., Director of the Special Office for Drug…

Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention, Washington, DC.

226

A Rule-Based Semiautomated Approach to Building Natural Language Question Answering (NLQA) Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a rule-based approach to natural language question answering that can be easily implemented for any domain. We discuss the framework in the context of a National Science Foundation funded project - Universal Virtual Laboratory (UVL). UVL is a virtual electrical engineering (EE) laboratory for able and disabled individuals to construct, simulate and understand the characteristics of basic

Kaushik Krishnasamy; Brian P. Butz; Michael Duarte

2004-01-01

227

Robust Question Answering over the Web of Linked Data Mohamed Yahya, Klaus Berberich,  

E-print Network

are a user-friendly mode of tap- ping this wealth of knowledge and data. However, question answering SPARQL queries, with text predicates attached to triple pat- terns. Our solution is based on a novel growing wealth of structured data on the Web: large knowledge bases like dbpedia.org, free- base

228

MAS329 TOPOLOGY MID-TERM TEST 2005 ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS.  

E-print Network

MAS329 TOPOLOGY MID-TERM TEST 2005 ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS. The use of calculators is NOT permitted axioms that T must satisfy in order to be a topology on X. [3] (b) Suppose that T is a topology on X and Z X. Define the subspace topology TZ induced on Z by T and prove that TZ is, indeed, a topology

Jackson, Bill

229

Part 1(50%) Instructions: Read the following passage and answer the questions as directed.  

E-print Network

Part 1(50%) Instructions: Read the following passage and answer the questions as directed. Q zi; its students party animals), higher education is a major societal player. The borders between%*fAO*3 1 f % N ~ f t a i443?-# 3 W% 2 2 *%B [%%%+I m#B 1. Summarizethe main ideas of the entire passage

Huang, Haimei

230

Answers to Your Questions For a Better Understanding oF sexUal  

E-print Network

A Q Answers to Your Questions For a Better Understanding oF sexUal orientation & Homosex is designed to provide accurate information for those who want to better understand sexual orientation and the impact of prejudice and discrimination on those who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. What is sexual

Farritor, Shane

231

2/25/2014 Page 1 of 4 PON-13-610 Questions, Answers, and Clarifications  

E-print Network

2/25/2014 Page 1 of 4 PON-13-610 Q&A Questions, Answers, and Clarifications Natural Gas Vehicle Incentives PON-13-610 Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program California Energy Statistics on the remaining amount of funding available through PON-13-610 can be found at: http

232

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Cost Share PIER Questions and Answers from the Geothermal Workshop  

E-print Network

PON08011 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Cost Share PIER Questions and Answers from in nature and likely to be of value to all applicants for PON 08011. 1. What are the dates and requirements carefully in both the FOA topic area that you are responding to and the PON08011 solicitation

233

Microsoft Word - App 2-4 Answers to Participant Questions.doc  

Cancer.gov

1 Lung Screening Study Version 3.0 Manual of Operations and Procedures 11/15/00 Appendix 2–4 Lung Screening Study Answers to Potential Participant Questions Participation: 1. Why should I participate? The study is designed to determine

234

Retirement Plan Questions and Answers What changes are being made to my retirement plan?  

E-print Network

a retirement plan as well as measures of sustained investment capability which were applied to the very largeRetirement Plan Questions and Answers What changes are being made to my retirement plan? Fidelity Investments has been selected as the recordkeeper for the University's retirement plan effective June 1, 2012

Carter, John

235

Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities Solicitation  

E-print Network

Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities biofuels production facility? A.1 An existing biofuels facility is an existing facility that, as of the application due date of PON-13-601, produces (or did produce) biofuels in California. Q.2 Must an eligible

236

ProteinTomographyTM--answering prevailing scientific questions in therapeutic-antibody research and  

E-print Network

ProteinTomographyTM--answering prevailing scientific questions in therapeutic-antibody research the antibody-antigen complex and possible associated proteins look like. ProteinTomographyTM makes it possible assays. The resulting three-dimensional (3D) tomograms can be compared to visualize target conformation

Cai, Long

237

How to Evaluate Your Question Answering System Every Day ... and Still Get Real Work Done  

E-print Network

. Breck, John D. Burger, Lisa Ferro, Lynette Hirschman, David House, Marc Light, Inderjeet Mani The MITRE, light, imani}@mitre.org Abstract In this paper, we report on Qaviar, an experimental automated evaluation system for question answering applications. The goal of our research was to find an automatically

Breck, Eric

238

Questions and Answers related to a Potential Child Care Center Closure Due to Government Shutdown  

E-print Network

Questions and Answers related to a Potential Child Care Center Closure Due to Government Shutdown September 25, 2013 1. In the event of a Government shutdown will the NIST Child Care Center be open? No to a government-wide shutdown. 2. Will families have to pay tuition during a shutdown? Yes and No. The Parent

239

Questions & Answers on Senate Bill 2. An Invitation to School Improvement in North Carolina, 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions and answers on North Carolina's Senate Bill 2, the School Improvement and Accountability Act, are presented in this booklet. General information about governance, assessment, and funding is provided in the first section. The next section explains setting specific student performance targets in the form of performance indicators. The…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

240

Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers  

SciTech Connect

Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

None

1980-08-01

241

Performance Improvement in Automatic Question Answering System Based on Dependency Term  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic Question Answering (QA) system has become quite popular in recent years, especially since the QA tracks appeared at Text REtrieval Conference (TREC). However, using only lexical information, the keyword-based information retrieval cannot fully describe the characteristics of natural language, thus the system performance cannot make people satisfied. It is proposed in this paper a definition of dependency term, based on the dependency grammar, employing the natural language dependency structure, as the improvement of the term, to support the typical information retrieval models. It is in fact a solution for a special application in XML information retrieval (XML IR) field. Experiments show that: dependency-term-based information retrieval model effectively describes the characteristics of natural language questions, and improves the performance of automatic question answering system.

Shi, Jianxing; Yuan, Xiaojie; Yu, Shitao; Ning, Hua; Wang, Chenying

242

78 FR 55261 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions...guidance for industry entitled ``Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions...Answers (Revision 1).'' The Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012...

2013-09-10

243

77 FR 51814 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions...guidance for industry entitled ``Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers.'' The Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012...

2012-08-27

244

Cancer Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T) in front of the answer.  

E-print Network

EAT SMART Cancer Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T the information from this program. # I have or have had cancer. YES NO As you answer each question, think about

245

CSShark Answers Frequently Asked Questions: The CSS Know-How Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is an Internet tool that separates the presentation from the structural markup of a Web site. CSS keeps the structure of a document lean and fast while controlling the appearance of its content. This product is not an adapted tool from print or programming; rather, it is a means of enhancing HTML. For users interested in learning more about this tool, this informative and well-constructed site answers some of those frequently asked questions regarding CSS. In addition, the site explains some of the basics of CSS, provides tips and tricks for tackling the problems with Netscape 4, offers a tutorial concerning positioning with CSS (CSS-P, Web design without tables), and gives various resource links to other related sites. In short, for those with questions concerning CSS and its functions, the CSShark is ready to provide answers.

MaKo.

246

Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.  

SciTech Connect

Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1993-11-01

247

Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.  

SciTech Connect

Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1994-05-01

248

Social Question and Answer Services versus Library Virtual Reference: Evaluation and Comparison from the Users' Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: In recent years, the introduction of social question and answer services and other Internet tools have expanded the ways in which people have their questions answered. There has been speculation and debate over whether such services and other Internet tools are replacing library virtual reference services. Method: Most previous…

Zhang, Yin; Deng, Shengli

2014-01-01

249

Verbal Paradata and Survey Error: Respondent Speech, Voice, and Question-Answering Behavior Can Predict Income Item Nonresponse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Income nonresponse is a significant problem in survey data, with rates as high as 50%, yet we know little about why it occurs. It is plausible that the way respondents answer survey questions (e.g., their voice and speech characteristics, and their question- answering behavior) can predict whether they will provide income data, and will reflect…

Jans, Matthew E.

2010-01-01

250

Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report  

SciTech Connect

The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2,' NUREG-0683.

Not Available

1980-09-01

251

The Communication Skills Used by Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers in a Question-and-Answer Game Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in…

Toe, Dianne M.; Paatsch, Louise E.

2010-01-01

252

26 CFR 1.401(a)(31)-1 - Requirement to offer direct rollover of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... The following questions and answers relate to...of 1992, Public Law 102-318, 106...respectively. List of Questions Q-1: What... Questions and Answers Q-1: What...Trustee of XYZ Corporation Savings Plan...

2010-04-01

253

INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY  

SciTech Connect

Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

2011-07-01

254

Practical question-and-answer guide on VDTS (video display terminals) for BEES (base bioenvironmental engineer). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The USAF OEHL conducted an extensive literature review of Video Display Terminals (VDTs) and the health problems commonly associated with them. The report is presented in a question-and-answer format in an attempt to paraphrase the most commonly asked questions about VDTs that are forwarded to USAF OEHL/RZN. The questions and answers have been divided into several topic areas: Ionizing Radiation; Nonionizing Radiation; Optical Radiation; Ultrasound; Static Electricity; Health Complaints/Ergonomics; Pregnancy.

Olson, B.M.

1985-01-01

255

[Veno-venous extracorporeal oxygenation and veno-arterial extracorporeal oxygenation. Questions, answers].  

PubMed

A round table, organized by the French Society of Perfusion (Sofraperf) at the French national congress on extracorporeal circulations (Perfusion 2013), was attended by perfusionists, anaesthesiologists, intensivists and surgeons around the theme of respiratory veno-venous support and veno-arterial circulatory support with extracorporeal oxygenation in intensive care units. The debate was conducted in a participatory manner by bi-directional questions-answers session between moderators and assistance. The authors report management of this type of therapy that is not perfectly homogeneous, supported on literature data. Cannulae, cannulation, circuit, oxygenator, anticoagulation, control, surveillance, weaning are subject to paragraphs with defined entry whose contents are mutually enriching. PMID:24630169

Isetta, C; Lebreton, G; Janot, N; Prommenschenkel, M; Rilos, Z; Roques, F; Longrois, D

2014-04-01

256

Getting Ready for the "School of the Future": Key Questions and Tentative Answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores some key aspects of "today's school", as opposed to those that have characterized "yesterday's school", with the final aim of shedding light on "tomorrow's school". In this direction, the paper puts forward tentative answers to some key questions related to the new characteristics and roles of teachers and students (main actors of the learning process) and the new features/ potentialities of contemporary educational tools which, in turn, require the enactment of innovative pedagogical approaches and educational methods. The emerging picture of the present learning landscape helps in figuring out a future situation where learning possibilities are substantially increased.

Ott, Michela; Pozzi, Francesca

257

How Do You Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers Like Beagle 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To address one of the most important questions in planetary science Is there life on Mars? The scientific community must turn to less costly means of exploring the surface of the Red Planet. The United Kingdom's Beagle 2 Mars lander concept was a small meter-size lander with a scientific payload constituting a large proportion of the flown mass designed to supply answers to the question about life on Mars. A possible reason why Beagle 2 did not send any data was that it was a one-off attempt to land. As Steve Squyres said at the time: "It's difficult to land on Mars - if you want to succeed you have to send two of everything".

Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

2012-01-01

258

The Answering System to Yes-No Truth-Functional Questions in Korean-English Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in "Br J Psychol" 52:133-142,…

Choi, Hansook

2014-01-01

259

E-Assessment for Learning? The Potential of Short-Answer Free-Text Questions with Tailored Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A natural language based system has been used to author and mark short-answer free-text assessment tasks. Students attempt the questions online and are given tailored and relatively detailed feedback on incorrect and incomplete responses, and have the opportunity to repeat the task immediately so as to learn from the feedback provided. The answer

Jordan, Sally; Mitchell, Tom

2009-01-01

260

Is obesity a risk factor for low back pain? An example of using the evidence to answer a clinical question  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Obesity as a causal factor for low back pain has been controversial with no definitive answer to this date. The objective of this study was to determine whether obesity is associated with low back pain. In addition this paper aims to provide a step-by-step guide for chiropractors and osteopaths on how to ask and answer a clinical question using

Timothy A Mirtz; Leon Greene

2005-01-01

261

Web-Based Question Answering: A Decision-Making Perspective David Azari Eric Horvitz Susan Dumais Eric Brill  

E-print Network

Web-Based Question Answering: A Decision-Making Perspective David Azari Eric Horvitz Susan Dumais, Washington Redmond, Washington Redmond, Washington Redmond, Washington azari@cs.washington.edu horvitz

Horvitz, Eric

262

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...Publication of technology and exports and reexports of technology...Publication Question A(1): I plan to publish in a foreign...abroad? Answer: No. This export transaction is not...

2012-01-01

263

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...Publication of technology and exports and reexports of technology...Publication Question A(1): I plan to publish in a foreign...abroad? Answer: No. This export transaction is not...

2013-01-01

264

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...Publication of technology and exports and reexports of technology...Publication Question A(1): I plan to publish in a foreign...abroad? Answer: No. This export transaction is not...

2014-01-01

265

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...Publication of technology and exports and reexports of technology...Publication Question A(1): I plan to publish in a foreign...abroad? Answer: No. This export transaction is not...

2011-01-01

266

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...Publication of technology and exports and reexports of technology...Publication Question A(1): I plan to publish in a foreign...abroad? Answer: No. This export transaction is not...

2010-01-01

267

Reference Question Answered: Bibliographic Sources for the Ukrainian Periodical Press in the 1840’s: Encyclopedias, Bibliographies, Guides, and Library Catalogs  

E-print Network

The author answers a reference question on the bibliographic sources for the Ukrainian periodical press from 1840-1850. Helpful publications include bibliographies, guides, and library catalogs that can be used to identify ...

Giullian, Jon C.

2008-01-01

268

Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.  

SciTech Connect

Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1995-06-01

269

Generating Exact- and Ranked Partially-Matched Answers to Questions in Advertisements  

E-print Network

Taking advantage of the Web, many advertisements (ads for short) websites, which aspire to increase client's transactions and thus profits, offer searching tools which allow users to (i) post keyword queries to capture their information needs or (ii) invoke form-based interfaces to create queries by selecting search options, such as a price range, filled-in entries, check boxes, or drop-down menus. These search mechanisms, however, are inadequate, since they cannot be used to specify a natural-language query with rich syntactic and semantic content, which can only be handled by a question answering (QA) system. Furthermore, existing ads websites are incapable of evaluating arbitrary Boolean queries or retrieving partiallymatched answers that might be of interest to the user whenever a user's search yields only a few or no results at all. In solving these problems, we present a QA system for ads, called CQAds, which (i) allows users to post a natural-language question Q for retrieving relevant ads, if they exi...

Qumsiyeh, Rani; Ng, Yiu-Kai

2011-01-01

270

29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

2014-07-01

271

29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

2013-07-01

272

29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

2011-07-01

273

29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

2012-07-01

274

29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

2010-07-01

275

Towards A Comprehensive Consideration of Epistemic Questions in Software System Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For any software system upon which lives depend, the most important question one can ask about it is, 'How do we know the system is safe?' Despite the critical importance of this question, no widely accepted, generally applicable answer exists. Instead, debate continues to rage over the question, with theorists and practitioners quarrelling with each other and amongst themselves. This paper suggests a possible way forward towards quelling the quarrels, based on refining the critical safety question into additional questions, which may be more likely to have answers on which a consensus can be reached.

Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

2009-01-01

276

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS: EPA'S GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT AND SUPPLEMENTAL GUIDANCE FROM ASSESSING SUSCEPTIBILITY FROM EARLY-LIFE EXPOSURE TO CARCINOGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

March 29, 2005 EPA's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment And Supplemental Guidance from Assessing Susceptibility from Early-life Exposure to Carcinogens Questions and Answers The following questions ...

277

Tips for giving a memorable presentation, part VI: the effective use of questions by a speaker, and answering questions from listeners.  

PubMed

Previous articles in this series have focused on tips for educators and leaders in giving a presentation, followed by articles on composing the talk and PowerPoint slides. This article focuses on how a speaker can effectively use questions to engage the audience and answer questions from the listeners, including members of the media. Additional comments will be given on how to give a clear presentation so that many questions will not be necessary. PMID:23154476

Harolds, Jay A

2012-12-01

278

Long-term follow-up of echolalia and question answering.  

PubMed Central

A long-term follow-up of echolalia and correct question answering was conducted for 6 subjects from three previously published studies. The follow-up periods ranged from 26 to 57 months. In a training site follow-up, subjects were exposed to baseline/posttraining conditions in which the original trainer and/or a novel person(s) presented trained and untrained questions. Four subjects displayed echolalia below baseline levels, and another did so in some assessments. Overall, echolalia was lower than in baseline in 80.6% of the follow-ups. Five subjects displayed correct responding above baseline levels. No clear differences were noted in correct responding or echolalia between the trainer and novel-person presentations or between trained and untrained questions. In a follow-up in a natural environment conducted by a novel person, lower than baseline levels of echolalia were displayed by 3 subjects; 2 subjects displayed lower than baseline levels in some assessments. Two subjects consistently displayed correct responding above baseline, and 3 did so occasionally. Issues related to the study of maintenance are discussed. PMID:2249974

Foxx, R M; Faw, G D

1990-01-01

279

A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

Brown, John S.; And Others

280

The ContactFinder agent: Answering bulletin board questions with referrals  

SciTech Connect

ContactFinder is an intelligent agent whose approach to assisting users is valuable and innovative in the following four ways. First, ContactFinder operates proactively in reading and responding to messages on electronic bulletin boards rather than acting in response to user queries. Second, ContactFinder assists users by referring them to other people who can help them, rather than attempting to find information that directly answers the user`s specific question. Third, ContactFinder categorizes messages and extracts their topic areas using a set of heuristics that are very efficient and demonstrably highly effective. Fourth, ContactFinder posts its referrals back to the bulletin boards rather than simply communicating with specific users, to increase the information density and connectivity of the system. This paper discusses these aspects of the system and demonstrates their effectiveness in over six months of use on a large-scale internal bulletin board.

Krulwich, B.; Burkey, C. [Center for Strategic Technology Research, Northbrook, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

281

Recognizing Questions and Answers in EMR Templates Using Natural Language Processing.  

PubMed

Templated boilerplate structures pose challenges to natural language processing (NLP) tools used for information extraction (IE). Routine error analyses while performing an IE task using Veterans Affairs (VA) medical records identified templates as an important cause of false positives. The baseline NLP pipeline (V3NLP) was adapted to recognize negation, questions and answers (QA) in various template types by adding a negation and slot:value identification annotator. The system was trained using a corpus of 975 documents developed as a reference standard for extracting psychosocial concepts. Iterative processing using the baseline tool and baseline+negation+QA revealed loss of numbers of concepts with a modest increase in true positives in several concept categories. Similar improvement was noted when the adapted V3NLP was used to process a random sample of 318,000 notes. We demonstrate the feasibility of adapting an NLP pipeline to recognize templates. PMID:25000038

Divita, Guy; Shen, Shuying; Carter, Marjorie E; Redd, Andrew; Forbush, Tyler; Palmer, Miland; Samore, Matthew H; Gundlapalli, Adi V

2014-01-01

282

Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers  

PubMed Central

Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics. PMID:18522725

Kurz, Matthias

2008-01-01

283

Answering orientation questions and following single-step verbal commands: effect on aspiration status.  

PubMed

In the acute-care setting patients with altered mental status as a result of such diverse etiologies as stroke, traumatic brain injury, degenerative neurologic impairments, dementia, or alcohol/drug abuse are routinely referred for dysphagia testing. A protocol for dysphagia testing was developed that began with verbal stimuli to determine patient orientation status and ability to follow single-step verbal commands. Although unknown, it would be beneficial to ascertain if this information on mental status was predictive of aspiration risk. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if there was a difference in odds for aspiration based upon correctly answering specific orientation questions, i.e., 1. What is your name? 2. Where are you right now? and 3. What year is it?, and following specific single-step verbal commands, i.e., 1. Open your mouth. 2. Stick out your tongue. and 3. Smile. In a consecutive retrospective manner data from 4070 referred patients accrued between 1 December 1999 and 1 January 2007 were analyzed. The odds of liquid aspiration were 31% greater for patients not oriented to person, place, and time (odds ratio [OR] = 1.305, 95% CI = 1.134-1.501). The odds of liquid aspiration (OR = 1.566, 95% CI = 1.307-1.876), puree aspiration (OR = 1.484, 95% CI = 1.202-1.831), and being deemed unsafe for any oral intake (OR = 1.688, 95% CI = 1.387-2.054) were, respectively, 57, 48, and 69% greater for patients unable to follow single-step verbal commands. Being able to answer orientation questions and follow single-step verbal commands provides information on odds of aspiration for liquid and puree food consistencies as well as overall eating status prior to dysphagia testing. Knowledge of potential increased odds of aspiration allows for individualization of dysphagia testing thereby optimizing swallowing success. PMID:19263106

Leder, Steven B; Suiter, Debra M; Lisitano Warner, Heather

2009-09-01

284

Dense Plasma Focus: A question in search of answers, a technology in search of applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnostic information accumulated over four decades of research suggests a directionality of toroidal motion for energetic ions responsible for fusion neutron production in the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) and existence of an axial component of magnetic field even under conditions of azimuthal symmetry. This is at variance with the traditional view of Dense Plasma Focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow. The difficulty in understanding the experimental situation from a theoretical standpoint arises from polarity of the observed solenoidal state: three independent experiments confirm existence of a fixed polarity of the axial magnetic field or related azimuthal current. Since the equations governing plasma dynamics do not have a built-in direction, the fixed polarity must be related with initial conditions: the plasma dynamics must interact with an external physical vector in order to generate a solenoidal state of fixed polarity. Only four such external physical vectors can be identified: the earth's magnetic field, earth's angular momentum, direction of current flow and the direction of the plasma accelerator. How interaction of plasma dynamics with these fields can generate observed solenoidal state is a question still in search of answers; this paper outlines one possible answer. The importance of this question goes beyond scientific curiosity into technological uses of the energetic ions and the high-power-density plasma environment. However, commercial utilization of such technologies faces reliability concerns, which can be met only by first-principles integrated design of globally-optimized industrial-quality DPF hardware. Issues involved in the emergence of the Dense Plasma Focus as a technology platform for commercial applications in the not-too-distant future are discussed.

Auluck, S. K. H.

2014-08-01

285

Postpassage Questions: Task and Reader Effects on Comprehension and Metacomprehension Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the effects of question task conditions on reading comprehension and metacomprehension for proficient readers, disabled readers, and deaf readers. Finds several significant interaction effects for both demonstrated and perceived comprehension performance in selected-response and constructed-response question tasks under both lookback and…

Davey, Beth

1987-01-01

286

Health care reform, 2014: no matter what the question, mission is the answer.  

PubMed

In this column, the president of the Collaborative Family Healthcare Association (CFHA) addresses the lack of understanding and agreement to the question What is health care reform? It is a daunting task to understand, let alone redesign, the most expensive (but not most effective or most efficient) health care system in the world. In this critical window of opportunity, influencing positive movement through leadership, communication, and teamwork is a strategic priority of the CFHA and its journal, Family Systems & Health. The emphases on comprehensive, coordinated, and cost-effective care, although novel concepts for many, have been core features of CFHA's philosophy for almost two decades (see CFHA's mission statement). As we mark the halfway point in this pivotal year in health care reform, we continue to struggle. CFHA can help illuminate the path of what health care reform can be and what it can do for each citizen in our communities. PMID:24955698

Khatri, Parinda

2014-06-01

287

Dietary polyphenols as antioxidants and anticancer agents: more questions than answers.  

PubMed

High intake of fruit and vegetables is believed to be beneficial to human health. Fruit, vegetables and some beverages, such as tea and coffee, are particularly rich in dietary polyphenols. Various studies have suggested (but not proven) that dietary polyphenols may protect against cardiovasucalar diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and some forms of cancer. Dietary polyphenols may exert their anticancer effects through several possible mechanisms, such as removal of carcinogenic agents, modulation of cancer cell signaling and antioxidant enzymatic activities, and induction of apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest. Some of these effects may be related, at least partly, to their antioxidant activities. In recent years, a new concept of the antioxidant effects of dietary polyphenols has emerged, i.e., direct scavenging activity toward reactive species and indirect antioxidant activity; the latter activity is thought to arise primarily via the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 which stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase, catalase, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), and/or phase II enzymes. The direct antioxidant activity of dietary polyphenols in vivo is probably limited because of their low concentrations in vivo, except in the gastrointestinal tract where they are present in high concentrations. Paradoxically, the pro-oxidant effect of dietary polyphenols may contribute to the activation of antioxidant enzymes and protective proteins in cultured cells and animal models because of the adaptation of cells and tissues to mild/moderate oxidative stress. Despite a plethora of in vitro studies on dietary polyphenols, many questions remain to be answered, such as: (1) How relevant are the direct and indirect antioxidant activities of dietary polyphenols in vivo? (2) How important are these activities in the anticancer effects of dietary polyphenols? (3) Do the pro-oxidant effects of dietary polyphenols observed in vitro have any relevance in vivo, especially in the potential anticancer effect of dietary polyphenols? Apparently, more carefully-designed in vivo studies are needed to answer these questions. PMID:22035889

Hu, Miao-Lin

2011-01-01

288

To appear in: Jess Aguilar & Andrei A. Buckareff (eds.), Philosophy of Action: 5 Questions, Automatic My answers to five questions on agency  

E-print Network

, Automatic Press/VIP My answers to five questions on agency Joëlle Proust (Institut Jean-Nicod) EHESS & ENS, CNRS, Paris 1. Why were you initially drawn to theorizing about action and agency? I had been perturbations of agency awareness. At the beginning of the nineties, I was conducting research on such general

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

289

An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on Internet Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on  

E-print Network

Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues Poynter Center Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues http

Redmiles, David F.

290

Using LQCD to answer questions about hadronic interactions: a perspective from a traditional nuclear theorist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As computational resources increase and better algorithms are implemented, LQCD calculations of hadronic interaction observables become less of a pipe dream, and more of a reality, and will eventually become the status quo. One of the greatest strengths of LQCD calculations in the realm of low-energy nuclear physics comes from its predictive capability, as many hadronic systems not accessible by experiments can be calculated on the lattice. These calculations in turn have direct implications to nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, and nuclear astrophysics, as well as the broader nuclear physics community. Thus the import of LQCD on low-energy nuclear physics cannot be overlooked, nor understated. In this talk I discuss current and ongoing efforts to extract hadronic interaction parameters from LQCD, enumerating current difficulties placed by available computer resources and algorithm limitations. I will also talk about future possibilities coming from increased computer resources and algorithm development, giving examples of how such calculations can answer longstanding questions in traditional nuclear physics. Finally, I will discuss the role that national labs can and should play in the area of LQCD as applied to low-energy nuclear physics.

Luu, Thomas

2009-05-01

291

Ten Common Questions (and Their Answers) About Off-label Drug Use  

PubMed Central

The term off-label drug use (OLDU) is used extensively in the medical literature, continuing medical education exercises, and the media. Yet, we propose that many health care professionals have an underappreciation of its definition, prevalence, and implications. This article introduces and answers 10 questions regarding OLDU in an effort to clarify the practice's meaning, breadth of application, acceptance, and liabilities. Off-label drug use involves prescribing medications for indications, or using a dosage or dosage form, that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Since the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate the practice of medicine, OLDU has become common. It occurs in every specialty of medicine, but it may be more common in areas of medicine in which the patient population is less likely to be included in clinical trials (eg, pediatric, pregnant, or psychiatric patients). Pharmaceutical companies are not allowed to promote their medications for an off-label use, which has lead to several large settlements for illegal marketing. To limit liability, physicians should prescribe medications only for indications that they believe are in the best interest of the patient. In addition, health care professionals should educate themselves about OLDU to weigh the risks and benefits and provide the best possible care for their patients. PMID:22877654

Wittich, Christopher M.; Burkle, Christopher M.; Lanier, William L.

2012-01-01

292

A study of advanced training technology: Emerging answers to tough questions  

SciTech Connect

This study reports the result of an extensive nationwide review of military, private sector, and other federal agencies and organizations that are implementing a wide variety of advanced training technologies. This report classifies the general categories of advanced training technologies found and provides an overview of each, including specific types and examples. In addition, the research findings present an organizational model for training development linking overall organizational maturity to readiness to implement specific kinds of advanced training technologies. It also presents proposed methods for selecting media, describes the organizations and the data gathered, and provides a summary of implementation success at each organization. This study is organized as a set of five topics. Each topic raises a number of important questions and provides complete or emerging answers. For organizations who have made advanced training selections, this study is a resource to benchmark their success with other organizations who have made similar selections. For new or developing training organizations, this study will help plan their future technology selections by comparing their level of organizational maturity to the documented experiences of similar organizations.

NONE

1995-03-01

293

Nevada Education Law: Federal and State Law Governing Nevada K-12 Education in Question/Answer Format.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides answers to the most common legal questions of Nevada's school board members, administrators, and educators. Chapter 1, "The Nevada School System: Governance, Programs, and Standards," explores the constitutional, legal, and statutory basis of school system governance. Chapter 2, "The Nevada Plan: Finance of Public Education,"…

Daugherty, Richard F.; Cockerill, Charles P.

294

Gehrels_Answers 311.pdf Student questions: Neil Gehrels colloquium on "Gamma Ray Bursts and the Birth of Black  

E-print Network

Gehrels_Answers 311.pdf 1 Student questions: Neil Gehrels colloquium on "Gamma Ray Bursts a Gamma Ray Burst? Answ 1: The progenitor star that explodes to make the GRB is thought to be spinning habitable planet that might be near by the gamma ray burst? Answ 1: Yes, typical distance are ~10 billion

Rhoads, James

295

Questions and Answers about Ten Formal Methods Pieter Hartel, Michael Butler, Andrew Currie, Peter Henderson, Michael Leuschel,  

E-print Network

Questions and Answers about Ten Formal Methods Pieter Hartel, Michael Butler, Andrew Currie, Peter Henderson, Michael Leuschel, Andrew Martin, Adrian Smith, Ulrich Ultes­Nitsche, and Bob Walters Declarative methods as follows: 1. One of us presented the rational reconstruction (sam­ ple specification

Walters, Robert

296

NATURE CHEMISTRY | VOL 3 | NOVEMBER 2011 | www.nature.com/naturechemistry 831 There is no simple answer to this question,  

E-print Network

There is no simple answer to this question, and it may depend on one's role in the peer- review process. An author probably hopes for a report that is returned quickly and is positive, or at least constructively critical the review, clearly stating how the work is viewed by the referee and highlighting any problematic

Cai, Long

297

26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the...

2013-04-01

298

26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the...

2014-04-01

299

26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the...

2012-04-01

300

Template for NSF Data Management Plan In general, the data management plan should answer these two questions  

E-print Network

Template for NSF Data Management Plan In general, the data management plan should answer these two questions: 1) What data is generated by your project? 2) What is your plan for managing the data? 1 those posted on a website or made available to a public database. Describe your plans, if any

He, Chuan

301

Postpassage Questions: Task and Reader Effects on Comprehension and Metacomprehension Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation explored the effects of question task conditions on reading comprehension and metacomprehension for subjects differing in reading ability and English language proficiency. Proficient readers, disabled readers, and deaf readers read expository passages and completed selected-response and constructed-response question tasks under both lookback and no-lookback conditions. In addition, subjects rated their perceived comprehension adequacy both after reading each passage

Beth Davey

1987-01-01

302

An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability  

PubMed Central

Background Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A) network tools, which link questioners directly to experts can overcome some of these barriers. When designing and testing online tools, assessing the usability and applicability is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the usability and applicability of a new online Q&A network tool for answers on OSH questions. Methods We applied a cross-sectional usability test design. Eight occupational health experts and twelve potential questioners from the working population (workers) were purposively selected to include a variety of computer- and internet-experiences. During the test, participants were first observed while executing eight tasks that entailed important features of the tool. In addition, they were interviewed. Through task observations and interviews we assessed applicability, usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction) and facilitators and barriers in use. Results Most features were usable, though several could be improved. Most tasks were executed effectively. Some tasks, for example searching stored questions in categories, were not executed efficiently and participants were less satisfied with the corresponding features. Participants' recommendations led to improvements. The tool was found mostly applicable for additional information, to observe new OSH trends and to improve contact between OSH experts and workers. Hosting and support by a trustworthy professional organization, effective implementation campaigns, timely answering and anonymity were seen as important use requirements. Conclusions This network tool is a promising new strategy for offering company workers high quality information to answer OSH questions. Q&A network tools can be an addition to existing information facilities in the field of OSH, but also to other healthcare fields struggling with how to answer questions from people in practice with high quality information. In the near future, we will focus on the use of the tool and its effects on information and knowledge dissemination. PMID:20969777

2010-01-01

303

Geophysical Summer Field Camp: Answering questions about the subsurface for the local community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer Geophysics Field Camp is part of the core requirement for undergraduate Geophysics majors at Boise State University (CSM), as well as at Colorado School of Mines (CSM). We have found it to be most effectively taught when the target of the camp involves answering questions, which impact society. For example, currently the CSM/BSU geophysics summer camp focuses on ground water resources and geothermal potential in the Upper Arkansas River Basin, a part of the Rio Grande Rift system in Chaffee County, Colorado. A prime goal is to train students how to combine diverse sources of information into a unified interpretation: Students examine lithologies and structures on the periphery of the basin. Cross sections are constructed to predict the geophysical signature. Geophysical tools then are used to ascertain the gross structure and examine subsurface conditions in greater detail. These tools include surveying, regional gravity, deep and shallow seismic surveys, magnetics, DC resistivity, Ground Penetrating Radar, electromagnetics, hydrochemistry, and karaoke. While BSU and CSM own a considerable amount of geophysical hardware, our field camps are only possible because of extensive support by corporations and governmental agencies. In addition, the Society of Exploration Geohysics (SEG) Foundation provides financial support, Chaffee County assists with housing costs, and local land owners provide open access. In turn, the field camp results aid the community of Chaffee County in assessing their water resources for long term growth planning, as well as understanding the geothermal potential for hydroelectric power generation. BSU is currently exploring with the SEG Foundation under the Geophysicists Without Borders program to apply this model of combined education and social outreach in the form a geophysics camp for Southeast Asia, where we propose to study geohazards,geoarcheology and groundwater issues.

van Wijk, K.; Batzle, M.; Liberty, L.; Raynolds, R.

2008-12-01

304

The Place of Health Information and Socio-Emotional Support in Social Questioning and Answering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Little is known about the quality of health information in social contexts or how socio-emotional factors impact users' evaluations of quality. We explored how librarians, nurses and users assessed the quality of health answers posted on Yahoo! Answers, focusing on socio-emotional reactions displayed, advice given to users and…

Worrall, Adam; Oh, Sanghee

2013-01-01

305

Nittler_Answers to student questions 414.pdf Student questions: Larry Nittler colloquium on "Exploring Mercury: Scientific Results from  

E-print Network

on "Exploring Mercury: Scientific Results from the MESSENGER Mission" 4/16/14 Question 1: Since the heavier is unknown but it is not particularly higher than the other terrestrial planets. In fact, all the terrestrial surface samples? Yes!!! Question 2: What are the implications of having the higher level of Na in Mercury

Rhoads, James

306

Blakey_Answers to student questions 314.pdf Student questions: Ronald Blakey colloquium on "Using Paleogeographic Maps to Portray  

E-print Network

that are missing information are just far too great? No, this is not a problem. Question 1: Which geological time, and it's the area I know best. Question 2: You mentioned in a slide of Old Jurassic, that rivers drained: What discovery can be found by the study of the Colorado Plataeu that may influence not only your

Rhoads, James

307

Cognitive Levels of Questions Used by Iranian EFL Teachers in Advanced Reading Comprehension Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the cognitive levels of questions used by Iranian EFL teachers in advanced reading comprehension tests. Twenty teachers participated in this study and generated 215 questions which were then categorized according to Bloom's taxonomy. This taxonomy consists of six major categories which starts from the simplest behavior to the…

Khorsand, Narjess

2009-01-01

308

The Effects of Embedded and Elaborative Interrogation Questions on L2 Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With 97 advanced second language (L2) learners of Spanish, the present study utilized domain specific texts to examine the effects of embedded "what" questions and elaborative "why" questions on reading comprehension. Participants read two different vignettes, either with or without the adjuncts, from a social psychology textbook, and then…

Brantmeier, Cindy; Callender, Aimee; McDaniel, Mark

2011-01-01

309

Novel Approaches to Examine Passage, Student, and Question Effects on Reading Comprehension  

PubMed Central

Reading comprehension is influenced by sources of variance associated with the reader and the task. To gain insight into the complex interplay of multiple sources of influence, we employed crossed random-effects item response models. These models allowed us to simultaneously examine the degree to which variables related to the type of passage and student characteristics influenced students’ (n = 94; mean age = 11.97 years) performance on two indicators of reading comprehension: different types of comprehension questions and passage fluency. We found that variables related to word recognition, language, and executive function were influential across various types of passages and comprehension questions and also predicted a reader’s passage fluency. Further, an exploratory analysis of two-way interaction effects was conducted. Results suggest that understanding the relative influence of passage, question, and student variables has implications for identifying struggling readers and designing interventions to address their individual needs. PMID:24535914

Miller, Amanda C.; Davis, Nicole; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Toste, Jessica R.; Street, James; Cutting, Laurie E.

2014-01-01

310

Wisconsin statutes regarding HIV testing in primary care: frequent questions and answers.  

PubMed

The authors review Wisconsin statutes related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in primary care, including the areas of written informed consent, documentation of consent, testing without consent, testing of minors, disclosure of test results without the consent of the test subject, reporting requirements, discrimination, access by insurance companies and third-party payors to HIV test results, and civil liabilities and criminal penalties associated with violation of HIV-related state statutes. During the course of the HIV epidemic in Wisconsin, many individuals (service providers, legislators, consumers and advocates) supported the enactment of HIV-related legislation. Today, Wisconsin has some of the nation's most comprehensive HIV legislation. These laws have set a legal framework that balances the rights of individuals with protection of public's health. The relatively low seroprevalence of HIV infection in Wisconsin can be attributed, in part, to the state's HIV-related legislation. While Wisconsin HIV legislation is broadly focused, much of it is concerned with HIV testing. This article examines common questions as they pertain to HIV testing in primary care and to the following areas addressed by state statutes: counseling and referral for health and support services [Wisconsin statute s. 252 14(3)] informed consent for testing or disclosure [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(2)] written consent to disclose [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(3) & (4)] testing without consent of the test subject [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(2)] confidentiality of an HIV test [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(5)] reporting of positive test results [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(7)] discrimination [Wisconsin statute s. 252.14(2)] civil and criminal liabilities [Wisconsin statute s. 252.14(4); 252.15(8) & (9)]. PMID:9894441

Vergeront, J M; Reiser, W J; Druckenmiller, J K; Krchnavek, K A; Davis, J P

1998-12-01

311

Analysis of Student Responses to Peer-Instruction Conceptual Questions Answered Using an Electronic Response System: Trends by Gender and Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study investigated students' answers to geoscience conceptual questions answered using electronic personal response systems. Answer patterns were examined to evaluate the peer-instruction pedagogical approach in a large general education classroom setting. (Contains 3 figures and 2 tables.)

Steer, David; McConnell, David; Gray, Kyle; Kortz, Karen; Liang, Xin

2009-01-01

312

Probing decisive answers to dark energy questions from cosmic complementarity and lensing tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study future constraints on dark energy parameters determined from several combinations of cosmic microwave background experiments, supernova data, and cosmic-shear surveys with and without tomography. In this analysis, we look in particular for combinations of experiments that will bring the uncertainties to a level of precision tight enough (a few per cent) to answer decisively some of the questions regarding dark energy. In view of the parametrization dependence problems, we probe the dark energy using two variants of its equation of state w(z), and its energy density ?de(z). For the latter, we model ?de(z) as a continuous function interpolated using dimensionless parameters . We consider a large set of 13 cosmological and systematic parameters, and assume reasonable priors on the lensing and supernova systematics. For the CMB, we consider future constraints from eight years of data from WMAP, one year of data from Planck, and one year of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). We use two sets of 2000 supernovae with zmax= 0.8 and 1.5 respectively, and consider various cosmic-shear reference surveys: a wide ground-based-like survey, covering 70 per cent of the sky, and with successively two and five tomographic bins; and a deep-space-based-like survey with 10 tomographic bins and various sky coverages. The 1? constraints found are {?(w0) = 0.086, ?(w1) = 0.069}, {?(w0) = 0.088, ?(wa) = 0.11}, and from Planck, supernovae and the ground-based-like lensing survey with two bins. When five bins are used within the same combination the constraints reduce to {?(w0) = 0.04, ?(w1) = 0.034}, {?(w0) = 0.041, ?(wa) = 0.056}, and . Finally, when the deep lensing survey with 10 per cent coverage of the sky and 10 tomographic bins is used along with Planck and the deep supernova survey, the constraints reduce to {?(w0) = 0.032, ?(w1) = 0.027}, {?(w0) = 0.033, ?(wa) = 0.04}, and . Other coverages of the sky and other combinations of experiments are explored as well. Although some worries remain about other systematics, our study shows that, after the combination of the three probes, lensing tomography with many redshift bins and large coverages of the sky has the potential to add key improvements to the dark energy parameter constraints. However, the fact that very ambitious and sophisticated surveys are required in order to achieve some of these constraints or to improve them suggests the need for new tests to probe the nature of dark energy in addition to constraining its equation of state.

Ishak, Mustapha

2005-10-01

313

Using Chat and Text Technologies to Answer Sexual and Reproductive Health Questions: Planned Parenthood Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background Teens and young adults in the United States are in need of sexual and reproductive health information, as evidenced by elevated rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), pregnancy, and births among this population. In-person sexuality education programs are helpful, but they are unlikely to rapidly accommodate teens and young adults in a moment of crisis. Evidence suggests that technologies such as instant messaging (IM) and text messaging may be effective ways to provide teens and young adults with sexual and reproductive health information. In September 2010, Planned Parenthood Federation of America launched a text and IM program designed to provide immediate answers to urgent sexual and reproductive health questions from a reliable and confidential source and to link young people to sexual and reproductive health services if needed. Objective To assess whether this program is successful in reaching the target population, whether user characteristics vary by mode (IM vs text), and whether mode is associated with reaching individuals with high levels of worry or reducing worry postchat. Methods Data were collected from prechat and postchat surveys for all IM and text message conversations between September 2010 and August 2011. A bivariate analysis was conducted using chi-square tests for differences in the main covariates by mode of conversation. In the multivariable analysis, logistic regression was used to identify factors that were independently associated with prechat levels of worry and changes in worry postchat. Results A total of 32,589 conversations occurred during the program’s first year. The odds of feeling very worried prechat were highest for IM users (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.43, 95% CI 1.20-1.72), users 17 years and younger (AOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.50-1.74), Latino/Hispanic users (AOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.27-1.46), and black users (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.30-1.50). After controlling for the study covariates, there was no significant difference in the odds of feeling better (less worried) postchat between IM and text message users. Feeling better postchat was associated with being younger (?17 years: AOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.17-1.72; 18-24 years: AOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.02-1.42), being Latino/Hispanic (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.55), reporting that the service was very helpful (AOR 3.47, 95% CI 3.24-4.32), and asking about emergency contraception (AOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.61). The odds of feeling better were lowest for users with questions about STIs (AOR 0.61, 95% CI 0.47-0.78). Conclusions The results from the process evaluation suggest that the program was able to provide informational support to vulnerable groups, such as teens and racial minorities, in moments of particular worry. Differences between the IM and text message users reveal that each mode appeals to a different population and that both are necessary to reach a diverse audience. PMID:24055754

Kantor, Leslie M; Levine, Deborah S; Arons, Whitney

2013-01-01

314

The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple" compatibility. 100% protection against the 100 year event shows to be the optimal degree of protection. Consequently, impacts statistically less frequent than once in 100 year are accepted as the remaining risk. Such floods and debris flows respectively cause a fan of propagation which is substantially reduced due to the protection measures against the 100 year event. III) The "triple loss distribution" shows the monetized triple damage, dependent on its probability. The monetization is performed by the social process of participation of the impacted interests, if not, by official experts in representation. The triple loss distribution rises in time mainly due to the rise in density and value of precious goods. A comparison of the distributions of the triple loss and the triple risk, behaving in opposite direction, is shown and explained within the project. IV) The recommended yearly reserves to be stocked for restoration and compensation of losses, caused by debris flows, amount to € 70'000.- according to the approach of the "technical risk premium". The discrepancy in comparison with the much higher amounts according to the common approaches of natural hazards engineering are discussed. V) The sustainable mix of hydraulic and forestry measures with the highest return on investment at lowest risk is performed according to the portfolio theory (Markowitz), based on the triple value curves, generated by the method of TripelBudgetierung®. Accordingly, the optimum mix of measures to protect the community of Inzing against the natural hazard of debris flow, thus, the most efficient allocation of resources equals to 2/3 for hydraulic, 1/3 for forestry measures. In detail, the results of the research pilot project "Nachhaltiges Risikomanagement - Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria" may be consulted under www.ibu.hsr.ch/inzing.

Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

2009-04-01

315

The Use of Selected Sediment Analyses to Answer Lake Management Questions: A Case Study for Lake Panasoffkee, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected analyses were performed on Lake Panasoffkee sediment to answer critical cause\\/effect lake management questions, and the collected data indicate their usefulness for similar assessments. Sediment depths in Lake Panasoffkee are very deep (>6.1 m) in most places, but Pb-210 dating indicates sedimentation rates have historically been low (0.04 ? 0.6 g-dry wt\\/cm?yr). Increasing lake shallowness is more likely related

T. V. Belanger; H. H. Heck; M. Sohn; P. R. Sweets; M. A. Morris; N. Julien

1995-01-01

316

Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…

Heiner, Cecily

2009-01-01

317

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS MOST FREQUENTLY ASKED BY VISITORS TO FLINT'S COMMUNITY SCHOOLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

QUESTIONS ARE RAISED CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MOTT FOUNDATION PROGRAM, THE FLINT BOARD OF EDUCATION, THE COST OF THE PROGRAM, AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL PROGRAM. QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL DIRECTOR RANGE FROM HIS ROLE TO HIS ON-THE-JOB TRAINING. QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO ADULT EDUCATION AND THE…

Flint Board of Education, MI.

318

Debugging reinvented: asking and answering why and why not questions about program behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

When software developers want to understand the reason for a program's behavior, they must translate their questions about the behavior into a series of questions about code, speculating about the causes in the process. The Whyline is a new kind of debugging tool that avoids such speculation by instead enabling developers to select a question about program output from a

Andrew Jensen Ko; Brad A. Myers

2008-01-01

319

An English language question answering system for a large relational database  

Microsoft Academic Search

By typing requests in English, casual users will be able to obtain explicit answers from a large relational database of aircraft flight and maintenance data using a system called PLANES. The design and implementation of this system is described and illustrated with detailed examples of the operation of system components and examples of overall system operation. The language processing portion

David L. Waltz

1978-01-01

320

Vermont Public Library Almanac: A Compendium of Often-Answered Questions. 2nd Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains brief answers to some of the most frequently raised issues related to running a small Vermont public library. Areas covered include accessibility, the American Library Association, automation, awards, binding, services for the blind and physically handicapped, the Board of Libraries, the Board of Trustees, book dealers, book…

Kotch, Marianne

321

The Role of Perceptual Availability and Discourse Context in Young Children's Question Answering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three- and four-year-old children were asked predicate-focus questions ("What's X doing?") about a scene in which an agent performed an action on a patient. We varied: (i) whether (or not) the preceding discourse context, which established the patient as given information, was available for the questioner; and (ii) whether (or not) the patient was…

Salomo, Dorothe; Graf, Eileen; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

2011-01-01

322

Students' Comprehension of Science Textbooks Using a Question-Based Reading Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the heavy reliance on textbooks in college courses, research indicates that college students enrolled in first-year science courses are not proficient at comprehending informational text. The present study investigated a reading comprehension questioning strategy with origins in clinical research based in elaboration interrogation theory,…

Smith, Betty Lou; Holliday, William G.; Austin, Homer W.

2010-01-01

323

Discussing the diagnosis of HPV-OSCC: common questions and answers  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a rising proportion of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers (OSCC). HPV-positive OSCCs (HPV-OSCC) are associated with oral HPV infection and sexual behavior. Patient questions regarding risk factors, prognosis and implications for past, present and future relationships often arise. This manuscript addresses frequently asked questions by patients with HPV-OSCC and their families. A framework for clinicians to address these conversations and the limitations of our present knowledge base is also presented. PMID:23876627

Fakhry, Carole; D’Souza, Gypsyamber

2014-01-01

324

Automatic Question Generation and Answer Judging: A Q&A Game for Language Learning  

E-print Network

analysis [1]. More recently, Kunichika et al. developed a multimedia language learning system for teaching by speech, so that comprehensive reading, listening and speaking ability can be practiced. This paper a real human tutor, but also crucial in that it creates chances for the students to practice speaking

325

Comprehensive School Mental Health Specialists: An Answer to Urban Students' Mental Health Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that blending school psychology and school counseling training to produce comprehensive mental health specialists is a way to address the identified social and emotional needs of children in urban schools. Such specialists could result in more comprehensive, coordinated school mental health services and lead to improved academic…

Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Tait, Connie T.; Doll, Beth

1998-01-01

326

Primary sleep disorders in people with epilepsy: clinical questions and answers.  

PubMed

The questions facing clinicians with patients with sleep disorder and epilepsy are addressed in this article. Both adult and child epilepsy are discussed in the context of the most typical questions a clinician would have, such as "Are parasomnias more common in people with epilepsy?", "Is sleep architecture abnormal in children with epilepsy", along with outcomes of numerous questionnaire-based, case-based, and double-blind placebo studies on such aspects as sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, anxiety and fears, limb movement, nocturnal seizures, agitation, behavioral disorders, and learning disorders. PMID:25455580

Grigg-Damberger, Madeleine M; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

2015-01-01

327

Comprehension of wh-questions precedes their production in typical development and autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Lay Abstract Children with autism produce few wh-questions, compared to their typically developing peers. It is unclear if this is because of social-pragmatic difficulties, or if they have not yet learned the grammar for asking wh-questions. If children do not know how to use grammatical rules to produce questions, they might simply repeat sentences that they have heard without completely understanding them first. We visited the homes of 15 children with autism and 18 typically developing children with similar language abilities, across a three-year period. At each visit, children watched a video that depicted an apple hitting a flower and keys hitting a book. The children were then shown the items side-by-side on the screen and the audio asked “what hit the flower?” and “what did the keys hit?” We filmed the children’s eye movements and analyzed how long they looked at the named item, compared to when they heard “where is the flower/keys?” At each visit, we also filmed a 30-minute mother-child play session and analyzed the types of questions that the children asked. Children with autism showed comprehension of wh-questions at a later age than typically developing children, but at a similar level of overall language development. Neither group produced wh-questions before they had demonstrated that they understood the underlying grammatical rules. Therefore, children with autism seem to process wh-questions in the same way as their typically developing peers, just at a later age. This paper discusses the implications of our findings for the language development of children with autism. Scientific Abstract Children with autism (ASD) rarely produce wh-questions (e.g., “What hit the book?”) in naturalistic speech. It is unclear if this is due to social-pragmatic difficulties, or if grammatical deficits are also involved. If grammar is impaired, production of wh-questions by rote memorization might precede comprehension of similar forms. In a longitudinal study, 15 children with ASD and 18 initially-language-matched typically developing toddlers were visited in their homes at four-month intervals across a three-year period. The wh-question task was presented via intermodal preferential looking. Silent ‘hitting’ events (e.g., an apple hitting a flower) were followed by test trials in which the apple and flower were juxtaposed on the screen. During test trials, subject-wh and object-wh-question audios were sequentially presented (e.g., “What hit the flower?”/”What did the apple hit?”). Control audios were also presented (e.g., “Where’s the apple/flower?”). Children’s eye movements were coded off-line, frame-by-frame. To show reliable comprehension, children should look longer to the named item (i.e., apple or flower) during the “where” questions, but less at the named item during the subject-wh and object-wh-questions. To compare comprehension to production, we coded 30-minute spontaneous speech samples drawn from mother-child interactions at each visit. Results indicated that comprehension of subject and object-wh-questions was delayed in children with ASD compared to age-matched TD children, but not when matched on overall language levels. Additionally, both groups comprehended wh-questions before producing similar forms, indicating that development occurred in a similar manner. This paper discusses the implications of our findings for language acquisition in ASD. PMID:22359403

Goodwin, Anthony; Fein, Deborah; Naigles, Letitia R.

2011-01-01

328

Technical Assistance For Eligible Solar Equipment Lists Pre-Bid Conference Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

, or subsidiary thereof who has been awarded a consulting services Agreement may submit a bid for, nor be awarded and unfettered review, assessment and certification processing? We would agree to contract language specifying One and Two. #12;Question #5: Who is currently providing these services for the CEC? Why is the CEC

329

Macalady_Answers 411.pdf Student questions: Jenn Macalady colloquium on "Proterozoic Underground: Searching for  

E-print Network

sometimes find DNA sequences related to magnetotactic bacteria in some of our clone libraries, although have been tested other than the bacteria and hopanoids? Tested for what? Question 2: Are there any: Have you found types of bacteria that are anaerobic that existed in the Precambrian, if so what story

Rhoads, James

330

Is Crossbreeding the Answer to Questions of Dairy Breed Utilization?1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current interest in crossbreeding in the commer- cial dairy industry, even though it is quite limited, raises questions of breed utilization. Fewer than 5% of US dairy cattle are other than purebred or grade Holsteins.ThelargeadvantageofHolsteinsforadditive genetic merit for lactation milk yield is apparently re- sponsible for this trend. Why, then, this interest in crossbreeding? The economic importance of traits

A. J. McAllister

2002-01-01

331

[The answers to the questions. The difficult academic and professional equilibrium in pre-European Spain].  

PubMed

After the sweep of the three preceding articles, the author responds to the questions posed in the first article, concluding that a turn towards a practical-reflexive position can, over the medium term, solve the tensions which the positivist conceptions have created between knowledge and professional action. A bibliography for all four articles is included. PMID:16304828

Medina Moya, José Luis

2005-10-01

332

Answering the Question that Matters Most: Has Student Achievement Increased since No Child Left Behind?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2002, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) has spurred far-reaching changes in elementary and secondary education, all aimed at accomplishing the same fundamental goal--to improve students' academic achievement. As the Congress prepares to reauthorize the Act, two related questions matter most: (1) Has student achievement in reading and…

Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

2007-01-01

333

Meta-Knowledge Annotation for Efficient Natural-Language Question-Answering  

E-print Network

a tight integration of natural language processing (NLP), information retrieval (IR) and information question Q, generate a natural-language representation nlp(Q) 2. From nlp(Q), generate an information-retrieval query ir(nlp(Q)) #12;3. Use ir(nlp(Q)) to retrieve D documents from an authoritative text archive 4

Veale, Tony

334

Multiple-Engine Question Answering in TextMap Abdessamad Echihabi, Ulf Hermjakob, Eduard Hovy,  

E-print Network

the following reformulations: Question: How did Mahatma Gandhi die? Reformulation patterns: · Mahatma Gandhi died ? · Mahatma Gandhi died of ? · Mahatma Gandhi lost his life in ? · Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated? · Mahatma Gandhi committed suicide? · ... plus 40 other reformulations ... #12;The fourth

Marcu, Daniel

335

Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

Foubert, John D.

2011-01-01

336

A Whole Language Program in the Intermediate Grades: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on a whole language program for the middle grades in Canada's Northwest Territories, this interview transcript consists of responses by Anne Davies, a teacher from Yellow Knife, in the Northwest Territories, and currently a doctoral student, to questions posed by Norma Mickelson, a professor at the University of Victoria in British…

Mickelson, Norma; Davies, Anne

337

Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

Boyle, Philip

1989-01-01

338

Answers to questions at public meetings regarding implementation of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 on operators' licenses  

SciTech Connect

This document presents questions and answers based on the transcripts of four public meetings (and from written questions submitted after the meetings) conducted from April 9 to April 20, 1987 by the staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The meetings discussed implementation of the Commission's final rule governing Operators' Licenses and Conforming Amendments (10 CFR Parts 55 and 50). The rule became effective May 26, 1987 and is intended to clarify the regulations for issuing licenses to operators and senior operators; revise the requirements and scope of written examinations and operating tests for operators and senior operators, require a simulation facility; clarify procedures for administering requalification examinations; and describe the form and content for operator license applications.

Not Available

1987-11-01

339

Deep Read: a reading comprehension system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper describes initial work on Deep Read , an automated reading comprehension system that accepts arbitrary text input (a story) and answers questions about it We have acquired a corpus of 60 development and 60 test stories of 3 to 6th grade material; each story is followed by short - answer questions (an answer key was also provided)

Lynette Hirschman; Marc Light; Eric Breck; John D. Burger

1999-01-01

340

Reference Question Answered: Discussion of Russian funeral rites as depicted in V posikakh schast’ia (In Search of Happiness), Film, 2006  

E-print Network

The author answers a reference question on the depictionof a funeral in the 2006 Russian documentary film V poiskakh schast’ia (In Search of Happiness), which takes place in the Jewish Autonomous Region in Siberia. ...

Giullian, Jon C.

2008-01-01

341

Questions of importance to the conservation of biological diversity: answers from the past  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoecological records are replete with examples of biotic responses to past climate change and human impact, but how can we use these records in the conservation of current and future biodiversity? A recently published list of (One Hundred Questions of Importance to the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity) (Sutherland et al., 2009) highlights a number of key research questions that need a temporal perspective. Many of these questions are related to the determination of ecological processes in order to assess ecosystem function and services, climate change-integrated conservation strategies, and ecosystem management and restoration. However, it is noticeable that not a single contributor to this list was from the paleo-research community and that extremely few paleo-records are ever used in the development of terrestrial conservation management plans. This lack of dialogue between conservationists and the paleo-community is partially driven by a perception that the data provided by paleoecological records are purely descriptive and not of relevance to the day-to-day management and conservation of biological diversity. This paper illustrates, through a series of case-studies, how long-term ecological records (>50 years) can provide a test of predictions and assumptions of ecological processes that are directly relevant to management strategies necessary to retain biological diversity in a changing climate. This discussion paper includes information on diversity baselines, thresholds, resilience, and restoration of ecological processes.

Willis, K. J.; Bhagwat, S. A.

2010-11-01

342

Questions of importance to the conservation of global biological diversity: answers from the past  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoecological records are replete with examples of biotic responses to past climate change and human impact but how can we use these records in the conservation of current and future biodiversity? A recently published list of One Hundred Questions of Importance to the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity (Sutherland et al., 2009) highlights a number of key research questions that need a temporal perspective. Many of these questions are related to the determination of ecological processes in order to assess ecosystem function and services, climate change-integrated conservation strategies, and ecosystem management and restoration. However, it is noticeable that not a single contributor to this list was from the paleo-research community and that extremely few paleo-records are ever used in the development of terrestrial conservation management plans. This lack of dialogue between conservationists and the paleo-community is partially driven by a perception that the data provided by paleoecological records are purely descriptive and not of relevance to the day-to-day management and conservation of biological diversity. This paper illustrates, through a series of case-studies, how long-term ecological records (>50 years) can provide a test of predictions and assumptions of ecological processes that are directly relevant to management strategies necessary in order to retain biological diversity in a changing climate. This includes information on diversity baselines, thresholds, resilience, and restoration of ecological processes.

Willis, K. J.; Bhagwat, S. A.

2010-06-01

343

Using Prompt Fading to Teach Self-Questioning to Fifth Graders with LD: Effects on Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with LD who struggle with reading comprehension can benefit from instruction on how to read strategically. One strategy that has been demonstrated to increase reading comprehension is self-questioning. In this study, two fifth graders with LD were taught to self-generate questions using a prompt fading procedure. The participants were…

Rouse, Christina A.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Cullen, Jennifer M.; Sawyer, Mary

2014-01-01

344

Questions and Answers General Questions  

E-print Network

have to pay for this? All but one Hoo's Well@ program is currently available at no cost to you. Weight Watchers® participation does require payment from you. Will retirees be eligible to participate blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference, BMI, total cholesterol, high and low density

Acton, Scott

345

Thalamic relay or cortico-thalamic processing? Old question, new answers.  

PubMed

What are the functions implemented by neurons in the sensory nuclei of the thalamus? It seems that this question has accompanied cortical and thalamic studies since their onset some 6 decades ago. Over the years, the simplistic, traditional view of thalamic neurons as mere relays of sensory information has given way to more sophisticated views, of which several alternative hypotheses have been proposed. This commentary briefly reviews the 2 current major hypotheses and shows how a new, pioneering experiment, published in Cerebral Cortex by Groh, Acsady and colleagues, discriminates between them. The commentary further elaborates on the thalamo-cortical processing suggested by the new findings, the general sensory-motor scheme to which these findings may be relevant, and the possible roles such thalamo-cortical processing may have in sensory-motor control. PMID:24214242

Ahissar, Ehud; Oram, Tess

2015-04-01

346

``Aristotelian'' was given as the answer, but what was the question?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students come to physics instruction, in Newtonian mechanics, with naive ideas about how and why things move; for example, many believe that force causes motion and, conversely, that in the absence of a force things are necessarily at rest. Moreover, such preconceived ideas interfere with the ability of students to learn, and function within, the Newtonian paradigm. These student ideas have been labeled ``Aristotelian,'' a catchy label that has rapidly become widely accepted. This paper shows that these student beliefs are not like those of Aristotle, questions the hypothesis that generated the label, and describes a danger, to the sound growth of knowledge, inherent in the use of theory-ladened nomenclature. The purpose of the paper is to suggest that the label be abandoned so that this important line of research, with its profound implications for teachers, may develop unhindered by the weight of incorrect, theory-driven nomenclature.

Lythcott, Jean

1985-05-01

347

Answering the ultimate question “What is the Proximal Cause of Aging?”  

PubMed Central

Recent discoveries suggest that aging is neither driven by accumulation of molecular damage of any cause, nor by random damage of any kind. Some predictions of a new theory, quasi-programmed hyperfunction, have already been confirmed and a clinically-available drug slows aging and delays diseases in animals. The relationship between diseases and aging becomes easily apparent. Yet, the essence of aging turns out to be so startling that the theory cannot be instantly accepted and any possible arguments are raised for its disposal. I discuss that these arguments actually support a new theory. Are any questions remaining? And might accumulation of molecular damage still play a peculiar role in aging? PMID:23425777

Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

2012-01-01

348

Overwintering of herbaceous plants in a changing climate. Still more questions than answers.  

PubMed

The increase in surface temperature of the Earth indicates a lower risk of exposure for temperate grassland and crop to extremely low temperatures. However, the risk of low winter survival rate, especially in higher latitudes may not be smaller, due to complex interactions among different environmental factors. For example, the frequency, degree and length of extreme winter warming events, leading to snowmelt during winter increased, affecting the risks of anoxia, ice encasement and freezing of plants not covered with snow. Future climate projections suggest that cold acclimation will occur later in autumn, under shorter photoperiod and lower light intensity, which may affect the energy partitioning between the elongation growth, accumulation of organic reserves and cold acclimation. Rising CO2 levels may also disturb the cold acclimation process. Predicting problems with winter pathogens is also very complex, because climate change may greatly influence the pathogen population and because the plant resistance to these pathogens is increased by cold acclimation. All these factors, often with contradictory effects on winter survival, make plant overwintering viability under future climates an open question. Close cooperation between climatologists, ecologists, plant physiologists, geneticists and plant breeders is strongly required to predict and prevent possible problems. PMID:25017157

Rapacz, Marcin; Ergon, Ashild; Höglind, Mats; Jørgensen, Marit; Jurczyk, Barbara; Ostrem, Liv; Rognli, Odd Arne; Tronsmo, Anne Marte

2014-08-01

349

"Laying Bare of Questions Which Have Been Hidden by Answers": The English Language Arts Standards of the Common Core, K-5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors question the answer the national Common Core State Standards (CCSS, 2010) claims. The questions center on the validity of the new standardized tests based on the CCSS and teachers' evaluations being tied to student test scores on flawed tests. The proposed tests on the CCSS will position children as deficient, and will not recognize…

Gangi, Jane M.; Reilly, Mary Ann

2013-01-01

350

26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...corporation to another corporation, 11 percent of the...owned by the first corporation, will not constitute...hands of the second corporation by reason of section...and (D). (c) Questions applying section 267...following questions and answers deal with the...

2010-04-01

351

Answering the question, "what is a clinical nurse leader?": transition experience of four direct-entry master's students.  

PubMed

Understanding the experience of students learning the clinical nurse leader (CNL) role can be useful for faculty, preceptors, staff nurses, and interdisciplinary team members who guide them. This article analyzes the experience of four direct-entry master's students in the first cohort to complete the CNL curriculum and to sit for the pilot CNL certification examination. Using action research methodology, the students worked with the clinical immersion practicum faculty and a writing consultant to develop the study purpose, collect and analyze data, and prepare a manuscript. The main theme that emerged was, answering the question, "what is a CNL?" Subthemes supporting the main theme involved coming to the edge, trusting the process, rounding the corner, and valuing becoming. The analysis confirmed the value the CNL offers as a new vision to nursing education and practice. The students offered suggestions for the CNL curriculum and practicum. PMID:21078501

Bombard, Emily; Chapman, Kimberly; Doyle, Marcy; Wright, Danielle K; Shippee-Rice, Raelene V; Kasik, Dot Radius

2010-01-01

352

STS-103 Pilot Kelly answers questions during interview at Pad 39B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During an interview at Launch Pad 39B, STS-103 Pilot Scott J. Kelly responds to a question from the media about the mission. Standing with him are the remainder of the crew: (left to right) Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who is also with ESA. As a preparation for launch, they have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

1999-01-01

353

STS-103 M.S. Mike Foale answers question during interview at Pad 39B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-103 Mission Specialist C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.) (at right) responds to a question from the media about the mission during an interview at Launch Pad 39B. Next to him is Mission Specialist John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.). As a preparation for launch, the crew have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

1999-01-01

354

Prism : an answer projection system  

E-print Network

Prism is an answer projection system that combines the best attributes of traditional and Web-based question answering systems. Traditional question answering systems retrieve answers with pinpoint accuracy but limited ...

Wu, Lynn, 1981-

2003-01-01

355

Answering the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a mother of a daughter with special needs, as well as to a son without, the author can say having had both experiences, all mothers, regardless of her children, struggle in one form or another. That may actually be a part of the job description: Mother: must be able to function well with minimal sleep; is capable of multi-tasking; be clever…

Wolfe, Julie Leavitt

2011-01-01

356

Seasonal Influenza Questions & Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... stomach or intestinal disease. Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

357

Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... major conditions caused by pneumococci: pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. They are all caused by infection with the ... Pneumococci cause 50% of all cases of bacterial meningitis (infection of the covering of the brain or ...

358

Perchlorate Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... a rapid, sensitive, and specific ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS) method for determining perchlorate in ... Perchlorate Anion in Foods by Ion Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry ," describing FDA's method has been published in the ...

359

Sepsis Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... 22(14):895-906. Â Top of Page File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

360

XMRV: Questions and Answers  

Cancer.gov

Retroviruses are found in a wide range of mammals, and may contribute to the development of cancers, such as leukemia or lymphoma, and neurological diseases. The first of two human retroviruses identified, HTLV-1 has been found to cause adult T cell leukemia and HTLV-II is not associated with any disease. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, is a different type of retrovirus.

361

Campylobacter Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ... Site Map A-Z Index Help Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ...

362

Poultry Processing: Questions & Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ... Site Map A-Z Index Help Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ...

363

Salmonella Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ... Site Map A-Z Index Help Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ...

364

Rubella: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... may cause thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) at the rate of about 1 case per 30,000 to 40,000 vaccinated people. Cases are almost always temporary and not life-threatening. More severe reactions, including allergic reactions, are rare. Other severe problems ( ...

365

Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Cure TSC. Online registration now open. The 2015 International Research Conference on TSC will be held September 10-12 in Windsor, UK. Learn about clinical trials and see a list of current trials/studies related to TSC. Enroll now in ...

366

Tetanus: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... difficult to kill as they are resistant to heat and many chemical agents. How does tetanus spread? ... the children who received the vaccine developed local reactions such as redness, swelling, and pain at the ...

367

Rabies: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... antibodies to rabies virus) and a series of rabies vaccinations. More detailed information about the vaccine can be ... They should also be given a series of rabies vaccinations. The first dose should be given as soon ...

368

Reader-Text Interactions: How Differential Text and Question Types Influence Cognitive Skills Needed for Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research has shown that comprehension can vary depending on text and question types and that readers' word recognition and background knowledge may account for these differences. Other reader characteristics such as semantic and syntactic awareness, inferencing, and planning or organizing all have also been linked to reading comprehension,…

Eason, Sarah H.; Goldberg, Lindsay F.; Young, Katherine M.; Geist, Megan C.; Cutting, Laurie E.

2012-01-01

369

Reader–Text Interactions: How Differential Text and Question Types Influence Cognitive Skills Needed for Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research has shown that comprehension can vary depending on text and question types and that readers' word recognition and background knowledge may account for these differences. Other reader characteristics such as semantic and syntactic awareness, inferencing, and planning or organizing all have also been linked to reading comprehension, but these characteristics have not been examined with regard to specific

Sarah H. Eason; Lindsay F. Goldberg; Katherine M. Young; Megan C. Geist; Laurie E. Cutting

2012-01-01

370

The Effect of Summarization on Intermediate EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension and Their Performance on Display, Referential and Inferential Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of summarization as a generative learning strategy of the readers' performance on reading comprehension, in general, and reading comprehension display, referential and inferential questions in particular. The subjects in this study were 61 high school students. They were assigned to two groups--control and…

Ghabanchi, Zargham; Mirza, Fateme Haji

2010-01-01

371

Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers  

SciTech Connect

George Orwell`s {open_quotes}doublethink{close_quotes} should be generalized to {open_quotes}polythink{close_quotes} to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics.

Strom, D.J.; Stansbury, P.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Porter, S.W. Jr. [Porter Consultants, Inc., Ardmore, PA (United States)

1995-01-01

372

Answering the big questions about differential response in Colorado: safety and cost outcomes from a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Over the past 20 years, jurisdictions across the United States have implemented differential response (DR), which provides child protective services with the flexibility to tailor their response to reports of child abuse or neglect based on the level of risk. Given the widespread adoption of DR, there has been an increasing demand from policymakers, practitioners, and community stakeholders to build the evidence base for this innovative child welfare approach. This study was designed to answer the big questions regarding the effect of differential response on child welfare outcomes and costs using a randomized controlled trial in five Colorado counties. Specifically, the study examined the safety outcomes and costs of families who were randomly assigned to either a family assessment response (FAR) or an investigation response (IR). According to the regression results, there were no differences between the tracks on measures of system re-involvement. However, survival analysis findings indicate that FAR families were 18% less likely, over time, to have a high risk assessment after their initial accepted referral than were IR families. The cost study revealed no differences between the tracks on initial costs for caseworker contacts, services, and out-of-home placements. However, the results suggest that follow-up costs for IR cases were significantly higher (p<0.001) than for FAR cases. The authors discuss policy and practice implications for jurisdictions considering DR. PMID:24997071

Winokur, Marc; Ellis, Raquel; Drury, Ida; Rogers, John

2015-01-01

373

26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary). 31.3306(b)-1T Section 31.3306(b)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

2010-04-01

374

Effective intraverbal training of children with autism to mand for questions to answers via the “I don’t know please tell me” response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review provides a summary and appraisal commentary on the treatment review by Ingvarsson, E. T., & Hollobaugh, T. (2010). Acquisition of intraverbal behavior: Teaching children with autism to mand for answers to questions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43, 1–17.Source of funding and disclosure of interest: No source of funding reported, and the original authors of this research report

Susan D. Johnson

2011-01-01

375

Guidance for Implementation of the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) Amendments of 1992; Questions and Answers. Field Memorandum No. 34-93, Change 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides additional guidance to states in the form of supplemental questions and answers to facilitate the development of policy for service delivery areas (SDAs) and other subrecipients of funding under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) Amendments, which took effect on July 1, 1993. Topics covered are the following: definitions,…

Farmer, Barbara Ann

376

Answers to Questions Commonly Asked by Families, Professionals, and Members of the Community. Information Pages for People Involved in the Lives of Individuals with Deaf-Blindness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains six information pages providing basic answers to questions commonly asked by people involved with individuals who are deaf blind. The first one is on understanding deaf-blindness and addresses what the condition is, its impact on the ability to receive information, how the condition affects caregiver strategies, and what it is…

Wiley, David

377

Reading Comprehension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an exercise in reading comprehension and following directions. Please make sure you read and re-read before asking for help. See how much work you can do all on your own and do your very best. Good luck, have fun and learn something new! 1. Click Here Be a Critical Reader : answer all 10 questions.Do not go on until you have answered all 10 correctly. At this time please stand and silently wave both your arms around as if you are trying to swat a fly for 5 seconds. Thank you :) 2. Click "CONTINUE" to go ...

Mrs. Devitry

2010-03-02

378

26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations...answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...for determining the unrelated business income tax of voluntary employees...benefit trusts (SUBs) and group legal service...

2010-04-01

379

Asking Questions, All the Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ability to ask and answer questions while reading is essential to comprehension. This article discusses instructional strategies used to teach questioning and provides many online resources. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which explores the seven essential principles of the climate sciences for teachers in k-grade 5 classrooms.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

380

78 FR 70953 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012:...

2013-11-27

381

Hazen_Answers 213.pdf Student questions: Bob Hazen colloquium on "The Mineralogical Co-Evolution of the  

E-print Network

-Evolution of the Geosphere and Biosphere" 2/6/13 Thanks to all of you for some outstanding questions. Every one. Question 2: Could humans possibly "jump-start" a distant planet's biosphere to then influence mineral

Shumway, John

382

Science Learning: A Path Analysis of Its Links with Reading Comprehension, Question-Asking in Class and Science Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to build and test a conceptual model of the complex interrelationships between students' learning in science (learning approaches and self-regulation), their reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement. These variables were measured by means of a test and a series of questionnaires…

Cano, Francisco; García, Ángela; Berbén, A. B. G.; Justicia, Fernando

2014-01-01

383

Lesion Analysis of Cortical Regions Associated with the Comprehension of Nonreversible and Reversible Yes/No Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the association between yes/no sentence comprehension and dysfunction in anterior and posterior left-hemisphere cortical regions in acute stroke patients. More specifically, we manipulated whether questions were Nonreversible (e.g., Are limes sour?) or Reversible (e.g., Is a horse larger than a dog?) to investigate the regions…

Race, David S.; Ochfeld, Elisa; Leigh, Richard; Hillis, Argye E.

2012-01-01

384

AskMSR: Question Answering Using the Worldwide Web Michele Banko, Eric Brill, Susan Dumais, Jimmy Lin  

E-print Network

Abraham Lincoln?" from a source which contains only the text "John Wilkes Booth altered history with a bullet. He will forever be known as the man who ended Abraham Lincoln's life," versus one that also contains the transparent answer string, "John Wilkes Booth killed Abraham Lincoln." Even when no obvious

Lin, Jimmy

385

Viewing the Web as a Virtual Database for Question Answering Boris Katz, Sue Felshin, Jimmy Lin, and Gregory Marton  

E-print Network

like "Who was Abraham Lincoln married to?". He or she might locate a resource with the answer say an object (Abraham Lincoln), which contains values for many properties. #12;Katz, Felshin, Lin, and Marton 3 Web site about presidents find the section for Abraham Lincoln (Figure 1), and look up information

Lin, Jimmy

386

Heart Health Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T) in front of the answer.  

E-print Network

EAT SMART Heart Health Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check not planning to use the information in this program. # I have heart disease or high blood pressure. YES

387

29 CFR 2509.75-8 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility under the Employee Retirement Income...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...members of the board of directors of the employer fiduciaries with respect to the...In addition, if the directors are made named fiduciaries of the plan, their...to carry out certain fiduciary duties, see question...

2010-07-01

388

Is obesity a risk factor for low back pain? An example of using the evidence to answer a clinical question  

E-print Network

studies. The references of papers retrieved were also reviewed, as were key texts and references. This section is devoted to presenting the concepts of evi- dence-based practice (EBP) to demonstrate to the reader the discovery process for finding a... possible link between obesity and low back pain. The EBP method used is shown in Table 1. The first step in this process is "asking an answerable ques- tion." In this paper we assume a patient has asked whether being overweight can cause low back pain...

Mirtz, Timothy A.; Greene, Leon

2005-04-11

389

The Comparative Effects of a Modified Self-Questioning Strategy and Story Mapping on the Reading Comprehension of Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternating treatments design was used to examine the effects of story mapping, a modified self-questioning strategy, and no intervention on literal and inferential reading comprehension of elementary students with learning disabilities. Immediate post-tests indicated that students attained significantly greater comprehension in the self-questioning and story mapping conditions over no intervention. Although students attained similarly high levels of overall comprehension

Lorie K. Taylor; Sheila R. Alber; David W. Walker

2002-01-01

390

26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.165-13T Section...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). The following questions...Act of 1981, under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 494). Q-1 What is...

2012-04-01

391

26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.165-13T Section...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). The following questions...Act of 1981, under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 494). Q-1 What is...

2014-04-01

392

26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.165-13T Section...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). The following questions...Act of 1981, under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 494). Q-1 What is...

2013-04-01

393

26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.165-13T Section...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). The following questions...Act of 1981, under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 494). Q-1 What is...

2011-04-01

394

Answering Gauguin’s Questions: Where Are We Coming From, Where Are We Going, and What Are We?  

SciTech Connect

Ellis discusses how the knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, known as the Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions, for example: What is the origin of the matter in the Universe, how does its mass originate, what is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe, and are there additional dimensions of space?

John Ellis

2010-05-26

395

Potter, Wielandt, and Drazin on the matrix equation $AB=\\\\omega BA$, with some new answers to old questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this partly historical and partly research oriented note, we display a page of an unpublished mathematical diary of Helmut Wielandt's for 1951. There he gives a new proof of a theorem due to H. S. A. Potter on the matrix equation $AB = \\\\omega BA$, which is related to the $q$-binomial theorem, and asks some further questions, which we

Olga Holtz; Volker Mehrmann; Hans Schneider

2005-01-01

396

Answering Gauguin?s Questions: Where Are We Coming From, Where Are We Going, and What Are We?  

ScienceCinema

Ellis discusses how the knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, known as the Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions, for example: What is the origin of the matter in the Universe, how does its mass originate, what is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe, and are there additional dimensions of space?

John Ellis

2010-09-01

397

Creating comprehensive, youth centered, culturally appropriate sex education: What do young gay, bisexual and questioning men want?  

PubMed Central

We examined young gay, bisexual and questioning men's (YGBQM) experiences with school-based sex education as they sought to learn about sex and sexual health, and their suggestions for improving same-sex education resources. Thematic analysis of 30 in-depth interviews with YGBQM (ages 18-24) underscored the discrepancies between the existing school-based sex education curricula and YGBQM's perceived sex education needs. Our results show that many youths' sexuality and same-sex sexual behaviors are excluded in sex education lessons; however, YGBQM noted that they sought out other resources (e.g., websites) to answer their questions. We discuss YGBQM's ideas for the creation of a sex and sexual health website that would be tailored for youth like themselves, including topics and features that an ideal website would contain. In addition, we present recommended changes to existing school-based sexual education curricula. PMID:24348222

Pingel, Emily Sweetnam; Thomas, Laura; Harmell, Chelsea; Bauermeister, José

2013-01-01

398

Screening, assessment, and treatment of osteoporosis for the nurse practitioner: Key questions and answers for clinical practice—A Canadian perspective  

PubMed Central

Purpose Using a case-based approach, we review key clinical questions relevant to nurse practitioners (NPs) regarding the screening, assessment, and treatment of patients at risk for osteoporosis and fractures in a Canadian general practice setting. Data sources A case presentation with relevant questions and answers to guide management of a patient. Conclusions Osteoporosis is a common condition in both the aging male and female populations. Screening, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis is lagging behind relative to other chronic disease states. NPs have a unique opportunity to help reduce this care gap by playing an integral role in the identification, risk stratification, and treatment of patients at risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Implications for practice This case highlights the important role an NP can have in screening a patient previously not diagnosed or managed for osteoporosis. Performing a focused history and physical exam of the patient to determine appropriate screening tests and fracture risk will help in guiding treatment decisions. PMID:24911524

Rice, Peggy; Mehan, Upender; Hamilton, Celeste; Kim, Sandra

2014-01-01

399

Fermi Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fermi questions emphasize estimation, numerical reasoning, communicating in mathematics, and questioning skills. Students often believe that word problems have one exact answer and that the answer is derived in a unique manner. Fermi questions encourage multiple approaches, emphasize process rather than the answer, and promote non-traditional problem solving strategies. The a href= /workshops/sum96/interdisc/sheila3.html Fermi Questions Library/a features classic Fermi questions with annotated solutions, a list of Fermi questions for use with students, Fermi questions with a Louisiana twist, and Fermi activities for the K-12 classroom. A Louisiana Lessons Web Activity.

Math Forum

2001-01-01

400

question_1296786512 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

An exciting development in this area that would be encouraged by attempting to answer this important question, is the connection between the observations of cancer risk modulation by epidemiologists and immune mechanisms that appear to be involved, described by immunologists.

401

Evaluation of Questions in General Chemistry Textbooks According to the Form of the Questions and the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR): The Case of Intra-and Intermolecular Chemical Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way of checking to what extent instructional textbooks achieve their aim is to evaluate the questions they contain. In this work, we analyze the questions that are included in the chapters on chemical bonding of ten general chemistry textbooks. We study separately the questions on intra- and on intermolecular bonding, with the former…

Pappa, Eleni T.; Tsaparlis, Georgios

2011-01-01

402

Questioning as Thinking: A Metacognitive Framework to Improve Comprehension of Expository Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a push to develop high levels of active engagement in learning by helping students reflect, refine and extend their ideas through effective questioning strategies, evidence suggests that teacher-dominated interaction patterns permeate classroom instruction. This Initiate, Respond and Evaluate process leads students to maintain a passive…

Wilson, Nance Speizman; Smetana, Linda

2011-01-01

403

Utilization of an Interrogative Model to Evaluate Mother's Use and Children's Comprehension of Question Forms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of utilizing Leach's interrogation model as a means for analyzing question types used by mothers and their children's responses to various interrogative forms. Data analyzed consisted of language samples obtained from three preschool children and their mothers during mother-child interactions plus…

Toler, Sue Anne; Bankson, Nicholas W.

404

Parity of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Women in Brazil: Does the Reported Number of Children Born Depend upon Who Answers National Census Questions?  

PubMed Central

Taking parity as the main analytic variable, the objective of this study is to investigate whether the patterns of response to national census questions in Brazil differ when Indigenous and non-Indigenous women are compared, taking into consideration whether the information was provided by the women directly or by a proxy respondent (another household member or a non-resident). We use data on children ever born to Indigenous and non-Indigenous women from two Brazilian regions, the Northeast and the North. Data on the number of household members, total household rooms, interviewee’s color/race, educational attainment, age, parity, and type of respondent were obtained from the 2010 Brazilian census. The relation between color/race and reported parity, as well as the impact of the type of respondent on this association were assessed with the Zero-inflated Negative Binomial regression, stratified by region (North and Northeast) and urban/rural status. Just over half of census interviewees answered directly the census questions (51.2% in the North and 54.4% in the Northeast). Indigenous women in the North region had the highest percentage of interviews carried out with a non-resident (12.7% total; 15.0% and 3.0% in rural and urban areas, respectively). Regardless of color/race, parity means were considerably higher when the question was answered by the woman directly (93.5%-101.4% and 15.6%-21.7% higher, compared co-resident and non-resident based answers, respectively). Parity underreporting was particularly strong in Indigenous women living in the rural North (16.0% less in comparison to White women). Proxy respondents tend to underestimate the count of children, particularly among Indigenous women from the North. The implementation of certain methodological alternatives in the Brazilian national censuses, such as the selection and training of census takers to work specifically in Indigenous territories, might be a productive means to improve data collection. PMID:25874712

Ventura Santos, Ricardo; Luiz Bastos, João; Gonçalves Cruz, Oswaldo; de Barros Longo, Luciene Aparecida Ferreira; Flowers, Nancy May; de Oliveira Martins Pereira, Nilza

2015-01-01

405

Answering the big questions in neuroscience: DoD's experimental research wing takes on massive, high-risk projects.  

PubMed

When the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) asks research questions, it goes big. This is, after all, the same agency that put together teams of scientists and engineers to find a way to connect the worlds computers and, in doing so, developed the precursor to the Internet. DARPA, the experimental research wing of the U.S. Department of Defense, funds the types of research queries that scientists and engineers dream of tackling. Unlike a traditional granting agency that conservatively metes out its funding and only to projects with a good chance of success, DARPA puts its money on massive, multi-institutional projects that have no guarantees, but have enormous potential. In the 1990s, DARPA began its biological and medical science research to improve the safety, health, and well being of military personnel, according to DARPA program manager and Army Colonel Geoffrey Ling, Ph.D., M.D. More recently, DARPA has entered the realm of neuroscience and neurotechnology. Its focus with these projects is on its prime customer, the U.S. Department of Defense, but Ling acknowledged that technologies developed in its programs "certainly have potential to cascade into civilian uses." PMID:22344946

Mertz, Leslie

2012-01-01

406

Chiropractic care and public health: answering difficult questions about safety, care through the lifespan, and community action.  

PubMed

The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues through the lifespan, and effective participation in community health issues. The questions that are addressed include: Is spinal manipulative therapy for neck and low-back pain a public health problem? What is the role of chiropractic care in prevention or reduction of musculoskeletal injuries in children? What ways can doctors of chiropractic stay updated on evidence-based information about vaccines and immunization throughout the lifespan? Can smoking cessation be a prevention strategy for back pain? Does chiropractic have relevance within the VA Health Care System for chronic pain and comorbid disorders? How can chiropractic use cognitive behavioral therapy to address chronic low back pain as a public health problem? What opportunities exist for doctors of chiropractic to more effectively serve the aging population? What is the role of ethics and the contribution of the chiropractic profession to public health? What public health roles can chiropractic interns perform for underserved communities in a collaborative environment? Can the chiropractic profession contribute to community health? What opportunities do doctors of chiropractic have to be involved in health care reform in the areas of prevention and public health? What role do citizen-doctors of chiropractic have in organizing community action on health-related matters? How can our future chiropractic graduates become socially responsible agents of change? PMID:23069244

Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre; Hestbaek, Lise; Injeyan, H Stephen; Puhl, Aaron; Green, Bart; Napuli, Jason G; Dunn, Andrew S; Dougherty, Paul; Killinger, Lisa Zaynab; Page, Stacey A; Stites, John S; Ramcharan, Michael; Leach, Robert A; Byrd, Lori D; Redwood, Daniel; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah R

2012-09-01

407

Do cortical gamma oscillations promote or suppress perception? An under-asked question with an over-assumed answer  

PubMed Central

Cortical gamma oscillations occur alongside perceptual processes, and in proportion to perceptual salience. They have a number of properties that make them ideal candidates to explain perception, including incorporating synchronized discharges of neural assemblies, and their emergence over a fast timescale consistent with that of perception. These observations have led to widespread assumptions that gamma oscillations' role is to cause or facilitate conscious perception (i.e., a “positive” role). While the majority of the human literature on gamma oscillations is consistent with this interpretation, many or most of these studies could equally be interpreted as showing a suppressive or inhibitory (i.e., “negative”) role. For example, presenting a stimulus and recording a response of increased gamma oscillations would only suggest a role for gamma oscillations in the representation of that stimulus, and would not specify what that role were; if gamma oscillations were inhibitory, then they would become selectively activated in response to the stimulus they acted to inhibit. In this review, we consider two classes of gamma oscillations: “broadband” and “narrowband,” which have very different properties (and likely roles). We first discuss studies on gamma oscillations that are non-discriminatory, with respect to the role of gamma oscillations, followed by studies that specifically support specifically a positive or negative role. These include work on perception in healthy individuals, and in the pathological contexts of phantom perception and epilepsy. Reference is based as much as possible on magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) studies, but we also consider evidence from invasive recordings in humans and other animals. Attempts are made to reconcile findings within a common framework. We conclude with a summary of the pertinent questions that remain unanswered, and suggest how future studies might address these. PMID:24065913

Sedley, William; Cunningham, Mark O.

2013-01-01

408

The Contextual Adaptation of English Teachers' Questioning Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to guarantee an interactive classroom atmosphere, English teachers pay much attention to the questioning strategies when they use question-answer teaching method. This paper makes a comprehensive analysis on English teachers' questioning strategies from the perspective of adaptation theory. It shows that the utilization of teachers'…

Xi, Hong-mei; Li, Wang-zi; Lei, Ping

2010-01-01

409

Drilling the Mediterranean Messinian Evaporites to Answer Key Questions Related to Massive Microbial Dolomite Formation under Hypersaline Alkaline Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep-sea drilling in the Mediterranean during DSSP Leg 13 in 1970 revealed the basin-wide occurrence of a Messinian evaporite formation. This spectacular discovery was pursued further during a subsequent drilling program, DSDP Leg 42A, in 1975, which was designed, in part, to obtain continuous cores to study the evolution of the salinity crisis itself (Hsü, Montadert, et al., 1978). Specifically, drilling at a water depth of 4,088 m in the Ionian Sea, DSDP Site 374: Messina Abyssal Plain, penetrated about 80 m into the uppermost part of the Messinian upper evaporite formation. The sedimentary sequence comprises dolomitic mudstone overlying dolomitic mudstone/gypsum cycles, which in turn overlie anhydrite and halite. The non-fossiliferous dolomitic mudstone is generally rich in organic carbon, with TOC values ranging from 0.9% to 5.3%, of possible marine origin with a good source rock potential. Commonly laminated dolomitic mudstones contain preserved filamentous cyanobacterial remains suggesting that conditions were conducive for microbial mat growth. The Ca-dolomite, composed of fine-grained anhedral crystals in the size range of 2-4 ?m, is probably a primary precipitate. The unusual interstitial brines of the dolomitic mudstone units have very high alkalinities with a low pH of 5 to 6. The Mg concentration (2250 mmoles/l) is extremely elevated, whereas the Ca concentration is nearly zero. Finally, the drilled evaporite sedimentary sequence was interpreted as being deposited in an alkaline lake/sea ("Lago Mare"), which covered the area during the latest Messinian. Projecting forward 40 years since the DSDP Leg 42A drilling campaign, research into the factors controlling dolomite precipitation under Earth surface conditions has led to the development of new models involving the metabolism of microorganisms and associated biofilms to overcome the kinetic inhibitions associated with primary dolomite precipitation. Together with laboratory experiments, microbial dolomite precipitation has been studied extensively in rare modern environments, such as the arid coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi, UAE and the hypersaline coastal lagoons in Brazil. However, extrapolation of these studies of relatively limited aerial extent to interpret larger-scale, ancient dolomite formation of putative evaporitic origin remains elusive. Such ancient micritic dolomite formations with associated micro-porosity represent extremely valuable hydrocarbon reservoirs. Therefore, a comprehensive investigation of a relatively recent micritic dolomite deposit that has not experienced extensive burial depths and diagenesis is essential to extend our understanding of these important reservoir systems. Based on the limited data obtained during drilling at DSDP Site 374: Messina Abyssal Plain, the dolomitic mudstones of the uppermost Messinian evaporite complex represent an ideal candidate for such an extensive study in a "natural laboratory". Thus, to increase our understanding of the biogeochemical processes associated with ancient massive dolomite formation, we propose to document the scientific objectives to support a major new drilling campaign to study the sub-seafloor Messinian evaporite complex in the deep Mediterranean basins, using greatly enhanced drilling technology that is currently available within the new International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP). Hsü, K., Montadert, L. et al., 1978. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Volume 42, Part 1: Washington (U.S. Government Printing Office).

McKenzie, Judith A.; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

2014-05-01

410

Ebola virus: questions, answers, and more questions.  

PubMed

Ebola virus causes a hemorrhagic fever with a high case-fatality rate. Treatment remains supportive although a variety of specific treatments are still in the early stages of investigation. This report reviews the clinical virology of Ebola virus, the reported proposed treatments, and the current outbreak. PMID:25452350

Brizendine, Kyle D

2014-12-01

411

FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question "What is life?" is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schrödinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter.

Reutov, Valentin P.; Schechter, A. N.

2010-07-01

412

Using interactive voice response technology and timeline follow-back methodology in studying binge eating and drinking behavior: different answers to different forms of the same question?  

PubMed

As part of a study of the relationship of binge eating, alcohol use, mood, and stressors, we compared the results of two forms of reporting on binge eating and drinking behavior. Forty-three first-year college women participated in an interactive voice response (IVR) study for 12 weeks. Participants answered computer-administered questions daily via IVR technology on number of eating binges and number of alcoholic drinks consumed. After 12 weeks, participants completed a Timeline Follow-back (TLFB) interview retrospectively for number of binges and drinks in the past 12 weeks. Results of this distally retrospective methodology (commonly used in drinking research and applied here also to binge eating) were compared to the results of daily IVR reporting. There was convergence across measures for drinking behavior, but divergence between IVR and TLFB for binge eating reports. TLFB reports underrepresented actual binge eating frequency, which calls into question the validity of applying this methodology to the assessment of binge eating. PMID:10708315

Bardone, A M; Krahn, D D; Goodman, B M; Searles, J S

2000-01-01

413

Field-Based Teacher Research: How Teachers and Scientists Working Together Answers Questions about Turtle Nesting Ecology while Enhancing Teachers' Inquiry Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing rigorous academic supplement to a professional development program for teachers, QUEST is a fusion of Drexel University's environmental science research department with Princeton University's Program in Teacher Preparation. Completed in the summers of 2012 (in partnership with Earthwatch) and 2013 in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, QUEST's terrapin field research program enhances K-12 teachers' ecological knowledge, develops inquiry-based thinking in the classroom, and builds citizen science engagement. With a focus on quality question development and data analysis to answer questions, teachers are coached in developing, implementing, and presenting independent research projects on diamondback terrapin nesting ecology. As a result, teachers participating in QUEST's week long program bring a realistic example of science in action into their classrooms, helping to develop their own students' critical thinking skills. For teachers, this program provides training towards educating students on how to do real and imaginative science - subsequently sending students to university better prepared to engage in their own independent research. An essential component of the collaboration through QUEST, in addition to the teacher's experience during and after the summer institute, is the research data collected which supplements that of the Principal Investigator. In 2012, by documenting terrapin nest site predators, teachers gained valuable scientific experience, while Drexel acquired important ecological data which would have not been able to be collected otherwise. In 2013, teachers helped answer important questions about terrapin nesting success post Superstorm Sandy. In fact, the 2013 QUEST teachers are the first to visualize the frighteningly increased erosion of a primary terrapin nesting site due to Sandy; showing how most terrapin nests now lie in the bay, instead of safe on shore. Teachers comment that interacting with scientists in the field, and contributing to the research was 'an invaluable experience.' Conceptual models of QUEST's philosophy will be distributed at our presentation to encourage audience members interested in starting their own field-based educator professional development project. Through our presentation of this unique program, we will share how we have successfully incorporated real scientific research into classrooms through teachers' experiences, and discuss the lessons learned regarding replication and sustainability of educator-scientist collaborations.

Winters, J. M.; Jungblut, D.; Catena, A. N.; Rubenstein, D. I.

2013-12-01

414

Question & Answer QQ&&AA  

E-print Network

gravitation provided a further abstraction and simplification, with Kepler's laws following as simple. Then came Johannes Kepler, who came up with simple theories (ellipti- cal heliocentric orbits; equal areas in equal times) that empirically accoun- ted for Brahe's data. Fifty years later, Newton's law of universal

415

HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... least some protection from the vaccine. Q: Should boys get HPV vaccine too? A: One HPV vaccine—the quadrivalent vaccine called Gardasil—is also for boys. This vaccine helps prevent boys from getting infected ...

416

Get Your Medicare Questions Answered  

MedlinePLUS

... Make changes to your personal information (such as your name or address) • Report a death • Replace your Medicare ... Enroll in Medicare • Replace your Medicare card • Change your name or address • Report a death Want to report ...

417

Folic Acid Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... smaller round pills. A single serving of many breakfast cereals also has the amount of folic acid ... vitamin when you: Brush your teeth, OR Eat breakfast, OR Finish your shower, OR Brush your hair, ...

418

Questions and Answers about TB  

MedlinePLUS

... the African-American Community Summit Background Slideset Slideset Text version Websites Children Correctional Facilities Table of Contents ... Tuberculosis Laboratory Aggregate Reports Slide Sets Core Curriculum Text- only version Self-Study Modules Module 1 (text ...

419

Question & Answer QQ&&AA  

E-print Network

right, let us give you two examples. First, the yeast genes BNI1 and BNR1, which encode so-called formin eeppiissttaassiiss?? William Bateson coined this term about 100 years ago for a genetic interaction in which one it suggests that two genes are working within the same pathway and some- times in what order they act

Roth, Frederick

420

Questions and Answers about Monkeypox  

MedlinePLUS

... rodents. These rodents included rope squirrels ( Funiscuirus sp .), tree squirrels ( Heliosciurus sp .), Gambian giant rats ( Cricetomys sp .), ... released into the environment within the United States: tree squirrels ( Heliosciurus sp .), rope squirrels ( Funisciurus sp .), dormice ( ...

421

Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... search for generic equivalents by using the " Electronic Orange Book ." Search by proprietary "brand" name," then search ... products are approved and they appear in the "Orange Book," you should also consult the most recent ...

422

Donating Blood Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... or life. In the mid-1980s, U.S. blood banks voluntarily began anti-HBc screening of blood and ... note that the FDA does not prevent blood banks from developing procedures more stringent than FDA's regulations ...

423

Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... of appetite, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark urine, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). How long does it take to show signs of illness after coming in close contact with a person who has hepatitis A virus infection? It can take 15–50 days ...

424

Bone Cancer: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Are there different types of primary bone cancer? Yes. Cancer can begin in any type of bone tissue. Bones are made up ... follow-up treatment necessary? What does it involve? Yes. Bone cancer ... and should report any unusual symptoms right away. Follow-up varies for ...

425

Common Prostate Cancer Questions Answered  

MedlinePLUS

... which is also called " watchful waiting ," instead of aggressive initial treatment. This involves actively watching and monitoring ... If the tumor appears to be growing, more aggressive therapy may be started. In some studies of ...

426

Mifeprex (Mifepristone) Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... pain. These symptoms, even without a fever, may indicate a hidden infection. Strong consideration should be given to obtaining a complete blood count in these patients. Significant leukocytosis with a marked left shift and hemoconcentration may be indicative of sepsis. 21. ...

427

Answers to Questions: Nuclear Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electricity is an increasingly important part of our everyday lives. Its versatility allows one to heat, cool, and light homes; cook meals; watch television; listen to music; power computers; make medical diagnosis and treatment; explore the vastness of space; and study the tiniest molecules. Nuclear energy, second to coal, surpasses natural gas,…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

428

Coeliac disease — all questions answered?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gliadin specific T cells in the small intestines of coeliac disease patients use the disease associated human leukocyte antigen-DQ2 molecules in their antigen recognition. In an exciting interplay with tissue transglutaminase, the immune system recognises modified gliadin peptides and mounts a phlogistic response. Moreover, the role for autoimmune phenomena and the mechanism of breaking of immunological tolerance remain elusive.

K. E. A Lundin

2002-01-01

429

Egg Ambassadors: Answering Consumer Questions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food can be a touchy subject. It seems people either have very strong thoughts and opinions on food or they could care less as long as food is available to feed them and their families. With the current economic environment, many individuals are examining food choices more closely to ensure the gr...

430

question_1296796037 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

If this important question is answered we would be able to develop a highly tailored therapeutic approach for cancers. Actually, inflammatory type of the anti-tumor immune response such as IFN-g can also induce initial tumor inhibition but eventual tumor escape and progression.

431

Short Readings from the American Mineralogist: Sneaky Tools for Teaching Scientific Reading Comprehension and Mineralogical Concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to enhance student comprehension of mineralogy and its applications by having students read scientific articles from the journal American Mineralogist, answer questions, and discuss the article in class.

Kurt Hollocher

432

Four Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

2013-01-01

433

Mystery #5 Answer  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... the questions are provided. 1.   There are no endemic species of cactus on any of the islands. Answer: FALSE. Endemic ... human settlements on this island. 6.   Several plant species are endangered due to decimation by goats and competition with ...

2013-04-22

434

26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.267(a)-2T ...answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). (a) Introduction ...by section 174 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. No. 98-369. (2)...

2011-04-01

435

26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.267(a)-2T ...answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). (a) Introduction ...by section 174 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. No. 98-369. (2)...

2014-04-01

436

26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.267(a)-2T ...answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). (a) Introduction ...by section 174 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. No. 98-369. (2)...

2013-04-01

437

26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.267(a)-2T ...answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). (a) Introduction ...by section 174 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. No. 98-369. (2)...

2012-04-01

438

Overprompting Science Students Using Adjunct Study Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an investigation of the hypothesis that students presented with strong hints or prompts to answers of comprehension questions adjunct to a flow diagram would understand less than students presented with no prompts. Also described is the study of the hypotheses that a diagram-only treatment group would outperform the prompted group and…

Holliday, William G.

439

"Not" May Not Be Too Difficult: The Effects of Negation on Older Adults' Sentence Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research investigated the effects of negation on young and older adults' comprehension of sentences. Participants read sentences, named probe words, answered comprehension questions, and completed the operation-span test. Negation adversely affected comprehension in both age groups such that probe word naming times were marginally…

Margolin, Sara J.; Abrams, Lise

2009-01-01

440

Review or True? Using Higher-Level Thinking Questions in Social Studies Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asking surface-level questions is a common practice among educators. Delva Daines's (1986) pilot study indicated that 93 percent of the questions asked during lessons were at the literal level of comprehension and that it was very common for the teachers to restate, rephrase, or answer their own questions before the student had an opportunity to…

Kracl, Carrie L.

2012-01-01

441

Teaching Comprehension. (Application of the Model by Dr. M. Hunt.)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through instruction in synaptic linking--the process of relating ideas and information to produce expanded interpretations and new constructs--teachers provide students with a model for answering higher level questions about their reading material. Presenting a carefully planned sequence of reading comprehension questions that require skills…

Erickson, Lynn

442

How can comprehension adjunct questions focus students' attention and enhance concept learning of a computer-animated science lesson?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two focusing hypotheses were evaluated. First, do adjunct questions, focusing on science concepts and inserted after computer-animated sequences, selectively alter students' attentional or practice processing and thus produce differential learning effects? Theoretically, such questions selectively focus students' attention and enhance concept learning of focused concepts. Second, do these questions still provide enough metacognitive scaffolding to produce differential learning effects when only the first 8 out of 12 sequences are followed by focusing questions? Eighth-grade students (n = 160) were randomly assigned to a control group (lesson alone) or one of four treatment groups (lesson plus 12 questions focusing either on heat or on temperature, or lesson plus the same first 8 questions on heat or temperature followed by 4 placebo questions). Two significant two-way interactions with widely varying F ratios supported the differential focusing hypotheses (12 questions - more robust interaction, 8 - less robust interaction).

Holliday, William G.; McGuire, Barry

443

About Provocative Questions — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The provocative questions initiative has assembled a list of 24 important questions from the research community to stimulate the NCI’s research communities to use laboratory, clinical and populations sciences in especially effective and imaginative ways to answer the questions. The questions are not simple restatements of long-term goals of the National Cancer Program, which are to improve the prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment of all forms of cancer.

444

Listening comprehension across the adult lifespan  

PubMed Central

Short Summary The current study provides the first systematic assessment of listening comprehension across the adult lifespan. A total of 433 participants ranging in age from 20-90 listened to spoken passages and answered comprehension questions following each passage. In addition, measures of auditory sensitivity were obtained from all participants to determine if hearing loss and listening comprehension changed similarly across the adult lifespan. As expected, auditory sensitivity declined from age 20 to age 90. In contrast, listening comprehension remained relatively unchanged until approximately age 65-70, with declines evident only for the oldest participants. PMID:21716112

Sommers, Mitchell S.; Hale, Sandra; Myerson, Joel; Rose, Nathan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent

2011-01-01

445

Essential Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The secret to teaching may be as simple as asking students good questions--and then giving them the opportunity to find the answers. The author shares how he uses essential questions that set the class off on an inquiry. Rather than consuming information that he distributes and then repeating it on a test, students carry out their own…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

2012-01-01

446

Finding Evidence-Based Answers to Clinical Questions Quickly and Effectively See also the Biomedical Libraries' Evidence-Based Medicine Research Guide  

E-print Network

to a narrower, focused clinical question In a 70 year old woman with primary insomnia and a previous adverse-based information about alternative therapies Is melatonin safe and effective for treating insomnia? Does music

447

Explicit Self-Regulated Strategy Development Versus Reciprocal Questioning: Effects on Expository Reading Comprehension Among Struggling Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of 2 rigorous strategic approaches to reading comprehension for 32 5th-grade students who struggle with reading were investigated. The first approach, TWA (Think before reading, think While reading, think After reading), was taught following explicit self-regulated strategy development instructional procedures (K. R. Harris & S.…

Mason, Linda H.

2004-01-01

448

The Relationship of Text Structure Manipulations, Discourse Type, and Language Ability on Question Answers and Free Recall Responses in Learning Disabled Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prompted by the growing interest in the role of reader-related and text-related variables in reading comprehension, a study compared 30 sixth grade students in regular classrooms to 30 language impaired students. The purpose was to assess the relationship of (1) text structure manipulations for simple and complex sentence structure, (2) discourse…

Penning, Marge

449

Unexpected Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to statistical situations where the probabilities or outcomes might not be what is first expected. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities motivated by the idea of unexpected answers. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with an introduction to probability and unexpected answers in probability.

Shodor

2012-03-30

450

Five Hundred Questions Kids Ask about Sex and Some of the Answers: Sex Education for Parents, Teachers and Young People Themselves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is based on the premise that sexual expression is a way for people to show affection and love for one another. The book is divided into six chapters that cover topics related to sexuality and growing up. The sections in each chapter contain questions that preteens and teenagers typically ask and provide clear, unambiguous, and…

Younger, Frances

451

26 CFR 54.4977-1T - Questions and answers relating to the election concerning lines of business in existence on...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). 54.4977-1T Section...of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). The following questions...531(e)(1) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 886), to treat all...

2011-04-01

452

26 CFR 54.4977-1T - Questions and answers relating to the election concerning lines of business in existence on...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). 54.4977-1T Section...of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). The following questions...531(e)(1) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 886), to treat all...

2014-04-01

453

26 CFR 54.4977-1T - Questions and answers relating to the election concerning lines of business in existence on...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). 54.4977-1T Section...of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). The following questions...531(e)(1) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 886), to treat all...

2010-04-01

454

26 CFR 54.4977-1T - Questions and answers relating to the election concerning lines of business in existence on...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). 54.4977-1T Section...of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). The following questions...531(e)(1) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 886), to treat all...

2013-04-01

455

26 CFR 54.4977-1T - Questions and answers relating to the election concerning lines of business in existence on...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). 54.4977-1T Section...of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). The following questions...531(e)(1) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 886), to treat all...

2012-04-01

456

Do Workshops in Evidence-Based Practice Equip Participants to Identify and Answer Questions Requiring Consideration of Clinical Research? A Diagnostic Skill Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires practitioners to identify and formulate questions in response to patient encounters, and to seek, select, and appraise applicable clinical research. A standardized workshop format serves as the model for training of medical educators in these skills. We developed an evaluation exercise to assess the ability…

Wyer, Peter C,; Naqvi, Zoon; Dayan, Peter S.; Celentano, James J.; Eskin, Barnet; Graham, Mark J.

2009-01-01

457

Can Cloze Tests Really Improve Second Language Learners' Reading Comprehension Skills?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cloze testing is a widely-used procedure to test learners' reading comprehension in learning a language, but little is known if it can really improve learners' reading comprehension skills. This paper attempts to seek answers to this question by comparing the cloze test scores of two groups of students (Experimental versus Control) undertaking…

Ren, Guanxin

2011-01-01

458

The Answer Machine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

Feldman, Susan

2000-01-01

459

Moving Beyond the Answer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from AIMS "Sandbox" blog presents Beverly Ford's view that asking good questions of students as the lesson is progressing promotes connections and deeper understanding. Also included is a 17-minute video that features Phil Daro talking about the tendency of American teachers to teach “answer-getting techniques” instead of teaching to focus on the mathematics the way Japanese teachers do.

Beverly Ford

2013-02-01

460

The Answer Doesn’t Seem to Change, so Maybe We Should Change the Question: A Commentary on Lachance-Grzela and Bouchard (2010)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article comments on Lachance-Grzela and Bouchard (2010), which reviews research published 2000–2009 on the division of\\u000a household labor. I argue that while Lachance-Grzela and Bouchard summarize the general state of knowledge on this topic, their\\u000a review highlights what is missing from research on the division of household labor. To move beyond questioning why women perform\\u000a the majority of housework

Shannon N. Davis

2010-01-01

461

Comprehension of University Texts: Effects of Domain-Knowledge and Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our aim is to evaluate reading comprehension strategies based on empirical evidence and applicable to undergraduate students. Our hypotheses were that domain-knowledge or summary would have more influence on local, global, and inferential questions than rereading-question-answering instruction. Results of Experiment 1 were mixed in terms of…

Pascual, Gema; Goikoetxea, Edurne

2014-01-01

462

Translating evidence into healthcare policy and practice: Single versus multi-faceted implementation strategies – is there a simple answer to a complex question?  

PubMed Central

How best to achieve the translation of research evidence into routine policy and practice remains an enduring challenge in health systems across the world. The complexities associated with changing behaviour at an individual, team, organizational and system level have led many academics to conclude that tailored, multi-faceted strategies provide the most effective approach to knowledge translation. However, a recent overview of systematic reviews questions this position and sheds doubt as to whether multi-faceted strategies are any better than single ones. In this paper, we argue that this either-or distinction is too simplistic and fails to recognize the complexity that is inherent in knowledge translation. Drawing on organizational theory relating to boundaries and boundary management, we illustrate the need for translational strategies that take account of the type of knowledge to be implemented, the context of implementation and the people and processes involved. PMID:25774368

Harvey, Gill; Kitson, Alison

2015-01-01

463

Can Science Education Research Give an Answer to Questions posed by History of Science and Technology? The Case of Steam Engine's Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the principle of virtual velocities, if on a simple machine in equilibrium we suppose a slight virtual movement, then the ratio of weights or forces equals the inverse ratio of velocities or displacements. The product of the weight raised or force applied multiplied by the height or displacement plays a central role there. British engineers used the same product in the eighteenth century in order to measure steam engines’ effectiveness. The question is whether this measure was obviously empirical or had its origin in theory of mechanics and particularly in the principle of virtual velocities. According to science education research, this measure is not likely to have arisen intuitively and most probably could not have been formulated without any acquaintance with theory of mechanics.

Kanderakis, Nikos E.

2009-09-01

464

Translating evidence into healthcare policy and practice: Single versus multi-faceted implementation strategies - is there a simple answer to a complex question?  

PubMed

How best to achieve the translation of research evidence into routine policy and practice remains an enduring challenge in health systems across the world. The complexities associated with changing behaviour at an individual, team, organizational and system level have led many academics to conclude that tailored, multi-faceted strategies provide the most effective approach to knowledge translation. However, a recent overview of systematic reviews questions this position and sheds doubt as to whether multi-faceted strategies are any better than single ones. In this paper, we argue that this either-or distinction is too simplistic and fails to recognize the complexity that is inherent in knowledge translation. Drawing on organizational theory relating to boundaries and boundary management, we illustrate the need for translational strategies that take account of the type of knowledge to be implemented, the context of implementation and the people and processes involved. PMID:25774368

Harvey, Gill; Kitson, Alison

2015-03-01

465

It's about the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The best coaching partnerships are built on conversation and listening, and they are not built on a coach giving answers to a mentee. Ronald Bearward explains how coaches can use questions to help mentees find answers for themselves. Effective questions lead to greater reflection and solutions that teachers can use now and in the future.

Bearwald, Ronald R.

2011-01-01

466

Towards an automatic validation of answers in Question Answering  

E-print Network

was Yasser Arafat? Hypothesis: Yasser Arafat was Palestine Liber- ation Organization Chairman Snippet: President Clinton appealed personally to Palestine Liberation Organization Chairman Yasser Arafat and angry Palestinians on Wednes- day to resume peace talks with Israel In AVE, the corpus of pairs hypothesis

Ligozat, Anne-Laure

467

Assessing Comprehension During Reading with the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT)  

PubMed Central

Comprehension emerges as the results of inference and strategic processes that support the construction of a coherent mental model for a text. However, the vast majority of comprehension skills tests adopt a format that does not afford an assessment of these processes as they operate during reading. This study assessed the viability of the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT), which is an automated computer-based reading assessment designed to measure readers’ comprehension and spontaneous use of reading strategies while reading texts. In the tool, readers comprehend passages one sentence at a time, and are asked either an indirect (“What are your thoughts regarding your understanding of the sentence in the context of the passage?”) or direct (e.g., why X?) question after reading each pre-selected target sentence. The answers to the indirect questions are analyzed on the extent that they contain words associated with comprehension processes. The answers to direct questions are coded for the number of content words in common with an ideal answer, which is intended to be an assessment of emerging comprehension. In the study, the RSAT approach was shown to predict measures of comprehension comparable to standardized tests. The RSAT variables were also shown to correlate with human ratings. The results of this study constitute a “proof of concept” and demonstrate that it is possible to develop a comprehension skills assessment tool that assesses both comprehension and comprehension strategies. PMID:23901332

Magliano, Joseph P.; Millis, Keith K.; Levinstein, Irwin

2011-01-01

468

Welcome to Provocative Questions: The Unanswered Questions in Cancer Research — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The provocative questions initiative has assembled a list of 20 important questions from the research community to stimulate the NCI's research communities to use laboratory, clinical and population sciences in especially effective and imaginative ways to answer the questions.

469

Unpark Those Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

Ness, Molly

2013-01-01

470

Insect Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from Texas A&M University's Department of Entomology is a consolidated body of information on insects. Clicking on "Insect Help Publications" provides links to a number of extension service documents, with topics such as Home Gardens, Urban and Household, Medical and Veterinary, and Spanish. Other Insect Answers include information on managing pest problems, insect images and sounds, identification, and honey bees. On the right hand side of the page more information about the Entomology Department can be found as well as their bi-monthly podcast: Bug Bytes.

471

Questions and Answers on Treaty Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Treaties have been upheld in the U.S. Constitution as "the supreme law of the land". U.S. courts have repeatedly recognized Indian nations as sovereign and, consequently, treaties between Indian nations and the United States have the dignity as well as the full force and effect of any other international agreement. While many treaties over the…

National Coalition to Support Indian Treaties, Seattle, WA.

472

Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Outbreaks: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Brotes - Preguntas y respuestas Q: How common is whooping cough? A: Even with the success of whooping cough ... in many states. Q: Why is there more whooping cough in some years than others? A: Reported cases ...

473

Questions and Answers about Ebola and Pets  

MedlinePLUS

... for Ebola is not available for pets. Can pigs become sick with Ebola? Pigs are the only ... in pigs experimentally infected with Reston virus. Can pigs spread Ebola? Pigs are not known to become ...

474

Questions and Answers about Sex (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... your kids feel bad or uncomfortable. When should parents sit kids down for that all-important "birds ... by your own behaviors. To what extent can parents depend on schools to teach sex education? Parents ...

475

April 22, 2014 Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

, seeding, cultivating, minor drainage, harvesting for the production of food, fiber, and forest products by the exemption. Nothing in the IR changes the roles or responsibilities of any of the three agencies, each of which have a role to play in ensuring that the IR is implemented effectively in a fair and consistent

US Army Corps of Engineers

476

Layering as Optimization Decomposition: Questions and Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network protocols in layered architectures have historically been obtained on an ad-hoc basis, and much of the recent cross-layer designs are conducted through piecemeal approaches. Network protocols may instead be holistically analyzed and systematically designed as distributed solutions to some global optimization problems in the form of generalized Network Utility Maximization (NUM), providing insight on what they optimize and on

Mung Chiang; Steven H. Low; A. Robert Calderbank; John C. Doyle

2006-01-01

477

Answering The "How" Question In Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new county extension agent, having community development responsibilities, will be concerned with identifying projects, organizing for action, identifying key people for the projects, and identifying the resources needed to undertake new initiatives. Three methods of community action planning are discussed step by step. The social action process…

Darling, David L.; Sisk, Ensley J.

478

Answers to the Question: "Who Developed Race?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having served as a college and university instructor at several institutions, the author has taught numerous history courses that have dealt with race relations in the United States. A class that he currently teaches, titled "Race in America," focuses specifically upon this topic. It is designed for non-history majors who are in their early years…

Eden, Jason

2011-01-01

479

Fifteen Questions and Answers about Elder Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... an elder’s pet • Calling elder names • Previous criminal history • Mental illness 3. What are the warning signs of elder ... abuser (emotionally or financially dependent on the victim; history of mental illness; hostility; alcohol or drug abuse). 6. What is ...

480

Investigating Green: Creating Surveys to Answer Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being green means different things to different people. Some suggest that being green means saving energy, not wasting paper towels, going solar, harnessing wind, using less fertilizer, or buying products that are organically grown. Given that being green can mean a lot of things, what does "being green" or "going green" mean to both you and your…

Farenga, Stephen; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

2010-01-01

481

National Lung Screening Trial: Questions and Answers  

Cancer.gov

The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) is a lung cancer screening trial sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and conducted by the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) and the Lung Screening Study group.

482

Questions and Answers: Information for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognizes that school administrators, teachers, staff, and parents are concerned about the flu, particularly its effects on children. Schools are instrumental in keeping their communities healthy by taking actions such as posting information about hand hygiene in restrooms, providing flu…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

2007-01-01

483

Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: Questions & Answers  

Cancer.gov

The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study was designed to evaluate the risk of death associated with diesel exhaust exposure, particularly as it may relate to lung cancer. The researchers observed increased risk for lung cancer death with increasing levels of exposure to diesel exhaust.

484

Questions and Answers about Carotid Endarterectomy  

MedlinePLUS

... flow in an artery in the head or neck leading to the brain. Some ischemic strokes are due to stenosis, or ... the carotid arteries, two large arteries in the neck that carry blood to the brain, is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. ...

485

Cryosurgery in Cancer Treatment: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... the use of extreme cold produced by liquid nitrogen (or argon gas) to destroy abnormal tissue . Cryosurgery ... those on the skin. For external tumors, liquid nitrogen is applied directly to the cancer cells with ...

486

Finding Answers to Questions about School Finance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the California School Finance (CASF) Web site, which explains the complexities of school funding in California. The Web site, www.californiaschoolfinance.org, was developed by EdSource, an organization that has been trusted in California for 30 years to explain school finance in simple, jargon-free language. The CASF site…

Leadership, 2007

2007-01-01

487

Answering Your Child's Tough Questions About Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... Grant Awards SAMHSA's mission is to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America's communities. 1 Choke ... Presentations SAMHSA's budget supports programs that reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America's communities. For more ...

488

Addendum to Questions, Answers and Clarifications  

E-print Network

-606 Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program California Energy Commission Q.1 Eligible accessible station dispensing only alternative fuels (CNG, biodiesel, etc.) would be considered as the alternative fuels are sold at a publicly accessible station dispensing alternative fuels a project would

489

Fractional Diffusion: Answers and Questions Probability Seminar  

E-print Network

equations have stochastic solutions involving (operator) stable laws. Time fractional diffusion equations, they are popular models for the evolution of pollution plumes in ground water and in rivers. This talk will review & Stats, University of Otago, New Zealand David Benson, Geological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines

Meerschaert, Mark M.

490

Answering Consumer Questions: Opportunity for Impact  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food can be a touchy subject. It seems people either have very strong thoughts and opinions on food or they could care less as long as food is available to feed them and their families. With the current economic environment, many individuals are examining food choices more closely to ensure the g...

491

National Lung Screening Trial: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... screening trial, which for reasons of cost and efficiency, included heavy smokers age 55-74 at study ... from lung cancer. How do lung screening tests work? A chest X-ray produces a picture of ...

492

Questions and Answers on Living Donation  

MedlinePLUS

... Sign up for our FREE magazine, Kidney Living Organ Donation & Transplantation Be an Organ Donor Living Donation Donor Families ... Gift Primary menu Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate Search Search Header Menu ...

493

Lipstick and Lead: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... as intended. FDA scientists developed an analytical method, published in 2009, for measuring the amount of lead ... practice conditions. An article on FDA's testing method , published in the July/August 2009 issue of the ...

494

Questions and Answers on Unapproved Chelation Products  

MedlinePLUS

... Administration (FDA) advises consumers to be wary of so-called “chelation” products that are marketed over-the-counter ( ... warning? The products affected by this warning include so-called “chelation” products that are marketed for home use ...

495

Questions and Answers John Rominger-Watts  

E-print Network

London: - Evenly-distributed politicians or - Higgs field permeates all space - Politicians gather around Boson As explained by Prof. David Miller, University College London: - Evenly-distributed politicians every energy range accessible... ATLAS can look in the unexplored regions! Directly: when combined

Budker, Dmitry

496

Answers to energy questions lie in politics  

SciTech Connect

Energy decisions are political ones, forcing industrial energy users to participate in the political process. Instead of making energy decisions on the basis of logic, politicians complicate issues with a foreign policy vendetta against OPEC and pricing incentives that deter both conservation and production. Although the US has developed a set of energy priorities, the political process of managing and paying for these goals causes uncertainty. (DCK)

Greenert, C.

1982-06-21

497

Answers to energy questions lie in politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy decisions are political ones, forcing industrial energy users to participate in the political process. Instead of making energy decisions on the basis of logic, politicians complicate issues with a foreign policy vendetta against OPEC and pricing incentives that deter both conservation and production. Although the US has developed a set of energy priorities, the political process of managing and

Greenert

1982-01-01

498

Frequently Asked Questions and Answers on Smallpox  

MedlinePLUS

... Health topics Data Media centre Publications Countries Programmes Governance About WHO Language ???? ?? English Français ??????? Español RSS Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store Global Alert and Response (GAR) Menu GAR Home Alert & ...

499

Federal Cost Sharing Solicitation Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

you direct me to a website or list that identifies applicants that received awards and are thus and this was granted in April 2013. Could you clarify for us if this statement also includes projects that are already currently funded at the federal level? What is the significance of the July 1, 2013 through November 1, 2013

500

Challenges in the NICU: questions or answers?  

PubMed

In the changing paradigm of medicine, the cost of health care has become the bellwether for effective health care delivery. Managed care and case management are proposed as the only methodology suitable for this new model. The concept of early discharge is advanced as appropriate care. A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) associated with an academic health center is seen as more costly than an NICU in a nonacademic setting. Little data exists, however, that support or refute the above assertions. Measurement of relevant processes to determine the outcome of NICU care is essential to insure the delivery of quality health care within the cost-containment model. PMID:10023371

Speer, M E

1998-01-01