These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Towards Answering Procedural Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we first present an analysis of pro- cedural question structure. Next, we investigate the structure of procedural texts and of the relevant rhetorical relations of interest for answering ques- tions. We then show how, from a linguistic point of view, questions and procedural text fragments can match in order to produce responses.

Farida Aouladomar

2

Sometimes Adults Miss the Main Ideas and Do Not Realize It: Confidence in Responses to Short-Answer and Multiple-Choice Comprehension Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relation between question characteristics and awareness of comprehension. Finds that readers have great confidence that their answers to thematic questions in both short-answer and multiple-choice formats are correct, even when they were wrong. Suggests that readers of challenging, inconsiderate texts are unaware of gross…

Pressley, Michael; And Others

1990-01-01

3

Knowledge based question answering  

SciTech Connect

The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

1983-01-01

4

Exploiting redundancy in question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to automatically answer brief factual questions of the form ``When was the Battle of Hastings?'' or ``Who wrote The Wind in the Willows?''. Since the answer to nearly any such question can now be found somewhere on the Web, the problem reduces to finding potential answers in large volumes of data and validating their accuracy. We apply

Charles L. A. Clarke; Gordon V. Cormack; Thomas R. Lynam

2001-01-01

5

Hydrosphere: Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Detailed Example of Using Socratic Questioning in Class Content Area: Hydrosphere Back to Example This sample of plausible questions and responses is designed to help guide the instructor through an entire Socratic ...

6

Question All Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Council for Advancement and Support of Education's Teacher of the Year John Roth teaches students that conclusions shouldn't come easily, encouraging them to question everything they hear, read, or assume, including what he says. (MSE)

Barre, Nancy

1989-01-01

7

Rubella: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... of special precautions. Does the MMR vaccine cause autism? There is no scientific evidence that measles, MMR, ... other vaccine causes or increases the risk of autism. The question about a possible link between MMR ...

8

Learning How to Answer Questions Using Trivia Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine a sentence comprehension task: given a question, and an extended sentence known to answer that question, the goal is to extract the short answer to the question. As an initial solution, a novel robust statistical model is presented which combines the semantics of the expected answer with the expected context within which the answer will

Gideon S. Mann

2002-01-01

9

From Question Answering to Visual Exploration  

SciTech Connect

Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

2006-08-11

10

Answering Your Questions about AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

Kalichman, Seth C.

11

Photo-based question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo-based question answering is a useful way of finding information about physical objects. Current question an- swering (QA) systems are text-based and can be difficult to use when a question involves an object with distinct vi- sual features. A photo-based QA system allows direct use of a photo to refer to the object. We develop a three-layer system architecture for

Tom Yeh; John J. Lee; Trevor Darrell

2008-01-01

12

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER  

E-print Network

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER Q: What are the early signs of lung cancer? How would I know I have it? A: Some of the early warning signs of lung cancer are: · A cough that doesn't go away what may be causing these symptoms. Q: How is lung cancer diagnosed? A: Your doctor may do one or more

13

Finding similar questions in large question and answer archives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has recently been a significant increase in the number of community-based question and answer services on the Web where people answer other peoples' questions. These services rapidly build up large archives of questions and answers, and these archives are a valuable linguistic resource. One of the major tasks in a question and answer service is to find questions in

Jiwoon Jeon; Joon Ho Lee

2005-01-01

14

Internal Audit RFP 2013 Questions and Answers Question set 1  

E-print Network

Internal Audit RFP 2013 � Questions and Answers Question set 1: 1. What do you like about your current provider? No answer #12;Internal Audit RFP 2013 � Questions and Answers 11. Are identified control;Internal Audit RFP 2013 � Questions and Answers b. High risk areas � Accounts Payable � Accounts Receivable

Heller, Barbara

15

Minister Peng answers correspondents' questions.  

PubMed

Following a press conference where she presented the results of the 1990 census and the accomplishments of China's family planning program, Peng Peiyun, minister of the State Family Planning Commission, and other officials answered the questions of Chinese and foreign correspondents. Asked about the implementation of family planning in rural areas, Peng explained that while the 1-child policy has been followed, farmers with only 1 daughter have been allowed a second child. Nonetheless, the total fertility rate (TFR) of rural women has fallen bellow 4. On the issue of abortion, an official explained that for the past few years, there have been 10 million abortions annually. Abortion, however, is used only when contraception fails. Despite China's impressive achievements in curbing population growth, Peng noted that the country still faces serious problems. As the country enters its 8th 5-year plan, China will undergo a baby boom. An average of 17 million births each year is expected throughout the plan's duration. Peng acknowledged that the previous target of controlling China's population to 1.2 billion by the year 2000 will not be achieved. Under the new plan, which hopes to reduce the TFR from 2.35 in 1989 to 2.0 by the turn of the century, calls for the population to stabilize somewhere between 1.5 and 1.6 billion. Peng also answered questions concerning abuses by family planning workers. She stressed that China's family planning program is voluntary, although economic disincentives are used. Furthermore, Peng addressed issues concerning religion and family planning, infanticide, the safety of contraceptives, and concerns over the ageing of the population. PMID:12284670

1991-02-01

16

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we plan for? · Should we separate uranium? · If we separate uranium, should we recycle it, store it or dispose of it? · Is it practical to plan to fabricate and handle “hot” fuel? · Which transuranic elements (TRU) should be separated and transmuted? · Of those TRU separated, which should be transmuted together? · Should we separate and/or transmute Cs and Sr isotopes that dominate near-term repository heating? · Should we separate and/or transmute very long-lived Tc and I isotopes? · Which separation technology? · What mix of transmutation technologies? · What fuel technology best supports the above decisions?

Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

2003-10-01

17

Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

18

Answering Questions about Unanswered Questions of Stack Overflow  

E-print Network

Answering Questions about Unanswered Questions of Stack Overflow Muhammad Asaduzzaman Ahmed Shah questions has increased significantly in the past two years. Understanding why questions remain unanswered questions from Stack Overflow. We then conduct a qualitative study to categorize unanswered questions, which

Schneider, Kevin A.

19

Answering definitional questions before they are asked  

E-print Network

Most question answering systems narrow down their search space by issuing a boolean IR query on a keyword indexed corpus. This technique often proves futile for definitional questions, because they only contain one keyword ...

Fernandes, Aaron D. (Aaron David)

2004-01-01

20

Developing Offline Strategies for Answering Medical Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe ongoing developments on two offline strategies for automatically answering questions in the medical domain: one based on an analysis of the document structure, the other based on dependency parsing. We highlight differences with open domain question answering, and provide a preliminary evaluation of the current state of our strategies. Copyright (c) 2005, American Association for Artificial Intelligence (www.aaai.org).

E. F. Tjong Kim Sang; G. Bouma; Rijke de M

2005-01-01

21

Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.  

PubMed

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

22

Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services  

PubMed Central

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

23

Internet firewalls: questions and answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As organizations consider connecting to the Internet, the issue of internetwork security becomes more important. There are many tools and components that can be used to secure a network, one of which is a firewall. Modern firewalls offer highly flexible private network security by controlling and monitoring all communications passing into or out of the private network. Specifically designed for security, firewalls become the private network's single point of attack from Internet intruders. Application gateways (or proxies) that have been written to be secure against even the most persistent attacks ensure that only authorized users and services access the private network. One-time passwords prevent intruders from `sniffing' and replaying the usernames and passwords of authorized users to gain access to the private network. Comprehensive logging permits constant and uniform system monitoring. `Address spoofing' attacks are prevented. The private network may use registered or unregistered IP addresses behind the firewall. Firewall-to-firewall encryption establishes a `virtual private network' across the Internet, preventing intruders from eavesdropping on private communications, eliminating the need for costly dedicated lines.

Ker, Keith

1996-03-01

24

Answers to Health Questions in Physical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culled from the answers of physical education teachers and coaches, this booklet attempts to indicate the scope of health problems and suggests some directions which the solutions may take. It is divided into three parts. Part 1, Health and Safety in Activity Programs, answers questions on first aid, excused absences, and desirability of…

Kaplan, Robert, Ed.

25

Striving for Optimal Relevance when Answering Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When people are asked "Do you have the time?" they can answer in a variety of ways, such as "It is almost 3," "Yeah, it is quarter past two," or more precisely as in "It is now 1:43." We present the results of four experiments that examined people's real-life answers to questions about the time. Our hypothesis, following previous research…

Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.; Bryant, Gregory A.

2008-01-01

26

Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... High Blood Pressure Questions and Answers About High Blood Pressure What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... a doctor. Am I at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure. But ...

27

Questions and Answers: Smallpox Vaccine and Monkeypox  

MedlinePLUS

... 404) 639-3311 Monkeypox Home > QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Smallpox Vaccine and Monkeypox Download PDF version formatted for ... 132 KB/2 pages) How effective is the smallpox vaccine in preventing monkeypox? Past data from Africa ...

28

Questions and Answers about Ebola and Pets  

MedlinePLUS

... Travelers Healthcare Workers More Questions and Answers about Ebola and Pets Language: English Español Share Compartir ... the United States. How are animals involved in Ebola outbreaks? Because the natural reservoir host of Ebola ...

29

Get Answers to Common Questions About...  

Cancer.gov

Get Answers to Common Questions About... Biological Specimens Drug Availability, Labeling and Distribution Ethics Indemnity Insurance Planning Clinical Trials and Navigating Regulatory Requirements Protocols Quality Assurance and Monitoring Software

30

Scaling question answering to the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wealth of information on the web makes it an attractive resource for seeking quick answers to simple, factual questions such as "e;who was the first American in space?"e; or "e;what is the second tallest mountain in the world?"e; Yet today's most advanced web search services (e.g., Google and AskJeeves) make it surprisingly tedious to locate answers to such questions.

Cody C. T. Kwok; Oren Etzioni; Daniel S. Weld

2001-01-01

31

Student Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty  

E-print Network

and services are open to all SFU students: undergraduate, graduate, international, mature, EAL/ESL, and othersStudent Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty What is the SFU Student Learning Commons? The Student Learning Commons (SLC), is an academic learning centre which provides peer-based assistance

32

Answering the Sphinx's Questions on Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In answering the difficult questions on neutrinos asked by Sphinx I argue that search for proton decay is the most important experiment in coming 5-10 years. I also emphasize the crucial importance of the neutrinoless double beta decay with sensitivity of

Minakata, H.

33

Children answered 24 questions in 3 sections  

E-print Network

Children answered 24 questions in 3 sections: · General knowledge ­ e.g. how many minutes month comes after August? Short-Term Tasks Children completed two computer tasks designed using Kinelab: · Sequencing: Children saw six shapes in succession, before having to indicate the order they were presented

Haase, Markus

34

Children's School Research Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

Children's School Research Questions and Answers 2012-2013 Who conducts the research? · The primary researchers at the Children's School are the psychology faculty together with the post-doctoral fellows that conduct studies at the Children's School, led by Dr. David Rakison, Dr. Brian MacWhinney, Dr. David Klahr

35

Addendum to Questions, Answers and Clarifications  

E-print Network

hydrogen fueling stations to serve the current population of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) and to accommodate-606 Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program California Energy Commission Q.1 EligibleAddendum to Questions, Answers and Clarifications Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure Solicitation PON-12

36

Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

37

Questions and Answers John Rominger-Watts  

E-print Network

- Weighs 7000 metric tons - Detected first events in 2008 #12;ATLAS Detector Systems Inner Detector: #12;ATLAS Detector Systems Calorimeter: #12;ATLAS Detector Systems Muon Spectrometer: #12;Question: What objects Image: toothpastefordinner.com Image: nasa.gov Image: sparknotes.com Image: mit.edu #12;Answer

Budker, Dmitry

38

Sea Level : Frequently Asked Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can find answers to frequently asked questions regarding sea level and sea level changes. Topics addressed include how mean sea level is defined, how much sea level would rise if all the worlds ice were to melt, differences in sea level between oceans and at different latitudes, the meaning of altitude above sea level, and others.

2007-12-12

39

Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

2000-01-01

40

Questions and Answers: Information about Your Hearing  

MedlinePLUS

... Hearing default Questions and Answers: Information About Your Hearing 1. What sounds can hurt your hearing, if you are around them too long? 2. ... concert can result in a lifetime of reduced hearing. 13. Only you can protect your ears. Be ...

41

Question Answering Using a Large NLP System  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThere is a separate report in this volume on the Microsoft Research Cambridge participation in the Filtering and Query tracks(Robertson and Walker 2001).The Microsoft Research question-answering system for TREC-9 was based on a combination of the Okapi retrieval engine,Microsoft's natural language processing system (NLPWin), and a module for matching logical forms. There is no recentpublished account of NLPWin, although a

David Elworthy

2000-01-01

42

Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers  

SciTech Connect

This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

NONE

1995-11-01

43

Automatic question answering using the web: Beyond the Factoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe and evaluate a Question Answering (QA) system that goes beyond answering factoid questions. Our approach to QA assumes no restrictions on the type of questions that are handled, and no assumption that the answers to be provided are factoids. We present an unsupervised approach for collecting question and answer pairs from FAQ pages, which we

Radu Soricut; Eric Brill

2006-01-01

44

Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions  

SciTech Connect

contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

Hinchliffe, Ian

2012-01-01

45

Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions  

ScienceCinema

contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

Hinchliffe, Ian

2013-05-29

46

Effective Question Recommendation Based on Multiple Features for Question Answering Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new method of recommending questions to answerers so as to suit the answerers' knowledge and inter- ests in User-Interactive Question Answering (QA) commu- nities. A question recommender can help answerers select the questions that interest them. This increases the number of answers, which will activate QA communities. An ef- fective question recommender should satisfy the following three

Yutaka Kabutoya; Tomoharu Iwata; Hisako Shiohara; Ko Fujimura

2010-01-01

47

Model Answers to Lipid Membrane Questions  

PubMed Central

Ever since it was discovered that biological membranes have a core of a bimolecular sheet of lipid molecules, lipid bilayers have been a model laboratory for investigating physicochemical and functional properties of biological membranes. Experimental and theoretical models help the experimental scientist to plan experiments and interpret data. Theoretical models are the theoretical scientist’s preferred toys to make contact between membrane theory and experiments. Most importantly, models serve to shape our intuition about which membrane questions are the more fundamental and relevant ones to pursue. Here we review some membrane models for lipid self-assembly, monolayers, bilayers, liposomes, and lipid–protein interactions and illustrate how such models can help answering questions in modern lipid cell biology. PMID:21610116

Mouritsen, Ole G.

2011-01-01

48

World Wide Web based Question Answering System - a relevance feedback framework for automatic answer validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open domain question answering system is one of the emerging information retrieval systems available on the World Wide Web that is becoming popular day by day to get succinct and relevant answers in response of users' questions. The validation of the correctness of the answer is an important issue in the field of question answering. In this paper, we

Santosh Kumar Ray; Shailendra Singh; B. P. Joshi

2009-01-01

49

Question Answering using Uni cation-based Vlado Ke selj  

E-print Network

of providing an intelligible answer to a question using a knowledge base. ? This work is supported by NSERC The question with the longest minimal answer is: Why did David Koresh ask the FBI for a word processor

Keselj, Vlado

50

Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part I. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief analyses are provided of presentations at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues, and application. Papers…

Miller, C. C.; And Others

1982-01-01

51

Finding question-answer pairs from online forums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online forums contain a huge amount of valuable user gener- ated content. In this paper we address the problem of extract- ing question-answer pairs from forums. Question-answer pairs extracted from forums can be used to help Question Answering services (e.g. Yahoo! Answers) among other applications. We propose a sequential patterns based classification method to detect questions in a forum thread,

Gao Cong; Long Wang; Chin-Yew Linz; Young-in Song; Yongheng Sun

2008-01-01

52

Do Melt Inclusions Answer Big Questions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a pioneering paper, Sobolev and Shimizu (1993) demonstrated the existence of ultra-depleted melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts in MORB. They interpreted these as evidence for the preservation of parental melts formed by progressive near-fractional melting. Subsequently many cases have been described where melt inclusions from single basalt samples display enormous chemical and isotopic heterogeneity. The interpretation of these observations hinges critically on whether such melt inclusions can faithfully preserve primary or parental melt composition. If they do, melt inclusion data can truly answer big questions from small-scale observations. If they do not, they answer rather small questions. Favoring the second possibility, Danyushevsky et al. (2004) have suggested that much of the observed variability of highly incompatible trace elements in melt inclusions “may not represent geologically significant melts, but instead reflect localized, grain-scale reaction processes within the magmatic plumbing system.” We disagree and show that this mechanism cannot, for example, explain isotopic heterogeneity measured in several suites of melt inclusions, nor does it not account for the presence of ultra-depleted melts and "ghost" plagioclase signatures in other inclusions. More recently, Spandler et al. (2007) have suggested on the basis of experimental evidence that diffusion rates for REE in olivine are so rapid that parental melt compositions in melt inclusions are rapidly falsified by diffusional exchange with (evolved) host lava. We show that the very fact that extreme chemical and isotopic heterogeneities are routinely preserved in melt inclusions demonstrates that this conclusion is unwarranted, either because residence times of the olivine phenocrysts are much shorter than assumed by Spandler et al. or because the high experimental diffusion rates are caused by an unknown experimental artifact. Although there is no obvious flaw in design and execution of their experiments, geologically relevant diffusion rates are notoriously difficult to determine and may depend on factors not incorporated in the laboratory experiments. More recent diffusion experiments by Remmert et al. (2008) and by Cherniak (2009) have yielded diffusion coefficients three order of magnitude lower than those measured by Spandler. The heavy REE represent a possible exception to the above conclusions. We present data from olivine melt inclusions from Iceland basalts, which show unusual HREE patterns possibly caused by diffusional exchange with the host lava. Sobolev, A.V. & Shimizu, N. (1993) Nature 363, 151-154. Danyushevskii, L.V. et al. (2004) J. Petrol. 45, 2531-2553. Spandler, G., O’Neill, H.St.C., Kamenetsky, V.S. (2007) Nature, 447, 303-306. Remmert, P. Dohmen, R., Chakraborty, S. (2008) EOS Trans. AGU abs. MR331-1844. Cherniak, D.J. (2009) Am. Mineral. Ms. subm.

Hofmann, A. W.; Sobolev, A. V.

2009-12-01

53

VideoQA: question answering on news video  

Microsoft Academic Search

When querying a news video archive, the users are interested in retrieving precise answers in the form of a summary that best answers the query. However, current video retrieval systems, including the search engines on the web, are designed to retrieve documents instead of precise answers. This research explores the use of question answering (QA) techniques to support personalized news

Hui Yang; Lekha Chaisorn; Yunlong Zhao; Shi-Yong Neo; Tat-Seng Chua

2003-01-01

54

Research Design and Analysis: Examples of Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides some examples of questions that might be asked about research design and analysis, or that might be used in test construction. The accompanying answers form a basic discussion of research design and analysis techniques. Short-answer constructed response answers are provided for questions about: (1) control in an experiment;…

Inoue, Yukiko

55

HITIQA: A Data Driven Approach to Interactive Analytical Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the analytic question answering system HITIQA (High-Quality In- teractive Question Answering) which has been developed over the last 2 years as an advanced research tool for information analysts. HITIQA is an interactive open-domain ques- tion answering technology designed to allow analysts to pose complex exploratory ques- tions in natural language and obtain relevant information units

Sharon Small; Tomek Strzalkowski

56

DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY OFFICE ADVANCED QUESTION ANSWERING FOR INTELLIGENCE  

E-print Network

DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY OFFICE ADVANCED QUESTION ANSWERING FOR INTELLIGENCE (AQUAINT) PROGRAM 1 Bringsjord (PI) Summary Current QA technology aims at the very early, pre-reasoning stages of IA where, the analyst's questions will require knowledge-based technology, if these questions are to be answered

57

Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions Past Issues / ... Drug Abuse during their first Drug Facts Chat Day. Photo courtesy of NIDA The questions poured in… ...

58

Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

Frana, Ilaria

2010-01-01

59

99 Facts about the FBI: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet on the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) attempts to provide an overview of the FBI's functions. Presented in a question and answer format, the 99 questions and answers discuss the federal government agency's history, administrative matters, jurisdiction, criminal investigations, security matters, foreign counter-intelligence, and…

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA.

60

Beyond Information Retrieval--Medical Question Answering Minsuk Lee1  

E-print Network

thousands of articles to generate a short text, ideally, in less than a few seconds, to answer questions short- text answers in response to clinical questions that are posed by physicians. The authors address. Introduction The published medical literature and online medical resources are important sources to help

Yu, Hong

61

The Answerable Question and a Hierarchy of Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of a hierarchy of evidence is useful in rapid electronic searching to answer questions arising during the natural course of clinical practice. The answerable question often begins "What is the evidence that ..." and, when focused on a treatment, usually includes a population, an intervention, a comparison group, and an outcome, often…

Hamilton, John

2005-01-01

62

Questions and answers about energy recovery from waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Questions and answers about the developing waste-to-energy industry are presented. They are intended as a ready reference for the general public and others interested in exploring the option of utilizing municipal waste as a renewable energy resource. Questions were researched and answered in six broad categories: general information; state-of-the-art; economics/financial; environmental; institutional; and project implementation.

1982-09-01

63

Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Outbreaks: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment Prevention Adults Parents-to-be Infants & Children Preteens & Teens Travelers Healthcare Personnel Frequently Asked Questions Photos ... the 11-12 year old check up. For Preteens and Teens: Vaccine protection for pertussis, tetanus, and ...

64

Negative answers to some positivity questions  

E-print Network

We construct counterexamples to a number of questions related to positivity properties of line bundles on algebraic varieties. The examples are based on studying the geometry of varieties that admit pseudo automorphisms ...

Lesieutre, John

2014-01-01

65

To Answer or Not to Answer: That is the Question for Cell Phone Users  

E-print Network

To Answer or Not to Answer: That is the Question for Cell Phone Users Abstract People are constantly making decisions to answer or ignore cell phone calls based on inferences derived from partial a survey study of cell phone call handling practices. The results highlight the type and extent

Madiraju, Praveen

66

Distance Education Complexities: Questions To Be Answered.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the development of distance education for instruction and training due to new technologies and software focuses on questions that need to be asked to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. Highlights include institutional and organizational concerns; content design analyses; development issues; implementation; evaluation; management…

Dwyer, Francis; Li, Ning

2000-01-01

67

Unsupervised Question Answering Data Acquisition From Local Corpora  

E-print Network

Science Department Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA llita the number of overall question-answer pairs to under five thousand. Less standard datasets, such as trivia

Carbonell, Jaime

68

Representations of Questioning and Answering in Children's First School Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of conversation (focusing on question-answer sequences) in beginning school readers suggests that such books typically convey an image of childhood that combines conversational initiative and conversational competence as a member of the classroom community. (Author/CB)

Baker, Carolyn D.; Freebody, Peter

1986-01-01

69

Put It in Writing: Questions and Answers on Advance Directives  

MedlinePLUS

... Put it in Writing Questions and Answers on Advance Directives Q iii 1 Photo M any people today ... to make such decisions, through legal documents called advance directives. Before deciding what choices about your care at ...

70

A Data Driven Approach to Query Expansion in Question Answering  

E-print Network

Automated answering of natural language questions is an interesting and useful problem to solve. Question answering (QA) systems often perform information retrieval at an initial stage. Information retrieval (IR) performance, provided by engines such as Lucene, places a bound on overall system performance. For example, no answer bearing documents are retrieved at low ranks for almost 40% of questions. In this paper, answer texts from previous QA evaluations held as part of the Text REtrieval Conferences (TREC) are paired with queries and analysed in an attempt to identify performance-enhancing words. These words are then used to evaluate the performance of a query expansion method. Data driven extension words were found to help in over 70% of difficult questions. These words can be used to improve and evaluate query expansion methods. Simple blind relevance feedback (RF) was correctly predicted as unlikely to help overall performance, and an possible explanation is provided for its low value in IR for QA.

Derczynski, Leon; Gaizauskas, Robert; Greenwood, Mark A

2012-01-01

71

Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions  

ScienceCinema

In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

Walker, Iain

2013-11-14

72

Medical marijuana: more questions than answers.  

PubMed

With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

Hill, Kevin P

2014-09-01

73

Educational Research and Statistics: Examples of Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some questions that might be asked of students with respect to educational research and related statistical analysis are presented with answers. The questions focus on: (1) the definition of operational variables; (2) null and research hypotheses; (3) the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA); (4) when ANOVA is appropriate; (5) whether statistical…

Inoue, Yukiko

74

Questions about how plants die leads to climate change answers  

E-print Network

- 1 - Questions about how plants die leads to climate change answers March 12, 2012 How trees die in drought key to plant, climate change questions How plants die during drought is one of the largest uncertainties in determining how plants will succumb to changing climate. 3:01 Tree Death Study's Climate Change

75

Offline Strategies for Online Question Answering: Answering Questions Before They Are Asked  

E-print Network

Clinton" and "Bill Clinton, president of the USA,"). We then compare answers based on these relations-instance relations from newspaper text using syntactic patterns and machine-learned filters (e.g., "president Bill

Hovy, Eduard

76

Seekers, sloths and social reference: Homework questions submitted to a question-answering community  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of students are seeking homework help outside library structures and systems, such as on social reference sites, where questions are answered by online community members who rate one another's answers and provide collaborative filtering in place of traditional expertise. This paper reports the preliminary results of a participant observation and content analysis of homework questions submitted to

Rich Gazan

2007-01-01

77

Probabilistic Question Answering on the Web Dragomir Radev  

E-print Network

such as Google and NorthernLight return documents that are relevant to a user query, not answers to user to a large variety of questions. The problem is that existing front ends to the Web such as NorthernLight

Radev, Dragomir R.

78

Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Questions, Answers, and Presuppositions  

E-print Network

Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Questions, Answers, and Presuppositions Author(s): Nuel D. Belnap, Jr. Source: The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 63, No. 20, American Philosophical Association Eastern Division Sixty-Third Annual Meeting (Oct. 27, 1966), pp. 609-611 Published by: Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Stable

Belnap, Nuel

79

Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

80

What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,…

Laird, Valerie

2001-01-01

81

Responses to Questions and Answers Advanced Vehicle Technology Manufacturing Solicitation  

E-print Network

1 Responses to Questions and Answers Advanced Vehicle Technology Manufacturing Solicitation PON successful applicants after the Notice of Proposed Awards to confirm this role and obtain any additional definition of "manufacturing equipment?" For example, would purchases of tooling or assembly line equipment

82

Overview of the CLEF 2005 Multilingual Question Answering Track  

E-print Network

in 2003, eight groups from Europe and North America participated in nine tasks, three monolingual -Dutch, Italian and Spanish- and five bilingual, where questions were formulated in five source languages -Dutch, French, German, Italian- and answer were searched in an English corpus collection. In 2004 eighteen

de Rijke, Maarten

83

"Legal Problem Question Answer Genre" across Jurisdictions and Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to analyse discourse patterns of legal opinions in two languages and cultures--namely, Legal Problem Question Answers (LPQs) in the UK academic writing context and Pareri (Ps) in the Italian professional writing context. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of discourse in this paper, based on the tenets of genre analysis,…

Tessuto, Girolamo

2011-01-01

84

Fillers as Signals: Evidence from a Question-Answering Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the influence of a human or computer "partner" on the production of fillers ("um" and "uh") during a question and answer task. Experiment 1 investigated whether or not responding to a human partner as opposed to a computer partner results in a higher rate of filler production. Participants…

Walker, Esther J.; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

2014-01-01

85

Questions and Answers About Drainage Water Management for the Midwest  

E-print Network

WQ-44 Questions and Answers About Drainage Water Management for the Midwest Jane Frankenberger Nelson, Larry Brown Drainage Water Management Introduction Subsurface tile drainage is an essential water of Mexico, so strategies are needed to reduce the nitrate loads while maintaining adequate drainage for crop

Holland, Jeffrey

86

Questions and Answers about Paget's Disease of Bone  

MedlinePLUS

... Bone Paget's Disease Basics Questions and Answers about Paget's Disease of Bone Related Resources Paget's Disease Fast Facts Paget’s Disease ... Paget’s Disease Facts for New Patients Partner Resources Paget's Disease of Bone (NIHSeniorHealth) Be An Active Member of Your Health ...

87

PlaceBased Induction 2009: More questions than answers  

E-print Network

PlaceBased Induction 2009: More questions than answers Based on the work of the Induction Network, AEIN received an additional grant to help connect induction and culturally responsive teaching. AEIN induction �Elders and Native educators have been doing this work for years. �We don't need to let

Pantaleone, Jim

88

CERCLA Site Assessment questions and answers (Qs&As)  

SciTech Connect

This documents contains commonly asked questions and corresponding answers (Qs&As) on the CERCLA Site Assessment process. These questions were derived from DOE element responses to a solicitation calling for the identification of (unresolved) issues associated with the conduct of CERCLA site assessments, and from inquiries received during a series of Site Assessment Workshops provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231). Answers to these questions were prepared by EH-231 in cooperation with the EPA Federal Facilities Team in Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Site Assessment Branch, and in coordination with the Office of Environmental Compliance, Facilities Compliance Division (EH-222).

Traceski, T.T.

1993-11-09

89

Cem Kaner Essay Questions Page 1 How to Answer Essay Questions in the Graduate Level  

E-print Network

of space on irrelevant material. Several answers were so disorganized that it took significant work. Now answer your sample questions. No one would prepare to run a race primarily by talking about races with friends, or watching a race on television, or reading about races in books. o To prepare to run a race

90

Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.

Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

2010-01-01

91

Venus Express: Answered and unanswered questions on Venus (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After having orbited our sister planet for more than seven Earth years Venus Express has collected a very large data set allowing a great number of fundamental scientific questions to be addressed and answered. Most of the questions included in the mission's science requirement, as formulated in the mission proposal, have been answered. These include topics in atmospheric dynamics, structure and chemistry, clouds and hazes, surface and interior, radiation balance and greenhouse, induced magnetosphere and plasma environment, and planetary evolution. Solid results have been achieved in all these fields but with some weakness in the radiation balance measurements, mostly due to the early loss of the planetary Fourier spectrometer providing data at the mid infrared wavelengths. Naturally, due to the limited scope and budget of the Venus Express mission a number of important questions had to be left unaddressed and to be taken up by future missions. This talk will summarise the major results of Venus Express and discuss a number of questions where additional data will be needed in order to provide answers. A wish list for future missions will be provided.

Svedhem, H.; Titov, D.

2013-12-01

92

Verb Phrase Ellipsis in Children's Answers to Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of verb phrase ellipsis is investigated in two 2-year-old English-speaking children's speech by studying their answers to yes\\/no questions over the period of about a year. The investigation is framed using a generative linguistics model, the “PF-deletion model,” which assumes that there is syntactic structure in the ellipsis site that is simply not pronounced at the level of

Rosalind Thornton

2010-01-01

93

Routing of ultrahazardous materials - More questions than answers  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Transportation (DOT) has issued a request for comment on the need for risk assessments for routing hazardous materials. Prior DOT requirements for routing of large quantities of radioactive materials considered two primary components for accident health risk, accident frequency, and population potentially exposed. This approach may be reasonable from the Federal viewpoint, but it leaves many unanswered questions at the state level for ultrahazardous materials. For example, how does a state make effective decisions regarding funding to improve roads (reduce accident probability) and improve emergency response (reduce accident consequence). Some of these questions and a potential way to generate answers are examined in this paper.

Rhyne, W.R.

1988-01-01

94

Developing Underprepared College Students' Question-Answering Skill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares two approaches for preparing students to take standardized reading tests. Discusses study that used a pretest-posttest design with reading-comprehension passages and questions to assess improvement. Suggests that measurable gain in short-term developmental programs may require focusing on a more modest number of teaching objectives,…

Taraban, Roman; Becton, Stacia M.; Shufeldt, Michael; Stirling, Thomas; Johnson, Matthew C.; Childers, Kristyn

1997-01-01

95

A Medical Consultation Service on Facebook: Descriptive Analysis of Questions Answered  

PubMed Central

Background Social media is used increasingly by the general public to access health information. However, a lack of models for health information distribution limits the presence of publicly funded services on social media sites. Objective The goal of the study was to present a model for delivering child health information to parents through a social media site. Methods A Facebook site was launched for 11 months based on a question-and-answer service produced by a pediatrician and open to Facebook users over 18 years old. If the answer did not include a further referral to a health care service provider, the question was considered comprehensively answered. The site was funded by a pharmaceutical company, and it included an advertisement of a pharmaceutical product for children’s fever and pain. Results During the study, 768 questions were submitted: an average of 69.8 (SD 31.7) per month. There were 245,533 independent Facebook users on the site, with an average of 727.0 (SD 2280.6) per day. Infections were the most common theme in questions (355/768, 46.2%). Questions were more likely to be comprehensively answered if they were related to infections (279/355, 78.6%) than questions related to non-infectious symptoms (265/423, 64.2%, P=.003). Conclusions On this site aimed at parents of small children, personalized answers were an effective way of delivering information. The service is likely to have reduced the need for further contacts with a health care service provider in more than half of the cases. The site could serve as a model for publicly funded health information distribution. PMID:25189182

2014-01-01

96

Public library patrons' use of collaborative chat reference service: The effectiveness of question answering by question type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effectiveness of question answering by question types in the inter-institutional collaborative chat reference service at a public library system. In particular, this study examined whether subject-based research type questions are answered as effectively as simple factual type questions, and whether local-specific questions are answered as effectively as non-local questions in the inter-institutional chat reference service. Effectiveness

Nahyun Kwon

2007-01-01

97

How to answer the most common zinger questions.  

PubMed

Patients are very likely to hit you with zingers--extremely tough questions that require all of your diplomacy and tact. How well you respond to the inevitable zingers depends in large part upon your preparation. This article describes what you must do to prepare yourself for your patients' zingers. It offers simple guidelines for responding to zinger questions, as well as how-to instruction that will enable you to hone your critical listening skills. This article also offers an effective strategy for preparing a list of potential zinger questions customized to your medical practice. It suggests ways to use zinger preparation as a staff training tool, relying in large part upon brainstorming, group work, and role-playing scenarios. Finally, this article presents the wrong way to answer zingers. Then, through sample dialogues, it offers much better and more effective responses that you might give your patients when you need to answer eight of the most common and difficult medical practice zingers. PMID:16471388

Hills, Laura Sachs

2005-01-01

98

QUASAR: The Question Answering System of the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia  

E-print Network

QUASAR: The Question Answering System of the Universidad Polit´ecnica de Valencia Jos´e Manuel G, ebisbal, prosso, esanchis}@dsic.upv.es Abstract. This paper describes the QUASAR Question Answering In by the previous modules in order to extract the correct answer. QUASAR (QUestion AnSwering And information

Rosso, Paolo

99

Global parallel unification for large question-answering systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An efficient means of storing data in a first-order predicate calculus theorem-proving system is described. The data structure is oriented for large scale question-answering (QA) systems. An algorithm is outlined which uses the data structure to unify a given literal in parallel against all literals in all clauses in the data base. The data structure permits a compact representation of data within a QA system. Some suggestions are made for heuristics which can be used to speed-up the unification algorithm in systems.

Auguston, J. G.; Minker, J.

1974-01-01

100

Post-conditioning: Promising answers and more questions  

PubMed Central

Volatile anesthetic agents have been used for decades in the peri-operative setting. Data from the past 15 years have shown that pre-injury administration of volatile anesthetic can decrease the impact of ischemia-reperfusion injury on the heart, brain, and kidney. Recent data demonstrated that volatile agents administered shortly after injury can decrease the ischemia-reperfusion injury. Several questions need to be answered to optimize this therapeutic target, but this is a promising era of secondary injury mitigation. PMID:23176148

2012-01-01

101

PrimeAnswers: A Practical Interface for Answering Primary Care Questions  

PubMed Central

This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. Results of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem. PMID:15905488

Ketchell, Debra S.; St. Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

2005-01-01

102

PrimeAnswers: A practical interface for answering primary care questions.  

PubMed

This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. RESULTS of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem. PMID:15905488

Ketchell, Debra S; St Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

2005-01-01

103

Building a corpus and developing a question classifier to support messaging-based question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are investigating question classification for restricted domains with the broader goal of supporting mixed-initiative interaction on mobile phones. In this paper, we discuss the development of a new domain-specific corpus of cancer-related questions and our efforts toward training a classifier. This work includes the development of a new taxonomy of expected answer types that we have been evaluating. Our

Adam Kurmally; Barbara Di Eugenio; Charles E. Kahn Jr.; Susan McRoy

2010-01-01

104

Model-Driven Knowledge-Based Development of Expected Answer Type Taxonomies for Restricted Domain Question Answering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Question Answering (QA) system must provide concise answers from large collections of documents to questions stated by the user in natural language. Importantly, a question should be correctly classified by means of a predefined taxonomy in order to determine which is the Expected Answer Type (EAT), thus reducing the searching space over documents, while a right answer is obtained. Designing a proper EAT taxonomy is even more crucial in restricted domain QA, since domain experts use specific terminology, thus asking more precise questions and expecting more precise answers. This paper presents a novel model-driven approach in order to ameliorate the task of designing restricted-domain EAT taxonomies by using heterogeneous knowledge resources and collection of documents. To show the applicability of our approach, a set of experiments has been carried out by defining a new EAT taxonomy for being able to answer questions about the agricultural domain.

Vila, Katia; Mazón, Jose-Norberto; Ferrández, Antonio; Gómez, José M.

105

The placebo response in clinical trials: more questions than answers  

PubMed Central

Meta-analyses and re-analyses of trial data have not been able to answer some of the essential questions that would allow prediction of placebo responses in clinical trials. We will confront these questions with current empirical evidence. The most important question asks whether the placebo response rates in the drug arm and in the placebo arm are equal. This ‘additive model’ is a general assumption in almost all placebo-controlled drug trials but has rarely been tested. Secondly, we would like to address whether the placebo response is a function of the likelihood of receiving drug/placebo. Evidence suggests that the number of study arms in a trial may determine the size of the placebo and the drug response. Thirdly, we ask what the size of the placebo response is in ‘comparator’ studies with a direct comparison of a (novel) drug against another drug. Meta-analytic and experimental evidence suggests that comparator studies may produce higher placebo response rates when compared with placebo-controlled trials. Finally, we address the placebo response rate outside the laboratory and outside of trials in clinical routine. This question poses a serious challenge whether the drug response in trials can be taken as evidence of drug effects in clinical routine. PMID:21576146

Enck, Paul; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle; Weimer, Katja; Horing, Bjorn; Zipfel, Stephan

2011-01-01

106

MURAX: a robust linguistic approach for question answering using an on-line encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust linguistic methods are applied to the task of answering closed-class questions using a corpus of natural language. The methods are illustrated in a broad domain: answering general-knowledge questions using an on-line encyclopedia.A closed-class question is a question stated in natural language, which assumes some definite answer typified by a noun phrase rather than a procedural answer. The methods hypothesize

Julian Kupiec

1993-01-01

107

Cogex: A semantically and contextually enriched logic prover for question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the architecture and functionality of a logic prover designed for question answering. The approach trans- forms questions and answer passages into logic representations based on syntactic, semantic and contextual information. World knowledge supplements the linguistic, ontological, and temporal axioms supplied to the prover which renders a deep understanding of the relationship between the question and answer text.

Dan I. Moldovan; Christine Clark; Sanda M. Harabagiu; Daniel Hodges

2007-01-01

108

Automatic Derivation of Surface Text Patterns for a Maximum Entropy Based Question Answering System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the use of surface text patterns for a Maximum Entropy based Question Answering (QA) system. These text patterns are collected automatically in an unsupervised fashion using a collection of trivia question and answer pairs as seeds. These patterns are used to generate features for a statistical question answering system. We report our results on the

Deepak Ravichandran; Abraham Ittycheriah; Salim Roukos

2003-01-01

109

Exploiting Redundancy in Question Answering Charles L. A. Clarke Gordon V. Cormack Thomas R. Lynam  

E-print Network

is extended to answer multiple choice trivia questions of the form typically asked in trivia quizzesExploiting Redundancy in Question Answering Charles L. A. Clarke Gordon V. Cormack Thomas R. Lynam is to automatically answer brief factual questions of the form \\When was the Battle of Hastings?" or \\Who wrote

Clarke, Charlie

110

Some questions and answers about the Satellite Power System (SPS)  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Energy Research, US DOE is evaluating the concept of obtaining significant amounts of electrical energy from space through the Satellite Power System Project Office (SPS PO) formed for that purpose. The SPS PO prepared and is implementing a Concept Development and Evaluation Program plan. The CDEP runs roughly three years (from July 1977 through July 1980) and consists of four primary elements: (1) Systems Definition, (2) Environmental Assessment, (3) Societal Assessment, and (4) Comparative Assessment. One facet of the Societal Assessment is an investigation of public concerns. To further this investigation, a public outreach experiment was initiated to determine the initial response of three selected interest groups to the SPS, both qualitatively and quantititavely, and to gain some experience for use in future public participation activities. Three groups were contacted and agreed to participate in the experiment. They were: the Citizens Energy Project (CEP), the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), and the L-5 Society (L-5). They each agreed to condense twenty final SPS reports into approximately four pages each, have them typeset, printed and distributed to 3,000 of their constituents for their review, together with a request that they respond to the parent organization regarding the information presented. All responses were summarized and provided to Planning Research Corporation who then solicited the answers from the SPS PO investigator most directly concerned.The questions and answers are presented and will be distributed by the three groups to the individual respondents. Each of the three groups is also preparing a report to the Project Office detailing their work and results. These, together with other responses and studies will be used to more effectively involve the public in the SPS Participatory Technology Process.

Not Available

1980-01-01

111

How Online Crowds Influence the Way Individual Consumers Answer Health Questions  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether strength of social feedback, i.e. other people who concur (or do not concur) with one’s own answer to a question, influences the way one answers health questions. Methods Online prospective study. Two hundred and twenty-seven undergraduate students were recruited to use an online search engine to answer six health questions. Subjects recorded their pre- and post-search answers to each question and their level of confidence in these answers. After answering each question post-search, subjects were presented with a summary of post-search answers provided by previous subjects and were asked to answer the question again. Results There was a statistically significant relationship between the absolute number of others with a different answer (the crowd’s opinion volume) and the likelihood of an individual changing an answer (P<0.001). For most questions, no subjects changed their answer until the first 10–35 subjects completed the study. Subjects’ likelihood of changing answer increased as the percentage of others with a different answer (the crowd’s opinion density) increased (P=0.047). Overall, 98.3% of subjects did not change their answer when it concurred with the majority (i.e. >50%) of subjects, and that 25.7% of subjects changed their answer to the majority response when it did not concur with the majority. When subjects had a post-search answer that did not concur with the majority, they were 24% more likely to change answer than those with answers that concurred (P<0.001). Conclusion This study provides empirical evidence that crowd influence, in the form of online social feedback, affects the way consumers answer health questions. PMID:23616869

Lau, A.Y.S.; Kwok, T.M.Y.; Coiera, E.

2011-01-01

112

Tuberculous meningitis: more questions, still too few answers.  

PubMed

Tuberculous meningitis is especially common in young children and people with untreated HIV infection, and it kills or disables roughly half of everyone affected. Childhood disease can be prevented by vaccination and by giving prophylactic isoniazid to children exposed to infectious adults, although improvements in worldwide tuberculosis control would lead to more effective prevention. Diagnosis is difficult because clinical features are non-specific and laboratory tests are insensitive, and treatment delay is the strongest risk factor for death. Large doses of rifampicin and fluoroquinolones might improve outcome, and the beneficial effect of adjunctive corticosteroids on survival might be augmented by aspirin and could be predicted by screening for a polymorphism in LTA4H, which encodes an enzyme involved in eicosanoid synthesis. However, these advances are insufficient in the face of drug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV co-infection. Many questions remain about the best approaches to prevent, diagnose, and treat tuberculous meningitis, and there are still too few answers. PMID:23972913

Thwaites, Guy E; van Toorn, Ronald; Schoeman, Johan

2013-10-01

113

New Information Distance Measure and Its Application in Question Answering System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a question answering (QA) system, the fundamental problem is how to measure the distance between a question and an answer, hence ranking difierent answers. We demonstrate that such a distance can be precisely and mathematically deflned. Not only such a deflnition is possible, it is actually provably better than any other feasible deflnitions. Not only such an ultimate deflnition

Xian Zhang; Yu Hao; Xiao-Yan Zhu; Ming Li

2008-01-01

114

Use of social network sites for question and answer behavior  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we look at the behavior of posting questions as status updates on popular social network sites like Twitter and Facebook. This question asking behavior is similar to the use of search engines, question and ...

Panovich, Katrina (Katrina Marie)

2011-01-01

115

What Makes a Good Research Question? 1. A good scientific question is one that can be answered through  

E-print Network

What Makes a Good Research Question? 1. A good scientific question is one that can be answered through scientific research. · "Is Stone Creek polluted?"This is a good question because you can predict's polluted. · "Why is quicksand so dangerous?"This is not a good question.There is no way to observe it

116

What did Spot Hide? A Question-Answering Game for Preschool Children  

E-print Network

What did Spot Hide? A Question-Answering Game for Preschool Children Anuj Tewari1,2 & John Canny1 1 opportunities. Moreover, preschool children are incessantly inquisitive, and will readily engage in question partner. Author Keywords Games; Preschool literacy; question-answering; conversational agents. ACM

Canny, John

117

Psychological research on child witnesses in sexual abuse cases: Fine answers to mostly wrong questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research on the accuracy of children's testimony has shown that questions' wording and interview context explain some of the variance in children's answers to questions, but does not give answers regarding children's reasons for lying when asked questions about past events. This article reviews research done on children's testimony and suggests that researchers should move beyond the domiant paradigms

Joná F. Meyer; Gilbert Geis

1994-01-01

118

Reducing Our Ignorance: Finding Answers to Certain Epistemic Questions for Software Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In previous papers, we asserted that software system safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. We also enumerated a set of 21 foundational epistemic questions, discussed some of the difficulties that exist in answering these questions adequately today, and speculated briefly on possible research that may provide improved confidence in the sufficiency of answers in the future. This paper focuses on three of the foundational questions. For each of these questions, current answers are discussed and potential research is proposed to help increase the justifiable level of confidence.

Holloway, C. Michael; Johnson, Christopher W.

2011-01-01

119

Can automated questioning help children's reading comprehension?  

E-print Network

. The choices consist of the missing word plus three distractor words. E.g. Why bother about _____? Choices a randomly inserted generic multiple-choice What/Where/When question, children were likelier to correctly a multiple choice question. It displays a prompt and a menu of choices, and reads them both aloud

Mostow, Jack

120

Parallelization Issues of Domain Specific Question Answering System on Cell B.E. Processors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A question answering system is an information retrieval application which allows users to directly obtain appropriate answers to a question. In order to deal with an explosive growth of information over internet and increased number of processing stages in answer retrieval, time and processing hardware required by question answering system has increased. The need of hardware is currently served by connecting thousands of computers in cluster. But faster and less complex alternatives can be found as a multi-core processor. This paper presents a pioneer work by identifying major issues involved in porting a general question answering framework on a cell processor and their possible solutions. The work is evaluated by porting the indexing algorithm of our biomedical question answering system, INDOC (Internet Doctor) on cell processors.

Kumar, Tarun; Mittal, Ankush; Sondhi, Parikshit

121

Learners' Questions and Comprehension in a Tutoring Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments in the framework of Activity Theory explored the relationship between the questions of 104 male and 88 female adult learners (college students) and subsequent comprehension in a tutorial learning session. Questions asked during knowledge implementation aid comprehension more than do those asked during acquisition. (SLD)

Fishbein, Harold D.; And Others

1990-01-01

122

ANALYSIS OF SEMANTIC CLASSES: TOWARD NON-FACTOID QUESTION ANSWERING  

E-print Network

answering, and focused on three semantic classes that correspond to roles in the commonly accepted PICO, the intervention used to treat the problem, and the clinical outcome. i #12;We used rule-based approaches an important property of semantic classes--their cores. We showed how cores of interventions, problems

Toronto, University of

123

On Answering Why-not Questions in Reverse Skyline Queries  

E-print Network

efficiently combines both query point and data point modification techniques to produce meaningful answers systems. Today's database systems are highly efficient in terms of query execution time and resource usage-Union- Aggregation) queries, respectively. The third aspect is refining the initial query so that the why-not point

Liu, Chengfei

124

Science Sampler: Science SLAMS--A reading strategy for answering open-ended questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The SLAMS (Sentence, Lines, Answer, Mechanics, Support) (Crowell and Kolba 2006) strategy is a basic and relatively simple technique used to guide students to answer open-ended questions when reading nonfiction. This strategy gives students the opportunity to develop well-constructed responses, because their answers have to fulfill all parts of SLAMS.

Sziabowski, Christine

2008-11-01

125

Getting Answers to Natural Language Questions on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that investigated the use of natural language questions on Web search engines. Highlights include query languages; differences in search engine syntax; and results of logistic regression and analysis of variance that showed aspects of questions that predicted significantly different performances, including the number of words,…

Radev, Dragomir R.; Libner, Kelsey; Fan, Weiguo

2002-01-01

126

Can Consortial Reference Partners Answer Your Local Users' Library Questions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to explore location-based questions as a weakness of virtual reference consortia and discuss how to mitigate related issues. Content analysis of how both local and non-local academic librarians responded to location-based questions provides insight into considerations academic libraries must make when participating…

Bishop, Bradley Wade

2012-01-01

127

Terminological variants for document selection and question/answer matching  

E-print Network

system, term extraction, terminological variant, named entity, information retrieval Contact Author takes advantage of a question analysis module and a recognition of numeric and named entities takes advantage of a question analysis module and a recognition of numeric and named entities

Illouz, Gabriel

128

Teachers' Answers to Students' Questions: Problematizing the Issue of Making Meaning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes how three university teachers of English as a Second Language answered student' requests for help in understanding unknown vocabulary items during lessons mediated via a task-based, small group methodology. Notes that teachers tended to answer learners' referential questions with display questions of their own. (68 references) (Author/CK)

Markee, Numa P.

1995-01-01

129

Learning to Rank QA Data: Evaluating Machine Learning Techniques for Ranking Answers to Why-Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we evaluate a number of machine learning tech- niques for the purpose of ranking answers to why-questions. We use a set of 37 linguistically motivated features that characterize questions and answers. We experiment with a number of machine learning techniques in various settings. The purpose of the experiments is to assess how the dier- ent machine learning

Suzan Verberne; H. van Halteren; Stephan Raaijmakers; D. L. Theijssen; L. W. J. Boves

2009-01-01

130

Hints for Students (and Examiners) on Answering MCQ Questions of the Multiple True/False Type.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some difficulties that medical students experience in taking exams containing multiple choice questions. Differentiates between multiple true/false type questions, in which several answers may be true, and one-out-of-four type, in which only one answer is correct. Provides tips for taking and making multiple choice tests. (TW)

Biran, Leonard A.

1986-01-01

131

Questions and Answers about Child Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Child Care, and answers the following questions about child care: (1) How many children are in child care?; (2) How many hours per week do…

Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2008

2008-01-01

132

Web-based Anaphora Resolution for the QUASAR Question Answering System  

E-print Network

Web-based Anaphora Resolution for the QUASAR Question Answering System Davide Buscaldi and Yassine resolution module. 1 Introduction QUASAR (QUestion AnSwering And Retrieval) is the name we gave to our the results of QUASAR in the 2007 CLEF QA task. 2 System Architecture In Fig.1 we show the architecture

Rosso, Paolo

133

Methods for Automatically Evaluating Answers to Complex Questions Jimmy Lin1,2,3  

E-print Network

@cs.umd.edu Abstract Evaluation is a major driving force in advancing the state of the art in language technologies application of existing metrics. 1 Introduction Question answering, which lies at the intersection between in systems capable of answering fact-based natural language questions such as "What city is the home

Lin, Jimmy

134

Palliative Care Questions and Answers (Hospice Care Comparison)  

MedlinePLUS

Question Palliative Care Hospice Care Who can receive this care? Anyone with a serious illness, regardless of life expectancy, can receive palliative care Someone with an illness with a life expectancy ...

135

Student Evaluations That Generate More Questions Than Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a chemical educator, one of the author's primary goals is to provide students with tools for effective learning, hopefully doing so in an engaging, motivating, and incrementally challenging experience. In her quest to figure out how to do a better job, student evaluations seemed a logical place to start looking for answers. Even though others have contested the meaningfulness of student evaluations as tools for teaching improvements (Kelter 2004), her experience, which is described in this article, provides valuable insights into how these evaluations could help improve her teaching.

Oliver-Hoyo, Maria

2008-09-01

136

Answering the right question - integration of InSAR with other datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capabilities of satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are well known, and utilized across a wide range of academic and commercial applications. However there is a tendency, particularly in commercial applications, for users to ask 'What can we study with InSAR?'. When establishing a new technique this approach is important, but InSAR has been possible for 20 years now and, even accounting for new and innovative algorithms, this ground has been thoroughly explored. Too many studies conclude 'We show the ground is moving here, by this much', and mention the wider context as an afterthought. The focus needs to shift towards first asking the right questions - in fields as diverse as hazard awareness, resource optimization, financial considerations and pure scientific enquiry - and then working out how to achieve the best possible answers. Depending on the question, InSAR (and ground deformation more generally) may provide a large or small contribution to the overall solution, and there are usually benefits to integrating a number of techniques to capitalize on the complementary capabilities and provide the most useful measurements. However, there is still a gap between measurements and answers, and unlocking the value of the data relies heavily on appropriate visualization, integrated analysis, communication between technique and application experts, and appropriate use of modelling. We present a number of application examples, and demonstrate how their usefulness can be transformed by moving from a focus on data to answers - integrating complementary geodetic, geophysical and geological datasets and geophysical modeling with appropriate visualization, to enable comprehensive solution-focused interpretation. It will also discuss how forthcoming developments are likely to further advance realisation of the full potential satellite InSAR holds.

Holley, Rachel; McCormack, Harry; Burren, Richard

2014-05-01

137

Concept Recognition, Information Retrieval, and Machine Learning in Genomics Question-Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

TREC Genomics 2006 presented a genomics question-answering challenge with questions on twenty-seven topics, and a corpus of 162,259 full-text biomedical journal articles from which to derive an- swers. Questions were formulated from actual infor- mation needs of biomedical researchers, and perfor- mance was based on human evaluation of the answers. The University of Colorado approach to this task in- volved

J. Gregory Caporaso; William A. Baumgartner Jr.; Hyunmin Kim; Zhiyong Lu; Helen L. Johnson; Olga Medvedeva; Anna Lindemann; Lynne M. Fox; Elizabeth K. White; K. Bretonnel Cohen; Lawrence Hunter

2006-01-01

138

Can Nonprofit Management Help Answer Public Management's "Big Questions?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of nonprofit literature on board governance, volunteer management, and performance measurement shows that study of the nonprofit sector can help inform public management's "big questions": breaking the micromanagement cycle, motivating employees, and measuring performance. Nonprofit studies could enrich public administration curricula.…

Brooks, Arthur C.

2002-01-01

139

Answering Hard Questions: "Wh"-Movement across Dialects and Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large-scale study of complex "wh"-questions with 1,000 subjects aged 4-9 years is reported. The subjects' dialects were Mainstream American English or African American English, and approximately one-third were language impaired. The study examined when children permit long distance "wh"-movement, and when they respect a variety of syntactic…

De Villiers, Jill; Roeper, Thomas; Bland-Stewart, Linda; Pearson, Barbara

2008-01-01

140

25 Questions You Should Know How to Answer  

E-print Network

other areas of the Earth at the same latitude are deserts? #12;25 Questions (B) 6. If sea level rises hurricanes often, but not always, veer away from Florida? 2. Why will it rain in August in Gainesville? Why will it rain in January in Gainesville? 3. Why does most of north Florida get wet when it rains in January

Binford, Michael W.

141

The use of why-questions to enhance college science students' comprehension of their textbooks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Why-questions adjunct to reading material consistently help students remember unfamiliar information (recall) according to research investigating elaborative interrogation. Why-questions ask students to explain why statements pulled-out from a text are true. But no one apparently has assessed why-questions' effectiveness when measuring comprehension of paraphrased meaningful information and when students are learning in a naturalistic classroom context. This study investigated the use of why-questions in enhancing science reading comprehension. Undergraduates (123 males and 171 females) using a chapter from their introductory biology textbooks were randomly assigned to a treatment group with 21 adjunct why-questions or to a control group with no adjunct why-questions. The treatment group was instructed to read the textbook material and to answer the why-questions. The control group was instructed to read the same textbook material twice, a standard methodological procedure used in such research. Posttest data was collected using a posttest only equivalent group design. A test for students' prior knowledge and a test for students' verbal ability were administered to the students prior to the study. Findings revealed that students in the treatment group using adjunct why-question outperformed (p < .05) students in the control group without why-questions on a comprehension posttest. Of interest is that students with low-verbal ability who answered adjunct why-questions significantly outperformed students with low-verbal ability in the control group. Why-questions seem to be a potentially powerful learning device to improve student comprehension of college biology textbooks.

Smith, Betty Lou

2002-01-01

142

In Pursuit of Happiness: Empirical Answers to Philosophical Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we provide an overview of what various philosophers throughout the ages have claimed about the nature of\\u000a happiness, and we discuss to what extent psychological science has been able to substantiate or refute their claims. We first\\u000a address concerns raised by philosophers regarding the possibility, desirability, and justifiability of happiness and then\\u000a turn to the perennial question

Pelin Kesebir; Ed Diener

143

Cultural differences in answering physics questions: Could they arise from the difference between reasoning expected in answering exam questions in those cultures?  

E-print Network

In many ways, the American learning system is unique in its reliance on testing using multiple-choice questions. Learning in physics, as well as in any other subject, is a context-dependent process. In this paper, I consider a broader problem of where differences in understanding arise; often styles of answering questions arise from the way the questions are posed. I speculate on the long-run effects a multiple-choice based learning system might have on the reasoning structure of the student compared to one based on more open-ended questions. I present some differences in answer styles observed between two populations of students, US students (mostly exposed to multiple-choice type exams), and Romanian students (mostly exposed to open-end type exams). Finally, I suggest some possible ways of checking whether my predictions have any validity.

Raduta, C; Raduta, Cristian; Aubrecht, Gordon

2005-01-01

144

Answering Fundamental Questions about Cataclysmic Variables and Classical Novae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cataclysmic variables (CVs) are interacting binaries consisting of a white dwarf primary, and a non-degenerate secondary star. There are numerous subclasses of CVs (any of which could become a Classical Nova), but broadly, these classifications are believed to arise from either differing values of the mass accretion rate, or whether the white dwarf primary is magnetic. There continue to be numerous questions about the origin, and evolution of these systems. We will review some of the outstanding issues, and address how advances in interferometry might be used to resolve them.

Harrison, T. E.

2014-09-01

145

A combined IR\\/NLP approach to question answering against large text collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an approach to finding literal answer strings to natural language questions in large text collections. The approach involves linking an IR system with an NLP system that performs reasonably thorough linguistic analysis. The IR system treats the question as a query and returns a set of t op ranked documents or passages. The NLP system parses the question

Robert Gaisauskas; Kevin Humphreys

2000-01-01

146

Reynolds_Answers N11.pdf Student questions: Stephen Reynolds colloquium on "Perception, Visualization, Cognition, and  

E-print Network

blind, such as not including certain colors on maps. Question 1: Do you feel like students benefit more. Question 2: What grade level/age group were the students in the figure transition experiment? All studetnsReynolds_Answers N11.pdf 1 Student questions: Stephen Reynolds colloquium on "Perception

Shumway, John

147

Working with Second Language Learners: Answers to Teachers' Top Ten Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book aims to provide practical, research-informed answers to the questions most frequently asked by teachers of second language learners. Every question targets one of the key instructional issues teachers must address to ensure success for their second language students. Included among the questions are: How do I assess a student's English?…

Cary, Stephen

148

Learning to Find Answers to Questions on the Web EUGENE AGICHTEIN  

E-print Network

Learning to Find Answers to Questions on the Web EUGENE AGICHTEIN Columbia University STEVE (answers.- google.com) facilitate interaction with human experts. Authors' addresses: Eugene Agichtein (eugene@cs.columbia.edu), Steve Lawrence (lawrence@necmail.com), Luis Gravano (gravano

Agichtein, Eugene

149

Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Campaign About our Partner Spread the Word Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers Share Compartir On this ... Overview Transmission Symptoms Testing Treatment Overview What is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It ...

150

26 CFR 1.416-1 - Questions and answers on top-heavy plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the plan provides for a nonproportional subsidy, the present value should reflect a...account unless they are nonproportional subsidies. See Question and Answer T-27...the plan provides for a nonproportional subsidy, the benefit should be assumed to...

2012-04-01

151

26 CFR 1.416-1 - Questions and answers on top-heavy plans.  

...the plan provides for a nonproportional subsidy, the present value should reflect a...account unless they are nonproportional subsidies. See Question and Answer T-27...the plan provides for a nonproportional subsidy, the benefit should be assumed to...

2014-04-01

152

26 CFR 1.416-1 - Questions and answers on top-heavy plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the plan provides for a nonproportional subsidy, the present value should reflect a...account unless they are nonproportional subsidies. See Question and Answer T-27...the plan provides for a nonproportional subsidy, the benefit should be assumed to...

2011-04-01

153

26 CFR 1.416-1 - Questions and answers on top-heavy plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the plan provides for a nonproportional subsidy, the present value should reflect a...account unless they are nonproportional subsidies. See Question and Answer T-27...the plan provides for a nonproportional subsidy, the benefit should be assumed to...

2013-04-01

154

How a Philosopher Became an Information-Scientist Answers to Luciano Floridi's Five Questions  

E-print Network

How a Philosopher Became an Information-Scientist Answers to Luciano Floridi's Five Questions (For importance of architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.2.9 Thinking like a designer Contents 1 How did it start? 2 1.1 High level overview

Sloman, Aaron

155

Pathogenesis of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: some answers, more questions  

PubMed Central

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) has long been recognized as unique among childhood arthritides, because of its distinctive clinical and epidemiological features, including an association with macrophage activation syndrome. Here, we summarize research into sJIA pathogenesis. The triggers of disease are unknown, although infections are suspects. Once initiated, sJIA seems to be driven by innate proinflammatory cytokines. Endogenous Toll-like receptor ligands, including S100 proteins, probably synergize with cytokines to perpetuate inflammation. These and other findings support the hypothesis that sJIA is an autoinflammatory condition. Indeed, IL-1 is implicated as a pivotal cytokine, but the source of excess IL-1 activity remains obscure and the role of IL-1 in chronic arthritis is less clear. Another hypothesis is that a form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis underlies sJIA, with varying degrees of its expression across the spectrum of disease. Alternatively, sJIA with MAS might be a genetically distinct subtype. Yet another hypothesis proposes that inadequate downregulation of immune activation is central to sJIA, supporting evidence for which includes ‘alternative activation’ of monocyte and macrophages and possible deficiencies in IL-10 and T regulatory cells. Some altered immune phenotypes persist during clinically inactive disease, which suggests that this stage might represent compensated inflammation. Despite much progress being made, many questions remain, providing fertile ground for future research. PMID:21647204

Mellins, Elizabeth D.; Macaubas, Claudia; Grom, Alexei A.

2014-01-01

156

Answers to questions about updated estimates of occupational radiation doses at Three Mile Island, Unit 2  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this question and answer report is to provide a clear, easy-to-understand explanation of revised radiation dose estimates which workers are likely to receive over the course of the cleanup at Three Mile Island, Unit 2, and of the possible health consequences to workers of these new estimates. We will focus primarily on occupational dose, although pertinent questions about public health and safety will also be answered.

Not Available

1983-12-01

157

Obstacles to answering doctors' questions about patient care with evidence: qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To describe the obstacles encountered when attempting to answer doctors' questions with evidence.Design: Qualitative study.Setting: General practices in Iowa.Participants: 9 academic generalist doctors, 14 family doctors, and 2 medical librarians.Main outcome measure: A taxonomy of obstacles encountered while searching for evidence based answers to doctors' questions.Results: 59 obstacles were encountered and organised according to the five steps in asking

John W Ely; Jerome A Osheroff; Mark H Ebell; M Lee Chambliss; Daniel C Vinson; James J Stevermer; Eric A Pifer

2002-01-01

158

Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2  

SciTech Connect

This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

Not Available

1984-03-01

159

Answers to the 50 Most Important Questions about Private Mental Health Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for anyone contemplating or presently established in private mental health practice, this book provides the answers to 50 pertinent questions concerning private practice. Questions were culled from a survey of graduate students in psychology, as well as experienced psychotherapists, psychiatrists, social workers, mental health counselors,…

Forman, Bruce D.; Silverman, Wade H.

160

10 Questions to Answer for Technology to Succeed in Your School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few principals claim to be technology experts. Most aspire to design a map that leads their schools to success with educational technology. However, the key to success on the journey is not knowing everything or becoming a technology expert. It is about asking the right questions, exploring the answers to those questions, and creating a road map…

Gosmire, Doreen; Grady, Marilyn L.

2007-01-01

161

Researching the Quest: Are Community College Students Motivated by Question-and-Answer Reviews?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any effort to assess the motivational techniques employed by community college faculty is complicated by the inter-connectedness of motivational techniques and teaching techniques, as improved teaching results in improved motivation. Nonetheless, this research poses a motivation-related question: Does the use of daily question-and-answer reviews…

Cavendish, Don F., Jr.

2010-01-01

162

The Most-Asked Questions about Gifted Children: Answers for Parents and Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for both parents and educators, the booklet offers answers to the questions parents ask about their gifted children. The 64 questions are divided into 6 major categories--definitions of giftedness, ways to help parents identify gifted children, schooling for the gifted child, understanding gifted children, help for the gifted child, and…

Fehrle, Carl C.; And Others

163

Wrong Answer to the Wrong Question: Why We Need Critical Teacher Education, Not Standardization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors contend that teacher education (like K-12) is under attack by those seeking to exploit the public good and privatize education. Teacher educators find themselves on the defensive, compelled to answer questions about efficacy and accountability that do not reflect their understandings of their work, questions that do not address the…

Madeloni, Barbara; Gorlewski, Julie

2013-01-01

164

On-Line Mathematics Assessment: The Impact of Mode on Performance and Question Answering Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition from paper-based to computer-based assessment raises a number of important issues about how mode might affect children's performance and question answering strategies. In this project 104 eleven-year-olds were given two sets of matched mathematics questions, one set on-line and the other on paper. Facility values were analyzed to…

Johnson, Martin; Green, Sylvia

2006-01-01

165

A Semi-supervised Topic-driven Approach for Clustering Textual Answers to Survey Questions  

E-print Network

cluster a specific type of text documents: textual responses gathered through a survey system. Due such questions, text clustering can be employed. This technique categorizes a collection of text documentsA Semi-supervised Topic-driven Approach for Clustering Textual Answers to Survey Questions Hui Yang

Yang, Hui

166

Warning Signs of Youth Violence. Just the Facts: Answers to Your Questions about Psychological Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Violence. It's the act of purposefully hurting someone. And it's a major issue facing today's young adults. This fact sheet answers questions that those aged 12-24 might ask about violence. This age group faces the highest risk of being the victim of violence. Questions regard the causes of youth violence, warning signs, what to do if someone…

American Psychological Association (APA), 2002

2002-01-01

167

Responding to Children's Answers: Questions Embedded in the Social Context of Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents analysis of question-answer sequences during problem inquiry between a teacher and two children in an early childhood crèche in New Zealand. Conversation analysis is used to reveal which questions the teacher asks, how children answer the questions, and the teacher's responses to the child's answers. Although…

Bateman, Amanda

2013-01-01

168

Effects of Three Questioning Strategies on EFL Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of three classroom questioning strategies on the reading comprehension of learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Subjects were 86 first-year EFL students in the school of education of Suez Canal University (Egypt), randomly assigned to three treatment groups. The same instructor taught the three groups…

El-Koumy, Abdel Salam A.

169

Research Paper: Do Online Information Retrieval Systems Help Experienced Clinicians Answer Clinical Questions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess the impact of clinicians' use of an online information retrieval system on their performance in answering clinical questions.DesignPre-\\/post-intervention experimental design.MeasurementsIn a computer laboratory, 75 clinicians (26 hospital-based doctors, 18 family practitioners, and 31 clinical nurse consultants) provided 600 answers to eight clinical scenarios before and after the use of an online information retrieval system. We examined the proportion

Johanna I. Westbrook; Enrico W. Coiera; A. Sophie Gosling

2005-01-01

170

Text-to-text generation for question answering Wauter Bosma, Erwin Marsi, Emiel Krahmer and Mariet Theune  

E-print Network

Text-to-text generation for question answering Wauter Bosma, Erwin Marsi, Emiel Krahmer and Mari¨et Theune Abstract When answering questions, major challenges are (a) to carefully deter- mine the content alignment and surface string generation. 1 Introduction Answering specific types of trivia style (so

Theune, Mariët

171

Analysis of short-answer question styles versus gender in pre-clinical veterinary education.  

PubMed

One large study in medical education has reported that the choice of question format (or question content) could introduce a gender bias, with men outperforming women on questions with a true-false component or that required knowledge of anatomy or physiology. The purpose of our study was to ascertain whether this finding is also true in veterinary medical education. Two veterinary student cohorts were analyzed across four different modules over a three-year period (804 questions in total). The results of the study show that the women's and men's performance did not differ in any of the question types analyzed across any module or year. When students' (both women and men) overall average performance on different question types was compared with their performance on standard multiple-choice questions (MCQs), performance levels increased when students were asked to answer MCQs that contained an image-based prop (IMCQ) such as a photograph, X-ray image, or diagram. In contrast, students' performance was consistently lower when answering assertion-reason questions (ARQs), and this performance could not be explained by the demographic makeup of the two cohorts analyzed. When comparing standard MCQs with MCQs that contained a true-false question stem, no specific trend in the data could be determined. In conclusion, this study suggests that the short-answer question style does not bias against one gender in veterinary medical education, but that overall students do perform differently according to question type and, in particular, less well when ARQs are used in examinations. PMID:21805937

Foster, Neil

2011-01-01

172

[Questions and answers to possible side effects of external bleaching therapies].  

PubMed

There are several questions with regard to the application and possible side effects of external bleaching therapies. The following short review gives answers to some questions regarding this topic. It might be concluded that every bleaching therapy should be preceded by a meticulous intraoral examination. To reduce the risk of adverse effects, it is mandatory to have knowledge about the mode of action of bleaching agents. PMID:18998582

Attin, Thomas; Wiegand, Annette; Schmidlin, Patrick R

2008-01-01

173

BVideoQA: Online English\\/Chinese bilingual video question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a bilingual video question answer- ing (QA) system, namely BVideoQA, which allows users to retrieve Chinese videos through English or Chinese natural language questions. Our method first extracts an optimal one-to-one string pattern matching according to theproposeddenseandlongN-grammatch.Onthebasis of the matched string patterns, it gives a passage score based on our term-weighting scheme.The main contribu- tions of this

Yue-shi Lee; Yu-chieh Wu; Jie-chi Yang

2009-01-01

174

Effects of Wh-Question Graphic Organizers on Reading Comprehension Skills of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with autism spectrum disorders often have difficulty with reading comprehension. This study used a delayed multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effects of graphic organizers on the accuracy of wh-questions answered following short passage reading. Participants were three elementary-age students with autism spectrum…

Bethune, Keri S.; Wood,Charles L.

2013-01-01

175

Olum_Answers 113.pdf Student questions: Ken Olum colloquium on "Cosmic Strings in 3D"  

E-print Network

, which potentially emit cosmic rays and gravitational radiation, for 2-dimensional topological defectsOlum_Answers 113.pdf 1 Student questions: Ken Olum colloquium on "Cosmic Strings in 3D" 1 in the cosmic string? In my simulation of loops, the color showed how long the loop was. All the very long

Shumway, John

176

Question-Answering for Intelligent On-Line Help: The Process of Intelligent Responding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the process of specifying a question-answering help facility in the context of UNIX mail. The specification was bosed upon experimental expert-user facilitative dialogues. These dialogues were analyzed using a classification scheme developed for the purpose. The scheme provides a meta- language for describing patterns of intent and rhetorical structure in dialogue. Using the scheme as a tool,

Rachel M. Pilkington

1992-01-01

177

Questions and answers, and references for the presentation, "Relativity, Time and Black Holes",  

E-print Network

places to start: Black Holes and Time Warps, K.S. Thorne General Relativity from A to B, R. Geroch FlatQuestions and answers, and references for the presentation, "Relativity, Time and Black Holes. On the other hand, he will have experienced more time up to that point than you. Q: If I fall into a black hole

Johnson, Raymond L.

178

Finding the Right Facts in the Crowd: Factoid Question Answering over Social Media  

E-print Network

results, and to better integrate social media content for effective information access. CategoriesFinding the Right Facts in the Crowd: Factoid Question Answering over Social Media Jiang Bian framework for factual information retrieval from social media. Results of a large scale evaluation

Agichtein, Eugene

179

Frequently Asked Questions about ADHD and the Answers from the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies useful Internet sites about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the results of searching these sites to answer common questions concerning incidence of ADHD, basic information about Ritalin drug therapy, educational placement of students with ADHD, sources of information about special needs, and what parents can do at…

Loechler, Kathy

1999-01-01

180

Microsoft Word - App 2-4 Answers to Participant Questions.doc  

Cancer.gov

1 Lung Screening Study Version 3.0 Manual of Operations and Procedures 11/15/00 Appendix 2–4 Lung Screening Study Answers to Potential Participant Questions Participation: 1. Why should I participate? The study is designed to determine

181

Young Children's Sensitivity to New and Given Information when Answering Predicate-Focus Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two studies we investigated 2-year-old children's answers to predicate-focus questions depending on the preceding context. Children were presented with a successive series of short video clips showing transitive actions (e.g., frog washing duck) in which either the action (action-new) or the patient (patient-new) was the changing, and therefore…

Salomo, Dorothe; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

2010-01-01

182

Answering questions with an electroencephalogram-based brain-computer interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To demonstrate that humans can learn to control selected electroencephalographic components and use that control to answer simple questions.Methods: Four adults (one with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) learned to use electroencephalogram (EEG) mu rhythm (8 to 12Hz) or beta rhythm (18 to 25Hz) activity over sensorimotor cortex to control vertical cursor movement to targets at the top or bottom edge

Laurie A. Miner; Dennis J. McFarland; Jonathan R. Wolpaw

1998-01-01

183

Ishii_Answers 212.pdf Student questions: Miaki Ishii colloquium on "Dissecting Giant Earthquakes: Things We  

E-print Network

Ishii_Answers 212.pdf 1 Student questions: Miaki Ishii colloquium on "Dissecting Giant Earthquakes: Things We Didn't Know" 2/15/12 You talked about how an earthquake in the ocean is more likely to cause aftershocks because of the presence of water near the fault. Earthquakes in oceans do not necessarily generate

Elser, Jim

184

Who Wants to Know? Question-asking and Answering Practices among Facebook Users  

E-print Network

Who Wants to Know? Question-asking and Answering Practices among Facebook Users Rebecca Gray1@umd.edu ABSTRACT Research has identified a link between Facebook use and bridging social capital, which speaks through which Facebook may help individuals mobilize these embedded informational and support resources

Michigan, University of

185

Development, implementation, and a cognitive evaluation of a definitional question answering system for physicians  

E-print Network

a large number of articles and generates short text, ideally, less than a few seconds, to answer questions, Suite 125, Durham, NC, USA Received 17 November 2005 Available online 12 March 2007 Abstract The published medical literature and online medical resources are important sources to help physicians make

Yu, Hong

186

Blandford_Answers N11.pdf Student questions: Roger Blandford colloquium on "The Golden Crab"  

E-print Network

Blandford_Answers N11.pdf 1 Student questions: Roger Blandford colloquium on "The Golden Crab" 11 benefit from observing and analyzing the Crab Nebula? To me it sounds like engineers trying to advance alternative energies could learn from how the crab nebula functions. Instrumentalists can learn from

Shumway, John

187

Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities Solicitation  

E-print Network

Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities biofuels production facility? A.1 An existing biofuels facility is an existing facility that, as of the application due date of PON-13-601, produces (or did produce) biofuels in California. Q.2 Must an eligible

188

A Named Entity Recogniser for Question Answering Menno van Zaanen and Diego Molla  

E-print Network

A Named Entity Recogniser for Question Answering Menno van Zaanen and Diego Moll´a Centre present an NER designed for QA, which aims at having a high recall. 1 Introduction Named Entity (NE by a Named Entity Recogniser (NER). Typical entity types are per- son or company names, dates and times

Aliod, Diego Mollá

189

Self-Assessment Please take a minute to answer these questions.  

E-print Network

? __ Been uncomfortable when driving in general? If you answered "yes" to one or more of these questions. Pause Before You Act Take a minute to get your brain and body on the same page. In situations where you & Services Army Medical Department Office of The S

Blanchette, Robert A.

190

!! Plan to answer a specific question. !! Limit the number of variables in the test.  

E-print Network

KEY POINTS !! Plan to answer a specific question. !! Limit the number of variables in the test. !! Establish adjacent control plots. !! Replicate, replicate, replicate. !! Set up a written measurement FOR ESTABLISHING ANIMAL EXCLOSURES FOR RESEARCH IN CEDAR STANDS Raymond O. Miller Wildlife exclosures have been

191

Do-It-Yourself Learning Games: Software That Lets You Pick the Questions--and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews user-adaptable learning games that can be customized for any subject, including Tic Tac Show and the Game Show from Computer Advanced Ideas, which are question-answer learning programs based on game shows, and Master Match from Computer Advanced Ideas and Square Pairs from Scholastic Inc., which are based on the card game Concentration.…

Hively, Wells

1984-01-01

192

Home Education Reason and Research: Common Questions and Research-Based Answers about Homeschooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a brief review of research on a variety of topics related to home education and answers the most common questions asked regarding Homeschooling. Examples of the topics addressed are: the teaching parent's education level, academic achievement of students, population growth, philosophy, government (state) regulation and homeschool…

Ray, Brian D.

2009-01-01

193

Using and Developing with CD-Interactive: Frequently Asked Questions Are Answered.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Compact Disc-Interactive (CD-I) using a question-and-answer format. Highlights include development of the CD-I technology; where to purchase discs and players; compatibility with other CD-ROM drives; how to make discs; authoring systems versus custom programs; entertainment and educational applications; licensing issues; specifications;…

Lediaev, Lucy; van Sonderen, Lex

1994-01-01

194

"The Panama Canal Episode: An Encounter with a Question and Answers." Occasional Paper 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an account of the experience of a college instructor and a group of prospective social studies teachers as they answer a simple question concerned with direction of travel through the Panama Canal and explore the reactions of students. The situation originates in a class discussion focusing on ways of asking and responding to classroom…

Seifman, Eli

195

DalTREC 2005 QA System Jellyfish: Mark-and-Match Approach to Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second year that Dalhousie University actively participated in TREC. Three runs were submitted for the Question Answering track. Our results are below the median; however, they're signifantly larger than minimal, the lesson learnt will guide our future development of the system. Our approach was based on a mark-and-match methodology with regular expression rewriting.

Tony Abou-assaleh; Nick Cercone; Jon Doyle; Vlado Keselj; Chris Whidden

2005-01-01

196

DalTREC 2005 QA System Jellyfish: Mark-and-Match Approach to Question Answering  

E-print Network

DalTREC 2005 QA System Jellyfish: Mark-and-Match Approach to Question Answering Tony Abou-Assaleh-up deterministic parsing technique. For example, the rewriting in which " " is replaced with "z>" corresponds to the context- free rule S NP VP. The value z is obtained by decoding x and y, concatenating

Keselj, Vlado

197

DalTREC 2005 QA System Jelly sh: Mark-and-Match Approach to Question Answering  

E-print Network

DalTREC 2005 QA System Jelly#12;sh: Mark-and-Match Approach to Question Answering Tony Abou-Assaleh-up deterministic parsing technique. For example, the rewriting in which \\ " is replaced with \\z>" corresponds to the context- free rule S ! NP VP. The value z is obtained by decoding x and y, concatenating

Keselj, Vlado

198

Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

US Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

199

Questions & Answers What can I do with a Women's and Gender Study degree?  

E-print Network

Questions & Answers What can I do with a Women's and Gender Study degree? How do I register in my are prerequisites? What is the difference between lower level and upper level courses? How do I choose my courses should I visit an Academic Advisor? Who is the academic advisor in Women's and Gender Studies? To whom

200

Questions and Answers About Bone CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION  

E-print Network

. This is an enzyme found in the blood when children are growing, when a broken bone is mending or when a diseaseQuestions and Answers About Bone CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION What is bone care provider is the only way to find out what may be causing these symptoms. How is bone cancer

201

Optimizing The Selection of Strangers To Answer Questions in Social Media  

E-print Network

Millions of people express themselves on public social media, such as Twitter. Through their posts, these people may reveal themselves as potentially valuable sources of information. For example, real-time information about an event might be collected through asking questions of people who tweet about being at the event location. In this paper, we explore how to model and select users to target with questions so as to improve answering performance while managing the load on people who must be asked. We first present a feature-based model that leverages users exhibited social behavior, including the content of their tweets and social interactions, to characterize their willingness and readiness to respond to questions on Twitter. We then use the model to predict the likelihood for people to answer questions. To support real-world information collection applications, we present an optimization-based approach that selects a proper set of strangers to answer questions while achieving a set of application-dependen...

Mahmud, Jalal; Megiddo, Nimrod; Nichols, Jeffrey; Drews, Clemens

2014-01-01

202

Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers  

SciTech Connect

Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

None

1980-08-01

203

Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.  

SciTech Connect

Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1994-05-01

204

Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.  

SciTech Connect

Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1993-11-01

205

CSShark Answers Frequently Asked Questions: The CSS Know-How Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is an Internet tool that separates the presentation from the structural markup of a Web site. CSS keeps the structure of a document lean and fast while controlling the appearance of its content. This product is not an adapted tool from print or programming; rather, it is a means of enhancing HTML. For users interested in learning more about this tool, this informative and well-constructed site answers some of those frequently asked questions regarding CSS. In addition, the site explains some of the basics of CSS, provides tips and tricks for tackling the problems with Netscape 4, offers a tutorial concerning positioning with CSS (CSS-P, Web design without tables), and gives various resource links to other related sites. In short, for those with questions concerning CSS and its functions, the CSShark is ready to provide answers.

Mako.

2001-01-01

206

Cancer Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T) in front of the answer.  

E-print Network

EAT SMART Cancer Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T the information from this program. # I have or have had cancer. YES NO As you answer each question, think about

207

Learning from Classroom Questions and Answers: Teachers' Uncertainties about Children's Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the interaction of language varieties with teachers' perceptions and evaluations of how k-2 students answer classroom questions. Using both qualitative and quantitative methodology, we trace the processes, findings, and reflections from 2 years of collaboration with teachers in a low-income, multiethnic, inner-city school where all students spoke marginalized or stigmatized varieties of English, including Appalachian\\/rural and African-American

Barbara Edwards; Boyd Davis

1997-01-01

208

Can zoo records help answer behavioral research questions? The case of the left-handed lemurs (Lemur catta).  

PubMed

Most zoos keep comprehensive records, which potentially form a database for use in answering some research questions, such as in veterinary and population management research. They have not, however, been widely used to answer questions about animal behavior and welfare. Here we try to assess the usefulness to behavioral research of two sorts of zoo records (ARKS, the Animal Records Keeping System, and student dissertations held on file) to test the hypothesis that ring-tailed lemurs with a left limb preference experience more negative social lives. We found that, as predicted, lemurs with a left limb preference (LH) received more aggression and were involved in less grooming than nonleft-preferent lemurs (NLH), though the differences were not statistically significant. Contrary to prediction, LH lemurs had fewer reported woundings than NLH lemurs, but again the difference was not statistically significant. We found that the ARKS reports did not contain sufficient quantified and systematic behavioral data for our purposes, although otherwise they provided an excellent context for interpreting results. The student dissertations were also of limited use, primarily because of the small time frame in which they were carried out. Because of these shortcomings we were unable to distinguish whether our inability to find significant effects was due to biological (perhaps hand preference had no consequences for the lemurs) or data reasons. We suggest that closer liaison between zoo research staff, zoo record keepers and academic supervisors could help to improve the usefulness of zoo records for behavioral research. PMID:21674604

Hosey, Geoff; Hill, Sonya P; Lherbier, Mary L

2012-01-01

209

The Communication Skills Used by Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers in a Question-and-Answer Game Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in…

Toe, Dianne M.; Paatsch, Louise E.

2010-01-01

210

INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY  

SciTech Connect

Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

2011-07-01

211

Attempting to answer a meaningful question enhances subsequent learning even when feedback is delayed.  

PubMed

Attempting to retrieve information from memory enhances subsequent learning even if the retrieval attempt is unsuccessful. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit materializes only if subsequent study occurs immediately after the retrieval attempt. Previous studies have prompted retrieval using a cue (e.g., whale-???) that has no intrinsic answer. Experiment 1 replicated prior word pair studies, but in Experiment 2, when participants learned meaningful trivia questions, testing enhanced learning even when subsequent study was delayed. Even in Experiment 3, when subsequent study was delayed by up to 24 hr, tests enhanced learning on a final test another 24 hr later. These findings may give comfort to educators who worry that asking a question or giving a test, on which students inevitably make mistakes, impairs learning if feedback is not immediate. They also suggest that there is a consensus in the literature thus far: Questions with rich semantic content enhance subsequent learning even when feedback is delayed, but less meaningful questions without an intrinsic answer enhance learning only when feedback is immediate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23855547

Kornell, Nate

2014-01-01

212

Practical question-and-answer guide on VDTS (video display terminals) for BEES (base bioenvironmental engineer). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The USAF OEHL conducted an extensive literature review of Video Display Terminals (VDTs) and the health problems commonly associated with them. The report is presented in a question-and-answer format in an attempt to paraphrase the most commonly asked questions about VDTs that are forwarded to USAF OEHL/RZN. The questions and answers have been divided into several topic areas: Ionizing Radiation; Nonionizing Radiation; Optical Radiation; Ultrasound; Static Electricity; Health Complaints/Ergonomics; Pregnancy.

Olson, B.M.

1985-01-01

213

[Veno-venous extracorporeal oxygenation and veno-arterial extracorporeal oxygenation. Questions, answers].  

PubMed

A round table, organized by the French Society of Perfusion (Sofraperf) at the French national congress on extracorporeal circulations (Perfusion 2013), was attended by perfusionists, anaesthesiologists, intensivists and surgeons around the theme of respiratory veno-venous support and veno-arterial circulatory support with extracorporeal oxygenation in intensive care units. The debate was conducted in a participatory manner by bi-directional questions-answers session between moderators and assistance. The authors report management of this type of therapy that is not perfectly homogeneous, supported on literature data. Cannulae, cannulation, circuit, oxygenator, anticoagulation, control, surveillance, weaning are subject to paragraphs with defined entry whose contents are mutually enriching. PMID:24630169

Isetta, C; Lebreton, G; Janot, N; Prommenschenkel, M; Rilos, Z; Roques, F; Longrois, D

2014-04-01

214

Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.  

SciTech Connect

Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1995-06-01

215

Generating Exact- and Ranked Partially-Matched Answers to Questions in Advertisements  

E-print Network

Taking advantage of the Web, many advertisements (ads for short) websites, which aspire to increase client's transactions and thus profits, offer searching tools which allow users to (i) post keyword queries to capture their information needs or (ii) invoke form-based interfaces to create queries by selecting search options, such as a price range, filled-in entries, check boxes, or drop-down menus. These search mechanisms, however, are inadequate, since they cannot be used to specify a natural-language query with rich syntactic and semantic content, which can only be handled by a question answering (QA) system. Furthermore, existing ads websites are incapable of evaluating arbitrary Boolean queries or retrieving partiallymatched answers that might be of interest to the user whenever a user's search yields only a few or no results at all. In solving these problems, we present a QA system for ads, called CQAds, which (i) allows users to post a natural-language question Q for retrieving relevant ads, if they exi...

Qumsiyeh, Rani; Ng, Yiu-Kai

2011-01-01

216

Violations of information structure: An electrophysiological study of answers to wh-questions  

PubMed Central

This study investigates brain responses to violations of information structure in wh-question-answer pairs, with particular emphasis on violations of focus assignment in it-clefts (It was the queen that silenced the banker). Two types of ERP responses in answers to wh-questions were found. First, all words in the focus-marking (cleft) position elicited a large positivity (P3b) characteristic of sentence-final constituents, as did the final words of these sentences, which suggests that focused elements may trigger integration effects like those seen at sentence end. Second, the focusing of an inappropriate referent elicited a smaller, N400-like effect. The results show that comprehenders actively use structural focus cues and discourse-level restrictions during online sentence processing. These results, based on visual stimuli, were different from the brain response to auditory focus violations indicated by pitch-accent (Hruska et al. 2000), but similar to brain responses to newly introduced discourse referents (Bornkessel et al. 2003). PMID:17517429

Cowles, H. Wind; Kluender, Robert; Kutas, Marta; Polinsky, Maria

2014-01-01

217

1.Answer the following questions: (a)& you have learned in your physical metallurgy class, diffusion rate in solid may be  

E-print Network

1.Answer the following questions: (a)& you have learned in your physical metallurgy class on the physical metallurgy principles, the student suggested two possibilities for the stress drop: 1) The stress

Huang, Haimei

218

26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...  

...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-5T Questions and answers relating to the...

2014-04-01

219

26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-5T Questions and answers relating to the...

2011-04-01

220

26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-5T Questions and answers relating to the...

2013-04-01

221

26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-5T Questions and answers relating to the...

2012-04-01

222

75 FR 75482 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers...Residual Solvents that applies to both human and veterinary drugs and to...

2010-12-03

223

Reference Question Answered: Bibliographic Sources for the Ukrainian Periodical Press in the 1840’s: Encyclopedias, Bibliographies, Guides, and Library Catalogs  

E-print Network

This document is an electronic post-print of an article published in Slavic & East European Information Resources: Giullian, Jon. "Reference Question Answered: Bibliographic Sources for the Ukrainian Periodical Press in the 1840’s: Encyclopedias... be made to the version published in SEEIR. Reference Question Answered: Bibliographic Sources for the Ukrainian Periodical Press in the 1840’s: Encyclopedias, Bibliographies, Guides, and Library Catalogs Jon C. Giullian1 ABSTRACT...

Giullian, Jon C.

2008-01-01

224

Recognizing Questions and Answers in EMR Templates Using Natural Language Processing.  

PubMed

Templated boilerplate structures pose challenges to natural language processing (NLP) tools used for information extraction (IE). Routine error analyses while performing an IE task using Veterans Affairs (VA) medical records identified templates as an important cause of false positives. The baseline NLP pipeline (V3NLP) was adapted to recognize negation, questions and answers (QA) in various template types by adding a negation and slot:value identification annotator. The system was trained using a corpus of 975 documents developed as a reference standard for extracting psychosocial concepts. Iterative processing using the baseline tool and baseline+negation+QA revealed loss of numbers of concepts with a modest increase in true positives in several concept categories. Similar improvement was noted when the adapted V3NLP was used to process a random sample of 318,000 notes. We demonstrate the feasibility of adapting an NLP pipeline to recognize templates. PMID:25000038

Divita, Guy; Shen, Shuying; Carter, Marjorie E; Redd, Andrew; Forbush, Tyler; Palmer, Miland; Samore, Matthew H; Gundlapalli, Adi V

2014-01-01

225

Questionnaires for eliciting evaluation data from users of interactive question answering  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating interactive question answering (QA) systems with real users can be challenging because traditional evaluation measures based on the relevance of items returned are difficult to employ since relevance judgments can be unstable in multi-user evaluations. The work reported in this paper evaluates, in distinguishing among a set of interactive QA systems, the effectiveness of three questionnaires: a Cognitive Workload Questionnaire (NASA TLX), and Task and System Questionnaires customized to a specific interactive QA application. These Questionnaires were evaluated with four systems, seven analysts, and eight scenarios during a 2-week workshop. Overall, results demonstrate that all three Questionnaires are effective at distinguishing among systems, with the Task Questionnaire being the most sensitive. Results also provide initial support for the validity and reliability of the Questionnaires.

Kelly, Diane; Kantor, Paul B.; Morse, Emile; Scholtz, Jean; Sun, Y.

2009-01-01

226

The ContactFinder agent: Answering bulletin board questions with referrals  

SciTech Connect

ContactFinder is an intelligent agent whose approach to assisting users is valuable and innovative in the following four ways. First, ContactFinder operates proactively in reading and responding to messages on electronic bulletin boards rather than acting in response to user queries. Second, ContactFinder assists users by referring them to other people who can help them, rather than attempting to find information that directly answers the user`s specific question. Third, ContactFinder categorizes messages and extracts their topic areas using a set of heuristics that are very efficient and demonstrably highly effective. Fourth, ContactFinder posts its referrals back to the bulletin boards rather than simply communicating with specific users, to increase the information density and connectivity of the system. This paper discusses these aspects of the system and demonstrates their effectiveness in over six months of use on a large-scale internal bulletin board.

Krulwich, B.; Burkey, C. [Center for Strategic Technology Research, Northbrook, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

227

Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers  

PubMed Central

Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics. PMID:18522725

Kurz, Matthias

2008-01-01

228

29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

2010-07-01

229

Dense Plasma Focus: A question in search of answers, a technology in search of applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnostic information accumulated over four decades of research suggests a directionality of toroidal motion for energetic ions responsible for fusion neutron production in the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) and existence of an axial component of magnetic field even under conditions of azimuthal symmetry. This is at variance with the traditional view of Dense Plasma Focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow. The difficulty in understanding the experimental situation from a theoretical standpoint arises from polarity of the observed solenoidal state: three independent experiments confirm existence of a fixed polarity of the axial magnetic field or related azimuthal current. Since the equations governing plasma dynamics do not have a built-in direction, the fixed polarity must be related with initial conditions: the plasma dynamics must interact with an external physical vector in order to generate a solenoidal state of fixed polarity. Only four such external physical vectors can be identified: the earth's magnetic field, earth's angular momentum, direction of current flow and the direction of the plasma accelerator. How interaction of plasma dynamics with these fields can generate observed solenoidal state is a question still in search of answers; this paper outlines one possible answer. The importance of this question goes beyond scientific curiosity into technological uses of the energetic ions and the high-power-density plasma environment. However, commercial utilization of such technologies faces reliability concerns, which can be met only by first-principles integrated design of globally-optimized industrial-quality DPF hardware. Issues involved in the emergence of the Dense Plasma Focus as a technology platform for commercial applications in the not-too-distant future are discussed.

Auluck, S. K. H.

2014-08-01

230

Dear Administrator: Leader's Edge Columnist Susan Brooks-Young Answers Your Questions about Grants, Fundraising, and Budgeting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author provides answers to several questions about grants, fundraising, and budgeting. In one particular question, the author explains why verification is required for administrative support in technology programs. She also suggests several qualities to seek when undergoing a contract with a grant writer.

Brooks-Young, Susan

2005-01-01

231

A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

Brown, John S.; And Others

232

Biology 253 Human Anatomy Exam II Fall 2010 page 1 of 8 IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS: ANSWER ONLY 50 QUESTIONS. Do not answer more than 50 questions. If  

E-print Network

antebrachial compartment 9) Which of the following is a symptom of carpal tunnel entrapment? A) drop hand BBiology 253 Human Anatomy Exam II Fall 2010 page 1 of 8 IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS: ANSWER ONLY 50 253 Human Anatomy Exam II Fall 2010 page 2 of 8 7) Identify the INCORRECT association of muscle

Houde, Peter

233

Towards A Comprehensive Consideration of Epistemic Questions in Software System Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For any software system upon which lives depend, the most important question one can ask about it is, 'How do we know the system is safe?' Despite the critical importance of this question, no widely accepted, generally applicable answer exists. Instead, debate continues to rage over the question, with theorists and practitioners quarrelling with each other and amongst themselves. This paper suggests a possible way forward towards quelling the quarrels, based on refining the critical safety question into additional questions, which may be more likely to have answers on which a consensus can be reached.

Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

2009-01-01

234

Using Notable Children's Literature and Questioning Techniques to Enhance Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for language arts teachers of the upper elementary grades, this guide suggests vocabulary and discussion questions for teaching novels. The questions are on an inferential level of interpretation, rather than literal, and address such topics as style, technique, and plot development. Novels for which questions are provided are: (1) "White…

Poole, Gary; Poole, Scott

235

Health care reform, 2014: no matter what the question, mission is the answer.  

PubMed

In this column, the president of the Collaborative Family Healthcare Association (CFHA) addresses the lack of understanding and agreement to the question What is health care reform? It is a daunting task to understand, let alone redesign, the most expensive (but not most effective or most efficient) health care system in the world. In this critical window of opportunity, influencing positive movement through leadership, communication, and teamwork is a strategic priority of the CFHA and its journal, Family Systems & Health. The emphases on comprehensive, coordinated, and cost-effective care, although novel concepts for many, have been core features of CFHA's philosophy for almost two decades (see CFHA's mission statement). As we mark the halfway point in this pivotal year in health care reform, we continue to struggle. CFHA can help illuminate the path of what health care reform can be and what it can do for each citizen in our communities. PMID:24955698

Khatri, Parinda

2014-06-01

236

New answers to old questions from genome-wide maps of DNA methylation in hematopoietic cells.  

PubMed

DNA methylation is a well-studied epigenetic modification essential for efficient cellular differentiation. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are a characteristic feature of cancer, including myeloid malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia. Recurrent mutations in DNA-modifying enzymes were identified in acute myeloid leukemia and linked to distinct DNA methylation signatures. In addition, discovery of Tet enzymes provided new mechanisms for the reversal of DNA methylation. Advances in base-resolution profiling of DNA methylation have enabled a more comprehensive understanding of the methylome landscape in the genome. This review will summarize and discuss the key questions in the function of DNA methylation in the hematopoietic system, including where and how DNA methylation regulates diverse biological processes in the genome as elucidated by recent studies. PMID:24993071

Jeong, Mira; Goodell, Margaret A

2014-08-01

237

Ten common questions (and their answers) about off-label drug use.  

PubMed

The term off-label drug use (OLDU) is used extensively in the medical literature, continuing medical education exercises, and the media. Yet, we propose that many health care professionals have an underappreciation of its definition, prevalence, and implications. This article introduces and answers 10 questions regarding OLDU in an effort to clarify the practice's meaning, breadth of application, acceptance, and liabilities. Off-label drug use involves prescribing medications for indications, or using a dosage or dosage form, that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Since the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate the practice of medicine, OLDU has become common. It occurs in every specialty of medicine, but it may be more common in areas of medicine in which the patient population is less likely to be included in clinical trials (eg, pediatric, pregnant, or psychiatric patients). Pharmaceutical companies are not allowed to promote their medications for an off-label use, which has lead to several large settlements for illegal marketing. To limit liability, physicians should prescribe medications only for indications that they believe are in the best interest of the patient. In addition, health care professionals should educate themselves about OLDU to weigh the risks and benefits and provide the best possible care for their patients. PMID:22877654

Wittich, Christopher M; Burkle, Christopher M; Lanier, William L

2012-10-01

238

A study of advanced training technology: Emerging answers to tough questions  

SciTech Connect

This study reports the result of an extensive nationwide review of military, private sector, and other federal agencies and organizations that are implementing a wide variety of advanced training technologies. This report classifies the general categories of advanced training technologies found and provides an overview of each, including specific types and examples. In addition, the research findings present an organizational model for training development linking overall organizational maturity to readiness to implement specific kinds of advanced training technologies. It also presents proposed methods for selecting media, describes the organizations and the data gathered, and provides a summary of implementation success at each organization. This study is organized as a set of five topics. Each topic raises a number of important questions and provides complete or emerging answers. For organizations who have made advanced training selections, this study is a resource to benchmark their success with other organizations who have made similar selections. For new or developing training organizations, this study will help plan their future technology selections by comparing their level of organizational maturity to the documented experiences of similar organizations.

NONE

1995-03-01

239

Geophysical Summer Field Camp: Answering questions about the subsurface for the local community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer Geophysics Field Camp is part of the core requirement for undergraduate Geophysics majors at Boise State University (CSM), as well as at Colorado School of Mines (CSM). We have found it to be most effectively taught when the target of the camp involves answering questions, which impact society. For example, currently the CSM/BSU geophysics summer camp focuses on ground water resources and geothermal potential in the Upper Arkansas River Basin, a part of the Rio Grande Rift system in Chaffee County, Colorado. A prime goal is to train students how to combine diverse sources of information into a unified interpretation: Students examine lithologies and structures on the periphery of the basin. Cross sections are constructed to predict the geophysical signature. Geophysical tools then are used to ascertain the gross structure and examine subsurface conditions in greater detail. These tools include surveying, regional gravity, deep and shallow seismic surveys, magnetics, DC resistivity, Ground Penetrating Radar, electromagnetics, hydrochemistry, and karaoke. While BSU and CSM own a considerable amount of geophysical hardware, our field camps are only possible because of extensive support by corporations and governmental agencies. In addition, the Society of Exploration Geohysics (SEG) Foundation provides financial support, Chaffee County assists with housing costs, and local land owners provide open access. In turn, the field camp results aid the community of Chaffee County in assessing their water resources for long term growth planning, as well as understanding the geothermal potential for hydroelectric power generation. BSU is currently exploring with the SEG Foundation under the Geophysicists Without Borders program to apply this model of combined education and social outreach in the form a geophysics camp for Southeast Asia, where we propose to study geohazards,geoarcheology and groundwater issues.

van Wijk, K.; Batzle, M.; Liberty, L.; Raynolds, R.

2008-12-01

240

Sleuthing in HyperHolmes : a an evaluation of using hypertext vs. a book to answer questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although hypertext offers exciting new ways of presenting and accessing information, there is little research which systematically compares the usability of hypertext against traditional media with an eye to improving the design of the hypertext. This paper presents the results of an experiment which examined the performance and navigation strategies of users engaged in a question-answering task using either a

LAURA MARIE LEVENTHAL; BARBEE MYNATT TEASLEY; KEITH INSTONE; DIANE SCHERTLER ROHLMAN; JOHN FARHAT

1993-01-01

241

Randomized Controlled Trials in Evidence-Based Mental Health Care: Getting the Right Answer to the Right Question  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of clinical research is to answer this ques- tion: Would a new treatment, when added to the exist- ing range of treatment options available in practice, help patients? Randomized controlled trials (RCTs)— in particular, double-blind RCTs—have important methodological advantages over observational studies for addressing this question. These advantages, how- ever, come at a price. RCTs compare treatments using

Susan M. Essock; Robert E. Drake; Richard G. Frank; Thomas G. McGuire

2003-01-01

242

Where Have All the Teachers Gone? Finding Answers to the Most Basic Questions about California's Teacher Workforce. CenterView  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief presents a strong case for the creation of a statewide teacher data system in California by highlighting some of the simple teacher workforce questions that cannot be answered because such a system does not currently exist. At the state level, data on teacher qualifications are needed to fulfill the new reporting requirements of…

Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2005

2005-01-01

243

Paytan_Answers 113.pdf Student questions: Adina Paytan colloquium on "Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral  

E-print Network

to this task. What is the most region that affected by the ocean acidification? And why is it? High latitudesPaytan_Answers 113.pdf 1 Student questions: Adina Paytan colloquium on "Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs - Perspectives from a Field Study in Mexico" 1/16/13 In your presentation

Shumway, John

244

Hazen_Answers 213.pdf Student questions: Bob Hazen colloquium on "The Mineralogical Co-Evolution of the  

E-print Network

growth that would create an environment that could support human life? Would the mineral growth process: Red Mars, Blue Mars, and Green Mars. #12;Hazen_Answers 213.pdf 2 Question 1: What was different about expanding your research and exploring the evolution of minerals outside of Earth on places like Mars

Shumway, John

245

First Impressions: The First Two Posts and their Influence on the Development of Online Question-Answer Discussion Threads  

E-print Network

First Impressions: The First Two Posts and their Influence on the Development of Online Question-Answer Discussion Threads Michael Hergenrader and Jihie Kim University of Southern California/Information Sciences. 2. Study Context The frameworks of Communities of Practice and Activity Theory have been adopted

Kim, Jihie

246

[What Can We Learn from the English Primary Schools? Questions and Answers from My Fulbright Administrative Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the primary education system in England as a whole and the operation of primary schools in Leicestershire in particular. It also contains questions and answers concerning English primary education. The paper describes the organization, funding, and administration of English primary schools, which provide the first 6 years of…

Firlik, Russell J.

247

DalTREC 2006 QA System Jellyfish: Regular Expressions Mark-and-Match Approach to Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a question-answering system Jellyfish. Our approach is based on marking and matching steps that are implemented using the methodology of cascaded regular-expression rewriting. We present the system architecture and evaluate the system using the TREC 2004, 2005, and 2006 datasets. TREC 2004 was used as a training dataset, while TREC 2005 and TREC 2006 were used as testing

Vlado Keselj; Tony Abou-assaleh; Nick Cercone

2006-01-01

248

Using Question Answer Relationships in Science Instruction to Increase the Reading Achievement of Struggling Readers and Students with Reading Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Question Answer Relationship (QAR) literacy strategy was integrated into science instruction in a fourth grade classroom. Ten students who struggled with reading, including some who were diagnosed with a reading disability, participated in this study. Significant gains were made in reading by the 10 student participants in comprehending…

Kinniburgh, Leah H.; Baxter, Abigail

2012-01-01

249

An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability  

PubMed Central

Background Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A) network tools, which link questioners directly to experts can overcome some of these barriers. When designing and testing online tools, assessing the usability and applicability is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the usability and applicability of a new online Q&A network tool for answers on OSH questions. Methods We applied a cross-sectional usability test design. Eight occupational health experts and twelve potential questioners from the working population (workers) were purposively selected to include a variety of computer- and internet-experiences. During the test, participants were first observed while executing eight tasks that entailed important features of the tool. In addition, they were interviewed. Through task observations and interviews we assessed applicability, usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction) and facilitators and barriers in use. Results Most features were usable, though several could be improved. Most tasks were executed effectively. Some tasks, for example searching stored questions in categories, were not executed efficiently and participants were less satisfied with the corresponding features. Participants' recommendations led to improvements. The tool was found mostly applicable for additional information, to observe new OSH trends and to improve contact between OSH experts and workers. Hosting and support by a trustworthy professional organization, effective implementation campaigns, timely answering and anonymity were seen as important use requirements. Conclusions This network tool is a promising new strategy for offering company workers high quality information to answer OSH questions. Q&A network tools can be an addition to existing information facilities in the field of OSH, but also to other healthcare fields struggling with how to answer questions from people in practice with high quality information. In the near future, we will focus on the use of the tool and its effects on information and knowledge dissemination. PMID:20969777

2010-01-01

250

Edgar_Answers to student questions 414.pdf Student questions: Lauren Edgar colloquium on "Martian Sedimentology as Revealed by the  

E-print Network

Sedimentology as Revealed by the Curiosity Rover" 3/26/14 Question 1: How are the studies that you've done of the same kinds of instruments to investigate the sedimentology and stratigraphy at each landing site

Rhoads, James

251

Blakey_Answers to student questions 314.pdf Student questions: Ronald Blakey colloquium on "Using Paleogeographic Maps to Portray  

E-print Network

period witnessed the most profound geological evolution of modern-day North America? Probably the Archean, and it's the area I know best. Question 2: You mentioned in a slide of Old Jurassic, that rivers drained

Rhoads, James

252

The communication skills used by deaf children and their hearing peers in a question-and-answer game context.  

PubMed

Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in a "trivia" game with their hearing peers. Thirty-four children with normal hearing and 34 children with a hearing loss ranging from mild to profound (>90 dB HL) participated in this study. Each of the 34 dyads included 1 child with normal hearing and 1 child with hearing loss, matched by gender and grade level at school. Dyads were videotaped and analyzed. Pairs were compared in terms of their capacity to repeat the question, strategies used to seek information, and accuracy of responses. Results showed that the group of hearing children was able to repeat more questions verbatim compared to the deaf/HH children. The deaf/HH group required a significantly greater number of repetitions, sought a greater number of general clarifications, and correctly answered more questions compared with the group of hearing children. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of peer communication and pragmatic skill development. PMID:20299450

Toe, Dianne M; Paatsch, Louise E

2010-01-01

253

The methods that college students use to answer questions about stereochemistry involving spatial ability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction. The research problem investigated involved determining the spatial techniques used by students when they solved problems relating to stereochemistry using both traditional and non-traditional techniques. The main reason for undertaking this study was to determine how to help students invoke their spatial ability in solving problems during their organic chemistry courses. The project allowed students to generate their own understanding of the material, to gain experience in order to increase their knowledge, and to be actively involved in the learning process in order for true understanding to take place. Methods. The qualitative methodology for the project included a background questionnaire and the Purdue Visualization of Rotations Exam to determine the five students to be interviewed. The class participated in three multimedia lectures, an in-class assignment, and an on-line homework activity, which allowed multiple ways of incorporating the material. These activities included hand-drawing structures, making non-traditional models as well as traditional models, and computer related exercises that required differing aspects of spatial ability and engagement. Five students participated in an individual and small group interview in which rotation ability as well as visualization ability was assessed using physical molecular models as well as computer models. Results. This study is significant for the field of science education and chemistry because it determined that students with varying levels of spatial ability preferred different tools and used different skills when answering questions about stereochemistry that require spatial ability. There was a pronounced difference in the ability of low and high spatial ability students to draw and make structures that required three-dimensional aspects. A distinct preference for working with the physical model kit over the computer-enhanced program was also noted. An online resource for instructors and students of organic chemistry to use when studying stereochemistry was developed during the project. Conclusions. The potential impact on teaching and learning is that other instructors of chemistry will be able to develop problems and training sessions for their specific students that are "tailor made" to fit their students' abilities and interests. Consequently, students with either high or low spatial ability can work problems with tools that best fit their skills.

Strange de Soria, Luise Ethelyn

254

Probing decisive answers to dark energy questions from cosmic complementarity and lensing tomography  

E-print Network

We study future constraints on dark energy parameters determined from several combinations of CMB experiments, supernova data, and weak lensing surveys with and without tomography. In this analysis, we look in particular for combinations that will bring the uncertainties to a level of precision tight enough (a few percent) to answer decisively some of the dark energy questions. We probe the dark energy using two variants of its equation of state, and its energy density.We consider a set of 13 cosmological and systematic parameters, and assume reasonable priors on the lensing and supernova systematics. We consider various lensing surveys: a wide survey with f_{sky}=0.7, and with 2 (WLT2) and 5 (WLT5) tomographic bins; a deep survey with 10 bins (WLT10). The constraints found from Planck, 2000 supernovae with z_max=0.8, and WLT2 are: {sigma(w_0)=0.086, sigma(w_1)=0.069}, {sigma(w_0)=0.088, sigma(w_a)=0.11}, and {sigma(E_1)=0.029, sigma(E_2)=0.065}. With 5 bins, we find {sigma(w_0)=0.04, sigma(w_1)=0.034}, {sigma(w_0)=0.041, sigma(w_a)=0.056}, and {sigma(E_1)=0.012, sigma(E_2)=0.049}. Finally, we find from Planck, 2000 supernovae with z_max=1.5, and WLT10 with f_{sky}=0.1: {sigma(w_0)=0.032, sigma(w_1)=0.027}, {sigma(w_0)=0.033, sigma(w_a)=0.040}, and {sigma(E_1)=0.01, sigma(E_2)=0.04}. Although some worries remain about other systematics, our study shows that after the combination of the 3 probes, lensing tomography with many redshift bins and large coverages of the sky has the potential to add key improvements to the dark energy parameter constraints. However, the requirement for very ambitious and sophisticated surveys in order to achieve some of the constraints or to improve them suggests the need for new tests to probe the nature of dark energy in addition to constraining its equation of state. (Abriged)

Mustapha Ishak

2005-01-27

255

Discovery and New Frontiers: Science Missions Seeking New Answers to Timeless Questions (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers missions EPOXI, Stardust-NExT, Dawn, MESSENGER, Juno, and GRAIL help comprise NASA’s Year of the Solar System. Each of these investigations is seeking answers to key science questions and each has a unique approach to sharing that quest with the public. To date, spacecraft have photographed only four comets up close. What new information will EPOXI uncover when it flies by comet Hartley 2? Will it be similar to the others or very different? How will comet Tempel 1 appear to Stardust-NExT? The Deep Impact mission sent an impactor into the path of Tempel 1 in 2005. What changes will be visible in this unprecedented return visit? Will we finally see the crater made by the impact? Dawn will arrive at asteroid Vesta in July for a year-long orbit. Then it will millions of miles more to go into orbit around dwarf planet Ceres. Using the same science instruments to study both will yield important new information. MESSENGER has already discovered new phenomena and collected considerable data in its three flybys of Mercury. Once the orbiting phase begins, this dynamic planet is guaranteed to put on a spectacular show. Juno is traveling to the massive gas giant Jupiter to extend our knowledge about this wondrous body. Does it have a solid core? How much water does the atmosphere contain? How does the planet’s enormous magnetic force field affect its atmosphere? GRAIL will send twin space probes flying in tandem around the Moon to take precise gravity field measurements to help determine the structure and composition of the lunar interior from crust to core. In early 2011, the Discovery and New Frontiers Programs are planning a teacher “workshop without walls” to help celebrate YSS! Teachers will gather at 4 or 5 sites across the country, including California, Texas, Minnesota, and Maryland, and tune in via NASA’s digital learning network to hear talks about the missions and their science objectives. The workshops will also include trainings with hands-on activities the teachers can take back to their classroom.

Asplund, S.

2010-12-01

256

Towards spoken clinical-question answering: evaluating and adapting automatic speech-recognition systems for spoken clinical questions  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate existing automatic speech-recognition (ASR) systems to measure their performance in interpreting spoken clinical questions and to adapt one ASR system to improve its performance on this task. Design and measurements The authors evaluated two well-known ASR systems on spoken clinical questions: Nuance Dragon (both generic and medical versions: Nuance Gen and Nuance Med) and the SRI Decipher (the generic version SRI Gen). The authors also explored language model adaptation using more than 4000 clinical questions to improve the SRI system's performance, and profile training to improve the performance of the Nuance Med system. The authors reported the results with the NIST standard word error rate (WER) and further analyzed error patterns at the semantic level. Results Nuance Gen and Med systems resulted in a WER of 68.1% and 67.4% respectively. The SRI Gen system performed better, attaining a WER of 41.5%. After domain adaptation with a language model, the performance of the SRI system improved 36% to a final WER of 26.7%. Conclusion Without modification, two well-known ASR systems do not perform well in interpreting spoken clinical questions. With a simple domain adaptation, one of the ASR systems improved significantly on the clinical question task, indicating the importance of developing domain/genre-specific ASR systems. PMID:21705457

Liu, Feifan; Tur, Gokhan; Hakkani-Tür, Dilek

2011-01-01

257

The Effects of Acculturation on Survey Question Comprehension among Latino Respondents in the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respondents' culture may influence comprehension and interpretation of survey questions. This poses an important problem for researchers who are interested in studying differences among groups that vary in their cultures (i.e., different racial or ethnic groups) because differences in survey responses among these groups could be due either to substantive differences or to artifacts of group differences in comprehension or

Timothy P. Johnson; Allyson L. Holbrook; Young Ik Cho

258

Pasqualetti_Answers 111.pdf Student questions: Martin (Mike) Pasqualetti colloquium on "Renewable Energy and  

E-print Network

, for instance, to cars), glass, etc. http://www.nanosolar.com/ Question 1: Why does the collection of solar of inertia. Question 2: I can't remember if you talked about this, but it seems like energy generators (solar recently. Question 1: Are there any new designs for solar energy on the horizon which reduce the size

Rhoads, James

259

Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…

Heiner, Cecily

2009-01-01

260

Automatic Question Generation and Answer Judging: A Q&A Game for Language Learning  

E-print Network

is most interested in developing intelligent tutoring systems that can interact with students in a more reading comprehension exercises, in which the student is given a passage to read, along with several is feasible, although the reading comprehension exercise is simplified. The student reads several isolated

261

Towards a virtual teaching assistant to answer questions asked by students in introductory computer science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural language of the questions to a vector space, and then utilizing cosine similarity to identify similar previous questions. I report classification accuracies between 23% and 56%, obtaining substantial improvements by exploiting domain knowledge (compiler error messages) and educational context (assignment name). My results are especially timely and relevant for online courses where students are completing the same set of assignments asynchronously and access to staff is limited.

Heiner, Cecily

262

An English language question answering system for a large relational database  

Microsoft Academic Search

By typing requests in English, casual users will be able to obtain explicit answers from a large relational database of aircraft flight and maintenance data using a system called PLANES. The design and implementation of this system is described and illustrated with detailed examples of the operation of system components and examples of overall system operation. The language processing portion

David L. Waltz

1978-01-01

263

Nikzad_Answers 314.pdf Student questions: Shouleh Nikzad colloquium on "From Nebulae to Neurons  

E-print Network

: In regards to the Electronic Nose and using it for medical technology, just how sensitive does this technology allow us to get - for example would it be able to detect a viral infection before disease was being expressed in a patient? Answered by Dr. Margie Homer, PI of the Electronic Nose: Potentially yes

Rhoads, James

264

Cognitive Levels of Questions Used by Iranian EFL Teachers in Advanced Reading Comprehension Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the cognitive levels of questions used by Iranian EFL teachers in advanced reading comprehension tests. Twenty teachers participated in this study and generated 215 questions which were then categorized according to Bloom's taxonomy. This taxonomy consists of six major categories which starts from the simplest behavior to the…

Khorsand, Narjess

2009-01-01

265

The Effects of Embedded and Elaborative Interrogation Questions on L2 Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With 97 advanced second language (L2) learners of Spanish, the present study utilized domain specific texts to examine the effects of embedded "what" questions and elaborative "why" questions on reading comprehension. Participants read two different vignettes, either with or without the adjuncts, from a social psychology textbook, and then…

Brantmeier, Cindy; Callender, Aimee; McDaniel, Mark

2011-01-01

266

Three Goals for Teachers: Asking Comprehensible Questions of Language Delayed Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses ideas for teachers to increase successful comprehension of their questions by language delayed students. Three kinds of questioning techniques are described. Most often used by teachers are "WH-words" (e.g., who, what, how). Noun-verb reversal (e.g., Can you come to the group?) follows in amount of usage. The least used…

Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

267

Comprehension Theory as a Guide for the Design of Thoughtful Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article begins with a brief overview of the psychological research on the pedagogical efficacy of questions and describes how recent research has led to a reevaluation of the role of questions within the framework of a theoretical model of discourse comprehension processes and knowledge representation. A computer-based tutor for reading…

Kintsch, Eileen

2005-01-01

268

The answering system to yes-no truth-functional questions in Korean-English bilingual children.  

PubMed

This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961) were provided as questions such as true affirmative (TA), true negative (TN), false affirmative (FA), and false negative (FN). The bilingual children's answers were observed in separate language settings, English and Korean. The results by the bilingual in the Korean setting were compared with those by the monolinguals. The results show that bilingual children can process two systems rather successfully by providing correct responses to the given questions. But difficulty patterns, measured from error rates in each setting, are found different in two languages. The bilinguals' difficulty patterns in English and Korean, however, show deviation from monolinguals' difficulty patterns suggested in previous studies (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961, Akiyama in Dev Psychol 20:219-228, 1984, Kim in Dev Psychol 21(3):462-472, 1985, Choi in Dev Psychol 29(3):407-420, 1991). The present work also shows that negatives are not uniformly reported with more errors than affirmatives when the truth condition and the answering system are further involved. All in all, the current study suggests that bilingual children have two separate processing systems for yes-no truth-functional questions. However, the two systems cannot be understood as a simple coexistence of two monolingual systems. Interaction of the two competing linguistic systems is discussed further. PMID:23639994

Choi, Hansook

2014-06-01

269

Question-Answering Behaviors in ESL and EFL Classrooms: Similarities and Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined student responses to teacher-initiated questions in classrooms of English as a Second Language (ESL) and English as a Foreign Language (EFL). The study focused specifically on the similarities and differences in the questions asked by native-speaking (NS) teachers of ESL and by non-native-speaking (NNS) teachers of EFL, and to…

Kubota, Mikio

270

Anbar_Answers 311.pdf Student questions: Anbar colloquium on "And now for something completely different  

E-print Network

spaceflight and osteoporosis? I don't know. Good question. I suspect that there is a wide range of osteoporosis decay rates, varying among people. Question 2: How long will it take before we know if the calcium isotope tests will be useful in preventing osteoporosis through early detection? A number of years. We

Rhoads, James

271

QALC the QuestionAnswering program of the Language and Cognition group at LIMSICNRS  

E-print Network

and in the process of question/document pairing. Named entity recognition Similarly, named entities are recognized the questions and the document sentences. Named entities are extracted through lexico­syntactic patterns be recognized in the relevance curve of the documents. #12; Named entity recognition Tagged documents (named

Illouz, Gabriel

272

Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, 1974. Public Law 93-247 (S. 1191): Questions and Answers, Analysis, and Text of the Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains questions and answers concerning the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, an analysis of the Act by the Congressional Research Service, and a copy of the actual text. The question and answer section provides information about the rationale for the Act, the amount of money available for its implementation, as well as its…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

273

How many faces does a cube have?the answer is 6. Okay, I'm going to restate the question: how many 2-dimensional faces does  

E-print Network

1 Cube face How many faces does a cube have?­­the answer is 6. Okay, I'm going to restate the question: how many 2-dimensional faces does a 3-dimensional cube have? The answer hasn't changed--it's still 6. But now we are aware of more gen- eral questions. There are different dimensions of cubes

McCann, Robert J.

274

Off-line sentence processing: What is involved in answering a comprehension probe?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to better characterize the influence of the comprehension probe on syntax-related activation patterns observed in fMRI studies of sentence comprehension. In this study, sentence comprehension was assessed by presenting a true\\/false statement after each sentence. To disassociate the sentence reading from the comprehension probe activation, a 6-s delay was placed between these processing phases.

Sharlene D. Newman; Donghoon Lee; Kristen L. Ratliff

2009-01-01

275

Answer Keys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Answer keys provide acceptable answers to the questions posed in a case. Since these questions are intended to be answered by students and are often graded, keys are password-protected and access limited to registered instructors affiliated with an educational institution.

2010-01-01

276

Macalady_Answers 411.pdf Student questions: Jenn Macalady colloquium on "Proterozoic Underground: Searching for  

E-print Network

the polar head groups are not preserved; no evidence that they are different from today based on the "geolipid" form (hydrocarbon part of the molecule). Question 2: Do all biofilms contain hopanoids? no

Rhoads, James

277

Bidding for Contracts in World Bank Financed Projects: Questions and Answers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The World Bank holds numerous seminars and briefings in itsmember countries to discuss business opportunities associated with Bank-financed projects. During these meetings, certain questions frequently arise concerning the Bank's lending activities and pr...

1991-01-01

278

Question Answering from the Web Using Knowledge Annotation and Knowledge Mining Techniques  

E-print Network

Lin and Boris Katz MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory 200 Technology Square a state?" or "How far is it from the pitcher's mound to home plate?" Most of these "factoid" questions can

Lin, Jimmy

279

The answer is in the question: a protocol study of intelligent help  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty advisory interactions between computer system ‘help desk’ consultants and their clients were transcribed and analysed as part of a project to determine the behavioural requirements for intelligent on-line help facilities. An interesting property of these interactions is that the advice was frequently modified in response to verification requests: questions (often syntactically implicit) which contain presuppositional statements that are partial

Amy Aaronson; John M. Carroll

1987-01-01

280

Using computers to answer fundamental questions in combustion theory: an example from droplet combustion  

SciTech Connect

Many fundamental questions in combustion theory are either partially or totally intractable analytically. Thus, it is often desirable to use computed results to supplement information obtained by analytic means. We illustrate how computation can supplement analysis by examining the role of gas-phase unsteadiness in droplet vaporization and combustion. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Janssen, R.D.; O'Rourke, P.J.

1985-01-01

281

The Law and Student Activities: Answers to Ten Frequently Asked Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how numerous legal sources (Constitutional, federal, state, local, and common law) affect everyday public school operations. Fields 10 questions regarding written and legally sound rules, common rules for district schools, board approval of club bylaws and activities, "in loco parentis," legal image, employee assignments, "double…

Strope, John

1998-01-01

282

Using Domain Specific Question Answering Technique for Automatic Railways Inquiry on Mobile Phone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today in the world of mobile revolution it is very important to provide information access at anywhere anytime. Accessing information using internet on mobile phones is limited in use due to many restrictions of small devices. Short message service which is easier, faster, reliable and available in all networks can be combined with a powerful method of artificial intelligence: question

Avinash J. Agrawal

2008-01-01

283

FLEXIBLE MEDICAL CARE AND DEPENDENT CARE REIMBURSMENT ACCOUNTS Frequently Asked Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

FLEXIBLE MEDICAL CARE AND DEPENDENT CARE REIMBURSMENT ACCOUNTS Frequently Asked Questions is placed into a medical care and/or dependent care reimbursement account and reimbursed to you as you incur Medical Care Reimbursement Account? The minimum deduction is $200 and the maximum deduction is $4

Snider, Barry B.

284

FLEXIBLE MEDICAL CARE AND DEPENDENT CARE REIMBURSMENT ACCOUNTS Frequently Asked Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

FLEXIBLE MEDICAL CARE AND DEPENDENT CARE REIMBURSMENT ACCOUNTS Frequently Asked Questions is placed into a medical care and/or dependent care reimbursement account and reimbursed to you as you incur Medical Care Reimbursement Account? Effective January 1, 2013, under the Patient Protection and Affordable

Snider, Barry B.

285

Expressing Uncertainty with a Talking Head in a Multimodal Question-Answering System  

E-print Network

Organization of Scientific Research (NWO). The authors like to thank Emiel Krahmer, Marc Swerts and colleagues of animated facial expressions, i.e. only combinations of eyebrow and head movements. In addition, we discuss expression, facial animation, embodied con- versational agents, talking heads, multimodal dialogue, question

Theune, Mariët

286

Court Standards for Terminating Employees Under the ADA: Some Questions and Answers for Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990, managers have had to wrestle with the question of what to do when employees become disabled and can no longer perform their jobs as they had before. By law, managers are required to retain such employees if, with reasonable accommodations, they are able to perform their jobs' essential functions.

Lawrence S. Kleiman; David W. Denton

2000-01-01

287

Thalamic Relay or Cortico-Thalamic Processing? Old Question, New Answers Ehud Ahissar and Tess Oram  

E-print Network

in the sensory nuclei of the thalamus? It seems that this question has accompanied cortical and thalamic studies, thalamo-cortical loop, thalamus, whisking control Introduction The thalamus has long been a riddle to neuroscientists. Many researchers of the cerebral cortex view the thalamus as a simple relay station. The origins

Ahissar, Ehud

288

Sedation and anesthesia outside the operating room: Answers to common questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, practitioners have recognized the importance of providing comfort to children and have increased their use of analgesics and anxiolytics during painful medical procedures. In this article, the author reviews commonly asked questions regarding administering sedation to children for painful procedures outside the operating room. Current safety guidelines are reviewed, as well as qualifications of personnel performing sedations,

RS Litman

1999-01-01

289

"Don't Know" Responding to Answerable and Unanswerable Questions during Misleading and Hypnotic Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Don't know" (DK) responses to interview questions are conceptually heterogeneous, and may represent uncertainty or clear statements about the contents of memory. A study examined the subjective intent of DK responses in relation to the objective status of information queried, in the context of memory distorting procedures. Participants viewed a…

Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving

2008-01-01

290

Meta-Knowledge Annotation for Efficient Natural-Language Question-Answering  

E-print Network

a tight integration of natural language processing (NLP), information retrieval (IR) and information question Q, generate a natural-language representation nlp(Q) 2. From nlp(Q), generate an information-retrieval query ir(nlp(Q)) #12;3. Use ir(nlp(Q)) to retrieve D documents from an authoritative text archive 4

Veale, Tony

291

Page 1 of 5 Be sure to ANSWER EVERY QUESTION Printed on TWO SIDES Name_____________________________________  

E-print Network

of 6 breaths per minute in a healthy horse right after galloping c. Capillary refill time of 4 seconds) or F (false) on the line before the question. (2 points each) 11. _____ Mares have 4 canine teeth, _______________, _______________, _______________ 2. What two minerals are needed for the formation of bones and teeth

New Hampshire, University of

292

The Answer To Getting Better Test Data: Ask the Right Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on weighing the options to find the right technology-based assessment tool in schools and discusses questions to ask: "Do our state tests meet our needs?"; "What type of data is of most value?"; "How do today's assessment choices compare?"; "How important is support?"; and "Which criteria are most important in choosing the right test?"…

Olson, Allan

2003-01-01

293

Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

Foubert, John D.

2011-01-01

294

Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

Boyle, Philip

1989-01-01

295

The Answer Depends on the Question: A Reply to Eric Jensen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question that Eric Jensen addresses in his article is whether brain research can provide a basis for educational practice. He debates John Bruer, president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, and argues that brain research can, in fact, provide a basis for what educators do. Most of Jensen's article is devoted to showing ways in which brain…

Sternberg, Robert J.

2008-01-01

296

Answers G53KRR 2013-2014 BOOKWORK VS PROBLEM SOLVING: questions are problem solving un-  

E-print Network

)] from C5, C3, x2/x1, x/x1 C7 [P(a))] from C6, C1, x1/f(a) C8 [ ] from C6, C7, x1/a Another proof (the one I came up with first for the model answers) C5 [P(f(a)), R(a, f(a))] from C1, C3, x1/a C6 [P(f(a)), ¬Q(f(a)] from C5, C4, x2/a, y2/f(a) C7 [P(f(a))] from C6, C2, x/a C8 [R(f(a), f(f(a)))] from C7, C3

Alechina, Natasha

297

Can Simply Answering Research Questions Change Behaviour? Systematic Review and Meta Analyses of Brief Alcohol Intervention Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Participant reports of their own behaviour are critical for the provision and evaluation of behavioural interventions. Recent developments in brief alcohol intervention trials provide an opportunity to evaluate longstanding concerns that answering questions on behaviour as part of research assessments may inadvertently influence it and produce bias. The study objective was to evaluate the size and nature of effects observed in randomized manipulations of the effects of answering questions on drinking behaviour in brief intervention trials. Methodology/Principal Findings Multiple methods were used to identify primary studies. Between-group differences in total weekly alcohol consumption, quantity per drinking day and AUDIT scores were evaluated in random effects meta-analyses. Ten trials were included in this review, of which two did not provide findings for quantitative study, in which three outcomes were evaluated. Between-group differences were of the magnitude of 13.7 (?0.17 to 27.6) grams of alcohol per week (approximately 1.5 U.K. units or 1 standard U.S. drink) and 1 point (0.1 to 1.9) in AUDIT score. There was no difference in quantity per drinking day. Conclusions/Significance Answering questions on drinking in brief intervention trials appears to alter subsequent self-reported behaviour. This potentially generates bias by exposing non-intervention control groups to an integral component of the intervention. The effects of brief alcohol interventions may thus have been consistently under-estimated. These findings are relevant to evaluations of any interventions to alter behaviours which involve participant self-report. PMID:21998626

McCambridge, Jim; Kypri, Kypros

2011-01-01

298

Questions and answers about the effects of the depletion of the ozone layer on humans and the environment.  

PubMed

The ozone molecule contains three atoms of oxygen and is mainly formed by the action of the ultraviolet rays of the sun on the diatomic oxygen molecules in the upper part of the Earth's atmosphere (called the stratosphere). Atmospheric pollution near the Earth's surface can form localized areas of ozone. The stratospheric ozone layer protects life on Earth by absorbing most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. In the mid 1970s it was discovered that some manmade products destroy ozone molecules in the stratosphere. This destruction can result in damage to ecosystems and to materials such as plastics. It may cause an increase in human diseases such as skin cancers and cataracts. The discovery of the role of the synthetic ozone-depleting chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) stimulated increased research and monitoring in this field. Computer models predicted a disaster if no action was taken to protect the ozone layer. Based on this research and monitoring, the nations of the world took action in 1985 with the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer followed by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987. The Convention and Protocol were amended and adjusted several times as new knowledge was obtained. The Meetings of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol appointed three Assessment Panels to review the progress in scientific knowledge on their behalf. These panels are the Scientific Assessment Panel, the Technological and Economic Assessment Panel and the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel. Each panel covers a designated area and there is a natural level of overlap. The main reports of the Panels are published every four years as required by the Meeting of the Parties. All the reports have an executive summary that is distributed more widely than the main report itself. It became customary to add a set of questions and answers--mainly for non-expert readers--to the executive summaries. This document contains the questions and answers prepared by experts who comprise the Environmental Assessment Panel. It is based mainly on the 2006 report of the Panel but also contains information from previous assessments. Readers who need detailed information on any question should consult the full reports for a more complete scientific discussion. This set of questions refers mainly to the environmental effects of ozone depletion and climate change. The report of the Scientific Assessment Panel contains questions and answers related to the other scientific issues addressed by that Panel. All these reports can be found on the UNEP website (http://ozone.unep.org). PMID:17344966

Aucamp, Pieter J

2007-03-01

299

Designing P. E. piping systems: old questions and new answers. [Polyethylene  

SciTech Connect

Designers of polyethylene gas distribution systems now have available a procedure based on rate-process theory for predicting the load service life of the system. Recently proposed and validated by researchers from E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., the method resolves many of the questions left unanswered by the ASTM 2837 standard procedure. It predicts the behavior of the entire system (pipe, fittings, and joints) rather than just the pipe, the silt-rupture life as well as the ductile-rupture life, and the incidence in time of a 5% failure rate rather than a 50% rate.

Hale, D.

1982-05-01

300

Students' Comprehension of Science Textbooks Using a Question-Based Reading Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the heavy reliance on textbooks in college courses, research indicates that college students enrolled in first-year science courses are not proficient at comprehending informational text. The present study investigated a reading comprehension questioning strategy with origins in clinical research based in elaboration interrogation theory,…

Smith, Betty Lou; Holliday, William G.; Austin, Homer W.

2010-01-01

301

Hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults: questions and answers.  

PubMed

The association between hearing impairment, the diagnosis of dementia, and the role of sensory therapy has been proposed for some time, but further research is needed. Current understanding of this association requires the commitment of those experts who can integrate experience and research from several fields to be able to understand the link from hearing to dementia. A workshop whose panelists included experts from many areas, ranging from ear, nose and throat (ENT) to dementia's specialists, was promoted and organized by the Giovanni Lorenzini Medical Science Foundation (Milan, Italy; Houston, TX, USA) to increase the awareness of the relationship between hearing loss and dementia, and included questions and comments following a presentation from the clinical researcher, Frank Lin, who has been evaluating the relationship between hearing loss and cognitive decline since 2009. PMID:25281432

Bernabei, Roberto; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Maggi, Stefania; Marengoni, Alessandra; Martini, Alessandro; Memo, Maurizio; Pecorelli, Sergio; Peracino, Andrea P; Quaranta, Nicola; Stella, Roberto; Lin, Frank R

2014-12-01

302

26 CFR 1.1(i)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income certain minor children (Temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income certain minor children (Temporary). 1.1(i...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes §...

2010-04-01

303

CS21 Lab 10 Worksheet, Swarthmore College, Fall 2011 Print this out and write your answers on the printout. There are questions on both sides. This  

E-print Network

CS21 Lab 10 Worksheet, Swarthmore College, Fall 2011 Name: Print this out and write your answers on the printout. There are questions on both sides. This worksheet is due Wednesday, November 16 in class. 1

Newhall, Tia

304

Overwintering of herbaceous plants in a changing climate. Still more questions than answers.  

PubMed

The increase in surface temperature of the Earth indicates a lower risk of exposure for temperate grassland and crop to extremely low temperatures. However, the risk of low winter survival rate, especially in higher latitudes may not be smaller, due to complex interactions among different environmental factors. For example, the frequency, degree and length of extreme winter warming events, leading to snowmelt during winter increased, affecting the risks of anoxia, ice encasement and freezing of plants not covered with snow. Future climate projections suggest that cold acclimation will occur later in autumn, under shorter photoperiod and lower light intensity, which may affect the energy partitioning between the elongation growth, accumulation of organic reserves and cold acclimation. Rising CO2 levels may also disturb the cold acclimation process. Predicting problems with winter pathogens is also very complex, because climate change may greatly influence the pathogen population and because the plant resistance to these pathogens is increased by cold acclimation. All these factors, often with contradictory effects on winter survival, make plant overwintering viability under future climates an open question. Close cooperation between climatologists, ecologists, plant physiologists, geneticists and plant breeders is strongly required to predict and prevent possible problems. PMID:25017157

Rapacz, Marcin; Ergon, Ashild; Höglind, Mats; Jørgensen, Marit; Jurczyk, Barbara; Ostrem, Liv; Rognli, Odd Arne; Tronsmo, Anne Marte

2014-08-01

305

Evaluating a science diversity program at UC Berkeley: more questions than answers.  

PubMed

For the past three decades, much attention has been focused on developing diversity programs designed to improve the academic success of underrepresented minorities, primarily in mathematics, science, and engineering. However, ethnic minorities remain underrepresented in science majors and careers. Over the last 10 years, the Biology Scholars Program (BSP), a diversity program at the University of California (UC), Berkeley, has worked to increase the participation and success of students majoring in the biological sciences. A quantitative comparison of students in and out of the program indicates that students in BSP graduate with a degree in biology at significantly higher rates than students not in BSP regardless of race/ethnicity. Furthermore, students who are in BSP have statistically lower high school grade point averages (GPAs) and Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) scores than students not in BSP. African-American and Hispanic students who join BSP graduate with significantly higher UC Berkeley biology GPAs than non-BSP African-American and Hispanic students, respectively. Majority (Asian and White) students in BSP graduate with statistically similar UC GPAs despite having lower SAT scores than non-BSP majority students. Although BSP students are more successful in completing a biology degree than non-program members, the results raise a series of questions about why the program works and for whom. PMID:12888847

Matsui, John; Liu, Roger; Kane, Caroline M

2003-01-01

306

Return to competitive football after major knee surgery: more questions than answers?  

PubMed

Despite significant advances in the diagnostics and treatment of knee injuries over the last decade, several challenges related to the subject "return to sport" remain largely unknown. For example, how should "return to sport" be defined precisely? What is the optimal timing and progression to enable a return to sport? Which criteria should be used during this process? What type of training is indicated? Which measurements can support the decision-making process? How do we optimally prepare athletes for competition without risking re-injury? This paper critically addresses these questions, and proposes a return to play model to prepare football players to compete after major knee surgery (anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, cartilage repair). The goal is to re-integrate the player gradually into the game, taking into account his individual characteristics. Several evidence-based and empirical criteria are needed to plan and monitor the efficient return to competitive football. Injury-prevention education should be part of this process to maximise the chance of a durable career and decrease the risk of re-injury. However, because of the paucity of research on "return to sport", further research is more than warranted. PMID:24783969

Bizzini, Mario; Silvers, Holly Jacinda

2014-01-01

307

The nucleation of vortices in superfluid [sup 4]He: Answers and questions  

SciTech Connect

The velocity threshold for phase slips, v[sub c], has been measured in ultra-pure [sup 4]He and ultra-dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He mixtures, down to a temperature of 15 mK. These experiments have revealed a crossover from a temperature-dependent regime above [approximately]150 mK to a plateau of v[sub c] below in ultra-pure [sup 4]He. Concentrations of [sup 3]He impurities as low as a few parts in 10[sup [minus]9] greatly affect the plateau regime, causing v[sub c] to decrease markedly at low temperature. These observations are interpreted in the framework of the nucleation, either thermally activated or by quantum tunnelling, of vortices in the appropriate shape of half-rings. These vortices form on wall asperities at local velocities u[sub s] estimated to be [approximately]22 m/s in these experiments. The half-ring model is shown to yield a critical velocity of the same magnitude but leaves many basic questions unanswered.

Avenel, O.; Ihas G.G. (Centre d'Etudes de Saclay (France)); Varoquaux, E. (Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France))

1993-12-01

308

Feminist bioethics: toward developing a "feminist" answer to the surrogate motherhood question.  

PubMed

Although a wide variety of feminist approaches to bioethics presently share a common feminist methodology (sometimes referred to as "raising the woman question"), they do not all share the same feminist politics, ontology, epistemology, and ethics. As a result of their philosophical differences, feminist bioethicists do not always agree on which biomedical principles, practices, and policies are best suited to serving women's interests. In other words, some feminist bioethicists insist that so-called "assisted reproduction" enhances women's procreative liberty, while others claim that it does nothing of the sort. Although such disagreement among feminist bioethicists reassures the general public that the feminist "program" for bioethics is not ideologically monolithic, it also confuses the public, especially women. In order to overcome this confusion, feminist bioethicists should work toward developing the kind of shared theoretical base that will foster frequent consensus on the biomedical principles, practices, and policies most likely to serve the interests of most women in the U.S. today. PMID:11645320

Tong, Rosemarie

1996-03-01

309

The evolution of centipede venom claws - open questions and possible answers.  

PubMed

The maxilliped venom claw is an intriguing structure in centipedes. We address open questions concerning this structure. The maxillipeds of fossil centipedes from the Carboniferous (about 300 million years old) have been described, but not been depicted previously. Re-investigation demonstrates that they resemble their modern counterparts. A Jurassic geophilomorph centipede (about 150 million years old) was originally described as possessing a rather leg-like maxilliped. Our re-investigation shows that the maxilliped is, in fact, highly specialized as in modern Geophilomorpha. A scenario for the evolution of the centipede maxilliped is presented. It supports one of the two supposed hypotheses of centipede phylogeny, the Pleurostigmophora hypothesis. Although this hypothesis appears now well established, many aspects of character evolution resulting from this phylogeny remain to be told in detail. One such aspect is the special joint of the maxilliped in some species of Cryptops. Cryptops is an in-group of Scolopendromorpha, but its maxilliped joint can resemble that of Lithobiomorpha or even possess a mixture of characters between the both. Detailed investigation of fossils, larger sample sizes of extant species, and developmental data will be necessary to allow further improvements of the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of centipedes. PMID:24211515

Haug, Joachim T; Haug, Carolin; Schweigert, Günter; Sombke, Andy

2014-01-01

310

Birt-hogg-dubé syndrome: answering questions raised by a case report published in 1962.  

PubMed

In 1962, J.J. Collins from the United States Naval Medical Research Laboratory published an unusual case of air embolism precipitated by decompression in The New England Journal of Medicine [1962;266:595-598]. The case was unusual because it was the first where multiple pulmonary cysts were discovered after a successful recompression treatment. Although various hypotheses were put forward by the author, it was thought that the diver might have had 'subclinical cysts' already present because of some disease phenomenon, which then became overinflated during decompression. Nearly 50 years have passed since these questions were raised. Interestingly, now the disease process is trying to unveil itself through various other clues. We present the case of the same diver who later developed a series of other medical problems, along with more than 5 admissions for spontaneous pneumothoraces, all falling into the constellation represented by the Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition clinically characterized by skin fibrofolliculomas, pulmonary cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax, and renal cancer. It was first described in 1977 by Birt, Hogg and Dubé in a family with 'hereditary multiple fibrofolliculomas with trichodiscomas and acrochordons'. Spontaneous pneumothorax can be the first manifestation of this hereditary condition, and prevention in patients diagnosed with the syndrome is aimed at early diagnosis and treatment of the renal cell carcinoma. Physicians need to have a high index of suspicion when they see patients with the constellation of findings of this underdiagnosed syndrome, especially in patients with unexplained spontaneous pneumothoraces. PMID:21829400

Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Dearmond, Daniel T

2011-05-01

311

Comprehension of wh-questions precedes their production in typical development and autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Lay Abstract Children with autism produce few wh-questions, compared to their typically developing peers. It is unclear if this is because of social-pragmatic difficulties, or if they have not yet learned the grammar for asking wh-questions. If children do not know how to use grammatical rules to produce questions, they might simply repeat sentences that they have heard without completely understanding them first. We visited the homes of 15 children with autism and 18 typically developing children with similar language abilities, across a three-year period. At each visit, children watched a video that depicted an apple hitting a flower and keys hitting a book. The children were then shown the items side-by-side on the screen and the audio asked “what hit the flower?” and “what did the keys hit?” We filmed the children’s eye movements and analyzed how long they looked at the named item, compared to when they heard “where is the flower/keys?” At each visit, we also filmed a 30-minute mother-child play session and analyzed the types of questions that the children asked. Children with autism showed comprehension of wh-questions at a later age than typically developing children, but at a similar level of overall language development. Neither group produced wh-questions before they had demonstrated that they understood the underlying grammatical rules. Therefore, children with autism seem to process wh-questions in the same way as their typically developing peers, just at a later age. This paper discusses the implications of our findings for the language development of children with autism. Scientific Abstract Children with autism (ASD) rarely produce wh-questions (e.g., “What hit the book?”) in naturalistic speech. It is unclear if this is due to social-pragmatic difficulties, or if grammatical deficits are also involved. If grammar is impaired, production of wh-questions by rote memorization might precede comprehension of similar forms. In a longitudinal study, 15 children with ASD and 18 initially-language-matched typically developing toddlers were visited in their homes at four-month intervals across a three-year period. The wh-question task was presented via intermodal preferential looking. Silent ‘hitting’ events (e.g., an apple hitting a flower) were followed by test trials in which the apple and flower were juxtaposed on the screen. During test trials, subject-wh and object-wh-question audios were sequentially presented (e.g., “What hit the flower?”/”What did the apple hit?”). Control audios were also presented (e.g., “Where’s the apple/flower?”). Children’s eye movements were coded off-line, frame-by-frame. To show reliable comprehension, children should look longer to the named item (i.e., apple or flower) during the “where” questions, but less at the named item during the subject-wh and object-wh-questions. To compare comprehension to production, we coded 30-minute spontaneous speech samples drawn from mother-child interactions at each visit. Results indicated that comprehension of subject and object-wh-questions was delayed in children with ASD compared to age-matched TD children, but not when matched on overall language levels. Additionally, both groups comprehended wh-questions before producing similar forms, indicating that development occurred in a similar manner. This paper discusses the implications of our findings for language acquisition in ASD. PMID:22359403

Goodwin, Anthony; Fein, Deborah; Naigles, Letitia R.

2011-01-01

312

"Laying Bare of Questions Which Have Been Hidden by Answers": The English Language Arts Standards of the Common Core, K-5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors question the answer the national Common Core State Standards (CCSS, 2010) claims. The questions center on the validity of the new standardized tests based on the CCSS and teachers' evaluations being tied to student test scores on flawed tests. The proposed tests on the CCSS will position children as deficient, and will not recognize…

Gangi, Jane M.; Reilly, Mary Ann

2013-01-01

313

Providing Real-Time Captioning, C-Print Speech To Print Transcription, Assistive Listening Devices and Other Technologies: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides questions and answers for postsecondary educational institutions concerning provision of access and accommodations to individuals who are deaf and hard of hearing. Questions are about assistive listening devices (ALDs), C-Print technology, real-time captioning, and policy issues. Preliminary information concerns the mission…

Davis, Cheryl; Francis, Pamela; Harlan, Denese

314

XMRV: Questions and Answers  

Cancer.gov

Retroviruses are found in a wide range of mammals, and may contribute to the development of cancers, such as leukemia or lymphoma, and neurological diseases. The first of two human retroviruses identified, HTLV-1 has been found to cause adult T cell leukemia and HTLV-II is not associated with any disease. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, is a different type of retrovirus.

315

One Question, Two Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the major policy challenges facing governments today are in some sense collective problems calling for joint solutions. However, even when effective solutions can be developed and implemented only through joint efforts, voluntary cooperation can be hard to establish and maintain, making it all the more impor- tant to understand the conditions for success and the causes of failure.

Arild Underdal

316

Sepsis Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... prevent infections that could lead to sepsis through promotion of vaccination for diseases like pneumococcus and meningitis, smoking cessation programs to prevent community-acquired pneumonia, and strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections. Recently, CDC has ...

317

Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... influenza, why isn’t pneumococcal vaccine also recommended? Influenza virus is easily spread from healthcare personnel to their patients, and infection usually leads to clinical illness. Pneumococcus is ... is influenza, and transmission of pneumococcus does not necessarily lead ...

318

Seasonal Influenza Questions & Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... PCR and Other Molecular Assays for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infection Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Influenza International ... Assessment and Biosafety Level Recommendations Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus H5N1 In Birds and Other Animals H5N1 In ...

319

Rabies: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... of northern and southern continental Europe (e.g., Greece, Portugal, Sweden, Norway) and Latin America (e.g., ... dogs, cats, ferrets) and live- stock (sheep, cattle, horses) against rabies. Don't let your pets wander ...

320

Tetanus: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

Immunization Action Coalition • St. Paul, MN 55104 • (651) 647-9009 • www.vaccineinformation.org • www.immunize.org www.immunize.org/catg.d/p4220.pdf • Item #P4220 (7/13) ... a person develops Immunization Action Coalition • St. Paul, MN 55104 • (651) 647-9009 • www.vaccineinformation.org • www. ...

321

Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... celebration of our 40th anniversary. The Rare Epilepsy Network Registry (REN) will be opening for enrollment in about a month. Find a walk near you to help us Step Forward to Cure Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. Clinicians: Complete a new online CME activity featuring ...

322

26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations... INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations...answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of...

2010-04-01

323

Your answers to the following questions will help us to understand your medical history and the concerns you'd like to discuss with your doctor. Please fill out as much of this questionnaire as possible. If you cannot answer  

E-print Network

Your answers to the following questions will help us to understand your medical history: ________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Average home sugar readings: Yes No Yes No Yes No Not testing: _________ Fasting: _________ 2-hours after of the following symptoms: Vision Problems Numbness/Tingling Chest Pain Nausea/vomiting/diarrhea Low Blood Sugar

Borenstein, Elhanan

324

You must answer all questions. For full credit, an answer must be both correct and well-presented (clear and concise).  

E-print Network

opaque, but light bounces around in the trees) giving a very special quality to the light in the forest, or have seen all possible research on the topic. Question 1: The Fall Forest (3 sub-questions) Imagine a Wisconsin forest in the autumn at the height of the "fall colors." The leaves have changed to the wonderful

Liblit, Ben

325

The case for multimodal analysis of atypical interaction: questions, answers and gaze in play involving a child with autism.  

PubMed

Conversation analysis (CA) continues to accrue interest within clinical linguistics as a methodology that can enable elucidation of structural and sequential orderliness in interactions involving participants who produce ostensibly disordered communication behaviours. However, it can be challenging to apply CA to re-examine clinical phenomena that have initially been defined in terms of linguistics, as a logical starting point for analysis may be to focus primarily on the organisation of language ("talk") in such interactions. In this article, we argue that CA's methodological power can only be fully exploited in this research context when a multimodal analytic orientation is adopted, where due consideration is given to participants' co-ordinated use of multiple semiotic resources including, but not limited to, talk (e.g., gaze, embodied action, object use and so forth). To evidence this argument, a two-layered analysis of unusual question-answer sequences in a play episode involving a child with autism is presented. It is thereby demonstrated that only when the scope of enquiry is broadened to include gaze and other embodied action can an account be generated of orderliness within these sequences. This finding has important implications for CA's application as a research methodology within clinical linguistics. PMID:24067142

Muskett, Tom; Body, Richard

2013-01-01

326

Prism : an answer projection system  

E-print Network

Prism is an answer projection system that combines the best attributes of traditional and Web-based question answering systems. Traditional question answering systems retrieve answers with pinpoint accuracy but limited ...

Wu, Lynn, 1981-

2003-01-01

327

"If you have the flu symptoms, your asymptomatic spouse may better answer the willingness-to-pay question".  

E-print Network

"If you have the flu symptoms, your asymptomatic spouse may better answer the willingness alleviation of flu symptoms. However, a patient was significantly more likely to anchor his/her answer choice; Patient; proxy; anchoring; structural shift; influenza JEL Classification: I1, C2, H4 inserm

328

Facts & Figures: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students and Bilingual/ESL Programs, 1996-1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In question and answer form, this document presents information about limited English proficient (LEP) students and programs for them in the New York City (New York) schools. City and state regulations govern the identification of LEP students and their selection for English as a second language (ESL) or bilingual programs. The Board of Education…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

329

26 CFR 5f.168(f)(8)-1 - Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF 1982 § 5f.168(f)(8)-1 Questions and answers...before July 2, 1982 (the “window period”), enters into a...delivered to the lessee during the window period, is the property eligible...rules of section 168(f)(8) of the Internal Revenue...

2010-04-01

330

26 CFR 5f.168(f)(8)-1 - Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF 1982 § 5f.168(f)(8)-1 Questions and answers...before July 2, 1982 (the “window period”), enters into a...delivered to the lessee during the window period, is the property eligible...rules of section 168(f)(8) of the Internal Revenue...

2011-04-01

331

How To Talk to Your Kids about Really Important Things: For Children Four to Twelve. Specific Questions and Answers and Useful Things To Say.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help parents find the words they need to talk to their children and answer their children's practical questions, this book offers practical guidance on a wide range of life's experiences, from family changes such as divorce and remarriage, to controversial subjects such as child abuse and AIDS. The major focus is on children ages 4 to…

Schaefer, Charles E.; DiGeronimo, Theresa Foy

332

26 CFR 31.3121(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary).  

...2014-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary). 31.3121(a)-1T Section 31.3121(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

2014-04-01

333

A text of two titles: Kant’s ‘A renewed attempt to answer the question: “Is the human race continually improving?’’’  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essay, ‘A renewed attempt to answer the question: “Is the human race continually improving?”’ appeared as Part II of Kant’s 1798 publication, The conflict of the faculties, where it was subordinated under a second title: ‘The conflict of the philosophy faculty with the faculty of law’. How did this new situation (and title) affects the meaning of the essay?

John H. Zammito

2008-01-01

334

Report to the New Jersey State Board of Agriculture Rutgers NJAES sponsored a forum, "GMOs: Questions and Answers for New Jersey Farmers," on May 9  

E-print Network

, "GMOs: Questions and Answers for New Jersey Farmers," on May 9 at the Rutgers EcoComplex in Bordentown "Busting the Myths Surrounding Genetically Engineered Foods." Cara Cuite, associate research professor on "Public Perceptions of GM Food." Brad Hillman, senior associate director, NJAES, and director

Goodman, Robert M.

335

Review the following outline providing some guidelines for ethical standards in the computing environment. Then answer the questions on the following page.  

E-print Network

Review the following outline providing some guidelines for ethical standards in the computing environment. Then answer the questions on the following page. ETHICS in COMPUTING 1. Respect for intellectual property: a. Honor copyright laws and product licensing. b. Refuse to participate in software piracy

Kreinovich, Vladik

336

Study the kinemage in this file, following along on this worksheet and answering its questions. Use chapter 1 of the Branden & Tooze textbook for background.  

E-print Network

Study the kinemage in this file, following along on this worksheet and answering its questions. Use to be edited". After you are finished, select menu item File:Save as... In KiNG: Choose "Kinemage #2 the twist of the beta sheet. Click "Animate" to switch among the four groupings of side chains (use View2

Richardson, David

337

Is obesity a risk factor for low back pain? An example of using the evidence to answer a clinical question  

E-print Network

Background: Obesity as a causal factor for low back pain has been controversial with no definitive answer to this date. The objective of this study was to determine whether obesity is associated with low back pain. In ...

Mirtz, Timothy A.; Greene, Leon

2005-04-11

338

Lesion Analysis of Cortical Regions Associated with the Comprehension of Nonreversible and Reversible Yes/No Questions  

PubMed Central

We investigated the association between yes/no sentence comprehension and dysfunction in anterior and posterior left-hemisphere cortical regions in acute stroke patients. More specifically, we manipulated whether questions were Nonreversible (e.g., Are limes sour?) or Reversible (e.g., Is a horse larger than a dog?) to investigate the regions associated with semantic and syntactic processing. In addition, we administered lexical tasks (i.e., Picture-Word Verification, Picture Naming) to help determine the extent to which deficits in sentence processing were related to deficits in lexical processing. We found that errors on the lexical tasks were associated with ischemia in posterior-temporal Brodmann Areas (BA 21, 22, 37) and inferior parietal regions (BA 39, 40). Nonreversible question comprehension was associated with volume of tissue dysfunction, while Reversible question comprehension was associated with posterior regions (BA 39, 40) as well as one anterior region (BA 6). We conclude that deficits in Nonreversible questions required extensive dysfunction that affected language processing across multiple levels, while Reversible question comprehension was associated with regions involved in semantics as well as working memory that indirectly influenced syntactic processing. Overall, this suggests that yes/no question comprehension relies on multiple regions and that the importance of certain regions increases in relation to semantic, phonological, and syntactic complexity. PMID:22564483

Race, David S.; Ochfeld, Elisa; Leigh, Richard; Hillis, Argye E.

2012-01-01

339

Chapter 9 From search engines to question answering systems — The problems of world knowledge, relevance, deduction and precisiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing search engines, with Google at the top, have many truly remarkable capabilities. Furthermore, constant progress is being made in improving their performance. But what is not widely recognized is that there is a basic capability which existing search engines do not have: deduction capability — the capability to synthesize an answer to a query by drawing on bodies of

Lotfi A. Zadeh

2006-01-01

340

General (i.e., Comprehensive) Examination for the Ed.D. in Educational Leadership: Tips for Writing Your Answer  

E-print Network

) numbers for journals. · Other than in your communication of the answer to the program secretary, avoid subheading. · Be direct in your answer to each part, avoiding material that is tangential or even irrelevant, and research diligence; do not communicate with program faculty in relation to the exam, except for any

Gilchrist, James F.

341

Presenter Responses to Questions Not Answered During the Webinar Note: Some of the responses to questions below refer to USGS Circular 1376, Streamflow Depletion by  

E-print Network

-21 of the USGS report SIR 2010-5149 "Simulation of Groundwater Flow and Effects of Groundwater Irrigation were constructed with the USGS MODFLOW groundwater model program. To make the capture maps, a separate to questions below refer to USGS Circular 1376, Streamflow Depletion by Wells. That publication can be accesses

342

Bone Health Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T) in front of the answer.  

E-print Network

EAT SMART Bone Health Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check not planning to use the information from this program. # I have osteoporosis or low bone density. YES NO As you

343

The purpose of this work is to identify potential evaluation criteria for interactive, analytical question-answering (QA)  

E-print Network

from multiple sources. The question "How is the al-Qaeda organization funded?" is an example with factual QA systems (Lin et al., 2003) and seek information for more complex QA tasks (Diekema et al., 2004

344

Heart Health Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T) in front of the answer.  

E-print Network

EAT SMART Heart Health Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check not planning to use the information in this program. # I have heart disease or high blood pressure. YES

345

Relationships of General Vocabulary, Science Vocabulary, and Student Questioning with Science Comprehension in Students with Varying Levels of English Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the influence of general vocabulary knowledge, science vocabulary knowledge, and text based questioning on the science reading comprehension of three types of students who varied in their English language proficiency. Specifically, grade 5 English-Only speakers, English Language Learners in the United States, and students…

Taboada, Ana

2012-01-01

346

Lesion Analysis of Cortical Regions Associated with the Comprehension of Nonreversible and Reversible Yes/No Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the association between yes/no sentence comprehension and dysfunction in anterior and posterior left-hemisphere cortical regions in acute stroke patients. More specifically, we manipulated whether questions were Nonreversible (e.g., Are limes sour?) or Reversible (e.g., Is a horse larger than a dog?) to investigate the regions…

Race, David S.; Ochfeld, Elisa; Leigh, Richard; Hillis, Argye E.

2012-01-01

347

Science Learning: A Path Analysis of Its Links with Reading Comprehension, Question-Asking in Class and Science Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to build and test a conceptual model of the complex interrelationships between students' learning in science (learning approaches and self-regulation), their reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement. These variables were measured by means of a test and a series of questionnaires…

Cano, Francisco; García, Ángela; Berbén, A. B. G.; Justicia, Fernando

2014-01-01

348

Quality assessment of expert answers to lay questions about cystic fibrosis from various language zones in Europe: the ECORN-CF project  

PubMed Central

Background The European Centres of Reference Network for Cystic Fibrosis (ECORN-CF) established an Internet forum which provides the opportunity for CF patients and other interested people to ask experts questions about CF in their mother language. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a detailed quality assessment tool to analyze quality of expert answers, 2) evaluate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this tool, and 3) explore changes in the quality of expert answers over the time frame of the project. Methods The quality assessment tool was developed by an expert panel. Five experts within the ECORN-CF project used the quality assessment tool to analyze the quality of 108 expert answers published on ECORN-CF from six language zones. 25 expert answers were scored at two time points, one year apart. Quality of answers was also assessed at an early and later period of the project. Individual rater scores and group mean scores were analyzed for each expert answer. Results A scoring system and training manual were developed analyzing two quality categories of answers: content and formal quality. For content quality, the grades based on group mean scores for all raters showed substantial agreement between two time points, however this was not the case for the grades based on individual rater scores. For formal quality the grades based on group mean scores showed only slight agreement between two time points and there was also poor agreement between time points for the individual grades. The inter-rater agreement for content quality was fair (mean kappa value 0.232 ± 0.036, p < 0.001) while only slight agreement was observed for the grades of the formal quality (mean kappa value 0.105 ± 0.024, p < 0.001). The quality of expert answers was rated high (four language zones) or satisfactory (two language zones) and did not change over time. Conclusions The quality assessment tool described in this study was feasible and reliable when content quality was assessed by a group of raters. Within ECORN-CF, the tool will help ensure that CF patients all over Europe have equal possibility of access to high quality expert advice on their illness. PMID:22309508

2012-01-01

349

Chamberlain_Answers D12.pdf Student questions: Page Chamberlain colloquium on "Eocene migration of topography in the  

E-print Network

leading to the concentrations of oxygen isotopes you measured? That is a very good question. It is quite over global climate. At some point in the record there appears to be an event of massive deforestation the isotopic record for missing the high plateau in the south west? We are not sure of this. There is good

Shumway, John

350

Food Safety Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T) in front of the answer.  

E-print Network

EAT SMART Food Safety Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check with soap and water before preparing food. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 I use a thermometer to check if foods Programs serve people of all ages regardless of socioeconomic level, race, color, sex, religion, disability

351

Answering the Big Questions in Neuroscience: DoD's Experimental Research Wing Takes on Massive, High-Risk Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) asks research questions, it goes big. This is, after all, the same agency that put together teams of scientists and engineers to find a way to connect the worlds computers and, in doing so, developed the precursor to the Internet. DARPA, the experimental research wing of the U.S. Department of Defense, funds

Leslie Mertz

2012-01-01

352

Answering Gauguin?s Questions: Where Are We Coming From, Where Are We Going, and What Are We?  

ScienceCinema

Ellis discusses how the knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, known as the Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions, for example: What is the origin of the matter in the Universe, how does its mass originate, what is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe, and are there additional dimensions of space?

John Ellis

2010-09-01

353

Colleges Struggle to Answer Tough Questions about Rates for the Overhead Costs of Government-Sponsored Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As news reports continue to describe questionable charges for indirect costs in government-sponsored research, academic officials try to explain the rates, which vary greatly by institution and are based on complicated accounting formulas, to the press, alumni, trustees, and state legislators. Overhead rates, ranging from 37 percent to 77 percent,…

Cordes, Colleen

1991-01-01

354

Stat 426 EXAM 2 Name: Exam Instructions: Use a separate piece of paper to answer each question. Label the  

E-print Network

. Label the paper with the question number and your name. Try to show as much work as possible and explain your thoughts. There are 4 problems on this test. Calculators/computers are not permitted; one 8. The parameter is known. a. Find the method of moments estimator, ^mom, of . b. Use Chebyshev's inequality

Murphy, Susan A.

355

Desch_Answers N11.pdf Student questions: Steven Desch colloquium on "Geological Processes on Kuiper Belt Objects"  

E-print Network

, though. Question 1: How could you tell the difference between asteroid belt asteroids and Kuiper belt ices more volatile than water not expected to condense in the asteroid belt (like ammonia). KBOs also of our thinking about Earth's formation on what was going on in the asteroid belt. A whole literature has

Shumway, John

356

Comprehension of Information in Three Direct-to-Consumer Television Prescription Drug Advertisements Among Adults With Limited Literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct-to-consumer (DTC) television advertisements present a number of facts about prescription drug risks and benefits in a brief time. This study assessed comprehension of information in three advertisements among 50 adults with limited literacy. Participants correctly answered an average of 59% of comprehension questions. The percentage of respondents correctly answering individual comprehension questions ranged from 26% to 92%. A multivariate

Kimberly A. Kaphingst; Rima E. Rudd; William DeJong; Lawren H. Daltroy

2005-01-01

357

Screening, assessment, and treatment of osteoporosis for the nurse practitioner: Key questions and answers for clinical practice--A Canadian perspective  

PubMed Central

Purpose Using a case-based approach, we review key clinical questions relevant to nurse practitioners (NPs) regarding the screening, assessment, and treatment of patients at risk for osteoporosis and fractures in a Canadian general practice setting. Data sources A case presentation with relevant questions and answers to guide management of a patient. Conclusions Osteoporosis is a common condition in both the aging male and female populations. Screening, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis is lagging behind relative to other chronic disease states. NPs have a unique opportunity to help reduce this care gap by playing an integral role in the identification, risk stratification, and treatment of patients at risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Implications for practice This case highlights the important role an NP can have in screening a patient previously not diagnosed or managed for osteoporosis. Performing a focused history and physical exam of the patient to determine appropriate screening tests and fracture risk will help in guiding treatment decisions. PMID:24911524

Rice, Peggy; Mehan, Upender; Hamilton, Celeste; Kim, Sandra

2014-01-01

358

Mystery #14 Answer  

... questions are provided. 1.   The island is part of a volcanic arc system situated near a tectonic plate boundary. Answer: TRUE ... ocean   trench. 2.   The last major volcanic eruption on this island occurred in 1981. Answer: FALSE Anatahan had ...

2013-04-22

359

Mystery #1 Answer  

... wide. Answers to the questions are provided. 1.   This collection of islands, or archipelago, is part of what country? Answer:  ... main island of Viti Levu includes many species of orchids, water lilies, and tropical plants.     MISR was built and is ...

2013-04-22

360

Treatment of burns in the first 24 hours: simple and practical guide by answering 10 questions in a step-by-step form  

PubMed Central

Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose. PMID:22583548

2012-01-01

361

Inquiry-based Learning in Plant Ecology: Students Collect the Field Data, Ask the Questions, and Propose the Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Experiment is designed to teach upper-level students in a plant ecology course how to collect data on plant populations (distribution and abundance), develop hypotheses to explain observed patterns, and write a research proposal to test their hypotheses. The Experiment describes a semester long project requiring 13 classes that are 2 þ hours long each. The experimental setup is a 2 m X 30 m planted garden plot containing a mixture of planted (forb, grass, and legume) and volunteer plants. Students propose questions with specific measurable dependent and independent variables. Lab work typically required includes preparation and analysis of abiotic samples, such as soil samples, to measure variables such as soil moisture and soil texture.

Griffith, Alan

2010-02-16

362

Answering the big questions in neuroscience: DoD's experimental research wing takes on massive, high-risk projects.  

PubMed

When the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) asks research questions, it goes big. This is, after all, the same agency that put together teams of scientists and engineers to find a way to connect the worlds computers and, in doing so, developed the precursor to the Internet. DARPA, the experimental research wing of the U.S. Department of Defense, funds the types of research queries that scientists and engineers dream of tackling. Unlike a traditional granting agency that conservatively metes out its funding and only to projects with a good chance of success, DARPA puts its money on massive, multi-institutional projects that have no guarantees, but have enormous potential. In the 1990s, DARPA began its biological and medical science research to improve the safety, health, and well being of military personnel, according to DARPA program manager and Army Colonel Geoffrey Ling, Ph.D., M.D. More recently, DARPA has entered the realm of neuroscience and neurotechnology. Its focus with these projects is on its prime customer, the U.S. Department of Defense, but Ling acknowledged that technologies developed in its programs "certainly have potential to cascade into civilian uses." PMID:22344946

Mertz, Leslie

2012-01-01

363

Novel Approaches to Examine Passage, Student, and Question Effects on Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading comprehension is influenced by sources of variance associated with the reader and the task. To gain insight into the complex interplay of multiple sources of influence, we employed crossed random-effects item response models. These models allowed us to simultaneously examine the degree to which variables related to the type of passage and…

Miller, Amanda C.; Davis, Nicole; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Toste, Jessica R.; Street, James; Cutting, Laurie E.

2014-01-01

364

Do Questions Written in the Target Language Make Foreign Language Listening Comprehension Tests More Difficult?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Assessment of Language Competence (ALC) certificates is an annual, international testing program developed by the Australian Council for Educational Research to test the listening and reading comprehension skills of lower to middle year levels of secondary school. The tests are developed for three levels in French, German, Italian and…

Filipi, Anna

2012-01-01

365

Drilling the Mediterranean Messinian Evaporites to Answer Key Questions Related to Massive Microbial Dolomite Formation under Hypersaline Alkaline Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep-sea drilling in the Mediterranean during DSSP Leg 13 in 1970 revealed the basin-wide occurrence of a Messinian evaporite formation. This spectacular discovery was pursued further during a subsequent drilling program, DSDP Leg 42A, in 1975, which was designed, in part, to obtain continuous cores to study the evolution of the salinity crisis itself (Hsü, Montadert, et al., 1978). Specifically, drilling at a water depth of 4,088 m in the Ionian Sea, DSDP Site 374: Messina Abyssal Plain, penetrated about 80 m into the uppermost part of the Messinian upper evaporite formation. The sedimentary sequence comprises dolomitic mudstone overlying dolomitic mudstone/gypsum cycles, which in turn overlie anhydrite and halite. The non-fossiliferous dolomitic mudstone is generally rich in organic carbon, with TOC values ranging from 0.9% to 5.3%, of possible marine origin with a good source rock potential. Commonly laminated dolomitic mudstones contain preserved filamentous cyanobacterial remains suggesting that conditions were conducive for microbial mat growth. The Ca-dolomite, composed of fine-grained anhedral crystals in the size range of 2-4 ?m, is probably a primary precipitate. The unusual interstitial brines of the dolomitic mudstone units have very high alkalinities with a low pH of 5 to 6. The Mg concentration (2250 mmoles/l) is extremely elevated, whereas the Ca concentration is nearly zero. Finally, the drilled evaporite sedimentary sequence was interpreted as being deposited in an alkaline lake/sea ("Lago Mare"), which covered the area during the latest Messinian. Projecting forward 40 years since the DSDP Leg 42A drilling campaign, research into the factors controlling dolomite precipitation under Earth surface conditions has led to the development of new models involving the metabolism of microorganisms and associated biofilms to overcome the kinetic inhibitions associated with primary dolomite precipitation. Together with laboratory experiments, microbial dolomite precipitation has been studied extensively in rare modern environments, such as the arid coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi, UAE and the hypersaline coastal lagoons in Brazil. However, extrapolation of these studies of relatively limited aerial extent to interpret larger-scale, ancient dolomite formation of putative evaporitic origin remains elusive. Such ancient micritic dolomite formations with associated micro-porosity represent extremely valuable hydrocarbon reservoirs. Therefore, a comprehensive investigation of a relatively recent micritic dolomite deposit that has not experienced extensive burial depths and diagenesis is essential to extend our understanding of these important reservoir systems. Based on the limited data obtained during drilling at DSDP Site 374: Messina Abyssal Plain, the dolomitic mudstones of the uppermost Messinian evaporite complex represent an ideal candidate for such an extensive study in a "natural laboratory". Thus, to increase our understanding of the biogeochemical processes associated with ancient massive dolomite formation, we propose to document the scientific objectives to support a major new drilling campaign to study the sub-seafloor Messinian evaporite complex in the deep Mediterranean basins, using greatly enhanced drilling technology that is currently available within the new International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP). Hsü, K., Montadert, L. et al., 1978. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Volume 42, Part 1: Washington (U.S. Government Printing Office).

McKenzie, Judith A.; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

2014-05-01

366

FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question "What is life?" is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schrödinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter.

Reutov, Valentin P.; Schechter, A. N.

2010-07-01

367

Field-Based Teacher Research: How Teachers and Scientists Working Together Answers Questions about Turtle Nesting Ecology while Enhancing Teachers' Inquiry Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing rigorous academic supplement to a professional development program for teachers, QUEST is a fusion of Drexel University's environmental science research department with Princeton University's Program in Teacher Preparation. Completed in the summers of 2012 (in partnership with Earthwatch) and 2013 in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, QUEST's terrapin field research program enhances K-12 teachers' ecological knowledge, develops inquiry-based thinking in the classroom, and builds citizen science engagement. With a focus on quality question development and data analysis to answer questions, teachers are coached in developing, implementing, and presenting independent research projects on diamondback terrapin nesting ecology. As a result, teachers participating in QUEST's week long program bring a realistic example of science in action into their classrooms, helping to develop their own students' critical thinking skills. For teachers, this program provides training towards educating students on how to do real and imaginative science - subsequently sending students to university better prepared to engage in their own independent research. An essential component of the collaboration through QUEST, in addition to the teacher's experience during and after the summer institute, is the research data collected which supplements that of the Principal Investigator. In 2012, by documenting terrapin nest site predators, teachers gained valuable scientific experience, while Drexel acquired important ecological data which would have not been able to be collected otherwise. In 2013, teachers helped answer important questions about terrapin nesting success post Superstorm Sandy. In fact, the 2013 QUEST teachers are the first to visualize the frighteningly increased erosion of a primary terrapin nesting site due to Sandy; showing how most terrapin nests now lie in the bay, instead of safe on shore. Teachers comment that interacting with scientists in the field, and contributing to the research was 'an invaluable experience.' Conceptual models of QUEST's philosophy will be distributed at our presentation to encourage audience members interested in starting their own field-based educator professional development project. Through our presentation of this unique program, we will share how we have successfully incorporated real scientific research into classrooms through teachers' experiences, and discuss the lessons learned regarding replication and sustainability of educator-scientist collaborations.

Winters, J. M.; Jungblut, D.; Catena, A. N.; Rubenstein, D. I.

2013-12-01

368

Donating Blood Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Under certain circumstances a donor with an indeterminate Western Blot may be tested for possible re-entry after a six-month period if an unlicensed Western Blot was used for the original test. A ...

369

Question & Answer QQ&&AA  

E-print Network

. Quantitative traits include aspects of morphology (height, weight); physiology (blood pressure); behavior (aggression); as well as molecular phenotypes (gene expression levels, high- and low- density cholesterol, but achondroplasia (dwarfism) is caused by a Mendelian autosomal dominant mutation in the fibroblast growth factor

Mackay, Trudy F.C.

370

Questions and Answers about Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

... the stroke and acts quickly. What should a bystander do? Bystanders should know the signs and act in time. ... disability. Four million Americans are living with the effects of stroke. The length of time to recover ...

371

Question & Answer QQ&&AA  

E-print Network

in equal times) that empirically accoun- ted for Brahe's data. Fifty years later, Newton's law of universal gravitation provided a further abstraction and simplification, with Kepler's laws following as simple-sphere-tetrahedron-sphere-cube- sphere), the sizes of the spheres correspond to the relative sizes of the first six planets' orbits

372

Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... down the road. A related "all or nothing" misconception is that all heavy drinkers are automatically alcoholics. ... year. This helps to counter a commonly held misconception that “everybody” drinks a lot. The second purpose ...

373

Questions and Answers about Monkeypox  

MedlinePLUS

... the sale of infected prairie dogs. CDC laboratory testing of some animals by using PCR and virus isolation demonstrated that ... to assist with the investigation. Conducted extensive laboratory testing on specimens from humans and animals thought to have been exposed to monkeypox. Issued ...

374

Answering Questions About Underage Drinking  

MedlinePLUS

... can respond. Please share. Q. Doesn't the legal drinking age just make teens want alcohol more, because it ... friends when you're not around. Q. The legal drinking age in Europe is younger than it is in ...

375

Common Prostate Cancer Questions Answered  

MedlinePLUS

... or just interested in learning more about the disease, the American Cancer Society is here to help. Here, we will ... aims to help people with certain types of cancer and other diseases get their federal disability claims processed faster. The ...

376

Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark urine, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and ... A virus is spread by getting infected fecal matter into a person’s mouth who has never had ...

377

Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... developed under patent protection. The patent protects the investment in the drug's development by giving the company ... Committees Science & Research Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training and Continuing Education Inspections/ ...

378

Questions and Answers about TB  

MedlinePLUS

... Rapid Molecular Testing to Detect Drug-Resistant TB in the US Executive Summary Introduction Background on Tests for Molecular ... Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets ...

379

HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... prevents infection with the most harmful kinds of human papillomavirus (also called HPV). HPV vaccine is safe, effective, ... VFC program . Related Pages HPV Vaccine main page Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Topics Top of Page Images and logos ...

380

Answers to Questions: Nuclear Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electricity is an increasingly important part of our everyday lives. Its versatility allows one to heat, cool, and light homes; cook meals; watch television; listen to music; power computers; make medical diagnosis and treatment; explore the vastness of space; and study the tiniest molecules. Nuclear energy, second to coal, surpasses natural gas,…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

381

Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an annotated bibliography of eight recommended children's books new titles and reprints to use in reading comprehension activities. Suggests grade levels and learning activities for each title. (AEF)

Winkel, Lois

1999-01-01

382

Effects of Combined Reading and Question Generation on Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Three Young Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend (RAAC) is a reading intervention designed to target fluency and comprehension for students with disabilities. Previous researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the intervention for students with learning disabilities. This study extended the research by using the RAAC intervention with three…

Hua, Youjia; Hendrickson, Jo M.; Therrien, William J.; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Ries, Pamela S.; Shaw, Julia J.

2012-01-01

383

The relations among interest, self?assessed comprehension, and comprehension performance in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment investigated the relations among students' interest in texts (i.e., “specific passage interest”), domains of texts (i.e., “general domain interest”), self?assessments of comprehension, and comprehension performance. College students (23 females and 8 males; M age = 18.6) read expository texts, assessed their confidence in answering inference questions, rated the interestingness of the texts, and completed true\\/ false comprehension questions.

Karen Zabrucky; DeWayne Moore

1996-01-01

384

UC Berkeley Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Risk Assessment Please answer these questions as honestly as possible. This risk assessment is for your personal use. If you would like to discuss this  

E-print Network

UC Berkeley Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Risk Assessment Please answer these questions/forms/Patient Self-assessment.doc Why are you interested in STI risk assessment? I am starting or ending a relationship. I may have been exposed to an STI. I have a symptom (or my partner has a symptom). I have

Jacobs, Lucia

385

question_1296796037 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

If this important question is answered we would be able to develop a highly tailored therapeutic approach for cancers. Actually, inflammatory type of the anti-tumor immune response such as IFN-g can also induce initial tumor inhibition but eventual tumor escape and progression.

386

Treatment of failures related to articulation material in THA. A comprehensive algorithm of surgical options and open questions.  

PubMed

Total hip arthroplasty is considered one of the greatest advances in health care of the last century. More than one million THAs are estimated to be performed annually and an increasing number of revisions are expected in the future. Osteolysis and loosening are still the main reasons for failure, justifying the use of low-wear bearings.The aim of this paper is to describe the mode of failure of the different couplings (polyethylene, cross-linked PE, metal, ceramic) and the options of treatment considering the various scenarios that the surgeon has to face nowadays in the case of failure related to articulation material. A comprehensive algorithm of treatment strategies is proposed based on the best current evidence and on the authors' experience.Periodical follow-up, indications for early revision, selection of proper surgical techniques and tribology are suggested. Nowadays, few rules are strongly recommended: trying to avoid any metal in case of failure of metal-on-metal; to avoid metal in fracture of ceramic; never to mix metals or ceramics from different manufactures. We aim to address a great number of open questions. There is still need for further research and evidences in this essential field of orthopaedic surgery. PMID:24970035

Zagra, Luigi; Maccario, Camilla; Mondini, Andrea; Bianchi, Luca

2014-01-01

387

What Do I Do When...: The Answer Book on Special Education Law. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents, in a question-and-answer format, a comprehensive guide to special education law, especially the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Following a table of questions and suggestions on using the book, individual chapters cover law on the following topics: (1) eligibility (e.g., under IDEA and other laws, specific…

Gorn, Susan

388

Welcome to ECU Physicians Internal Medicine Services We hope this information can answer your questions about our office policies. If you  

E-print Network

prescription or bottles for any pills, drops or supplements you take, including herbal medicines and overWelcome to ECU Physicians Internal Medicine Services We hope this information can answer your-the-counter medicines and vitamins If you are diabetic, please bring your glucometer and any home glucose logs that you

389

"One gains nothing . . . by starting out with the question, `What is acceptable?' And in the process of answering it, one gives away the important things, as a  

E-print Network

with an effective, let alone with the right, answer." Peter F. Drucker (1967), The Effective Executive California leading to acrimonious divisions between Northern and Southern California, environmental and economic are great, given their location near transportation corridors and several major metropolitan areas. Yet many

Pasternack, Gregory B.

390

Schools Free of Drugs and Violence. Questions and Answers on Reaching National Education Goal 6: "By the Year 2000, Every School in America Will be Free of Drugs and Violence and Will Offer a Disciplined Environment Conducive to Learning." Resource Document.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions and answers on reaching National Education Goal 6 are presented in this document. The six National Education goals for the year 2000 are stated, followed by the America 2000 strategy. The introduction briefly discusses substance abuse and school violence. The document presents questions and answers on these topics: (1) What is a…

Department of Education, Washington, DC.

391

About Provocative Questions — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The provocative questions initiative has assembled a list of 24 important questions from the research community to stimulate the NCI’s research communities to use laboratory, clinical and populations sciences in especially effective and imaginative ways to answer the questions. The questions are not simple restatements of long-term goals of the National Cancer Program, which are to improve the prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment of all forms of cancer.

392

Finding Evidence-Based Answers to Clinical Questions Quickly and Effectively See also the Biomedical Libraries' Evidence-Based Medicine Research Guide  

E-print Network

to a narrower, focused clinical question In a 70 year old woman with primary insomnia and a previous adverse-based information about alternative therapies Is melatonin safe and effective for treating insomnia? Does music

393

Essential Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The secret to teaching may be as simple as asking students good questions--and then giving them the opportunity to find the answers. The author shares how he uses essential questions that set the class off on an inquiry. Rather than consuming information that he distributes and then repeating it on a test, students carry out their own…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

2012-01-01

394

The Effect of Using Predictions on a Reader's Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate prediction as a strategy that can improve reading comprehension, 50 third grade students from Toledo, Ohio, were first divided into experimental and control groups. The 2 groups both read the same 5 basal stories for instruction, were given the same pretest passages, answered 10 comprehension questions, and then followed a 3-day…

Edler, Kristine Winkle

395

Unexpected Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to statistical situations where the probabilities or outcomes might not be what is first expected. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities motivated by the idea of unexpected answers. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with an introduction to probability and unexpected answers in probability.

Shodor

2012-03-30

396

Review or True? Using Higher-Level Thinking Questions in Social Studies Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asking surface-level questions is a common practice among educators. Delva Daines's (1986) pilot study indicated that 93 percent of the questions asked during lessons were at the literal level of comprehension and that it was very common for the teachers to restate, rephrase, or answer their own questions before the student had an opportunity to…

Kracl, Carrie L.

2012-01-01

397

SELF CARE FOR NAUSEA, VOMITING AND/OR DIARRHEA Positive answers to any of the following questions indicate that you should sign in to be seen during morning  

E-print Network

gelatin (not red), water, sports drinks, flat soda, clear broth, flavored ice and apple juice. Do no to each of these questions, please be guided by the following suggestions: 1. Do not eat or drink anything for 1 hour after throwing up. 2. Drink sips of clear fluids for the first 12 hours. These include

Suzuki, Masatsugu

398

Do Workshops in Evidence-Based Practice Equip Participants to Identify and Answer Questions Requiring Consideration of Clinical Research? A Diagnostic Skill Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires practitioners to identify and formulate questions in response to patient encounters, and to seek, select, and appraise applicable clinical research. A standardized workshop format serves as the model for training of medical educators in these skills. We developed an evaluation exercise to assess the ability…

Wyer, Peter C,; Naqvi, Zoon; Dayan, Peter S.; Celentano, James J.; Eskin, Barnet; Graham, Mark J.

2009-01-01

399

Chem 6V19 homework #1 given on Jan. 20, 2009, due Jan. 29, 2009 I want complete, detailed answers to the questions. Show all your work.  

E-print Network

to the questions. Show all your work. Problem 1 ­ Hartree product Do exercise 2.2 on page 48 in Szabo and Ostlund. (c) Prove that the sum of two linear operators is linear. Problem 3 ­ vector spaces The motivation

Nielsen, Steven O.

400

Process Evaluation of a County Drug CourtAn Analysis of Descriptors, Compliance and Outcome—Answering Some Questions While Raising Others  

Microsoft Academic Search

This process evaluation focuses not only on the results of this study but also raises questions related to comparing the results of studies nationwide to determine the overall effectiveness of Drug Court Policy. In this study, it was determined that demographic characteristics, such as education, employment, and prior felony were among the most useful characteristics for predicting program graduation. Moreover,

Jacqueline M. Mullany; Barbara Peat

2008-01-01

401

Five Hundred Questions Kids Ask about Sex and Some of the Answers: Sex Education for Parents, Teachers and Young People Themselves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is based on the premise that sexual expression is a way for people to show affection and love for one another. The book is divided into six chapters that cover topics related to sexuality and growing up. The sections in each chapter contain questions that preteens and teenagers typically ask and provide clear, unambiguous, and…

Younger, Frances

402

A Parent's Guide to Sex, Drugs and Flunking out: Answers to the Questions Your College Student Doesn't Want You To Ask.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to help parents as their children make decisions about college and the first year of college. It discusses college selection, financial decisions, academic choices, social choices, and questions of personal safety. The chapters are: (1) "The Right School for Your Child--And You"; (2) "Paying for College and Getting What You…

Epstein, Joel

403

Behavioral Approach to Accident Prevention (RC-372/572) Pick any ten questions from the following listing and write a comprehensive answer for each. The body of each  

E-print Network

of males and females, and are these differences significant in terms of performing low-risk driving in the promotion of safe human behaviors? 12. Are the major differences in male and female behavior the result neurotransmitters play in the development of various human behaviors such as aggression, elation, fear, depression

Wu, Mingshen

404

Explicit Self-Regulated Strategy Development Versus Reciprocal Questioning: Effects on Expository Reading Comprehension Among Struggling Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of 2 rigorous strategic approaches to reading comprehension for 32 5th-grade students who struggle with reading were investigated. The first approach, TWA (Think before reading, think While reading, think After reading), was taught following explicit self-regulated strategy development instructional procedures (K. R. Harris & S.…

Mason, Linda H.

2004-01-01

405

Three Reading Comprehension Strategies: TELLS, Story Mapping, and QARs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three reading comprehension strategies are presented to assist learning-disabled students: an advance organizer technique called "TELLS Fact or Fiction" used before reading a passage, a schema-based technique called "Story Mapping" used while reading, and a postreading method of categorizing questions called "Question-Answer Relationships." (JDD)

Sorrell, Adrian L.

1990-01-01

406

On-line assessment of comprehension processes.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe a new version of a former paper-and-pencil standardized comprehension test called Test of Comprehension Processes (Vidal-Abarca, Gilabert, Martínez, & Sellés, 2007). The new version has been adapted to a computer-based environment based on the moving window technique. It can be used to assess comprehension strategies of students from fifth to tenth grades (11- to 16-years-old). Comprehension strategies are registered on-line using reading times and visits to relevant sections of the text during the question-answering process. Data show that the computer-based version draws similar results to those provided by the paper-and-pencil version. In addition, we identify the particular strategies deployed during the question-answering process by high, medium and low comprehenders. PMID:19476242

Martínez, Tomás; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo; Gil, Laura; Gilabert, Ramiro

2009-05-01

407

In addition to the standard, easy to fill-in, questions the 2014/15 College of Engineering Scholarship application includes the following long answer/essay questions which you  

E-print Network

your college education? *Are you involved with community service on campus or outside of the university educational and career goals? What areas of engineering most interest you and why? Where do you see yourself In addition to the standard, easy to fill-in, questions the 2014/15 College of Engineering

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

408

Some questions provoked by a chronic headache (with mixed migraine and cluster headache features) in a woman with a pineal cyst. Answers from a literature review.  

PubMed

The main known function of the pineal gland in humans is the production of melatonin. Benign cysts of the gland have been related to headache, although the mechanism of production of this assumed clinical manifestation has not been clearly determined, due to the lack of large prospective studies. The question is complicated by the fact that pineal cysts are frequently found on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Much has been published about the possible role of benign pineal cysts in the pathophisiology of headaches and the potential of melatonin in headache therapy, as well as in other disorders. The aim of this article is to review the current state of the subject. We have tried to place accurately the relation between headache and pineal cysts based on the available evidence, as well as the actual role of melatonin in physiology and pharmacology, more specifically in headache therapy. We include a clinical case to illustrate the subject. PMID:20799383

Molina-Martínez, F J; Jiménez-Martínez, M C; Vives-Pastor, B

2010-09-01

409

WebAssign Answer Hints  

E-print Network

NEVER: Give an approximate answer to a HW question unless a problem ... COORDINATES - you should indeed generally assume that the major points on a ... NORMALLY, solve for y, which is what I would expect you to do on a quiz.

OwenDavis

2014-10-06

410

Insect Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from Texas A&M University's Department of Entomology is a consolidated body of information on insects. Clicking on "Insect Help Publications" provides links to a number of extension service documents, with topics such as Home Gardens, Urban and Household, Medical and Veterinary, and Spanish. Other Insect Answers include information on managing pest problems, insect images and sounds, identification, and honey bees. On the right hand side of the page more information about the Entomology Department can be found as well as their bi-monthly podcast: Bug Bytes.

2007-11-28

411

Facebook Psychology: Popular Questions Answered by Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its launch in February 2004, Facebook has become one of the most popular websites in the world, as well as a widely discussed media phenomenon. Unsurprisingly, the Facebook revolution has inspired a wealth of psychological study, which is growing exponentially. In this article, we review the recent empirical research into some of the key psychological themes concerning Facebook use.

Beth Anderson; Patrick Fagan; Tom Woodnutt; Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic

2012-01-01

412

Exploiting syntactic relations for question answering  

E-print Network

Recently there has been a resurgent interest in syntax-based approaches to information access, as a means of overcoming the limitations of keyword-based approaches. So far attempts to use syntax have been ad hoc, choosing ...

Loreto, Daniel

2006-01-01

413

Questions and Answers about Sex (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... the baby grows from an egg in the mommy's womb, pointing to your stomach, and comes out ... should girls be told about menstruation? Girls (and boys!) should have information about menstruation by about age ...

414

Lipstick and Lead: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... of Cosmetic Science 1 . FDA purchased lipsticks from retail stores between October and December 2007. Sample # Brand ... Drug Administration (FDA). The lipsticks were purchased from retail stores between February and July 2010. Sample # Brand ...

415

National Wetland Plant List Question and Answers  

E-print Network

in the process of determining federal wetland delineation for purposes of the Clean Water Act, Swamp buster as a result of the changes to the updated plant list. Approximately 12% of the wetland plant indicator% of the formerly FAC- species were equally split better a wetter and drier rating. The majority of these changes

US Army Corps of Engineers

416

Finding Answers to Questions about School Finance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the California School Finance (CASF) Web site, which explains the complexities of school funding in California. The Web site, www.californiaschoolfinance.org, was developed by EdSource, an organization that has been trusted in California for 30 years to explain school finance in simple, jargon-free language. The CASF site…

Leadership, 2007

2007-01-01

417

Adult College Students Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

use the internet for research?" 1. Attend the 201 Workshop in the Library 2. Visit the Writing Lab in with everything else I have going on?" 1. Get into the habit of putting time aside just for school work. Make yourself a schedule. Sometimes having everything laid out in front of you can show that you do have some

Kasman, Alex

418

Questions and Answers on Living Donation  

MedlinePLUS

... YMCA Nov 25, 2014 December YPG Holiday Party Dec 03, 2014 29th Annual Gift of Life Gala Dec 06, 2014 Register Now NKF Golf Classic at Tiburon Golf Club - Naples, FL Dec 07, 2014 Register Now NKF Golf Classic at ...

419

Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic  

MedlinePLUS

... This could be due to different amounts of arsenic in orchard soils. Testing a small number of samples of different ... organic apples come from trees that grow in soil that may contain arsenic. The FDA is not aware of any data ...

420

Quick Answers to Common Questions About  

E-print Network

Build Good Credit? 29 How Can I Afford Medical School? 30 What is the Cost of Applying to Medical School-Traditional Student? 33 What is the Financial Aid Application Process? 34 What are the benefits of Federal vs. Private Can I Make a Smooth Transition to Medical School? Chapter 6: What Med School is Like 41 What's It Like

Almor, Amit

421

Questions and Answers about Carotid Endarterectomy  

MedlinePLUS

... The mainstay of stroke prevention is risk factor management: smoking cessation, treatment of high blood pressure, and control of blood sugar levels among persons with diabetes. Additionally, physicians may prescribe ...

422

DNA evidence: Wrong answers or wrong questions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the controversy over DNA evidence is due to the way in which forensic scientific evidence has classically been presented. The orthodox approach is to consider whether two samples match according to a predetermined criterion. If they do, the fact of match is reported along with an estimate of the frequency of the characteristics. This method fails to address

Bernard Robertson; G. A. Vignaux

1995-01-01

423

QUICK Answers To Frequently Asked Questions  

E-print Network

Where do I purchase items for class? The UIC Bookstore has the guaranteed lowest prices on new textbooks. ATM's Where can I get cash? ATM's are located throughout the campus. Locations include Student Center Building and Student Center East. TCF Bank has a location in Student Center East (SCE). Books/Bookstores

Illinois at Chicago, University of

424

Answering Your Child's Tough Questions About Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... the U.S. Household Population Serious Psychological Distress and Mortality among Adults in the U.S. Household Population: Highlights Underage Binge Alcohol Use Varies within and across States Alcohol and ...

425

Questions and Answers: Information for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognizes that school administrators, teachers, staff, and parents are concerned about the flu, particularly its effects on children. Schools are instrumental in keeping their communities healthy by taking actions such as posting information about hand hygiene in restrooms, providing flu…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

2007-01-01

426

VFC Detailed Questions and Answers for Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... This means that no one can charge a fee for the vaccine itself. However, each state immunization ... ability to charge what is called an "administrative fee." An administrative fee is similar to a patient's ...

427

Cryosurgery in Cancer Treatment: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... is the use of extreme cold produced by liquid nitrogen (or argon gas) to destroy abnormal tissue . Cryosurgery is used to ... and tumors in the bone). For internal tumors, liquid nitrogen or argon gas is circulated through a hollow instrument called a ...

428

Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: Questions & Answers  

Cancer.gov

The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study was designed to evaluate the risk of death associated with diesel exhaust exposure, particularly as it may relate to lung cancer. The researchers observed increased risk for lung cancer death with increasing levels of exposure to diesel exhaust.

429

Hepatitis C and Lymphoma: Questions and Answers  

Cancer.gov

People infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are at an increased risk of developing certain lymphomas (cancers of the lymphatic system). Researchers found that HCV infection increased the risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma by 20 percent to 30 percent. The risk of developing Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (a rare type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) went up by 300 percent and the risk for cryoglobulinemia, a form of blood vessel inflammation, was also elevated for those with HCV infections.

430

Revised Questions and Answers March 12, 2012  

E-print Network

): There are currently no California standards in place for hydrogen fuel quality. Under an Energy Commission contract this SAE fuel specification by regulation. Under an Energy Commission contract, CDFA/DMS is currently-private fleet-based hydrogen fueling stations to serve the current population of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs

431

Question-Answering with Relaxed Unification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical unification is strict in the sense that it requires a perfect agreement between the terms being unified. In practise, data are seldom error- free and can contain incorrect information. Clas- sical unification fails when the data are imper- fect. Relaxed unification is a new formalism that relaxes the rigid constraints of classical uni- fication and enables reasoning under uncertainty

Tony Abou-Assaleh; Nick Cercone; Vlado Keÿselj

432

Fifteen Questions and Answers about Elder Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... NCEA) serves as a national resource for elder rights advocates, adult protective services professionals, law enforcement and legal professionals, medical and mental health providers, public policy leaders, researchers, and concerned citizens. It is ...

433

Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: More questions than answers  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic modifications are widely accepted as playing a critical role in the regulation of gene expression and thereby contributing to the determination of the phenotype of multicellular organisms. In general, these marks are cleared and re-established each generation, but there have been reports in a number of model organisms that at some loci in the genome this clearing is incomplete. This phenomenon is referred to as transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Moreover, recent evidence shows that the environment can stably influence the establishment of the epigenome. Together, these findings suggest that an environmental event in one generation could affect the phenotype in subsequent generations, and these somewhat Lamarckian ideas are stimulating interest from a broad spectrum of biologists, from ecologists to health workers. PMID:21041414

Daxinger, Lucia; Whitelaw, Emma

2010-01-01

434

Insure Kids Now: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... is for U.S. citizens and certain lawfully present immigrants. To find information about the Medicaid and CHIP ... for Medicaid or CHIP. You can apply at HealthCare.gov or directly with your state Medicaid/CHIP ...

435

Cancer Progress Report 2001: Questions and Answers  

Cancer.gov

The NCI's Cancer Progress Report 2001 is a new print and online report that tracks the Nations progress against cancer across the full cancer continuum from prevention through the impact of deaths from cancer.

436

A Comparison of First Grade Negro Dialect Speakers' Comprehension of Standard English and Negro Dialect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study of Negro children's listening comprehension, conducted in 1969, the following hypotheses were tested: (1) Beginning first-grade Negro dialect speakers who scored high, average, and low on readiness tests show no significant differences in their ability to answer literal comprehension questions about stories presented orally in standard…

Ramsey, Imogene

1972-01-01

437

Drawing on Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines observations and research on question-answer interaction between client and therapist, and teacher and student. Discusses Patton's six-question instrument which provides categories of question options, with application for the art therapist. Argues that effective formulation of questions provides the clinician, educator, and researcher…

Bloomgarden, Joan

2000-01-01

438

A comprehensive review for industrial applicability of artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comprehensive review of the industrial applications of artificial neural networks (ANNs), in the last 12 years. Common questions that arise to practitioners and control engineers while deciding how to use NNs for specific industrial tasks are answered. Workable issues regarding implementation details, training and performance evaluation of such algorithms are also discussed, based on a judiciously

Magali R. G. Meireles; Paulo E. M. Almeida; Marcelo Godoy Simões

2003-01-01

439

Unpark Those Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

Ness, Molly

2013-01-01

440

Investigating graph comprehension in students with dyslexia: an eye tracking study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine graph comprehension in college students with developmental dyslexia. We investigated how graph types (line, vertical bar, and horizontal bar graphs), graphic patterns (single and double graphic patterns), and question types (point locating and comparison questions) differentially affect graph comprehension of students with and without dyslexia. Groups were compared for (1) reaction times for answering comprehension questions based on graphed data and (2) eye gaze times for specific graph subregions (x-axis, y-axis, pattern, legend, question, and answer). Dyslexic readers were significantly slower in their graph comprehension than their peers with group differences becoming more robust with the increasing complexity of graphs and tasks. In addition, dyslexic readers' initial eye gaze viewing times for linguistic subregions (question and answer) and total viewing times for both linguistic (question and answer) and nonlinguistic (pattern) subregions were significantly longer than their control peers' times. In spite of using elementary-level paragraphs for comprehension and simple graph forms, young adults with dyslexia needed more time to process linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. These findings are discussed relative to theories proposed to address fundamental processing deficits in individuals with dyslexia. PMID:24770469

Kim, Sunjung; Lombardino, Linda J; Cowles, Wind; Altmann, Lori J

2014-07-01

441

Searching for Answers via Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeking answers to questions is a natural part of our learning and social interactions. Although search engines, web-based forums, and inquiries to friends via e-mails or instant messengers are all methods we use today, in many cases, much time is still spent to search, organize, or wait for responses. If knowledgable people can be found online to answer questions in

Jyun-Jie Huang; Shao-Chen Changt; Shun-Yun Hu

2008-01-01

442

Welcome to Provocative Questions: The Unanswered Questions in Cancer Research — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The provocative questions initiative has assembled a list of 20 important questions from the research community to stimulate the NCI's research communities to use laboratory, clinical and population sciences in especially effective and imaginative ways to answer the questions.

443

FALCON: Boosting Knowledge for Answer Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the features of FALCON, an answerengine that integrates different forms of syntactic,semantic and pragmatic knowledge for the goalof achieving better performance. The answer enginehandles question reformulations, finds the expected answertype from a large hierarchy that incorporatesthe WordNet semantic net and extracts answers af-ter performing unifications on the semantic forms ofthe question and its candidate answers. To rule

Sanda M. Harabagiu; Dan I. Moldovan; Marius Pasca; Rada Mihalcea; Mihai Surdeanu; Razvan C. Bunescu; Roxana Girju; Vasile Rus; Paul Morarescu

2000-01-01

444

What is the Right Answer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to introduce students to the concept that sometimes there is no one "right" answer to a question or measurement. Students learn to be careful when searching for a right answer to questions such as 'What time is it?' by comparing multiple measurements of the time of day. Students gain an intuitive understanding of the characteristics of imperfect measurements. Using different clocks, students simultaneously record the displayed times. The resulting time measurements are converted from minutes and seconds to seconds. These measurements are plotted to illustrate the mathematical techniques of averages and deviations from an average.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

445

Frequently Asked Questions: Questions About Paleontology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site asks and answers questions about paleontology, fossils and dinosaurs. Paleontology questions are: What is paleontology? How does paleontology differ from anthropology and archaeology? What are the practical uses of paleontology? How do paleontologists know how old their fossils are? What training is necessary to become a paleontologist? What organizations exist for paleontologists?

2007-01-01

446

Question the Author  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page describes the comprehension strategy of Question the Author (QtA), a strategy in which students pose questions while reading nonfiction text. Students pose questions about the author's purpose in including certain phrases or forms of information while reading. Sample questions are provided in a three-step instructional sequence. References are included.

2012-01-01

447

Finn, Olivera — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

An exciting development in this area that would be encouraged by attempting to answer this important question, is the connection between the observations of cancer risk modulation by epidemiologists and immune mechanisms that appear to be involved, described by immunologists.

448

Reference Readiness for AV Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

1981-01-01

449

Does the Answer Order Matter on Multiple-Choice Exams?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surprising version-dependent differences are noted in student performance on certain questions in a standardized general chemistry exam. The exam in question has two versions, on which both questions and answers are ordered differently. For the questions suspected of answer-order bias, the performance is better in ten of twelve cases when students…

Tellinghuisen, Joel; Sulikowski, Michelle M.

2008-01-01

450

EXPOSURE FACTORS HANDBOOK - FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This page provides a list of the most frequently asked questions and answers related to exposure factors. The following questions and answers have been compiled from inquiries made by users of the Exposure Factors Handbook. These questions and answers provide general information ...

451

Intramammary lymph nodes: a question seeking for an answer or an answer seeking for a question?  

PubMed

Intramammary lymph nodes have not received for a long time enough attention from the medical literature and thus many of their characteristics are not sufficiently explored. Their incidence at various studies ranges between 0, 7 and 48%. They may be found in all breast quadrants but usually at the Upper Outer Quadrant (UOQ). Their radiological image at mammography is that of a well circumscribed density with an area of lower density at centre representing the hilum and at ultrasonography of a hypoechoic, circumscribed mass with an echogenic hilum. Their role in lymphatic drainage of breast regions is important although it is not known if they represent true sentinel nodes or if lymphatic drainage to them comes from ectopic, independently developed pathways. Intramammary Lymph Nodes are involved in a variety of clinical situations including benign situations, tumor metastasis, breast lymphoma and breast cancer. Their importance over breast cancer is not fully defined but there is evidence that they worsen prognosis and they may change therapeutic decisions. Breast cancer and Breast lymphoma can coexist and interfere. PMID:22749923

Troupis, T; Michalinos, A; Skandalakis, P

2012-10-01

452

Questioning the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of questions to…

Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

2010-01-01

453

Frequently Asked Questions Question: What items are not allowed on  

E-print Network

Frequently Asked Questions Question: What items are not allowed on Laboratory property? Answer: If an explosive is detected in a vehicle, what measures will be taken to protect those nearby? Answer. ENHANCED SECURITY MEASURES Security for You, for the Laboratory, and for the Nation LA-UR 12-00944 February

454

Questioning the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Well-known historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's classic work "The Republic" (2003). Today, teachers still use questions as one way to help students develop productive thinking skills and to understand concepts and topics.…

Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

2009-01-01

455

Thirteen Questions: Reframing Education's Conversation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides alternative answers to those questions about the American educational system that have been answered until now by an outmoded, conservative educational agenda. Following the introduction that describes the rationale for a postmodern deconstruction of educational narratives, 13 chapters present essays on the following questions:…

Kincheloe, Joe L., Ed.; Steinberg, Shirley R., Ed.

456

Checklist to Determine if the Agreement on Internal Trade Applies to a UWO Purchase If the answer to every question falls in a shaded area, then the Agreement applies.  

E-print Network

Checklist to Determine if the Agreement on Internal Trade Applies to a UWO Purchase If the answer. Is it between public organizations or with a non-profit organization? 5. Is it for resale to the public? 7 applies, then complete Agreement on Internal Trade: Compliance Report. If the Agreement does NOT apply

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

457

Comprehension and retrieval of failure cases in airborne observatories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes research dealing with the computational problem of analyzing and repairing failures of electronic and mechanical systems of telescopes in NASA's airborne observatories, such as KAO (Kuiper Airborne Observatory) and SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy). The research has resulted in the development of an experimental system that acquires knowledge of failure analysis from input text, and answers questions regarding failure detection and correction. The system's design builds upon previous work on text comprehension and question answering, including: knowledge representation for conceptual analysis of failure descriptions, strategies for mapping natural language into conceptual representations, case-based reasoning strategies for memory organization and indexing, and strategies for memory search and retrieval. These techniques have been combined into a model that accounts for: (a) how to build a knowledge base of system failures and repair procedures from descriptions that appear in telescope-operators' logbooks and FMEA (failure modes and effects analysis) manuals; and (b) how to use that knowledge base to search and retrieve answers to questions about causes and effects of failures, as well as diagnosis and repair procedures. This model has been implemented in FANSYS (Failure ANalysis SYStem), a prototype text comprehension and question answering program for failure analysis.

Alvarado, Sergio J.; Mock, Kenrick J.

1995-01-01

458

Comprehension and retrieval of failure cases in airborne observatories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes research dealing with the computational problem of analyzing and repairing failures of electronic and mechanical systems of telescopes in NASA's airborne observatories, such as KAO (Kuiper Airborne Observatory) and SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy). The research has resulted in the development of an experimental system that acquires knowledge of failure analysis from input text, and answers questions regarding failure detection and correction. The system's design builds upon previous work on text comprehension and question answering, including: knowledge representation for conceptual analysis of failure descriptions, strategies for mapping natural language into conceptual representations, case-based reasoning strategies for memory organization and indexing, and strategies for memory search and retrieval. These techniques have been combined into a model that accounts for: (a) how to build a knowledge base of system failures and repair procedures from descriptions that appear in telescope-operators' logbooks and FMEA (failure modes and effects analysis) manuals; and (b) how to use that knowledge base to search and retrieve answers to questions about causes and effects of failures, as well as diagnosis and repair procedures. This model has been implemented in FANSYS (Failure ANalysis SYStem), a prototype text comprehension and question answering program for failure analysis.

Alvarado, Sergio J.; Mock, Kenrick J.

1995-05-01

459

Answer Garden: a tool for growing organizational memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Answer Garden allows organizations to develop databases of commonly asked questions that grow “organically” as new questions arise and are answered. It is designed to help in situations (such as field service organizations and customer “hot lines”) where there is a continuing stream of questions, many of which occur over and over, but some of which the organization has never

Mark S. Ackerman; Thomas W. Malone

1990-01-01

460

Predictors of Nutrition Information Comprehension in Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Objective The goal of the present study was to examine relationships among several predictors of nutrition comprehension. We were particularly interested in exploring whether nutrition knowledge or motivation moderated the effects of attention on comprehension across a wide age range of adults. Methods Ninety-three participants, ages 18 to 80, completed measures of nutrition knowledge and motivation and then read nutrition information (from which attention allocation was derived) and answered comprehension questions. Results In general, predictor variables were highly intercorrelated. However, knowledge, but not motivation, had direct effects on comprehension accuracy. In contrast, motivation influenced attention, which in turn influenced accuracy. Results also showed that comprehension accuracy decreased- and knowledge increased -with age. When knowledge was statistically controlled, age declines in comprehension increased. Conclusion Knowledge is an important predictor of nutrition information comprehension and its role increases in later life. Motivation is also important; however, its effects on comprehension differ from knowledge. Practice Implications Health educators and clinicians should consider cognitive skills such as knowledge as well as motivation and age of patients when deciding how to best convey health information. The increased role of knowledge among older adults suggests that lifelong educational efforts may have important payoffs in later life. PMID:19854605

Miller, Lisa M. Soederberg; Gibson, Tanja N.; Applegate, Elizabeth A.

2009-01-01

461

Effects of an Individualized Narrative Intervention on Children's Storytelling and Comprehension Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrative skills that are important for preschoolers include retelling stories, telling personal stories, and answering questions about stories. Narrative abilities form the foundation of reading comprehension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an individually delivered language intervention on the narrative skills of…

Spencer, Trina D.; Kajian, Mandana; Petersen, Douglas B.; Bilyk, Nicholas

2013-01-01

462

Not Read, but Nevertheless Solved? Three Experiments on PIRLS Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice (MC) reading comprehension test items comprise three components: text passage, questions about the text, and MC answers. The construct validity of this format has been repeatedly criticized. In three between-subjects experiments, fourth graders (N[subscript 1] = 230, N[subscript 2] = 340, N[subscript 3] = 194) worked on three…

Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Kimmel, Rumena; Lowenkamp, Lena; Steingraber, Antje; Rost, Detlef H.

2012-01-01

463

Are All Wrong FCI Answers Equivalent?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been efficiently used to assess conceptual learning in mechanics. Each FCI question has one Newtonian answer and four wrong answers (distracters). Researchers and practitioners most frequently use measures of total score to assess learning. Yet, are all wrong answers equivalent? We conducted Latent Markov Chain Modeling (LMCM) analyses of all choices (right and wrong) on a subset of four FCI questions. LMCM assesses whether there are groups of students sharing similar patterns of responses. We infer that students sharing similar patterns also share similar reasoning. Our results show seven reasoning-groups. LMCM also computes probabilities of transition from one reasoning-group to another after instruction. Examining transitions between groups, we note a clear hierarchy. Groups at the top of the hierarchy are comprised of students that use Newtonian thinking more consistently but also choose certain wrong answers more frequently; suggesting that not all wrong answers are equivalent.

Dedic, Helena; Rosenfield, Steven; Lasry, Nathaniel

2011-01-01

464

The "Trickster" and the Questionability of Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tricksters represent creativity and ingenuity in ways that are also integral to arts education. Like the tricksters, strong arts programs teach that a question can have many answers and there are multiple ways to interpret what is seen (Eisner, 2002). In this article, the author discusses how she applies lessons learned from the Trickster stories…

Stewart, Connie

2009-01-01

465

Mystery #23 Answer  

... meters deep, which was drilled for the purpose of harnessing geothermal energy. Answer: D is TRUE. The geothermal project at ... for an extraterrestrial environment during scientific simulation studies. Answer C is FALSE. Ape Cave lava tube in ...

2013-04-22

466

Sign language comprehension: the case of Spanish sign language.  

PubMed

This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were interpreters). Sign language comprehension was assessed using passages of secondary level. After being exposed to the passages, the participants had to tell what they had understood about them, answer a set of related questions, and offer a title for the passage. Sign language comprehension by deaf participants was quite acceptable but not as good as that by hearing signers who, unlike deaf participants, were not only late learners of sign language as a second language but had also learned it through formal training. PMID:18079141

Rodríguez Ortiz, I R

2008-01-01

467

question_1296837100 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

While the causal mechanisms that link excess body weight to increased risk for certain cancers are largely unknown (as noted in other questions), we pose an associated question -- what are the causal mechanisms that link excess body weight to decreased risk of certain other cancers?

468

An Online National Archive of Multiple-Choice Questions for Astro 101 and the Development of the Question Complexity Rubric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astronomy 101 classroom. These questions are intended to supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or for their assessment purposes (i.e., exams and homework). We are also developing the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR) to guide members of the Astro 101 teaching and learning community in assisting us with hierarchically ranking questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge. The highest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway that requires multiple connected cognitive steps. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) use the QCR to score questions 2) search for and download questions based on topic and/or QCR score, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. Stop by our poster to test your skills at determining question complexity by trying out the QCR with our sample questions.

Cormier, S.; Prather, E.; Brissenden, G.

2011-09-01

469

Patients' Efforts to Justify Wellness in a Comprehensive Cancer Clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversation analysis (CA) is employed to examine oncology interviews within a comprehensive cancer clinic. Data are drawn from a sampling of 75 video-recorded and transcribed encounters involving 30 oncologists. During history-taking, by expanding answers to doctor's questions designed to solicit “yes\\/no” responses, patients manage constraints on interaction by initiating and pursuing distinct courses of action. One prominent set of nonconforming

Wayne A. Beach

2012-01-01

470

ILR-Based MT Comprehension Test with Multi-Level Questions1 Douglas Jones, Martha Herzog, Hussny Ibrahim, Arvind Jairam, Wade Shen,  

E-print Network

93944 {Hussny.Ibrahim,Michael.Emonts} @monterey.army.mil MIT Brain and Cognitive Sciences Department of that test type was constructed, following the general DLPT de- sign principles, but modified to measure. The results of this showed that native readers of English could generally pass the Levels 1 and 2 questions

471

Thesis Statement Research Question  

E-print Network

Topic Background research Brainstorm Thesis Statement Research Question Summative Description an effective research paper is gathering sources that comprehensively address an appropriately focused topic Search library catalogue and databases Detailed Notes Plan Draft Revise Supplementary Research WRITING

Boonstra, Rudy

472

Provocative Questions Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Workshop August 2, 2011 UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center Los Angeles, California Final Participant List Chair Edward Harlow, Ph.D Chair Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Harvard Medical

473

question_1302545047 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

474

question_1408421701 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

475

question_1410563953 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

476

question_1309209288 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

477

question_1297460130 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

478

question_1302560270 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

479

question_1296850328 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

480

question_1312382828 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

481

question_1408110976 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

482

question_1411460063 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

483

question_1410251969 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

484

question_1297533065 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

485

question_1410245819 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

486

question_1410246408 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

487

question_1314052528 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

488

question_1328804555 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

489

question_1309532294 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

490

question_1410546275 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

491

question_1410236555 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

492

question_1410236285 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

493

question_1410236800 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

494

question_1302126805 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

495

question_1333398119 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

496

question_1296401928 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

497

question_1300466005 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

498

question_1298942394 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

499

question_1296786622 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

500

question_1299173164 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer