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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Effect of tuned parameters on an LSA multiple choice questions answering model.  

PubMed

This article presents the current state of a work in progress, whose objective is to better understand the effects of factors that significantly influence the performance of latent semantic analysis (LSA). A difficult task, which consisted of answering (French) biology multiple choice questions, was used to test the semantic properties of the truncated singular space and to study the relative influence of the main parameters. A dedicated software was designed to fine-tune the LSA semantic space for the multiple choice questions task. With optimal parameters, the performances of our simple model were quite surprisingly equal or superior to those of seventh- and eighth-grade students. This indicates that semantic spaces were quite good despite their low dimensions and the small sizes of the training data sets. In addition, we present an original entropy global weighting of the answers' terms for each of the multiple choice questions, which was necessary to achieve the model's success. PMID:19897829

Lifchitz, Alain; Jhean-Larose, Sandra; Denhière, Guy

2009-11-01

2

Multiple Choice Questions for Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online quiz was written by Dr. John C. Butler at the University of Houston for 100-level geology students. There are 44 multiple choice questions and 8 fill in the blank questions, Topics include groundwater resources, the water cycle, karst features, the water table and parts of an aquifer. Answers are linked directly from the quiz page.

Butler, John C.; Houston, University O.

3

Further Support for Changing Multiple-Choice Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect on test scores of changing answers to multiple-choice questions was studied and compared to earlier research. The current setting was a nationally administered, in-training, specialty examination for medical residents in obstetrics and gynecology. Both low and high scorers improved their scores when they changed answers. (SW)

Fabrey, Lawrence J.; Case, Susan M.

1985-01-01

4

Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance of the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-04-24

5

In Defense of the Multiple-Choice Question.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that multiple-choice tests, if correctly constructed, are still effective assessment tools. Focuses on constructing multiple-choice questions that address course content objectives but also require higher order thinking. Lists and defines concepts and curriculum objectives. Includes standard and database multiple-choice questions that offer…

Killoran, James

1992-01-01

6

Improving Learning during Pediatric Lectures with Multiple Choice Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To evaluate the role of multiple choice questions (MCQs) administered at the conclusion of the lecture in improving medical\\u000a student learning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This prospective interventional study was conducted in a Medical College. In ten randomly chosen pediatric lectures delivered\\u000a to prefinal year medical students, MCQs were administered at the conclusion of the lecture and the answers were discussed\\u000a with the students.

Tiroumourougane V. Serane; Thirunavukkarasu Arun Babu; Roshni Menon; Vijaya Devagaran; Bhuvaneswari Kothendaraman

7

Convergence Principles: Information in the Answer Sets of Some Multiple-Choice Intelligence Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is hypothesized that some common multiple- choice intelligence tests exhibit the property that the correct answer and the distractors together form a set of elements that, considered apart from the question, contain information as to which mem ber of the set is the correct answer. Three formalized principles (couched in terms of set theory) are suggested, which enable the

A. P. White; J. E. Zammarelli

1981-01-01

8

Analysis of Student Performance on Multiple-Choice Questions in General Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The percentage of students choosing the correct answer (PSCA) on 17 multiple-choice algorithmic questions taken from general chemistry exams is analyzed. PSCAs for these questions varied from 47 to 93%, and a decrease of 4.5% in PSCA was observed with each additional step in the algorithm required for solving the problem (R[superscript 2] =…

Hartman, JudithAnn R.; Lin, Shirley

2011-01-01

9

Using multiple choice questions effectively in Information Technology education  

Microsoft Academic Search

As academics are confronted with problems such as larger classes and the introduction of a trimester year of study, it has become increasingly necessary to search for alternative forms of assessment. This is certainly the case in Information Technology (IT), where more lecturers are using multiple choice questions as a matter of expediency and in some instances, the quality of

Karyn Woodford; Peter Bancroft

10

Guidelines for the construction of multiple choice questions tests.  

PubMed

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) are generally recognized as the most widely applicable and useful type of objective test items. They could be used to measure the most important educational outcomes - knowledge, understanding, judgment and problem solving. The objective of this paper is to give guidelines for the construction of MCQs tests. This includes the construction of both "single best option" type, and "extended matching item" type. Some templates for use in the "single best option" type of questions are recommended. PMID:23012132

Al-Rukban, Mohammed O

2006-09-01

11

GUIDELINES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS TESTS  

PubMed Central

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) are generally recognized as the most widely applicable and useful type of objective test items. They could be used to measure the most important educational outcomes - knowledge, understanding, judgment and problem solving. The objective of this paper is to give guidelines for the construction of MCQs tests. This includes the construction of both “single best option” type, and “extended matching item” type. Some templates for use in the “single best option” type of questions are recommended.

Al-Rukban, Mohammed O.

2006-01-01

12

A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

2011-01-01

13

High time for a change: psychometric analysis of multiple-choice questions in nursing.  

PubMed

Nurse educators teach students to develop an informed nursing practice but can educators claim the same grounding in the available evidence when formulating multiple-choice assessment tools to evaluate student learning? Multiple-choice questions are a popular assessment format within nursing education. While widely accepted as a credible format to assess student knowledge across disciplines, debate exists among educators regarding the number of options necessary to adequately test cognitive reasoning and optimal discrimination between student abilities. The purpose of this quasi-experimental between groups study was to examine the psychometric properties of three option multiple-choice questions when compared to the more traditional four option questions. Data analysis revealed that there were no statistically significant differences in the item discrimination, difficulty or the mean examination scores when multiple-choice test questions were administered with three versus four option answer choices. This study provides additional guidance for nurse educators to assist in improving multiple-choice question writing and test design. PMID:23192053

Redmond, Sandra P; Hartigan-Rogers, Jackie A; Cobbett, Shelley

2012-11-26

14

Assessment of Multiple-Choice Questions in Selected Test Banks Accompanying Text Books Used in Nursing Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 2,913 questions from 17 nursing test banks was evaluated for adherence to multiple-choice guidelines, cognitive level in Bloom's Taxonomy, and distribution of correct answers. Analysis revealed 2,233 guideline violations; 47.3% of items were written at the knowledge level, 6.5% at the analysis level; and correct answers were evenly…

Masters, Joan C.; Hulsmeyer, Barbara S.; Pike, Mary E.; Leichty, Kathy; Miller, Margaret T.; Verst, Amy L.

2001-01-01

15

A practical discussion to avoid common pitfalls when constructing multiple choice questions items  

PubMed Central

This paper is an attempt to produce a guide for improving the quality of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) used in undergraduate and postgraduate assessment. Multiple Choice Questions type is the most frequently used type of assessment worldwide. Well constructed, context rich MCQs have a high reliability per hour of testing. Avoidance of technical items flaws is essential to improve the validity evidence of MCQs. Technical item flaws are essentially of two types (i) related to testwiseness, (ii) related to irrelevant difficulty. A list of such flaws is presented together with discussion of each flaw and examples to facilitate learning of this paper and to make it learner friendly. This paper was designed to be interactive with self-assessment exercises followed by the key answer with explanations.

Al-Faris, Eiad A.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Abdel-Hameed, Ahmad A.; Al-Rukban, Mohammed O.

2010-01-01

16

Benefiting from Multiple?Choice Exams: The positive impact of answer switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent and benefit of answer switching when completing multiple?choice exams was investigated in an undergraduate course (n = 1,152) and a postgraduate course (n = 1,624). Answer switching was identified in 1.7% and 2.4% of cases, respectively. In both samples, more than half the participants changed at least one answer and, of these, approximately 50% increased their test score

Lee Di Milia

2007-01-01

17

Approaches to Data Analysis of Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics…

Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert

2009-01-01

18

Approaches to data analysis of multiple-choice questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics education research. We minimize mathematics, instead placing emphasis on data interpretation using these approaches.

Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

2010-06-29

19

Assessment of medical knowledge: the pros and cons of using true/false multiple choice questions.  

PubMed

True/false multiple choice items, commonly referred to as true/ false multiple choice questions (MCQs), were previously a widely used selected response examination format. They can be written relatively easily and cover a wide range of content. Educational researchers have however highlighted several adverse features of this format that make it inappropriate for many assessment settings. These include: (i) there is a high chance of guessing the correct answer; (ii) some marks are not awarded for knowing the correct answer, but for knowing that an answer is incorrect; (iii) they are weak in discriminating between high and low performers; (iv) identifying items which are absolutely true or false may lead to assessment of trivial knowledge; (v) there are difficulties with constructing flawless items; (vi) they may not encourage learning around the items; and (vii) they may not assess what they purport to assess. Many assessment agencies abandoned the use of this format decades ago due to these shortcomings. The use of single best answer (SBA) and extended matching item (EMI) formats helps overcome or minimize the above weaknesses. Assessors who plan to change to SBA or EMI formats from true/false MCQs may, however, need to increase the number of questions to include a representative sample of the curriculum (lengthening the question paper). However, they may not need to increase the examination time, as in general students can answer more SBAs or EMIs than true/false MCQs per unit time. It is time that we reflect upon the disadvantages of true/false MCQs and review their place in our assessment toolkit, as their use in summative examinations may not be fair to students, especially 'good' students. PMID:22208143

Chandratilake, Madawa; Davis, Margery; Ponnamperuma, Gominda

20

Some Issues Related to the Use of Justifications to Multiple Choice Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation of biology matriculation tests in Israel was undertaken to assess the use of justifications with multiple-choice items and to compare the effect of three item formats on students' performance. More specifically, the study was designed to determine the: (1) extent to which justifications will differ if the correct answer is made…

Tamir, Pinchas

21

Quality Multiple-Choice Test Questions: Item-Writing Guidelines and an Analysis of Auditing Testbanks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of test item banks in 10 auditing textbooks found that 75% of questions violated one or more guidelines for multiple-choice items. In comparison, 70% of a certified public accounting exam bank had no violations. (SK)

Hansen, James D.; Dexter, Lee

1997-01-01

22

An Online National Archive of Multiple-Choice Questions for Astro 101 and the Development of the Question Complexity Rubric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astronomy 101 classroom. These questions are intended to supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or for their assessment purposes (i.e., exams and homework). We are also developing the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR) to guide members of the Astro 101 teaching and learning community in assisting us with hierarchically ranking questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge. The highest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway that requires multiple connected cognitive steps. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) use the QCR to score questions 2) search for and download questions based on topic and/or QCR score, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. Stop by our poster to test your skills at determining question complexity by trying out the QCR with our sample questions.

Cormier, S.; Prather, E.; Brissenden, G.

2011-09-01

23

Dystonia: Questions & Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... and Aging Locate a Support Group Regional Coordinators Online Support and Resources Support Related Articles Resources for Families Order Brochures and Materials Catalog and Shopping Cart Questions & Answers How does the doctor know ...

24

The Impact of Student Ability and Method for Varying the Position of Correct Answers in Classroom Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice item-writing guideline research is in its infancy. Haladyna (2004) calls for a science of item-writing guideline research. The purpose of this study is to respond to such a call. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of student ability and method for varying the location of correct answers in classroom multiple-choice

Joseph, Dane Christian

2010-01-01

25

Water Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list of questions and answers about water covers a variety of categories, including water use in the United States, water use in the home, data and measurements, chemistry, and others. Links to additional information is embedded in the text of some questions.

26

An Empirical Investigation of the Validity of McCarthy's Multiple-Choice Question Classification Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-choice question examinations and their incorporation of questions accompanying introductory marketing texts are common. Within the framework of a standard hierarchy of learning taxonomy, this study investigates the validity of the typology classifying the questions accompanying one of the most widely adopted texts.

John R. Dickinson; A. J. Faria; T. Richard Whiteley

1991-01-01

27

CAT questions and answers  

SciTech Connect

This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions.

Not Available

1993-02-01

28

A participatory learning approach to biochemistry using student authored and evaluated multiple-choice questions.  

PubMed

A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs written by their peers. The technology used to support this activity was PeerWise--a freely available, innovative web-based system that supports students in the creation of an annotated question repository. In this case study, we describe students' contributions to, and perceptions of, the PeerWise system for a cohort of 107 second-year biomedical science students from three degree streams studying a core biochemistry subject. Our study suggests that the students are eager participants and produce a large repository of relevant, good quality MCQs. In addition, they rate the PeerWise system highly and use higher order thinking skills while taking an active role in their learning. We also discuss potential issues and future work using PeerWise for biomedical students. PMID:21948507

Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

29

The Question Complexity Rubric: Development and Application for a National Archive of Astro 101 Multiple-Choice Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last two years we have been developing an online national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astro 101 classroom. These questions are intended to either supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or be used for assessment purposes (i.e. exams and homework). In this talk we will describe the development, testing and implementation of the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR), which is designed to guide the ranking of questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge whereas the highest QCR score is given to questions that require multiple pathways of multi-step reasoning. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) search for and download questions based on subject and average QCR score, 2) use the QCR to score questions, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. We will also discuss other potential applications of the QCR, such as how it informs our work in developing and testing of survey instruments by allowing us to calibrate the range of question complexity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

2011-01-01

30

ETX Questions and Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since its creation in September 1996, the Mighty ETX Site on the Web has become a respected resource known worldwide for its\\u000a tips, information, how-to’s, and actual ETX astrophotography and as a forum for questions and answers from real ETX users.\\u000a For readers of this book who are not “Net-connected”, this chapter will give you a flavor of the ETX

Mike Weasner

31

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Rebello, Sanjay; Zollman, Dean; Gray, Kara

2010-12-02

32

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Gray, Kara E.; Rebello, N. S.; Zollman, Dean A.

2006-12-06

33

Set of Criteria for Efficiency of the Process Forming the Answers to Multiple-Choice Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Is offered the set of criteria for assessing efficiency of the process forming the answers to multiple-choice test items. To increase accuracy of computer-assisted testing results, it is suggested to assess dynamics of the process of forming the final answer using the following factors: loss of time factor and correct choice factor. The model…

Rybanov, Alexander Aleksandrovich

2013-01-01

34

Knowledge based question answering  

SciTech Connect

The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

1983-01-01

35

Exploiting redundancy in question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to automatically answer brief factual questions of the form ``When was the Battle of Hastings?'' or ``Who wrote The Wind in the Willows?''. Since the answer to nearly any such question can now be found somewhere on the Web, the problem reduces to finding potential answers in large volumes of data and validating their accuracy. We apply

Charles L. A. Clarke; Gordon V. Cormack; Thomas R. Lynam

2001-01-01

36

Potential Values of Incorporating a Multiple-Choice Question Construction in Physics Experimentation Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential value of a multiple-choice question-construction instructional strategy for the support of students’ learning of physics experiments was examined in the study. Forty-two university freshmen participated in the study for a whole semester. A constant comparison method adopted to categorize students’ qualitative data indicated that the influences of multiple-choice question construction were evident in several significant ways (promoting constructive and productive studying habits; reflecting and previewing course-related materials; increasing in-group communication and interaction; breaking passive learning style and habits, etc.), which, worked together, not only enhanced students’ comprehension and retention of the obtained knowledge, but also helped distil a sense of empowerment and learning community within the participants. Analysis with one-group t-tests, using 3 as the expected mean, on quantitative data further found that students’ satisfaction toward past learning experience, and perceptions toward this strategy’s potentials for promoting learning were statistically significant at the 0.0005 level, while learning anxiety was not statistically significant. Suggestions for incorporating question-generation activities within classroom and topics for future studies were rendered.

Yu, Fu-Yun; Liu, Yu-Hsin

2005-09-01

37

Donating Blood Questions and Answers  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics. ... Donating Blood Questions and Answers. The blood safety system established by FDA is dependent ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/questionsaboutblood

38

Hydrosphere: Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Detailed Example of Using Socratic Questioning in Class Content Area: Hydrosphere Back to Example This sample of plausible questions and responses is designed to help guide the instructor through an entire Socratic ...

39

The relationship of deep and surface study approaches on factual and applied test?bank multiple?choice question performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of online test banks and large introductory classes, instructors have often turned to textbook publisher?generated multiple?choice question (MCQ) exams in their courses. Multiple?choice questions are often divided into categories of factual or applied, thereby implicating levels of cognitive processing. This investigation examined the influence student study approaches have on performance of shallow compared to deep, cognitive process

Julie E. Yonker

2011-01-01

40

Web Reinforced Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper. The final run (uwra:a0) tests a last-minute enhancement. For this run a feedback loop was added to the system, in which candidateanswer terms were merged back into the query used for passage retrieval. While answer feedbackwas not an area of significant effort for TREC 2001, and the intial results were disappointing, itrepresents an area in which future work

C. L. A. Clarke; G. v. Cormack; T. r. Lynam; C. m. Li; G. l. Mclearn

2001-01-01

41

LCC Tools for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased complexity of the TREC QA questions requires advanced text processingtools that rely on natural language processing and knowledge reasoning. Thispaper presents the suite of tools that account for the performance of the PowerAnswerquestion answering system. It is shown how questions, answers and world knowledgeare transformed first in logic representation, followed by a systematic and rigorouslogic proof that validly

Dan I. Moldovan; Sanda M. Harabagiu; Roxana Girju; Paul Morarescu; V. Finley Lacatusu; Adrian Novischi; Adriana Badulescu; Orest Bolohan

2002-01-01

42

Estimating the Effect on Grades of Using Multiple-Choice versus Constructive-Response Questions: Data from the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the degree to which grades based solely on constructed-response (CR) questions differ from grades based solely on multiple-choice (MC) questions. If CR questions are to justify their higher costs, they should produce different grade outcomes than MC questions. We use a data set composed of thousands of observations on…

Hickson, Stephen; Reed, W. Robert; Sander, Nicholas

2012-01-01

43

Constructive Multiple-Choice Testing System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The newly developed computerized Constructive Multiple-choice Testing system is introduced. The system combines short answer (SA) and multiple-choice (MC) formats by asking examinees to respond to the same question twice, first in the SA format, and then in the MC format. This manipulation was employed to collect information about the two…

Park, Jooyong

2010-01-01

44

The assessment of critical thinking skills in anatomy and physiology students who practice writing higher order multiple choice questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical thinking is a complex abstraction that defies homogeneous interpretation. This means that no operational definition is universal and no critical thinking measurement tool is all encompassing. Instructors will likely find evidence based strategies to facilitate thinking skills only as numerous research efforts from multiple disciplines accumulate. This study focuses on a question writing exercise designed to help anatomy and physiology students. Students were asked to design multiple choice questions that combined course concepts in new and novel ways. Instructions and examples were provided on how to construct these questions and student attempts were sorted into levels one through three of Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy (Bloom et al. 1956). Students submitted their question designs weekly and received individual feedback as to how they might improve. Eight course examinations were created to contain questions that modeled the Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy levels that students were attempting. Students were assessed on their course examination performance as well as performance on a discipline independent critical thinking test called the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). The performance of students in this study was compared to students from two previous years that took the same course but did not have the question writing activity. Results suggest that students do not improve their ability to answer critical thinking multiple choices questions when they practice the task of creating such problems. The effect of class level on critical thinking is examined and it appears that the longer a student has attended college the better the performance on both discipline specific and discipline independent critical thinking questions. The data were also used to analyze students who improved their course examination grades in the second semester of this course. There is a pattern to suggest that students who improve their performance on course examinations did so largely in non-critical thinking problems. Although, when this subset of students is analyzed by class level it appears that sophomores reverse the pattern and improve much more in critical thinking type questions than their upper classmen. The implications of this are discussed.

Shaw, Jason

45

High performance question\\/answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the features of a Question\\/Answering (Q\\/A) system that had unparalleled performance in the TREC-9 evaluations. We explain the accuracy of our system through the unique characteristics of its architecture: (1) usage of a wide-coverage answer type taxonomy; (2) repeated passage retrieval; (3) lexico-semantic feedback loops; (4) extraction of the answers based on machine learning techniques;

Marius A. Pasca; Sandra M. Harabagiu

2001-01-01

46

Parsing and Question Classification for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes machine learning based parsing and question classification for ques- tion answering. We demonstrate that for this type of application, parse trees have to be semantically richer and structurally more oriented towards semantics than what most treebanks offer. We empirically show how question parsing dramatically improves when augmenting a semantically enriched Penn treebank training corpus with an addi-

Ulf Hermjakob

2001-01-01

47

ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

48

Toward a Question Answering Roadmap.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Growth in government investment, academic research, and commercial question answering (QA) systems is motivating a need for increased planning and coordination. The internationalization of QA research, and the need to move toward a common understanding of...

M. T. Maybury

2002-01-01

49

Answering Your Questions about AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus;…

Kalichman, Seth C.

50

Photo-based question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo-based question answering is a useful way of finding information about physical objects. Current question an- swering (QA) systems are text-based and can be difficult to use when a question involves an object with distinct vi- sual features. A photo-based QA system allows direct use of a photo to refer to the object. We develop a three-layer system architecture for

Tom Yeh; John J. Lee; Trevor Darrell

2008-01-01

51

Comparison of Collegial Individual and Group Reviews of General Practice Multiple Choice Questions  

PubMed Central

Aims: In most German medical faculties, credits in general practice can be earned via exams using multiple-choice questions (MCQ). Measures such as peer-reviews may help assure the quality of these exams. In order to use time and personnel intensive peer reviews effectively and efficiently, the procedures used are key. Therefore, we wanted to find out whether there are differences between group and individual reviews regarding defined parameters. Methods: We conducted a controlled cross-over study with three GP reviewers from four different German universities. Each reviewed 80 MCQs, 40 individually and 40 within a group, including external assessments by a panel of experts. Furthermore all reviewers were asked to evaluate the review process and the time spent carrying out these reviews. Outcomes: We found no significant differences between the reliability and the validity of individual reviews versus group reviews. On average slightly more time was spent on group reviews compared with the individual reviews. The subjective assessments of the study participants regarding their satisfaction with the process and the efficiency and effectiveness of the reviews suggest a preference for group reviews. Conclusions: Based on this study, there are no definite recommendations for or against either approach. When choosing between the two, the specific work structures and organisation at the local faculty should be taken into account.

Bohme, Klaus; Schelling, Jorg; Streitlein-Bohme, Irmgard; Glassen, Katharina; Schubel, Jeannine; Junger, Jana

2012-01-01

52

The impact of two multiple-choice question formats on the problem-solving strategies used by novices and experts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pencil-and-paper examination formats, and specifically the standard, five-option multiple-choice question, have often been questioned as a means for assessing higher-order clinical reasoning or problem solving. This study firstly investigated whether two paper formats with differing number of alternatives (standard five-option and extended-matching questions) can test problem-solving abilities. Secondly, the impact of the alternatives number on psychometrics and problem-solving strategies

Sylvain P Coderre; Peter Harasym; Henry Mandin; Gordon Fick

2004-01-01

53

A comparative study analysing the two methods of assessing cardiopulmonary resuscitation - multiple choices versus free response question test formats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background and objective. The purpose of the study was to compare two different methods of assessing the knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), multiple choices versus free response question test formats and to evaluate, which was better. Methods. The research was undertaken in 2004 and 2005 on a representative group of 150 fourth year medical students and 150 doctors one

Thomas J. Maliakal

54

Folic Acid Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 Contact CDC-INFO flo@cdc.gov Folic Acid Homepage Facts Quiz Questions & Answers Cereals with Folic Acid Data and Statistics Research Global Initiative Articles & Key Findings Recommendations Free Materials Links ...

55

Information Extraction Supported Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of our information extraction (IE) system, Textract, in the question- answering (QA) track of the recently held TREC-8 tests. One of our major objectives is to examine how IE can help IR (Information Retrieval) in applications like QA. Our study shows: (i) IE can provide solid support for QA; (ii) low-level IE like Named Entity

Rohini K. Srihari; Wei Li

1999-01-01

56

Questions and Answers about Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

Questions and Answers About Stroke What is a stroke? A stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted. When a stroke occurs, brain ... need to function. What are the types of strokes? A stroke can occur in two ways. In ...

57

Cloning: questions answered and unsolved  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloning by the transfer of adult somatic cell nuclei to oocytes has produced viable offspring in a variety of mammalian species. The technology is still in its initial stages of development. Studies to date have answered several basic questions related to such issues as genome potency, life expectancy of clones, mitochondrial fates, and feasibility of inter-species nuclear transfer. They have

Keith E. Latham

2004-01-01

58

Lexical Chains for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a method for finding topically related words on an extended WordNet. By exploiting the information in the WordNet glosses, the connectivity between the synsets is dramatically increased. Topical relations expressed as lexical chains on extended WordNet improve the performance of a question answering system by increasing the document retrieval recall and by providing the much needed axioms

Dan I. Moldovan; Adrian Novischi

2002-01-01

59

Multiple-Choice Question Tests: A Convenient, Flexible and Effective Learning Tool? A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The research presented in this paper is part of a project investigating assessment practices, funded by the Scottish Funding Council. Using established principles of good assessment and feedback, the use of online formative and summative multiple choice tests (MCT's) was piloted to support independent and self-directed learning and improve…

Douglas, Mercedes; Wilson, Juliette; Ennis, Sean

2012-01-01

60

Descriptive Question Answering with Answer Type Independent Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a supervised learning method to seek out answers to the most frequently asked descriptive questions: reason, method, and definition questions. Most of the previous systems for question answering focus on factoids, lists or definitional questions. However, descriptive questions such as reason questions and method questions are also frequently asked by users. We propose a system for these types of questions. The system conducts an answer search as follows. First, we analyze the user's question and extract search keywords and the expected answer type. Second, information retrieval results are obtained from an existing search engine such as Yahoo or Google. Finally, we rank the results to find snippets containing answers to the questions based on a ranking SVM algorithm. We also propose features to identify snippets containing answers for descriptive questions. The features are adaptable and thus are not dependent on answer type. Experimental results show that the proposed method and features are clearly effective for the task.

Yoon, Yeo-Chan; Lee, Chang-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Ki; Jang, Myung-Gil; Ryu, Pum Mo; Park, So-Young

61

Finding similar questions in large question and answer archives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has recently been a significant increase in the number of community-based question and answer services on the Web where people answer other peoples' questions. These services rapidly build up large archives of questions and answers, and these archives are a valuable linguistic resource. One of the major tasks in a question and answer service is to find questions in

Jiwoon Jeon; Joon Ho Lee

2005-01-01

62

The Prepared Practitioner: Multiple-Choice Season  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spring is almost here. Soon buds will appear on trees, and bubbled-in answers will appear on test response sheets all across America. Spring brings a spate of multiple-choice tests for many students--from SATs to AP exams to final exams to state and district testing. So this month seems an appropriate time to take a look at multiple-choice questioning.

Colburn, Alan

2009-03-01

63

Minimal Span Weighting Retrieval for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current question answering systems rely on document re- trieval as a means of providing documents which are likely to contain an answer to a user's question. Recent research has shown that taking into account the proximity between question terms is helpful in determining whether a docu- ment contains an answer to a question. In this paper, we propose a novel

Christof Monz

64

Minister Peng answers correspondents' questions.  

PubMed

Following a press conference where she presented the results of the 1990 census and the accomplishments of China's family planning program, Peng Peiyun, minister of the State Family Planning Commission, and other officials answered the questions of Chinese and foreign correspondents. Asked about the implementation of family planning in rural areas, Peng explained that while the 1-child policy has been followed, farmers with only 1 daughter have been allowed a second child. Nonetheless, the total fertility rate (TFR) of rural women has fallen bellow 4. On the issue of abortion, an official explained that for the past few years, there have been 10 million abortions annually. Abortion, however, is used only when contraception fails. Despite China's impressive achievements in curbing population growth, Peng noted that the country still faces serious problems. As the country enters its 8th 5-year plan, China will undergo a baby boom. An average of 17 million births each year is expected throughout the plan's duration. Peng acknowledged that the previous target of controlling China's population to 1.2 billion by the year 2000 will not be achieved. Under the new plan, which hopes to reduce the TFR from 2.35 in 1989 to 2.0 by the turn of the century, calls for the population to stabilize somewhere between 1.5 and 1.6 billion. Peng also answered questions concerning abuses by family planning workers. She stressed that China's family planning program is voluntary, although economic disincentives are used. Furthermore, Peng addressed issues concerning religion and family planning, infanticide, the safety of contraceptives, and concerns over the ageing of the population. PMID:12284670

1991-02-01

65

Multilingual Question\\/Answering: the DIOGENE System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the DIOGENE question\\/answering system developed at ITC- Irst. The system is based on a rather standard architecture which includes three components for question processing, search and answer extraction. Linguistic processing strongly relies on MULTIWORDNET, an extended version of the English WORDNET. The system has been designed to address two promising directions: multilingual question\\/answering and question\\/answering on the

Bernardo Magnini; Matteo Negri; Roberto Prevete; Hristo Tanev

2001-01-01

66

COGEX: A Logic Prover for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent TREC results have demonstrated the need for deeper text understanding methods. This paper introduces the idea of automated reasoning applied to question answering and shows the feasibility of integrating a logic prover into a Question Answering system. The approach is to transform questions and answer passages into logic representations. World knowledge axioms as well as linguistic axioms are supplied

Dan I. Moldovan; Christine Clark; Sanda M. Harabagiu; Steven J. Maiorano

2003-01-01

67

Question Answering in the Context of Stories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study a model of question answering (called QUEST) is tested in the context of short stories. College students first read a story and then judged the quality of answers to questions about episodes in the story. The model could account for the goodness-of-answer judgments and decision latencies of 5 categories of questions: why, how, when, enablement, and consequence.

Arthur C. Graesser; Kathy L. Lang; Richard M. Roberts

1991-01-01

68

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

SciTech Connect

Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

2004-10-03

69

Answering Complex, List and Context Questions with LCC's Question-Answering Server  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the architecture of the Question-Answering Server (QAS) developed at the Language Computer Corporation (LCC) and used in the TREC-10 evaluations. LCC's QAS extracts answers for (a) factual questions of variable degree of difficulty; (b) questions that expect lists of answers; and (c) questions posed in the context of previous questions and answers. One of the major novelties

Sanda M. Harabagiu; Dan I. Moldovan; Marius Pasca; Mihai Surdeanu; Rada Mihalcea; Roxana Girju; Vasile Rus; V. Finley Lacatusu; Paul Morarescu; Razvan C. Bunescu

2001-01-01

70

From Question Answering to Visual Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this

Dave W. McColgin; Michelle L. Gregory; Elizabeth G. Hetzler; Alan E. Turner

2006-01-01

71

Probabilistic question answering on the web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web-based search engines such as Google and NorthernLight return documents that are relevant to a user query, not answers to user questions. We have developed an architecture that augments existing search engines so that they support natural language question answering. The process entails five steps: query modulation, document retrieval, passage extraction, phrase extraction, and answer ranking. In this paper we

Dragomir R. Radev; Weiguo Fan; Hong Qi; Harris Wu; Amardeep Grewal

2002-01-01

72

Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

73

Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

74

An Arabic question-answering system for factoid questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an Arabic Question-Answering (Q-A) system called QASAL (Question-Answering system for Arabic Language). QASAL accepts as an input a natural language question written in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and generates as an output the most efficient and appropriate answer. The proposed system is composed of three modules: A question analysis module, a passage retrieval module and

Wissal BRINI; Mariem ELLOUZE; Slim MESFAR; Lamia HADRICH BELGUITH

2009-01-01

75

Questions and Answers on Monosodium glutamate (MSG)  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Questions and Answers on Monosodium glutamate (MSG). November 19, 2012. What is MSG? Monosodium glutamate ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients

76

Global Warming: Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Back to Example Detailed Example of Using Socratic Questioning in Class This sample of plausible questions and responses is designed to help guide the instructor through a Socratic lesson. It will help instructors ...

77

Learn to Answer Tough Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... time to establish or reinforce your rules about alcohol, and what behavior you expect. Did you drink when you were a child? If you drank as a teenager, experts recommend that you give an honest answer. 1 Explain why you were tempted to try alcohol and why underage drinking is dangerous. You could ...

78

A Comparison of the Performance on Three Multiple Choice Question Papers in Obstetrics and Gynecology Over a Period of Three Years Administered at Five London Medical Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five of the medical schools in the University of London collaborated in administering one multiple choice question paper in obstetrics and gynecology, and results showed differences in performance between the five schools on questions and alternatives within questions. The rank order of the schools may result from differences in teaching methods.…

Stevens, J. M.; And Others

1977-01-01

79

Analyses for elucidating current question answering technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we take a detailed look at the performance of components of an idealized question answering system on two dieren t tasks: the TREC Question Answering task and a set of reading comprehension exams. We carry out three types of analysis: inherent properties of the data, feature analysis, and performance bounds. Based on these analyses we explain some

MARC LIGHT; GIDEON S. MANN; ERIC BRECK

2001-01-01

80

Natural language question-answering systems: 1969  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experiments in programming natural language question-answering systems are reviewed to summarize the methods that have been developed for syntactic, semantic, and logical analysis of English strings. It is concluded that at least minimally effective techniques have been devised for answering questions from natural language subsets in small scale experimental systems and that a useful paradigm has evolved to guide

Robert F. Simmons

1970-01-01

81

Surface form and memory in question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speakers tend to repeat materials from previous talk. This tendency is experi- mentally established and manipulated in various question-answering situations. It is shown that a question's surface form can affect the format of the answer given, even if this form has little semantic or conversational consequence, as in the pair Q: (At) what time do you close,\\

WILLEM J. M. LEVELT; S. Kelter

1982-01-01

82

Developing Offline Strategies for Answering Medical Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe ongoing developments on two offline strategies for automatically answering questions in the medical domain: one based on an analysis of the document structure, the other based on dependency parsing. We highlight differences with open domain question answering, and provide a preliminary evaluation of the current state of our strategies. Copyright (c) 2005, American Association for Artificial Intelligence (www.aaai.org).

E. F. Tjong Kim Sang; G. Bouma; Rijke de M

2005-01-01

83

Is question answering an acquired skill?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a question answering (QA) system which learns how to detect and rank answer passages by analyzing questions and their answers (QA pairs) provided as training data. We built our system in only a few person-months using off-the-shelf components: a part-of-speech tagger, a shallow parser, a lexical network, and a few well-known supervised learning algorithms. In contrast, many of

Ganesh Ramakrishnan; Soumen Chakrabarti; Deepa Paranjpe; Pushpak Bhattacharyya

2004-01-01

84

Short-answer questions and formula scoring separately enhance dental student academic performance.  

PubMed

In this study, numerical course scores of second-year dental students in four successive classes in an oral and maxillofacial pathology course were compared. While the course content and teaching methods were essentially unchanged throughout the four years, two modest departures from the sole use of multiple-choice format questions were made in the assessment of student achievements. The modifications consisted of creating a more challenging examination procedure through the inclusion of un-cued short-answer format questions and the institution of correction-for-guessing scoring on multiple-choice examinations. Academically, the students in the four classes were comparable, as indicated by their respective numerical course score distributions in a prerequisite general pathology course in which the course content was unchanged, and all multiple-choice format questions were used to assess student academic achievements. This four-year study demonstrated that two qualitative changes in the educational environment-utilization of un-cued short-answer questions and correction for guessing scoring of multiple-choice questions-separately resulted in significant improvements in student course scores. Our results support the notion that, without any changes in curricular content or emphasis, combinations of qualitative changes in the assessment procedures alter student behavior and, as a consequence, appreciably improve their academic achievements. PMID:22550108

Pinckard, R Neal; McMahan, C Alex; Prihoda, Thomas J; Littlefield, John H; Jones, Anne Cale

2012-05-01

85

Offline Strategies for Online Question Answering: Answering Questions Before They Are Asked  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work in Question Answering has focused on web-based systems that extract answers using simple lexico-syntactic patterns. We present an alternative strategy in which patterns are used to extract highly precise relational information offline, creating a data repository that is used to efficiently answer questions. We evaluate our strategy on a challenging subset of questions, i.e. \\

Michael Fleischman; Eduard H. Hovy; Abdessamad Echihabi

2003-01-01

86

Striving for Optimal Relevance when Answering Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When people are asked "Do you have the time?" they can answer in a variety of ways, such as "It is almost 3," "Yeah, it is quarter past two," or more precisely as in "It is now 1:43." We present the results of four experiments that examined people's real-life answers to questions about the time. Our hypothesis, following previous research…

Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.; Bryant, Gregory A.

2008-01-01

87

Questions and Answers: Smallpox Vaccine and Monkeypox  

MedlinePLUS

... 404) 639-3311 Monkeypox Home > QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Smallpox Vaccine and Monkeypox Download PDF version formatted for ... 132 KB/2 pages) How effective is the smallpox vaccine in preventing monkeypox? Past data from Africa ...

88

Incorporating Syntactic Information in Question Answering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Syntactic information potentially plays a much more important role in question answering than it does in information retrieval. The aim of the experiment described in this paper is to study the impact of a particular approach for using syntactic informati...

W. B. Croft X. Li

2001-01-01

89

Postlude to a Question-Answering Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From 1967 to 1973, the author worked in a project group developing a computerized natural language question answering system. This report, written after the conclusion of the project, tries to summarize some experiences about writing such a system which m...

J. Palme

1979-01-01

90

Questions and Answers on Current Good Manufacturing ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... We intend to use this format to provide timely answers to questions about the meaning and application of cGMPs for human, animal, and biological ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/manufacturing

91

Get Answers to Common Questions About...  

Cancer.gov

Get Answers to Common Questions About... Biological Specimens Drug Availability, Labeling and Distribution Ethics Indemnity Insurance Planning Clinical Trials and Navigating Regulatory Requirements Protocols Quality Assurance and Monitoring Software

92

Scaling question answering to the web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wealth of information on the web makes it an attractive resource for seeking quick answers to simple, factual questions such as "e;who was the first American in space?"e; or "e;what is the second tallest mountain in the world?"e; Yet today's most advanced web search services (e.g., Google and AskJeeves) make it surprisingly tedious to locate answers to such questions.

Cody Kwok; Oren Etzioni; Daniel S. Weld

2001-01-01

93

A Diagnostic Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Competency in Multiple-Choice Item Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Large class size is an issue in testing at all levels of Education. As a panacea to this, multiple choice test formats has become very popular. This case study was designed to diagnose pre-service teachers' competency in constructing questions (IQT); direct questions (DQT); and best answer (BAT) varieties of multiple choice items. Subjects were…

Asim, Alice E.; Ekuri, Emmanuel E.; Eni, Eni I.

2013-01-01

94

A Diagnostic Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Competency in Multiple-Choice Item Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Large class size is an issue in testing at all levels of Education. As a panacea to this, multiple choice test formats has become very popular. This case study was designed to diagnose pre-service teachers' competency in constructing questions (IQT); direct questions (DQT); and best answer (BAT) varieties of multiple choice items. Subjects were 88…

Asim, Alice E.; Ekuri, Emmanuel E.; Eni, Eni I.

2013-01-01

95

Beyond Information Retrieval--Medical Question Answering  

PubMed Central

Physicians have many questions when caring for patients, and frequently need to seek answers for their questions. Information retrieval systems (e.g., PubMed) typically return a list of documents in response to a user’s query. Frequently the number of returned documents is large and makes physicians’ information seeking “practical only ‘after hours’ and not in the clinical settings”. Question answering techniques are based on automatically analyzing thousands of electronic documents to generate short-text answers in response to clinical questions that are posed by physicians. The authors address physicians’ information needs and described the design, implementation, and evaluation of the medical question answering system (MedQA). Although our long term goal is to enable MedQA to answer all types of medical questions, currently, we currently implement MedQA to integrate information retrieval, extraction, and summarization techniques to automatically generate paragraph-level text for definitional questions (i.e., “What is X?”). MedQA can be accessed at http://www.dbmi.columbia.edu/~yuh9001/research/MedQA.html.

Lee, Minsuk; Cimino, James; Zhu, Hai Ran; Sable, Carl; Shanker, Vijay; Ely, John; Yu, Hong

2006-01-01

96

Baseball: an automatic question-answerer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baseball is a computer program that answers questions phrased in ordinary English about stored data. The program reads the question from punched cards. After the words and idioms are looked up in a dictionary, the phrase structure and other syntactic facts are determined for a content analysis, which lists attribute-value pairs specifying the information given and the information requested. The

Bert F. Green Jr.; Alice K. Wolf; Carol Chomsky; Kenneth Laughery

1961-01-01

97

A comparative study of students' performance in preclinical physiology assessed by multiple choice and short essay questions.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare the performance of medical students in physiology when assessed by multiple choice questions (MCQs) and short essay questions (SEQs). The study also examined the influence of factors such as age, sex, O/level grades and JAMB scores on performance in the MCQs and SEQs. A structured questionnaire was administered to 264 medical students' four months before the Part I MBBS examination. Apart from personal data of each student, the questionnaire sought information on the JAMB scores and GCE O' Level grades of each student in English Language, Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics. The physiology syllabus was divided into five parts and the students were administered separate examinations (tests) on each part. Each test consisted of MCQs and SEQs. The performance in MCQs and SEQs were compared. Also, the effects of JAMB scores and GCE O/level grades on the performance in both the MCQs and SEQs were assessed. The results showed that the students performed better in all MCQ tests than in the SEQs. JAMB scores and O' level English Language grade had no significant effect on students' performance in MCQs and SEQs. However O' level grades in Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics had significant effects on performance in MCQs and SEQs. Inadequate knowledge of physiology and inability to present information in a logical sequence are believed to be major factors contributing to the poorer performance in the SEQs compared with MCQs. In view of the finding of significant association between performance in MCQs and SEQs and GCE O/level grades in science subjects and mathematics, it was recommended that both JAMB results and the GCE results in the four O/level subjects above may be considered when selecting candidates for admission into the medical schools. PMID:11713989

Oyebola, D D; Adewoye, O E; Iyaniwura, J O; Alada, A R; Fasanmade, A A; Raji, Y

98

An assessment of functioning and non-functioning distractors in multiple-choice questions: a descriptive analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Four- or five-option multiple choice questions (MCQs) are the standard in health-science disciplines, both on certification-level examinations and on in-house developed tests. Previous research has shown, however, that few MCQs have three or four functioning distractors. The purpose of this study was to investigate non-functioning distractors in teacher-developed tests in one nursing program in an English-language university in Hong Kong. Methods Using item-analysis data, we assessed the proportion of non-functioning distractors on a sample of seven test papers administered to undergraduate nursing students. A total of 514 items were reviewed, including 2056 options (1542 distractors and 514 correct responses). Non-functioning options were defined as ones that were chosen by fewer than 5% of examinees and those with a positive option discrimination statistic. Results The proportion of items containing 0, 1, 2, and 3 functioning distractors was 12.3%, 34.8%, 39.1%, and 13.8% respectively. Overall, items contained an average of 1.54 (SD = 0.88) functioning distractors. Only 52.2% (n = 805) of all distractors were functioning effectively and 10.2% (n = 158) had a choice frequency of 0. Items with more functioning distractors were more difficult and more discriminating. Conclusion The low frequency of items with three functioning distractors in the four-option items in this study suggests that teachers have difficulty developing plausible distractors for most MCQs. Test items should consist of as many options as is feasible given the item content and the number of plausible distractors; in most cases this would be three. Item analysis results can be used to identify and remove non-functioning distractors from MCQs that have been used in previous tests.

Tarrant, Marie; Ware, James; Mohammed, Ahmed M

2009-01-01

99

Eye Tracking While Answering Questions in Electronic Multimedia Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project collected eye tracking data while adults answered questions, asked questions, and interacted with electronic media. We tested computational models of question answering (QUEST), question comprehension difficulty (QUAID), and question...

A. C. Graesser

2002-01-01

100

Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of info...

1995-01-01

101

Software Design Patterns: Common Questions and Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software design patterns are an emerging tool for guiding and documenting system design. This paper is a beginner's guide to patterns, answering common questions about patterns, pattern languages, generativity, and Alexandrian form. The paper describes patterns in terms of objects, rules, idioms, and paradigms in general. The paper also provides sources for patterns, and provides a short bibliography of patterns

James O. Coplien

1998-01-01

102

Proanthocyanidin biosynthesis – still more questions than answers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins, are oligomers or polymers of flavan-3-ol units. In spite of important breakthroughs in our understanding of the biosynthesis of the major building blocks of proanthocyanidins, (+)-catechin and (?)-epicatechin, important questions still remain to be answered as to the exact nature of the molecular species that undergo polymerization, and the mechanisms of assembly. We review

De-Yu Xie; Richard A. Dixon

2005-01-01

103

Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

2000-01-01

104

Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more…

National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

105

American Indians Today: Answers to Your Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet attempts to answer briefly the most common questions about American Indians asked by students, people who believe they have Indian ancestors, individuals who want to visit or volunteer to work on a reservation, or those who want to know the current Indian policy. Separate sections outline President Reagan's American Indian policy;…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

106

Comprehensive Written Exams: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains four papers that are answers to comprehensive examination questions of a doctoral student in instructional technology. The first paper, "Federal Support and Funding of School Library Media Programs into the 21st Century," includes sections on why federal support and funding are needed, how school library media programs…

Hardy, Janice Valerye

107

Second Language Reading Topic Familiarity and Test Score: Test-Taking Strategies for Multiple-Choice Comprehension Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main purpose of this study was to compare the strategies used by Chinese-speaking students when confronted with familiar versus unfamiliar topics in a multiple-choice format reading comprehension test. The focus was on describing what students do when they are taking reading comprehension tests by asking students to verbalize their thoughts.…

Lee, Jia-Ying

2011-01-01

108

Personality, expectations, and response strategies in multiple-choice question examinations in university students: a test of Gray's hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between personality and type of error made in multiple-choice examinations when correction for guessing is applied was investigated across two studies. Our general hypothesis was that disinhibited subjects (those scoring high on the Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scale and\\/or low on the Sensitivity to Punishment (SP) scale) would make more incorrect responses and fewer omission errors (blanks) than

César Ávila; Rafael Torrubia

2004-01-01

109

Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers  

SciTech Connect

This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

NONE

1995-11-01

110

Mapping Dependencies Trees: An Application to Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an approach for answer selection in a free form question answering task. In order to go beyond the key-word based matching in se- lecting answers to questions, one would like to incorporate both syntactic and semantic information in the question answering process. We achieve this goal by representing both questions and candidate passages using de- pendency trees, and

Vasin Punyakanok; Dan Roth; Wen-tau Yih

2004-01-01

111

Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions  

ScienceCinema

contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

112

Palliative Care Questions and Answers (Hospice Care Comparison)  

MedlinePLUS

Living with Illness > Palliative Care Palliative Care Palliative Care Questions and Answers Palliative Care Questions and Answers Question Palliative Care Hospice Care Who can receive this care? Anyone with ...

113

Exploring web browsing context for collaborative question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative Question Answering (CQA) sites such as Yahoo! Answers and recent real-time CQA sites such as Aardvark, provide a promising approach for information seeking. Yet, the behavior of the answerers, especially the factors influencing the quality and timeliness of the answers, are not well understood. We hypothesize that the information context of the answerer at the time a question is

Qiaoling Liu; Yandong Liu; Eugene Agichtein

2010-01-01

114

Learning How to Answer Questions Using Trivia Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine a sentence comprehension task: given a question, and an extended sentence known to answer that question, the goal is to extract the short answer to the question. As an initial solution, a novel robust statistical model is presented which combines the semantics of the expected answer with the expected context within which the answer will

Gideon S. Mann

2002-01-01

115

Model Answers to Lipid Membrane Questions  

PubMed Central

Ever since it was discovered that biological membranes have a core of a bimolecular sheet of lipid molecules, lipid bilayers have been a model laboratory for investigating physicochemical and functional properties of biological membranes. Experimental and theoretical models help the experimental scientist to plan experiments and interpret data. Theoretical models are the theoretical scientist’s preferred toys to make contact between membrane theory and experiments. Most importantly, models serve to shape our intuition about which membrane questions are the more fundamental and relevant ones to pursue. Here we review some membrane models for lipid self-assembly, monolayers, bilayers, liposomes, and lipid–protein interactions and illustrate how such models can help answering questions in modern lipid cell biology.

Mouritsen, Ole G.

2011-01-01

116

Approaches to Exploring Category Information for Question Retrieval in Community Question-Answer Archives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community Question Answering (CQA) is a popular type of service where users ask questions and where answers are obtained from other users or from historical question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain large volumes of questions organized into a hierarchy of categories. As an essential function of CQA services, question retrieval in a CQA archive aims to retrieve historical question-answer pairs that

Xin Cao; Gao Cong; Bin Cui; Christian S. Jensen; Quan Yuan

2012-01-01

117

"I Don't Know" and Multiple Choice Analysis of Pre- and Post-Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation is an essential component of any Extension education program. One tool, the pre- and post-test, provides measurable evaluation data. Yet often the answer "I don't know" or all possible answers to a multiple choice question are not included in the repeated measure analysis. Because more than two answers are offered, the test of marginal…

Spears, Karen; Wilson, Mary

2010-01-01

118

Overview of the TREC 2005 Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC 2005 Question Answering (QA) track contained three tasks: the main question answering task, the document ranking task, and the relationship task. In the main task, question series were used to dene a set of targets. Each series was about a single target and contained factoid and list questions. The nal question in the series was an ìOtherî question

Ellen M. Voorhees; Hoa Trang Dang

2005-01-01

119

Overview of the TREC 2003 Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC 2003 question answering track contained two tasks, the passages task and the main task. In the passages task, systems returned a single text snippet in response to factoid questions; the evaluation metric was the number of snippets that contained a correct answer. The main task contained three separate types of questions, factoid questions, list questions, and definition questions.

Ellen M. Voorhees

2003-01-01

120

Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Questions (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Questions Booklet).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the 80 multiple choice questions portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1987 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, the novel, and…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

121

Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee, Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Questions (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Questions Booklet). June 1988 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the 80 multiple choice questions portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the June 1988 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, the novel, and…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

122

Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Questions (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Questions Booklet.)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the 80 multiple choice questions portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1988 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, novel, and…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

123

Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Questions (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Questions Booklet).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the 80 multiple choice questions portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1987 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, the novel,…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

124

Finding question-answer pairs from online forums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online forums contain a huge amount of valuable user gener- ated content. In this paper we address the problem of extract- ing question-answer pairs from forums. Question-answer pairs extracted from forums can be used to help Question Answering services (e.g. Yahoo! Answers) among other applications. We propose a sequential patterns based classification method to detect questions in a forum thread,

Gao Cong; Long Wang; Chin-Yew Linz; Young-in Song; Yongheng Sun

2008-01-01

125

Quantitative evaluation of passage retrieval algorithms for question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passage retrieval is an important component common to many question answering systems. Because most evaluations of question answering systems focus on end-to-end performance, comparison of common components becomes difficult. To address this shortcoming, we present a quantitative evaluation of various passage retrieval algorithms for question answering, implemented in a framework called Pauchok. We present three important findings: Boolean querying schemes

Stefanie Tellex; Boris Katz; Jimmy J. Lin; Aaron Fernandes; Gregory Marton

2003-01-01

126

Identifying students' misconceptions in writing balanced equations for dissolving ionic compounds in water and using multiple-choice questions at the symbolic and particulate levels to confront these misconceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students who harbor misconceptions often find chemistry difficult to understand. To improve teaching about the dissolving process, first semester introductory chemistry students were asked to complete a free-response questionnaire on writing balanced equations for dissolving ionic compounds in water. To corroborate errors and misconceptions identified from students' generated balanced equations, another sample of students participated in semi-structured interviews where they were asked to explain their thought processes involved in writing the balanced equations for the dissolving ionic compounds dissolving in water. Misconceptions of the dissolving process were identified and described in detail. The most popular misconception was that water chemically reacts with an ionic compound through double displacement to form a metal oxide and an acid. The second popular misconception was that an ionic compound dissolves as neutral atoms or molecules. The third popular misconception was that students confused subscripts and coefficients. Another sample of introductory chemistry students were assessed on the dissolving process using the three popular misconceptions as three of the four choices in multiple-choice questions at the symbolic- and particulate-level. The symbolic-level questions involved symbolic balanced equations and the particulate-level questions involved dynamic animations or static pictures of the same four choices. Students' responses to these questions were discussed in terms of four variables---Answer (the correct answer and three misconceptions), Representation (symbolic or particulate questions), Visualization (static or animated pictures), and Representation Order (symbolic questions before or after the particulate questions). The same test instrument was used on the same student sample to assess how two types of subscripts affected students understanding of dissolving ionic compounds in water. Two of the ionic compounds had monatomic subscripts (MgCl2, Ag2SO4) and two did not (NaBr, KNO 3). Two had polyatomic subscripts (KNO3, K2SO 4) and two did not (NaBr, MgC12). Students' responses to these questions were also discussed in terms of four variables---Answer (the four choices), Representation (symbolic or particulate questions), Monatomic subscripts, and Polyatomic subscripts. The subscript misconception was more popular for symbolic questions compared to particulate questions, and the correct answer was less popular for particulate and symbolic questions when the question contained a monatomic subscript.

Naah, Basil M.

127

Using a Classroom Response System to Improve Multiple-Choice Performance in AP® Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Participation in rigorous high school courses such as Advanced Placement (AP®) Physics increases the likelihood of college success, especially for students who are traditionally underserved.1 Tackling difficult multiple-choice exams should be part of any AP program because well-constructed multiple-choice questions, such as those on AP exams and on the Force Concept Inventory,2 are particularly good at rooting out common and persisting student misconceptions. Additionally, there are barriers to multiple-choice performance that have little to do with content mastery. For example, a student might fail to read the question thoroughly, forget to apply a reasonableness test to the answer, or simply work too slowly.

Bertrand, Peggy

2009-04-01

128

NUFACT11 Round Table Discussion — Questions & Answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model; it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large ?13 makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses; it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R&D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and associated detectors, with a variety of (mostly) complementary baselines, proceeding in an incremental way. The ultimate precision and verification of the neutrino mixing picture requires new types of neutrino beams based on storage rings. For low energy neutrinos, the beta-beam is a possible (but substantial) intermediate step. The Neutrino Factory offers the best precision and best sensitivity to deviations from the standard picture. Coordinated international R&D is pursued. International collaboration at the top level would be beneficial in acknowledging the process, so as make sure that intermediate steps are effectively building up in complementary fashion towards the ultimate goals.

Blondel, A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; participants, NUFACT11

2013-02-01

129

Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... and Answers Regarding Establishment and Maintenance of Records By Persons Who Manufacture, Process, Pack, Transport, Distribute, Receive ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

130

Questions, Not Answers, Stimulate Critical Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful classroom questioning is an art that can be cultivated through practice. While teachers do use questions in classroom interaction with students, these questions tend to be lower order questions which only require recall or comprehension on the part of the students. Research suggests that teachers favor these lower order questions for…

Williams, Bonnie; And Others

131

A Comparison of Student Performance in Multiple-Choice and Long Essay Questions in the MBBS Stage I Physiology Examination at the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This retrospective study compared the performance of preclinical medical students in the multiple-choice question (MCQ) and long essay question components of a comprehensive physiology final examination. During the 3 yr analyzed, 307 students had an average score of 47% (SD 9.9) in the long essay questions and 64% (SD 9.9) in the MCQs. Regression…

Pepple, Dagogo J.; Young, Lauriann E.; Carroll, Robert G.

2010-01-01

132

The assessment of critical thinking skills in anatomy and physiology students who practice writing higher order multiple choice questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical thinking is a complex abstraction that defies homogeneous interpretation. This means that no operational definition is universal and no critical thinking measurement tool is all encompassing. Instructors will likely find evidence based strategies to facilitate thinking skills only as numerous research efforts from multiple disciplines accumulate. This study focuses on a question writing exercise designed to help anatomy and

Jason Shaw

2006-01-01

133

HITIQA: An Interactive Question Answering System A Preliminary Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

HITIQA is an interactive question answering technology designed to allow intelligence analysts and other users of information systems to pose questions in natural language and obtain relevant answers, or the assistance they require in order to perform their tasks. Our objective in HITIQA is to allow the user to submit exploratory, analytical, non-factual questions, such as \\

Sharon Small; Ting Liu; Nobuyuki Shimizu; Tomek Strzalkowski

2003-01-01

134

Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The question and answer booklet highlights the provisions of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 which was designed to protect the best interests of Indian children and to promote the stability and security of Indian tribes and families. The booklet attempts to answer 28 important questions concerning title I of the Act. Examples of questions

Administration for Native Americans (DHEW/OHDS), Washington, DC.

135

Procedural semantics for a question-answering machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simmons has presented a survey of some fifteen experimental question-answering and related systems which have been constructed since 1959. These systems take input questions in natural English (subject to varying constraints) and attempt to answer the questions on the basis of a body of information, called the data base, which is stored inside the computer. This process can be conceptually

W. A. Woods

1968-01-01

136

Learning search engine specific query transformations for question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a method for learning query transformations that im- proves the ability to retrieve answers to questions from an informa- tion retrieval system. During the training stage the method involves automatically learning phrase features for classifying questions into different types, automatically generating candidate query transfor- mations from a training set of question\\/answer pairs, and automat- ically evaluating the candidate

Eugene Agichtein; Steve Lawrence; Luis Gravano

2001-01-01

137

Natalizumab (marketed as Tysabri) Questions and Answers  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... and Answers. [3/1/2005]. What is Tysabri? Tysabri is a monoclonal antibody that binds to a protein called alpha-4-integrin. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

138

Ma-93: Sampling Related Questions and Answers  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Answer 4. For container's fabricated in a ... All single-service containers shall be collected ... regulatory agency responsibilities for sample collection and ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

139

Questions and Answers on Method for E. sakazakii in ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Questions and Answers on Method for E. sakazakii in Powdered Infant Formula. << Back to Microbiological Methods & Bacteriological ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

140

Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions Past Issues / ... Drug Abuse during their first Drug Facts Chat Day. Photo courtesy of NIDA The questions poured in… ...

141

Toward Automated Consumer Question Answering: Automatically Separating Consumer Questions from Professional Questions in the Healthcare Domain  

PubMed Central

Objective Both healthcare professionals and healthcare consumers have information needs that can be met through the use of computers, specifically via medical question answering systems. However, the information needs of both groups are different in terms of literacy levels and technical expertise, and an effective question answering system must be able to account for these differences if it is to formulate the most relevant responses for users from each group. In this paper, we propose that a first step toward answering the queries of different users is automatically classifying questions according to whether they were asked by healthcare professionals or consumers. Design We obtained two sets of consumer questions (~10,000 questions in total) from Yahoo answers. The professional questions consist of two question collections: 4654 point-of-care questions (denoted as PointCare) obtained from interviews of a group of family doctors following patient visits and 5378 questions from physician practices through professional online services (denoted as OnlinePractice). With more than 20,000 questions combined, we developed supervised machine-learning models for automatic classification between consumer questions and professional questions. To evaluate the robustness of our models, we tested the model that was trained on the Consumer-PointCare dataset on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset. We evaluated both linguistic features and statistical features and examined how the characteristics in two different types of professional questions (PointCare vs. OnlinePractice) may affect the classification performance. We explored information gain for feature reduction and the back-off linguistic category features. Results 10-fold cross-validation results showed the best F1-measure of 0.936 and 0.946 on Consumer-PointCare and Consumer-OnlinePractice respectively, and the best F1-measure of 0.891 when testing the Consumer-PointCare model on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset. Conclusion Healthcare consumer questions posted at Yahoo online communities can be reliably classified from professional questions posted by point-of-care clinicians and online physicians. The supervised machine-learning models are robust for this task. Our study will significantly benefit further development in automated consumer question answering.

Liu, Feifan; Antieau, Lamont D.; Yu, Hong

2011-01-01

142

Analysis of short-answer question styles versus gender in pre-clinical veterinary education.  

PubMed

One large study in medical education has reported that the choice of question format (or question content) could introduce a gender bias, with men outperforming women on questions with a true-false component or that required knowledge of anatomy or physiology. The purpose of our study was to ascertain whether this finding is also true in veterinary medical education. Two veterinary student cohorts were analyzed across four different modules over a three-year period (804 questions in total). The results of the study show that the women's and men's performance did not differ in any of the question types analyzed across any module or year. When students' (both women and men) overall average performance on different question types was compared with their performance on standard multiple-choice questions (MCQs), performance levels increased when students were asked to answer MCQs that contained an image-based prop (IMCQ) such as a photograph, X-ray image, or diagram. In contrast, students' performance was consistently lower when answering assertion-reason questions (ARQs), and this performance could not be explained by the demographic makeup of the two cohorts analyzed. When comparing standard MCQs with MCQs that contained a true-false question stem, no specific trend in the data could be determined. In conclusion, this study suggests that the short-answer question style does not bias against one gender in veterinary medical education, but that overall students do perform differently according to question type and, in particular, less well when ARQs are used in examinations. PMID:21805937

Foster, Neil

2011-01-01

143

The Answerable Question and a Hierarchy of Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The concept of a hierarchy of evidence is useful in rapid electronic searching to answer questions arising during the natural course of clinical practice. The answerable question often begins "What is the evidence that ..." and, when focused on a treatment, usually includes a population, an intervention, a comparison group, and an outcome, often…

Hamilton, John

2005-01-01

144

First Evaluation of Esfinge - A Question Answering System for Portuguese  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I will start by describing Esfinge - a general domain Portuguese question answering system, and then the strategies I used to participate in the CLEF-2004 QA track. Then I will present and discuss the results obtained and finally describe some of the work planned for the near future. 1 Esfinge With a question answering system we want,

Luís Costa

2004-01-01

145

Kiln Drying of Lumber; Fifteen Questions and Answers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Commonly asked questions about drying of lumber are presented with answers in a readable pamphlet particularly suited to the general public, students and new kiln operators in western Canada. Also covered in question-and-answer form are basic facts of dry...

G. Branhall J. F. G. Mackay M. Salamon

1980-01-01

146

99 Facts about the FBI: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet on the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) attempts to provide an overview of the FBI's functions. Presented in a question and answer format, the 99 questions and answers discuss the federal government agency's history, administrative matters, jurisdiction, criminal investigations, security matters, foreign counter-intelligence,…

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA.

147

Keys to Success: School Facilities Primer, Questions & Answers 101.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication provides answers to basic questions to help school board members more fully address the complexities of the planning, design, and construction process in order to maximize the goal of student success. The 101 questions and answers are in the areas of: facility planning; learning environment; information technology; safe schools;…

Brady, Jim

148

Astronaut Jeff Williams Answers Your Questions  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams, aboard the International Space Station 220 miles above Earth, responds to questions posted on YouTube concerning the station's orientation, life in space and the recent butterfly experiment.

NASA - nasa.gov

2010-03-10

149

Question and Answer on FDA Guidance Entitled " ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Are there alternative procedures to inclusion of specific questions on SARS in the donor questionnaire that would meet the intent of the guidance? ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/guidances

150

Questions and Answers: FDA announces new requirements ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... addition, FDA responded to common questions about the new sunscreen regulations submitted by the WebMD community via Twitter and Facebook ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

151

Questions & Answers for Consumers Concerning Infant ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Parents should ask their infant's health care provider if they have questions about selecting a formula for their infant. Source ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk

152

Overview of the TREC 2004 Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC 2004 Question Answering track contained a single task in which question series were used to define a set of targets. Each series contained factoid and list questions and related to a single target. The final question in the series was an \\

Ellen M. Voorhees

2004-01-01

153

Executive Compensation: Six Questions that Need Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we focus on how recent research advances can be used to address the following six questions: (1) How much does executive compensation cost the firm? (2) How much is executive compensation worth to the recipient? (3) How well does executive compensation work? (4) What are the effects of executive compensation? (5) How much executive compensation is enough?

John M. Abowd; David S. Kaplan

1999-01-01

154

Asking Essay Questions: Answering Contemporary Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Essay questions have been a stable fixture of teacher assessment activity for decades. Assessment reforms of the early 90's encouraged the development and use of "newer" forms of assessment including portfolios, performance tasks, and authentic assessments. As of late, however, there appears to be a regressive emphasis toward the use of objective…

Criswell, John R.; Criswell, Susan J.

2004-01-01

155

Computers into Classrooms: More Questions than Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is one of a series of three books addressing the question of the nature of technological literacy. This volume, consisting of an introduction, an epilogue, and 12 chapters, focuses on classrooms and classroom processes involving computers and deals directly with teacher and student usage of microcomputers in teaching and learning. The 12…

Beynon, John, Ed.; Mackay, Hughie, Ed.

156

Answering Lord Perry's question: dissecting regulatory overfishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, in response to the distressed condition of the British fishing industry, the House of Lords held a series of hearings on “Fish Stock Conservation and Management.” Lord Perry of Walton posed the straightforward question of why regulation was not succeeding: If one takes all the management systems into account—TACs [total allowable catches, or annual quotas], number of days

Josh Eagle; Barton H Thompson

2003-01-01

157

Physicians' use of computer software in answering clinical questions.  

PubMed Central

Descriptive data about the use of medical information software were gathered from physicians who were early users of these resources. Eight clinically active internists and medical subspecialists were lent a microcomputer loaded with six commercially available medical information software products. Participants used the software for two weeks to answer questions arising in their practice and completed written questionnaires. They recorded a total of 50 questions (between 3 and 11 per participant per two-week study period). Using the workstation, participants answered 20 questions (40% of the total), partially answered 16 questions (32%), and did not obtain useful information for 14 questions (28%). Participants found answers outside the workstation to 8 of the 14 questions (57%) not answered by using the software. The most common question topic was drug information (16 questions, or 32% of the total). The most common problems encountered using the workstation were retrieval of incomplete information (20 questions, or 40% of the total) and difficulty navigating the software (16 questions, or 32%). Other problems included difficulty translating clinical problems into questions, inappropriate resource selection, inadequate training for using the software, and excessive time required to access information. The study highlights several opportunities for medical librarians and others involved in clinical information management to facilitate the use of computer software for solving clinical problems.

Osheroff, J A; Bankowitz, R A

1993-01-01

158

Question Answering from Frequently-Asked Question Files: Experiences with the FAQ Finder System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes FAQ Finder, a natural language question-answering system that usesfiles of frequently-asked questions as its knowledge base. Unlike AI question-answering systemsthat focus on the generation of new answers, FAQ Finder retrieves existing ones found infrequently-asked question files. Unlike information retrieval approaches that rely on a purelylexical metric of similarity between query and document, FAQ Finder uses a semantic

Robin D. Burke; Kristian J. Hammond; Vladimir Kulyukin

1996-01-01

159

Asking and Answering Questions during a Programming Change Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the specific kinds of questions programmers ask when evolving a code base and how well existing tools support those questions. To better support the activity of programming, answers are needed to three broad research questions: 1) What does a programmer need to know about a code base when evolving a software system? 2) How does a

Jonathan Sillito; Gail C. Murphy; Kris De Volder

2008-01-01

160

Impertinent Question-Answering Systems: justification and theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Question-Answering System (QAS) is impertinent if it tells a user something the user did not ask! Since a user rarely understands the full implications of a data base, especially a large one, his question is limited by his knowledge of the data base. Sometimes, a question similar to the one he originally asked could better satisfy his goals, but

Laurent Siklóssy

1978-01-01

161

User Modelling for Adaptive Question Answering and Information Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most question answering (QA) and information retrieval (IR) systems are insensitive to different users' needs and prefer- ences, and also to the existence of multiple, complex or con- troversial answers. We propose the notion of adaptivity in QA and IR by introducing a hybrid QA-IR system based on a user model. Our current prototype filters and re-ranks the query results

Silvia Quarteroni; Suresh Manandhar

162

Questions and Answers: Orlistat and Severe Liver Injury  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Questions and Answers: Orlistat and Severe Liver Injury. [5-26-2010]. Q1. ... Q5. How did FDA learn about the risk of severe liver injury? ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

163

Logical Aspects of Question-Answering by Computer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses the problem of computerized question-answering from the point of view of certain technical, although elementary, notions of logic. Although the work reported herein has general application to the design of information systems, it is sp...

J. L. Kuhns

1969-01-01

164

Questions and Answers on the Ranbaxy Atorvastatin Recall  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Questions and Answers on the Ranbaxy Atorvastatin Recall. En Español. ... Q: What is the risk to patients who have taken the recalled atorvastatin? ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety

165

Questions and Answers: Recent Changes in Health Care Law (2000).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet provides an overview of recent changes in federal law that can affect the health benefits of millions of working Americans and their families. The questions and answers in this publication address the benefits and requirements of the followin...

2000-01-01

166

Questions and Answers - Safety review update on the ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Questions and Answers - Safety review update on the possible increased risk of blood clots with birth control pills containing drospirenone. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

167

Questions and answers based on revised 10 CFR Part 20  

SciTech Connect

NUREG/CR-6204 is a collection of questions and answers that were originally issued in seven sets and which pertain to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions came from both outside and within the NRC. The answers were compiled and provided by NRC staff within the offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Nuclear Regulatory Research, the Office of State Programs, and the five regional offices. Although all of the questions and answers have been reviewed by attorneys in the NRC Office of the General Counsel, they do not constitute official legal interpretations relevant to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions and answers do, however, reflect NRC staff decisions and technical options on aspects of the revised 10 CFR Part 20 regulatory requirements. This NUREG is being made available to encourage communication among the public, industry, and NRC staff concerning the major revisions of the NRC`s standards for protection against radiation.

Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carter, D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-05-01

168

Cervical Caps or Diaphragms: Answering Your Patients' Questions  

PubMed Central

Cervical caps and diaphragms offer a plausible contraceptive alternative for some women. Selection of patients, advantages, disadvantages, and fitting techniques are discussed in order to help answer those difficult patient questions. ImagesFigure 1

Donlevy, Mary J.

1987-01-01

169

Lindane Shampoo and Lindane Lotion - Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... REMS) Drug Safety Information for Healthcare Professionals - Lindane Shampoo and Lindane Lotion- Questions and Answers What is ... new, important information I should know about Lindane Shampoo and Lindane Lotion? Will this change how my ...

170

Questions and Answers on the FDA Trend Analysis Report on ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Questions and Answers on the FDA Trend Analysis Report on the Occurrence of Foodborne Illness Risk in Selected Institutional Foodservice ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

171

Questions and Answers for the public: Warning not to use ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Information for Consumers (Drugs). Questions & Answers. -. ... counter drug) or an FDA approved drug. ... visual changes, dizziness and mental confusion ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

172

Answering Questions from Oceanography Texts: Learner, Task and Text Characteristics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven college students enrolled in a college-level introductory oceanography course read and answered questions on two selections drawn from their textbook in the course. Using verbal protocol procedures, three nonnative English speakers and four native E...

S. R. Goldman R. P. Duran

1987-01-01

173

Questions & Answers on Bisphenol A (BPA) Use in Food ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

FDA acknowledges the interest that many consumers have in BPA. ... Questions & Answers on Bisphenol A (BPA) Use in Food Contact Applications. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients

174

Questions and Answers: New Safety Requirements for Long ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Questions and Answers: New Safety Requirements for Long-Acting Asthma Medications called Long-Acting Beta Agonists (LABAs). ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/informationbydrugclass

175

Answering Your Questions About Health Coverage (Affordable Care Act)  

MedlinePLUS

... of content Health Insurance Blog Welcome to the new HealthCare.gov! June 21, 2013 Email Print Health ... of the most important: the opening of the new Health Insurance Marketplace . Answering your questions about health ...

176

A Web Question-Answering Method for Any Class of Non-Factoid Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a method of non-factoid Web question-answering that can uniformly deal with any class of Japanese non-factoid question by using a large number of example Q&A pairs. Instead of preparing classes of questions beforehand, the method retrieves already asked question examples similar to a submitted question from a set of Q&A pairs. Then, instead of preparing clue expressions for the writing style of answers according to each question class beforehand, it dynamically extracts clue expressions from the answer examples corresponding to the retrieved question examples. This clue expression information is combined with topical content information from the question to extract appropriate answer candidates. The score of an answer candidate is measured by the density of submitted question's keywords, words associated with the question and the clue expressions. Note that we utilize the set of Q&A pairs, not to find answers from them, but to obtain clue expressions about the writing style of their answers. The information source for question answering is the Web documents retrieved by using an API of a Web search engine. Experimental results showed that the clue expressions obtained from the set of examples improved the accuracy of answer candidate extraction.

Ishioroshi, Madoka; Sato, Mitsuru; Mori, Tatsunori

177

Obesity in Infancy: Questions, More Questions, and Few Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current literature presents conflicting views about the existence of infant obesity and its role as a risk factor for later life obesity and comorbidity. This article reviews extant literature and addresses the issues raised about obesity and overweight status in the first 2 years of life. The epidemic increase in childhood obesity stimulates questions about the effects of body weight

Marjorie M. Heinzer

2005-01-01

178

Overview of the CLEF 2005 Multilingual Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general aim of the third CLEF Multilingual Question Answering Track was to set up a common and replicable evaluation framework to test both monolingual and cross-language Question Answering (QA) systems that process queries and documents in several European languages. Nine target languages and ten source languages were exploited to enact 8 monolingual and 73 cross-language tasks. Twenty-four groups participated

Alessandro Vallin; Bernardo Magnini; Danilo Giampiccolo; Lili Aunimo; Christelle Ayache; Petya Osenova; Anselmo Peñas; Maarten De Rijke; Bogdan Sacaleanu; Diana Santos; Richard F. E. Sutcliffe

2005-01-01

179

IP-QAT: in-product questions, answers, & tips  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present IP-QAT, a new community-based question and answer system for software users. Unlike most community forums, IP-QAT is integrated into the actual software application, allowing users to easily post questions, answers and tips without having to leave the application. Our in-product implementation is context-aware and shows relevant posts based on a user's recent activity. It is also designed with

Justin Matejka; Tovi Grossman; George Fitzmaurice

2011-01-01

180

Educational Question Answering based on Social Media Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the requirements for an educational Question Answering (QA) system operating on social media content. As a result, we identify a set of ad- vanced natural language processing (NLP) technologies to address the challenges in educational QA. We conducted an inter-annotator agreement study on subjective question classification in the Yahoo!Answers social Q&A site and propose a sim- ple, but

Iryna Gurevych; Delphine Bernhard; Kateryna Ignatova; Cigdem Toprak

2009-01-01

181

A Definition of Complexity of Questions for Question and Answer and its Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a definition of complexity of questions for a question and answer function in an intelligent support system for English learning, and its evaluation. To realize adaptive question and answer, the system should generates questions depending on both educational intentions and the learner's understanding state. For generating suitable questions for the learner automatically, we must investigate the factors which influence difficulty of questions, and prepare the mechanism to calculate the difficulty. The difficulty is composed of the learner dependent part and the independent part. The former is evaluated by referring to a student model. The latter is defined by enumerating factors which influence complexity of questions. We present a definition of the complexity along with learners' answering flow; understanding text sentences, understanding a question and composing an answer. Moreover, we describe experimentation comparing the complexity of questions calculated by computer according to the definition with the complexity evaluated by human.

Kunichika, Hidenobu; Urushima, Minoru; Hirashima, Tsukasa; Takeuchi, Akira

182

Exploring Shallow Answer Ranking Features in Cross-Lingual and Monolingual Factoid Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Answer ranking is critical to a QA (Question Answering) system because it determines the final system performance. In this paper, we explore the behavior of shallow ranking features under different conditions. The features are easy to implement and are also suitable when complex NLP techniques or resources are not available for monolingual or cross-lingual tasks. We analyze six shallow ranking

Cheng-Wei Lee; Yi-Hsun Lee; Wen-Lian Hsu

183

CERCLA Site Assessment questions and answers (Qs&As)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This documents contains commonly asked questions and corresponding answers (Qs&As) on the CERCLA Site Assessment process. These questions were derived from DOE element responses to a solicitation calling for the identification of (unresolved) issues associated with the conduct of CERCLA site assessments, and from inquiries received during a series of Site Assessment Workshops provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Traceski

1993-01-01

184

A Question Answering System Supported by Information Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses an information extraction (IE) system, Textract, in natural language (NL) question answering (QA) and examines the role of IE in QA application. It shows: (i) Named Entity tagging is an important component for QA, (ii) an NL shallow parser provides a structural basis for questions, and (iii) high-level domain independent IE can result in a QA breakthrough.

Rohini K. Srihari; Wei Li

2000-01-01

185

A Mobile Video Question Answering System for E-learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors proposed a mobile video QA (Question Answering) system for online annotation and ubiquitous multimedia learning. Under the wireless and mobile environment, learners could interact with the system through natural language questions rather than traditional query-like text retrieval. The handheld device is not as well as traditional keyboard input, while the annotation is quite inefficient and

Yi-ting Huang; Ching-i Chung; Chi-cheng Tsai; Chia-hsing Shen; Yu-chieh Wu; Jie-chi Yang

2007-01-01

186

Automated Multiple-Choice Testing for Summative Assessment: What Do Students Think?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports undergraduate student feedback contrasting conventional "Long-answer" examinations with automated multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment. Feedback was gathered after students had undertaken formative MCQ assessments as a revision aid. Feedback was generally supportive of MCQ summative tests, with 74% expressing a preference…

Bridge, Pete; Appleyard, Rob; Wilson, Rob

2007-01-01

187

Not Read, but Nevertheless Solved? Three Experiments on PIRLS Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multiple-choice (MC) reading comprehension test items comprise three components: text passage, questions about the text, and MC answers. The construct validity of this format has been repeatedly criticized. In three between-subjects experiments, fourth graders (N[subscript 1] = 230, N[subscript 2] = 340, N[subscript 3] = 194) worked on three…

Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Kimmel, Rumena; Lowenkamp, Lena; Steingraber, Antje; Rost, Detlef H.

2012-01-01

188

Multiple Choice Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a guide to developing and deploying effective multiple choice tests. The site also discusses the costs and benefits of this method, as well as the philosophy of this commonly used assessment method. Links to more detailed information are included as well.

Parkes, Jay; Guide, Field-Tested L.

189

A comparison of study strategies for passages: rereading, answering questions, and generating questions.  

PubMed

Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a practice phase. They then read three passages and did one of three tasks on each passage: reread the passage, answered questions set by the experimenter, or generated and answered their own questions. Passages were 575-word (Experiments 1 and 2) or 350-word (Experiment 3) texts on topics such as Venice, the Taj Mahal, and the singer Cesaria Evora. After each task, participants predicted their performance on a later test, which followed the same format as the practice phase test (a short-answer test in Experiments 1 and 2, and a free recall test in Experiment 3). In all experiments, best performance was predicted after generating and answering questions. We show, however, that generating questions led to no improvement over answering comprehension questions, but that both of these tasks were more beneficial than rereading. This was the case on an immediate short-answer test (Experiment 1), a short-answer test taken 2 days after study (Experiment 2), and an immediate free recall test (Experiment 3). Generating questions took at least twice as long as answering questions in all three experiments, so although it is a viable alternative to answering questions in the absence of materials, it is less time-efficient. PMID:20853989

Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B; Roediger, Henry L

2010-09-01

190

A Comparison of Study Strategies for Passages: Rereading, Answering Questions, and Generating Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a practice phase. They then read three passages and

Yana Weinstein; Kathleen B. McDermott; Henry L. Roediger

2010-01-01

191

National school nurse certification. Part II: Questions and answers.  

PubMed

The National Association of School Nurses proposed the concept of certification for school nurses in the 1970s. The development and evolution of the school nurse certification process, from concept to reality, were described in the October 2000 Journal of School Nursing (Gregory & Marcontel, 2000). Readers were asked to submit questions to be answered in the second article. This article describes issues and answers questions from school nurses about national certification, gives information from past and current presidents and certified school nurses regarding their experiences, and presents a forecast on the future of school nurse certification. PMID:11885446

Gregory, E K; Marcontel, M

2001-06-01

192

Asking the right question and finding the right answers.  

PubMed

Clinical consultations generate questions that can be informed by published (and unpublished) evidence. This is the basis for evidence-based practice. Finding answers involves searching available electronic databases. We describe a method for rephrasing or 'framing' clinical questions into population, intervention, comparator and outcome terms that helps to determine the best type of study to search for, and aids in the design of search strategies. PMID:20377764

Cross, Nicholas B; Craig, Jonathan C; Webster, Angela C

2010-02-01

193

Question-Answer Sequences in Survey-Interviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction analysis was used to analyze a total of 14,265 question–answer sequences of (Q-A Sequences) 80 questions that\\u000a originated from two face-to-face and three telephone surveys. The analysis was directed towards the causes and effects of\\u000a particular interactional problems. Our results showed that problematic respondent behavior is affected by the questionnaire\\u000a design, whereas inadequate interviewer behavior is affected by respondent

Wil Dijkstra; Yfke Ongena

2006-01-01

194

Coping With Alternate Formulations Of Questions And Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present in this chapter the QALC system which has participated in the four TREC QA evaluations. We focus here on the problem\\u000a of linguistic variation in order to be able to relate questions and answers. We present first, variation at the term level\\u000a which consists in retrieving questions terms in document sentences even if morphologic, syntactic or semantic variations

Brigitte Grau; Olivier Ferret; Martine Hurault-Plantet; Christian Jacquemin; Laura Monceaux; Isabelle Robba; Anne Vilnat

195

26 CFR 301.7611-1 - Questions and answers relating to church tax inquiries and examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Questions and answers relating to church tax inquiries and examinations. 301...7611-1 Questions and answers relating to church tax inquiries and examinations. Table...Contents Question(s)/Answer(s) Church Tax Inquiry 1, 2, 3 Routine...

2013-04-01

196

26 CFR 301.7611-1 - Questions and answers relating to church tax inquiries and examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Questions and answers relating to church tax inquiries and examinations. 301...7611-1 Questions and answers relating to church tax inquiries and examinations. Table...Contents Question(s)/Answer(s) Church Tax Inquiry 1, 2, 3 Routine...

2010-04-01

197

Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

198

"Legal Problem Question Answer Genre" across Jurisdictions and Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper seeks to analyse discourse patterns of legal opinions in two languages and cultures--namely, Legal Problem Question Answers (LPQs) in the UK academic writing context and Pareri (Ps) in the Italian professional writing context. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of discourse in this paper, based on the tenets of genre analysis,…

Tessuto, Girolamo

2011-01-01

199

What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,…

Laird, Valerie

2001-01-01

200

Selectively Using Relations to Improve Precision in Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the intuition that linguistically sophisti- cated techniques should be benecial to question answering, real gains in performance have yet to be demonstrated empirically in a reliable man- ner. Systems built around sophisticated linguis- tic analysis generally perform worse than their linguistically-uninformed cousins. We believe that the key to effective application of natural language processing technology is to selectively employ

Boris Katz; Jimmy Lin

2003-01-01

201

Questions and Answers about Writing a Lau Compliance Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Lau v. Nichols decision and its implications for school districts are explained in this question and answer format paper. Lau compliance plans are described in full. The number of students necessary for development of a plan or program, what a Lau plan should include, and appropriate program types are detailed. (MK)|

Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.

202

Scientists Answer Top Space Weather Questions Pt 1  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA scientists answer some common questions about the sun, space weather, and how they affect the Earth. This is part one of a two-part series. It addresses: 1. What is space weather? 2. What are coronal mass ejections? 3. What are solar flares? 4. What are solar energetic particles? 5. What causes flares and CMEs?

gsfcvideo

2012-04-20

203

Seven Poets Answer Seven Questions for the Classroom Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Asks seven successful poets to share their knowledge and experience of writing poetry by answering seven questions that provide classroom teachers with approaches for facilitating students' poetry writing. Addresses topic selection, writing processes, language usage, choosing a form, whether forms should be taught, revision, and whether hard work…

Blasingame, James B., Jr.

2002-01-01

204

American Indians Today: Answers to Your Questions. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet answers briefly the most common questions about American Indians asked by students, teachers, researchers, librarians, government agencies, and the news media. Sections outline the history, responsibilities, educational programs, and housing programs of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA); President Bush's American Indian policy;…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

205

Management Systems: Answers to Questions on Vocational and Technical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An explanation of management systems being utilized in vocational education, this pamphlet is designed for vocational educators, administrative personnel, project directors, and other individuals interested in this aspect of program development. Answered are these questions: (1) What are some systems and techniques that may be adapted for use in…

McCracken, J. David; Harris, Robert B.

206

Overview of the CLEF 2004 Multilingual Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the pilot Question Answering Track at CLEF 2003, a new evaluation exercise for multilingual QA systems took place in 2004. This paper reports on the novelties introduced in the new campaign and on participants' results. Almost all the cross-language combinations between nine source languages and seven target languages were exploited to set up more than fifty different tasks, both

Bernardo Magnini; Alessandro Vallin; Christelle Ayache; Gregor Erbach; Anselmo Peñas; Maarten De Rijke; Paulo Rocha; Kiril Ivanov Simov; Richard F. E. Sutcliffe

2004-01-01

207

A Study on NNS's Conference Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates how nonnative speakers of English approach questions and answers posed to them to provide an explanation of how they resolve communication problems they face at an international conference. Results suggest that there are not many differences observed from Japanese and Korean querists and respondents in terms of their use of discourse…

Park, Kyung-Ja; Nakano, Michiko

2000-01-01

208

The Multiple Language Question Answering Track at CLEF 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the pilot question answering track that was carried out within the CLEF initiative this year. The track was divided into monolingual and bilingual tasks: monolingual systems were evaluated within the frame of three non-English European languages, Dutch, Italian and Spanish, while in the cross-language tasks an English document collection constituted the target corpus for Italian, Spanish,

Bernardo Magnini; Simone Romagnoli; Alessandro Vallin; Jesús Herrera; Anselmo Peñas; Víctor Peinado; Felisa Verdejo; Maarten De Rijke

2003-01-01

209

Exoplanets and Other Modern Answers to Old Astronomical Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Greeks were the first to ask, or at least to write about asking, questions like whether there are other planets like earth and whether the universe is finite or infinite. In all cases, they answered both yes and not (since there were lots of Greeks and not much data). A good deal later (but still in the period called

Virginia Trimble

2002-01-01

210

An Analysis of the AskMSR Question-Answering System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the architecture of a question answering system and systematically evaluate contributions of different system components to accuracy. The system differs from most question answering sys- tems in its dependency on data redun- dancy rather than sophisticated linguistic analyses of either questions or candidate answers. Because a wrong answer is of- ten worse than no answer, we also explore

Eric Brill; Susan Dumais; Michele Banko

2002-01-01

211

The MiPACQ Clinical Question Answering System  

PubMed Central

The Multi-source Integrated Platform for Answering Clinical Questions (MiPACQ) is a QA pipeline that integrates a variety of information retrieval and natural language processing systems into an extensible question answering system. We present the system’s architecture and an evaluation of MiPACQ on a human-annotated evaluation dataset based on the Medpedia health and medical encyclopedia. Compared with our baseline information retrieval system, the MiPACQ rule-based system demonstrates 84% improvement in Precision at One and the MiPACQ machine-learning-based system demonstrates 134% improvement. Other performance metrics including mean reciprocal rank and area under the precision/recall curves also showed significant improvement, validating the effectiveness of the MiPACQ design and implementation.

Cairns, Brian L.; Nielsen, Rodney D.; Masanz, James J.; Martin, James H.; Palmer, Martha S.; Ward, Wayne H.; Savova, Guergana K.

2011-01-01

212

The MiPACQ clinical question answering system.  

PubMed

The Multi-source Integrated Platform for Answering Clinical Questions (MiPACQ) is a QA pipeline that integrates a variety of information retrieval and natural language processing systems into an extensible question answering system. We present the system's architecture and an evaluation of MiPACQ on a human-annotated evaluation dataset based on the Medpedia health and medical encyclopedia. Compared with our baseline information retrieval system, the MiPACQ rule-based system demonstrates 84% improvement in Precision at One and the MiPACQ machine-learning-based system demonstrates 134% improvement. Other performance metrics including mean reciprocal rank and area under the precision/recall curves also showed significant improvement, validating the effectiveness of the MiPACQ design and implementation. PMID:22195068

Cairns, Brian L; Nielsen, Rodney D; Masanz, James J; Martin, James H; Palmer, Martha S; Ward, Wayne H; Savova, Guergana K

2011-10-22

213

Deduction Engine Design for PNL-Based Question Answering System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a methodology for designing a Precisiated Natural Language (PNL) based deduction engine for automated\\u000a Question Answering (QA) systems. QA is one type of information retrieval system, and is regarded as the next advancement beyond\\u000a keyword-based search engines, as it requires deductive reasoning and use of domain\\/background knowledge. PNL, as discussed\\u000a by Zadeh, is one representation

Zengchang Qin; Marcus Thint; Mirza Mohd. Sufyan Beg

2007-01-01

214

Scientists Answer Top Space Weather Questions Pt 2  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA scientists answer some common questions about the sun, space weather, and how they affect the Earth. This is part two of a two-part series. It addresses: 1. Do all flares and CMEs affect the Earth? 2. What happens when a flare or CME hits the Earth? 3. How quickly can we feel the effects of space weather? 4. Why are there more flares and CMEs happening now?

gsfcvideo

2012-04-20

215

What Makes a Good Answer to a Question?: Testing a Psychological Model of Question Answering in the Context of Narrative Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests the QUEST model of question answering in two experiments. Examines which components of QUEST could predict good answers to why-questions and how-questions in the context of short stories. Supports the validity of arc-search procedures and structural distance for both question categories. Finds only partial support for number of information…

Golding, Jonathan M.; And Others

1990-01-01

216

Public library patrons' use of collaborative chat reference service: The effectiveness of question answering by question type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effectiveness of question answering by question types in the inter-institutional collaborative chat reference service at a public library system. In particular, this study examined whether subject-based research type questions are answered as effectively as simple factual type questions, and whether local-specific questions are answered as effectively as non-local questions in the inter-institutional chat reference service. Effectiveness

Nahyun Kwon

2007-01-01

217

Response Biases in Multiple-Choice Test Item Files.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evidence of biases in the correct answers in multiple-choice test item files were found to include "all of the above" bias in which that answer was correct more than 25 percent of the time, and a bias that the longest answer was correct too frequently. Seven bias types were studied. (Author/CM)|

Mentzer, Thomas L.

1982-01-01

218

Exoplanets and Other Modern Answers to Old Astronomical Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greeks were the first to ask, or at least to write about asking, questions like whether there are other planets like earth and whether the universe is finite or infinite. In all cases, they answered both yes and not (since there were lots of Greeks and not much data). A good deal later (but still in the period called history, unless you are very old), astronomers started asking whether the duration of the universe was finite or infinite, what the stars are made of and what keeps them shining, and whether there are other galaxies like ours. All of these now how answers at some confidence level. Close to 100 planets outside our solar system have been reported, starting in 1995, but selection effects mean that none are like earth. Data from many sources (supernovae, radioactive elements, microwave radiation, and all) combine to say that the universe has a finite past but probably an infinite future and an extent that, if not infinite, is anyhow very much larger than a breadbox. The stars run on nuclear fusion, and there are oodles of galaxies. The talk will explore how we have learned some of these things and try to look forward to current unsolved problems in astrophysics and cosmology.

Trimble, Virginia

2002-04-01

219

Wnt signaling in planarians: new answers to old questions.  

PubMed

Wnts are secreted glycoproteins involved in a broad range of essential cell functions, including proliferation, migration and cell-fate determination. Recent years have seen substantial research effort invested in elucidating the role of the Wnt signaling pathway in planarians, flatworms with incredible regenerative capacities. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the role of canonical (?-catenin-dependent) and non-canonical (?-catenin-independent) Wnt signaling in planarians, not only during regeneration, but also during normal homeostasis. We also describe some of the preliminary data that has been obtained regarding the role of these pathways during embryogenesis. Models are proposed to integrate the different results which have been obtained to date and highlight those questions that still remain to be answered. PMID:22450995

Almuedo-Castillo, Maria; Sureda-Gómez, Miquel; Adell, Teresa

2012-01-01

220

Answers to Questions About Updated Estimates of Occupational Radiation Doses at Three Mile Island, Unit 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document provides answers to questions concerning new radiation dose estimates for cleanup workers at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to these questions are based on information in Draft Supplement 1 to the 'Programmatic Environmental Impact Statem...

1983-01-01

221

MURAX: a robust linguistic approach for question answering using an on-line encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust linguistic methods are applied to the task of answering closed-class questions using a corpus of natural language. The methods are illustrated in a broad domain: answering general-knowledge questions using an on-line encyclopedia.A closed-class question is a question stated in natural language, which assumes some definite answer typified by a noun phrase rather than a procedural answer. The methods hypothesize

Julian Kupiec

1993-01-01

222

The memorial consequences of multiple-choice testing.  

PubMed

The present article addresses whether multiple-choice tests may change knowledge even as they attempt to measure it. Overall, taking a multiple-choice test boosts performance on later tests, as compared with non-tested control conditions. This benefit is not limited to simple definitional questions, but holds true for SAT II questions and for items designed to tap concepts at a higher level in Bloom's (1956) taxonomy of educational objectives. Students, however, can also learn false facts from multiple-choice tests; testing leads to persistence of some multiple-choice lures on later general knowledge tests. Such persistence appears due to faulty reasoning rather than to an increase in the familiarity of lures. Even though students may learn false facts from multiple-choice tests, the positive effects of testing outweigh this cost. PMID:17694900

Marsh, Elizabeth J; Roediger, Henry L; Bjork, Robert A; Bjork, Elizabeth L

2007-04-01

223

The Importance of Multiple Choice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A level of organization of inferences in which competing plausible alternatives can be compared, and all but one actively rejected, is a very important aspect of any comprehension model. Multiple choice inference structures help the model stay tuned to th...

C. Rieger

1978-01-01

224

Assessing students' abilities to construct and interpret line graphs: Disparities between multiple-choice and free-response instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author is concerned about the methodology and instrumentation used to assess both graphing abilities and the impact of microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) on students' graphing abilities for four reasons: (1) the ability to construct and interpret graphs is critical for developing key ideas in science; (2) science educators need to have valid information for making teaching decisions; (3) educators and researchers are heralding the arrival of MBL as a tool for developing graphing abilities; and (4) some of the research which supports using MBL appears to have significant validity problems. In this article, the author will describe the research which challenges the validity of using multiple-choice instruments to assess graphing abilities. The evidence from this research will identify numerous disparities between the results of multiple-choice and free-response instruments. In the first study, 72 subjects in the seventh, ninth, and eleventh grades were administered individual clinical interviews to assess their ability to construct and interpret graphs. A wide variety of graphs and situations were assessed. In three instances during the interview, students drew a graph that would best represent a situation and then explained their drawings. The results of these clinical graphing interviews were very different from similar questions assessed through multiple-choice formats in other research studies. In addition, insights into students' thinking about graphing reveal that some multiple-choice graphing questions from prior research studies and standardized tests do not discriminate between right answers/right reasons, right answers/wrong reasons, and answers scored wrong but correct for valid reasons. These results indicate that in some instances multiple-choice questions are not a valid measure of graphing abilities. In a second study, the researcher continued to pursue the questions raised about the validity of multiple-choice tests to assess graphing, researching the following questions: What can be learned about subjects' graphing abilities when students draw their own graphs compared to assessing by means of a multiple-choice instrument? Does the methodology used to assess graphing abilities: (1) affect the percentage of subjects who answer correctly; (2) alter the percentage of subjects affected by the picture of the event phenomenon? Instruments were constructed consisting of three graphing questions that asked students: (a) multiple-choice-choose a graph that best represents the situation; (b) free-response-draw a graph that best represents the situation. The sample of 1416 subjects from an urbadsuburban area in cluded 50% boys/50% girls from grades 8 through 12; subjects from high, medium, and low ability groups; and subjects from both public and private schools. The subjects completed either the multiple-choice or the free draw instrument. The free draw instrument was scored by comparing the subject's response to categories of possible answers that had been identified from the first study. The results show as much as 19% difference in correct responses, three times as many picture of the events from multiple-choice instruments, and significant differences in how multiple-choice and free-response affect various ability levels and grade levels. As such, some of the research studies that used multiple-choice instruments to examine giaphing and the impact of MBL on student's graphing abilities may be invalid.

Berg, Craig A.; Smith, Philip

225

Some questions and answers about the Satellite Power System (SPS)  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Energy Research, US DOE is evaluating the concept of obtaining significant amounts of electrical energy from space through the Satellite Power System Project Office (SPS PO) formed for that purpose. The SPS PO prepared and is implementing a Concept Development and Evaluation Program plan. The CDEP runs roughly three years (from July 1977 through July 1980) and consists of four primary elements: (1) Systems Definition, (2) Environmental Assessment, (3) Societal Assessment, and (4) Comparative Assessment. One facet of the Societal Assessment is an investigation of public concerns. To further this investigation, a public outreach experiment was initiated to determine the initial response of three selected interest groups to the SPS, both qualitatively and quantititavely, and to gain some experience for use in future public participation activities. Three groups were contacted and agreed to participate in the experiment. They were: the Citizens Energy Project (CEP), the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), and the L-5 Society (L-5). They each agreed to condense twenty final SPS reports into approximately four pages each, have them typeset, printed and distributed to 3,000 of their constituents for their review, together with a request that they respond to the parent organization regarding the information presented. All responses were summarized and provided to Planning Research Corporation who then solicited the answers from the SPS PO investigator most directly concerned.The questions and answers are presented and will be distributed by the three groups to the individual respondents. Each of the three groups is also preparing a report to the Project Office detailing their work and results. These, together with other responses and studies will be used to more effectively involve the public in the SPS Participatory Technology Process.

Not Available

1980-01-01

226

What makes a good answer to a question?: Testing a psychological model of question answering in the context of narrative text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments tested the QUEST model of question answering (Graesser & Franklin, 1990) in the context of short stories. QUEST specifies how individuals answer why and how questions by searching through various sources of information after comprehending a text. The sources of information include the passage structure and the generic knowledge structures that are associated with the content words in

Jonathan M. Golding; Arthur C. Graesser; Keith K. Millis

1990-01-01

227

Research on the Question Answering System in Chinese Based on Knowledge Represent of Conceptual Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The core of question answering is a searching based on natural language understanding. Because of the flexibility and complexity\\u000a of Chinese, the study of the Chinese question answering has become very difficulty. The current Chinese question answering\\u000a relies on keywords to query and retrieve the answer. The nature of these systems is the keyword matching. It is a kind of

Peiqi Liu; Longji Li; Zengzhi Li

228

Tuberculous meningitis: more questions, still too few answers.  

PubMed

Tuberculous meningitis is especially common in young children and people with untreated HIV infection, and it kills or disables roughly half of everyone affected. Childhood disease can be prevented by vaccination and by giving prophylactic isoniazid to children exposed to infectious adults, although improvements in worldwide tuberculosis control would lead to more effective prevention. Diagnosis is difficult because clinical features are non-specific and laboratory tests are insensitive, and treatment delay is the strongest risk factor for death. Large doses of rifampicin and fluoroquinolones might improve outcome, and the beneficial effect of adjunctive corticosteroids on survival might be augmented by aspirin and could be predicted by screening for a polymorphism in LTA4H, which encodes an enzyme involved in eicosanoid synthesis. However, these advances are insufficient in the face of drug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV co-infection. Many questions remain about the best approaches to prevent, diagnose, and treat tuberculous meningitis, and there are still too few answers. PMID:23972913

Thwaites, Guy E; van Toorn, Ronald; Schoeman, Johan

2013-08-23

229

Structural answers and persistent questions about how nicotinic receptors work  

PubMed Central

The electron diffraction structure of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo marmorata and the X-ray crystallographic structure of acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) are providing new answers to persistent questions about how nAChRs function as biophysical machines and as participants in cellular and systems physiology. New high-resolution information about nAChR structures might come from advances in crystallography and NMR, from extracellular domain nAChRs as high fidelity models, and from prokaryotic nicotinoid proteins. At the level of biophysics, structures of different nAChRs with different pharmacological profiles and kinetics will help describe how agonists and antagonists bind to orthosteric binding sites, how allosteric modulators affect function by binding outside these sites, how nAChRs control ion flow, and how large cytoplasmic domains affect function. At the level of cellular and systems physiology, structures of nAChRs will help characterize interactions with other cellular components, including lipids and trafficking and signaling proteins, and contribute to understanding the roles of nAChRs in addiction, neurodegeneration, and mental illness. Understanding nAChRs at an atomic level will be important for designing interventions for these pathologies.

Wells, Gregg B.

2008-01-01

230

Testis determination in mammals: more questions than answers.  

PubMed

In humans, testis development depends on a regulated genetic hierarchy initiated by the Y-linked SRY gene. Failure of testicular determination results in the condition termed 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis (GD). Several components of the testis determining pathway have recently been identified though it has been difficult to articulate a cascade with the known elements of the system. It seems, however, that early gonadal development is the result of a network of interactions instead of the outcome of a linear cascade. Accumulating evidence shows that testis formation in man is sensitive to gene dosage. Haploinsufficiency of SF1, WT1 and SOX9 is responsible for 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Besides, data on SRY is consistent with possible dosage anomalies in certain cases of male to female sex reversal. 46,XY GD due to monosomy of distal 9p and 10q might also be associated with an insufficient gene dosage effect. Duplications of the locus DSS can lead to a failure of testicular development and a duplication of the region containing SOX9 has been implicated in XX sex reversal. Transgenic studies in mouse have shown, however, that this mammal is less sensitive to gene dosage than man. Here, we will try to put in place the known pieces of the jigsaw puzzle that is sex determination in mammals, as far as current knowledge obtained from man and animal models allows. We are certain that from this attempt more questions than answers will arise. PMID:11420125

Veitia, R A; Salas-Cortés, L; Ottolenghi, C; Pailhoux, E; Cotinot, C; Fellous, M

2001-06-20

231

[Dental care in pregnancy. Ten questions and answers].  

PubMed

Dental care of pregnant patients is a demanding task. On one hand, clinicians are facing patients with an altered physiology that may cause a greater need for treatment. On the other hand, pregnancy in itself as well as the unborn child involves potential contraindications to dental interventions. It is therefore essential that dentists be knowledgeable of the ramifications pregnancy has on medical findings and therapy. Also, clinicians must be able to conduct their treatment based on well-grounded data to avoid any harm to the pregnant woman and her unborn child. This article focuses on facts specifically relevant to clinicians. Based on most current scientific data, we aim to answer the following ten questions: 1. What are the physiological changes during pregnancy? 2. What is the adequate lying position for a pregnant patient? 3. Is there a pregnancy-related gingivitis? 4. What is the association between periodontitis, pregnancy and preterm birth? 5. Are there oral manifestations of pregnancy-related therapies? 6. Are caries and erosions inevitable during pregnancy? 7. Should the intake of fluoride be advocated? 8. Is it permissible to x-ray pregnant patients? 9. Is orthodontics contraindicated during pregnancy and 10. Which medication should be administered with caution? PMID:23023311

Patcas, Raphael; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Zimmermann, Roland; Gnoinski, Wanda

2012-01-01

232

How Online Crowds Influence the Way Individual Consumers Answer Health Questions  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether strength of social feedback, i.e. other people who concur (or do not concur) with one’s own answer to a question, influences the way one answers health questions. Methods Online prospective study. Two hundred and twenty-seven undergraduate students were recruited to use an online search engine to answer six health questions. Subjects recorded their pre- and post-search answers to each question and their level of confidence in these answers. After answering each question post-search, subjects were presented with a summary of post-search answers provided by previous subjects and were asked to answer the question again. Results There was a statistically significant relationship between the absolute number of others with a different answer (the crowd’s opinion volume) and the likelihood of an individual changing an answer (P<0.001). For most questions, no subjects changed their answer until the first 10–35 subjects completed the study. Subjects’ likelihood of changing answer increased as the percentage of others with a different answer (the crowd’s opinion density) increased (P=0.047). Overall, 98.3% of subjects did not change their answer when it concurred with the majority (i.e. >50%) of subjects, and that 25.7% of subjects changed their answer to the majority response when it did not concur with the majority. When subjects had a post-search answer that did not concur with the majority, they were 24% more likely to change answer than those with answers that concurred (P<0.001). Conclusion This study provides empirical evidence that crowd influence, in the form of online social feedback, affects the way consumers answer health questions.

Lau, A.Y.S.; Kwok, T.M.Y.; Coiera, E.

2011-01-01

233

Finding the right facts in the crowd: factoid question answering over social media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community Question Answering has emerged as a popu- lar and efiective paradigm for a wide range of information needs. For example, to flnd out an obscure piece of trivia, it is now possible and even very efiective to post a question on a popular community QA site such as Yahoo! Answers, and to rely on other users to provide answers,

Jiang Bian; Yandong Liu; Eugene Agichtein; Hongyuan Zha

2008-01-01

234

A comparison of student performance in multiple-choice and long essay questions in the MBBS stage I physiology examination at the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus).  

PubMed

This retrospective study compared the performance of preclinical medical students in the multiple-choice question (MCQ) and long essay question components of a comprehensive physiology final examination. During the 3 yr analyzed, 307 students had an average score of 47% (SD 9.9) in the long essay questions and 64% (SD 9.9) in the MCQs. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation (r = 0.62, P < 0.01) between MCQs and long essay questions. When student performance was grouped by final course grade, a statistically significant correlation between MCQ and long essay scores existed only for the 210 students who received a passing grade (r = 0.20, P < 0.01). The MCQ and long essay question scores were not correlated for the 57 students who failed (r = 0.25, P = 0.06) or for the 40 students who achieved honors and distinctions (r = -0.27, P = 0.11). MCQ scores were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than essay scores for each of the groups when analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The results of this study suggest that for most students, the strong correlation between scores on MCQs and essay questions indicates that student performance was independent of testing format. For students at either end on the performance spectrum, the lack of correlation suggests that the performance in one of the testing formats had a strong influence on the final course grade. In addition, those students who failed the course were likely to be weak in both testing modalities, whereas students in all grade groups were more likely to perform better in the MCQs than in the long essay questions. PMID:20522902

Pepple, Dagogo J; Young, Lauriann E; Carroll, Robert G

2010-06-01

235

A comparison of student performance in multiple-choice and long essay questions in the MBBS stage I physiology examination at the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This retrospective study compared the performance of preclinical medical students in the multiple-choice question (MCQ) and long essay question components of a comprehensive physiology final examination. During the 3 yr analyzed, 307 students had an average score of 47% (SD 9.9) in the long essay questions and 64% (SD 9.9) in the MCQs. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation (r = 0.62, P < 0.01) between MCQs and long essay questions. When student performance was grouped by final course grade, a statistically significant correlation between MCQ and long essay scores existed only for the 210 students who received a passing grade (r = 0.20, P < 0.01). The MCQ and long essay question scores were not correlated for the 57 students who failed (r = 0.25, P = 0.06) or for the 40 students who achieved honors and distinctions (r = ÃÂ0.27, P = 0.11). MCQ scores were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than essay scores for each of the groups when analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The results of this study suggest that for most students, the strong correlation between scores on MCQs and essay questions indicates that student performance was independent of testing format. For students at either end on the performance spectrum, the lack of correlation suggests that the performance in one of the testing formats had a strong influence on the final course grade. In addition, those students who failed the course were likely to be weak in both testing modalities, whereas students in all grade groups were more likely to perform better in the MCQs than in the long essay questions.

Dagogo J. Pepple (University of the West Indies); Lauriann E. Young (University of the West Indies); Robert G. Carroll (East Carolina University)

2010-06-01

236

A Question\\/Answer Typology with Surface Text Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we announce the release of ISI's QA Typology, which is being made available on the web to support the rapid construction of new QA systems. The Typology has been augmented with surface-level patterns associated with answer types, allowing systems to locate answers of the desired type in text by simple string matching. These patterns are extracted from

Eduard Hovy; Ulf Hermjakob; Deepak Ravichandran

2002-01-01

237

Processing comparisons and evaluations in business intelligence: A question answering system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business analysis helps companies in making decisions, and this involves doing evaluations and comparisons on business data. Our research focus on the development of a question answering (QA) system capable of interpreting and answering comparative and evaluative questions under the domain of business intelligence (BI). The paper describes the architecture, the approaches, the question and predicate representations, and the data

Kenston Choi; Rosalyn Margret Pacana; Adrian Lester Tan; Jonathan Yiu; Nathalie Rose Lim

2011-01-01

238

Questions and Answers about Treating Arterial Stenosis and Preventing Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

... and Answers About Treating Arterial Stenosis and Preventing Stroke A stroke is any sudden event affecting the ... and high cholesterol. How does stenosis contribute to stroke? Atherosclerosis can activate cells involved in blood clotting. ...

239

ICH Q-IWG Questions and Answers-Quality System  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Example Q&As – Will there be Q10 certification? Answer: No ... 10 Q&A – Knowledge Management • Does Q10 suggest an ideal way to manage ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

240

Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanic...

C. M. Holloway C. W. Johnson

2010-01-01

241

Sense-based Blind Relevance Feedback for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of enhancing document retrieval under the specific restrictions posed by the Ques- tion Answering scenario. In particular, given an input ques- tion, we aim at defining a reliable method for expanding its keywords with semantic information extracted from Word- Net (e. g. synonyms or hypernyms). This is a challeng- ing task, since it is intrinsically

Matteo Negri

2004-01-01

242

What About Nuclear Energy. Questions and Answers About the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of questions frequently asked about nuclear energy are presented with answers provided by the Reactor Safety Association. Questions address the function, environmental aspects, safety, licensing, and economics of nuclear power stations. Other que...

H. J. Danzmann H. P. Butz

1982-01-01

243

75 FR 59322 - Notice of Availability of Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Buy America & FRA's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Buy America & FRA's High-Speed Intercity Passenger...Frequently Asked Questions regarding Buy America and FRA's High Speed Intercity [[Page...DATES: Written comments on FRA's Buy America Answers to Frequently Asked...

2010-09-27

244

Science Sampler: Science SLAMS--A reading strategy for answering open-ended questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The SLAMS (Sentence, Lines, Answer, Mechanics, Support) (Crowell and Kolba 2006) strategy is a basic and relatively simple technique used to guide students to answer open-ended questions when reading nonfiction. This strategy gives students the opportunity to develop well-constructed responses, because their answers have to fulfill all parts of SLAMS.

Sziabowski, Christine

2008-11-01

245

The Structure and Performance of an Open-Domain Question Answering System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the architecture, operation and results obtained with the LASSO Question Answering system developed in the Natural Language Processing Laboratory at SMU. To find answers, the system relies on a combination of syntactic and semantic techniques. The search for the answer is based on a novel form of indexing called paragraph indexing. A score of 55.5% for short

Dan I. Moldovan; Sanda M. Harabagiu; Marius Pasca; Rada Mihalcea; Roxana Girju; Richard Goodrum; Vasile Rus

2000-01-01

246

Design of a Low-Cost Adaptive Question Answering System for Closed Domain Factoid Queries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Closed domain question answering (QA) systems achieve precision and recall at the cost of complex language processing techniques to parse the answer corpus. We propose a "query-based" model for indexing answers in a closed domain factoid QA system. Further, we use a phrase term inference method for improving the ranking order of related…

Toh, Huey Ling

2010-01-01

247

Questions and Answers on Make Your Calories Count  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... discussed. The animated guide "Labelman," takes the user through interactive questions and exercises of increasing complexity. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/labelingnutrition

248

Chinese-Chinese and English-Chinese Question Answering with ASQA at NTCIR-6 CLQA  

Microsoft Academic Search

For NTCIR-6 CLQA, we improved our question answering system ASQA (Academia Sinica Question Answering System), which participated in NTCIR-5 CLQA, so that it could deal with the Chinese-Chinese (C-C) subtask and the English-Chinese (E-C) subtask. There are three innovations in the improved system: (a) to handle the E-C subtask, we have built an English question classifier that adopts Question Informer

Cheng-Wei Lee; Min-Yuh Day; Cheng-Lung Sung; Yi-Hsun Lee; Tian-Jian Jiang; Chia-Wei Wu; Cheng-Wei Shih; Yu-Ren Chen; Wen-Lian Hsu

2007-01-01

249

Can Consortial Reference Partners Answer Your Local Users' Library Questions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to explore location-based questions as a weakness of virtual reference consortia and discuss how to mitigate related issues. Content analysis of how both local and non-local academic librarians responded to location-based questions provides insight into considerations academic libraries must make when participating…

Bishop, Bradley Wade

2012-01-01

250

Getting Answers to Natural Language Questions on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a study that investigated the use of natural language questions on Web search engines. Highlights include query languages; differences in search engine syntax; and results of logistic regression and analysis of variance that showed aspects of questions that predicted significantly different performances, including the number of words,…

Radev, Dragomir R.; Libner, Kelsey; Fan, Weiguo

2002-01-01

251

S.K. Worm - Answers to Questions on Soil & Stuff  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains the basic process of soil formation and describes some of the characteristics of soils for elementary school children. The information is provided in the form of 13 questions about soil, with the final questions addressing the issue of soil conservation. Once the student has read all 13 informational sections they are awarded a Soil Diploma.

252

Asked and answered--online: how two medical libraries are using OCLC's QuestionPoint to answer reference questions.  

PubMed

This paper imparts the experiences of two similar but unaffiliated medical libraries that use QuestionPoint, OCLC's collaborative virtual reference product. The authors introduce the major features of QuestionPoint, with particular emphasis on its asynchronous e-mail reference service. After presenting how both libraries have employed this service in their respective environments, the paper examines the quantity and quality of reference questions submitted via QuestionPoint. The types of questions are explicated, and statistical trends are compared. PMID:15119837

Markgren, Susanne; Ascher, Marie T; Crow, Suzanne J; Lougee-Heimer, Haldor

2004-01-01

253

Analyzing Electronic Question/Answer Services: Framework and Evaluations of Selected Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report develops an analytical framework based on systems analysis for evaluating electronic question/answer or AskA services operated by a wide range of types of organizations, including libraries. Version 1.0 of this framework was applied in June 1999 to a selective sample of 11 electronic question/answer services, which cover a range of…

White, Marilyn Domas, Ed.

254

An automatic answering system with template matching for natural language questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using computers to answer natural language questions is an interesting and challenging problem. Generally such problems are handled under two categories: open domain problems and close domain problems. This paper presents a system that attempts to solve close domain problems. Typically, in a close domain, answers to questions are not available in the public domain and therefore they cannot be

Tilani Gunawardena; Medhavi Lokuhetti; Nishara Pathirana; Roshan Ragel; Sampath Deegalla

2010-01-01

255

Violations of Information Structure: An Electrophysiological Study of Answers to Wh-Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates brain responses to violations of information structure in wh-question-answer pairs, with particular emphasis on violations of focus assignment in it-clefts (It was the queen that silenced the banker). Two types of ERP responses in answers to wh-questions were found. First, all words in the focus-marking (cleft) position…

Cowles, H. W.; Kluender, Robert; Kutas, Marta; Polinsky, Maria

2007-01-01

256

Information Extraction and Knowledge Acquisition from Texts Using Bilingual Question-Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach is introduced in this paper for the implementation of a question–answering based tool for the extraction of information and knowledge from texts. This effort resulted in the computer implementation of a system answering bilingual questions directly from a text using Natural Language Processing. The system uses domain knowledge concerning categories of actions and implicit semantic relations. The

John Kontos; Ioanna Malagardi

1999-01-01

257

Analyzing Electronic Question/Answer Services: Framework and Evaluations of Selected Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report develops an analytical framework based on systems analysis for evaluating electronic question/answer or AskA services operated by a wide range of types of organizations, including libraries. Version 1.0 of this framework was applied in June 1999 to a selective sample of 11 electronic question/answer services, which cover a range of…

White, Marilyn Domas, Ed.

258

Questions and Answers about Memories of Childhood Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

Can a memory be forgotten and then remembered? Can a 'memory' be suggested and then remembered as true? These questions lie ... If there is so much controversy about childhood memories of abuse, should I still seek help from ...

259

Questions and Answers on "Guidance for Industry: Revised ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... perform active research to address questions of transmission of spongiform encephalopathies, such as BSE and vCJD by blood. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/guidances

260

Can Emergency Medicine Residents Reliably Use the Internet to Answer Clinical Questions?  

PubMed Central

Introduction The study objective was to determine the accuracy of answers to clinical questions by emergency medicine (EM) residents conducting Internet searches by using Google. Emergency physicians commonly turn to outside resources to answer clinical questions that arise in the emergency department (ED). Internet access in the ED has supplanted textbooks for references because it is perceived as being more up to date. Although Google is the most widely used general Internet search engine, it is not medically oriented and merely provides links to other sources. Users must judge the reliability of the information obtained on the links. We frequently observed EM faculty and residents using Google rather than medicine-specific databases to seek answers to clinical questions. Methods Two EM faculties developed a clinically oriented test for residents to take without the use of any outside aid. They were instructed to answer each question only if they were confident enough of their answer to implement it in a patient-care situation. Questions marked as unsure or answered incorrectly were used to construct a second test for each subject. On the second test, they were instructed to use Google as a resource to find links that contained answers. Results Thirty-three residents participated. The means for the initial test were 32% correct, 28% incorrect, and 40% unsure. On the Google test, the mean for correct answers was 59%; 33% of answers were incorrect and 8% were unsure. Conclusion EM residents' ability to answer clinical questions correctly by using Web sites from Google searches was poor. More concerning was that unsure answers decreased, whereas incorrect answers increased. The Internet appears to have given the residents a false sense of security in their answers. Innovations, such as Internet access in the ED, should be studied carefully before being accepted as reliable tools for teaching clinical decision making.

Krause, Richard; Moscati, Ronald; Halpern, Shravanti; Schwartz, Diane G; Abbas, June

2011-01-01

261

Ask, and tell as well: Question–Answer Clauses in American Sign Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

A construction is found in American Sign Language that we call a Question–Answer Clause. It is made of two parts: the first\\u000a part looks like an interrogative clause conveying a question, while the second part resembles a declarative clause answering\\u000a that question. The very same signer has to sign both, the entire construction is interpreted as truth-conditionally equivalent\\u000a to a

Ivano Caponigro; Kathryn Davidson

262

Can Nonprofit Management Help Answer Public Management's "Big Questions?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of nonprofit literature on board governance, volunteer management, and performance measurement shows that study of the nonprofit sector can help inform public management's "big questions": breaking the micromanagement cycle, motivating employees, and measuring performance. Nonprofit studies could enrich public administration curricula.…

Brooks, Arthur C.

2002-01-01

263

Complex Question Answering: Unsupervised Learning Approaches and Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex questions that require inferencing and synthesizing information from multiple documents can be seen as a kind of topic-oriented, informative multi-document summa- rization where the goal is to produce a single text as a compressed version of a set of documents with a minimum loss of relevant information. In this paper, we experiment with one empirical method and two unsupervised

Yllias Chali; Shafiq R. Joty; Sadid A. Hasan

2009-01-01

264

Childhood amnesia: on answering questions about very early life events.  

PubMed

Twenty five young adults were asked about the events surrounding the birth of a younger sibling which took place when they were under the age of 2 years. Approximately 40% of the participants claimed to have significant memories of the events. The mothers of our participants verified that a majority of their answers were accurate. Comparing the pattern of data with those previously collected (Eacott & Crawley, 1998) suggests that the memories of those who were aged below 2:0 are qualitatively similar to the memories of those who were older at the time of events and dissimilar in type to those who are basing their reports on reconstructions from family knowledge. This finding may be evidence that memories of events that occurred before the age of 2 years are genuine but rare. This conclusion may be useful in assessing theories of childhood amnesia. PMID:10659078

Eacott, M J; Crawley, R A

1999-05-01

265

In Pursuit of Happiness: Empirical Answers to Philosophical Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we provide an overview of what various philosophers throughout the ages have claimed about the nature of\\u000a happiness, and we discuss to what extent psychological science has been able to substantiate or refute their claims. We first\\u000a address concerns raised by philosophers regarding the possibility, desirability, and justifiability of happiness and then\\u000a turn to the perennial question

Pelin Kesebir; Ed Diener

266

Phosphorus nutrition of woody plants: many questions - few answers.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) acquisition, cycling and use efficiency has been investigated intensively with herbaceous plants. It is known that local as well as systemic signalling contributes to the control of P acquisition. Woody plants are long-lived organisms that adapt their life cycle to the changing environment during their annual growth cycle. Little is known about P acquisition and P cycling in perennial plants, especially regarding storage and mobilisation, its control by systemic and environmental factors, and its interaction with the largely closed ecosystem-level P cycle. The present report presents a view on open questions on plant internal P cycling in woody plants. PMID:23902300

Rennenberg, H; Herschbach, C

2013-07-31

267

Creating the DISEQuA Corpus: A Test Set for Multilingual Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the procedure adopted by the three co-ordinators of the CLEF 2003 question answering track (ITC-irst, UNED and ILLC) to create the question set for the monolingual tasks. Despite the little resources available, the three groups collaborated and managed to formulate and verify a large pool of original questions posed in three different languages: Dutch, Italian and Spanish.

Bernardo Magnini; Simone Romagnoli; Alessandro Vallin; Jesús Herrera; Anselmo Peñas; Víctor Peinado; Felisa Verdejo; Maarten De Rijke

2003-01-01

268

Location Aware Question Answering Based Product Searching in Mobile Handheld Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research we present a question answering based searching technique for location based shopping. A user may ask a question to the system as they naturally ask to a human while the system retrieves the search results by analyzing the given question and the current GPS location. Based on the retrieved results, the system carry out conversation with the

S. K. Alamgir Hossain; A. S. M. Mahfujur Rahman; Thomas T. Tran; Abdulmotaleb El Saddik

2010-01-01

269

Commentary: answers and questions in the sociology of mental health.  

PubMed

This commentary speaks to several issues that arise from the papers in this special issue. Two articles--Kessler (2002) and Mirowsky and Ross (2002)--focus on a major measurement issue: dimensional versus diagnostic-type assessments. One topic requires greater attention: the correspondence of these measures with the underlying states they supposedly measure--constructs in the psychometric tradition and empirically defined illnesses in the medical or psychiatric tradition. Conclusions about the nature of these unobserved states remain tentative at this time. Three articles--Keyes (2002), Schwartz (2002), and Umberson, Williams, and Anderson (2002)--address the expansion of mental health outcomes. The existing reliance on emotional distress is problematic for sociological research because a single disorder is not a good proxy for estimates of the overall mental health consequences of social arrangements. Although these papers present diverse and sometimes conflicting perspectives, collectively they demonstrate that no one approach to outcomes is best for all research questions. PMID:12096702

Aneshensel, Carol S

2002-06-01

270

AquaLog: An Ontology-Portable Question Answering System for the Semantic Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

As semantic markup becomes ubiquitous, it will become important to be able to ask queries and obtain answers, using natural language (NL) expressions, rather than the keyword-based retrieval mechanisms used by the current search engines. AquaLog is a portable question-answering system which takes queries expressed in natural language and an ontology as input and returns answers drawn from the available

Vanessa Lopez; Michele Pasin; Enrico Motta

2005-01-01

271

Natural Language Based Reformulation Resource and Wide Exploitation for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe and evaluate how a generalized natural language based reformulation resource in our TextMapquestion answering system improves web exploitation and answer pinpointing. The reformulation resource,which can be viewed as a clausal extension of WordNet, supports high-precision syntactic and semanticreformulations of questions and other sentences, as well as inferencing and answer generation. The papershows in some detail how these reformulations

Ulf Hermjakob; Abdessamad Echihabi; Daniel Marcu

2002-01-01

272

Answerers' Motivations and Strategies for Providing Information and Social Support in Social Q&A an Investigation of Health Question Answering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social Q&A allows people to ask and answer questions for each other and to solve problems in everyday life collaboratively. The purpose of the current study is to understand the motivations and strategies of answerers in social Q&A. Thus, three research questions were investigated: (1) Why do answerers participate and contribute in social Q&A?…

Oh, Sanghee

2010-01-01

273

The Use of Predictive Annotation for Question Answering in TREC8  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the technique of Predictive Annotation, a methodology for indexing texts for retrieval aimed at answering fact-seeking questions. The essence of the approach can be stated simply: index the answers. This is done by establishing about 20 classes of objects that can be identified in text by shallow parsing, and by annotating and indexing the text with these

John M. Prager; Dragomir R. Radev; Eric W. Brown; Anni Coden; Valerie Samn

1999-01-01

274

The Role of Lexico-Semantic Feedback in Open-Domain Textual Question-Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an open-domain textual Question-Answering system that uses several feedback loops to enhance its performance. These feedback loops combine in a new way statistical results with syntactic, semantic or pragmatic information derived from texts and lexical databases. The paper presents the contribution of each feedback loop to the overall performance of 76% human-assessed precise answers.

Sanda M. Harabagiu; Dan I. Moldovan; Marius Pasca; Rada Mihalcea; Mihai Surdeanu; Razvan C. Bunescu; Roxana Girju; Vasile Rus; Paul Morarescu

2001-01-01

275

Questions and Answers on Calcium-DTPA and Zinc-DTPA ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Questions and Answers on Calcium-DTPA and Zinc-DTPA (Updated). 1. What is the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announcing today? ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/emergencypreparedness/bioterrorismanddrugpreparedness

276

The Family and Medical Leave Act: Questions and Answers for the Academic Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides excerpts from a guide written by the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) concerning the Family and Medical Leave Act. Offers advice using a question-and-answer format on the application of the legislation to different situations. (EV)|

Euben, Donna R.; Thornton, Saranna R.

2002-01-01

277

Retirement and Health Care Coverage: Questions and Answers for Dislocated Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... Information EBSA Home | Publications | Contact EBSA Retirement and Health Care Coverage... Questions and Answers for Dislocated Workers Printer ... new job, you may have fewer barriers to health care coverage. And with a change in employment, you ...

278

Rho-dependent transcription termination: more questions than answers.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli protein Rho is required for the factor-dependent transcription termination by an RNA polymerase and is essential for the viability of the cell. It is a homohexameric protein that recognizes and binds preferably to C-rich sites in the transcribed RNA. Once bound to RNA, it utilizes RNA-dependent ATPase activity and subsequently ATPase-dependent helicase activity to unwind RNA-DNA hybrids and release RNA from a transcribing elongation complex. Studies over the past few decades have highlighted Rho as a molecule and have revealed much of its mechanistic properties. The recently solved crystal structure could explain many of its physiological functions in terms of its structure. Despite all these efforts, many of the fundamental questions pertaining to Rho recognition sites, differential ATPase activity in response to different RNAs, translocation of Rho along the nascent transcript, interactions with elongation complex and finally unwinding and release of RNA remain obscure. In the present review we have attempted to summarize "the knowns" and "the unknowns" of the Rho protein revealed by the recent developments in this field. An attempt has also been made to understand the physiology of Rho in the light of its phylogeny. PMID:16554712

Banerjee, Sharmistha; Chalissery, Jisha; Bandey, Irfan; Sen, Ranjan

2006-02-01

279

Statistical Modeling of Lung Cancer: Answering Relative Questions  

PubMed Central

The objective of this paper is to perform parametric and nonparametric analysis to address some very important questions concerning lung cancer utilizing real lung cancer data: What is the probabilistic nature of mortality time in ex-smoker lung cancer patients and non-smoker lung cancer patients, for female, male, and the totality of female and male patients? Is there significant difference of mortality time between ex-smoker and non-smoker patients? For ex-smokers, are there any differences with respect to the key variables such as mortality time, cigarettes per day (CPD), and duration of smoking between female and male patients? For non-smokers, can we notice a difference in mortality time between female and male patients? Can we accurately predict mortality time given information on CPD, starting time and quitting time for a specific lung cancer patient who smokes? Thus best fitting probability distributions are identified and their parameters are estimated. Mean mortality times are compared between non-smokers and ex-smokers, female non-smokers and male non-smokers, and female ex-smokers and male ex-smokers. Important entities related to lung cancer mortality time, such as cigarettes per day (CPD), and duration of smoking (DUR), are compared between female and male ex-smoker lung cancer patients. Finally, a model is developed to predict the mortality time of ex-smokers with a high degree of accuracy.

Cong, Chunling; Kepner, James; Tsokos, Chris. P.

2011-01-01

280

Answers to questions about updated estimates of occupational radiation doses at Three Mile Island, Unit 2  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this question and answer report is to provide a clear, easy-to-understand explanation of revised radiation dose estimates which workers are likely to receive over the course of the cleanup at Three Mile Island, Unit 2, and of the possible health consequences to workers of these new estimates. We will focus primarily on occupational dose, although pertinent questions about public health and safety will also be answered.

Not Available

1983-12-01

281

Violations of information structure: An electrophysiological study of answers to wh-questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates brain responses to violations of information structure in wh-question–answer pairs, with particular emphasis on violations of focus assignment in it-clefts (It was the queen that silenced the banker). Two types of ERP responses in answers to wh-questions were found. First, all words in the focus-marking (cleft) position elicited a large positivity (P3b) characteristic of sentence-final constituents, as

H. W. Cowles; Robert Kluender; Marta Kutas; Maria Polinsky

2007-01-01

282

Language model-based sentence classification for opinion question answering systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss an essential component for classifying opinionative and factual sentences in an opinion question answering system. We propose a language model-based approach with a Bayes classifier. This classification model i s used to filter sentence retrieval outputs in order to answer opini onative questions. We used Subjectivity dataset for our experiments and applied different state-of-the-art smoothing

Saeedeh Momtazi; Dietrich Klakow

2009-01-01

283

Factors associated with successful answering of clinical questions using an information retrieval system*  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Despite the growing use of online databases by clinicians, there has been very little research documenting how effectively they are used. This study assessed the ability of medical and nurse-practitioner students to answer clinical questions using an information retrieval system. It also attempted to identify the demographic, experience, cognitive, personality, search mechanics, and user-satisfaction factors associated with successful use of a retrieval system. Methods: Twenty-nine students completed questionnaires of clinical and computer experience as well as tests of cognitive abilities and personality type. They were then administered three clinical questions to answer in a medical library setting using the MEDLINE database and electronic and print full-text resources. Results: Medical students were able to answer more questions correctly than nurse-practitioner students before and after searching, but both had comparable improvements in the number of correct questions before and after searching. Successful ability to answer questions was also associated with having experience in literature searching and higher standardized test-score percentiles. Conclusions: Medical and nurse-practitioner students obtained comparable benefits in the ability to answer clinical questions from use of the information retrieval system. Future research must examine strategies that improve successful search and retrieval of clinical questions posed by clinicians in practice.

Hersh, William R.; Crabtree, M. Katherine; Hickam, David H.; Sacherek, Lynetta; Rose, Linda; Friedman, Charles P.

2000-01-01

284

Short-answer examinations improve student performance in an oral and maxillofacial pathology course.  

PubMed

The effect of examination question format on student performance was assessed by investigating three academically comparable second-year dental school classes in an oral and maxillofacial pathology course. One class was given examinations with all multiple-choice questions, one class was given examinations with all short-answer questions, and one class was given examinations with half multiple-choice questions and half short-answer questions. The class given examinations with half short-answer questions along with half multiple-choice questions had a significantly higher average score and grade category distribution (80-100 percent, 70-79 percent, <70 percent) than the class given examinations with all multiple-choice questions. When students in these two classes were divided into three academic ability groups based on the student's score in a prerequisite general pathology course, the class given examinations with half short-answer questions and half multiple-choice questions in the oral and maxillofacial pathology course had significantly higher scores and grade category distributions in all three ability groups. The average score and grade category distribution in the class given examinations with all short-answer questions in the oral and maxillofacial pathology course were not significantly different from the average score and grade category distribution in the class given examinations with half short-answer and half multiple-choice questions. Our interpretation of these results is that the utilization of examinations containing short-answer questions created a more challenging learning environment that motivated students to adopt more effective study regimens. PMID:19648566

Pinckard, R Neal; McMahan, C Alex; Prihoda, Thomas J; Littlefield, John H; Jones, Anne Cale

2009-08-01

285

Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2  

SciTech Connect

This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

Not Available

1984-03-01

286

Teacher's Toolkit: Strategies for the meaningful evaluation of multiple-choice assessments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Too many multiple-choice tests are administered without an evaluative component. Teachers often return student assessments or Scantron cards--computerized bubble forms--without review, assuming that the printing of the correct answer will suffice. However,

Chesbro, Robert

2010-10-01

287

Performance on multiple-choice diagnostics and complementary exam problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper compares the responses of university physics students on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and on open-ended examination questions. The Mechanics Baseline Test (MBT) is another multiple choice test. It contains a greater range of topics than the FCI and is intended for use after instruction.

Steinberg, Richard N.; Sabella, Mel

2005-10-17

288

Questions, Answers and Wait-Time: Implications for Assessment of Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While testing children for readiness to enter Kindergarten using the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-R and interview probes, a pattern of responses developed indicating that some of the children were continuing to process answers to questions and to formulate elaborations to statements long after the testing had moved to other questions and…

Davenport, Neva Ann Medcalf

2003-01-01

289

Records--The Achilles' Heel of School Nursing: Answers to Bothersome Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation. Because the issues have been posed by practicing school nurses, the article is in Question and Answer (Q&A) format. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: ownership and storage location of student health records when the…

Schwab, Nadine C.; Pohlman, Katherine J.

2004-01-01

290

Differences in two evaluations of answers to a conceptual physics question: a preliminary analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their exploration of student understanding of gravity, Sharma et al. (2004 and 2005) discovered a discrepancy between phenomenographic analysis of student answers to one short examination question and the distribution of marks for the same question between two first-year university physics classes. We report on a preliminary investigation of factors which, we hypothesised, may have contributed to that discrepancy.

Andrew L. Roberts; Manjula D. Sharma; Ian M. Sefton; Joe Khachan

2008-01-01

291

THE IMPROVEMENT OF DESIGN SOLUTIONS BY MEANS OF A QUESTION-ANSWERING-TECHNIQUE (QAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

. In two experimental studies, the influence of question-based reflection on the quality of design solutions was investigated.\\u000a The participants, experts with different know-how and professional experience, had to design an artefact that should meet\\u000a a list of requirements. Subsequently, they were asked to answer non-productspecific questions with the opportunity to modify\\u000a or revise their design. These interrogative questions (e.g.

CONSTANCE WINKELMANN; WINFRIED HACKER

292

Factors Associated with Success in Searching medline and Applying Evidence to Answer Clinical Questions  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study sought to assess the ability of medical and nurse practitioner students to use medline to obtain evidence for answering clinical questions and to identify factors associated with the successful answering of questions. Methods: A convenience sample of medical and nurse practitioner students was recruited. After completing instruments measuring demographic variables, computer and searching attitudes and experience, and cognitive traits, the subjects were given a brief orientation to medline searching and the techniques of evidence-based medicine. The subjects were then given 5 questions (from a pool of 20) to answer in two sessions using the Ovid medline system and the Oregon Health & Science University library collection. Each question was answered using three possible responses that reflected the quality of the evidence. All actions capable of being logged by the Ovid system were captured. Statistical analysis was performed using a model based on generalized estimating equations. The relevance-based measures of recall and precision were measured by defining end queries and having relevance judgments made by physicians who were not associated with the study. Results: Forty-five medical and 21 nurse practitioner students provided usable answers to 324 questions. The rate of correctness increased from 32.3 to 51.6 percent for medical students and from 31.7 to 34.7 percent for nurse practitioner students. Ability to answer questions correctly was most strongly associated with correctness of the answer before searching, user experience with medline features, the evidence-based medicine question type, and the spatial visualization score. The spatial visualization score showed multi-collinearity with student type (medical vs. nurse practitioner). Medical and nurse practitioner students obtained comparable recall and precision, neither of which was associated with correctness of the answer. Conclusions: Medical and nurse practitioner students in this study were at best moderately successful at answering clinical questions correctly with the assistance of literature searching. The results confirm the importance of evaluating both search ability and the ability to use the resulting information to accomplish a clinical task.

Hersh, William R.; Crabtree, M. Katherine; Hickam, David H.; Sacherek, Lynetta; Friedman, Charles P.; Tidmarsh, Patricia; Mosbaek, Craig; Kraemer, Dale

2002-01-01

293

Multiple Choice Systems for Decision Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human formulates a problem and starts one or several computer programs on it. The programs perform more or less complex computations and then present a clear handful of candidate solutions. From this candidate set the human makes the final choice. I call such a system Decision Support System with Multiple Choice Structure or shortly Multiple Choice System. In the

Ingo Althöfer

294

Can primary care physicians' questions be answered using the medical journal literature?  

PubMed

Medical librarians and informatics professionals believe the medical journal literature can be useful in clinical practice, but evidence suggests that practicing physicians do not share this belief. The authors designed a study to determine whether a random sample of "native" questions asked by primary care practitioners could be answered using the journal literature. Participants included forty-nine active, nonacademic primary care physicians providing ambulatory care in rural and nonrural Oregon, and seven medical librarians. The study was conducted in three stages: (1) office interviews with physicians to record clinical questions; (2) online searches to locate answers to selected questions; and (3) clinician feedback regarding the relevance and usefulness of the information retrieved. Of 295 questions recorded during forty-nine interviews, 60 questions were selected at random for searches. The average total time spent searching for and selecting articles for each question was forty-three minutes. The average cost per question searched was $27.37. Clinician feedback was received for 48 of 56 questions (four physicians could not be located, so their questions were not used in tabulating the results). For 28 questions (56%), clinicians judged the material relevant; for 22 questions (46%) the information provided a "clear answer" to their question. They expected the information would have had an impact on their patient in nineteen (40%) cases, and an impact on themselves or their practice in twenty-four (51%) cases. If the results can be generalized, and if the time and cost of performing searches can be reduced, increased use of the journal literature could significantly improve the extent to which primary care physicians' information needs are met. PMID:7772099

Gorman, P N; Ash, J; Wykoff, L

1994-04-01

295

Do Online Information Retrieval Systems Help Experienced Clinicians Answer Clinical Questions?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the impact of clinicians' use of an online information retrieval system on their performance in answering clinical questions. Design: Pre-/post-intervention experimental design. Measurements: In a computer laboratory, 75 clinicians (26 hospital-based doctors, 18 family practitioners, and 31 clinical nurse consultants) provided 600 answers to eight clinical scenarios before and after the use of an online information retrieval system. We examined the proportion of correct answers pre- and post-intervention, direction of change in answers, and differences between professional groups. Results: System use resulted in a 21% improvement in clinicians' answers, from 29% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.4–32.6) correct pre- to 50% (95% CI 46.0–54.0) post-system use. In 33% (95% CI 29.1–36.9) answers were changed from incorrect to correct. In 21% (95% CI 17.1–23.9) correct pre-test answers were supported by evidence found using the system, and in 7% (95% CI 4.9–9.1) correct pre-test answers were changed incorrectly. For 40% (35.4–43.6) of scenarios, incorrect pre-test answers were not rectified following system use. Despite significant differences in professional groups' pre-test scores [family practitioners: 41% (95% CI 33.0–49.0), hospital doctors: 35% (95% CI 28.5–41.2), and clinical nurse consultants: 17% (95% CI 12.3–21.7; ?2 = 29.0, df = 2, p < 0.01)], there was no difference in post-test scores. (?2 = 2.6, df = 2, p = 0.73). Conclusions: The use of an online information retrieval system was associated with a significant improvement in the quality of answers provided by clinicians to typical clinical problems. In a small proportion of cases, use of the system produced errors. While there was variation in the performance of clinical groups when answering questions unaided, performance did not differ significantly following system use. Online information retrieval systems can be an effective tool in improving the accuracy of clinicians' answers to clinical questions.

Westbrook, Johanna I.; Coiera, Enrico W.; Gosling, A. Sophie

2005-01-01

296

Using the Weighted Keyword Model to Improve Information Retrieval for Answering Biomedical Questions  

PubMed Central

Physicians ask many complex questions during the patient encounter. Information retrieval systems that can provide immediate and relevant answers to these questions can be invaluable aids to the practice of evidence-based medicine. In this study, we first automatically identify topic keywords from ad hoc clinical questions with a Condition Random Field model that is trained over thousands of manually annotated clinical questions. We then report on a linear model that assigns query weights based on their automatically identified semantic roles: topic keywords, domain specific terms, and their synonyms. Our evaluation shows that this weighted keyword model improves information retrieval from the Text Retrieval Conference Genomics track data.

Yu, Hong; Cao, Yong-gang

2009-01-01

297

Using the weighted keyword model to improve information retrieval for answering biomedical questions.  

PubMed

Physicians ask many complex questions during the patient encounter. Information retrieval systems that can provide immediate and relevant answers to these questions can be invaluable aids to the practice of evidence-based medicine. In this study, we first automatically identify topic keywords from ad hoc clinical questions with a Condition Random Field model that is trained over thousands of manually annotated clinical questions. We then report on a linear model that assigns query weights based on their automatically identified semantic roles: topic keywords, domain specific terms, and their synonyms. Our evaluation shows that this weighted keyword model improves information retrieval from the Text Retrieval Conference Genomics track data. PMID:21347188

Yu, Hong; Cao, Yong-Gang

2009-03-01

298

Question Level and Cognitive Processing: Psycholinguistic Dimensions of Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the importance of teachers of English-as-a-foreign language (EFL) in developing countries to understand the difference between teaching by rote and teaching for comprehension, primarily in the form of questions. A teacher training course that emphasized the importance of teaching for comprehension and promoting students' cognitive…

Koivukari, A. Mirjami

1987-01-01

299

The Research and Realization about Question Answer System based on Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic Question Answer System (QAS) is a kind of high-powered software system based on Internet. Its key technology is the interrelated technology based on natural language understanding, including the construction of knowledge base and corpus, the Word Segmentation and POS Tagging of text, the Grammatical Analysis and Semantic Analysis of sentences etc. This thesis dissertated mainly the denotation of knowledge-information

Qinglin Guo; Kehe Wu; Wei Li

2007-01-01

300

Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

US Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

301

An operant procedure to teach an echolalic, autistic child to answer questions appropriately  

Microsoft Academic Search

An operant conditioning procedure to teach an autistic patient with rapid immediate echolalia to answer questions correctly was devised. The procedure involved positively reinforcing the patient immediately after a correct response and preventing incorrect responses. It is simple to implement and eliminates some of the structure and constraints inherent in previously described operant methods. This allows the procedure to be

Betty Jo Freeman; Edward Ritvo; Revel Miller

1975-01-01

302

Do-It-Yourself Learning Games: Software That Lets You Pick the Questions--and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews user-adaptable learning games that can be customized for any subject, including Tic Tac Show and the Game Show from Computer Advanced Ideas, which are question-answer learning programs based on game shows, and Master Match from Computer Advanced Ideas and Square Pairs from Scholastic Inc., which are based on the card game Concentration.…

Hively, Wells

1984-01-01

303

Answering questions with an electroencephalogram-based brain-computer interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To demonstrate that humans can learn to control selected electroencephalographic components and use that control to answer simple questions.Methods: Four adults (one with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) learned to use electroencephalogram (EEG) mu rhythm (8 to 12Hz) or beta rhythm (18 to 25Hz) activity over sensorimotor cortex to control vertical cursor movement to targets at the top or bottom edge

Laurie A. Miner; Dennis J. McFarland; Jonathan R. Wolpaw

1998-01-01

304

Olympian Parents Answer the Question of How Parents Contribute towards Their Child's Academic Productivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do parents contribute toward their child's academic productivity? This article analyzes studies conducted over the last 30 years on this topic. During these three decades a number of theories and theoretical frameworks have been developed to answer this fundamental question. There have been nine national studies published and six reviews of…

Campbell, James Reed

2011-01-01

305

Guidance for Industry: Q8, Q9, and Q10 Questions and Answers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the Q8, Q9, and Q10 guidances were made final, experiences implementing the guidances in the ICH regions have given rise to requests for clarification. This question and answer (Q&A) document is intended to clarify key issues. The guidance reflects ...

2010-01-01

306

How do you Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers like Beagle 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beagle 2 lander is a flight qualified scientific payload and it offers a unique suite of instruments which can offer answers to the life on Mars question. Using multiple Beagle 2 landers on Mars offers a low-cost and outstanding scientific option.

Gibson, E. K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

2012-06-01

307

Improving Comprehension of Science Content: Generating Self-Explanation Questions and Creating Explanatory Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emphasis on learning in many content area classrooms is heavily dependent on remembering facts and memorizing definitions. Because of this, students often achieve shallow levels of comprehension and are deficient in the skills necessary to achieve deeper comprehension. Teaching students to generate self-explanation questions and answers can improve comprehension related to teacher lectures and from reading text. However, there

Peggie Clelland; Kay Camperell

308

Improving comprehension of science content: Generating self-explanation questions and creating explanatory answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emphasis on learning in content area classrooms is heavily dependent on remembering facts and memorizing definitions. Because of this, students often achieve shallow levels of comprehension and are deficient in the skills necessary to achieve deeper comprehension. Teaching students to generate self-explanation questions and answers related to teacher lectures and from reading text can improve comprehension. Students who attempt

Peggie L. Clelland

2006-01-01

309

[Questions and answers regarding the use of rivaroxaban in daily practice].  

PubMed

Several new oral anticoagulants are now on the Swiss market and the general practitioner faces new challenges regarding the management of these new drugs. This consensus document aims to answer to the most frequently asked questions regarding rivaroxaban and covers different topics such as indications, initiation of treatment, drug-drug interactions and perioperative management. PMID:23882916

2013-06-26

310

What Can Standardized Reading Tests Tell Us? Question-Answer Relationships and Students' Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the comprehension subsection of Nelson-Denny Reading Test Form G (Brown, Fishco, & Hanna, 1993a) and some urban developmental students' performance on it. Three types of question-answer relations were identified using Pearson and Johnson's taxonomy. Students' performance was expressed in their scores on the three types of…

Wang, Danhua

2006-01-01

311

Question Answering System of Confucian Analects based on Pragmatics Information and Categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper constructs a question answering system of Confucian Analects. As a result of context change and the difference of words' connotation between modern Chinese and ancient Chinese, the accuracy of content-based retrieval and category-based retrieval in the classical literature is quite low. In view of this, the paper has established the categories and pragmatics information base for Confucian Analects.

Ye Yang; Song Liu; S. Kuroiwa; F. Ren

2007-01-01

312

"The Panama Canal Episode: An Encounter with a Question and Answers." Occasional Paper 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is an account of the experience of a college instructor and a group of prospective social studies teachers as they answer a simple question concerned with direction of travel through the Panama Canal and explore the reactions of students. The situation originates in a class discussion focusing on ways of asking and responding to classroom…

Seifman, Eli

313

Boosting Chinese Question Answering with Two Lightweight Methods: ABSPs and SCO-QAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question Answering (QA) research has been conducted in many languages. Nearly all the top performing systems use heavy methods that require sophisticated techniques, such as parsers or logic provers. However, such techniques are usually unavailable or unaffordable for under- resourced languages or in resource-limited situations. In this article, we describe how a top- performing Chinese QA system can be designed

Cheng-wei Lee; Min-yuh Day; Cheng-lung Sung; Yi-hsun Lee; Tian-jian Jiang; Chia-wei Wu; Cheng-wei Shih; Yu-ren Chen; Wen-lian Hsu

2008-01-01

314

Exploring the Learning Mechanism of Web-Based Question-Answering Systems and Their Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, a number of models concerning question-answering (QA) systems have been put forward. But many of them stress technology and neglect the research of QA itself. In this paper, we analyse the essence of QA and discuss the relationship between technology and QA. On that basis, we propose that when designing web-based QA systems, more…

Zhang, Yin

2010-01-01

315

26 CFR 1.416-1 - Questions and answers on top-heavy plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc...Questions and answers on top-heavy plans. ...Example. A company is testing to see if its plan is top-heavy for the...be substituted for stock. T-19 Q. Which...considered one of the top ten owners?...

2009-04-01

316

26 CFR 1.416-1 - Questions and answers on top-heavy plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc...Questions and answers on top-heavy plans. ...Example. A company is testing to see if its plan is top-heavy for the...be substituted for stock. T-19 Q. Which...considered one of the top ten owners?...

2010-04-01

317

Young Children's Sensitivity to New and Given Information when Answering Predicate-Focus Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two studies we investigated 2-year-old children's answers to predicate-focus questions depending on the preceding context. Children were presented with a successive series of short video clips showing transitive actions (e.g., frog washing duck) in which either the action (action-new) or the patient (patient-new) was the changing, and therefore…

Salomo, Dorothe; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

2010-01-01

318

Measuring Up: Questions and Answers about State Roles in Educational Accountability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet provides questions and answers that point to the increasing interest that states have in developing, shaping, and evaluating the success of schools. The booklet highlights the analysis and recommendations of representatives of 10 states (California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New…

Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Programs for the Improvement of Practice.

319

The Use of Electronic Question and Answer Forums in Mathematics Teacher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many mathematics educators share a view of mathematics as a social and cultural phenomenon and believe that the learning of mathematics concepts is developed and enhanced through the use of learning communities. Electronic discussion boards provide one avenue for supporting such social learning. This paper discusses the use of a Question and Answer section of a discussion board in a

Sandra Schuck

320

Let's Talk About Food. Answers to your Questions About Foods and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book on the subject of nutrition is written in the form of often-asked questions and detailed, informative answers. In ten chapters the following range of nutrition topics is covered: (1) meaning of RDA, nutrition labeling, calorie tables, nutrient density; (2) adequate diet, pregnancy, physical fitness, vitamins, diet for athletes, baby…

White, Philip L., Ed.; Selvey, Nancy, Ed.

321

Environmental Problems, Causes, and Solutions: An Open Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a national evaluation of environmental literacy in Israel, (Negev, Sagy, Garb, Salzberg, & Tal, 2008), the authors included both multiple choice questions and open questions. In this article the authors describe the qualitative analysis of the answers to an open question regarding a local environmental problem. Most participants specified…

Negev, Maya; Garb, Yaakov; Biller, Roni; Sagy, Gonen; Tal, Alon

2010-01-01

322

Are faculty predictions or item taxonomies useful for estimating the outcome of multiple-choice examinations?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study evaluating whether multiple-choice item difficulty could be predicted either by a subjective judgment by the question author or by applying a learning taxonomy to the items.

Jonathan D. Kibble (University of Central Florida College of Medicine); Teresa Johnson (University of Central Florida)

2011-12-01

323

CSShark Answers Frequently Asked Questions: The CSS Know-How Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is an Internet tool that separates the presentation from the structural markup of a Web site. CSS keeps the structure of a document lean and fast while controlling the appearance of its content. This product is not an adapted tool from print or programming; rather, it is a means of enhancing HTML. For users interested in learning more about this tool, this informative and well-constructed site answers some of those frequently asked questions regarding CSS. In addition, the site explains some of the basics of CSS, provides tips and tricks for tackling the problems with Netscape 4, offers a tutorial concerning positioning with CSS (CSS-P, Web design without tables), and gives various resource links to other related sites. In short, for those with questions concerning CSS and its functions, the CSShark is ready to provide answers.

Mako.

2001-01-01

324

Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.  

SciTech Connect

Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1994-05-01

325

Adding question answering to an e-tutor for programming languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Control over a closed domain of textual material removes many question answering issues, as does an ontology that is closely intertwined with its sources. This pragmatic, shallow approach to many challenging areas of research in adaptive hypermedia, question answering, intelligent tutoring and humancomputer interaction has been put into practice at Cambridge in the Computer Science undergraduate course to teach the hardware description language Veri/og. This language itself poses many challenges as it crosses the interdisciplinary boundary between hardware and software engineers, giving rise to severalhuman ontologies as well as theprogramming language itself We present further results from ourformal and informal surveys. We look at further work to increase the dialogue between studentand tutor and export our knowledge to the Semantic Web.

Taylor, Kate; Moore, Simon

326

Performance issues and error analysis in an open-domain question answering system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an in-depth analysis of a state-of-the-art Question Answering system. Several scenarios are examined: (1) the performance of each module in a serial baseline system, (2) the impact of feedbacks and the insertion of a logic prover, and (3) the impact of various retrieval strategies and lexical resources. The main conclusion is that the overall performance depends on

Dan I. Moldovan; Marius Pa?ca; Sanda M. Harabagiu; Mihai Surdeanu

2003-01-01

327

Performance Issues and Error Analysis in an Open-Domain Question Answering System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an in-depth analysis of a state-of-the-art Question Answering system. Several scenarios are examined: (1) the performance of each module in a serial baseline system, (2) the impact of feedbacks and the insertion of a logic prover, and (3) the impact of various lexical resources. The main conclusion is that the overall performance depends on the depth of

Dan I. Moldovan; Marius Pasca; Sanda M. Harabagiu; Mihai Surdeanu

2002-01-01

328

An on-line question-answering systems with natural language and pictorial input  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various approaches have been employed in the design of question-answering systems with natural language input. An excellent survey of such systems can be found in Simmons.1 A more recent and critical survey of data-retrieval systems prepared by Kasher points out what he considers to be some of the major weaknesses of previous work. One of the problems cited by Kasher

L. Stephen Coles

1968-01-01

329

Evaluation of the Four Most-used Alternative Medicine Databases to Answer Common Herbal Information Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selecting the right tool to answer herbal product questions is essential for medical and information professionals. This study's objective was to compare and evaluate the four most-used alternative medicine databases in terms of adverse reactions, therapeutic use, interactions, and dosage of specific herbal products. MICROMEDEX (AltMedDex and POISINDEX), The Review of Natural Products (eFacts), Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, and Natural

Mariana Lapidus; Irena Bond

2008-01-01

330

Running a Question-and-Answer Website for Science Education: First-Hand Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The online learning and outreach resource Ask A Biologist (AAB; http:\\/\\/www.askabiologist.org.uk\\/) has been operating for three years, and this paper reports our initial experience of running the site. To date, AAB has\\u000a answered and archived online over 3,500 questions from the general public with contributions from more than 50 researchers,\\u000a and attracted an estimated audience of half a million, all

David W. E. Hone; Michael P. Taylor; David Wynick; Paolo Viscardi; Neil Gostling

2011-01-01

331

Learning by Questions and Answers: From Belief-Revision Cycles to Doxastic Fixed Points  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the long-term behavior of iterated belief revision with higher-level doxastic information. While the classical literature on iterated belief revision [13, 11] deals only with propositional information, we are interested in learning (by an introspective agent, of some partial information about the) answers to various questions Q\\u000a 1, Q\\u000a 2, ..., Q\\u000a \\u000a n\\u000a , ... that may refer to

Alexandru Baltag; Sonja Smets

2009-01-01

332

Improving the Performance of the Random Walk Model for Answering Complex Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of answering com- plex questions that require inferencing and synthesizing information from multiple doc- uments and can be seen as a kind of topic- oriented, informative multi-document summa- rization. The stochastic, graph-based method for computing the relative importance of tex- tual units (i.e. sentences) is very successful in generic summarization. In this method, a sentence is

Yllias Chali; Shafiq R. Joty

2008-01-01

333

Social psychophysics: Using psychophysics to answer “social” questions with PsychoPro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex social stimuli (like faces) can be studied using a methodology typically reserved for studying lights, tones, and\\u000a colors: psychophysics. Given that psychophysics examines how humans detect and respond to stimuli in their environment, we\\u000a can extend that to the study of how humans detect social stimuli in the environment. Using psychophysical methodology to answer\\u000a “social” questions provides another dimension

Otto H. MacLin; M. Kimberly MacLin; Dwight Peterson; Osman Chowdhry; Priyanka Joshi

2009-01-01

334

78 FR 55261 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and...for industry entitled ``Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision 1).'' The Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012 (GDUFA) is...

2013-09-10

335

EB 2009 - Writing the Test Question isn't Enough!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Symposium: Writing the Test Question IsnÃÂt Enough! Presented at Experimental Biology, New Orleans LA Monday, April 20, 2009, 8:00-10:00 AM Chairs: Vikki McCleary and Kathy sukalski, Univ. of North Dakota Well constructed multiple choice items can provide a valid, reliable, and unbiased means to assess student learning. Machine scoring and analysis allows for a rapid turnaround of results and provides information about the patterns of responses to individual items. This symposium focused on the construction of valid, reliable multiple choice questions with an emphasis on those that evaluate the studentsÃÂ critical thinking ability in the context of specific learning objectives. The session was introduced by Ellis Bell who considered the process of evaluating student achievement in both content knowledge and critical thinking. Decisions must be made about the types of questions to use (essay, short answer, multiple choice) and timing of the examinations, (midterm and final, block exams). Vikki McCleary focused on multiple choice examinations and reviewed the optimization of stems, answers, and distracters and the evaluation of items according to BloomÃÂs taxonomy. Charles Hosford outlined the use of standard item analyses to improve test questions. The assessment of student understanding during class lectures using multiple choice questions was addressed by Jeannine Matz. Kenneth Ruit presented lessons learned from constructing and administering multiple choice examinations in an integrated medical curriculum. Effective testing of knowledge and critical thinking skills. Ellis Bell, U Richmond. Anatomy of a multiple choice question. Vikki McCleary, UND Using item analysis to improve test questions. Charles Hosford, UND Use of multiple choice questions during lecture. Jeannine Matz, Health Care Mercy Col. of Hlth. Sci., Des Moines. Applying principles and lessons learned in medical education. Kenneth Ruit, UND

Dr. Vikki L. McCleary (University of North Dakota School of Medicine Dept. of Pharmacology/Physiology and Therapeutics)

2009-04-20

336

The Communication Skills Used by Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers in a Question-and-Answer Game Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in…

Toe, Dianne M.; Paatsch, Louise E.

2010-01-01

337

Comparing the Use of an Online Expert Health Network against Common Information Sources to Answer Health Questions  

PubMed Central

Background Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). It is unknown whether workers are able to find correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions when they use common information sources, such as websites, or whether they would benefit from using an easily accessible, free-of-charge online network of OSH experts providing advice. Objective To assess the rate of correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions in a group of workers who used an online network of OSH experts (intervention group) compared with a group of workers who used common information sources (control group). Methods In a quasi-experimental study, workers in the intervention and control groups were randomly offered 2 questions from a pool of 16 standardized OSH questions. Both questions were sent by mail to all participants, who had 3 weeks to answer them. The intervention group was instructed to use only the online network ArboAntwoord, a network of about 80 OSH experts, to solve the questions. The control group was instructed that they could use all information sources available to them. To assess answer correctness as the main study outcome, 16 standardized correct model answers were constructed with the help of reviewers who performed literature searches. Subsequently, the answers provided by all participants in the intervention (n = 94 answers) and control groups (n = 124 answers) were blinded and compared with the correct model answers on the degree of correctness. Results Of the 94 answers given by participants in the intervention group, 58 were correct (62%), compared with 24 of the 124 answers (19%) in the control group, who mainly used informational websites found via Google. The difference between the 2 groups was significant (rate difference = 43%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 30%–54%). Additional analysis showed that the rate of correct main conclusions of the answers was 85 of 94 answers (90%) in the intervention group and 75 of 124 answers (61%) in the control group (rate difference = 29%, 95% CI 19%–40%). Remarkably, we could not identify differences between workers who provided correct answers and workers who did not on how they experienced the credibility, completeness, and applicability of the information found (P > .05). Conclusions Workers are often unable to find correct answers to OSH questions when using common information sources, generally informational websites. Because workers frequently misjudge the quality of the information they find, other strategies are required to assist workers in finding correct answers. Expert advice provided through an online expert network can be effective for this purpose. As many people experience difficulties in finding correct answers to their health questions, expert networks may be an attractive new source of information for health fields in general.

Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank JH; Hulshof, Carel TJ

2012-01-01

338

Towards the development of behavioural measures of impulsivity: Influencing subjects' response style in a multiple-choice visual discrimination task  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to reduce guessing during multiple-choice testing, the effects of different payoff ma- trices were observed in this research. It was hypothesized that a penalty for incorrect answers and the existence of the alternative \\

MICHAELA M. WAGNER-MENGHIN; NICOLE K. DIETRICH

2007-01-01

339

Standardised nomenclature for glucocorticoid dosages and glucocorticoid treatment regimens: current questions and tentative answers in rheumatology  

PubMed Central

In rheumatology and other medical specialties there is a discrepancy between the widespread use and the imprecise designation of glucocorticoid treatment regimens. Verbal descriptions of glucocorticoid treatment regimens used in various phases of diseases vary between countries and institutions. Given this background, a workshop under the auspices of the EULAR Standing Committee on International Clinical Studies including Therapeutic Trials was held to discuss this issue and to seek a consensus on nomenclature for glucocorticoid treatment. This report summarises the panel's discussion and recognises that answers derived from consensus conferences are not definitive. Nevertheless, recommendations on glucocorticoid treatment are presented that (1) reflect current and best knowledge available and (2) take into account current clinical practice. A question-answer rationale presentation style has been chosen to convey the messages, to summarise the meeting in a readable format, and to avoid dogmatism.

Buttgereit, F; Da Silva, J A P; Boers, M; Burmester, G; Cutolo, M; Jacobs, J; Kirwan, J; Kohler, L; van Riel, P; Vischer, T; Bijlsma, J

2002-01-01

340

Practical question-and-answer guide on VDTS (video display terminals) for BEES (base bioenvironmental engineer). Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USAF OEHL conducted an extensive literature review of Video Display Terminals (VDTs) and the health problems commonly associated with them. The report is presented in a question-and-answer format in an attempt to paraphrase the most commonly asked questions about VDTs that are forwarded to USAF OEHL\\/RZN. The questions and answers have been divided into several topic areas: Ionizing Radiation;

1985-01-01

341

Demand Characteristics of Multiple-Choice Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thirteen graduate students were asked to indicate for each of 24 multiple-choice items whether the item tested "recall of specific information," a "higher order skill," or "don't know." The students were also asked to state their general basis for judging the items. The 24 items had been previously classified according to Bloom's cognitive-skills…

Diamond, James J.; Williams, David V.

342

Quality Assurance of Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To provide educationalists with an understanding of the key quality issues relating to multiple-choice tests, and a set of guidelines for the quality assurance of such tests. Design/methodology/approach: The discussion of quality issues is structured to reflect the order in which those issues naturally arise. It covers the design of…

Bush, Martin E.

2006-01-01

343

Qualitative Researchers on Paradigm Proliferation in Educational Research: A Question-and-Answer Session as Multi-Voiced Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unconventional essay is the (slightly modified) transcript of the question-and-answer period of an AERA conference session on the topic of paradigm proliferation. Through responses to the discussants prepared questions and audience members' comments and questions, each panelist extends and defends the ideas put forward in her or his paper…

Wright, Handel K.

2006-01-01

344

Violations of information structure: an electrophysiological study of answers to wh-questions.  

PubMed

This study investigates brain responses to violations of information structure in wh-question-answer pairs, with particular emphasis on violations of focus assignment in it-clefts (It was the queen that silenced the banker). Two types of ERP responses in answers to wh-questions were found. First, all words in the focus-marking (cleft) position elicited a large positivity (P3b) characteristic of sentence-final constituents, as did the final words of these sentences, which suggests that focused elements may trigger integration effects like those seen at sentence end. Second, the focusing of an inappropriate referent elicited a smaller, N400-like effect. The results show that comprehenders actively use structural focus cues and discourse-level restrictions during online sentence processing. These results, based on visual stimuli, were different from the brain response to auditory focus violations indicated by pitch-accent [Hruska, C., Steinhauer, K., Alter, K., & Steube, A. (2000). ERP effects of sentence accents and violations of the information structure. In Poster presented at the 13th annual CUNY conference on human sentence processing, San Diego, CA.], but similar to brain responses to newly introduced discourse referents [Bornkessel, I., Schlesewsky, M., & Friederici, A. (2003). Contextual information modulated initial processes of syntactic integration: the role of inter- versus intrasentential predictions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 29, 871-882.]. PMID:17517429

Cowles, H W; Kluender, Robert; Kutas, Marta; Polinsky, Maria

2007-05-22

345

Questions and answers about biological effects and potential hazards of radiofrequency radiation (third edition)  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is responsible for licensing or authorizing many of the transmitting devices in the United States that use radio-frequency (RF) radiation to provide a variety of important telecommunications services. Because of its responsibilities in this regard, the FCC often receives inquiries concerning potential health risks from exposure to the RF radiation emitted by these transmitters. The expanding use of RF technology has resulted in speculation concerning the alleged 'electromagnetic pollution' of the environment and the potential dangers of exposure to non-ionizing radiation. The publication is written in a question and answer format and is designed to provide factual information to the public by answering some of the most commonly asked questions about this complex and often misunderstood topic. Information is included on such topics as the differences between non-ionizing and ionizing radiation; the biological effects of RF energy; health and safety standards; federal responsibilities; and RF exposure from specific types of transmitters. The bulletin is an updated version of the previous (second) edition published in 1983.

Not Available

1989-01-01

346

Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.  

SciTech Connect

Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1995-06-01

347

A question-answer pair (QAP) database integrated with websites to answer complex questions submitted to the Regional Medicines Information and Pharmacovigilance Centres in Norway (RELIS): a descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess a question–answer pair (QAP) database integrated with websites developed for drug information centres to answer complex questions effectively. Design Descriptive study with comparison of two subsequent 6-year periods (1995–2000 and 2001–2006). Setting The Regional Medicines Information and Pharmacovigilance Centres in Norway (RELIS). Participants A randomised sample of QAPs from the RELIS database. Primary outcome measure Answer time in days compared with Mann–Whitney U test. Secondary outcome measure Number of drugs involved (one, two, three or more), complexity (judgemental and/or patient-related or not) and literature search (none, simple or advanced) compared with ?2 tests. Results 842 QAPs (312 from 1995 to 2000 and 530 from 2001 to 2006) were compared. The fraction of judgemental and patient-related questions increased (66%–75% and 54%–72%, respectively, p<0.01). Number of drugs and literature search (>50% advanced) was similar in the two periods, but the fraction of answers referring to the RELIS database increased (13%–31%, p<0.01). Median answer time was reduced from 2?days to 1 (p<0.01), although the fraction of complex questions increased from the first to the second period. Furthermore, the mean number of questions per employee per year increased from 66 to 89 from the first to the second period. Conclusions The authors conclude that RELIS has a potential to efficiently answer complex questions. The model is of relevance for organisation of drug information centres.

Reppe, Linda A; Roland, Pal-Didrik H; Westergren, Tone

2012-01-01

348

Is obesity a risk factor for low back pain? An example of using the evidence to answer a clinical question  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Obesity as a causal factor for low back pain has been controversial with no definitive answer to this date. The objective of this study was to determine whether obesity is associated with low back pain. In addition this paper aims to provide a step-by-step guide for chiropractors and osteopaths on how to ask and answer a clinical question using

Timothy A Mirtz; Leon Greene

2005-01-01

349

How Frogs Built the Berlin Wall: A Detailed Error Analysis of a Question Answering System for Dutch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the University of Amsterdam's partici- pation in the Question Answering track at CLEF 2003, our system and the results produced by it. A thorough analysis of the wrong answers given by our system is provided, including a discussion of each type of error and possible strategies for handling them. We outline our current eorts for improvement of

Valentin Jijkoun; Gilad Mishne; Maarten De Rijke

2003-01-01

350

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND...

2010-01-01

351

77 FR 51814 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-0880...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

2012-08-27

352

Classroom Assessment Techniques: Multiple Choice Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes how to use a multiple choice test to assess student understanding. The assessment tool is one of a series of Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) provided by the Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) website. The CATs of FLAG were constructed as a resource for science, technology, engineering and mathematics instructors to emphasize deeper levels of learning and to give instructors valuable feedback during a course. The multiple-choice test is a flexible assessment format that can be used to measure knowledge, skills, abilities, values and thinking skills. This site provides an overview of this assessment technique, including information about how, when and why to use it. The site is also linked to a set of discipline-specific "tools" that can be downloaded for immediate use, as well as supplementary links and sources to further explore this assessment tool.

Parkes, Jay; The National Institute for Science Education; College Level One Team

353

Examining the Role of Statistical and Linguistic Knowledge Sources in a General-Knowledge Question-Answering System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe and evaluate an implemented system for general-knowledge question answering. The sys- tem combines techniques for standard ad-hoc infor- mation retrieval (IR), query-dependent text summa- rization, and shallow syntactic and semantic sen- tence analysis. In a series of experiments we examine the role of each statistical and linguistic knowledge source in the question-answering system. In con- trast to previous

Claire Cardie; Ng Vincent; David Pierce; Chris Buckley

2000-01-01

354

Clickers in College Classrooms: Fostering Learning with Questioning Methods in Large Lecture Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What can be done to promote student-instructor interaction in a large lecture class? One approach is to use a personal response system (or "clickers") in which students press a button on a hand-held remote control device corresponding to their answer to a multiple choice question projected on a screen, then see the class distribution of answers

Mayer, Richard E.; Stull, Andrew; DeLeeuw, Krista; Almeroth, Kevin; Bimber, Bruce; Chun, Dorothy; Bulger, Monica; Campbell, Julie; Knight, Allan; Zhang, Hangjin

2009-01-01

355

Clickers in college classrooms: Fostering learning with questioning methods in large lecture classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

What can be done to promote student–instructor interaction in a large lecture class? One approach is to use a personal response system (or “clickers”) in which students press a button on a hand-held remote control device corresponding to their answer to a multiple choice question projected on a screen, then see the class distribution of answers on a screen, and

Richard E. Mayer; Andrew Stull; Krista DeLeeuw; Kevin Almeroth; Bruce Bimber; Dorothy Chun; Monica Bulger; Julie Campbell; Allan Knight; Hangjin Zhang

2009-01-01

356

Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

2011-01-01

357

Developing an Ontology for Improving Question Answering in the Agricultural Domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous resources have been developed to have a better access to scientific information in the agricultural domain. However, they are rather concerned with providing general metadata of bibliographic references, which prevents users from accessing precise agricultural information in a transparent and simple manner. To overcome this drawback, in this paper, we propose to use domain-specific resources to improve the results in the answers obtained by an Open-Domain Question Answering (QA) system, obtaining a QA system for the agricultural domain. Specifically, it has been made by (i) creating an ontology that covers concepts and relationships from journal publications of the agricultural domain, (ii) enriching this ontology with some public data sources (e.g the Agrovoc thesaurus and the WordNet lexical database) in order to be precisely used in an agricultural domain, and (iii) aligning this enriched ontology with articles from our case-study journal, i.e. the Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science. Finally, we have developed a set of experiments in order to show the usefulness of our approach.

Vila, Katia; Ferrández, Antonio

358

Questionnaires for eliciting evaluation data from users of interactive question answering  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating interactive question answering (QA) systems with real users can be challenging because traditional evaluation measures based on the relevance of items returned are difficult to employ since relevance judgments can be unstable in multi-user evaluations. The work reported in this paper evaluates, in distinguishing among a set of interactive QA systems, the effectiveness of three questionnaires: a Cognitive Workload Questionnaire (NASA TLX), and Task and System Questionnaires customized to a specific interactive QA application. These Questionnaires were evaluated with four systems, seven analysts, and eight scenarios during a 2-week workshop. Overall, results demonstrate that all three Questionnaires are effective at distinguishing among systems, with the Task Questionnaire being the most sensitive. Results also provide initial support for the validity and reliability of the Questionnaires.

Kelly, Diane; Kantor, Paul B.; Morse, Emile; Scholtz, Jean; Sun, Y.

2009-01-01

359

Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers  

PubMed Central

Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics.

Kurz, Matthias

2008-01-01

360

Did you know? A question and answer dialogue for the orofacial myologist.  

PubMed

This article addresses selected concepts and procedures related to orofacial myology in a question and answer format. Topics include tongue-tip placement for swallowing; a masseter-contraction swallow; temporary anchorage devices utilized in orthodontic treatment; relapse following orthodontic treatment; some advantages and disadvantages of fixed and removable orthodontic appliances; the extraction of teeth in orthodontic treatment; posterior and anterior crossbite considerations; and the importance of recasting the emphasis and focus of myofunctional therapy to orofacial rest posture therapy. In addition, this article promotes projects that orofacial myologists and orthodontists can mutually undertake to assist in advancing the data base regarding orofacial myofunctional disorders, thereby serving to enhance the reputation and value of orofacial myofunctional therapy within the dental profession. PMID:20572434

Mason, Robert M; Role, Ellen B

2009-11-01

361

Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes  

PubMed Central

Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities.

Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

2012-01-01

362

Multiple-choice exams: an obstacle for higher-level thinking in introductory science classes.  

PubMed

Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities. PMID:22949426

Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F

2012-01-01

363

Comparing Assessments of Students' Knowledge by Computerized Open-Ended and Multiple-Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interactive computerized tests accepting unrestricted natural-language input were used to assess knowledge of clinical biophysics at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Comparison of responses to open-ended sequential questions and multiple-choice questions on the same material found the two formats test different aspects of competence.…

Anbar, Michael

1991-01-01

364

The appeal to law to provide public answers to bioethical questions: it all depends what sort of answers you want.  

PubMed

Bioethics as an academic discipline comes into public discourse when real life "hard cases" receive media attention. Since cases of this sort increasingly often become the subject of litigation, the forum for debate can be a court of law, with judges as the final arbiters. Judges (unlike philosophers) are obliged to give final and definitive rulings in a constrained time period. Their training is in a type of discourse very different from moral philosophy, though still concerned with right and wrong. This paper explores the differences between the tools and methods used in public legal debate and private academic discourse, and the different nature of the answers they produce. It attempts to suggest some ways in which bioethicists can better understand lawyers' reasoning in cases of this sort, and how communication between bioethics and law might be improved. PMID:18214685

James, Timothy

2008-01-24

365

Vector Bin Packing with Multiple-Choice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a variant of bin packing called multiple-choice vector bin packing. In this problem we are given a set of n items, where each item can be selected in one of several D-dimensional incarnations. We are also given T bin types, each with its own cost and D-dimensional size. Our goal is to pack the items in a set of bins of minimum overall cost. The problem is motivated by scheduling in networks with guaranteed quality of service (QoS), but due to its general formulation it has many other applications as well. We present an approximation algorithm that is guaranteed to produce a solution whose cost is about ln D times the optimum. For the running time to be polynomial we require D = O(1) and T = O(logn). This extends previous results for vector bin packing, in which each item has a single incarnation and there is only one bin type. To obtain our result we also present a PTAS for the multiple-choice version of multidimensional knapsack, where we are given only one bin and the goal is to pack a maximum weight set of (incarnations of) items in that bin.

Patt-Shamir, Boaz; Rawitz, Dror

366

Using LQCD to answer questions about hadronic interactions: a perspective from a traditional nuclear theorist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As computational resources increase and better algorithms are implemented, LQCD calculations of hadronic interaction observables become less of a pipe dream, and more of a reality, and will eventually become the status quo. One of the greatest strengths of LQCD calculations in the realm of low-energy nuclear physics comes from its predictive capability, as many hadronic systems not accessible by experiments can be calculated on the lattice. These calculations in turn have direct implications to nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, and nuclear astrophysics, as well as the broader nuclear physics community. Thus the import of LQCD on low-energy nuclear physics cannot be overlooked, nor understated. In this talk I discuss current and ongoing efforts to extract hadronic interaction parameters from LQCD, enumerating current difficulties placed by available computer resources and algorithm limitations. I will also talk about future possibilities coming from increased computer resources and algorithm development, giving examples of how such calculations can answer longstanding questions in traditional nuclear physics. Finally, I will discuss the role that national labs can and should play in the area of LQCD as applied to low-energy nuclear physics.

Luu, Thomas

2009-05-01

367

Enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease: some answers but more questions  

PubMed Central

Fabry disease (FD) is a multisystem, X-linked disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism caused by enzyme deficiency of ?-galactosidase A. Affected patients have symptoms including acroparesthesias, angiokeratomas, and hypohidrosis. More serious manifestations include debilitating pain and gastrointestinal symptoms, proteinuria and gradual deterioration of renal function leading to end-stage renal disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and stroke. Heterozygous females may have symptoms as severe as males with the classic phenotype. Before 2001, treatment of patients with FD was supportive. The successful development of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been a great advancement in the treatment of patients with FD and can stabilize renal function and cardiac size, as well as improve pain and quality of life of patients with FD. In this review, we have provided a critical appraisal of the literature on the effects of ERT for FD. This analysis shows that data available on the treatment of FD are often derived from studies which are not controlled, rely on surrogate markers, and are of insufficient power to detect differences on hard clinical endpoints. Further studies of higher quality are needed to answer the questions that remain concerning the efficacy of ERT for FD.

Alfadhel, Majid; Sirrs, Sandra

2011-01-01

368

Genetic Algorithms for Multiple-Choice Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates the use of problem-specific knowledge to enhance a genetic algorithm approach to multiple-choice optimisation problems.It shows that such information can significantly enhance performance, but that the choice of information and the way it is included are important factors for success.Two multiple-choice problems are considered.The first is constructing a feasible nurse roster that considers as many requests as possible.In the second problem, shops are allocated to locations in a mall subject to constraints and maximising the overall income.Genetic algorithms are chosen for their well-known robustness and ability to solve large and complex discrete optimisation problems.However, a survey of the literature reveals room for further research into generic ways to include constraints into a genetic algorithm framework.Hence, the main theme of this work is to balance feasibility and cost of solutions.In particular, co-operative co-evolution with hierarchical sub-populations, problem structure exploiting repair schemes and indirect genetic algorithms with self-adjusting decoder functions are identified as promising approaches.The research starts by applying standard genetic algorithms to the problems and explaining the failure of such approaches due to epistasis.To overcome this, problem-specific information is added in a variety of ways, some of which are designed to increase the number of feasible solutions found whilst others are intended to improve the quality of such solutions.As well as a theoretical discussion as to the underlying reasons for using each operator,extensive computational experiments are carried out on a variety of data.These show that the indirect approach relies less on problem structure and hence is easier to implement and superior in solution quality.

Aickelin, Uwe

2010-04-01

369

Effectiveness of Clinician-selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract,Objective: To determine,if clinician-selected electronic information,resources improve,primary care physicians’ abilities to answer,simulated,clinical questions. Design: Observational,study,using hour-long interviews,in physician,offices and,think-aloud protocols. Participants answered,23 multiple-choice,questions,and,chose 2 to obtain,further information,using their own information resources. We established which resources physicians chose, processes used, and results obtained when,looking,for information,to support,their answers. Measurements: Correctness of answers before and after searching, resources used, and searching techniques.

K. ANN MCKIBBON; DOUGLAS B. FRIDSMA

370

Geophysical Summer Field Camp: Answering questions about the subsurface for the local community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer Geophysics Field Camp is part of the core requirement for undergraduate Geophysics majors at Boise State University (CSM), as well as at Colorado School of Mines (CSM). We have found it to be most effectively taught when the target of the camp involves answering questions, which impact society. For example, currently the CSM/BSU geophysics summer camp focuses on ground water resources and geothermal potential in the Upper Arkansas River Basin, a part of the Rio Grande Rift system in Chaffee County, Colorado. A prime goal is to train students how to combine diverse sources of information into a unified interpretation: Students examine lithologies and structures on the periphery of the basin. Cross sections are constructed to predict the geophysical signature. Geophysical tools then are used to ascertain the gross structure and examine subsurface conditions in greater detail. These tools include surveying, regional gravity, deep and shallow seismic surveys, magnetics, DC resistivity, Ground Penetrating Radar, electromagnetics, hydrochemistry, and karaoke. While BSU and CSM own a considerable amount of geophysical hardware, our field camps are only possible because of extensive support by corporations and governmental agencies. In addition, the Society of Exploration Geohysics (SEG) Foundation provides financial support, Chaffee County assists with housing costs, and local land owners provide open access. In turn, the field camp results aid the community of Chaffee County in assessing their water resources for long term growth planning, as well as understanding the geothermal potential for hydroelectric power generation. BSU is currently exploring with the SEG Foundation under the Geophysicists Without Borders program to apply this model of combined education and social outreach in the form a geophysics camp for Southeast Asia, where we propose to study geohazards,geoarcheology and groundwater issues.

van Wijk, K.; Batzle, M.; Liberty, L.; Raynolds, R.

2008-12-01

371

Megacities, Air Quality and Climate Interactions: Answers on MEGAPOLI Scientific Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EC FP7 Project MEGAPOLI (http://megapoli.info) brought together leading European research groups, state-of-the-art scientific tools and key players from non-European countries to study the interactions among megacities, air quality and climate. MEGAPOLI included both basic and applied research, and bridged spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions, air quality and weather with global atmospheric chemistry and climate. The main MEGAPOLI objectives were: (i) to assess impacts of megacities and large air-pollution hot-spots on local, regional and global air quality, (ii) to quantify feedbacks among megacity air quality, local and regional climate, and global climate change, (iii) to develop improved integrated tools for prediction of air pollution in megacities. In order to fulfil the project objectives the following scientific questions had been addressed: Q1: What is the change of exposure of the overall population to the major air pollutants as people move into megacities? Q2: How do megacities affect air quality on regional and global scales? What is the range of influence for major air pollutants (ozone, particulate matter, etc.)? Q3: What are the major physical and chemical transformations of air pollutants as they are moving away from megacities? What happens to the organic particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, etc? Q4: How accurate are the current emission inventories for megacities in Europe and around the world? What are the major gaps? Q5: How large is the current impact of megacities on regional and global climate? Q6: How will the growth of megacities affect future climate at global and regional scales? Q7: What is the impact of large-scale dynamic processes on air pollution from megacities? Q8: What are the key feedbacks between air quality, local climate and global climate change relevant to megacities? For example, how will climate change affect air quality in megacities? Q9: How should megacities (emissions, processing inside megacities, meteorology) be parameterised in regional and global models? Q10: What type of modelling tools should be used for the simulation of multi-scale megacity air quality - climate interactions? Q11: Which policy options are available to influence the emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases in megacities and how can these options be assessed? The main scientific results achieved by the MEGAPOLI project and answers on the main MEGAPOLI scientific questions are briefly presented here.

Baklanov, A.; Lawrence, M.; Pandis, S.; Sokhi, R.; Mahura, A.

2012-04-01

372

QA with Attitude: Exploiting Opinion Type Analysis for Improving Question Answering in On-line Discussions and the News  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore the utility of attitude types for improving question answering (QA) on both web-based dis- cussions and news data. We present a set of attitude types developed with an eye toward QA and show that they can be reliably annotated. Using the attitude annotations, we develop automatic classifiers for recognizing two main types of attitudes: sentiment

Swapna Somasundaran; Theresa Wilson; Janyce Wiebe; Veselin Stoyanov

373

Answers to the Most Frequently Asked Questions about Reinspections under the AHERA Asbestos-In-Schools Rule.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document was prepared in response to inquiries that have been received by the Environmental Protection Agency concerning the reinspection requirements and related provisions of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) regulations. The answers developed represent the Agency's responses to the 15 most frequently asked questions to…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

374

Using Question Answer Relationships in Science Instruction to Increase the Reading Achievement of Struggling Readers and Students with Reading Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Question Answer Relationship (QAR) literacy strategy was integrated into science instruction in a fourth grade classroom. Ten students who struggled with reading, including some who were diagnosed with a reading disability, participated in this study. Significant gains were made in reading by the 10 student participants in comprehending…

Kinniburgh, Leah H.; Baxter, Abigail

2012-01-01

375

Nevada Education Law: Federal and State Law Governing Nevada K-12 Education in Question/Answer Format.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides answers to the most common legal questions of Nevada's school board members, administrators, and educators. Chapter 1, "The Nevada School System: Governance, Programs, and Standards," explores the constitutional, legal, and statutory basis of school system governance. Chapter 2, "The Nevada Plan: Finance of Public Education,"…

Daugherty, Richard F.; Cockerill, Charles P.

376

Are Faculty Predictions or Item Taxonomies Useful for Estimating the Outcome of Multiple-Choice Examinations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether multiple-choice item difficulty could be predicted either by a subjective judgment by the question author or by applying a learning taxonomy to the items. Eight physiology faculty members teaching an upper-level undergraduate human physiology course consented to participate in the study. The…

Kibble, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Teresa

2011-01-01

377

Are Faculty Predictions or Item Taxonomies Useful for Estimating the Outcome of Multiple-Choice Examinations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether multiple-choice item difficulty could be predicted either by a subjective judgment by the question author or by applying a learning taxonomy to the items. Eight physiology faculty members teaching an upper-level undergraduate human physiology course consented to participate in the study. The…

Kibble, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Teresa

2011-01-01

378

Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not…

Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

2012-01-01

379

Fast Mesh Decimation by Multiple-Choice Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new mesh decimation framework which is based on the probabilistic optimization technique of Multiple-Choice algorithms. While producing the same expected quality of the out- put meshes, the Multiple-Choice approach leads to a significant speed-up compared to the well- established standard framework for mesh decima- tion as a greedy optimization scheme. More- over, Multiple-Choice decimation does not require

Jianhua Wu; Leif Kobbelt

2002-01-01

380

An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability  

PubMed Central

Background Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A) network tools, which link questioners directly to experts can overcome some of these barriers. When designing and testing online tools, assessing the usability and applicability is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the usability and applicability of a new online Q&A network tool for answers on OSH questions. Methods We applied a cross-sectional usability test design. Eight occupational health experts and twelve potential questioners from the working population (workers) were purposively selected to include a variety of computer- and internet-experiences. During the test, participants were first observed while executing eight tasks that entailed important features of the tool. In addition, they were interviewed. Through task observations and interviews we assessed applicability, usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction) and facilitators and barriers in use. Results Most features were usable, though several could be improved. Most tasks were executed effectively. Some tasks, for example searching stored questions in categories, were not executed efficiently and participants were less satisfied with the corresponding features. Participants' recommendations led to improvements. The tool was found mostly applicable for additional information, to observe new OSH trends and to improve contact between OSH experts and workers. Hosting and support by a trustworthy professional organization, effective implementation campaigns, timely answering and anonymity were seen as important use requirements. Conclusions This network tool is a promising new strategy for offering company workers high quality information to answer OSH questions. Q&A network tools can be an addition to existing information facilities in the field of OSH, but also to other healthcare fields struggling with how to answer questions from people in practice with high quality information. In the near future, we will focus on the use of the tool and its effects on information and knowledge dissemination.

2010-01-01

381

The communication skills used by deaf children and their hearing peers in a question-and-answer game context.  

PubMed

Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in a "trivia" game with their hearing peers. Thirty-four children with normal hearing and 34 children with a hearing loss ranging from mild to profound (>90 dB HL) participated in this study. Each of the 34 dyads included 1 child with normal hearing and 1 child with hearing loss, matched by gender and grade level at school. Dyads were videotaped and analyzed. Pairs were compared in terms of their capacity to repeat the question, strategies used to seek information, and accuracy of responses. Results showed that the group of hearing children was able to repeat more questions verbatim compared to the deaf/HH children. The deaf/HH group required a significantly greater number of repetitions, sought a greater number of general clarifications, and correctly answered more questions compared with the group of hearing children. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of peer communication and pragmatic skill development. PMID:20299450

Toe, Dianne M; Paatsch, Louise E

2010-03-18

382

To Change or Not to Change: Investigating the Value of MCQ Answer Changing for Gulf Arab Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates whether the practice of answer changing on multiple-choice questions (MCQs) is beneficial to Gulf Arab students' overall test performance. The proficiency exam used in this study is the Michigan English Language Institute College English Test - Grammar, Cloze, Vocabulary, Reading (MELICET-GCVR), which was developed using…

Al-Hamly, Mashael; Coombe, Christine

2005-01-01

383

Discovery and New Frontiers: Science Missions Seeking New Answers to Timeless Questions (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers missions EPOXI, Stardust-NExT, Dawn, MESSENGER, Juno, and GRAIL help comprise NASA’s Year of the Solar System. Each of these investigations is seeking answers to key science questions and each has a unique approach to sharing that quest with the public. To date, spacecraft have photographed only four comets up close. What new information will EPOXI uncover when it flies by comet Hartley 2? Will it be similar to the others or very different? How will comet Tempel 1 appear to Stardust-NExT? The Deep Impact mission sent an impactor into the path of Tempel 1 in 2005. What changes will be visible in this unprecedented return visit? Will we finally see the crater made by the impact? Dawn will arrive at asteroid Vesta in July for a year-long orbit. Then it will millions of miles more to go into orbit around dwarf planet Ceres. Using the same science instruments to study both will yield important new information. MESSENGER has already discovered new phenomena and collected considerable data in its three flybys of Mercury. Once the orbiting phase begins, this dynamic planet is guaranteed to put on a spectacular show. Juno is traveling to the massive gas giant Jupiter to extend our knowledge about this wondrous body. Does it have a solid core? How much water does the atmosphere contain? How does the planet’s enormous magnetic force field affect its atmosphere? GRAIL will send twin space probes flying in tandem around the Moon to take precise gravity field measurements to help determine the structure and composition of the lunar interior from crust to core. In early 2011, the Discovery and New Frontiers Programs are planning a teacher “workshop without walls” to help celebrate YSS! Teachers will gather at 4 or 5 sites across the country, including California, Texas, Minnesota, and Maryland, and tune in via NASA’s digital learning network to hear talks about the missions and their science objectives. The workshops will also include trainings with hands-on activities the teachers can take back to their classroom.

Asplund, S.

2010-12-01

384

Chemistry 300. Administration Manual for Supervising Teachers, Provincial Examination, Answer Key--Multiple-Choice and Written-Answer Questions, and Provincial Summary Report = Chimie 300. Guide d'administration a l'intention des surveillants d'examen, Examen provincial, Cle de correction--Questions choix multiple et Questions responses ouvertes, et Rapport sommaire provincial.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of manuals contains the Manitoba Provincial Chemistry Examination for students seeking credit in Senior 4 Chemistry (Chemistry 300) and instructions for its use and grading. The examination is based on the Core Topics of the Senior 4 Chemistry course and accounts for 30% of the student's final grade in the course. The examination…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

385

The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple" compatibility. 100% protection against the 100 year event shows to be the optimal degree of protection. Consequently, impacts statistically less frequent than once in 100 year are accepted as the remaining risk. Such floods and debris flows respectively cause a fan of propagation which is substantially reduced due to the protection measures against the 100 year event. III) The "triple loss distribution" shows the monetized triple damage, dependent on its probability. The monetization is performed by the social process of participation of the impacted interests, if not, by official experts in representation. The triple loss distribution rises in time mainly due to the rise in density and value of precious goods. A comparison of the distributions of the triple loss and the triple risk, behaving in opposite direction, is shown and explained within the project. IV) The recommended yearly reserves to be stocked for restoration and compensation of losses, caused by debris flows, amount to € 70'000.- according to the approach of the "technical risk premium". The discrepancy in comparison with the much higher amounts according to the common approaches of natural hazards engineering are discussed. V) The sustainable mix of hydraulic and forestry measures with the highest return on investment at lowest risk is performed according to the portfolio theory (Markowitz), based on the triple value curves, generated by the method of TripelBudgetierung®. Accordingly, the optimum mix of measures to protect the community of Inzing against the natural hazard of debris flow, thus, the most efficient allocation of resources equals to 2/3 for hydraulic, 1/3 for forestry measures. In detail, the results of the research pilot project "Nachhaltiges Risikomanagement - Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria" may be consulted under www.ibu.hsr.ch/inzing.

Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

2009-04-01

386

Using Chat and Text Technologies to Answer Sexual and Reproductive Health Questions: Planned Parenthood Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background Teens and young adults in the United States are in need of sexual and reproductive health information, as evidenced by elevated rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), pregnancy, and births among this population. In-person sexuality education programs are helpful, but they are unlikely to rapidly accommodate teens and young adults in a moment of crisis. Evidence suggests that technologies such as instant messaging (IM) and text messaging may be effective ways to provide teens and young adults with sexual and reproductive health information. In September 2010, Planned Parenthood Federation of America launched a text and IM program designed to provide immediate answers to urgent sexual and reproductive health questions from a reliable and confidential source and to link young people to sexual and reproductive health services if needed. Objective To assess whether this program is successful in reaching the target population, whether user characteristics vary by mode (IM vs text), and whether mode is associated with reaching individuals with high levels of worry or reducing worry postchat. Methods Data were collected from prechat and postchat surveys for all IM and text message conversations between September 2010 and August 2011. A bivariate analysis was conducted using chi-square tests for differences in the main covariates by mode of conversation. In the multivariable analysis, logistic regression was used to identify factors that were independently associated with prechat levels of worry and changes in worry postchat. Results A total of 32,589 conversations occurred during the program’s first year. The odds of feeling very worried prechat were highest for IM users (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.43, 95% CI 1.20-1.72), users 17 years and younger (AOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.50-1.74), Latino/Hispanic users (AOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.27-1.46), and black users (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.30-1.50). After controlling for the study covariates, there was no significant difference in the odds of feeling better (less worried) postchat between IM and text message users. Feeling better postchat was associated with being younger (?17 years: AOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.17-1.72; 18-24 years: AOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.02-1.42), being Latino/Hispanic (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.55), reporting that the service was very helpful (AOR 3.47, 95% CI 3.24-4.32), and asking about emergency contraception (AOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.61). The odds of feeling better were lowest for users with questions about STIs (AOR 0.61, 95% CI 0.47-0.78). Conclusions The results from the process evaluation suggest that the program was able to provide informational support to vulnerable groups, such as teens and racial minorities, in moments of particular worry. Differences between the IM and text message users reveal that each mode appeals to a different population and that both are necessary to reach a diverse audience.

Kantor, Leslie M; Levine, Deborah S; Arons, Whitney

2013-01-01

387

Quick Questions: Learn About Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will collect and analyze data to learn about the people around them. How many letters in everyoneâs first name? Whatâs the most common number of letters? Whatâs most or least? Start out by posing a multiple choice question. Everyone records answers on a large chart. Then, explore the data. This works well as a family activity or in a public areaâmuseum, library, school building. Post the chart and review answers after at least 100 people have responded. Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

388

Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…

Heiner, Cecily

2009-01-01

389

Towards a virtual teaching assistant to answer questions asked by students in introductory computer science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural language of the questions to a vector space, and then utilizing cosine similarity to identify similar previous questions. I report classification accuracies between 23% and 56%, obtaining substantial improvements by exploiting domain knowledge (compiler error messages) and educational context (assignment name). My results are especially timely and relevant for online courses where students are completing the same set of assignments asynchronously and access to staff is limited.

Heiner, Cecily

390

Nested Logit Models for Multiple-Choice Item Response Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nested logit item response models for multiple-choice data are presented. Relative to previous models, the new models are suggested to provide a better approximation to multiple-choice items where the application of a solution strategy precedes consideration of response options. In practice, the models also accommodate collapsibility across all…

Suh, Youngsuk; Bolt, Daniel M.

2010-01-01

391

Measuring the Consistency in Change in Hepatitis B Knowledge among Three Different Types of Tests: True/False, Multiple Choice, and Fill in the Blanks Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The recall of information about Hepatitis B demonstrated by 180 seventh graders was tested with three test types: (1) short-answer; (2) true/false; and (3) multiple-choice. Short answer testing was the most reliable. Suggestions are made for the use of short-answer tests in evaluating student knowledge. (SLD)|

Sahai, Vic; Demeyere, Petra; Poirier, Sheila; Piro, Felice

1998-01-01

392

Measuring the Consistency in Change in Hepatitis B Knowledge among Three Different Types of Tests: True/False, Multiple Choice, and Fill in the Blanks Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recall of information about Hepatitis B demonstrated by 180 seventh graders was tested with three test types: (1) short-answer; (2) true/false; and (3) multiple-choice. Short answer testing was the most reliable. Suggestions are made for the use of short-answer tests in evaluating student knowledge. (SLD)

Sahai, Vic; Demeyere, Petra; Poirier, Sheila; Piro, Felice

1998-01-01

393

International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on E7 Studies in Support of Special Populations; Geriatrics; Questions and Answers; availability. Notice.  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled ``E7 Studies in Support of Special Populations: Geriatrics; Questions and Answers.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The questions and answers (Q&A) guidance addresses special considerations for the design and conduct of clinical trials of drugs likely to have significant use in the elderly. The Q&As are intended to provide guidance on the use of geriatric data to adequately characterize and represent the safety and efficacy of a drug for a marketing application, including data collected postmarketing. PMID:22379685

2012-02-21

394

Guide to the Family and Medical Leave Act: Questions & Answers. Fourth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) provided workers with the right to take time off from work to care for their families or themselves without fear of losing their jobs. Although this law is relatively straightforward, some employees and employers may be unsure about how it actually works. This guide is designed to answer many…

National Partnership for Women and Families, Washington, DC.

395

Guide to the Family and Medical Leave Act: Questions & Answers. Fourth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) provided workers with the right to take time off from work to care for their families or themselves without fear of losing their jobs. Although this law is relatively straightforward, some employees and employers may be unsure about how it actually works. This guide is designed to answer many…

National Partnership for Women and Families, Washington, DC.

396

Vermont Public Library Almanac: A Compendium of Often-Answered Questions. 2nd Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains brief answers to some of the most frequently raised issues related to running a small Vermont public library. Areas covered include accessibility, the American Library Association, automation, awards, binding, services for the blind and physically handicapped, the Board of Libraries, the Board of Trustees, book dealers,…

Kotch, Marianne

397

The development and validation of a two-tiered multiple-choice instrument to identify alternative conceptions in earth science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and understanding of earth science concepts, and to describe relationships between content knowledge and alternative conceptions and planning instruction in the science classroom. Eighty-seven preservice teachers enrolled in the MAT program participated in this study. Sixty-eight participants were female, twelve were male, and seven chose not to answer. Forty-seven participants were in the elementary certification program, five were in the middle school certification program, and twenty-nine were pursuing secondary certification. Results indicate that the two-tiered, multiple-choice format can be a reliable and valid method for identifying alternative conceptions. Preservice teachers in all certification areas who participated in this study may possess common alternative conceptions previously identified in the literature. Alternative conceptions included: all rivers flow north to south, the shadow of the Earth covers the Moon causing lunar phases, the Sun is always directly overhead at noon, weather can be predicted by animal coverings, and seasons are caused by the Earth's proximity to the Sun. Statistical analyses indicated differences, however not all of them significant, among all subgroups according to gender and certification area. Generally males outperformed females and preservice teachers pursuing middle school certification had higher scores on the questionnaire followed by those obtaining secondary certification. Elementary preservice teachers scored the lowest. Additionally, self-reported scores of confidence in one's answers and understanding of the earth science concept in question were analyzed. There was a slight positive correlation between overall score and both confidence and understanding. Responses on the questionnaire were investigated with respect to pedagogical choices. Evidence suggests that content knowledge and having alternative conceptions or science fragments may impact a teacher's pedagogical choices. Through careful development of instruments like ACES-Q II-R and other two- tiered, multiple-choice instruments, educators and researchers car not only identify possible alternative conceptions, they can raise an awareness of alternative conceptions held by children and adults.

Mangione, Katherine Anna

398

Efficient Validation of Teaching and Learning Using Multiple-Choice Exams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One purpose of this study was to quantify, by means of single-format, multiple-choice questions at the beginning and end of the course, the extent to which first-year medical students learn neuroscience material from an introductory course in their curriculum. A second goal was to evaluate a two-dimensional, computer-generated matrix as a way to assess test question validity and value.

PhD Mark DeSantis (University of Idaho Department of Biological Sciences/WWAMI Medical Education Program); PhD Thomas A. McKean (University of Idaho Department of Biological Sciences)

2003-03-01

399

The Role of Perceptual Availability and Discourse Context in Young Children's Question Answering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three- and four-year-old children were asked predicate-focus questions ("What's X doing?") about a scene in which an agent performed an action on a patient. We varied: (i) whether (or not) the preceding discourse context, which established the patient as given information, was available for the questioner; and (ii) whether (or not) the patient was…

Salomo, Dorothe; Graf, Eileen; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

2011-01-01

400

Exploiting Syntactic and Shallow Semantic Kernels to Improve Random Walks for Complex Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of answering complex ques- tions that require inferencing and synthesizing information from multiple documents and can be seen as a kind of topic- oriented, informative multi-document summarization. The stochastic, graph-based method for computing the relative importance of textual units (i.e. sentences) is very success- ful in generic summarization. In this method, a sentence is encoded as

Yllias Chali; Shafiq R. Joty

2008-01-01

401

Discussing the diagnosis of HPV-OSCC: Common questions and answers.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a rising proportion of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers (OSCCs). HPV-positive OSCCs (HPV-OSCCs) are associated with oral HPV infection and sexual behavior. Patient questions regarding risk factors, prognosis and implications for past, present and future relationships often arise. This manuscript addresses frequently asked questions by patients with HPV-OSCC and their families. A framework for clinicians to address these conversations and the limitations of our present knowledge base is also presented. PMID:23876627

Fakhry, Carole; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

2013-07-19

402

Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

Foubert, John D.

2011-01-01

403

The Use of Electronic Question and Answer Forums in Mathematics Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many mathematics educators share a view of mathematics as a social and cultural phenomenon and believe that the learning of mathematics concepts is developed and enhanced through the use of learning communities. Electronic discussion boards provide one avenue for supporting such social learning. This paper discusses the use of a Question and…

Schuck, Sandra

2003-01-01

404

Conceptions of Science Teaching Revealed by Metaphors and by Answers to Open-Ended Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares and contrasts conceptions of science teaching by using two methods: analysis of metaphors used to describe teaching, and responses to open-ended questions. Participants were pre-service science teachers with undergraduate degrees in either physics, chemistry, or biology. (Author/SAH)

BouJaoude, Saouma

2000-01-01

405

Answers to Your Questions for a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality  

MedlinePLUS

... Questions For a Better Understanding oF sexUal orientation & HomosexUality & S ince 1975, the American Psychological Association has called ... and bisexual people to find such support. Is homosexuality a mental disorder? No, lesbian, gay, and bisexual ...

406

Using computers to answer fundamental questions in combustion theory: an example from droplet combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many fundamental questions in combustion theory are either partially or totally intractable analytically. Thus, it is often desirable to use computed results to supplement information obtained by analytic means. We illustrate how computation can supplement analysis by examining the role of gas-phase unsteadiness in droplet vaporization and combustion. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

R. D. Janssen; P. J. ORourke

1985-01-01

407

Court Standards for Terminating Employees Under the ADA: Some Questions and Answers for Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990, managers have had to wrestle with the question of what to do when employees become disabled and can no longer perform their jobs as they had before. By law, managers are required to retain such employees if, with reasonable accommodations, they are able to perform their jobs' essential functions.

Lawrence S. Kleiman; David W. Denton

2000-01-01

408

How Do You Answer the Life on Mars Question. Use Multiple Small Landers Like Beagle 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To address one of the most important questions in planetary science Is there life on Mars. The scientific community must turn to less costly means of exploring the surface of the Red Planet. The United Kingdom's Beagle 2 Mars lander concept was a small me...

C. T. Pillinger E. K. Gibson I. P. Wright L. Richter M. R. Sims S. J. Hurst

2012-01-01

409

Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

Foubert, John D.

2011-01-01

410

Adult Neurogenesis in the Mammalian Brain: Significant Answers and Significant Questions  

PubMed Central

Summary Adult neurogenesis, a process of generating functional neurons from adult neural precursors, occurs throughout life in restricted brain regions in mammals. The past decade has witnessed tremendous progress in addressing questions related to almost every aspect of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. Here we review major advances in our understanding of adult mammalian neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and from the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb. We highlight emerging principles that have significant implications for stem cell biology, developmental neurobiology, neural plasticity, and disease mechanisms. We also discuss remaining questions related to adult neural stem cells and their niches, underlying regulatory mechanisms and potential functions of newborn neurons in the adult brain. Building upon the recent progress and aided by new technologies, the adult neurogenesis field is poised to leap forward in the next decade.

Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

2011-01-01

411

To Martyr or Not to Martyr: Jihad is the Question, What Policy is the Answer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of what policies may deter risk-taking actors who willingly commit suicide is not only theoretically challenging, but also of major importance to policymakers. Traditional deterrence theory, which is largely state-oriented, but has also delved into the realm of ordinary criminality, has not been adequately prepared to deal with individual or non-state actors who seem “irrational” because of their

Lee E. Dutter; Ofira Seliktar

2007-01-01

412

What’s Different, Ethically, About Nanotechnology?: Foundational Questions and Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether nanotechnology is ethically unique and “nanoethics” should be treated as a field in its own right remain important,\\u000a contested issues. This essay seeks to contribute to the debates on these issues by exploring several foundational questions\\u000a about the relationship of ethics and nanotechnology. Ethical issues related to nanotechnology exist and adoption of a defeasible\\u000a presumption that such issues amount

Robert E. McGinn

2010-01-01

413

Answering Gauguin's Questions in Particle Physics: Where are we coming from? What are we/ Where are we going?  

ScienceCinema

The knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, the so-called Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions. What is the origin of the matter in the Universe? How does its mass originate? What is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe? Are there additional dimensions of space? The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, where high-energy experiments have now started, will take physics into a new realm of energy and time, and will address these physics analogues of Gauguin's questions. The answers will set the stage for possible future experiments beyond the scope of the LHC.

414

Answering Gauguin's Questions in Particle Physics: Where are we coming from? What are we/ Where are we going?  

SciTech Connect

The knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, the so-called Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions. What is the origin of the matter in the Universe? How does its mass originate? What is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe? Are there additional dimensions of space? The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, where high-energy experiments have now started, will take physics into a new realm of energy and time, and will address these physics analogues of Gauguin's questions. The answers will set the stage for possible future experiments beyond the scope of the LHC.

Ellis, John (CERN)

2010-05-26

415

Questions and answers about the effects of the depletion of the ozone layer on humans and the environment.  

PubMed

The ozone molecule contains three atoms of oxygen and is mainly formed by the action of the ultraviolet rays of the sun on the diatomic oxygen molecules in the upper part of the Earth's atmosphere (called the stratosphere). Atmospheric pollution near the Earth's surface can form localized areas of ozone. The stratospheric ozone layer protects life on Earth by absorbing most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. In the mid 1970s it was discovered that some manmade products destroy ozone molecules in the stratosphere. This destruction can result in damage to ecosystems and to materials such as plastics. It may cause an increase in human diseases such as skin cancers and cataracts. The discovery of the role of the synthetic ozone-depleting chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) stimulated increased research and monitoring in this field. Computer models predicted a disaster if no action was taken to protect the ozone layer. Based on this research and monitoring, the nations of the world took action in 1985 with the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer followed by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987. The Convention and Protocol were amended and adjusted several times as new knowledge was obtained. The Meetings of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol appointed three Assessment Panels to review the progress in scientific knowledge on their behalf. These panels are the Scientific Assessment Panel, the Technological and Economic Assessment Panel and the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel. Each panel covers a designated area and there is a natural level of overlap. The main reports of the Panels are published every four years as required by the Meeting of the Parties. All the reports have an executive summary that is distributed more widely than the main report itself. It became customary to add a set of questions and answers--mainly for non-expert readers--to the executive summaries. This document contains the questions and answers prepared by experts who comprise the Environmental Assessment Panel. It is based mainly on the 2006 report of the Panel but also contains information from previous assessments. Readers who need detailed information on any question should consult the full reports for a more complete scientific discussion. This set of questions refers mainly to the environmental effects of ozone depletion and climate change. The report of the Scientific Assessment Panel contains questions and answers related to the other scientific issues addressed by that Panel. All these reports can be found on the UNEP website (http://ozone.unep.org). PMID:17344966

Aucamp, Pieter J

2007-02-01

416

Do calendrical savants use calculation to answer date questions? A functional magnetic resonance imaging study  

PubMed Central

Calendrical savants can name the weekdays for dates from different years with remarkable speed and accuracy. Whether calculation rather than just memory is involved is disputed. Grounds for doubting whether they can calculate are reviewed and criteria for attributing date calculation skills to them are discussed. At least some calendrical savants possess date calculation skills. A behavioural characteristic observed in many calendrical savants is increased response time for questions about more remote years. This may be because more remote years require more calculation or because closer years are more practised. An experiment is reported that used functional magnetic resonance imaging to attempt to discriminate between these explanations. Only two savants could be scanned and excessive head movement corrupted one savant's mental arithmetic data. Nevertheless, there was increased parietal activation during both mental arithmetic and date questions and this region showed increased activity with more remote dates. These results suggest that the calendrical skills observed in savants result from intensive practice with calculations used in solving mental arithmetic problems. The mystery is not how they solve these problems, but why.

Cowan, Richard; Frith, Chris

2009-01-01

417

Constructed-Response Test Questions: Why We Use Them; How We Score Them. R&D Connections. Number 11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To many people, standardized testing means multiple-choice testing. However, some tests contain questions that require the test taker to produce the answer, rather than simply choosing it from a list. The required response can be as simple as the writing of a single word as complex as the design of a laboratory experiment to test a scientific…

Livingston, Samuel A.

2009-01-01

418

Can zoo records help answer behavioral research questions? The case of the left-handed lemurs (Lemur catta).  

PubMed

Most zoos keep comprehensive records, which potentially form a database for use in answering some research questions, such as in veterinary and population management research. They have not, however, been widely used to answer questions about animal behavior and welfare. Here we try to assess the usefulness to behavioral research of two sorts of zoo records (ARKS, the Animal Records Keeping System, and student dissertations held on file) to test the hypothesis that ring-tailed lemurs with a left limb preference experience more negative social lives. We found that, as predicted, lemurs with a left limb preference (LH) received more aggression and were involved in less grooming than nonleft-preferent lemurs (NLH), though the differences were not statistically significant. Contrary to prediction, LH lemurs had fewer reported woundings than NLH lemurs, but again the difference was not statistically significant. We found that the ARKS reports did not contain sufficient quantified and systematic behavioral data for our purposes, although otherwise they provided an excellent context for interpreting results. The student dissertations were also of limited use, primarily because of the small time frame in which they were carried out. Because of these shortcomings we were unable to distinguish whether our inability to find significant effects was due to biological (perhaps hand preference had no consequences for the lemurs) or data reasons. We suggest that closer liaison between zoo research staff, zoo record keepers and academic supervisors could help to improve the usefulness of zoo records for behavioral research. PMID:21674604

Hosey, Geoff; Hill, Sonya P; Lherbier, Mary L

2011-06-14

419

Key Questions and Answers about Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A  

PubMed Central

Twenty-five years after it was identified as a circulating protein derived from the placenta but of unknown function, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) was discovered to be a novel zinc metalloproteinase expressed by a variety of cell types. Great progress has been made in understanding the biology of PAPP-A and its regulation during recent years, especially in regard to physiological and pathophysiological inflammatory injury responses. But much remains to be learned about this complex protein and its potential clinical implications outside of pregnancy. In this article we address some of the outstanding questions about PAPP-A, in particular about its newly emerging role in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system.

Conover, Cheryl A.

2012-01-01

420

An example of the use of systematic reviews to answer an effectiveness question.  

PubMed

Systematic reviews assist nurses, other health care providers, decision makers, and consumers in managing the explosion of health care information by synthesizing valid data and reporting the effects of interventions. Nurses are increasingly using systematic reviews to guide their practice and develop policy. The purpose of the article is to outline the steps involved in conducting a systematic review with examples taken from a systematic review titled "Strategies to Manage the Behavioral Symptoms Associated With Alzheimer's Disease." The steps of a systematic review include: (a) formulating a well-defined question, (b) developing relevance and validity tools, (c) conducting a comprehensive search to retrieve published and unpublished reports, (d) assessing the reports using relevance and validity tools, (e) data extraction, (f) synthesis of the findings, and (g) report writing. Understanding the steps involved in a systematic review will assist nurses in critically appraising reviews and in conducting their own reviews. PMID:12666642

Forbes, Dorothy A

2003-03-01

421

Feminist bioethics: toward developing a "feminist" answer to the surrogate motherhood question.  

PubMed

Although a wide variety of feminist approaches to bioethics presently share a common feminist methodology (sometimes referred to as "raising the woman question"), they do not all share the same feminist politics, ontology, epistemology, and ethics. As a result of their philosophical differences, feminist bioethicists do not always agree on which biomedical principles, practices, and policies are best suited to serving women's interests. In other words, some feminist bioethicists insist that so-called "assisted reproduction" enhances women's procreative liberty, while others claim that it does nothing of the sort. Although such disagreement among feminist bioethicists reassures the general public that the feminist "program" for bioethics is not ideologically monolithic, it also confuses the public, especially women. In order to overcome this confusion, feminist bioethicists should work toward developing the kind of shared theoretical base that will foster frequent consensus on the biomedical principles, practices, and policies most likely to serve the interests of most women in the U.S. today. PMID:11645320

Tong, Rosemarie

1996-03-01

422

Econometric analyses of national health expenditures: can positive economics help to answer normative questions?  

PubMed

The size of national health care expenditure is an important research and policy issue. This paper reviews theoretical and empirical analyses of an implied optimal size for a health sector. Various economic theories are explicitly or implicitly invoked, but none is fully satisfactory. Theory provides, at best, a loose justification for empirical specifications of health sector behaviour. Nevertheless, this has a large and growing empirical research industry. The complexity of the issues provides an excuse for reliance on empirical analyses using ad hoc models. The paper analyses aggregate time-series data, using the cointegration approach, on health, health care expenditures and national income. Only one national model met both statistical criteria and showed a significant relationship: between potential life years lost and health care expenditure in the UK. The case for any general relationships remains unproven. There is no objective scientific method to determine optimal health expenditure, nor should we expect one. However, positive analyses can help with normative questions. A better understanding of health expenditure determination would arise from better specification of the relationships, perhaps by analysis at a lower level of aggregation. PMID:8261033

McGuire, A; Parkin, D; Hughes, D; Gerard, K

1993-07-01

423

"Laying Bare of Questions Which Have Been Hidden by Answers": The English Language Arts Standards of the Common Core, K-5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors question the answer the national Common Core State Standards (CCSS, 2010) claims. The questions center on the validity of the new standardized tests based on the CCSS and teachers' evaluations being tied to student test scores on flawed tests. The proposed tests on the CCSS will position children as deficient, and will not recognize…

Gangi, Jane M.; Reilly, Mary Ann

2013-01-01

424

Questions and Answers  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... A: The process for decision-making on the application for approval of ... sources of data and information, including published peer-reviewed literature. ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/veterinarymedicineadvisorycommittee

425

Answering Questions about Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... driving accidents since 1983 is entirely due to the minimum drinking age. There must be more to it. A. Seat belt requirements, zero tolerance laws, increased enforcement, and frankly, increased public education ...

426

Mifeprex Questions and Answers  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... as certified registered nurse practitioners and nurse midwives, and ... they return to their health care provider for ... a single case of non-fatal heart attack ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

427

Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Refutes the notion that remedial readers are unable to use context clues, arguing that poor readers simply have difficulty with automatic word identification. Suggests three approaches to heighten students' sensitivity to the use of context clues. (MM)|

Pikulski, John J.

1988-01-01

428

Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... is 5%–7% and may be much higher in the elderly. Pneumococcal bacteremia (blood infection) occurs in about 25%– ... rate is high (30% overall, up to 80% in the elderly). Pneumococci are also a common cause of acute ...

429

Aspirin: Questions and Answers  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Studies showed that aspirin substantially reduces the risk of death and/ or non-fatal heart attacks in patients with a previous MI or unstable angina ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

430

One Question, Two Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the major policy challenges facing governments today are in some sense collective problems calling for joint solutions. However, even when effective solutions can be developed and implemented only through joint efforts, voluntary cooperation can be hard to establish and maintain, making it all the more impor- tant to understand the conditions for success and the causes of failure.

Arild Underdal

431

Questions & Answers: Raw Milk  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... 11. Does consuming raw milk cure some illnesses and allergies? There is no scientific evidence to demonstrate that raw ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/buystoreservesafefood

432

Answering the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a mother of a daughter with special needs, as well as to a son without, the author can say having had both experiences, all mothers, regardless of her children, struggle in one form or another. That may actually be a part of the job description: Mother: must be able to function well with minimal sleep; is capable of multi-tasking; be clever…

Wolfe, Julie Leavitt

2011-01-01

433

Questions and Answers: Polonium  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... For more information on radiation from common sources in the environment, go to the Department of Energy's web site. What is the FDA doing? ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recallsoutbreaksemergencies/safetyalertsadvisories

434

Questions and Answers - Provenge  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Enter Search terms. ... Adverse event reports come into FDA in many ways--either through MEDWATCH, directly to the Center, or through an FDA ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/cellulargenetherapyproducts/approvedproducts

435

ALERT Questions & Answers - Spanish  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... de que los proveedores, las empresas y los transportistas con tratados, practiquen medidas de seguridad de los ali mentos (por ejemplo ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/resourcesforyou

436

Questions&Answers  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Ensure that public storage warehousing and shipping operations (vehicles and vessels) practice appropriate security measures (for example ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/fooddefense

437

Questions and Answers: Polonium  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Geological Survey (USGS). Some of the wells are on dairy farms. FDA tested the milk from these farms. The results indicates ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recalls,%20outbreaks%20&%20emergencies/safetyalertsadvisories

438

Perchlorate Questions and Answers  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... a healthy diet consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which emphasizes eating a variety of foods across all food groups each day. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/chemicalcontaminants

439

Questions and Answers  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... those pertaining to manufacturing complexity, product exposure ... assessment and risk management principles to all ... of all cGMP requirements until it ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/manufacturing

440

Acrylamide Questions and Answers  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Acrylamide in food forms from sugars and an amino acid that are naturally present in food; it does not come from food packaging or the environment ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/chemicalcontaminants

441

Appropriateness of Advice: DCT and Multiple Choice Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates what can be learned about second language (L2) speech acts using English language multiple choice (MC) instruments and discourse completion tests (DCTs). The study focuses on the primary language (L1) responses of native speakers and the L2 responses given by speakers of Chinese to MC questionnaires and DCTs dealing with the…

Hinkel, Eli

1997-01-01

442

Multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We investigate student understanding of energy and momentum concepts at the level of introductory physics by designing and administering a 25-item multiple choice test and conducting individual interviews. We find that most students have difficulty in qualitatively interpreting basic principles related to energy and momentum and in applying them in physical situations.

Singh, Chandralekha; Rosengrant, David

2012-04-27

443

Multiple-Choice versus Free-Response: A Simulation Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Responses to a sample test were simulated for examinees under free-response and multiple-choice formats. Test score sets were correlated with randomly generated sets of unit-normal measures. The extent of superiority of free response tests was sufficiently small so that other considerations might justifiably dictate format choice. (Author/DWH)|

Frary, Robert B.

1985-01-01

444

The Writing of Multiple-Choice Mathematics Test Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is designed to assist mathematics teachers in writing multiple-choice test items. The steps in constructing test items are considered and suggestions for revising poorly constructed items are given. Poor items as well as good are considered and in some cases the changes needed to overcome weaknesses in an item are indicated. The revised…

Horn, Dorothy M.

445

Optimizing Multiple-Choice Tests as Learning Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although generally used for assessment, tests can also serve as tools for learning--but different test formats may not be equally beneficial. Specifically, research has shown multiple-choice tests to be less effective than cued-recall tests in improving the later retention of the tested information (e.g., see meta-analysis by Hamaker, 1986),…

Little, Jeri Lynn

2011-01-01

446

Using the Multiple Choice Procedure to Measure College Student Gambling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research suggests that gambling is similar to addictive behaviors such as substance use. In the current study, gambling was investigated from a behavioral economics perspective. The Multiple Choice Procedure (MCP) with gambling as the target behavior was used to assess for relative reinforcing value, the effect of alternative reinforcers, and…

Butler, Leon Harvey

2010-01-01

447

Multiple-Choice Test of Energy and Momentum Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates student understanding of energy and momentum concepts in introductory physics by designing and administering a 25-item, multiple-choice test and conducting individual interviews. Indicates that most students have difficulty in qualitatively interpreting basic principles related to energy and momentum and in applying them in physical…

Singh, Chandralekha; Rosengrant, David

2003-01-01

448

The use of SMIRP for the rapid design and implementation of pedagogical constructs: Case study of a question-answer-reference framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of SMIRP, a web-based collaborative tool, for an application in an undergraduate and a graduate class is described. SMIRP was used to rapidly construct a collaborative space where students could work on their assignment, request assistance and view their grades. The pedagogical construct was based on a question-answer-reference model where students were required to answer a series of

Jean-claude Bradley; Donald Mceachron; David Dorsey; Benjamin Samuel; Sundar Babu; Jeremy Boecker; Mohammad Haghkar; Jay Bhatt

2003-01-01

449

Potassium iodide (KI) to block the thyroid from exposure to I-131: current questions and answers to be discussed.  

PubMed

Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents has to be considered as the most severe health consequence of a nuclear reactor emergency with release of radioiodine into the atmosphere. High doses of potassium iodide are effective to block radioiodine thyroid uptake and to prevent development of thyroid cancer years later. However, there are controversies concerning thyroid cancer risk induced by radioiodine exposure in adults. Further, the interaction of nutritional supply of potassium iodide and radioiodine uptake as well as the interaction of radioiodine with certain drugs has not been addressed properly in existing guidelines and recommendations. How to proceed in case of repeated release of radioiodine is an open, very important question which came up again recently during the Fukushima accident. Lastly, the side effects of iodine thyroid blocking and alternatives of this procedure have not been addressed systematically up to now in guidelines and recommendations. These questions can be answered as follows: in adults, the risk to develop thyroid cancer is negligible. In countries, where nutritional iodine deficiency is still an issue, the risk to develop thyroid cancer after a nuclear reactor emergency has to be considered higher because the thyroid takes up more radioiodine as in the replete condition. Similarly, in patients suffering from thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism or endemic goitre not being adequately treated radioiodine uptake is higher than in healthy people. In case of repeated or continued radioiodine release, more than one dose of potassium iodide may be necessary and be taken up to 1 week. Repeated iodine thyroid blocking obviously is not harmful. Side effects of iodine thyroid blocking should not be overestimated; there is little evidence for adverse effects in adults. Newborns and babies, however, may be more sensitive to side effects. In the rare case of iodine hypersensitivity, potassium perchlorate may be applied as an alternative to iodine for thyroid blocking. PMID:23475155

Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Rita

2013-03-09

450

Comparison of the efficacy of three PubMed search filters in finding randomized controlled trials to answer clinical questions.  

PubMed

Objective? The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three search methods in the retrieval of relevant clinical trials from PubMed to answer specific clinical questions. Methods? Included studies of a sample of 100 Cochrane reviews which recorded in PubMed were considered as the reference standard. The search queries were formulated based on the systematic review titles. Precision, recall and number of retrieved records for limiting the results to clinical trial publication type, and using sensitive and specific clinical queries filters were compared. The number of keywords, presence of specific names of intervention and syndrome in the search keywords were used in a model to predict the recalls and precisions. Results? The Clinical queries-sensitive search strategy retrieved the largest number of records (33) and had the highest recall (41.6%) and lowest precision (4.8%). The presence of specific intervention name was the only significant predictor of all recalls and precisions (P?=?0.016). Conclusion? The recall and precision of combination of simple clinical search queries and methodological search filters to find clinical trials in various subjects were considerably low. The limit field strategy yielded in higher precision and fewer retrieved records and approximately similar recall, compared with the clinical queries-sensitive strategy. Presence of specific intervention name in the search keywords increased both recall and precision. PMID:20846321

Yousefi-Nooraie, Reza; Irani, Shirin; Mortaz-Hedjri, Soroush; Shakiba, Behnam

2010-09-16

451

CoPub update: CoPub 5.0 a text mining system to answer biological questions.  

PubMed

In this article, we present CoPub 5.0, a publicly available text mining system, which uses Medline abstracts to calculate robust statistics for keyword co-occurrences. CoPub was initially developed for the analysis of microarray data, but we broadened the scope by implementing new technology and new thesauri. In CoPub 5.0, we integrated existing CoPub technology with new features, and provided a new advanced interface, which can be used to answer a variety of biological questions. CoPub 5.0 allows searching for keywords of interest and its relations to curated thesauri and provides highlighting and sorting mechanisms, using its statistics, to retrieve the most important abstracts in which the terms co-occur. It also provides a way to search for indirect relations between genes, drugs, pathways and diseases, following an ABC principle, in which A and C have no direct connection but are connected via shared B intermediates. With CoPub 5.0, it is possible to create, annotate and analyze networks using the layout and highlight options of Cytoscape web, allowing for literature based systems biology. Finally, operations of the CoPub 5.0 Web service enable to implement the CoPub technology in bioinformatics workflows. CoPub 5.0 can be accessed through the CoPub portal http://www.copub.org. PMID:21622961

Fleuren, Wilco W M; Verhoeven, Stefan; Frijters, Raoul; Heupers, Bart; Polman, Jan; van Schaik, René; de Vlieg, Jacob; Alkema, Wynand

2011-05-27

452

CoPub update: CoPub 5.0 a text mining system to answer biological questions  

PubMed Central

In this article, we present CoPub 5.0, a publicly available text mining system, which uses Medline abstracts to calculate robust statistics for keyword co-occurrences. CoPub was initially developed for the analysis of microarray data, but we broadened the scope by implementing new technology and new thesauri. In CoPub 5.0, we integrated existing CoPub technology with new features, and provided a new advanced interface, which can be used to answer a variety of biological questions. CoPub 5.0 allows searching for keywords of interest and its relations to curated thesauri and provides highlighting and sorting mechanisms, using its statistics, to retrieve the most important abstracts in which the terms co-occur. It also provides a way to search for indirect relations between genes, drugs, pathways and diseases, following an ABC principle, in which A and C have no direct connection but are connected via shared B intermediates. With CoPub 5.0, it is possible to create, annotate and analyze networks using the layout and highlight options of Cytoscape web, allowing for literature based systems biology. Finally, operations of the CoPub 5.0 Web service enable to implement the CoPub technology in bioinformatics workflows. CoPub 5.0 can be accessed through the CoPub portal http://www.copub.org.

Fleuren, Wilco W. M.; Verhoeven, Stefan; Frijters, Raoul; Heupers, Bart; Polman, Jan; van Schaik, Rene; de Vlieg, Jacob; Alkema, Wynand

2011-01-01

453

The case for multimodal analysis of atypical interaction: Questions, answers and gaze in play involving a child with autism.  

PubMed

Abstract Conversation Analysis (CA) continues to accrue interest within clinical linguistics as a methodology that can enable elucidation of structural and sequential orderliness in interactions involving participants who produce ostensibly disordered communication behaviours. However, it can be challenging to apply CA to re-examine clinical phenomena that have initially been defined in terms of linguistics, as a logical starting point for analysis may be to focus primarily on the organisation of language ("talk") in such interactions. In this article, we argue that CA's methodological power can only be fully exploited in this research context when a multimodal analytic orientation is adopted, where due consideration is given to participants' co-ordinated use of multiple semiotic resources including, but not limited to, talk (e.g. gaze, embodied action, object use and so forth). To evidence this argument, a two-layered analysis of unusual question-answer sequences in a play episode involving a child with autism is presented. It is thereby demonstrated that only when the scope of enquiry is broadened to include gaze and other embodied action can an account be generated of orderliness within these sequences. This finding has important implications for CA's application as a research methodology within clinical linguistics. PMID:24067142

Muskett, Tom; Body, Richard

2013-09-25

454

Delay-retention effect with multiple-choice tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 194 high school juniors and seniors completed a multiple-choice test on topics in introductory psychology under various conditions of immediate and delayed feedback. On the same test 1 wk. later, delayed-feedback groups performed significantly better than immediate-feedback groups. Performance was best for groups that studied the feedback booklet prior to the initial test. Analyses were performed on

Raymond W. Kulhavy; Richard C. Anderson

1972-01-01

455

Measuring Strategy Use in Context with Multiple-Choice Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A number of authors have presented data that challenge the validity of self-report of strategy use or choice of strategy. We created a multiple-choice measure of students' strategy use based on the work of Kozminsky, E., and Kozminsky, L. (2001), and tested it with three samples as part of a series of studies testing the fit of the DIME model of…

Cromley, Jennifer; Azevedo, Roger

2011-01-01

456

Effective intraverbal training of children with autism to mand for questions to answers via the “I don’t know please tell me” response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review provides a summary and appraisal commentary on the treatment review by Ingvarsson, E. T., & Hollobaugh, T. (2010). Acquisition of intraverbal behavior: Teaching children with autism to mand for answers to questions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43, 1–17.Source of funding and disclosure of interest: No source of funding reported, and the original authors of this research report

Susan D. Johnson

2011-01-01

457

Answers to Questions From the Peer Review by Contracting Parties on the United States of America Third National Report for the Convention on Nuclear Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's answers to questions raised by contracting parties during their peer reviews of the Third U.S. National Report for the Convention on Nuclear Safety (NUREG-1650, Rev. 1). Contracting parties to...

2005-01-01

458

How To Talk to Your Kids about Really Important Things: For Children Four to Twelve. Specific Questions and Answers and Useful Things To Say.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended to help parents find the words they need to talk to their children and answer their children's practical questions, this book offers practical guidance on a wide range of life's experiences, from family changes such as divorce and remarriage, to controversial subjects such as child abuse and AIDS. The major focus is on children ages 4 to…

Schaefer, Charles E.; DiGeronimo, Theresa Foy

459

The Family and Medical Leave Act: What It Means for Caregivers in the Workplace. Questions and Answers for Employees and Employers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) is intended to protect employees' job and health benefits while they are on leave for certain family and health needs. This publication provides, in question-answer format, a description of the rights and obligations of employees and employers as stipulated by the FMLA. The report focuses on the…

American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

460

Analysis of Requests Made to the National Children's Bureau Question and Answer Service. Design of Information Systems in the Social Sciences. Research Reports Series B, Number Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A sample of 564 inquiries made to the National Children's Bureau (NCB) question and answer service during 1970-72 was analyzed. Three-quarters of all inquiries came by letter, and nearly all the remainder by telephone. Apart from inquiries concerning the NCB itself, inquiries were mostly for information on a variety of topics concerned with…

Bath Univ. of Technology (England). Univ. Library.

461

Chapter 9 From search engines to question answering systems — The problems of world knowledge, relevance, deduction and precisiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing search engines, with Google at the top, have many truly remarkable capabilities. Furthermore, constant progress is being made in improving their performance. But what is not widely recognized is that there is a basic capability which existing search engines do not have: deduction capability — the capability to synthesize an answer to a query by drawing on bodies of

Lotfi A. Zadeh

2006-01-01

462

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...However, nothing in the EAR relieves you of responsibility for conforming to any controls you...into the hands of the PRC scientist. Do we need to obtain a license to protect against that possibility...Answer: No. The EAR do not...

2009-01-01

463

Questions  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Questions Sildenafil July 29, 2010 DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Health Service Food and Drug Administration ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

464

Feedback enhances the positive effects and reduces the negative effects of multiple-choice testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-choice tests are used frequently in higher education without much consideration of the impact this form of assessment\\u000a has on learning. Multiple-choice testing enhances retention of the material tested (the testing effect); however, unlike other\\u000a tests, multiple-choice can also be detrimental because it exposes students to misinformation in the form of lures. The selection\\u000a of lures can lead students to

Andrew C. Butler; Henry L. Roediger

2008-01-01

465

A Combination of Hand-held Models and Computer Imaging Programs Helps Students Answer Oral Questions about Molecular Structure and Function: A Controlled Investigation of Student Learning  

PubMed Central

We conducted a controlled investigation to examine whether a combination of computer imagery and tactile tools helps introductory cell biology laboratory undergraduate students better learn about protein structure/function relationships as compared with computer imagery alone. In all five laboratory sections, students used the molecular imaging program, Protein Explorer (PE). In the three experimental sections, three-dimensional physical models were made available to the students, in addition to PE. Student learning was assessed via oral and written research summaries and videotaped interviews. Differences between the experimental and control group students were not found in our typical course assessments such as research papers, but rather were revealed during one-on-one interviews with students at the end of the semester. A subset of students in the experimental group produced superior answers to some higher-order interview questions as compared with students in the control group. During the interview, students in both groups preferred to use either the hand-held models alone or in combination with the PE imaging program. Students typically did not use any tools when answering knowledge (lower-level thinking) questions, but when challenged with higher-level thinking questions, students in both the control and experimental groups elected to use the models.

Peck, Ronald F.; Colton, Shannon; Morris, Jennifer; Chaibub Neto, Elias; Kallio, Julie

2009-01-01

466

A Different Approach to Answering a Good Question: A Response to Hewes's Models of Communication Effects on Small Group Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the authors' response to Hewes's (1986, 1996, 2009) models of communication effects on small group outcomes. As sophisticated and thoughtful as Hewes's new model is, however, the authors take issue with it. For one, there is reason to question whether his approach is feasible. For another, his models are not founded on solid…

Bonito, Joseph A.; Sanders, Robert E.

2009-01-01

467

A Multiple-Choice Task with Changes of Mind  

PubMed Central

The role of changes of mind and multiple choices has recently received increased attention in the study of perceptual decision-making. Previously, these extensions to standard two-alternative tasks have been studied separately. Here we explored how changes of mind depend on the number of choice-alternatives. To this end, we tested 14 human subjects on a 2- and 4-alternative direction-discrimination task. Changes of mind in the participants' movement trajectories could be observed for two and for four choice alternatives. With fewer alternatives, participants responded faster and more accurately. The frequency of changes of mind, however, did not significantly differ for the different numbers of choice alternatives. Nevertheless, mind-changing improved the participants' final performance, particularly for intermediate difficulty levels, in both experimental conditions. Moreover, the mean reaction times of individual participants were negatively correlated with their overall tendency to make changes of mind. We further reproduced these findings with a multi-alternative attractor model for decision-making, while a simple race model could not account for the experimental data. Our experiment, combined with the theoretical models allowed us to shed light on: (1) the differences in choice behavior between two and four alternatives, (2) the differences between the data of our human subjects and previous monkey data, (3) individual differences between participants, and (4) the inhibitory interaction between neural representations of choice alternatives.

Albantakis, Larissa; Branzi, Francesca M.; Costa, Albert; Deco, Gustavo

2012-01-01

468

Dissemination of reproductive health knowledge by questions and answers through telephone hotline: a feasibility study in Myanmar.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of disseminating reproductive health (RH) information to the general public of Myanmar in a confidential, anonymous and interactive way through a telephone hotline. We carried out a cross-sectional study using a short questionnaire interview with the RH hotline callers and analyzing sample audio recordings of conversations. The hotline was advertised in print media. It was answered by trained hotline responders (medical doctors) of Department of Madical Research (Lower Myanmar) (DMR-LM). There were 743 calls during six months, from all 14 States and Divisions. Most of the calls were from Yangon, Mandalay and Bago Division. Both male (48%) and female (52%) callers used the hotline. The majority of callers (74%) were between 25 and 45 years old; 21% were young people (15-25 years old). Married people (81%) used the hotline more than singles (19%). Most of the callers (91%) had a high school to graduate education level. The most frequently asked topics were infertility (23%), birth spacing (22%), sexual problems (13%) and adolescent health, including reproductive function (12%). The anonymity of the callers, the non-judgmental attitudes of the responders and the use of media for publicity appeared to facilitate the use of the hotline by the public. More linkages with service entry points, enhancement of communication skills, sexual counselling training and use of media can improve topic coverage and utilization of the reproductive health hotline. PMID:21323180

Ko-Ko-Zaw; Than-Tun-sein; Kyaw-Minn; Khin-Maung-lwin; Ye-Htut; Yin-Thet-Nu-Oo; Theingi-Myint; San-Shwe; Khin-Pyone-Kyi

2011-01-01

469

The Effect of Type and Timing of Feedback on Learning from Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated how the type and timing of feedback influence learning from a multiple-choice test. First, participants read 12 prose passages, which covered various general knowledge topics (e.g., The Sun) and ranged between 280 and 300 words in length. Next, they took an initial six-alternative, multiple-choice test on information…

Butler, Andrew C.; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Roediger, Henry L., III

2007-01-01

470

Multiple Choice Examination System 1. Database Design and Implementation for General Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the main aspects and implementation of the classification system, database design and software, implementation of a multiple choice examination system for general chemistry in order to generate tests for student evaluation. The testing system was used to generate items for multiple choice examinations for first year undergraduate students in Material Engineering and Environmental Engineering from Technical University

Horea Iustin; Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

2004-01-01

471

Sample Selection Effect on AP Multiple-Choice Score to Composite Score Scaling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scores on the multiple-choice sections of alternate forms are equated through anchor-test equating for the Advanced Placement Program (AP) examinations. There is no linkage of free-response sections since different free-response items are given yearly. However, the free-response and multiple-choice sections are combined to produce a composite.…

Yang, Wen-Ling; Dorans, Neil J.; Tateneni, Krishna

472

Multiple Choice Testing and the Retrieval Hypothesis of the Testing Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking a test often leads to enhanced later memory for the tested information, a phenomenon known as the "testing effect". This memory advantage has been reliably demonstrated with recall tests but not multiple choice tests. One potential explanation for this finding is that multiple choice tests do not rely on retrieval processes to the same…

Sensenig, Amanda E.

2010-01-01

473

Multiple Choice Testing and the Retrieval Hypothesis of the Testing Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Taking a test often leads to enhanced later memory for the tested information, a phenomenon known as the "testing effect". This memory advantage has been reliably demonstrated with recall tests but not multiple choice tests. One potential explanation for this finding is that multiple choice tests do not rely on retrieval processes to the same…

Sensenig, Amanda E.

2010-01-01

474

Treatment of burns in the first 24 hours: simple and practical guide by answering 10 questions in a step-by-step form  

PubMed Central

Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose.

2012-01-01

475

Rarely selected distractors in high stakes medical multiple-choice examinations and their recognition by item authors: a simulation and survey  

PubMed Central

Background Many medical exams use 5 options for multiple choice questions (MCQs), although the literature suggests that 3 options are optimal. Previous studies on this topic have often been based on non-medical examinations, so we sought to analyse rarely selected, 'non-functional' distractors (NF-D) in high stakes medical examinations, and their detection by item authors as well as psychometric changes resulting from a reduction in the number of options. Methods Based on Swiss Federal MCQ examinations from 2005-2007, the frequency of NF-D (selected by <1% or <5% of the candidates) was calculated. Distractors that were chosen the least or second least were identified and candidates who chose them were allocated to the remaining options using two extreme assumptions about their hypothetical behaviour: In case rarely selected distractors were eliminated, candidates could randomly choose another option - or purposively choose the correct answer, from which they had originally been distracted. In a second step, 37 experts were asked to mark the least plausible options. The consequences of a reduction from 4 to 3 or 2 distractors - based on item statistics or on the experts' ratings - with respect to difficulty, discrimination and reliability were modelled. Results About 70% of the 5-option-items had at least 1 NF-D selected by <1% of the candidates (97% for NF-Ds selected by <5%). Only a reduction to 2 distractors and assuming that candidates would switch to the correct answer in the absence of a 'non-functional' distractor led to relevant differences in reliability and difficulty (and to a lesser degree discrimination). The experts' ratings resulted in slightly greater changes compared to the statistical approach. Conclusions Based on item statistics and/or an expert panel's recommendation, the choice of a varying number of 3-4 (or partly 2) plausible distractors could be performed without marked deteriorations in psychometric characteristics.

2010-01-01

476

Chiropractic care and public health: answering difficult questions about safety, care through the lifespan, and community action.  

PubMed

The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues through the lifespan, and effective participation in community health issues. The questions that are addressed include: Is spinal manipulative therapy for neck and low-back pain a public health problem? What is the role of chiropractic care in prevention or reduction of musculoskeletal injuries in children? What ways can doctors of chiropractic stay updated on evidence-based information about vaccines and immunization throughout the lifespan? Can smoking cessation be a prevention strategy for back pain? Does chiropractic have relevance within the VA Health Care System for chronic pain and comorbid disorders? How can chiropractic use cognitive behavioral therapy to address chronic low back pain as a public health problem? What opportunities exist for doctors of chiropractic to more effectively serve the aging population? What is the role of ethics and the contribution of the chiropractic profession to public health? What public health roles can chiropractic interns perform for underserved communities in a collaborative environment? Can the chiropractic profession contribute to community health? What opportunities do doctors of chiropractic have to be involved in health care reform in the areas of prevention and public health? What role do citizen-doctors of chiropractic have in organizing community action on health-related matters? How can our future chiropractic graduates become socially responsible agents of change? PMID:23069244

Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre; Hestbaek, Lise; Injeyan, H Stephen; Puhl, Aaron; Green, Bart; Napuli, Jason G; Dunn, Andrew S; Dougherty, Paul; Killinger, Lisa Zaynab; Page, Stacey A; Stites, John S; Ramcharan, Michael; Leach, Robert A; Byrd, Lori D; Redwood, Daniel; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah R

2012-09-01

477

Do cortical gamma oscillations promote or suppress perception? An under-asked question with an over-assumed answer  

PubMed Central

Cortical gamma oscillations occur alongside perceptual processes, and in proportion to perceptual salience. They have a number of properties that make them ideal candidates to explain perception, including incorporating synchronized discharges of neural assemblies, and their emergence over a fast timescale consistent with that of perception. These observations have led to widespread assumptions that gamma oscillations' role is to cause or facilitate conscious perception (i.e., a “positive” role). While the majority of the human literature on gamma oscillations is consistent with this interpretation, many or most of these studies could equally be interpreted as showing a suppressive or inhibitory (i.e., “negative”) role. For example, presenting a stimulus and recording a response of increased gamma oscillations would only suggest a role for gamma oscillations in the representation of that stimulus, and would not specify what that role were; if gamma oscillations were inhibitory, then they would become selectively activated in response to the stimulus they acted to inhibit. In this review, we consider two classes of gamma oscillations: “broadband” and “narrowband,” which have very different properties (and likely roles). We first discuss studies on gamma oscillations that are non-discriminatory, with respect to the role of gamma oscillations, followed by studies that specifically support specifically a positive or negative role. These include work on perception in healthy individuals, and in the pathological contexts of phantom perception and epilepsy. Reference is based as much as possible on magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) studies, but we also consider evidence from invasive recordings in humans and other animals. Attempts are made to reconcile findings within a common framework. We conclude with a summary of the pertinent questions that remain unanswered, and suggest how future studies might address these.

Sedley, William; Cunningham, Mark O.

2013-01-01

478

Validity of Scoring "Dangerous Answers" on a Written Certification Examination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of the use of "dangerous answers" as a scoring method for certification examinations in anesthesiology concluded that selection of dangerous answers in multiple-choice tests results from lack of information rather than purposeful action, and that implementation of the scoring method is unjustified and unfairly punitive. (MSE)|

Slogoff, Stephen; Hughes, Francis P.

1987-01-01

479

Validity of Scoring "Dangerous Answers" on a Written Certification Examination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the use of "dangerous answers" as a scoring method for certification examinations in anesthesiology concluded that selection of dangerous answers in multiple-choice tests results from lack of information rather than purposeful action, and that implementation of the scoring method is unjustified and unfairly punitive. (MSE)

Slogoff, Stephen; Hughes, Francis P.

1987-01-01

480

Mifeprex (Mifepristone) Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... countries, in the early 1990’s, three prostaglandins, misoprostol, sulprostone, and gemeprost, were used with mifepristone to terminate ... of the more than 60,000 women given sulprostone (an injected prostaglandin) with mifepristone in other countries. ...

481

Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... travelers before departure are Canada, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. How does a person know if ... except the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, New Zealand, and Australia • Men who have sex with men • ...

482

Tamiflu: Consumer Questions and Answers  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... amount of sweetened liquid such as regular or sugar-free chocolate syrup. You don't have to use chocolate syrup but thick, sweet liquids work best ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

483

Relenza: Consumer Questions and Answers  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... should never be opened and mixed into a liquid. ... Talk with your healthcare provider if you have ... What are the most common side effects of Relenza? ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

484

Medication Disposal: Questions and Answers  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... 1; Keeping medicines after they are no longer needed creates an unnecessary ... to one of these medicines has also been published in the literature. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

485

Questions & Answers Concerning 483 Inspectional ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Quality Egg LLC is the legal name of the business in Iowa, which includes a number of layer farms, pullet farms and a feed mill. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recalls,%20outbreaks%20&%20emergencies/outbreaks

486

Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... all drinkers need to be aware that even moderate amounts of alcohol can significantly impair driving performance, even when they ... is, alcohol abuse or alcoholism--can be mild, moderate, or severe. People with an alcohol use disorder can be highly functioning, highly compromised, ...

487

Questions and Answers about BSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulk Synchronous Parallelism (BSP) is a parallel programming model that abstracts fromlow-level program structures in favour of supersteps. A superstep consists of a set of independentlocal computations, followed by a global communication phase and a barrier synchronisation.Structuring programs in this way enables their costs to be accurately determined froma few simple architectural parameters, namely the permeability of the communication networkto

David B. Skillicorn; Jonathan M. D. Hill; William F. Mccoll

1997-01-01

488

Questions and Answers on Natalizumab  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Natalizumab is approved to treat patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis to reduce the frequency of exacerbations. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

489

Counterfeit Drugs Questions and Answers  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... system: (1) Lipitor tablets, a cholesterol-lowering medication, (2) Procrit, an injectable drug used to stimulate red blood cell growth, and (3) Alli, an ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety

490

Questions and Answers on Velcade  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... they had received at least two previous types of chemotherapy. ... likely to have a valuable effect on survival ... 10. What are the side effects of Velcade? ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

491

Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Quick Links: Skip to main page content Skip to Search Skip to Topics Menu Skip to Section Content Menu Skip to Common Links. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/emergencypreparedness/bioterrorismanddrugpreparedness

492

Answers to Questions: Nuclear Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Electricity is an increasingly important part of our everyday lives. Its versatility allows one to heat, cool, and light homes; cook meals; watch television; listen to music; power computers; make medical diagnosis and treatment; explore the vastness of space; and study the tiniest molecules. Nuclear energy, second to coal, surpasses natural gas,…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

493

Internet firewalls: questions and answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As organizations consider connecting to the Internet, the issue of internetwork security becomes more important. There are many tools and components that can be used to secure a network, one of which is a firewall. Modern firewalls offer highly flexible private network security by controlling and monitoring all communications passing into or out of the private network. Specifically designed for security, firewalls become the private network's single point of attack from Internet intruders. Application gateways (or proxies) that have been written to be secure against even the most persistent attacks ensure that only authorized users and services access the private network. One-time passwords prevent intruders from `sniffing' and replaying the usernames and passwords of authorized users to gain access to the private network. Comprehensive logging permits constant and uniform system monitoring. `Address spoofing' attacks are prevented. The private network may use registered or unregistered IP addresses behind the firewall. Firewall-to-firewall encryption establishes a `virtual private network' across the Internet, preventing intruders from eavesdropping on private communications, eliminating the need for costly dedicated lines.

Ker, Keith

1996-03-01

494

Biosimilars: Questions and Answers Regarding ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... 7001 through 7003 of the Patient Protection and Affordable ... providers or patients, for patients to be ... condition of use and patient population for which ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

495

Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... proprietary "brand" name," then search again by ... brand name" manufacturer when searching by the ... Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

496

Answering Your Digital Imaging Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two reasons why institutions should create digital image files--access and preservation. Suggests a collection survey for determining what to scan. Describes the five most important technical issues of digital imaging: resolution, file formats, storage, refreshment, and copyright. Discusses digitization of manuscript collections and…

Koelling, Jill Marie

1998-01-01

497

Accutane (isotretinoin) Questions and Answers  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... requires each female patient who can become pregnant to access the iPLEDGE ... treatment to enter the two chosen forms of birth control and to ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

498

Greenland: More Questions than Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Journal entries, reflections, and interviews from a phenomenological study indicate the benefits experienced by 70 British youth participating in a six-week Greenland expedition. Themes emerging from the data include reflection on values, life and career plans, friendships and relationships, connectedness to self and society, environmental…

Allison, Pete

1998-01-01

499

Helping Teens Answer the Question \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second of a four-part series that will explore adolescence in terms of physical, cognitive, social, and moral development. This publication will focus on the cognitive development that adolescents experience. The journey from childhood to adolescence is very challenging. Between the ages of 10 and 17 there are major changes in physical, cognitive, social, and moral development. The

Rosemary V. Barnett

500

Question Answering with Textual CBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we show how case-based reasoning (CBR) techniques can be applied to document retrieval. The fundamental idea\\u000a is to automatically convert textual documents into appropriate case representations and use these to retrieve relevant documents\\u000a in a problem situation. In contrast to Information Retrieval techniques, we assume that a Textual CBR system focuses on a\\u000a particular domain and thus

Mario Lenz; André Hübner; Mirjam Kunze

1998-01-01