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1

Multiple choice questions revisited.  

PubMed

MCQs of the multiple true/false (MTF) variety were widely used in summative assessment 25 years ago. They could test a number of skills in addition to recall of factual knowledge, and were reliable, discriminatory, reproducible and cost-effective. However, there are now considerable doubts about their construct validity, mainly because of the varying responses of examinees to negative countermarking and the 'don't know' option, and the strategies they use when sitting examinations. Extended matching and one-from-five questions are now preferable, and negative countermarking is outmoded. MTF questions are still valuable in formative assessment and revision but are not recommended for summative examinations. PMID:15203517

Anderson, John

2004-03-01

2

Sometimes Adults Miss the Main Ideas and Do Not Realize It: Confidence in Responses to Short-Answer and Multiple-Choice Comprehension Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relation between question characteristics and awareness of comprehension. Finds that readers have great confidence that their answers to thematic questions in both short-answer and multiple-choice formats are correct, even when they were wrong. Suggests that readers of challenging, inconsiderate texts are unaware of gross…

Pressley, Michael; And Others

1990-01-01

3

Challenging Multiple-Choice Questions to Engage Critical Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines a technique for engaging critical thinking on multiple-choice exams. University students were encouraged to "challenge" the validity of any exam question they believed to be unfair (e.g., more than one equally correct answer, ambiguous wording, etc.). The number of valid challenges a student wrote was a better…

Kerkman, Dennis D.; Johnson, Andrew T.

2014-01-01

4

Maximizing Reliability in Multiple Choice Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Serlin-Kaiser procedure is used to complete a principal components solution for scoring weights for all options of a given item. Coefficient alpha is maximized for a given multiple choice test. (Author/GK)

Willson, Victor L.

1982-01-01

5

Writing/Using Multiple-Choice Questions to Assess Higher-Order Thinking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most graduate entrance exams (including the GRE, MCAT, and DAT) are based on multiple-choice questions. Many later exams, such as the medical board exams, are also multiple choice. Therefore, it is important to make sure that students are prepared for higher-order multiple choice exams and the reasoning that is required to answer the questions in a proficient manner. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Preface, and Index. As a special bonus, Chapter 24, entitled Eleven Assessment Lessons Learned at the Gate is also included.

Kerry L. Cheesman, Capital University, Columbus, Ohio

2009-02-01

6

Does the Answer Order Matter on Multiple-Choice Exams?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surprising version-dependent differences are noted in student performance on certain questions in a standardized general chemistry exam. The exam in question has two versions, on which both questions and answers are ordered differently. For the questions suspected of answer-order bias, the performance is better in ten of twelve cases when students…

Tellinghuisen, Joel; Sulikowski, Michelle M.

2008-01-01

7

[Continuing medical education: how to write multiple choice questions].  

PubMed

Evaluating professional competence in medicine is a difficult but indispensable task because it makes it possible to evaluate, at different times and from different perspectives, the extent to which the knowledge, skills, and values required for exercising the profession have been acquired. Tests based on multiple choice questions have been and continue to be among the most useful tools for objectively evaluating learning in medicine. When these tests are well designed and correctly used, they can stimulate learning and even measure higher cognitive skills. Designing a multiple choice test is a difficult task that requires knowledge of the material to be tested and of the methodology of test preparation as well as time to prepare the test. The aim of this article is to review what can be evaluated through multiple choice tests, the rules and guidelines that should be taken into account when writing multiple choice questions, the different formats that can be used, the most common errors in elaborating multiple choice tests, and how to analyze the results of the test to verify its quality. PMID:23489769

Soler Fernández, R; Méndez Díaz, C; Rodríguez García, E

2013-06-01

8

Assessing Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) Tests--A Mathematical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reasoning behind popular methods for analysing the raw data generated by multiple choice question (MCQ) tests is not always appreciated, occasionally with disastrous results. This article discusses and analyses three options for processing the raw data produced by MCQ tests. The article shows that one extreme option is not to penalize a…

Scharf, Eric M.; Baldwin, Lynne P.

2007-01-01

9

Guidelines for the construction of multiple choice questions tests.  

PubMed

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) are generally recognized as the most widely applicable and useful type of objective test items. They could be used to measure the most important educational outcomes - knowledge, understanding, judgment and problem solving. The objective of this paper is to give guidelines for the construction of MCQs tests. This includes the construction of both "single best option" type, and "extended matching item" type. Some templates for use in the "single best option" type of questions are recommended. PMID:23012132

Al-Rukban, Mohammed O

2006-09-01

10

Graded Multiple Choice Questions: Rewarding Understanding and Preventing Plagiarism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an easily implemented method that allows the generation and analysis of graded multiple-choice examinations. The technique, which uses standard functions in user-end software (Microsoft Excel 5+), can also produce several different versions of an examination that can be employed to prevent the reward of plagarism. The manuscript also discusses the advantages of having a graded marking system for the elimination of ambiguities, use in multi-step calculation questions, and questions that require extrapolation or reasoning. The advantages of the scrambling strategy, which maintains the same question order, is discussed with reference to student equity. The system provides a non-confrontational mechanism for dealing with cheating in large-class multiple-choice examinations, as well as providing a reward for problem solving over surface learning.

Denyer, G. S.; Hancock, D.

2002-08-01

11

A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

2011-01-01

12

The Database Format Question: An Alternative to Multiple Choice and Free Format for Computer Based Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of computer-based testing (CBT) focuses on the development of the database format question (DFQ) which allows the user to build up a more complex answer than multiple choice by selecting items from a database presented on the computer screen. Programing is explained and an evaluation of DFQ is included. (Seven references) (LRW)

Fry, D. J.

1990-01-01

13

Multiple-Choice and Short-Answer Exam Performance in a College Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors experimentally investigated the effects of multiple-choice and short-answer format exam items on exam performance in a college classroom. They randomly assigned 50 students to take a 10-item short-answer pretest or posttest on two 50-item multiple-choice exams in an introduction to personality course. Students performed significantly…

Funk, Steven C.; Dickson, K. Laurie

2011-01-01

14

A practical discussion to avoid common pitfalls when constructing multiple choice questions items  

PubMed Central

This paper is an attempt to produce a guide for improving the quality of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) used in undergraduate and postgraduate assessment. Multiple Choice Questions type is the most frequently used type of assessment worldwide. Well constructed, context rich MCQs have a high reliability per hour of testing. Avoidance of technical items flaws is essential to improve the validity evidence of MCQs. Technical item flaws are essentially of two types (i) related to testwiseness, (ii) related to irrelevant difficulty. A list of such flaws is presented together with discussion of each flaw and examples to facilitate learning of this paper and to make it learner friendly. This paper was designed to be interactive with self-assessment exercises followed by the key answer with explanations. PMID:21359033

Al-Faris, Eiad A.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Abdel-Hameed, Ahmad A.; Al-Rukban, Mohammed O.

2010-01-01

15

A practical discussion to avoid common pitfalls when constructing multiple choice questions items.  

PubMed

This paper is an attempt to produce a guide for improving the quality of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) used in undergraduate and postgraduate assessment. Multiple Choice Questions type is the most frequently used type of assessment worldwide. Well constructed, context rich MCQs have a high reliability per hour of testing. Avoidance of technical items flaws is essential to improve the validity evidence of MCQs. Technical item flaws are essentially of two types (i) related to testwiseness, (ii) related to irrelevant difficulty. A list of such flaws is presented together with discussion of each flaw and examples to facilitate learning of this paper and to make it learner friendly. This paper was designed to be interactive with self-assessment exercises followed by the key answer with explanations. PMID:21359033

Al-Faris, Eiad A; Alorainy, Ibrahim A; Abdel-Hameed, Ahmad A; Al-Rukban, Mohammed O

2010-05-01

16

Using Multiple-Choice Questions to Evaluate In-Depth Learning of Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice questions are the basis of a significant portion of assessment in introductory economics courses. However, these questions, as found in course assessments, test banks, and textbooks, often fail to evaluate students' abilities to use and apply economic analysis. The authors conclude that multiple-choice questions can be used to…

Buckles, Stephen; Siegfried, John J.

2006-01-01

17

Can free-response questions be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions can be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another, similar introductory physics course on the final exam. Our findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance on the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2013-08-01

18

Assessment of medical knowledge: the pros and cons of using true/false multiple choice questions.  

PubMed

True/false multiple choice items, commonly referred to as true/ false multiple choice questions (MCQs), were previously a widely used selected response examination format. They can be written relatively easily and cover a wide range of content. Educational researchers have however highlighted several adverse features of this format that make it inappropriate for many assessment settings. These include: (i) there is a high chance of guessing the correct answer; (ii) some marks are not awarded for knowing the correct answer, but for knowing that an answer is incorrect; (iii) they are weak in discriminating between high and low performers; (iv) identifying items which are absolutely true or false may lead to assessment of trivial knowledge; (v) there are difficulties with constructing flawless items; (vi) they may not encourage learning around the items; and (vii) they may not assess what they purport to assess. Many assessment agencies abandoned the use of this format decades ago due to these shortcomings. The use of single best answer (SBA) and extended matching item (EMI) formats helps overcome or minimize the above weaknesses. Assessors who plan to change to SBA or EMI formats from true/false MCQs may, however, need to increase the number of questions to include a representative sample of the curriculum (lengthening the question paper). However, they may not need to increase the examination time, as in general students can answer more SBAs or EMIs than true/false MCQs per unit time. It is time that we reflect upon the disadvantages of true/false MCQs and review their place in our assessment toolkit, as their use in summative examinations may not be fair to students, especially 'good' students. PMID:22208143

Chandratilake, Madawa; Davis, Margery; Ponnamperuma, Gominda

2011-01-01

19

Testing Collective Memory: Representing the Soviet Union on Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article tests the assumption that state-mandated multiple-choice history exams are a cultural tool for disseminating an "official" collective memory. Findings from a qualitative study of a collection of multiple-choice questions that relate to the history of the Soviet Union are presented. The 263 questions all come from New York State…

Reich, Gabriel A.

2011-01-01

20

Multiple-Answer Multiple-Choice Test Items: Responding and Scoring Through Bayes and Minimax Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multiple-answer multiple-choice test is one which offers several alternate choices for each stem and any number of those choices may be considered to be correct. In this article, a class of scoring procedures called the binary class is discussed. (Author/JKS)

Duncan, George T.; Milton, E. O.

1978-01-01

21

Peer generation of multiple-choice questions: student engagement and experiences.  

PubMed

A free online system for generation of multiple-choice questions (PeerWise) was implemented in three courses (course A, B, and C) in two different years (second and third year) of a veterinary degree program. Students were asked to author questions, and answer and rate each other's questions. Student experiences of the system were explored using an online survey. The majority of students in both years either agreed or strongly agreed that both authoring and answering questions was helpful for their studies and wanted to use the system again in future courses. Thematic analysis highlighted students' views that engaging with the resource increased breadth and depth of knowledge and understanding and was very useful for revision purposes. There was a statistically significant difference between students in second and third year regarding whether students felt it was necessary for academic staff to be involved in the review process. Thematic analysis of this aspect identified issues relating to confidence in the ability of the peer group and the need for reassurance in the second-year group. Student engagement with the system was correlated with examination performance. In courses A and B there was a positive correlation between number of questions answered and examination performance, in course C there was no correlation. This study highlights the benefits of peer activity around question generation and proposes that such activities are an efficient and effective means to support student learning. PMID:23187030

Rhind, Susan M; Pettigrew, Graham W

2012-01-01

22

Comparison of Performance on Multiple-Choice Questions and Open-Ended Questions in an Introductory Astronomy Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When considering the variety of questions that can be used to measure students' learning, instructors may choose to use multiple-choice questions, which are easier to score than responses to open-ended questions. However, by design, analyses of multiple-choice responses cannot describe all of students' understanding. One method that can…

Wooten, Michelle M.; Cool, Adrienne M.; Prather, Edward E.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

2014-01-01

23

Quality Multiple-Choice Test Questions: Item-Writing Guidelines and an Analysis of Auditing Testbanks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of test item banks in 10 auditing textbooks found that 75% of questions violated one or more guidelines for multiple-choice items. In comparison, 70% of a certified public accounting exam bank had no violations. (SK)

Hansen, James D.; Dexter, Lee

1997-01-01

24

Measuring University students' understanding of the greenhouse effect - a comparison of multiple-choice, short answer and concept sketch assessment tools with respect to students' mental models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greenhouse effect comes up in most discussions about climate and is a key concept related to climate change. Existing studies have shown that students and adults alike lack a detailed understanding of this important concept or might hold misconceptions. We studied the effectiveness of different interventions on University-level students' understanding of the greenhouse effect. Introductory level science students were tested for their pre-knowledge of the greenhouse effect using validated multiple-choice questions, short answers and concept sketches. All students participated in a common lesson about the greenhouse effect and were then randomly assigned to one of two lab groups. One group explored an existing simulation about the greenhouse effect (PhET-lesson) and the other group worked with absorption spectra of different greenhouse gases (Data-lesson) to deepen the understanding of the greenhouse effect. All students completed the same assessment including multiple choice, short answers and concept sketches after participation in their lab lesson. 164 students completed all the assessments, 76 completed the PhET lesson and 77 completed the data lesson. 11 students missed the contrasting lesson. In this presentation we show the comparison between the multiple-choice questions, short answer questions and the concept sketches of students. We explore how well each of these assessment types represents student's knowledge. We also identify items that are indicators of the level of understanding of the greenhouse effect as measured in correspondence of student answers to an expert mental model and expert responses. Preliminary data analysis shows that student who produce concept sketch drawings that come close to expert drawings also choose correct multiple-choice answers. However, correct multiple-choice answers are not necessarily an indicator that a student produces an expert-like correlating concept sketch items. Multiple-choice questions that require detailed knowledge of the greenhouse effect (e.g. direction of re-emission of infrared energy from greenhouse gas) are significantly more likely to be answered correctly by students who also produce expert-like concept sketch items than by students who don't include this aspect in their sketch and don't answer the multiple choice questions correctly. This difference is not as apparent for less technical multiple-choice questions (e.g. type of radiation emitted by Sun). Our findings explore the formation of student's mental models throughout different interventions and how well the different assessment techniques used in this study represent the student understanding of the overall concept.

Gold, A. U.; Harris, S. E.

2013-12-01

25

Multiple-choice questions: a guide to success.  

PubMed

Although many trainees have gained considerable experience in answering MCQs in undergraduate examinations, these papers are still a frequent cause of problems and failure for candidates of postgraduate examinations. This article aims to help trainees improve their technique so that their performance can more accurately reflect their knowledge and ability. PMID:8287258

Holden, N L

26

An Online National Archive of Multiple-Choice Questions for Astro 101 and the Development of the Question Complexity Rubric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astronomy 101 classroom. These questions are intended to supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or for their assessment purposes (i.e., exams and homework). We are also developing the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR) to guide members of the Astro 101 teaching and learning community in assisting us with hierarchically ranking questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge. The highest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway that requires multiple connected cognitive steps. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) use the QCR to score questions 2) search for and download questions based on topic and/or QCR score, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. Stop by our poster to test your skills at determining question complexity by trying out the QCR with our sample questions.

Cormier, S.; Prather, E.; Brissenden, G.

2011-09-01

27

The Impact of Student Ability and Method for Varying the Position of Correct Answers in Classroom Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice item-writing guideline research is in its infancy. Haladyna (2004) calls for a science of item-writing guideline research. The purpose of this study is to respond to such a call. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of student ability and method for varying the location of correct answers in classroom multiple-choice

Joseph, Dane Christian

2010-01-01

28

A participatory learning approach to biochemistry using student authored and evaluated multiple-choice questions.  

PubMed

A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs written by their peers. The technology used to support this activity was PeerWise--a freely available, innovative web-based system that supports students in the creation of an annotated question repository. In this case study, we describe students' contributions to, and perceptions of, the PeerWise system for a cohort of 107 second-year biomedical science students from three degree streams studying a core biochemistry subject. Our study suggests that the students are eager participants and produce a large repository of relevant, good quality MCQs. In addition, they rate the PeerWise system highly and use higher order thinking skills while taking an active role in their learning. We also discuss potential issues and future work using PeerWise for biomedical students. PMID:21948507

Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

2011-01-01

29

The Question Complexity Rubric: Development and Application for a National Archive of Astro 101 Multiple-Choice Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last two years we have been developing an online national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astro 101 classroom. These questions are intended to either supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or be used for assessment purposes (i.e. exams and homework). In this talk we will describe the development, testing and implementation of the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR), which is designed to guide the ranking of questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge whereas the highest QCR score is given to questions that require multiple pathways of multi-step reasoning. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) search for and download questions based on subject and average QCR score, 2) use the QCR to score questions, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. We will also discuss other potential applications of the QCR, such as how it informs our work in developing and testing of survey instruments by allowing us to calibrate the range of question complexity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

2011-01-01

30

Comparison of Oral Examination and Electronic Examination Using Paired Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present research was to compare the use of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) as an examination method against the oral examination (OE) method. MCQs are widely used and their importance seems likely to grow, due to their inherent suitability for electronic assessment. However, MCQs are influenced by the tendency of examinees to guess…

Ventouras, Errikos; Triantis, Dimos; Tsiakas, Panagiotis; Stergiopoulos, Charalampos

2011-01-01

31

Multiple Choice Questions Can Be Designed or Revised to Challenge Learners' Critical Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple choice (MC) questions from a graduate physiology course were evaluated by cognitive-psychology (but not physiology) experts, and analyzed statistically, in order to test the independence of content expertise and cognitive complexity ratings of MC items. Integration of higher order thinking into MC exams is important, but widely known to…

Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Gushta, Matthew M.; Mulroney, Susan E.; Weissinger, Peggy A.

2013-01-01

32

Student-Generated Content: Enhancing Learning through Sharing Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between students' use of PeerWise, an online tool that facilitates peer learning through student-generated content in the form of multiple-choice questions (MCQs), and achievement, as measured by their performance in the end-of-module examinations, was investigated in 5 large early-years science modules (in physics, chemistry…

Hardy, Judy; Bates, Simon P.; Casey, Morag M.; Galloway, Kyle W.; Galloway, Ross K.; Kay, Alison E.; Kirsop, Peter; McQueen, Heather A.

2014-01-01

33

Towards Answering Procedural Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we first present an analysis of pro- cedural question structure. Next, we investigate the structure of procedural texts and of the relevant rhetorical relations of interest for answering ques- tions. We then show how, from a linguistic point of view, questions and procedural text fragments can match in order to produce responses.

Farida Aouladomar

34

Comparison of Examination Methods Based on Multiple-Choice Questions and Constructed-Response Questions Using Personal Computers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present research was to compare the use of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) as an examination method, to the examination based on constructed-response questions (CRQs). Despite that MCQs have an advantage concerning objectivity in the grading process and speed in production of results, they also introduce an error in the final…

Ventouras, Errikos; Triantis, Dimos; Tsiakas, Panagiotis; Stergiopoulos, Charalampos

2010-01-01

35

The frequency of item writing flaws in multiple-choice questions used in high stakes nursing assessments.  

PubMed

Multiple-choice questions are a common assessment method in nursing examinations. Few nurse educators, however, have formal preparation in constructing multiple-choice questions. Consequently, questions used in baccalaureate nursing assessments often contain item-writing flaws, or violations to accepted item-writing guidelines. In one nursing department, 2770 MCQs were collected from tests and examinations administered over a five-year period from 2001 to 2005. Questions were evaluated for 19 frequently occurring item-writing flaws, for cognitive level, for question source, and for the distribution of correct answers. Results show that almost half (46.2%) of the questions contained violations of item-writing guidelines and over 90% were written at low cognitive levels. Only a small proportion of questions were teacher generated (14.1%), while 36.2% were taken from testbanks and almost half (49.4%) had no source identified. MCQs written at a lower cognitive level were significantly more likely to contain item-writing flaws. While there was no relationship between the source of the question and item-writing flaws, teachergenerated questions were more likely to be written at higher cognitive levels (p<0.001). Correct answers were evenly distributed across all four options and no bias was noted in the placement of correct options. Further training in item-writing is recommended for all faculty members who are responsible for developing tests. Pre-test review and quality assessment is also recommended to reduce the occurrence of item-writing flaws and to improve the quality of test questions. PMID:19040902

Tarrant, Marie; Knierim, Aimee; Hayes, Sasha K; Ware, James

2006-12-01

36

The frequency of item writing flaws in multiple-choice questions used in high stakes nursing assessments.  

PubMed

Multiple-choice questions are a common assessment method in nursing examinations. Few nurse educators, however, have formal preparation in constructing multiple-choice questions. Consequently, questions used in baccalaureate nursing assessments often contain item-writing flaws, or violations to accepted item-writing guidelines. In one nursing department, 2770 MCQs were collected from tests and examinations administered over a five-year period from 2001 to 2005. Questions were evaluated for 19 frequently occurring item-writing flaws, for cognitive level, for question source, and for the distribution of correct answers. Results show that almost half (46.2%) of the questions contained violations of item-writing guidelines and over 90% were written at low cognitive levels. Only a small proportion of questions were teacher generated (14.1%), while 36.2% were taken from testbanks and almost half (49.4%) had no source identified. MCQs written at a lower cognitive level were significantly more likely to contain item-writing flaws. While there was no relationship between the source of the question and item-writing flaws, teacher-generated questions were more likely to be written at higher cognitive levels (p<0.001). Correct answers were evenly distributed across all four options and no bias was noted in the placement of correct options. Further training in item-writing is recommended for all faculty members who are responsible for developing tests. Pre-test review and quality assessment is also recommended to reduce the occurrence of item-writing flaws and to improve the quality of test questions. PMID:17014932

Tarrant, Marie; Knierim, Aimee; Hayes, Sasha K; Ware, James

2006-12-01

37

Comparative assessment of multiple choice questions versus short essay questions in pharmacology examinations.  

PubMed

This retrospective study compared the performance of medical students in multiple choice questions (MCQs) and short essay questions (SEQs). During the 3 year analysis, 533 students had an average score of 51.34% (SD 9.9) in the SEQ and 64.71%(SD 9.9)in the MCQs. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation(r=0.64, P<0.01) between MCQs and SEQs. When student performance was grouped by final course grade, a statistically significant correlation between MCQs and SEQs scores existed only for the 405 students who received a passing grade (r=0.21, P<0.01). The MCQ and SEQ scores were not correlated for the 128 students who failed (r=0.11, P=0.08) or for 70 students who achieved distinctions (r=-0.27, P=0.13). MCQ scores were significantly higher (P<0.01) than SEQ for each of the groups when analyzed by the two-way ANOVA test. The result of this study suggests that for most students, the strong correlation between MCQ and SEQ indicates that student performance was independent of testing format. For students at either end of the performance spectrum, the lack of correlation suggests that the performance in one of the testing format had a strong influence on the final course grade. In addition, those students who failed the course were likely to be weak in both testing modalities, whereas students in all grade groups were more likely to perform better in the MCQs than SEQs. PMID:22569324

Mujeeb, A Momin; Pardeshi, M L; Ghongane, B B

2010-03-01

38

Hints for Students (and Examiners) on Answering MCQ Questions of the Multiple True/False Type.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some difficulties that medical students experience in taking exams containing multiple choice questions. Differentiates between multiple true/false type questions, in which several answers may be true, and one-out-of-four type, in which only one answer is correct. Provides tips for taking and making multiple choice tests. (TW)

Biran, Leonard A.

1986-01-01

39

Improving the fairness of multiple-choice questions: a literature review.  

PubMed

The ubiquity of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) results from their efficiency and hence reliability. Cognitive knowledge assessed by MCQ predicts and correlates well with overall competence and performance but examinees and examiners alike frequently perceive MCQ-based testing as 'unfair'. Fairness is akin to defensibility and is an increasingly important concept in testing. It is dependent on psychometric adequacy, diligence of construction, attention to consequential validity and appropriate standard setting. There is a wealth of evidence that extended matching questions are the fairest format but MCQs should always be combined with practical assessments, as written testing emphasizes learning from written sources. PMID:15763874

McCoubrie, Paul

2004-12-01

40

The criteria and analysis of good multiple choice questions in a health professional setting.  

PubMed

Assessment of health workers as students and professionals has a profound impact on their learning and is an essential safety valve before certification. It is used for their training, their placement, their certification, and their promotion. The multiple choice question MCQ type of tests represents one of the most important examination tools that is commonly used in this assessment. The MCQs can be reliable, valid, and cost-effective in assessing medical knowledge. This paper portrays the different purposes of assessment in the medical field. The paper discusses in detail the criteria of a good assessment tool. Interpretation of MCQ test results is the final section of the paper. PMID:16228046

Abdel-Hameed, Ahmad A; Al-Faris, Eiad A; Alorainy, Ibrahim A; Al-Rukban, Mohammed O

2005-10-01

41

Knowledge based question answering  

SciTech Connect

The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

1983-01-01

42

10 Tips on Writing Good Multiple Choice Questions Karen A. Garman Ed.D., MAPP, President, HELP, Inc.  

E-print Network

10 Tips on Writing Good Multiple Choice Questions Karen A. Garman Ed.D., MAPP, President, HELP, Inc in the statement. 3. Avoid unnecessary repetition of material in the options by including as much of the item

Gleeson, Joseph G.

43

Web-based application to eliminate five contraindicated multiple-choice question practices.  

PubMed

Multiple-choice questions (MCQs) evaluate factual knowledge in medical education and have a high reliability, if performed appropriately. However, many MCQs contain formal errors leading to reduced validity. The authors developed a Web application capable of recognizing and eliminating five frequent contraindicated practices in MCQs: negative stem, unfocused stem, cueing words, longest item = right item flaw, and stem/item similarities. The authors used simple string algorithms and dynamic comparisons with keywords. The system was successfully validated with a sample of approximately 800 continuous medical education (CME) questions, showing that our system automatically detects 60% of all formal didactic errors. Flaws not detected by the software can easily be avoided using quick manuals on item wording or clear instruction to the authors. The authors conclude that it is feasible to improve the quality of MCQs by designing a Web application that is capable of detecting common flaws by simple string operations. PMID:20483716

Brunnquell, Andreas; Degirmenci, Umüt; Kreil, Sebastian; Kornhuber, Johannes; Weih, Markus

2011-06-01

44

Assessment of driving expertise using multiple choice questions including static vs. animated presentation of driving scenarios.  

PubMed

Novice drivers have a high collision risk compared to more experienced drivers. The optimization of driving assessment's validity should lead to a better identification of those examinees that need further training before solo driving. The aim of the present two studies was to find out whether the integration of animated traffic scenarios can enhance some quality aspects of selected multiple choice items of the official German driving test. For the first study, we developed a static version of a set of multiple choice questions each containing a computerized still picture of a traffic scenario and a dynamic version that included animated instead of still pictures of the same situations. Driving novices (n=57) and experts (n=63) were presented 22 items either in the static or in the dynamic version. Only the novices benefited from the dynamic presentation. Fifty novices and 50 experts participated in a second longitudinal study including three measurements with parallel tests of the dynamic testing materials at intervals of three to four months. The novices, who were currently attending driving school, improved over time whereas the experts' performance remained stable. The results indicate that animation has positive effects on some quality aspects of driving assessment, but the problem of low criterion validity has to be addressed by the means of further approaches. PMID:23207840

Malone, Sarah; Brünken, Roland

2013-03-01

45

Constructive Multiple-Choice Testing System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The newly developed computerized Constructive Multiple-choice Testing system is introduced. The system combines short answer (SA) and multiple-choice (MC) formats by asking examinees to respond to the same question twice, first in the SA format, and then in the MC format. This manipulation was employed to collect information about the two…

Park, Jooyong

2010-01-01

46

The assessment of critical thinking skills in anatomy and physiology students who practice writing higher order multiple choice questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical thinking is a complex abstraction that defies homogeneous interpretation. This means that no operational definition is universal and no critical thinking measurement tool is all encompassing. Instructors will likely find evidence based strategies to facilitate thinking skills only as numerous research efforts from multiple disciplines accumulate. This study focuses on a question writing exercise designed to help anatomy and physiology students. Students were asked to design multiple choice questions that combined course concepts in new and novel ways. Instructions and examples were provided on how to construct these questions and student attempts were sorted into levels one through three of Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy (Bloom et al. 1956). Students submitted their question designs weekly and received individual feedback as to how they might improve. Eight course examinations were created to contain questions that modeled the Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy levels that students were attempting. Students were assessed on their course examination performance as well as performance on a discipline independent critical thinking test called the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). The performance of students in this study was compared to students from two previous years that took the same course but did not have the question writing activity. Results suggest that students do not improve their ability to answer critical thinking multiple choices questions when they practice the task of creating such problems. The effect of class level on critical thinking is examined and it appears that the longer a student has attended college the better the performance on both discipline specific and discipline independent critical thinking questions. The data were also used to analyze students who improved their course examination grades in the second semester of this course. There is a pattern to suggest that students who improve their performance on course examinations did so largely in non-critical thinking problems. Although, when this subset of students is analyzed by class level it appears that sophomores reverse the pattern and improve much more in critical thinking type questions than their upper classmen. The implications of this are discussed.

Shaw, Jason

47

Exploiting redundancy in question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to automatically answer brief factual questions of the form ``When was the Battle of Hastings?'' or ``Who wrote The Wind in the Willows?''. Since the answer to nearly any such question can now be found somewhere on the Web, the problem reduces to finding potential answers in large volumes of data and validating their accuracy. We apply

Charles L. A. Clarke; Gordon V. Cormack; Thomas R. Lynam

2001-01-01

48

Exploiting Redundancy in Question Answering Charles L. A. Clarke Gordon V. Cormack Thomas R. Lynam  

E-print Network

is extended to answer multiple choice trivia questions of the form typically asked in trivia quizzesExploiting Redundancy in Question Answering Charles L. A. Clarke Gordon V. Cormack Thomas R. Lynam is to automatically answer brief factual questions of the form \\When was the Battle of Hastings?" or \\Who wrote

Clarke, Charlie

49

Multiple-Choice Cloze Exercises: Consumer Domain. SPPED Test Development Notebook, Form 81-C [and] Answer Key for Multiple-Choice Cloze Exercises: Consumer Domain. SPPED Test Development Notebook, Form 85-C. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Test Development Notebook" is a resource designed for the preparation of tests of literal comprehension for students in grades 1 through 12. This volume contains 100 multiple-choice cloze exercises taken from consumer magazines, catalogs, instructions, advertisements, and contracts; and the accompanying answer key. Each exercise carries the…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Research.

50

Hydrosphere: Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Detailed Example of Using Socratic Questioning in Class Content Area: Hydrosphere Back to Example This sample of plausible questions and responses is designed to help guide the instructor through an entire Socratic ...

51

Comparison of Collegial Individual and Group Reviews of General Practice Multiple Choice Questions  

PubMed Central

Aims: In most German medical faculties, credits in general practice can be earned via exams using multiple-choice questions (MCQ). Measures such as peer-reviews may help assure the quality of these exams. In order to use time and personnel intensive peer reviews effectively and efficiently, the procedures used are key. Therefore, we wanted to find out whether there are differences between group and individual reviews regarding defined parameters. Methods: We conducted a controlled cross-over study with three GP reviewers from four different German universities. Each reviewed 80 MCQs, 40 individually and 40 within a group, including external assessments by a panel of experts. Furthermore all reviewers were asked to evaluate the review process and the time spent carrying out these reviews. Outcomes: We found no significant differences between the reliability and the validity of individual reviews versus group reviews. On average slightly more time was spent on group reviews compared with the individual reviews. The subjective assessments of the study participants regarding their satisfaction with the process and the efficiency and effectiveness of the reviews suggest a preference for group reviews. Conclusions: Based on this study, there are no definite recommendations for or against either approach. When choosing between the two, the specific work structures and organisation at the local faculty should be taken into account. PMID:22916083

Bohme, Klaus; Schelling, Jorg; Streitlein-Bohme, Irmgard; Glassen, Katharina; Schubel, Jeannine; Junger, Jana

2012-01-01

52

Imprecise terms in UK medical multiple-choice questions: what examiners think they mean.  

PubMed

Many multiple-choice questions (MCQs) used in medical education in the UK contain undefined, imprecise terms. They are particularly common in true/false items and can be found in classroom tests, published examples of MCQs and, more importantly, in high-stakes examinations which determine a candidate's graduation or membership of a professional body. This study investigated imprecise terms used in some MB BS final examinations and the Part 1 Membership Examination of the Royal College of Physicians. It revealed that imprecise terms occur commonly, yet there is a wide range of opinion among the examiners themselves about their meanings. The numbers and variety of imprecise terms which were found in high-stakes MCQ examinations are described in this paper and details are given concerning the lack of consensus about their meanings as reported by the responsible examiners. A second type of construction error--disproportionately large numbers of 'true' branches--was also recorded. Exemplary practices do exist in MCQ quality assurance, but in the UK they are very much the exception rather than the rule. The findings of this investigation strongly indicate a need for change. PMID:9743793

Holsgrove, G; Elzubeir, M

1998-07-01

53

Evaluation of Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences by determining item writing flaws (IWFs) of MCQs along with cognitive level of each item in both methods. Methods: This analytical study evaluated the quality of the assessment tools used for the first batch in a newly established medical college in Karachi, Pakistan. First and sixth module assessment tools in Biochemistry during 2009-2010 were analyzed. Cognitive level of MCQs and SEQs, were noted and MCQ item writing flaws were also evaluated. Results: A total of 36 SEQs and 150 MCQs of four items were analyzed. The cognitive level of 83.33% of SEQs was at recall level while remaining 16.67% were assessing interpretation of data. Seventy six percent of the MCQs were at recall level while remaining 24% were at the interpretation. Regarding IWFs, 69 IWFs were found in 150 MCQs. The commonest among them were implausible distracters (30.43%), unfocused stem (27.54%) and unnecessary information in the stem (24.64%). Conclusion: There is a need to review the quality including the content of assessment tools. A structured faculty development program is recommended for developing improved assessment tools that align with learning outcomes and measure competency of medical students. PMID:24639820

Baig, Mukhtiar; Ali, Syeda Kauser; Ali, Sobia; Huda, Nighat

2014-01-01

54

Question All Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Council for Advancement and Support of Education's Teacher of the Year John Roth teaches students that conclusions shouldn't come easily, encouraging them to question everything they hear, read, or assume, including what he says. (MSE)

Barre, Nancy

1989-01-01

55

Rubella: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... of special precautions. Does the MMR vaccine cause autism? There is no scientific evidence that measles, MMR, ... other vaccine causes or increases the risk of autism. The question about a possible link between MMR ...

56

Multiple choice questions are superior to extended matching questions to identify medicine and biomedical sciences students who perform poorly.  

PubMed

In recent years, medical faculties at Dutch universities have implemented a legally binding study advice to students of medicine and biomedical sciences during their propaedeutic phase. Appropriate examination is essential to discriminate between poor (grade <6), moderate (grade 6-8) and excellent (grade ?8) students. Therefore, we compared the discriminatory properties of extended matching questions (EMQs) versus multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and identified the role of sex, age and examination preference on this score. Data were collected for 452 first-year medical and biomedical science students during three distinct course examinations: one examination with EMQ only, one with MCQ only and one mixed examination (including EMQ and MCQ). Logistic regression analysis revealed that MCQ examination was 3 times better in identifying poor students compared with EMQ (RR 3.0, CI 2.0-4.5), whereas EMQ better detected excellent students (average grade ?8) (RR 1.93, CI 1.47-2.53). Mixed examination had comparable characteristics to MCQ. Sex and examination preference did not impact the score of the student. Students ?20 years had a 4-fold higher risk ratio of obtaining a poor grade (<6) compared with students ?18 years old (RR 4.1, CI 2.1-8.0). Given the strong discriminative capacity of MCQ examinations to identify poor students, we recommend the use of this type of examination during the propaedeutic phase of medicine and biomedical science study programmes, in the light of the binding study advice. PMID:24203858

Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; van den Brand, Tessa L; Hopman, Maria T E

2013-11-01

57

Answering Your Questions about AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

Kalichman, Seth C.

58

Photo-based question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo-based question answering is a useful way of finding information about physical objects. Current question an- swering (QA) systems are text-based and can be difficult to use when a question involves an object with distinct vi- sual features. A photo-based QA system allows direct use of a photo to refer to the object. We develop a three-layer system architecture for

Tom Yeh; John J. Lee; Trevor Darrell

2008-01-01

59

Cultural differences in answering physics questions: Could they arise from the difference between reasoning expected in answering exam questions in those cultures?  

E-print Network

In many ways, the American learning system is unique in its reliance on testing using multiple-choice questions. Learning in physics, as well as in any other subject, is a context-dependent process. In this paper, I consider a broader problem of where differences in understanding arise; often styles of answering questions arise from the way the questions are posed. I speculate on the long-run effects a multiple-choice based learning system might have on the reasoning structure of the student compared to one based on more open-ended questions. I present some differences in answer styles observed between two populations of students, US students (mostly exposed to multiple-choice type exams), and Romanian students (mostly exposed to open-end type exams). Finally, I suggest some possible ways of checking whether my predictions have any validity.

Raduta, C; Raduta, Cristian; Aubrecht, Gordon

2005-01-01

60

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER  

E-print Network

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER Q: What are the early signs of lung cancer? How would I know I have it? A: Some of the early warning signs of lung cancer are: · A cough that doesn't go away what may be causing these symptoms. Q: How is lung cancer diagnosed? A: Your doctor may do one or more

61

Finding similar questions in large question and answer archives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has recently been a significant increase in the number of community-based question and answer services on the Web where people answer other peoples' questions. These services rapidly build up large archives of questions and answers, and these archives are a valuable linguistic resource. One of the major tasks in a question and answer service is to find questions in

Jiwoon Jeon; Joon Ho Lee

2005-01-01

62

Assessment of higher order cognitive skills in undergraduate education: modified essay or multiple choice questions? Research paper  

PubMed Central

Background Reliable and valid written tests of higher cognitive function are difficult to produce, particularly for the assessment of clinical problem solving. Modified Essay Questions (MEQs) are often used to assess these higher order abilities in preference to other forms of assessment, including multiple-choice questions (MCQs). MEQs often form a vital component of end-of-course assessments in higher education. It is not clear how effectively these questions assess higher order cognitive skills. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the MEQ to measure higher-order cognitive skills in an undergraduate institution. Methods An analysis of multiple-choice questions and modified essay questions (MEQs) used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate curriculum was undertaken. A total of 50 MCQs and 139 stages of MEQs were examined, which came from three exams run over two years. The effectiveness of the questions was determined by two assessors and was defined by the questions ability to measure higher cognitive skills, as determined by a modification of Bloom's taxonomy, and its quality as determined by the presence of item writing flaws. Results Over 50% of all of the MEQs tested factual recall. This was similar to the percentage of MCQs testing factual recall. The modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the MCQ frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge. Conclusion Construction of MEQs, which will assess higher order cognitive skills cannot be assumed to be a simple task. Well-constructed MCQs should be considered a satisfactory replacement for MEQs if the MEQs cannot be designed to adequately test higher order skills. Such MCQs are capable of withstanding the intellectual and statistical scrutiny imposed by a high stakes exit examination. PMID:18045500

Palmer, Edward J; Devitt, Peter G

2007-01-01

63

Internal Audit RFP 2013 Questions and Answers Question set 1  

E-print Network

Internal Audit RFP 2013 � Questions and Answers Question set 1: 1. What do you like about your current provider? No answer #12;Internal Audit RFP 2013 � Questions and Answers 11. Are identified control;Internal Audit RFP 2013 � Questions and Answers b. High risk areas � Accounts Payable � Accounts Receivable

Heller, Barbara

64

Minister Peng answers correspondents' questions.  

PubMed

Following a press conference where she presented the results of the 1990 census and the accomplishments of China's family planning program, Peng Peiyun, minister of the State Family Planning Commission, and other officials answered the questions of Chinese and foreign correspondents. Asked about the implementation of family planning in rural areas, Peng explained that while the 1-child policy has been followed, farmers with only 1 daughter have been allowed a second child. Nonetheless, the total fertility rate (TFR) of rural women has fallen bellow 4. On the issue of abortion, an official explained that for the past few years, there have been 10 million abortions annually. Abortion, however, is used only when contraception fails. Despite China's impressive achievements in curbing population growth, Peng noted that the country still faces serious problems. As the country enters its 8th 5-year plan, China will undergo a baby boom. An average of 17 million births each year is expected throughout the plan's duration. Peng acknowledged that the previous target of controlling China's population to 1.2 billion by the year 2000 will not be achieved. Under the new plan, which hopes to reduce the TFR from 2.35 in 1989 to 2.0 by the turn of the century, calls for the population to stabilize somewhere between 1.5 and 1.6 billion. Peng also answered questions concerning abuses by family planning workers. She stressed that China's family planning program is voluntary, although economic disincentives are used. Furthermore, Peng addressed issues concerning religion and family planning, infanticide, the safety of contraceptives, and concerns over the ageing of the population. PMID:12284670

1991-02-01

65

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we plan for? · Should we separate uranium? · If we separate uranium, should we recycle it, store it or dispose of it? · Is it practical to plan to fabricate and handle “hot” fuel? · Which transuranic elements (TRU) should be separated and transmuted? · Of those TRU separated, which should be transmuted together? · Should we separate and/or transmute Cs and Sr isotopes that dominate near-term repository heating? · Should we separate and/or transmute very long-lived Tc and I isotopes? · Which separation technology? · What mix of transmutation technologies? · What fuel technology best supports the above decisions?

Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

2003-10-01

66

Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

67

A Diagnostic Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Competency in Multiple-Choice Item Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Large class size is an issue in testing at all levels of Education. As a panacea to this, multiple choice test formats has become very popular. This case study was designed to diagnose pre-service teachers' competency in constructing questions (IQT); direct questions (DQT); and best answer (BAT) varieties of multiple choice items. Subjects were 88…

Asim, Alice E.; Ekuri, Emmanuel E.; Eni, Eni I.

2013-01-01

68

Identification of technical item flaws leads to improvement of the quality of single best Multiple Choice Questions  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of the study was to identify technical item flaws in the multiple choice questions submitted for the final exams for the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in Islamic International Medical College (IIMC). The Data was collected from the MCQ’s submitted by the faculty for the final exams for the year 2009, 2010 and 2011. The data was compiled and evaluated by a three member assessment committee. The data was analyzed for frequency and percentages the categorical data was analyzed by chi-square test. Results: Overall percentage of flawed item was 67% for the year 2009 of which 21% were for testwiseness and 40% were for irrelevant difficulty. In year 2010 the total item flaws were 36% and 11% testwiseness and 22% were for irrelevant difficulty. The year 2011 data showed decreased overall flaws of 21%. The flaws of testwisness were 7%, irrelevant difficulty were 11%. Conclusion: Technical item flaws are frequently encountered during MCQ construction, and the identification of flaws leads to improved quality of the single best MCQ’s. PMID:24353614

Fayyaz Khan, Humaira; Farooq Danish, Khalid; Saeed Awan, Azra; Anwar, Masood

2013-01-01

69

Education techniques for lifelong learning: writing multiple-choice questions for continuing medical education activities and self-assessment modules.  

PubMed

The multiple-choice question (MCQ) is the most commonly used type of test item in radiologic graduate medical and continuing medical education examinations. Now that radiologists are participating in the maintenance of certification process, there is an increased need for self-assessment modules that include MCQs and persons with test item-writing skills to develop such modules. Although principles of effective test item writing have been documented, violations of these principles are common in medical education. Guidelines for test construction are related to development of educational objectives, defining levels of learning for each objective, and writing effective MCQs that test that learning. Educational objectives should be written in observable, behavioral terms that allow for an accurate assessment of whether the learner has achieved the objectives. Learning occurs at many levels, from simple recall to problem solving. The educational objectives and the MCQs that accompany them should target all levels of learning appropriate for the given content. Characteristics of effective MCQs can be described in terms of the overall item, the stem, and the options. Flawed MCQs interfere with accurate and meaningful interpretation of test scores and negatively affect student pass rates. Therefore, to develop reliable and valid tests, items must be constructed that are free of such flaws. The article provides an overview of established guidelines for writing effective MCQs, a discussion of writing appropriate educational objectives and MCQs that match those objectives, and a brief review of item analysis. PMID:16549616

Collins, Jannette

2006-01-01

70

The effect of question order on responses to multiple-choice questions Kara Gray, Sanjay Rebello and Dean Zollman  

E-print Network

and researchers often make the assumption that the order of test or survey questions is unimportant of the questions: "easy to hard" and "hard to easy." With the advent of computerized adaptive testing educational to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students

Zollman, Dean

71

Answering Questions about Unanswered Questions of Stack Overflow  

E-print Network

Answering Questions about Unanswered Questions of Stack Overflow Muhammad Asaduzzaman Ahmed Shah questions has increased significantly in the past two years. Understanding why questions remain unanswered questions from Stack Overflow. We then conduct a qualitative study to categorize unanswered questions, which

Schneider, Kevin A.

72

Incorporating Multiple-Choice Questions into an AACSB Assurance of Learning Process: A Course-Embedded Assessment Application to an Introductory Finance Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors offer a classification technique to make a quantitative skills rubric more operational, with the groupings of multiple-choice questions to match the student learning levels in knowledge, calculation, quantitative reasoning, and analysis. The authors applied this classification technique to the mid-term exams of an introductory finance…

Santos, Michael R.; Hu, Aidong; Jordan, Douglas

2014-01-01

73

Answering definitional questions before they are asked  

E-print Network

Most question answering systems narrow down their search space by issuing a boolean IR query on a keyword indexed corpus. This technique often proves futile for definitional questions, because they only contain one keyword ...

Fernandes, Aaron D. (Aaron David)

2004-01-01

74

A comparative study of students' performance in preclinical physiology assessed by multiple choice and short essay questions.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare the performance of medical students in physiology when assessed by multiple choice questions (MCQs) and short essay questions (SEQs). The study also examined the influence of factors such as age, sex, O/level grades and JAMB scores on performance in the MCQs and SEQs. A structured questionnaire was administered to 264 medical students' four months before the Part I MBBS examination. Apart from personal data of each student, the questionnaire sought information on the JAMB scores and GCE O' Level grades of each student in English Language, Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics. The physiology syllabus was divided into five parts and the students were administered separate examinations (tests) on each part. Each test consisted of MCQs and SEQs. The performance in MCQs and SEQs were compared. Also, the effects of JAMB scores and GCE O/level grades on the performance in both the MCQs and SEQs were assessed. The results showed that the students performed better in all MCQ tests than in the SEQs. JAMB scores and O' level English Language grade had no significant effect on students' performance in MCQs and SEQs. However O' level grades in Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics had significant effects on performance in MCQs and SEQs. Inadequate knowledge of physiology and inability to present information in a logical sequence are believed to be major factors contributing to the poorer performance in the SEQs compared with MCQs. In view of the finding of significant association between performance in MCQs and SEQs and GCE O/level grades in science subjects and mathematics, it was recommended that both JAMB results and the GCE results in the four O/level subjects above may be considered when selecting candidates for admission into the medical schools. PMID:11713989

Oyebola, D D; Adewoye, O E; Iyaniwura, J O; Alada, A R; Fasanmade, A A; Raji, Y

2000-01-01

75

Developing Offline Strategies for Answering Medical Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe ongoing developments on two offline strategies for automatically answering questions in the medical domain: one based on an analysis of the document structure, the other based on dependency parsing. We highlight differences with open domain question answering, and provide a preliminary evaluation of the current state of our strategies. Copyright (c) 2005, American Association for Artificial Intelligence (www.aaai.org).

E. F. Tjong Kim Sang; G. Bouma; Rijke de M

2005-01-01

76

Item and Test Analysis to Identify Quality Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) from an Assessment of Medical Students of Ahmedabad, Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Background: Multiple choice questions (MCQs) are frequently used to assess students in different educational streams for their objectivity and wide reach of coverage in less time. However, the MCQs to be used must be of quality which depends upon its difficulty index (DIF I), discrimination index (DI) and distracter efficiency (DE). Objective: To evaluate MCQs or items and develop a pool of valid items by assessing with DIF I, DI and DE and also to revise/ store or discard items based on obtained results. Settings: Study was conducted in a medical school of Ahmedabad. Materials and Methods: An internal examination in Community Medicine was conducted after 40 hours teaching during 1st MBBS which was attended by 148 out of 150 students. Total 50 MCQs or items and 150 distractors were analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Data was entered and analyzed in MS Excel 2007 and simple proportions, mean, standard deviations, coefficient of variation were calculated and unpaired t test was applied. Results: Out of 50 items, 24 had “good to excellent” DIF I (31 - 60%) and 15 had “good to excellent” DI (> 0.25). Mean DE was 88.6% considered as ideal/ acceptable and non functional distractors (NFD) were only 11.4%. Mean DI was 0.14. Poor DI (< 0.15) with negative DI in 10 items indicates poor preparedness of students and some issues with framing of at least some of the MCQs. Increased proportion of NFDs (incorrect alternatives selected by < 5% students) in an item decrease DE and makes it easier. There were 15 items with 17 NFDs, while rest items did not have any NFD with mean DE of 100%. Conclusion: Study emphasizes the selection of quality MCQs which truly assess the knowledge and are able to differentiate the students of different abilities in correct manner. PMID:24696535

Gajjar, Sanju; Sharma, Rashmi; Kumar, Pradeep; Rana, Manish

2014-01-01

77

Name___________________________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.  

E-print Network

and alternative hypothesis. 7) You want to see if the number of minutes cell phone users use each month has changed from its mean of 120 minutes 2 years ago. You take a random sample of 100 cell phone users. In an effort to track 50 of these children, researchers test 950 newborns for the presence of this gene. What

DeMaio, Joe

78

Willingness to Answer Multiple-Choice Questions as Manifested Both in Genuine and in Nonsense Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternate versions of Hutchinson's theory were compared, and one which implies the existence of partial knowledge was found to be better than one which implies that an appropriate measure of ability is obtained by applying the conventional correction for guessing. (Author/PN)

Frary, Robert B.; Hutchinson, T.P.

1982-01-01

79

Name___________________________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.  

E-print Network

) Of the coffee makers sold in an appliance store, 6.0% have either a faulty switch or a defective cord, 2.8% have a faulty switch, and 0.5% have both defects. What percent of the coffee makers will have a defective cord's office shows that 52% take blood pressure-lowering medication, 43% take cholesterol-lowering medication

DeMaio, Joe

80

From Question Answering to Visual Exploration  

SciTech Connect

Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

2006-08-11

81

Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.  

PubMed

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

82

Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services  

PubMed Central

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

83

Answers to Health Questions in Physical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culled from the answers of physical education teachers and coaches, this booklet attempts to indicate the scope of health problems and suggests some directions which the solutions may take. It is divided into three parts. Part 1, Health and Safety in Activity Programs, answers questions on first aid, excused absences, and desirability of…

Kaplan, Robert, Ed.

84

Striving for Optimal Relevance when Answering Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When people are asked "Do you have the time?" they can answer in a variety of ways, such as "It is almost 3," "Yeah, it is quarter past two," or more precisely as in "It is now 1:43." We present the results of four experiments that examined people's real-life answers to questions about the time. Our hypothesis, following previous research…

Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.; Bryant, Gregory A.

2008-01-01

85

Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... High Blood Pressure Questions and Answers About High Blood Pressure What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... a doctor. Am I at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure. But ...

86

Questions and Answers: Smallpox Vaccine and Monkeypox  

MedlinePLUS

... 404) 639-3311 Monkeypox Home > QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Smallpox Vaccine and Monkeypox Download PDF version formatted for ... 132 KB/2 pages) How effective is the smallpox vaccine in preventing monkeypox? Past data from Africa ...

87

Questions and Answers about Ebola and Pets  

MedlinePLUS

... Travelers Healthcare Workers More Questions and Answers about Ebola and Pets Language: English Español Share Compartir ... the United States. How are animals involved in Ebola outbreaks? Because the natural reservoir host of Ebola ...

88

Get Answers to Common Questions About...  

Cancer.gov

Get Answers to Common Questions About... Biological Specimens Drug Availability, Labeling and Distribution Ethics Indemnity Insurance Planning Clinical Trials and Navigating Regulatory Requirements Protocols Quality Assurance and Monitoring Software

89

Scaling question answering to the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wealth of information on the web makes it an attractive resource for seeking quick answers to simple, factual questions such as "e;who was the first American in space?"e; or "e;what is the second tallest mountain in the world?"e; Yet today's most advanced web search services (e.g., Google and AskJeeves) make it surprisingly tedious to locate answers to such questions.

Cody C. T. Kwok; Oren Etzioni; Daniel S. Weld

2001-01-01

90

A comparison of the psychometric properties of three- and four-option multiple-choice questions in nursing assessments.  

PubMed

In multiple-choice tests, four-option items are the standard in nursing education. There are few evidence-based reasons, however, for MCQs to have four or more options as studies have shown that three-option items perform equally as well and the additional options most often do not improve test reliability and validity. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the psychometric properties of four-option items with the same items rewritten as three-option items. Using item-analysis data to eliminate the distractor with the lowest response rate, we compared three- and four-option versions of 41 multiple-choice items administered to two student cohorts over two subsequent academic years. Removing the non-functioning distractor resulted in minimal changes in item difficulty and discrimination. Three-option items contained more functioning distractors despite having fewer distractors overall. Existing distractors became more discriminating when infrequently selected distractors were removed from items. Overall, three-option items perform equally as well as four-option items. Since three-option items require less time to develop and administer and additional options provide no psychometric advantage, teachers are encouraged to adopt three-option items as the standard on multiple-choice tests. PMID:20053488

Tarrant, Marie; Ware, James

2010-08-01

91

Student Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty  

E-print Network

and services are open to all SFU students: undergraduate, graduate, international, mature, EAL/ESL, and othersStudent Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty What is the SFU Student Learning Commons? The Student Learning Commons (SLC), is an academic learning centre which provides peer-based assistance

92

Answering the Sphinx's Questions on Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In answering the difficult questions on neutrinos asked by Sphinx I argue that search for proton decay is the most important experiment in coming 5-10 years. I also emphasize the crucial importance of the neutrinoless double beta decay with sensitivity of

Minakata, H.

93

Children answered 24 questions in 3 sections  

E-print Network

Children answered 24 questions in 3 sections: · General knowledge ­ e.g. how many minutes month comes after August? Short-Term Tasks Children completed two computer tasks designed using Kinelab: · Sequencing: Children saw six shapes in succession, before having to indicate the order they were presented

Haase, Markus

94

Children's School Research Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

Children's School Research Questions and Answers 2012-2013 Who conducts the research? · The primary researchers at the Children's School are the psychology faculty together with the post-doctoral fellows that conduct studies at the Children's School, led by Dr. David Rakison, Dr. Brian MacWhinney, Dr. David Klahr

95

Addendum to Questions, Answers and Clarifications  

E-print Network

hydrogen fueling stations to serve the current population of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) and to accommodate-606 Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program California Energy Commission Q.1 EligibleAddendum to Questions, Answers and Clarifications Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure Solicitation PON-12

96

Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

97

Questions and Answers John Rominger-Watts  

E-print Network

- Weighs 7000 metric tons - Detected first events in 2008 #12;ATLAS Detector Systems Inner Detector: #12;ATLAS Detector Systems Calorimeter: #12;ATLAS Detector Systems Muon Spectrometer: #12;Question: What objects Image: toothpastefordinner.com Image: nasa.gov Image: sparknotes.com Image: mit.edu #12;Answer

Budker, Dmitry

98

Sea Level : Frequently Asked Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can find answers to frequently asked questions regarding sea level and sea level changes. Topics addressed include how mean sea level is defined, how much sea level would rise if all the worlds ice were to melt, differences in sea level between oceans and at different latitudes, the meaning of altitude above sea level, and others.

2007-12-12

99

Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

2000-01-01

100

Questions and Answers: Information about Your Hearing  

MedlinePLUS

... Hearing default Questions and Answers: Information About Your Hearing 1. What sounds can hurt your hearing, if you are around them too long? 2. ... concert can result in a lifetime of reduced hearing. 13. Only you can protect your ears. Be ...

101

A Statistical Analysis of Infrequent Events on Multiple-Choice Tests that Indicate Probable Cheating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A statistical analysis of multiple-choice answers is performed to identify anomalies that can be used as evidence of student cheating. The ratio of exact errors in common (EEIC: two students put the same wrong answer for a question) to differences (D: two students get different answers) was found to be a good indicator of cheating under a wide…

Sundermann, Michael J.

2008-01-01

102

Question Answering Using a Large NLP System  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThere is a separate report in this volume on the Microsoft Research Cambridge participation in the Filtering and Query tracks(Robertson and Walker 2001).The Microsoft Research question-answering system for TREC-9 was based on a combination of the Okapi retrieval engine,Microsoft's natural language processing system (NLPWin), and a module for matching logical forms. There is no recentpublished account of NLPWin, although a

David Elworthy

2000-01-01

103

Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers  

SciTech Connect

This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

NONE

1995-11-01

104

Automatic question answering using the web: Beyond the Factoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe and evaluate a Question Answering (QA) system that goes beyond answering factoid questions. Our approach to QA assumes no restrictions on the type of questions that are handled, and no assumption that the answers to be provided are factoids. We present an unsupervised approach for collecting question and answer pairs from FAQ pages, which we

Radu Soricut; Eric Brill

2006-01-01

105

Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions  

SciTech Connect

contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

Hinchliffe, Ian

2012-01-01

106

Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions  

ScienceCinema

contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

Hinchliffe, Ian

2013-05-29

107

Effective Question Recommendation Based on Multiple Features for Question Answering Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new method of recommending questions to answerers so as to suit the answerers' knowledge and inter- ests in User-Interactive Question Answering (QA) commu- nities. A question recommender can help answerers select the questions that interest them. This increases the number of answers, which will activate QA communities. An ef- fective question recommender should satisfy the following three

Yutaka Kabutoya; Tomoharu Iwata; Hisako Shiohara; Ko Fujimura

2010-01-01

108

Learning How to Answer Questions Using Trivia Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine a sentence comprehension task: given a question, and an extended sentence known to answer that question, the goal is to extract the short answer to the question. As an initial solution, a novel robust statistical model is presented which combines the semantics of the expected answer with the expected context within which the answer will

Gideon S. Mann

2002-01-01

109

Model Answers to Lipid Membrane Questions  

PubMed Central

Ever since it was discovered that biological membranes have a core of a bimolecular sheet of lipid molecules, lipid bilayers have been a model laboratory for investigating physicochemical and functional properties of biological membranes. Experimental and theoretical models help the experimental scientist to plan experiments and interpret data. Theoretical models are the theoretical scientist’s preferred toys to make contact between membrane theory and experiments. Most importantly, models serve to shape our intuition about which membrane questions are the more fundamental and relevant ones to pursue. Here we review some membrane models for lipid self-assembly, monolayers, bilayers, liposomes, and lipid–protein interactions and illustrate how such models can help answering questions in modern lipid cell biology. PMID:21610116

Mouritsen, Ole G.

2011-01-01

110

A Comparison of Student Performance in Multiple-Choice and Long Essay Questions in the MBBS Stage I Physiology Examination at the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This retrospective study compared the performance of preclinical medical students in the multiple-choice question (MCQ) and long essay question components of a comprehensive physiology final examination. During the 3 yr analyzed, 307 students had an average score of 47% (SD 9.9) in the long essay questions and 64% (SD 9.9) in the MCQs. Regression…

Pepple, Dagogo J.; Young, Lauriann E.; Carroll, Robert G.

2010-01-01

111

World Wide Web based Question Answering System - a relevance feedback framework for automatic answer validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open domain question answering system is one of the emerging information retrieval systems available on the World Wide Web that is becoming popular day by day to get succinct and relevant answers in response of users' questions. The validation of the correctness of the answer is an important issue in the field of question answering. In this paper, we

Santosh Kumar Ray; Shailendra Singh; B. P. Joshi

2009-01-01

112

Formulation of multiple choice questions as a revision exercise at the end of a teaching module in biochemistry.  

PubMed

The graduate medical students often get less opportunity for clarifying their doubts and to reinforce their concepts after lecture classes. Assessment of the effect of MCQ preparation by graduate medical students as a revision exercise on the topic "Mineral metabolism." At the end of regular teaching module on the topic "Mineral metabolism," graduate medical students were asked to prepare the stems of 15 MCQs based on the four discriminators given for each. They were told that one of the discriminators could be the answer for the MCQ and the remaining three could be the distracters. They were further guided in their task by providing few key word(s) in the stem of the expected MCQ. In the first phase of the exercise, the students attempted the MCQ preparation individually without peer consultation. In the second phase, the students participated in small group discussion to formulate the best MCQs of the group. The effects on low, medium, and high achievers were evaluated by pre and post-tests with the same set of MCQs. Both the individual endeavor in Phase 1 and small group discussion in Phase 2 for the formulation of MCQs significantly contributed to the gain from the exercise. The gains from the individual task and from small group discussion were equal among the different categories of students. Both phases of the exercise were equally beneficial for the low, medium, and high achievers. The high and medium achievers retained the gain from the exercise even after 1 week of the exercise whereas the low achievers could not retain the gain completely. Formulation of MCQs is an effective and useful unconventional revision exercise in Biochemistry for graduate medical students. PMID:22615224

Bobby, Zachariah; Radhika, M R; Nandeesha, H; Balasubramanian, A; Prerna, Singh; Archana, Nimesh; Thippeswamy, D N

2012-01-01

113

Question Answering using Uni cation-based Vlado Ke selj  

E-print Network

of providing an intelligible answer to a question using a knowledge base. ? This work is supported by NSERC The question with the longest minimal answer is: Why did David Koresh ask the FBI for a word processor

Keselj, Vlado

114

Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part I. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief analyses are provided of presentations at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues, and application. Papers…

Miller, C. C.; And Others

1982-01-01

115

Finding question-answer pairs from online forums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online forums contain a huge amount of valuable user gener- ated content. In this paper we address the problem of extract- ing question-answer pairs from forums. Question-answer pairs extracted from forums can be used to help Question Answering services (e.g. Yahoo! Answers) among other applications. We propose a sequential patterns based classification method to detect questions in a forum thread,

Gao Cong; Long Wang; Chin-Yew Linz; Young-in Song; Yongheng Sun

2008-01-01

116

Do Melt Inclusions Answer Big Questions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a pioneering paper, Sobolev and Shimizu (1993) demonstrated the existence of ultra-depleted melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts in MORB. They interpreted these as evidence for the preservation of parental melts formed by progressive near-fractional melting. Subsequently many cases have been described where melt inclusions from single basalt samples display enormous chemical and isotopic heterogeneity. The interpretation of these observations hinges critically on whether such melt inclusions can faithfully preserve primary or parental melt composition. If they do, melt inclusion data can truly answer big questions from small-scale observations. If they do not, they answer rather small questions. Favoring the second possibility, Danyushevsky et al. (2004) have suggested that much of the observed variability of highly incompatible trace elements in melt inclusions “may not represent geologically significant melts, but instead reflect localized, grain-scale reaction processes within the magmatic plumbing system.” We disagree and show that this mechanism cannot, for example, explain isotopic heterogeneity measured in several suites of melt inclusions, nor does it not account for the presence of ultra-depleted melts and "ghost" plagioclase signatures in other inclusions. More recently, Spandler et al. (2007) have suggested on the basis of experimental evidence that diffusion rates for REE in olivine are so rapid that parental melt compositions in melt inclusions are rapidly falsified by diffusional exchange with (evolved) host lava. We show that the very fact that extreme chemical and isotopic heterogeneities are routinely preserved in melt inclusions demonstrates that this conclusion is unwarranted, either because residence times of the olivine phenocrysts are much shorter than assumed by Spandler et al. or because the high experimental diffusion rates are caused by an unknown experimental artifact. Although there is no obvious flaw in design and execution of their experiments, geologically relevant diffusion rates are notoriously difficult to determine and may depend on factors not incorporated in the laboratory experiments. More recent diffusion experiments by Remmert et al. (2008) and by Cherniak (2009) have yielded diffusion coefficients three order of magnitude lower than those measured by Spandler. The heavy REE represent a possible exception to the above conclusions. We present data from olivine melt inclusions from Iceland basalts, which show unusual HREE patterns possibly caused by diffusional exchange with the host lava. Sobolev, A.V. & Shimizu, N. (1993) Nature 363, 151-154. Danyushevskii, L.V. et al. (2004) J. Petrol. 45, 2531-2553. Spandler, G., O’Neill, H.St.C., Kamenetsky, V.S. (2007) Nature, 447, 303-306. Remmert, P. Dohmen, R., Chakraborty, S. (2008) EOS Trans. AGU abs. MR331-1844. Cherniak, D.J. (2009) Am. Mineral. Ms. subm.

Hofmann, A. W.; Sobolev, A. V.

2009-12-01

117

VideoQA: question answering on news video  

Microsoft Academic Search

When querying a news video archive, the users are interested in retrieving precise answers in the form of a summary that best answers the query. However, current video retrieval systems, including the search engines on the web, are designed to retrieve documents instead of precise answers. This research explores the use of question answering (QA) techniques to support personalized news

Hui Yang; Lekha Chaisorn; Yunlong Zhao; Shi-Yong Neo; Tat-Seng Chua

2003-01-01

118

Research Design and Analysis: Examples of Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides some examples of questions that might be asked about research design and analysis, or that might be used in test construction. The accompanying answers form a basic discussion of research design and analysis techniques. Short-answer constructed response answers are provided for questions about: (1) control in an experiment;…

Inoue, Yukiko

119

HITIQA: A Data Driven Approach to Interactive Analytical Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the analytic question answering system HITIQA (High-Quality In- teractive Question Answering) which has been developed over the last 2 years as an advanced research tool for information analysts. HITIQA is an interactive open-domain ques- tion answering technology designed to allow analysts to pose complex exploratory ques- tions in natural language and obtain relevant information units

Sharon Small; Tomek Strzalkowski

120

DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY OFFICE ADVANCED QUESTION ANSWERING FOR INTELLIGENCE  

E-print Network

DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY OFFICE ADVANCED QUESTION ANSWERING FOR INTELLIGENCE (AQUAINT) PROGRAM 1 Bringsjord (PI) Summary Current QA technology aims at the very early, pre-reasoning stages of IA where, the analyst's questions will require knowledge-based technology, if these questions are to be answered

121

Multiple Choice Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a guide to developing and deploying effective multiple choice tests. The site also discusses the costs and benefits of this method, as well as the philosophy of this commonly used assessment method. Links to more detailed information are included as well.

Parkes, Jay; Guide, Field-Tested L.

122

Analysis of short-answer question styles versus gender in pre-clinical veterinary education.  

PubMed

One large study in medical education has reported that the choice of question format (or question content) could introduce a gender bias, with men outperforming women on questions with a true-false component or that required knowledge of anatomy or physiology. The purpose of our study was to ascertain whether this finding is also true in veterinary medical education. Two veterinary student cohorts were analyzed across four different modules over a three-year period (804 questions in total). The results of the study show that the women's and men's performance did not differ in any of the question types analyzed across any module or year. When students' (both women and men) overall average performance on different question types was compared with their performance on standard multiple-choice questions (MCQs), performance levels increased when students were asked to answer MCQs that contained an image-based prop (IMCQ) such as a photograph, X-ray image, or diagram. In contrast, students' performance was consistently lower when answering assertion-reason questions (ARQs), and this performance could not be explained by the demographic makeup of the two cohorts analyzed. When comparing standard MCQs with MCQs that contained a true-false question stem, no specific trend in the data could be determined. In conclusion, this study suggests that the short-answer question style does not bias against one gender in veterinary medical education, but that overall students do perform differently according to question type and, in particular, less well when ARQs are used in examinations. PMID:21805937

Foster, Neil

2011-01-01

123

Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions Past Issues / ... Drug Abuse during their first Drug Facts Chat Day. Photo courtesy of NIDA The questions poured in… ...

124

Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

Frana, Ilaria

2010-01-01

125

99 Facts about the FBI: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet on the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) attempts to provide an overview of the FBI's functions. Presented in a question and answer format, the 99 questions and answers discuss the federal government agency's history, administrative matters, jurisdiction, criminal investigations, security matters, foreign counter-intelligence, and…

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA.

126

Beyond Information Retrieval--Medical Question Answering Minsuk Lee1  

E-print Network

thousands of articles to generate a short text, ideally, in less than a few seconds, to answer questions short- text answers in response to clinical questions that are posed by physicians. The authors address. Introduction The published medical literature and online medical resources are important sources to help

Yu, Hong

127

The Answerable Question and a Hierarchy of Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of a hierarchy of evidence is useful in rapid electronic searching to answer questions arising during the natural course of clinical practice. The answerable question often begins "What is the evidence that ..." and, when focused on a treatment, usually includes a population, an intervention, a comparison group, and an outcome, often…

Hamilton, John

2005-01-01

128

Questions and answers about energy recovery from waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Questions and answers about the developing waste-to-energy industry are presented. They are intended as a ready reference for the general public and others interested in exploring the option of utilizing municipal waste as a renewable energy resource. Questions were researched and answered in six broad categories: general information; state-of-the-art; economics/financial; environmental; institutional; and project implementation.

1982-09-01

129

Automated Multiple-Choice Testing for Summative Assessment: What Do Students Think?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports undergraduate student feedback contrasting conventional "Long-answer" examinations with automated multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment. Feedback was gathered after students had undertaken formative MCQ assessments as a revision aid. Feedback was generally supportive of MCQ summative tests, with 74% expressing a preference…

Bridge, Pete; Appleyard, Rob; Wilson, Rob

2007-01-01

130

Not Read, but Nevertheless Solved? Three Experiments on PIRLS Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice (MC) reading comprehension test items comprise three components: text passage, questions about the text, and MC answers. The construct validity of this format has been repeatedly criticized. In three between-subjects experiments, fourth graders (N[subscript 1] = 230, N[subscript 2] = 340, N[subscript 3] = 194) worked on three…

Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Kimmel, Rumena; Lowenkamp, Lena; Steingraber, Antje; Rost, Detlef H.

2012-01-01

131

Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Outbreaks: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment Prevention Adults Parents-to-be Infants & Children Preteens & Teens Travelers Healthcare Personnel Frequently Asked Questions Photos ... the 11-12 year old check up. For Preteens and Teens: Vaccine protection for pertussis, tetanus, and ...

132

Negative answers to some positivity questions  

E-print Network

We construct counterexamples to a number of questions related to positivity properties of line bundles on algebraic varieties. The examples are based on studying the geometry of varieties that admit pseudo automorphisms ...

Lesieutre, John

2014-01-01

133

To Answer or Not to Answer: That is the Question for Cell Phone Users  

E-print Network

To Answer or Not to Answer: That is the Question for Cell Phone Users Abstract People are constantly making decisions to answer or ignore cell phone calls based on inferences derived from partial a survey study of cell phone call handling practices. The results highlight the type and extent

Madiraju, Praveen

134

Distance Education Complexities: Questions To Be Answered.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the development of distance education for instruction and training due to new technologies and software focuses on questions that need to be asked to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. Highlights include institutional and organizational concerns; content design analyses; development issues; implementation; evaluation; management…

Dwyer, Francis; Li, Ning

2000-01-01

135

Unsupervised Question Answering Data Acquisition From Local Corpora  

E-print Network

Science Department Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA llita the number of overall question-answer pairs to under five thousand. Less standard datasets, such as trivia

Carbonell, Jaime

136

Representations of Questioning and Answering in Children's First School Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of conversation (focusing on question-answer sequences) in beginning school readers suggests that such books typically convey an image of childhood that combines conversational initiative and conversational competence as a member of the classroom community. (Author/CB)

Baker, Carolyn D.; Freebody, Peter

1986-01-01

137

Put It in Writing: Questions and Answers on Advance Directives  

MedlinePLUS

... Put it in Writing Questions and Answers on Advance Directives Q iii 1 Photo M any people today ... to make such decisions, through legal documents called advance directives. Before deciding what choices about your care at ...

138

A Data Driven Approach to Query Expansion in Question Answering  

E-print Network

Automated answering of natural language questions is an interesting and useful problem to solve. Question answering (QA) systems often perform information retrieval at an initial stage. Information retrieval (IR) performance, provided by engines such as Lucene, places a bound on overall system performance. For example, no answer bearing documents are retrieved at low ranks for almost 40% of questions. In this paper, answer texts from previous QA evaluations held as part of the Text REtrieval Conferences (TREC) are paired with queries and analysed in an attempt to identify performance-enhancing words. These words are then used to evaluate the performance of a query expansion method. Data driven extension words were found to help in over 70% of difficult questions. These words can be used to improve and evaluate query expansion methods. Simple blind relevance feedback (RF) was correctly predicted as unlikely to help overall performance, and an possible explanation is provided for its low value in IR for QA.

Derczynski, Leon; Gaizauskas, Robert; Greenwood, Mark A

2012-01-01

139

Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions  

ScienceCinema

In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

Walker, Iain

2013-11-14

140

Medical marijuana: more questions than answers.  

PubMed

With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

Hill, Kevin P

2014-09-01

141

Extended Matching Sets Questions for Online Numeracy Assessments: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extended matching sets questions (EMSQs) are a form of multiple-choice question (MCQ) consisting of a stem (the question or scenario) with an extended number of possible answers. Although there is no consensus on their absolute format, for the purpose of this paper a multiple-choice question with ten or more alternative answers is considered to be…

Cann, Alan J.

2005-01-01

142

Educational Research and Statistics: Examples of Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some questions that might be asked of students with respect to educational research and related statistical analysis are presented with answers. The questions focus on: (1) the definition of operational variables; (2) null and research hypotheses; (3) the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA); (4) when ANOVA is appropriate; (5) whether statistical…

Inoue, Yukiko

143

Questions about how plants die leads to climate change answers  

E-print Network

- 1 - Questions about how plants die leads to climate change answers March 12, 2012 How trees die in drought key to plant, climate change questions How plants die during drought is one of the largest uncertainties in determining how plants will succumb to changing climate. 3:01 Tree Death Study's Climate Change

144

Offline Strategies for Online Question Answering: Answering Questions Before They Are Asked  

E-print Network

Clinton" and "Bill Clinton, president of the USA,"). We then compare answers based on these relations-instance relations from newspaper text using syntactic patterns and machine-learned filters (e.g., "president Bill

Hovy, Eduard

145

Seekers, sloths and social reference: Homework questions submitted to a question-answering community  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of students are seeking homework help outside library structures and systems, such as on social reference sites, where questions are answered by online community members who rate one another's answers and provide collaborative filtering in place of traditional expertise. This paper reports the preliminary results of a participant observation and content analysis of homework questions submitted to

Rich Gazan

2007-01-01

146

Probabilistic Question Answering on the Web Dragomir Radev  

E-print Network

such as Google and NorthernLight return documents that are relevant to a user query, not answers to user to a large variety of questions. The problem is that existing front ends to the Web such as NorthernLight

Radev, Dragomir R.

147

Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Questions, Answers, and Presuppositions  

E-print Network

Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Questions, Answers, and Presuppositions Author(s): Nuel D. Belnap, Jr. Source: The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 63, No. 20, American Philosophical Association Eastern Division Sixty-Third Annual Meeting (Oct. 27, 1966), pp. 609-611 Published by: Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Stable

Belnap, Nuel

148

Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

149

What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,…

Laird, Valerie

2001-01-01

150

Responses to Questions and Answers Advanced Vehicle Technology Manufacturing Solicitation  

E-print Network

1 Responses to Questions and Answers Advanced Vehicle Technology Manufacturing Solicitation PON successful applicants after the Notice of Proposed Awards to confirm this role and obtain any additional definition of "manufacturing equipment?" For example, would purchases of tooling or assembly line equipment

151

Overview of the CLEF 2005 Multilingual Question Answering Track  

E-print Network

in 2003, eight groups from Europe and North America participated in nine tasks, three monolingual -Dutch, Italian and Spanish- and five bilingual, where questions were formulated in five source languages -Dutch, French, German, Italian- and answer were searched in an English corpus collection. In 2004 eighteen

de Rijke, Maarten

152

"Legal Problem Question Answer Genre" across Jurisdictions and Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to analyse discourse patterns of legal opinions in two languages and cultures--namely, Legal Problem Question Answers (LPQs) in the UK academic writing context and Pareri (Ps) in the Italian professional writing context. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of discourse in this paper, based on the tenets of genre analysis,…

Tessuto, Girolamo

2011-01-01

153

Fillers as Signals: Evidence from a Question-Answering Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the influence of a human or computer "partner" on the production of fillers ("um" and "uh") during a question and answer task. Experiment 1 investigated whether or not responding to a human partner as opposed to a computer partner results in a higher rate of filler production. Participants…

Walker, Esther J.; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

2014-01-01

154

Questions and Answers About Drainage Water Management for the Midwest  

E-print Network

WQ-44 Questions and Answers About Drainage Water Management for the Midwest Jane Frankenberger Nelson, Larry Brown Drainage Water Management Introduction Subsurface tile drainage is an essential water of Mexico, so strategies are needed to reduce the nitrate loads while maintaining adequate drainage for crop

Holland, Jeffrey

155

Questions and Answers about Paget's Disease of Bone  

MedlinePLUS

... Bone Paget's Disease Basics Questions and Answers about Paget's Disease of Bone Related Resources Paget's Disease Fast Facts Paget’s Disease ... Paget’s Disease Facts for New Patients Partner Resources Paget's Disease of Bone (NIHSeniorHealth) Be An Active Member of Your Health ...

156

PlaceBased Induction 2009: More questions than answers  

E-print Network

PlaceBased Induction 2009: More questions than answers Based on the work of the Induction Network, AEIN received an additional grant to help connect induction and culturally responsive teaching. AEIN induction �Elders and Native educators have been doing this work for years. �We don't need to let

Pantaleone, Jim

157

CERCLA Site Assessment questions and answers (Qs&As)  

SciTech Connect

This documents contains commonly asked questions and corresponding answers (Qs&As) on the CERCLA Site Assessment process. These questions were derived from DOE element responses to a solicitation calling for the identification of (unresolved) issues associated with the conduct of CERCLA site assessments, and from inquiries received during a series of Site Assessment Workshops provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231). Answers to these questions were prepared by EH-231 in cooperation with the EPA Federal Facilities Team in Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Site Assessment Branch, and in coordination with the Office of Environmental Compliance, Facilities Compliance Division (EH-222).

Traceski, T.T.

1993-11-09

158

Cem Kaner Essay Questions Page 1 How to Answer Essay Questions in the Graduate Level  

E-print Network

of space on irrelevant material. Several answers were so disorganized that it took significant work. Now answer your sample questions. No one would prepare to run a race primarily by talking about races with friends, or watching a race on television, or reading about races in books. o To prepare to run a race

159

Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.

Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

2010-01-01

160

Part One: Multiple choice questions. Each question has four possible answers but only one is correct/appropriate. Write down the number of the correct  

E-print Network

this assignment. 1. pause 2. hesitate 3. avoid 4. insist 8. The between the two musical performances is fifteen 6 3 * 10. A loyal soldier would rather die than his country. 1. disobey 2. betray 3. deceive 4 or accountant. 5. We do not doubt that men and women are different, just as individuals differ, generations

Huang, Haimei

161

Venus Express: Answered and unanswered questions on Venus (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After having orbited our sister planet for more than seven Earth years Venus Express has collected a very large data set allowing a great number of fundamental scientific questions to be addressed and answered. Most of the questions included in the mission's science requirement, as formulated in the mission proposal, have been answered. These include topics in atmospheric dynamics, structure and chemistry, clouds and hazes, surface and interior, radiation balance and greenhouse, induced magnetosphere and plasma environment, and planetary evolution. Solid results have been achieved in all these fields but with some weakness in the radiation balance measurements, mostly due to the early loss of the planetary Fourier spectrometer providing data at the mid infrared wavelengths. Naturally, due to the limited scope and budget of the Venus Express mission a number of important questions had to be left unaddressed and to be taken up by future missions. This talk will summarise the major results of Venus Express and discuss a number of questions where additional data will be needed in order to provide answers. A wish list for future missions will be provided.

Svedhem, H.; Titov, D.

2013-12-01

162

Verb Phrase Ellipsis in Children's Answers to Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of verb phrase ellipsis is investigated in two 2-year-old English-speaking children's speech by studying their answers to yes\\/no questions over the period of about a year. The investigation is framed using a generative linguistics model, the “PF-deletion model,” which assumes that there is syntactic structure in the ellipsis site that is simply not pronounced at the level of

Rosalind Thornton

2010-01-01

163

Routing of ultrahazardous materials - More questions than answers  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Transportation (DOT) has issued a request for comment on the need for risk assessments for routing hazardous materials. Prior DOT requirements for routing of large quantities of radioactive materials considered two primary components for accident health risk, accident frequency, and population potentially exposed. This approach may be reasonable from the Federal viewpoint, but it leaves many unanswered questions at the state level for ultrahazardous materials. For example, how does a state make effective decisions regarding funding to improve roads (reduce accident probability) and improve emergency response (reduce accident consequence). Some of these questions and a potential way to generate answers are examined in this paper.

Rhyne, W.R.

1988-01-01

164

Public library patrons' use of collaborative chat reference service: The effectiveness of question answering by question type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effectiveness of question answering by question types in the inter-institutional collaborative chat reference service at a public library system. In particular, this study examined whether subject-based research type questions are answered as effectively as simple factual type questions, and whether local-specific questions are answered as effectively as non-local questions in the inter-institutional chat reference service. Effectiveness

Nahyun Kwon

2007-01-01

165

How to answer the most common zinger questions.  

PubMed

Patients are very likely to hit you with zingers--extremely tough questions that require all of your diplomacy and tact. How well you respond to the inevitable zingers depends in large part upon your preparation. This article describes what you must do to prepare yourself for your patients' zingers. It offers simple guidelines for responding to zinger questions, as well as how-to instruction that will enable you to hone your critical listening skills. This article also offers an effective strategy for preparing a list of potential zinger questions customized to your medical practice. It suggests ways to use zinger preparation as a staff training tool, relying in large part upon brainstorming, group work, and role-playing scenarios. Finally, this article presents the wrong way to answer zingers. Then, through sample dialogues, it offers much better and more effective responses that you might give your patients when you need to answer eight of the most common and difficult medical practice zingers. PMID:16471388

Hills, Laura Sachs

2005-01-01

166

QUASAR: The Question Answering System of the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia  

E-print Network

QUASAR: The Question Answering System of the Universidad Polit´ecnica de Valencia Jos´e Manuel G, ebisbal, prosso, esanchis}@dsic.upv.es Abstract. This paper describes the QUASAR Question Answering In by the previous modules in order to extract the correct answer. QUASAR (QUestion AnSwering And information

Rosso, Paolo

167

Global parallel unification for large question-answering systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An efficient means of storing data in a first-order predicate calculus theorem-proving system is described. The data structure is oriented for large scale question-answering (QA) systems. An algorithm is outlined which uses the data structure to unify a given literal in parallel against all literals in all clauses in the data base. The data structure permits a compact representation of data within a QA system. Some suggestions are made for heuristics which can be used to speed-up the unification algorithm in systems.

Auguston, J. G.; Minker, J.

1974-01-01

168

Post-conditioning: Promising answers and more questions  

PubMed Central

Volatile anesthetic agents have been used for decades in the peri-operative setting. Data from the past 15 years have shown that pre-injury administration of volatile anesthetic can decrease the impact of ischemia-reperfusion injury on the heart, brain, and kidney. Recent data demonstrated that volatile agents administered shortly after injury can decrease the ischemia-reperfusion injury. Several questions need to be answered to optimize this therapeutic target, but this is a promising era of secondary injury mitigation. PMID:23176148

2012-01-01

169

PrimeAnswers: A Practical Interface for Answering Primary Care Questions  

PubMed Central

This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. Results of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem. PMID:15905488

Ketchell, Debra S.; St. Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

2005-01-01

170

PrimeAnswers: A practical interface for answering primary care questions.  

PubMed

This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. RESULTS of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem. PMID:15905488

Ketchell, Debra S; St Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

2005-01-01

171

Building a corpus and developing a question classifier to support messaging-based question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are investigating question classification for restricted domains with the broader goal of supporting mixed-initiative interaction on mobile phones. In this paper, we discuss the development of a new domain-specific corpus of cancer-related questions and our efforts toward training a classifier. This work includes the development of a new taxonomy of expected answer types that we have been evaluating. Our

Adam Kurmally; Barbara Di Eugenio; Charles E. Kahn Jr.; Susan McRoy

2010-01-01

172

A comparison of student performance in multiple-choice and long essay questions in the MBBS stage I physiology examination at the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus).  

PubMed

This retrospective study compared the performance of preclinical medical students in the multiple-choice question (MCQ) and long essay question components of a comprehensive physiology final examination. During the 3 yr analyzed, 307 students had an average score of 47% (SD 9.9) in the long essay questions and 64% (SD 9.9) in the MCQs. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation (r = 0.62, P < 0.01) between MCQs and long essay questions. When student performance was grouped by final course grade, a statistically significant correlation between MCQ and long essay scores existed only for the 210 students who received a passing grade (r = 0.20, P < 0.01). The MCQ and long essay question scores were not correlated for the 57 students who failed (r = 0.25, P = 0.06) or for the 40 students who achieved honors and distinctions (r = -0.27, P = 0.11). MCQ scores were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than essay scores for each of the groups when analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The results of this study suggest that for most students, the strong correlation between scores on MCQs and essay questions indicates that student performance was independent of testing format. For students at either end on the performance spectrum, the lack of correlation suggests that the performance in one of the testing formats had a strong influence on the final course grade. In addition, those students who failed the course were likely to be weak in both testing modalities, whereas students in all grade groups were more likely to perform better in the MCQs than in the long essay questions. PMID:20522902

Pepple, Dagogo J; Young, Lauriann E; Carroll, Robert G

2010-06-01

173

A comparison of student performance in multiple-choice and long essay questions in the MBBS stage I physiology examination at the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This retrospective study compared the performance of preclinical medical students in the multiple-choice question (MCQ) and long essay question components of a comprehensive physiology final examination. During the 3 yr analyzed, 307 students had an average score of 47% (SD 9.9) in the long essay questions and 64% (SD 9.9) in the MCQs. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation (r = 0.62, P < 0.01) between MCQs and long essay questions. When student performance was grouped by final course grade, a statistically significant correlation between MCQ and long essay scores existed only for the 210 students who received a passing grade (r = 0.20, P < 0.01). The MCQ and long essay question scores were not correlated for the 57 students who failed (r = 0.25, P = 0.06) or for the 40 students who achieved honors and distinctions (r = ÃÂ0.27, P = 0.11). MCQ scores were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than essay scores for each of the groups when analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The results of this study suggest that for most students, the strong correlation between scores on MCQs and essay questions indicates that student performance was independent of testing format. For students at either end on the performance spectrum, the lack of correlation suggests that the performance in one of the testing formats had a strong influence on the final course grade. In addition, those students who failed the course were likely to be weak in both testing modalities, whereas students in all grade groups were more likely to perform better in the MCQs than in the long essay questions.

Dagogo J. Pepple (University of the West Indies); Lauriann E. Young (University of the West Indies); Robert G. Carroll (East Carolina University)

2010-06-01

174

Model-Driven Knowledge-Based Development of Expected Answer Type Taxonomies for Restricted Domain Question Answering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Question Answering (QA) system must provide concise answers from large collections of documents to questions stated by the user in natural language. Importantly, a question should be correctly classified by means of a predefined taxonomy in order to determine which is the Expected Answer Type (EAT), thus reducing the searching space over documents, while a right answer is obtained. Designing a proper EAT taxonomy is even more crucial in restricted domain QA, since domain experts use specific terminology, thus asking more precise questions and expecting more precise answers. This paper presents a novel model-driven approach in order to ameliorate the task of designing restricted-domain EAT taxonomies by using heterogeneous knowledge resources and collection of documents. To show the applicability of our approach, a set of experiments has been carried out by defining a new EAT taxonomy for being able to answer questions about the agricultural domain.

Vila, Katia; Mazón, Jose-Norberto; Ferrández, Antonio; Gómez, José M.

175

The placebo response in clinical trials: more questions than answers  

PubMed Central

Meta-analyses and re-analyses of trial data have not been able to answer some of the essential questions that would allow prediction of placebo responses in clinical trials. We will confront these questions with current empirical evidence. The most important question asks whether the placebo response rates in the drug arm and in the placebo arm are equal. This ‘additive model’ is a general assumption in almost all placebo-controlled drug trials but has rarely been tested. Secondly, we would like to address whether the placebo response is a function of the likelihood of receiving drug/placebo. Evidence suggests that the number of study arms in a trial may determine the size of the placebo and the drug response. Thirdly, we ask what the size of the placebo response is in ‘comparator’ studies with a direct comparison of a (novel) drug against another drug. Meta-analytic and experimental evidence suggests that comparator studies may produce higher placebo response rates when compared with placebo-controlled trials. Finally, we address the placebo response rate outside the laboratory and outside of trials in clinical routine. This question poses a serious challenge whether the drug response in trials can be taken as evidence of drug effects in clinical routine. PMID:21576146

Enck, Paul; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle; Weimer, Katja; Horing, Bjorn; Zipfel, Stephan

2011-01-01

176

Exam Preparation Multiple Choice Exam Strategies  

E-print Network

should integrate material from different parts of the course. o Exchange your questions with classmates questions in mixed format exams (as these require some thinking through), for reviewing your answers, and thinking about the question if you don't know the answer; just mark it to come back to later. Don't read

177

MURAX: a robust linguistic approach for question answering using an on-line encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust linguistic methods are applied to the task of answering closed-class questions using a corpus of natural language. The methods are illustrated in a broad domain: answering general-knowledge questions using an on-line encyclopedia.A closed-class question is a question stated in natural language, which assumes some definite answer typified by a noun phrase rather than a procedural answer. The methods hypothesize

Julian Kupiec

1993-01-01

178

Cogex: A semantically and contextually enriched logic prover for question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the architecture and functionality of a logic prover designed for question answering. The approach trans- forms questions and answer passages into logic representations based on syntactic, semantic and contextual information. World knowledge supplements the linguistic, ontological, and temporal axioms supplied to the prover which renders a deep understanding of the relationship between the question and answer text.

Dan I. Moldovan; Christine Clark; Sanda M. Harabagiu; Daniel Hodges

2007-01-01

179

Automatic Derivation of Surface Text Patterns for a Maximum Entropy Based Question Answering System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the use of surface text patterns for a Maximum Entropy based Question Answering (QA) system. These text patterns are collected automatically in an unsupervised fashion using a collection of trivia question and answer pairs as seeds. These patterns are used to generate features for a statistical question answering system. We report our results on the

Deepak Ravichandran; Abraham Ittycheriah; Salim Roukos

2003-01-01

180

Ontology-Based Multiple Choice Question Generation  

PubMed Central

With recent advancements in Semantic Web technologies, a new trend in MCQ item generation has emerged through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are knowledge representation structures that formally describe entities in a domain and their relationships, thus enabling automated inference and reasoning. Ontology-based MCQ item generation is still in its infancy, but substantial research efforts are being made in the field. However, the applicability of these models for use in an educational setting has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this paper, we present an experimental evaluation of an ontology-based MCQ item generation system known as OntoQue. The evaluation was conducted using two different domain ontologies. The findings of this study show that ontology-based MCQ generation systems produce satisfactory MCQ items to a certain extent. However, the evaluation also revealed a number of shortcomings with current ontology-based MCQ item generation systems with regard to the educational significance of an automatically constructed MCQ item, the knowledge level it addresses, and its language structure. Furthermore, for the task to be successful in producing high-quality MCQ items for learning assessments, this study suggests a novel, holistic view that incorporates learning content, learning objectives, lexical knowledge, and scenarios into a single cohesive framework. PMID:24982937

Al-Yahya, Maha

2014-01-01

181

Ontology-based multiple choice question generation.  

PubMed

With recent advancements in Semantic Web technologies, a new trend in MCQ item generation has emerged through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are knowledge representation structures that formally describe entities in a domain and their relationships, thus enabling automated inference and reasoning. Ontology-based MCQ item generation is still in its infancy, but substantial research efforts are being made in the field. However, the applicability of these models for use in an educational setting has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this paper, we present an experimental evaluation of an ontology-based MCQ item generation system known as OntoQue. The evaluation was conducted using two different domain ontologies. The findings of this study show that ontology-based MCQ generation systems produce satisfactory MCQ items to a certain extent. However, the evaluation also revealed a number of shortcomings with current ontology-based MCQ item generation systems with regard to the educational significance of an automatically constructed MCQ item, the knowledge level it addresses, and its language structure. Furthermore, for the task to be successful in producing high-quality MCQ items for learning assessments, this study suggests a novel, holistic view that incorporates learning content, learning objectives, lexical knowledge, and scenarios into a single cohesive framework. PMID:24982937

Al-Yahya, Maha

2014-01-01

182

Some questions and answers about the Satellite Power System (SPS)  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Energy Research, US DOE is evaluating the concept of obtaining significant amounts of electrical energy from space through the Satellite Power System Project Office (SPS PO) formed for that purpose. The SPS PO prepared and is implementing a Concept Development and Evaluation Program plan. The CDEP runs roughly three years (from July 1977 through July 1980) and consists of four primary elements: (1) Systems Definition, (2) Environmental Assessment, (3) Societal Assessment, and (4) Comparative Assessment. One facet of the Societal Assessment is an investigation of public concerns. To further this investigation, a public outreach experiment was initiated to determine the initial response of three selected interest groups to the SPS, both qualitatively and quantititavely, and to gain some experience for use in future public participation activities. Three groups were contacted and agreed to participate in the experiment. They were: the Citizens Energy Project (CEP), the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), and the L-5 Society (L-5). They each agreed to condense twenty final SPS reports into approximately four pages each, have them typeset, printed and distributed to 3,000 of their constituents for their review, together with a request that they respond to the parent organization regarding the information presented. All responses were summarized and provided to Planning Research Corporation who then solicited the answers from the SPS PO investigator most directly concerned.The questions and answers are presented and will be distributed by the three groups to the individual respondents. Each of the three groups is also preparing a report to the Project Office detailing their work and results. These, together with other responses and studies will be used to more effectively involve the public in the SPS Participatory Technology Process.

Not Available

1980-01-01

183

How Online Crowds Influence the Way Individual Consumers Answer Health Questions  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether strength of social feedback, i.e. other people who concur (or do not concur) with one’s own answer to a question, influences the way one answers health questions. Methods Online prospective study. Two hundred and twenty-seven undergraduate students were recruited to use an online search engine to answer six health questions. Subjects recorded their pre- and post-search answers to each question and their level of confidence in these answers. After answering each question post-search, subjects were presented with a summary of post-search answers provided by previous subjects and were asked to answer the question again. Results There was a statistically significant relationship between the absolute number of others with a different answer (the crowd’s opinion volume) and the likelihood of an individual changing an answer (P<0.001). For most questions, no subjects changed their answer until the first 10–35 subjects completed the study. Subjects’ likelihood of changing answer increased as the percentage of others with a different answer (the crowd’s opinion density) increased (P=0.047). Overall, 98.3% of subjects did not change their answer when it concurred with the majority (i.e. >50%) of subjects, and that 25.7% of subjects changed their answer to the majority response when it did not concur with the majority. When subjects had a post-search answer that did not concur with the majority, they were 24% more likely to change answer than those with answers that concurred (P<0.001). Conclusion This study provides empirical evidence that crowd influence, in the form of online social feedback, affects the way consumers answer health questions. PMID:23616869

Lau, A.Y.S.; Kwok, T.M.Y.; Coiera, E.

2011-01-01

184

Tuberculous meningitis: more questions, still too few answers.  

PubMed

Tuberculous meningitis is especially common in young children and people with untreated HIV infection, and it kills or disables roughly half of everyone affected. Childhood disease can be prevented by vaccination and by giving prophylactic isoniazid to children exposed to infectious adults, although improvements in worldwide tuberculosis control would lead to more effective prevention. Diagnosis is difficult because clinical features are non-specific and laboratory tests are insensitive, and treatment delay is the strongest risk factor for death. Large doses of rifampicin and fluoroquinolones might improve outcome, and the beneficial effect of adjunctive corticosteroids on survival might be augmented by aspirin and could be predicted by screening for a polymorphism in LTA4H, which encodes an enzyme involved in eicosanoid synthesis. However, these advances are insufficient in the face of drug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV co-infection. Many questions remain about the best approaches to prevent, diagnose, and treat tuberculous meningitis, and there are still too few answers. PMID:23972913

Thwaites, Guy E; van Toorn, Ronald; Schoeman, Johan

2013-10-01

185

New Information Distance Measure and Its Application in Question Answering System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a question answering (QA) system, the fundamental problem is how to measure the distance between a question and an answer, hence ranking difierent answers. We demonstrate that such a distance can be precisely and mathematically deflned. Not only such a deflnition is possible, it is actually provably better than any other feasible deflnitions. Not only such an ultimate deflnition

Xian Zhang; Yu Hao; Xiao-Yan Zhu; Ming Li

2008-01-01

186

Use of social network sites for question and answer behavior  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we look at the behavior of posting questions as status updates on popular social network sites like Twitter and Facebook. This question asking behavior is similar to the use of search engines, question and ...

Panovich, Katrina (Katrina Marie)

2011-01-01

187

What Makes a Good Research Question? 1. A good scientific question is one that can be answered through  

E-print Network

What Makes a Good Research Question? 1. A good scientific question is one that can be answered through scientific research. · "Is Stone Creek polluted?"This is a good question because you can predict's polluted. · "Why is quicksand so dangerous?"This is not a good question.There is no way to observe it

188

What did Spot Hide? A Question-Answering Game for Preschool Children  

E-print Network

What did Spot Hide? A Question-Answering Game for Preschool Children Anuj Tewari1,2 & John Canny1 1 opportunities. Moreover, preschool children are incessantly inquisitive, and will readily engage in question partner. Author Keywords Games; Preschool literacy; question-answering; conversational agents. ACM

Canny, John

189

Psychological research on child witnesses in sexual abuse cases: Fine answers to mostly wrong questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research on the accuracy of children's testimony has shown that questions' wording and interview context explain some of the variance in children's answers to questions, but does not give answers regarding children's reasons for lying when asked questions about past events. This article reviews research done on children's testimony and suggests that researchers should move beyond the domiant paradigms

Joná F. Meyer; Gilbert Geis

1994-01-01

190

Reducing Our Ignorance: Finding Answers to Certain Epistemic Questions for Software Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In previous papers, we asserted that software system safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. We also enumerated a set of 21 foundational epistemic questions, discussed some of the difficulties that exist in answering these questions adequately today, and speculated briefly on possible research that may provide improved confidence in the sufficiency of answers in the future. This paper focuses on three of the foundational questions. For each of these questions, current answers are discussed and potential research is proposed to help increase the justifiable level of confidence.

Holloway, C. Michael; Johnson, Christopher W.

2011-01-01

191

Parallelization Issues of Domain Specific Question Answering System on Cell B.E. Processors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A question answering system is an information retrieval application which allows users to directly obtain appropriate answers to a question. In order to deal with an explosive growth of information over internet and increased number of processing stages in answer retrieval, time and processing hardware required by question answering system has increased. The need of hardware is currently served by connecting thousands of computers in cluster. But faster and less complex alternatives can be found as a multi-core processor. This paper presents a pioneer work by identifying major issues involved in porting a general question answering framework on a cell processor and their possible solutions. The work is evaluated by porting the indexing algorithm of our biomedical question answering system, INDOC (Internet Doctor) on cell processors.

Kumar, Tarun; Mittal, Ankush; Sondhi, Parikshit

192

ANALYSIS OF SEMANTIC CLASSES: TOWARD NON-FACTOID QUESTION ANSWERING  

E-print Network

answering, and focused on three semantic classes that correspond to roles in the commonly accepted PICO, the intervention used to treat the problem, and the clinical outcome. i #12;We used rule-based approaches an important property of semantic classes--their cores. We showed how cores of interventions, problems

Toronto, University of

193

On Answering Why-not Questions in Reverse Skyline Queries  

E-print Network

efficiently combines both query point and data point modification techniques to produce meaningful answers systems. Today's database systems are highly efficient in terms of query execution time and resource usage-Union- Aggregation) queries, respectively. The third aspect is refining the initial query so that the why-not point

Liu, Chengfei

194

Science Sampler: Science SLAMS--A reading strategy for answering open-ended questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The SLAMS (Sentence, Lines, Answer, Mechanics, Support) (Crowell and Kolba 2006) strategy is a basic and relatively simple technique used to guide students to answer open-ended questions when reading nonfiction. This strategy gives students the opportunity to develop well-constructed responses, because their answers have to fulfill all parts of SLAMS.

Sziabowski, Christine

2008-11-01

195

Performance on multiple-choice diagnostics and complementary exam problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper compares the responses of university physics students on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and on open-ended examination questions. The Mechanics Baseline Test (MBT) is another multiple choice test. It contains a greater range of topics than the FCI and is intended for use after instruction.

Steinberg, Richard N.; Sabella, Mel

2005-10-17

196

Getting Answers to Natural Language Questions on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that investigated the use of natural language questions on Web search engines. Highlights include query languages; differences in search engine syntax; and results of logistic regression and analysis of variance that showed aspects of questions that predicted significantly different performances, including the number of words,…

Radev, Dragomir R.; Libner, Kelsey; Fan, Weiguo

2002-01-01

197

Can Consortial Reference Partners Answer Your Local Users' Library Questions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to explore location-based questions as a weakness of virtual reference consortia and discuss how to mitigate related issues. Content analysis of how both local and non-local academic librarians responded to location-based questions provides insight into considerations academic libraries must make when participating…

Bishop, Bradley Wade

2012-01-01

198

Terminological variants for document selection and question/answer matching  

E-print Network

system, term extraction, terminological variant, named entity, information retrieval Contact Author takes advantage of a question analysis module and a recognition of numeric and named entities takes advantage of a question analysis module and a recognition of numeric and named entities

Illouz, Gabriel

199

Teachers' Answers to Students' Questions: Problematizing the Issue of Making Meaning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes how three university teachers of English as a Second Language answered student' requests for help in understanding unknown vocabulary items during lessons mediated via a task-based, small group methodology. Notes that teachers tended to answer learners' referential questions with display questions of their own. (68 references) (Author/CK)

Markee, Numa P.

1995-01-01

200

Learning to Rank QA Data: Evaluating Machine Learning Techniques for Ranking Answers to Why-Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we evaluate a number of machine learning tech- niques for the purpose of ranking answers to why-questions. We use a set of 37 linguistically motivated features that characterize questions and answers. We experiment with a number of machine learning techniques in various settings. The purpose of the experiments is to assess how the dier- ent machine learning

Suzan Verberne; H. van Halteren; Stephan Raaijmakers; D. L. Theijssen; L. W. J. Boves

2009-01-01

201

Questions and Answers about Child Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Child Care, and answers the following questions about child care: (1) How many children are in child care?; (2) How many hours per week do…

Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2008

2008-01-01

202

Web-based Anaphora Resolution for the QUASAR Question Answering System  

E-print Network

Web-based Anaphora Resolution for the QUASAR Question Answering System Davide Buscaldi and Yassine resolution module. 1 Introduction QUASAR (QUestion AnSwering And Retrieval) is the name we gave to our the results of QUASAR in the 2007 CLEF QA task. 2 System Architecture In Fig.1 we show the architecture

Rosso, Paolo

203

Methods for Automatically Evaluating Answers to Complex Questions Jimmy Lin1,2,3  

E-print Network

@cs.umd.edu Abstract Evaluation is a major driving force in advancing the state of the art in language technologies application of existing metrics. 1 Introduction Question answering, which lies at the intersection between in systems capable of answering fact-based natural language questions such as "What city is the home

Lin, Jimmy

204

Palliative Care Questions and Answers (Hospice Care Comparison)  

MedlinePLUS

Question Palliative Care Hospice Care Who can receive this care? Anyone with a serious illness, regardless of life expectancy, can receive palliative care Someone with an illness with a life expectancy ...

205

Student Evaluations That Generate More Questions Than Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a chemical educator, one of the author's primary goals is to provide students with tools for effective learning, hopefully doing so in an engaging, motivating, and incrementally challenging experience. In her quest to figure out how to do a better job, student evaluations seemed a logical place to start looking for answers. Even though others have contested the meaningfulness of student evaluations as tools for teaching improvements (Kelter 2004), her experience, which is described in this article, provides valuable insights into how these evaluations could help improve her teaching.

Oliver-Hoyo, Maria

2008-09-01

206

Concept Recognition, Information Retrieval, and Machine Learning in Genomics Question-Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

TREC Genomics 2006 presented a genomics question-answering challenge with questions on twenty-seven topics, and a corpus of 162,259 full-text biomedical journal articles from which to derive an- swers. Questions were formulated from actual infor- mation needs of biomedical researchers, and perfor- mance was based on human evaluation of the answers. The University of Colorado approach to this task in- volved

J. Gregory Caporaso; William A. Baumgartner Jr.; Hyunmin Kim; Zhiyong Lu; Helen L. Johnson; Olga Medvedeva; Anna Lindemann; Lynne M. Fox; Elizabeth K. White; K. Bretonnel Cohen; Lawrence Hunter

2006-01-01

207

Developing Underprepared College Students' Question-Answering Skill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares two approaches for preparing students to take standardized reading tests. Discusses study that used a pretest-posttest design with reading-comprehension passages and questions to assess improvement. Suggests that measurable gain in short-term developmental programs may require focusing on a more modest number of teaching objectives,…

Taraban, Roman; Becton, Stacia M.; Shufeldt, Michael; Stirling, Thomas; Johnson, Matthew C.; Childers, Kristyn

1997-01-01

208

Can Nonprofit Management Help Answer Public Management's "Big Questions?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of nonprofit literature on board governance, volunteer management, and performance measurement shows that study of the nonprofit sector can help inform public management's "big questions": breaking the micromanagement cycle, motivating employees, and measuring performance. Nonprofit studies could enrich public administration curricula.…

Brooks, Arthur C.

2002-01-01

209

Answering Hard Questions: "Wh"-Movement across Dialects and Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large-scale study of complex "wh"-questions with 1,000 subjects aged 4-9 years is reported. The subjects' dialects were Mainstream American English or African American English, and approximately one-third were language impaired. The study examined when children permit long distance "wh"-movement, and when they respect a variety of syntactic…

De Villiers, Jill; Roeper, Thomas; Bland-Stewart, Linda; Pearson, Barbara

2008-01-01

210

25 Questions You Should Know How to Answer  

E-print Network

other areas of the Earth at the same latitude are deserts? #12;25 Questions (B) 6. If sea level rises hurricanes often, but not always, veer away from Florida? 2. Why will it rain in August in Gainesville? Why will it rain in January in Gainesville? 3. Why does most of north Florida get wet when it rains in January

Binford, Michael W.

211

In Pursuit of Happiness: Empirical Answers to Philosophical Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we provide an overview of what various philosophers throughout the ages have claimed about the nature of\\u000a happiness, and we discuss to what extent psychological science has been able to substantiate or refute their claims. We first\\u000a address concerns raised by philosophers regarding the possibility, desirability, and justifiability of happiness and then\\u000a turn to the perennial question

Pelin Kesebir; Ed Diener

212

Crowdsourcing Control: Moving Beyond Multiple Choice Christopher H. Lin Mausam Daniel S. Weld  

E-print Network

Crowdsourcing Control: Moving Beyond Multiple Choice Christopher H. Lin Mausam Daniel S. Weld Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195 {chrislin,mausam,weld, and Weld 2010; 2011) to quality control is the restriction to multiple choice questions, i.e., jobs where

Mausam

213

Combining Independent Modules to Solve Multiple-choice Synonym and Analogy Problems  

E-print Network

(choices are the 10 digits), word sense disam- biguation (choices are a word's possible senses), text for solving multiple-choice synonym questions can be used to determine the semantic orientation of a wordCombining Independent Modules to Solve Multiple-choice Synonym and Analogy Problems Peter D. Turney

Littman, Michael L.

214

Answering Fundamental Questions about Cataclysmic Variables and Classical Novae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cataclysmic variables (CVs) are interacting binaries consisting of a white dwarf primary, and a non-degenerate secondary star. There are numerous subclasses of CVs (any of which could become a Classical Nova), but broadly, these classifications are believed to arise from either differing values of the mass accretion rate, or whether the white dwarf primary is magnetic. There continue to be numerous questions about the origin, and evolution of these systems. We will review some of the outstanding issues, and address how advances in interferometry might be used to resolve them.

Harrison, T. E.

2014-09-01

215

A combined IR\\/NLP approach to question answering against large text collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an approach to finding literal answer strings to natural language questions in large text collections. The approach involves linking an IR system with an NLP system that performs reasonably thorough linguistic analysis. The IR system treats the question as a query and returns a set of t op ranked documents or passages. The NLP system parses the question

Robert Gaisauskas; Kevin Humphreys

2000-01-01

216

Reynolds_Answers N11.pdf Student questions: Stephen Reynolds colloquium on "Perception, Visualization, Cognition, and  

E-print Network

blind, such as not including certain colors on maps. Question 1: Do you feel like students benefit more. Question 2: What grade level/age group were the students in the figure transition experiment? All studetnsReynolds_Answers N11.pdf 1 Student questions: Stephen Reynolds colloquium on "Perception

Shumway, John

217

Working with Second Language Learners: Answers to Teachers' Top Ten Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book aims to provide practical, research-informed answers to the questions most frequently asked by teachers of second language learners. Every question targets one of the key instructional issues teachers must address to ensure success for their second language students. Included among the questions are: How do I assess a student's English?…

Cary, Stephen

218

Learning to Find Answers to Questions on the Web EUGENE AGICHTEIN  

E-print Network

Learning to Find Answers to Questions on the Web EUGENE AGICHTEIN Columbia University STEVE (answers.- google.com) facilitate interaction with human experts. Authors' addresses: Eugene Agichtein (eugene@cs.columbia.edu), Steve Lawrence (lawrence@necmail.com), Luis Gravano (gravano

Agichtein, Eugene

219

Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Campaign About our Partner Spread the Word Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers Share Compartir On this ... Overview Transmission Symptoms Testing Treatment Overview What is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It ...

220

26 CFR 1.416-1 - Questions and answers on top-heavy plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the plan provides for a nonproportional subsidy, the present value should reflect a...account unless they are nonproportional subsidies. See Question and Answer T-27...the plan provides for a nonproportional subsidy, the benefit should be assumed to...

2012-04-01

221

26 CFR 1.416-1 - Questions and answers on top-heavy plans.  

...the plan provides for a nonproportional subsidy, the present value should reflect a...account unless they are nonproportional subsidies. See Question and Answer T-27...the plan provides for a nonproportional subsidy, the benefit should be assumed to...

2014-04-01

222

26 CFR 1.416-1 - Questions and answers on top-heavy plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the plan provides for a nonproportional subsidy, the present value should reflect a...account unless they are nonproportional subsidies. See Question and Answer T-27...the plan provides for a nonproportional subsidy, the benefit should be assumed to...

2011-04-01

223

26 CFR 1.416-1 - Questions and answers on top-heavy plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the plan provides for a nonproportional subsidy, the present value should reflect a...account unless they are nonproportional subsidies. See Question and Answer T-27...the plan provides for a nonproportional subsidy, the benefit should be assumed to...

2013-04-01

224

How a Philosopher Became an Information-Scientist Answers to Luciano Floridi's Five Questions  

E-print Network

How a Philosopher Became an Information-Scientist Answers to Luciano Floridi's Five Questions (For importance of architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.2.9 Thinking like a designer Contents 1 How did it start? 2 1.1 High level overview

Sloman, Aaron

225

Pathogenesis of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: some answers, more questions  

PubMed Central

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) has long been recognized as unique among childhood arthritides, because of its distinctive clinical and epidemiological features, including an association with macrophage activation syndrome. Here, we summarize research into sJIA pathogenesis. The triggers of disease are unknown, although infections are suspects. Once initiated, sJIA seems to be driven by innate proinflammatory cytokines. Endogenous Toll-like receptor ligands, including S100 proteins, probably synergize with cytokines to perpetuate inflammation. These and other findings support the hypothesis that sJIA is an autoinflammatory condition. Indeed, IL-1 is implicated as a pivotal cytokine, but the source of excess IL-1 activity remains obscure and the role of IL-1 in chronic arthritis is less clear. Another hypothesis is that a form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis underlies sJIA, with varying degrees of its expression across the spectrum of disease. Alternatively, sJIA with MAS might be a genetically distinct subtype. Yet another hypothesis proposes that inadequate downregulation of immune activation is central to sJIA, supporting evidence for which includes ‘alternative activation’ of monocyte and macrophages and possible deficiencies in IL-10 and T regulatory cells. Some altered immune phenotypes persist during clinically inactive disease, which suggests that this stage might represent compensated inflammation. Despite much progress being made, many questions remain, providing fertile ground for future research. PMID:21647204

Mellins, Elizabeth D.; Macaubas, Claudia; Grom, Alexei A.

2014-01-01

226

Answers to questions about updated estimates of occupational radiation doses at Three Mile Island, Unit 2  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this question and answer report is to provide a clear, easy-to-understand explanation of revised radiation dose estimates which workers are likely to receive over the course of the cleanup at Three Mile Island, Unit 2, and of the possible health consequences to workers of these new estimates. We will focus primarily on occupational dose, although pertinent questions about public health and safety will also be answered.

Not Available

1983-12-01

227

Obstacles to answering doctors' questions about patient care with evidence: qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To describe the obstacles encountered when attempting to answer doctors' questions with evidence.Design: Qualitative study.Setting: General practices in Iowa.Participants: 9 academic generalist doctors, 14 family doctors, and 2 medical librarians.Main outcome measure: A taxonomy of obstacles encountered while searching for evidence based answers to doctors' questions.Results: 59 obstacles were encountered and organised according to the five steps in asking

John W Ely; Jerome A Osheroff; Mark H Ebell; M Lee Chambliss; Daniel C Vinson; James J Stevermer; Eric A Pifer

2002-01-01

228

Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2  

SciTech Connect

This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

Not Available

1984-03-01

229

Answers to the 50 Most Important Questions about Private Mental Health Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for anyone contemplating or presently established in private mental health practice, this book provides the answers to 50 pertinent questions concerning private practice. Questions were culled from a survey of graduate students in psychology, as well as experienced psychotherapists, psychiatrists, social workers, mental health counselors,…

Forman, Bruce D.; Silverman, Wade H.

230

10 Questions to Answer for Technology to Succeed in Your School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few principals claim to be technology experts. Most aspire to design a map that leads their schools to success with educational technology. However, the key to success on the journey is not knowing everything or becoming a technology expert. It is about asking the right questions, exploring the answers to those questions, and creating a road map…

Gosmire, Doreen; Grady, Marilyn L.

2007-01-01

231

Researching the Quest: Are Community College Students Motivated by Question-and-Answer Reviews?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any effort to assess the motivational techniques employed by community college faculty is complicated by the inter-connectedness of motivational techniques and teaching techniques, as improved teaching results in improved motivation. Nonetheless, this research poses a motivation-related question: Does the use of daily question-and-answer reviews…

Cavendish, Don F., Jr.

2010-01-01

232

The Most-Asked Questions about Gifted Children: Answers for Parents and Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for both parents and educators, the booklet offers answers to the questions parents ask about their gifted children. The 64 questions are divided into 6 major categories--definitions of giftedness, ways to help parents identify gifted children, schooling for the gifted child, understanding gifted children, help for the gifted child, and…

Fehrle, Carl C.; And Others

233

Wrong Answer to the Wrong Question: Why We Need Critical Teacher Education, Not Standardization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors contend that teacher education (like K-12) is under attack by those seeking to exploit the public good and privatize education. Teacher educators find themselves on the defensive, compelled to answer questions about efficacy and accountability that do not reflect their understandings of their work, questions that do not address the…

Madeloni, Barbara; Gorlewski, Julie

2013-01-01

234

On-Line Mathematics Assessment: The Impact of Mode on Performance and Question Answering Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition from paper-based to computer-based assessment raises a number of important issues about how mode might affect children's performance and question answering strategies. In this project 104 eleven-year-olds were given two sets of matched mathematics questions, one set on-line and the other on paper. Facility values were analyzed to…

Johnson, Martin; Green, Sylvia

2006-01-01

235

A Semi-supervised Topic-driven Approach for Clustering Textual Answers to Survey Questions  

E-print Network

cluster a specific type of text documents: textual responses gathered through a survey system. Due such questions, text clustering can be employed. This technique categorizes a collection of text documentsA Semi-supervised Topic-driven Approach for Clustering Textual Answers to Survey Questions Hui Yang

Yang, Hui

236

Warning Signs of Youth Violence. Just the Facts: Answers to Your Questions about Psychological Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Violence. It's the act of purposefully hurting someone. And it's a major issue facing today's young adults. This fact sheet answers questions that those aged 12-24 might ask about violence. This age group faces the highest risk of being the victim of violence. Questions regard the causes of youth violence, warning signs, what to do if someone…

American Psychological Association (APA), 2002

2002-01-01

237

Responding to Children's Answers: Questions Embedded in the Social Context of Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents analysis of question-answer sequences during problem inquiry between a teacher and two children in an early childhood crèche in New Zealand. Conversation analysis is used to reveal which questions the teacher asks, how children answer the questions, and the teacher's responses to the child's answers. Although…

Bateman, Amanda

2013-01-01

238

Are faculty predictions or item taxonomies useful for estimating the outcome of multiple-choice examinations?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study evaluating whether multiple-choice item difficulty could be predicted either by a subjective judgment by the question author or by applying a learning taxonomy to the items.

Jonathan D. Kibble (University of Central Florida College of Medicine); Teresa Johnson (University of Central Florida)

2011-12-01

239

Research Paper: Do Online Information Retrieval Systems Help Experienced Clinicians Answer Clinical Questions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess the impact of clinicians' use of an online information retrieval system on their performance in answering clinical questions.DesignPre-\\/post-intervention experimental design.MeasurementsIn a computer laboratory, 75 clinicians (26 hospital-based doctors, 18 family practitioners, and 31 clinical nurse consultants) provided 600 answers to eight clinical scenarios before and after the use of an online information retrieval system. We examined the proportion

Johanna I. Westbrook; Enrico W. Coiera; A. Sophie Gosling

2005-01-01

240

Multiple-Choice Computer Diagnostic Test Designs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses factors that should be considered when designing multiple-choice diagnostic tests for use with microcomputer systems. Item content and characteristics are described, presentation of feedback and results are examined, database management functions are discussed, and benefits for students with learning problems and physically disabled…

Burns, Edward

1990-01-01

241

Text-to-text generation for question answering Wauter Bosma, Erwin Marsi, Emiel Krahmer and Mariet Theune  

E-print Network

Text-to-text generation for question answering Wauter Bosma, Erwin Marsi, Emiel Krahmer and Mari¨et Theune Abstract When answering questions, major challenges are (a) to carefully deter- mine the content alignment and surface string generation. 1 Introduction Answering specific types of trivia style (so

Theune, Mariët

242

Environmental Problems, Causes, and Solutions: An Open Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a national evaluation of environmental literacy in Israel, (Negev, Sagy, Garb, Salzberg, & Tal, 2008), the authors included both multiple choice questions and open questions. In this article the authors describe the qualitative analysis of the answers to an open question regarding a local environmental problem. Most participants specified solid…

Negev, Maya; Garb, Yaakov; Biller, Roni; Sagy, Gonen; Tal, Alon

2010-01-01

243

[Questions and answers to possible side effects of external bleaching therapies].  

PubMed

There are several questions with regard to the application and possible side effects of external bleaching therapies. The following short review gives answers to some questions regarding this topic. It might be concluded that every bleaching therapy should be preceded by a meticulous intraoral examination. To reduce the risk of adverse effects, it is mandatory to have knowledge about the mode of action of bleaching agents. PMID:18998582

Attin, Thomas; Wiegand, Annette; Schmidlin, Patrick R

2008-01-01

244

BVideoQA: Online English\\/Chinese bilingual video question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a bilingual video question answer- ing (QA) system, namely BVideoQA, which allows users to retrieve Chinese videos through English or Chinese natural language questions. Our method first extracts an optimal one-to-one string pattern matching according to theproposeddenseandlongN-grammatch.Onthebasis of the matched string patterns, it gives a passage score based on our term-weighting scheme.The main contribu- tions of this

Yue-shi Lee; Yu-chieh Wu; Jie-chi Yang

2009-01-01

245

A Medical Consultation Service on Facebook: Descriptive Analysis of Questions Answered  

PubMed Central

Background Social media is used increasingly by the general public to access health information. However, a lack of models for health information distribution limits the presence of publicly funded services on social media sites. Objective The goal of the study was to present a model for delivering child health information to parents through a social media site. Methods A Facebook site was launched for 11 months based on a question-and-answer service produced by a pediatrician and open to Facebook users over 18 years old. If the answer did not include a further referral to a health care service provider, the question was considered comprehensively answered. The site was funded by a pharmaceutical company, and it included an advertisement of a pharmaceutical product for children’s fever and pain. Results During the study, 768 questions were submitted: an average of 69.8 (SD 31.7) per month. There were 245,533 independent Facebook users on the site, with an average of 727.0 (SD 2280.6) per day. Infections were the most common theme in questions (355/768, 46.2%). Questions were more likely to be comprehensively answered if they were related to infections (279/355, 78.6%) than questions related to non-infectious symptoms (265/423, 64.2%, P=.003). Conclusions On this site aimed at parents of small children, personalized answers were an effective way of delivering information. The service is likely to have reduced the need for further contacts with a health care service provider in more than half of the cases. The site could serve as a model for publicly funded health information distribution. PMID:25189182

2014-01-01

246

Olum_Answers 113.pdf Student questions: Ken Olum colloquium on "Cosmic Strings in 3D"  

E-print Network

, which potentially emit cosmic rays and gravitational radiation, for 2-dimensional topological defectsOlum_Answers 113.pdf 1 Student questions: Ken Olum colloquium on "Cosmic Strings in 3D" 1 in the cosmic string? In my simulation of loops, the color showed how long the loop was. All the very long

Shumway, John

247

Question-Answering for Intelligent On-Line Help: The Process of Intelligent Responding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the process of specifying a question-answering help facility in the context of UNIX mail. The specification was bosed upon experimental expert-user facilitative dialogues. These dialogues were analyzed using a classification scheme developed for the purpose. The scheme provides a meta- language for describing patterns of intent and rhetorical structure in dialogue. Using the scheme as a tool,

Rachel M. Pilkington

1992-01-01

248

Questions and answers, and references for the presentation, "Relativity, Time and Black Holes",  

E-print Network

places to start: Black Holes and Time Warps, K.S. Thorne General Relativity from A to B, R. Geroch FlatQuestions and answers, and references for the presentation, "Relativity, Time and Black Holes. On the other hand, he will have experienced more time up to that point than you. Q: If I fall into a black hole

Johnson, Raymond L.

249

Finding the Right Facts in the Crowd: Factoid Question Answering over Social Media  

E-print Network

results, and to better integrate social media content for effective information access. CategoriesFinding the Right Facts in the Crowd: Factoid Question Answering over Social Media Jiang Bian framework for factual information retrieval from social media. Results of a large scale evaluation

Agichtein, Eugene

250

Frequently Asked Questions about ADHD and the Answers from the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies useful Internet sites about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the results of searching these sites to answer common questions concerning incidence of ADHD, basic information about Ritalin drug therapy, educational placement of students with ADHD, sources of information about special needs, and what parents can do at…

Loechler, Kathy

1999-01-01

251

Microsoft Word - App 2-4 Answers to Participant Questions.doc  

Cancer.gov

1 Lung Screening Study Version 3.0 Manual of Operations and Procedures 11/15/00 Appendix 2–4 Lung Screening Study Answers to Potential Participant Questions Participation: 1. Why should I participate? The study is designed to determine

252

Young Children's Sensitivity to New and Given Information when Answering Predicate-Focus Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two studies we investigated 2-year-old children's answers to predicate-focus questions depending on the preceding context. Children were presented with a successive series of short video clips showing transitive actions (e.g., frog washing duck) in which either the action (action-new) or the patient (patient-new) was the changing, and therefore…

Salomo, Dorothe; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

2010-01-01

253

Answering questions with an electroencephalogram-based brain-computer interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To demonstrate that humans can learn to control selected electroencephalographic components and use that control to answer simple questions.Methods: Four adults (one with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) learned to use electroencephalogram (EEG) mu rhythm (8 to 12Hz) or beta rhythm (18 to 25Hz) activity over sensorimotor cortex to control vertical cursor movement to targets at the top or bottom edge

Laurie A. Miner; Dennis J. McFarland; Jonathan R. Wolpaw

1998-01-01

254

Ishii_Answers 212.pdf Student questions: Miaki Ishii colloquium on "Dissecting Giant Earthquakes: Things We  

E-print Network

Ishii_Answers 212.pdf 1 Student questions: Miaki Ishii colloquium on "Dissecting Giant Earthquakes: Things We Didn't Know" 2/15/12 You talked about how an earthquake in the ocean is more likely to cause aftershocks because of the presence of water near the fault. Earthquakes in oceans do not necessarily generate

Elser, Jim

255

Who Wants to Know? Question-asking and Answering Practices among Facebook Users  

E-print Network

Who Wants to Know? Question-asking and Answering Practices among Facebook Users Rebecca Gray1@umd.edu ABSTRACT Research has identified a link between Facebook use and bridging social capital, which speaks through which Facebook may help individuals mobilize these embedded informational and support resources

Michigan, University of

256

Development, implementation, and a cognitive evaluation of a definitional question answering system for physicians  

E-print Network

a large number of articles and generates short text, ideally, less than a few seconds, to answer questions, Suite 125, Durham, NC, USA Received 17 November 2005 Available online 12 March 2007 Abstract The published medical literature and online medical resources are important sources to help physicians make

Yu, Hong

257

Blandford_Answers N11.pdf Student questions: Roger Blandford colloquium on "The Golden Crab"  

E-print Network

Blandford_Answers N11.pdf 1 Student questions: Roger Blandford colloquium on "The Golden Crab" 11 benefit from observing and analyzing the Crab Nebula? To me it sounds like engineers trying to advance alternative energies could learn from how the crab nebula functions. Instrumentalists can learn from

Shumway, John

258

Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities Solicitation  

E-print Network

Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities biofuels production facility? A.1 An existing biofuels facility is an existing facility that, as of the application due date of PON-13-601, produces (or did produce) biofuels in California. Q.2 Must an eligible

259

A Named Entity Recogniser for Question Answering Menno van Zaanen and Diego Molla  

E-print Network

A Named Entity Recogniser for Question Answering Menno van Zaanen and Diego Moll´a Centre present an NER designed for QA, which aims at having a high recall. 1 Introduction Named Entity (NE by a Named Entity Recogniser (NER). Typical entity types are per- son or company names, dates and times

Aliod, Diego Mollá

260

Self-Assessment Please take a minute to answer these questions.  

E-print Network

? __ Been uncomfortable when driving in general? If you answered "yes" to one or more of these questions. Pause Before You Act Take a minute to get your brain and body on the same page. In situations where you & Services Army Medical Department Office of The S

Blanchette, Robert A.

261

!! Plan to answer a specific question. !! Limit the number of variables in the test.  

E-print Network

KEY POINTS !! Plan to answer a specific question. !! Limit the number of variables in the test. !! Establish adjacent control plots. !! Replicate, replicate, replicate. !! Set up a written measurement FOR ESTABLISHING ANIMAL EXCLOSURES FOR RESEARCH IN CEDAR STANDS Raymond O. Miller Wildlife exclosures have been

262

Do-It-Yourself Learning Games: Software That Lets You Pick the Questions--and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews user-adaptable learning games that can be customized for any subject, including Tic Tac Show and the Game Show from Computer Advanced Ideas, which are question-answer learning programs based on game shows, and Master Match from Computer Advanced Ideas and Square Pairs from Scholastic Inc., which are based on the card game Concentration.…

Hively, Wells

1984-01-01

263

Home Education Reason and Research: Common Questions and Research-Based Answers about Homeschooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a brief review of research on a variety of topics related to home education and answers the most common questions asked regarding Homeschooling. Examples of the topics addressed are: the teaching parent's education level, academic achievement of students, population growth, philosophy, government (state) regulation and homeschool…

Ray, Brian D.

2009-01-01

264

Using and Developing with CD-Interactive: Frequently Asked Questions Are Answered.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Compact Disc-Interactive (CD-I) using a question-and-answer format. Highlights include development of the CD-I technology; where to purchase discs and players; compatibility with other CD-ROM drives; how to make discs; authoring systems versus custom programs; entertainment and educational applications; licensing issues; specifications;…

Lediaev, Lucy; van Sonderen, Lex

1994-01-01

265

"The Panama Canal Episode: An Encounter with a Question and Answers." Occasional Paper 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an account of the experience of a college instructor and a group of prospective social studies teachers as they answer a simple question concerned with direction of travel through the Panama Canal and explore the reactions of students. The situation originates in a class discussion focusing on ways of asking and responding to classroom…

Seifman, Eli

266

DalTREC 2005 QA System Jellyfish: Mark-and-Match Approach to Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second year that Dalhousie University actively participated in TREC. Three runs were submitted for the Question Answering track. Our results are below the median; however, they're signifantly larger than minimal, the lesson learnt will guide our future development of the system. Our approach was based on a mark-and-match methodology with regular expression rewriting.

Tony Abou-assaleh; Nick Cercone; Jon Doyle; Vlado Keselj; Chris Whidden

2005-01-01

267

DalTREC 2005 QA System Jellyfish: Mark-and-Match Approach to Question Answering  

E-print Network

DalTREC 2005 QA System Jellyfish: Mark-and-Match Approach to Question Answering Tony Abou-Assaleh-up deterministic parsing technique. For example, the rewriting in which " " is replaced with "z>" corresponds to the context- free rule S NP VP. The value z is obtained by decoding x and y, concatenating

Keselj, Vlado

268

DalTREC 2005 QA System Jelly sh: Mark-and-Match Approach to Question Answering  

E-print Network

DalTREC 2005 QA System Jelly#12;sh: Mark-and-Match Approach to Question Answering Tony Abou-Assaleh-up deterministic parsing technique. For example, the rewriting in which \\ " is replaced with \\z>" corresponds to the context- free rule S ! NP VP. The value z is obtained by decoding x and y, concatenating

Keselj, Vlado

269

Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

US Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

270

Questions & Answers What can I do with a Women's and Gender Study degree?  

E-print Network

Questions & Answers What can I do with a Women's and Gender Study degree? How do I register in my are prerequisites? What is the difference between lower level and upper level courses? How do I choose my courses should I visit an Academic Advisor? Who is the academic advisor in Women's and Gender Studies? To whom

271

Questions and Answers About Bone CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION  

E-print Network

. This is an enzyme found in the blood when children are growing, when a broken bone is mending or when a diseaseQuestions and Answers About Bone CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION What is bone care provider is the only way to find out what may be causing these symptoms. How is bone cancer

272

Super-resolution optical microscopy: multiple choices.  

PubMed

The recent invention of super-resolution optical microscopy enables the visualization of fine features in biological samples with unprecedented clarity. It creates numerous opportunities in biology because vast amount of previously obscured subcellular processes now can be directly observed. Rapid development in this field in the past two years offers many imaging modalities that address different needs but they also complicates the choice of the 'perfect' method for answering a specific question. Here I will briefly describe the principles of super-resolution optical microscopy techniques and then focus on comparing their characteristics in various aspects of practical applications. PMID:19897404

Huang, Bo

2010-02-01

273

EB 2009 - Writing the Test Question isn't Enough!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Symposium: Writing the Test Question IsnÃÂt Enough! Presented at Experimental Biology, New Orleans LA Monday, April 20, 2009, 8:00-10:00 AM Chairs: Vikki McCleary and Kathy sukalski, Univ. of North Dakota Well constructed multiple choice items can provide a valid, reliable, and unbiased means to assess student learning. Machine scoring and analysis allows for a rapid turnaround of results and provides information about the patterns of responses to individual items. This symposium focused on the construction of valid, reliable multiple choice questions with an emphasis on those that evaluate the studentsÃÂ critical thinking ability in the context of specific learning objectives. The session was introduced by Ellis Bell who considered the process of evaluating student achievement in both content knowledge and critical thinking. Decisions must be made about the types of questions to use (essay, short answer, multiple choice) and timing of the examinations, (midterm and final, block exams). Vikki McCleary focused on multiple choice examinations and reviewed the optimization of stems, answers, and distracters and the evaluation of items according to BloomÃÂs taxonomy. Charles Hosford outlined the use of standard item analyses to improve test questions. The assessment of student understanding during class lectures using multiple choice questions was addressed by Jeannine Matz. Kenneth Ruit presented lessons learned from constructing and administering multiple choice examinations in an integrated medical curriculum. Effective testing of knowledge and critical thinking skills. Ellis Bell, U Richmond. Anatomy of a multiple choice question. Vikki McCleary, UND Using item analysis to improve test questions. Charles Hosford, UND Use of multiple choice questions during lecture. Jeannine Matz, Health Care Mercy Col. of Hlth. Sci., Des Moines. Applying principles and lessons learned in medical education. Kenneth Ruit, UND

Dr. Vikki L. McCleary (University of North Dakota School of Medicine Dept. of Pharmacology/Physiology and Therapeutics)

2009-04-20

274

How Well Do Multiple Choice Tests Evaluate Student Understanding in Computer Programming Classes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the wide diversity of formats with which to construct class examinations, there are many reasons why both university students and instructors prefer multiple-choice tests over other types of exam questions. The purpose of the present study was to examine this multiple-choice\\/constructed-response debate within the context of teaching computer programming classes. This paper reports the analysis of over 150 test

William L. Kuechler; Mark G. Simkin

275

Optimizing The Selection of Strangers To Answer Questions in Social Media  

E-print Network

Millions of people express themselves on public social media, such as Twitter. Through their posts, these people may reveal themselves as potentially valuable sources of information. For example, real-time information about an event might be collected through asking questions of people who tweet about being at the event location. In this paper, we explore how to model and select users to target with questions so as to improve answering performance while managing the load on people who must be asked. We first present a feature-based model that leverages users exhibited social behavior, including the content of their tweets and social interactions, to characterize their willingness and readiness to respond to questions on Twitter. We then use the model to predict the likelihood for people to answer questions. To support real-world information collection applications, we present an optimization-based approach that selects a proper set of strangers to answer questions while achieving a set of application-dependen...

Mahmud, Jalal; Megiddo, Nimrod; Nichols, Jeffrey; Drews, Clemens

2014-01-01

276

Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers  

SciTech Connect

Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

None

1980-08-01

277

Application of Item Analysis to Assess Multiple-Choice Examinations in the Mississippi Master Cattle Producer Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Item analysis can serve as a useful tool in improving multiple-choice questions used in Extension programming. It can identify gaps between instruction and assessment. An item analysis of Mississippi Master Cattle Producer program multiple-choice examination responses was performed to determine the difficulty of individual examinations, assess the…

Parish, Jane A.; Karisch, Brandi B.

2013-01-01

278

Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.  

SciTech Connect

Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1994-05-01

279

Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.  

SciTech Connect

Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1993-11-01

280

CSShark Answers Frequently Asked Questions: The CSS Know-How Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is an Internet tool that separates the presentation from the structural markup of a Web site. CSS keeps the structure of a document lean and fast while controlling the appearance of its content. This product is not an adapted tool from print or programming; rather, it is a means of enhancing HTML. For users interested in learning more about this tool, this informative and well-constructed site answers some of those frequently asked questions regarding CSS. In addition, the site explains some of the basics of CSS, provides tips and tricks for tackling the problems with Netscape 4, offers a tutorial concerning positioning with CSS (CSS-P, Web design without tables), and gives various resource links to other related sites. In short, for those with questions concerning CSS and its functions, the CSShark is ready to provide answers.

Mako.

2001-01-01

281

Cancer Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T) in front of the answer.  

E-print Network

EAT SMART Cancer Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T the information from this program. # I have or have had cancer. YES NO As you answer each question, think about

282

Learning from Classroom Questions and Answers: Teachers' Uncertainties about Children's Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the interaction of language varieties with teachers' perceptions and evaluations of how k-2 students answer classroom questions. Using both qualitative and quantitative methodology, we trace the processes, findings, and reflections from 2 years of collaboration with teachers in a low-income, multiethnic, inner-city school where all students spoke marginalized or stigmatized varieties of English, including Appalachian\\/rural and African-American

Barbara Edwards; Boyd Davis

1997-01-01

283

Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

2011-01-01

284

Improving Educational Assessment: A Computer-Adaptive Multiple Choice Assessment Using NRET as the Scoring Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment is central to any educational process. Number Right (NR) scoring method is a conventional scoring method for multiple choice items, where students need to pick one option as the correct answer. One point is awarded for the correct response and zero for any other responses. However, it has been heavily criticized for guessing and failure…

Sie Hoe, Lau; Ngee Kiong, Lau; Kian Sam, Hong; Bin Usop, Hasbee

2009-01-01

285

The Communication Skills Used by Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers in a Question-and-Answer Game Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in…

Toe, Dianne M.; Paatsch, Louise E.

2010-01-01

286

INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY  

SciTech Connect

Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

2011-07-01

287

Attempting to answer a meaningful question enhances subsequent learning even when feedback is delayed.  

PubMed

Attempting to retrieve information from memory enhances subsequent learning even if the retrieval attempt is unsuccessful. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit materializes only if subsequent study occurs immediately after the retrieval attempt. Previous studies have prompted retrieval using a cue (e.g., whale-???) that has no intrinsic answer. Experiment 1 replicated prior word pair studies, but in Experiment 2, when participants learned meaningful trivia questions, testing enhanced learning even when subsequent study was delayed. Even in Experiment 3, when subsequent study was delayed by up to 24 hr, tests enhanced learning on a final test another 24 hr later. These findings may give comfort to educators who worry that asking a question or giving a test, on which students inevitably make mistakes, impairs learning if feedback is not immediate. They also suggest that there is a consensus in the literature thus far: Questions with rich semantic content enhance subsequent learning even when feedback is delayed, but less meaningful questions without an intrinsic answer enhance learning only when feedback is immediate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23855547

Kornell, Nate

2014-01-01

288

Multiple-choice exams: an obstacle for higher-level thinking in introductory science classes.  

PubMed

Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities. PMID:22949426

Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F

2012-01-01

289

Comparing Assessments of Students' Knowledge by Computerized Open-Ended and Multiple-Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interactive computerized tests accepting unrestricted natural-language input were used to assess knowledge of clinical biophysics at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Comparison of responses to open-ended sequential questions and multiple-choice questions on the same material found the two formats test different aspects of competence.…

Anbar, Michael

1991-01-01

290

Assertion-Reason Multiple-Choice Testing as a Tool for Deep Learning: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reflects on the ongoing debate surrounding the usefulness (or otherwise) of multiple-choice questions (MCQ) as an assessment instrument. The context is a graduate school of business in Australia where an experiment was conducted to investigate the use of assertion-reason questions (ARQ), a sophisticated form of MCQ that aims to…

Williams, Jeremy B.

2006-01-01

291

Role of Adjunct Questions and Reading Ability Levels on Rote and Conceptual Learning from Prose.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the effect of question type (rote, conceptual) and adjunct question response mode (multiple choice, short answer) on rote and conceptual learning outcomes of 98 undergraduate high and low ability readers. Results indicate rote adjunct questions are more helpful to readers and high reading ability students demonstrate better test…

Bing, Sally B.

1982-01-01

292

Practical question-and-answer guide on VDTS (video display terminals) for BEES (base bioenvironmental engineer). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The USAF OEHL conducted an extensive literature review of Video Display Terminals (VDTs) and the health problems commonly associated with them. The report is presented in a question-and-answer format in an attempt to paraphrase the most commonly asked questions about VDTs that are forwarded to USAF OEHL/RZN. The questions and answers have been divided into several topic areas: Ionizing Radiation; Nonionizing Radiation; Optical Radiation; Ultrasound; Static Electricity; Health Complaints/Ergonomics; Pregnancy.

Olson, B.M.

1985-01-01

293

[Veno-venous extracorporeal oxygenation and veno-arterial extracorporeal oxygenation. Questions, answers].  

PubMed

A round table, organized by the French Society of Perfusion (Sofraperf) at the French national congress on extracorporeal circulations (Perfusion 2013), was attended by perfusionists, anaesthesiologists, intensivists and surgeons around the theme of respiratory veno-venous support and veno-arterial circulatory support with extracorporeal oxygenation in intensive care units. The debate was conducted in a participatory manner by bi-directional questions-answers session between moderators and assistance. The authors report management of this type of therapy that is not perfectly homogeneous, supported on literature data. Cannulae, cannulation, circuit, oxygenator, anticoagulation, control, surveillance, weaning are subject to paragraphs with defined entry whose contents are mutually enriching. PMID:24630169

Isetta, C; Lebreton, G; Janot, N; Prommenschenkel, M; Rilos, Z; Roques, F; Longrois, D

2014-04-01

294

Genetic Algorithms for Multiple-Choice Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates the use of problem-specific knowledge to enhance a genetic algorithm approach to multiple-choice optimisation problems.It shows that such information can significantly enhance performance, but that the choice of information and the way it is included are important factors for success.Two multiple-choice problems are considered.The first is constructing a feasible nurse roster that considers as many requests as possible.In the second problem, shops are allocated to locations in a mall subject to constraints and maximising the overall income.Genetic algorithms are chosen for their well-known robustness and ability to solve large and complex discrete optimisation problems.However, a survey of the literature reveals room for further research into generic ways to include constraints into a genetic algorithm framework.Hence, the main theme of this work is to balance feasibility and cost of solutions.In particular, co-operative co-evolution with hierarchical sub-populations, problem structure exploiting repair schemes and indirect genetic algorithms with self-adjusting decoder functions are identified as promising approaches.The research starts by applying standard genetic algorithms to the problems and explaining the failure of such approaches due to epistasis.To overcome this, problem-specific information is added in a variety of ways, some of which are designed to increase the number of feasible solutions found whilst others are intended to improve the quality of such solutions.As well as a theoretical discussion as to the underlying reasons for using each operator,extensive computational experiments are carried out on a variety of data.These show that the indirect approach relies less on problem structure and hence is easier to implement and superior in solution quality.

Aickelin, Uwe

2010-04-01

295

Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.  

SciTech Connect

Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1995-06-01

296

Generating Exact- and Ranked Partially-Matched Answers to Questions in Advertisements  

E-print Network

Taking advantage of the Web, many advertisements (ads for short) websites, which aspire to increase client's transactions and thus profits, offer searching tools which allow users to (i) post keyword queries to capture their information needs or (ii) invoke form-based interfaces to create queries by selecting search options, such as a price range, filled-in entries, check boxes, or drop-down menus. These search mechanisms, however, are inadequate, since they cannot be used to specify a natural-language query with rich syntactic and semantic content, which can only be handled by a question answering (QA) system. Furthermore, existing ads websites are incapable of evaluating arbitrary Boolean queries or retrieving partiallymatched answers that might be of interest to the user whenever a user's search yields only a few or no results at all. In solving these problems, we present a QA system for ads, called CQAds, which (i) allows users to post a natural-language question Q for retrieving relevant ads, if they exi...

Qumsiyeh, Rani; Ng, Yiu-Kai

2011-01-01

297

Violations of information structure: An electrophysiological study of answers to wh-questions  

PubMed Central

This study investigates brain responses to violations of information structure in wh-question-answer pairs, with particular emphasis on violations of focus assignment in it-clefts (It was the queen that silenced the banker). Two types of ERP responses in answers to wh-questions were found. First, all words in the focus-marking (cleft) position elicited a large positivity (P3b) characteristic of sentence-final constituents, as did the final words of these sentences, which suggests that focused elements may trigger integration effects like those seen at sentence end. Second, the focusing of an inappropriate referent elicited a smaller, N400-like effect. The results show that comprehenders actively use structural focus cues and discourse-level restrictions during online sentence processing. These results, based on visual stimuli, were different from the brain response to auditory focus violations indicated by pitch-accent (Hruska et al. 2000), but similar to brain responses to newly introduced discourse referents (Bornkessel et al. 2003). PMID:17517429

Cowles, H. Wind; Kluender, Robert; Kutas, Marta; Polinsky, Maria

2014-01-01

298

Answering the right question - integration of InSAR with other datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capabilities of satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are well known, and utilized across a wide range of academic and commercial applications. However there is a tendency, particularly in commercial applications, for users to ask 'What can we study with InSAR?'. When establishing a new technique this approach is important, but InSAR has been possible for 20 years now and, even accounting for new and innovative algorithms, this ground has been thoroughly explored. Too many studies conclude 'We show the ground is moving here, by this much', and mention the wider context as an afterthought. The focus needs to shift towards first asking the right questions - in fields as diverse as hazard awareness, resource optimization, financial considerations and pure scientific enquiry - and then working out how to achieve the best possible answers. Depending on the question, InSAR (and ground deformation more generally) may provide a large or small contribution to the overall solution, and there are usually benefits to integrating a number of techniques to capitalize on the complementary capabilities and provide the most useful measurements. However, there is still a gap between measurements and answers, and unlocking the value of the data relies heavily on appropriate visualization, integrated analysis, communication between technique and application experts, and appropriate use of modelling. We present a number of application examples, and demonstrate how their usefulness can be transformed by moving from a focus on data to answers - integrating complementary geodetic, geophysical and geological datasets and geophysical modeling with appropriate visualization, to enable comprehensive solution-focused interpretation. It will also discuss how forthcoming developments are likely to further advance realisation of the full potential satellite InSAR holds.

Holley, Rachel; McCormack, Harry; Burren, Richard

2014-05-01

299

Impression formation of tests: retrospective judgments of performance are higher when easier questions come first.  

PubMed

Four experiments are reported on the importance of retrospective judgments of performance (postdictions) on tests. Participants answered general knowledge questions and estimated how many questions they answered correctly. They gave higher postdictions when easy questions preceded difficult questions. This was true when time to answer each question was equalized and constrained, when participants were instructed not to write answers, and when questions were presented in a multiple-choice format. Results are consistent with the notion that first impressions predominate in overall perception of test difficulty. PMID:24972562

Jackson, Abigail; Greene, Robert L

2014-11-01

300

Eternity's Sunrise and Other Multiple Choice Questions (Reading Professional).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that William Blake's phrase, "eternity's sunrise," captures the essence of the teaching and learning enterprise. Discusses new horizons in education and teachers who are daily reinventing their teaching. Warns against adopting educational change to be fashionable. (PRA)

Neilsen, Lorri

1992-01-01

301

1.Answer the following questions: (a)& you have learned in your physical metallurgy class, diffusion rate in solid may be  

E-print Network

1.Answer the following questions: (a)& you have learned in your physical metallurgy class on the physical metallurgy principles, the student suggested two possibilities for the stress drop: 1) The stress

Huang, Haimei

302

26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...  

...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-5T Questions and answers relating to the...

2014-04-01

303

26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-5T Questions and answers relating to the...

2011-04-01

304

26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-5T Questions and answers relating to the...

2013-04-01

305

26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-5T Questions and answers relating to the...

2012-04-01

306

75 FR 75482 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers...Residual Solvents that applies to both human and veterinary drugs and to...

2010-12-03

307

Reference Question Answered: Bibliographic Sources for the Ukrainian Periodical Press in the 1840’s: Encyclopedias, Bibliographies, Guides, and Library Catalogs  

E-print Network

This document is an electronic post-print of an article published in Slavic & East European Information Resources: Giullian, Jon. "Reference Question Answered: Bibliographic Sources for the Ukrainian Periodical Press in the 1840’s: Encyclopedias... be made to the version published in SEEIR. Reference Question Answered: Bibliographic Sources for the Ukrainian Periodical Press in the 1840’s: Encyclopedias, Bibliographies, Guides, and Library Catalogs Jon C. Giullian1 ABSTRACT...

Giullian, Jon C.

2008-01-01

308

Modeling a Collaborative Answer Negotiation Activity Using IMS-Based Learning Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the design and impact of a face-to-face Computer Supported Collaborative Learning activity named Collaborative Answer Negotiation Activity (CANA). CANA primarily involves face-to-face interactions among students supported by wirelessly interconnected mobile devices to solve collaboratively a set of multiple-choice questions.…

Valdivia, R.; Nussbaum, M.; Ochoa, S. F.

2009-01-01

309

E-Assessment by Design: Using Multiple-Choice Tests to Good Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last decade, larger student numbers, reduced resources and increasing use of new technologies have led to the increased use of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) as a method of assessment in higher education courses. This paper identifies some limitations associated with MCQs from a pedagogical standpoint. It then provides an assessment…

Nicol, David

2007-01-01

310

Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not…

Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

2012-01-01

311

A Criterion-Referenced Multiple-Choice Test Using Slides as Cues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes development of a test using slides and corresponding multiple-choice questions for second-year occupational therapy students in child studies course. Reasons for choosing the test format are discussed and an outline of test construction procedures is given. An evaluation of the test indicates problems encountered and benefits gained.…

Bryce, Jennifer; And Others

1983-01-01

312

Recognizing Questions and Answers in EMR Templates Using Natural Language Processing.  

PubMed

Templated boilerplate structures pose challenges to natural language processing (NLP) tools used for information extraction (IE). Routine error analyses while performing an IE task using Veterans Affairs (VA) medical records identified templates as an important cause of false positives. The baseline NLP pipeline (V3NLP) was adapted to recognize negation, questions and answers (QA) in various template types by adding a negation and slot:value identification annotator. The system was trained using a corpus of 975 documents developed as a reference standard for extracting psychosocial concepts. Iterative processing using the baseline tool and baseline+negation+QA revealed loss of numbers of concepts with a modest increase in true positives in several concept categories. Similar improvement was noted when the adapted V3NLP was used to process a random sample of 318,000 notes. We demonstrate the feasibility of adapting an NLP pipeline to recognize templates. PMID:25000038

Divita, Guy; Shen, Shuying; Carter, Marjorie E; Redd, Andrew; Forbush, Tyler; Palmer, Miland; Samore, Matthew H; Gundlapalli, Adi V

2014-01-01

313

Questionnaires for eliciting evaluation data from users of interactive question answering  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating interactive question answering (QA) systems with real users can be challenging because traditional evaluation measures based on the relevance of items returned are difficult to employ since relevance judgments can be unstable in multi-user evaluations. The work reported in this paper evaluates, in distinguishing among a set of interactive QA systems, the effectiveness of three questionnaires: a Cognitive Workload Questionnaire (NASA TLX), and Task and System Questionnaires customized to a specific interactive QA application. These Questionnaires were evaluated with four systems, seven analysts, and eight scenarios during a 2-week workshop. Overall, results demonstrate that all three Questionnaires are effective at distinguishing among systems, with the Task Questionnaire being the most sensitive. Results also provide initial support for the validity and reliability of the Questionnaires.

Kelly, Diane; Kantor, Paul B.; Morse, Emile; Scholtz, Jean; Sun, Y.

2009-01-01

314

The ContactFinder agent: Answering bulletin board questions with referrals  

SciTech Connect

ContactFinder is an intelligent agent whose approach to assisting users is valuable and innovative in the following four ways. First, ContactFinder operates proactively in reading and responding to messages on electronic bulletin boards rather than acting in response to user queries. Second, ContactFinder assists users by referring them to other people who can help them, rather than attempting to find information that directly answers the user`s specific question. Third, ContactFinder categorizes messages and extracts their topic areas using a set of heuristics that are very efficient and demonstrably highly effective. Fourth, ContactFinder posts its referrals back to the bulletin boards rather than simply communicating with specific users, to increase the information density and connectivity of the system. This paper discusses these aspects of the system and demonstrates their effectiveness in over six months of use on a large-scale internal bulletin board.

Krulwich, B.; Burkey, C. [Center for Strategic Technology Research, Northbrook, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

315

Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers  

PubMed Central

Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics. PMID:18522725

Kurz, Matthias

2008-01-01

316

29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

2010-07-01

317

Dense Plasma Focus: A question in search of answers, a technology in search of applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnostic information accumulated over four decades of research suggests a directionality of toroidal motion for energetic ions responsible for fusion neutron production in the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) and existence of an axial component of magnetic field even under conditions of azimuthal symmetry. This is at variance with the traditional view of Dense Plasma Focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow. The difficulty in understanding the experimental situation from a theoretical standpoint arises from polarity of the observed solenoidal state: three independent experiments confirm existence of a fixed polarity of the axial magnetic field or related azimuthal current. Since the equations governing plasma dynamics do not have a built-in direction, the fixed polarity must be related with initial conditions: the plasma dynamics must interact with an external physical vector in order to generate a solenoidal state of fixed polarity. Only four such external physical vectors can be identified: the earth's magnetic field, earth's angular momentum, direction of current flow and the direction of the plasma accelerator. How interaction of plasma dynamics with these fields can generate observed solenoidal state is a question still in search of answers; this paper outlines one possible answer. The importance of this question goes beyond scientific curiosity into technological uses of the energetic ions and the high-power-density plasma environment. However, commercial utilization of such technologies faces reliability concerns, which can be met only by first-principles integrated design of globally-optimized industrial-quality DPF hardware. Issues involved in the emergence of the Dense Plasma Focus as a technology platform for commercial applications in the not-too-distant future are discussed.

Auluck, S. K. H.

2014-08-01

318

Dear Administrator: Leader's Edge Columnist Susan Brooks-Young Answers Your Questions about Grants, Fundraising, and Budgeting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author provides answers to several questions about grants, fundraising, and budgeting. In one particular question, the author explains why verification is required for administrative support in technology programs. She also suggests several qualities to seek when undergoing a contract with a grant writer.

Brooks-Young, Susan

2005-01-01

319

A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

Brown, John S.; And Others

320

Biology 253 Human Anatomy Exam II Fall 2010 page 1 of 8 IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS: ANSWER ONLY 50 QUESTIONS. Do not answer more than 50 questions. If  

E-print Network

antebrachial compartment 9) Which of the following is a symptom of carpal tunnel entrapment? A) drop hand BBiology 253 Human Anatomy Exam II Fall 2010 page 1 of 8 IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS: ANSWER ONLY 50 253 Human Anatomy Exam II Fall 2010 page 2 of 8 7) Identify the INCORRECT association of muscle

Houde, Peter

321

Nested Logit Models for Multiple-Choice Item Response Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nested logit item response models for multiple-choice data are presented. Relative to previous models, the new models are suggested to provide a better approximation to multiple-choice items where the application of a solution strategy precedes consideration of response options. In practice, the models also accommodate collapsibility across all…

Suh, Youngsuk; Bolt, Daniel M.

2010-01-01

322

Multiple Choice Examination System 2. Online Quizzes for General Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the main aspects and implementation of an online multiple choice examination system with general chemistry issues for student evaluation. The testing system was used to generate items for a multiple- choice examination for first year undergraduate students in Material Engineering and Environmental Engineering from Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, which all attend the same General Chemistry course.

Horea Iustin; Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

2004-01-01

323

The development and validation of a two-tiered multiple-choice instrument to identify alternative conceptions in earth science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and understanding of earth science concepts, and to describe relationships between content knowledge and alternative conceptions and planning instruction in the science classroom. Eighty-seven preservice teachers enrolled in the MAT program participated in this study. Sixty-eight participants were female, twelve were male, and seven chose not to answer. Forty-seven participants were in the elementary certification program, five were in the middle school certification program, and twenty-nine were pursuing secondary certification. Results indicate that the two-tiered, multiple-choice format can be a reliable and valid method for identifying alternative conceptions. Preservice teachers in all certification areas who participated in this study may possess common alternative conceptions previously identified in the literature. Alternative conceptions included: all rivers flow north to south, the shadow of the Earth covers the Moon causing lunar phases, the Sun is always directly overhead at noon, weather can be predicted by animal coverings, and seasons are caused by the Earth's proximity to the Sun. Statistical analyses indicated differences, however not all of them significant, among all subgroups according to gender and certification area. Generally males outperformed females and preservice teachers pursuing middle school certification had higher scores on the questionnaire followed by those obtaining secondary certification. Elementary preservice teachers scored the lowest. Additionally, self-reported scores of confidence in one's answers and understanding of the earth science concept in question were analyzed. There was a slight positive correlation between overall score and both confidence and understanding. Responses on the questionnaire were investigated with respect to pedagogical choices. Evidence suggests that content knowledge and having alternative conceptions or science fragments may impact a teacher's pedagogical choices. Through careful development of instruments like ACES-Q II-R and other two- tiered, multiple-choice instruments, educators and researchers car not only identify possible alternative conceptions, they can raise an awareness of alternative conceptions held by children and adults.

Mangione, Katherine Anna

324

Measuring the Consistency in Change in Hepatitis B Knowledge among Three Different Types of Tests: True/False, Multiple Choice, and Fill in the Blanks Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recall of information about Hepatitis B demonstrated by 180 seventh graders was tested with three test types: (1) short-answer; (2) true/false; and (3) multiple-choice. Short answer testing was the most reliable. Suggestions are made for the use of short-answer tests in evaluating student knowledge. (SLD)

Sahai, Vic; Demeyere, Petra; Poirier, Sheila; Piro, Felice

1998-01-01

325

Ten common questions (and their answers) about off-label drug use.  

PubMed

The term off-label drug use (OLDU) is used extensively in the medical literature, continuing medical education exercises, and the media. Yet, we propose that many health care professionals have an underappreciation of its definition, prevalence, and implications. This article introduces and answers 10 questions regarding OLDU in an effort to clarify the practice's meaning, breadth of application, acceptance, and liabilities. Off-label drug use involves prescribing medications for indications, or using a dosage or dosage form, that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Since the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate the practice of medicine, OLDU has become common. It occurs in every specialty of medicine, but it may be more common in areas of medicine in which the patient population is less likely to be included in clinical trials (eg, pediatric, pregnant, or psychiatric patients). Pharmaceutical companies are not allowed to promote their medications for an off-label use, which has lead to several large settlements for illegal marketing. To limit liability, physicians should prescribe medications only for indications that they believe are in the best interest of the patient. In addition, health care professionals should educate themselves about OLDU to weigh the risks and benefits and provide the best possible care for their patients. PMID:22877654

Wittich, Christopher M; Burkle, Christopher M; Lanier, William L

2012-10-01

326

A study of advanced training technology: Emerging answers to tough questions  

SciTech Connect

This study reports the result of an extensive nationwide review of military, private sector, and other federal agencies and organizations that are implementing a wide variety of advanced training technologies. This report classifies the general categories of advanced training technologies found and provides an overview of each, including specific types and examples. In addition, the research findings present an organizational model for training development linking overall organizational maturity to readiness to implement specific kinds of advanced training technologies. It also presents proposed methods for selecting media, describes the organizations and the data gathered, and provides a summary of implementation success at each organization. This study is organized as a set of five topics. Each topic raises a number of important questions and provides complete or emerging answers. For organizations who have made advanced training selections, this study is a resource to benchmark their success with other organizations who have made similar selections. For new or developing training organizations, this study will help plan their future technology selections by comparing their level of organizational maturity to the documented experiences of similar organizations.

NONE

1995-03-01

327

To Change or Not to Change: Investigating the Value of MCQ Answer Changing for Gulf Arab Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether the practice of answer changing on multiple-choice questions (MCQs) is beneficial to Gulf Arab students' overall test performance. The proficiency exam used in this study is the Michigan English Language Institute College English Test - Grammar, Cloze, Vocabulary, Reading (MELICET-GCVR), which was developed using…

Al-Hamly, Mashael; Coombe, Christine

2005-01-01

328

Concept Learning versus Problem Solving: Evaluating a Threat to the Validity of a Particulate Gas Law Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three different samples of students were asked to answer five multiple-choice questions concerning the properties of a sample of helium gas (particle speed, state of matter, sample volume, sample pressure, and particle distribution), including a particulate question first used by Nurrenbern and Pickering (particle distribution). In the first…

Sanger, Michael J.; Vaughn, C. Kevin; Binkley, David A.

2013-01-01

329

Test Equating under the Multiple-Choice Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a characteristic curve procedure for comparing transformations of the item response theory ability scale assuming the multiple-choice model. Illustrates the use of the method with an example equating American College Testing mathematics tests. (SLD)

Kim, Jee-Seon; Hanson, Bradley A.

2002-01-01

330

A Practical Methodology for Developing Content Parallel Multiple Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of four parallel multiple-choice tests using Guttman's facet design analysis is discussed. A mapping sentence was used to specify a test blueprint. The examinations were found to be parallel when actually used. (Author/GK)

Blumberg, Phyllis

1981-01-01

331

Geophysical Summer Field Camp: Answering questions about the subsurface for the local community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer Geophysics Field Camp is part of the core requirement for undergraduate Geophysics majors at Boise State University (CSM), as well as at Colorado School of Mines (CSM). We have found it to be most effectively taught when the target of the camp involves answering questions, which impact society. For example, currently the CSM/BSU geophysics summer camp focuses on ground water resources and geothermal potential in the Upper Arkansas River Basin, a part of the Rio Grande Rift system in Chaffee County, Colorado. A prime goal is to train students how to combine diverse sources of information into a unified interpretation: Students examine lithologies and structures on the periphery of the basin. Cross sections are constructed to predict the geophysical signature. Geophysical tools then are used to ascertain the gross structure and examine subsurface conditions in greater detail. These tools include surveying, regional gravity, deep and shallow seismic surveys, magnetics, DC resistivity, Ground Penetrating Radar, electromagnetics, hydrochemistry, and karaoke. While BSU and CSM own a considerable amount of geophysical hardware, our field camps are only possible because of extensive support by corporations and governmental agencies. In addition, the Society of Exploration Geohysics (SEG) Foundation provides financial support, Chaffee County assists with housing costs, and local land owners provide open access. In turn, the field camp results aid the community of Chaffee County in assessing their water resources for long term growth planning, as well as understanding the geothermal potential for hydroelectric power generation. BSU is currently exploring with the SEG Foundation under the Geophysicists Without Borders program to apply this model of combined education and social outreach in the form a geophysics camp for Southeast Asia, where we propose to study geohazards,geoarcheology and groundwater issues.

van Wijk, K.; Batzle, M.; Liberty, L.; Raynolds, R.

2008-12-01

332

Sleuthing in HyperHolmes : a an evaluation of using hypertext vs. a book to answer questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although hypertext offers exciting new ways of presenting and accessing information, there is little research which systematically compares the usability of hypertext against traditional media with an eye to improving the design of the hypertext. This paper presents the results of an experiment which examined the performance and navigation strategies of users engaged in a question-answering task using either a

LAURA MARIE LEVENTHAL; BARBEE MYNATT TEASLEY; KEITH INSTONE; DIANE SCHERTLER ROHLMAN; JOHN FARHAT

1993-01-01

333

Randomized Controlled Trials in Evidence-Based Mental Health Care: Getting the Right Answer to the Right Question  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of clinical research is to answer this ques- tion: Would a new treatment, when added to the exist- ing range of treatment options available in practice, help patients? Randomized controlled trials (RCTs)— in particular, double-blind RCTs—have important methodological advantages over observational studies for addressing this question. These advantages, how- ever, come at a price. RCTs compare treatments using

Susan M. Essock; Robert E. Drake; Richard G. Frank; Thomas G. McGuire

2003-01-01

334

Where Have All the Teachers Gone? Finding Answers to the Most Basic Questions about California's Teacher Workforce. CenterView  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief presents a strong case for the creation of a statewide teacher data system in California by highlighting some of the simple teacher workforce questions that cannot be answered because such a system does not currently exist. At the state level, data on teacher qualifications are needed to fulfill the new reporting requirements of…

Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2005

2005-01-01

335

Paytan_Answers 113.pdf Student questions: Adina Paytan colloquium on "Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral  

E-print Network

to this task. What is the most region that affected by the ocean acidification? And why is it? High latitudesPaytan_Answers 113.pdf 1 Student questions: Adina Paytan colloquium on "Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs - Perspectives from a Field Study in Mexico" 1/16/13 In your presentation

Shumway, John

336

Hazen_Answers 213.pdf Student questions: Bob Hazen colloquium on "The Mineralogical Co-Evolution of the  

E-print Network

growth that would create an environment that could support human life? Would the mineral growth process: Red Mars, Blue Mars, and Green Mars. #12;Hazen_Answers 213.pdf 2 Question 1: What was different about expanding your research and exploring the evolution of minerals outside of Earth on places like Mars

Shumway, John

337

First Impressions: The First Two Posts and their Influence on the Development of Online Question-Answer Discussion Threads  

E-print Network

First Impressions: The First Two Posts and their Influence on the Development of Online Question-Answer Discussion Threads Michael Hergenrader and Jihie Kim University of Southern California/Information Sciences. 2. Study Context The frameworks of Communities of Practice and Activity Theory have been adopted

Kim, Jihie

338

[What Can We Learn from the English Primary Schools? Questions and Answers from My Fulbright Administrative Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the primary education system in England as a whole and the operation of primary schools in Leicestershire in particular. It also contains questions and answers concerning English primary education. The paper describes the organization, funding, and administration of English primary schools, which provide the first 6 years of…

Firlik, Russell J.

339

DalTREC 2006 QA System Jellyfish: Regular Expressions Mark-and-Match Approach to Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a question-answering system Jellyfish. Our approach is based on marking and matching steps that are implemented using the methodology of cascaded regular-expression rewriting. We present the system architecture and evaluate the system using the TREC 2004, 2005, and 2006 datasets. TREC 2004 was used as a training dataset, while TREC 2005 and TREC 2006 were used as testing

Vlado Keselj; Tony Abou-assaleh; Nick Cercone

2006-01-01

340

Using Question Answer Relationships in Science Instruction to Increase the Reading Achievement of Struggling Readers and Students with Reading Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Question Answer Relationship (QAR) literacy strategy was integrated into science instruction in a fourth grade classroom. Ten students who struggled with reading, including some who were diagnosed with a reading disability, participated in this study. Significant gains were made in reading by the 10 student participants in comprehending…

Kinniburgh, Leah H.; Baxter, Abigail

2012-01-01

341

An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability  

PubMed Central

Background Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A) network tools, which link questioners directly to experts can overcome some of these barriers. When designing and testing online tools, assessing the usability and applicability is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the usability and applicability of a new online Q&A network tool for answers on OSH questions. Methods We applied a cross-sectional usability test design. Eight occupational health experts and twelve potential questioners from the working population (workers) were purposively selected to include a variety of computer- and internet-experiences. During the test, participants were first observed while executing eight tasks that entailed important features of the tool. In addition, they were interviewed. Through task observations and interviews we assessed applicability, usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction) and facilitators and barriers in use. Results Most features were usable, though several could be improved. Most tasks were executed effectively. Some tasks, for example searching stored questions in categories, were not executed efficiently and participants were less satisfied with the corresponding features. Participants' recommendations led to improvements. The tool was found mostly applicable for additional information, to observe new OSH trends and to improve contact between OSH experts and workers. Hosting and support by a trustworthy professional organization, effective implementation campaigns, timely answering and anonymity were seen as important use requirements. Conclusions This network tool is a promising new strategy for offering company workers high quality information to answer OSH questions. Q&A network tools can be an addition to existing information facilities in the field of OSH, but also to other healthcare fields struggling with how to answer questions from people in practice with high quality information. In the near future, we will focus on the use of the tool and its effects on information and knowledge dissemination. PMID:20969777

2010-01-01

342

Edgar_Answers to student questions 414.pdf Student questions: Lauren Edgar colloquium on "Martian Sedimentology as Revealed by the  

E-print Network

Sedimentology as Revealed by the Curiosity Rover" 3/26/14 Question 1: How are the studies that you've done of the same kinds of instruments to investigate the sedimentology and stratigraphy at each landing site

Rhoads, James

343

Blakey_Answers to student questions 314.pdf Student questions: Ronald Blakey colloquium on "Using Paleogeographic Maps to Portray  

E-print Network

period witnessed the most profound geological evolution of modern-day North America? Probably the Archean, and it's the area I know best. Question 2: You mentioned in a slide of Old Jurassic, that rivers drained

Rhoads, James

344

The communication skills used by deaf children and their hearing peers in a question-and-answer game context.  

PubMed

Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in a "trivia" game with their hearing peers. Thirty-four children with normal hearing and 34 children with a hearing loss ranging from mild to profound (>90 dB HL) participated in this study. Each of the 34 dyads included 1 child with normal hearing and 1 child with hearing loss, matched by gender and grade level at school. Dyads were videotaped and analyzed. Pairs were compared in terms of their capacity to repeat the question, strategies used to seek information, and accuracy of responses. Results showed that the group of hearing children was able to repeat more questions verbatim compared to the deaf/HH children. The deaf/HH group required a significantly greater number of repetitions, sought a greater number of general clarifications, and correctly answered more questions compared with the group of hearing children. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of peer communication and pragmatic skill development. PMID:20299450

Toe, Dianne M; Paatsch, Louise E

2010-01-01

345

The methods that college students use to answer questions about stereochemistry involving spatial ability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction. The research problem investigated involved determining the spatial techniques used by students when they solved problems relating to stereochemistry using both traditional and non-traditional techniques. The main reason for undertaking this study was to determine how to help students invoke their spatial ability in solving problems during their organic chemistry courses. The project allowed students to generate their own understanding of the material, to gain experience in order to increase their knowledge, and to be actively involved in the learning process in order for true understanding to take place. Methods. The qualitative methodology for the project included a background questionnaire and the Purdue Visualization of Rotations Exam to determine the five students to be interviewed. The class participated in three multimedia lectures, an in-class assignment, and an on-line homework activity, which allowed multiple ways of incorporating the material. These activities included hand-drawing structures, making non-traditional models as well as traditional models, and computer related exercises that required differing aspects of spatial ability and engagement. Five students participated in an individual and small group interview in which rotation ability as well as visualization ability was assessed using physical molecular models as well as computer models. Results. This study is significant for the field of science education and chemistry because it determined that students with varying levels of spatial ability preferred different tools and used different skills when answering questions about stereochemistry that require spatial ability. There was a pronounced difference in the ability of low and high spatial ability students to draw and make structures that required three-dimensional aspects. A distinct preference for working with the physical model kit over the computer-enhanced program was also noted. An online resource for instructors and students of organic chemistry to use when studying stereochemistry was developed during the project. Conclusions. The potential impact on teaching and learning is that other instructors of chemistry will be able to develop problems and training sessions for their specific students that are "tailor made" to fit their students' abilities and interests. Consequently, students with either high or low spatial ability can work problems with tools that best fit their skills.

Strange de Soria, Luise Ethelyn

346

Probing decisive answers to dark energy questions from cosmic complementarity and lensing tomography  

E-print Network

We study future constraints on dark energy parameters determined from several combinations of CMB experiments, supernova data, and weak lensing surveys with and without tomography. In this analysis, we look in particular for combinations that will bring the uncertainties to a level of precision tight enough (a few percent) to answer decisively some of the dark energy questions. We probe the dark energy using two variants of its equation of state, and its energy density.We consider a set of 13 cosmological and systematic parameters, and assume reasonable priors on the lensing and supernova systematics. We consider various lensing surveys: a wide survey with f_{sky}=0.7, and with 2 (WLT2) and 5 (WLT5) tomographic bins; a deep survey with 10 bins (WLT10). The constraints found from Planck, 2000 supernovae with z_max=0.8, and WLT2 are: {sigma(w_0)=0.086, sigma(w_1)=0.069}, {sigma(w_0)=0.088, sigma(w_a)=0.11}, and {sigma(E_1)=0.029, sigma(E_2)=0.065}. With 5 bins, we find {sigma(w_0)=0.04, sigma(w_1)=0.034}, {sigma(w_0)=0.041, sigma(w_a)=0.056}, and {sigma(E_1)=0.012, sigma(E_2)=0.049}. Finally, we find from Planck, 2000 supernovae with z_max=1.5, and WLT10 with f_{sky}=0.1: {sigma(w_0)=0.032, sigma(w_1)=0.027}, {sigma(w_0)=0.033, sigma(w_a)=0.040}, and {sigma(E_1)=0.01, sigma(E_2)=0.04}. Although some worries remain about other systematics, our study shows that after the combination of the 3 probes, lensing tomography with many redshift bins and large coverages of the sky has the potential to add key improvements to the dark energy parameter constraints. However, the requirement for very ambitious and sophisticated surveys in order to achieve some of the constraints or to improve them suggests the need for new tests to probe the nature of dark energy in addition to constraining its equation of state. (Abriged)

Mustapha Ishak

2005-01-27

347

Discovery and New Frontiers: Science Missions Seeking New Answers to Timeless Questions (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers missions EPOXI, Stardust-NExT, Dawn, MESSENGER, Juno, and GRAIL help comprise NASA’s Year of the Solar System. Each of these investigations is seeking answers to key science questions and each has a unique approach to sharing that quest with the public. To date, spacecraft have photographed only four comets up close. What new information will EPOXI uncover when it flies by comet Hartley 2? Will it be similar to the others or very different? How will comet Tempel 1 appear to Stardust-NExT? The Deep Impact mission sent an impactor into the path of Tempel 1 in 2005. What changes will be visible in this unprecedented return visit? Will we finally see the crater made by the impact? Dawn will arrive at asteroid Vesta in July for a year-long orbit. Then it will millions of miles more to go into orbit around dwarf planet Ceres. Using the same science instruments to study both will yield important new information. MESSENGER has already discovered new phenomena and collected considerable data in its three flybys of Mercury. Once the orbiting phase begins, this dynamic planet is guaranteed to put on a spectacular show. Juno is traveling to the massive gas giant Jupiter to extend our knowledge about this wondrous body. Does it have a solid core? How much water does the atmosphere contain? How does the planet’s enormous magnetic force field affect its atmosphere? GRAIL will send twin space probes flying in tandem around the Moon to take precise gravity field measurements to help determine the structure and composition of the lunar interior from crust to core. In early 2011, the Discovery and New Frontiers Programs are planning a teacher “workshop without walls” to help celebrate YSS! Teachers will gather at 4 or 5 sites across the country, including California, Texas, Minnesota, and Maryland, and tune in via NASA’s digital learning network to hear talks about the missions and their science objectives. The workshops will also include trainings with hands-on activities the teachers can take back to their classroom.

Asplund, S.

2010-12-01

348

Towards spoken clinical-question answering: evaluating and adapting automatic speech-recognition systems for spoken clinical questions  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate existing automatic speech-recognition (ASR) systems to measure their performance in interpreting spoken clinical questions and to adapt one ASR system to improve its performance on this task. Design and measurements The authors evaluated two well-known ASR systems on spoken clinical questions: Nuance Dragon (both generic and medical versions: Nuance Gen and Nuance Med) and the SRI Decipher (the generic version SRI Gen). The authors also explored language model adaptation using more than 4000 clinical questions to improve the SRI system's performance, and profile training to improve the performance of the Nuance Med system. The authors reported the results with the NIST standard word error rate (WER) and further analyzed error patterns at the semantic level. Results Nuance Gen and Med systems resulted in a WER of 68.1% and 67.4% respectively. The SRI Gen system performed better, attaining a WER of 41.5%. After domain adaptation with a language model, the performance of the SRI system improved 36% to a final WER of 26.7%. Conclusion Without modification, two well-known ASR systems do not perform well in interpreting spoken clinical questions. With a simple domain adaptation, one of the ASR systems improved significantly on the clinical question task, indicating the importance of developing domain/genre-specific ASR systems. PMID:21705457

Liu, Feifan; Tur, Gokhan; Hakkani-Tür, Dilek

2011-01-01

349

Pasqualetti_Answers 111.pdf Student questions: Martin (Mike) Pasqualetti colloquium on "Renewable Energy and  

E-print Network

, for instance, to cars), glass, etc. http://www.nanosolar.com/ Question 1: Why does the collection of solar of inertia. Question 2: I can't remember if you talked about this, but it seems like energy generators (solar recently. Question 1: Are there any new designs for solar energy on the horizon which reduce the size

Rhoads, James

350

Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…

Heiner, Cecily

2009-01-01

351

Towards a virtual teaching assistant to answer questions asked by students in introductory computer science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural language of the questions to a vector space, and then utilizing cosine similarity to identify similar previous questions. I report classification accuracies between 23% and 56%, obtaining substantial improvements by exploiting domain knowledge (compiler error messages) and educational context (assignment name). My results are especially timely and relevant for online courses where students are completing the same set of assignments asynchronously and access to staff is limited.

Heiner, Cecily

352

An English language question answering system for a large relational database  

Microsoft Academic Search

By typing requests in English, casual users will be able to obtain explicit answers from a large relational database of aircraft flight and maintenance data using a system called PLANES. The design and implementation of this system is described and illustrated with detailed examples of the operation of system components and examples of overall system operation. The language processing portion

David L. Waltz

1978-01-01

353

Nikzad_Answers 314.pdf Student questions: Shouleh Nikzad colloquium on "From Nebulae to Neurons  

E-print Network

: In regards to the Electronic Nose and using it for medical technology, just how sensitive does this technology allow us to get - for example would it be able to detect a viral infection before disease was being expressed in a patient? Answered by Dr. Margie Homer, PI of the Electronic Nose: Potentially yes

Rhoads, James

354

The answering system to yes-no truth-functional questions in Korean-English bilingual children.  

PubMed

This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961) were provided as questions such as true affirmative (TA), true negative (TN), false affirmative (FA), and false negative (FN). The bilingual children's answers were observed in separate language settings, English and Korean. The results by the bilingual in the Korean setting were compared with those by the monolinguals. The results show that bilingual children can process two systems rather successfully by providing correct responses to the given questions. But difficulty patterns, measured from error rates in each setting, are found different in two languages. The bilinguals' difficulty patterns in English and Korean, however, show deviation from monolinguals' difficulty patterns suggested in previous studies (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961, Akiyama in Dev Psychol 20:219-228, 1984, Kim in Dev Psychol 21(3):462-472, 1985, Choi in Dev Psychol 29(3):407-420, 1991). The present work also shows that negatives are not uniformly reported with more errors than affirmatives when the truth condition and the answering system are further involved. All in all, the current study suggests that bilingual children have two separate processing systems for yes-no truth-functional questions. However, the two systems cannot be understood as a simple coexistence of two monolingual systems. Interaction of the two competing linguistic systems is discussed further. PMID:23639994

Choi, Hansook

2014-06-01

355

Question-Answering Behaviors in ESL and EFL Classrooms: Similarities and Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined student responses to teacher-initiated questions in classrooms of English as a Second Language (ESL) and English as a Foreign Language (EFL). The study focused specifically on the similarities and differences in the questions asked by native-speaking (NS) teachers of ESL and by non-native-speaking (NNS) teachers of EFL, and to…

Kubota, Mikio

356

Anbar_Answers 311.pdf Student questions: Anbar colloquium on "And now for something completely different  

E-print Network

spaceflight and osteoporosis? I don't know. Good question. I suspect that there is a wide range of osteoporosis decay rates, varying among people. Question 2: How long will it take before we know if the calcium isotope tests will be useful in preventing osteoporosis through early detection? A number of years. We

Rhoads, James

357

QALC the QuestionAnswering program of the Language and Cognition group at LIMSICNRS  

E-print Network

and in the process of question/document pairing. Named entity recognition Similarly, named entities are recognized the questions and the document sentences. Named entities are extracted through lexico­syntactic patterns be recognized in the relevance curve of the documents. #12; Named entity recognition Tagged documents (named

Illouz, Gabriel

358

Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, 1974. Public Law 93-247 (S. 1191): Questions and Answers, Analysis, and Text of the Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains questions and answers concerning the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, an analysis of the Act by the Congressional Research Service, and a copy of the actual text. The question and answer section provides information about the rationale for the Act, the amount of money available for its implementation, as well as its…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

359

How many faces does a cube have?the answer is 6. Okay, I'm going to restate the question: how many 2-dimensional faces does  

E-print Network

1 Cube face How many faces does a cube have?­­the answer is 6. Okay, I'm going to restate the question: how many 2-dimensional faces does a 3-dimensional cube have? The answer hasn't changed--it's still 6. But now we are aware of more gen- eral questions. There are different dimensions of cubes

McCann, Robert J.

360

Answer Keys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Answer keys provide acceptable answers to the questions posed in a case. Since these questions are intended to be answered by students and are often graded, keys are password-protected and access limited to registered instructors affiliated with an educational institution.

2010-01-01

361

Macalady_Answers 411.pdf Student questions: Jenn Macalady colloquium on "Proterozoic Underground: Searching for  

E-print Network

the polar head groups are not preserved; no evidence that they are different from today based on the "geolipid" form (hydrocarbon part of the molecule). Question 2: Do all biofilms contain hopanoids? no

Rhoads, James

362

Bidding for Contracts in World Bank Financed Projects: Questions and Answers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The World Bank holds numerous seminars and briefings in itsmember countries to discuss business opportunities associated with Bank-financed projects. During these meetings, certain questions frequently arise concerning the Bank's lending activities and pr...

1991-01-01

363

Question Answering from the Web Using Knowledge Annotation and Knowledge Mining Techniques  

E-print Network

Lin and Boris Katz MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory 200 Technology Square a state?" or "How far is it from the pitcher's mound to home plate?" Most of these "factoid" questions can

Lin, Jimmy

364

Detection of Cheating on Multiple-Choice Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An index is proposed to detect cheating on multiple-choice examinations, and its use is evaluated through simulations. The proposed index is based on the compound binomial distribution. In total, 360 simulated data sets reflecting 12 different cheating (copying) situations were obtained and used for the study of the sensitivity of the index in…

Bay, Luz

365

Optimizing Multiple-Choice Tests as Learning Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although generally used for assessment, tests can also serve as tools for learning--but different test formats may not be equally beneficial. Specifically, research has shown multiple-choice tests to be less effective than cued-recall tests in improving the later retention of the tested information (e.g., see meta-analysis by Hamaker, 1986),…

Little, Jeri Lynn

2011-01-01

366

Violating Conventional Wisdom in Multiple Choice Test Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined 2 elements of multiple-choice test construction, balancing the key and optimal number of options. In Experiment 1 the 3 conditions included a balanced key, overrepresentation of a and b responses, and overrepresentation of c and d responses. The results showed that error-patterns were independent of the key, reflecting…

Taylor, Annette Kujawski

2005-01-01

367

Genetic Algorithms for Multiple-Choice Optimisation Problems  

E-print Network

Genetic Algorithms for Multiple- Choice Optimisation Problems by Uwe Aickelin (Dipl Kfm, EMBSc to the University of Wales In candidature for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy European Business Management School-library loan, and for the title and summary to be made available to outside organisations. Signed

Aickelin, Uwe

368

Multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We investigate student understanding of energy and momentum concepts at the level of introductory physics by designing and administering a 25-item multiple choice test and conducting individual interviews. We find that most students have difficulty in qualitatively interpreting basic principles related to energy and momentum and in applying them in physical situations.

Singh, Chandralekha; Rosengrant, David

2012-04-27

369

Heuristic algorithms for the multiple-choice multidimensional knapsack problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose several heuristics for approximately solving the multiple-choice multidimensional knapsack problem (noted MMKP), an NP-Hard combinatorial optimization problem. The first algorithm is a constructive approach used especially for constructing an initial feasible solution for the problem. The second approach is applied in order to improve the quality of the initial solution. Finally, we introduce the main

M Hifi; M Michrafy; A Sbihi

2004-01-01

370

Valuing Assessment in Teacher Education - Multiple-Choice Competency Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When our focus is on assessment educators should work to value the nature of assessment. This paper presents a new approach to multiple-choice competency testing in mathematics education. The instrument discussed here reflects student competence, encourages self-regulatory learning behaviours and links content with current curriculum documents and…

Martin, Dona L.; Itter, Diane

2014-01-01

371

The Development of Multiple-Choice Items Consistent with the AP Chemistry Curriculum Framework to More Accurately Assess Deeper Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice questions are an important part of large-scale summative assessments, such as the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam. However, past AP chemistry exam items often lacked the ability to test conceptual understanding and higher-order cognitive skills. The redesigned AP chemistry exam shows a distinctive shift in item types toward…

Domyancich, John M.

2014-01-01

372

Respondus and Text Documents If you have your questions in a text document, you may import them directly  

E-print Network

off the bullet function in Word. An alternate approach would be to use NotePad (Start > Accessories typed out in Word, copy and paste them from Word to NotePad. Note: You will have to "clean up" the spacing a little bit to make the questions and answers look like the examples below. Multiple Choice

Hutcheon, James M.

373

The answer is in the question: a protocol study of intelligent help  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty advisory interactions between computer system ‘help desk’ consultants and their clients were transcribed and analysed as part of a project to determine the behavioural requirements for intelligent on-line help facilities. An interesting property of these interactions is that the advice was frequently modified in response to verification requests: questions (often syntactically implicit) which contain presuppositional statements that are partial

Amy Aaronson; John M. Carroll

1987-01-01

374

Using computers to answer fundamental questions in combustion theory: an example from droplet combustion  

SciTech Connect

Many fundamental questions in combustion theory are either partially or totally intractable analytically. Thus, it is often desirable to use computed results to supplement information obtained by analytic means. We illustrate how computation can supplement analysis by examining the role of gas-phase unsteadiness in droplet vaporization and combustion. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Janssen, R.D.; O'Rourke, P.J.

1985-01-01

375

The Law and Student Activities: Answers to Ten Frequently Asked Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how numerous legal sources (Constitutional, federal, state, local, and common law) affect everyday public school operations. Fields 10 questions regarding written and legally sound rules, common rules for district schools, board approval of club bylaws and activities, "in loco parentis," legal image, employee assignments, "double…

Strope, John

1998-01-01

376

Using Domain Specific Question Answering Technique for Automatic Railways Inquiry on Mobile Phone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today in the world of mobile revolution it is very important to provide information access at anywhere anytime. Accessing information using internet on mobile phones is limited in use due to many restrictions of small devices. Short message service which is easier, faster, reliable and available in all networks can be combined with a powerful method of artificial intelligence: question

Avinash J. Agrawal

2008-01-01

377

FLEXIBLE MEDICAL CARE AND DEPENDENT CARE REIMBURSMENT ACCOUNTS Frequently Asked Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

FLEXIBLE MEDICAL CARE AND DEPENDENT CARE REIMBURSMENT ACCOUNTS Frequently Asked Questions is placed into a medical care and/or dependent care reimbursement account and reimbursed to you as you incur Medical Care Reimbursement Account? The minimum deduction is $200 and the maximum deduction is $4

Snider, Barry B.

378

FLEXIBLE MEDICAL CARE AND DEPENDENT CARE REIMBURSMENT ACCOUNTS Frequently Asked Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

FLEXIBLE MEDICAL CARE AND DEPENDENT CARE REIMBURSMENT ACCOUNTS Frequently Asked Questions is placed into a medical care and/or dependent care reimbursement account and reimbursed to you as you incur Medical Care Reimbursement Account? Effective January 1, 2013, under the Patient Protection and Affordable

Snider, Barry B.

379

Expressing Uncertainty with a Talking Head in a Multimodal Question-Answering System  

E-print Network

Organization of Scientific Research (NWO). The authors like to thank Emiel Krahmer, Marc Swerts and colleagues of animated facial expressions, i.e. only combinations of eyebrow and head movements. In addition, we discuss expression, facial animation, embodied con- versational agents, talking heads, multimodal dialogue, question

Theune, Mariët

380

Court Standards for Terminating Employees Under the ADA: Some Questions and Answers for Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990, managers have had to wrestle with the question of what to do when employees become disabled and can no longer perform their jobs as they had before. By law, managers are required to retain such employees if, with reasonable accommodations, they are able to perform their jobs' essential functions.

Lawrence S. Kleiman; David W. Denton

2000-01-01

381

Thalamic Relay or Cortico-Thalamic Processing? Old Question, New Answers Ehud Ahissar and Tess Oram  

E-print Network

in the sensory nuclei of the thalamus? It seems that this question has accompanied cortical and thalamic studies, thalamo-cortical loop, thalamus, whisking control Introduction The thalamus has long been a riddle to neuroscientists. Many researchers of the cerebral cortex view the thalamus as a simple relay station. The origins

Ahissar, Ehud

382

Sedation and anesthesia outside the operating room: Answers to common questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, practitioners have recognized the importance of providing comfort to children and have increased their use of analgesics and anxiolytics during painful medical procedures. In this article, the author reviews commonly asked questions regarding administering sedation to children for painful procedures outside the operating room. Current safety guidelines are reviewed, as well as qualifications of personnel performing sedations,

RS Litman

1999-01-01

383

"Don't Know" Responding to Answerable and Unanswerable Questions during Misleading and Hypnotic Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Don't know" (DK) responses to interview questions are conceptually heterogeneous, and may represent uncertainty or clear statements about the contents of memory. A study examined the subjective intent of DK responses in relation to the objective status of information queried, in the context of memory distorting procedures. Participants viewed a…

Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving

2008-01-01

384

Meta-Knowledge Annotation for Efficient Natural-Language Question-Answering  

E-print Network

a tight integration of natural language processing (NLP), information retrieval (IR) and information question Q, generate a natural-language representation nlp(Q) 2. From nlp(Q), generate an information-retrieval query ir(nlp(Q)) #12;3. Use ir(nlp(Q)) to retrieve D documents from an authoritative text archive 4

Veale, Tony

385

Page 1 of 5 Be sure to ANSWER EVERY QUESTION Printed on TWO SIDES Name_____________________________________  

E-print Network

of 6 breaths per minute in a healthy horse right after galloping c. Capillary refill time of 4 seconds) or F (false) on the line before the question. (2 points each) 11. _____ Mares have 4 canine teeth, _______________, _______________, _______________ 2. What two minerals are needed for the formation of bones and teeth

New Hampshire, University of

386

The Answer To Getting Better Test Data: Ask the Right Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on weighing the options to find the right technology-based assessment tool in schools and discusses questions to ask: "Do our state tests meet our needs?"; "What type of data is of most value?"; "How do today's assessment choices compare?"; "How important is support?"; and "Which criteria are most important in choosing the right test?"…

Olson, Allan

2003-01-01

387

Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

Foubert, John D.

2011-01-01

388

Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

Boyle, Philip

1989-01-01

389

The Answer Depends on the Question: A Reply to Eric Jensen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question that Eric Jensen addresses in his article is whether brain research can provide a basis for educational practice. He debates John Bruer, president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, and argues that brain research can, in fact, provide a basis for what educators do. Most of Jensen's article is devoted to showing ways in which brain…

Sternberg, Robert J.

2008-01-01

390

Answers G53KRR 2013-2014 BOOKWORK VS PROBLEM SOLVING: questions are problem solving un-  

E-print Network

)] from C5, C3, x2/x1, x/x1 C7 [P(a))] from C6, C1, x1/f(a) C8 [ ] from C6, C7, x1/a Another proof (the one I came up with first for the model answers) C5 [P(f(a)), R(a, f(a))] from C1, C3, x1/a C6 [P(f(a)), ¬Q(f(a)] from C5, C4, x2/a, y2/f(a) C7 [P(f(a))] from C6, C2, x/a C8 [R(f(a), f(f(a)))] from C7, C3

Alechina, Natasha

391

Can Simply Answering Research Questions Change Behaviour? Systematic Review and Meta Analyses of Brief Alcohol Intervention Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Participant reports of their own behaviour are critical for the provision and evaluation of behavioural interventions. Recent developments in brief alcohol intervention trials provide an opportunity to evaluate longstanding concerns that answering questions on behaviour as part of research assessments may inadvertently influence it and produce bias. The study objective was to evaluate the size and nature of effects observed in randomized manipulations of the effects of answering questions on drinking behaviour in brief intervention trials. Methodology/Principal Findings Multiple methods were used to identify primary studies. Between-group differences in total weekly alcohol consumption, quantity per drinking day and AUDIT scores were evaluated in random effects meta-analyses. Ten trials were included in this review, of which two did not provide findings for quantitative study, in which three outcomes were evaluated. Between-group differences were of the magnitude of 13.7 (?0.17 to 27.6) grams of alcohol per week (approximately 1.5 U.K. units or 1 standard U.S. drink) and 1 point (0.1 to 1.9) in AUDIT score. There was no difference in quantity per drinking day. Conclusions/Significance Answering questions on drinking in brief intervention trials appears to alter subsequent self-reported behaviour. This potentially generates bias by exposing non-intervention control groups to an integral component of the intervention. The effects of brief alcohol interventions may thus have been consistently under-estimated. These findings are relevant to evaluations of any interventions to alter behaviours which involve participant self-report. PMID:21998626

McCambridge, Jim; Kypri, Kypros

2011-01-01

392

Questions and answers about the effects of the depletion of the ozone layer on humans and the environment.  

PubMed

The ozone molecule contains three atoms of oxygen and is mainly formed by the action of the ultraviolet rays of the sun on the diatomic oxygen molecules in the upper part of the Earth's atmosphere (called the stratosphere). Atmospheric pollution near the Earth's surface can form localized areas of ozone. The stratospheric ozone layer protects life on Earth by absorbing most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. In the mid 1970s it was discovered that some manmade products destroy ozone molecules in the stratosphere. This destruction can result in damage to ecosystems and to materials such as plastics. It may cause an increase in human diseases such as skin cancers and cataracts. The discovery of the role of the synthetic ozone-depleting chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) stimulated increased research and monitoring in this field. Computer models predicted a disaster if no action was taken to protect the ozone layer. Based on this research and monitoring, the nations of the world took action in 1985 with the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer followed by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987. The Convention and Protocol were amended and adjusted several times as new knowledge was obtained. The Meetings of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol appointed three Assessment Panels to review the progress in scientific knowledge on their behalf. These panels are the Scientific Assessment Panel, the Technological and Economic Assessment Panel and the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel. Each panel covers a designated area and there is a natural level of overlap. The main reports of the Panels are published every four years as required by the Meeting of the Parties. All the reports have an executive summary that is distributed more widely than the main report itself. It became customary to add a set of questions and answers--mainly for non-expert readers--to the executive summaries. This document contains the questions and answers prepared by experts who comprise the Environmental Assessment Panel. It is based mainly on the 2006 report of the Panel but also contains information from previous assessments. Readers who need detailed information on any question should consult the full reports for a more complete scientific discussion. This set of questions refers mainly to the environmental effects of ozone depletion and climate change. The report of the Scientific Assessment Panel contains questions and answers related to the other scientific issues addressed by that Panel. All these reports can be found on the UNEP website (http://ozone.unep.org). PMID:17344966

Aucamp, Pieter J

2007-03-01

393

Designing P. E. piping systems: old questions and new answers. [Polyethylene  

SciTech Connect

Designers of polyethylene gas distribution systems now have available a procedure based on rate-process theory for predicting the load service life of the system. Recently proposed and validated by researchers from E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., the method resolves many of the questions left unanswered by the ASTM 2837 standard procedure. It predicts the behavior of the entire system (pipe, fittings, and joints) rather than just the pipe, the silt-rupture life as well as the ductile-rupture life, and the incidence in time of a 5% failure rate rather than a 50% rate.

Hale, D.

1982-05-01

394

Measuring Strategy Use in Context with Multiple-Choice Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of authors have presented data that challenge the validity of self-report of strategy use or choice of strategy. We created a multiple-choice measure of students' strategy use based on the work of Kozminsky, E., and Kozminsky, L. (2001), and tested it with three samples as part of a series of studies testing the fit of the DIME model of…

Cromley, Jennifer; Azevedo, Roger

2011-01-01

395

Can zoo records help answer behavioral research questions? The case of the left-handed lemurs (Lemur catta).  

PubMed

Most zoos keep comprehensive records, which potentially form a database for use in answering some research questions, such as in veterinary and population management research. They have not, however, been widely used to answer questions about animal behavior and welfare. Here we try to assess the usefulness to behavioral research of two sorts of zoo records (ARKS, the Animal Records Keeping System, and student dissertations held on file) to test the hypothesis that ring-tailed lemurs with a left limb preference experience more negative social lives. We found that, as predicted, lemurs with a left limb preference (LH) received more aggression and were involved in less grooming than nonleft-preferent lemurs (NLH), though the differences were not statistically significant. Contrary to prediction, LH lemurs had fewer reported woundings than NLH lemurs, but again the difference was not statistically significant. We found that the ARKS reports did not contain sufficient quantified and systematic behavioral data for our purposes, although otherwise they provided an excellent context for interpreting results. The student dissertations were also of limited use, primarily because of the small time frame in which they were carried out. Because of these shortcomings we were unable to distinguish whether our inability to find significant effects was due to biological (perhaps hand preference had no consequences for the lemurs) or data reasons. We suggest that closer liaison between zoo research staff, zoo record keepers and academic supervisors could help to improve the usefulness of zoo records for behavioral research. PMID:21674604

Hosey, Geoff; Hill, Sonya P; Lherbier, Mary L

2012-01-01

396

Multiple-choice examinations: adopting an evidence-based approach to exam technique.  

PubMed

Negatively marked multiple-choice questions (MCQs) are part of the assessment process in both the Primary and Final examinations for the fellowship of the Royal College of Anaesthetists. It is said that candidates who guess will lose marks in the MCQ paper. We studied candidates attending a pre-examination revision course and have shown that an evaluation of examination technique is an important part of an individual's preparation. All candidates benefited substantially from backing their educated guesses while only 3 out of 27 lost marks from backing their wild guesses. Failure to appreciate the relationship between knowledge and technique may significantly affect a candidate's performance in the examination. PMID:10023280

Hammond, E J; McIndoe, A K; Sansome, A J; Spargo, P M

1998-11-01

397

Single best answer MCQs: a new format for the FRCR part 2a exam.  

PubMed

The single best answer multiple-choice question (MCQ) format has many advantages over traditional true/false format MCQs. From 2009, the Royal College of Radiologists will be adopting this format for written examinations. This article describes the background of this decision and the evidence behind it. There are numerous benefits to examiners and candidates alike from adopting this format. Using examples, the usual structure of the format of this type of questions is explained, how they are written, and tips provided on how to prepare for and answer them. PMID:18374712

McCoubrie, P; McKnight, L

2008-05-01

398

Hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults: questions and answers.  

PubMed

The association between hearing impairment, the diagnosis of dementia, and the role of sensory therapy has been proposed for some time, but further research is needed. Current understanding of this association requires the commitment of those experts who can integrate experience and research from several fields to be able to understand the link from hearing to dementia. A workshop whose panelists included experts from many areas, ranging from ear, nose and throat (ENT) to dementia's specialists, was promoted and organized by the Giovanni Lorenzini Medical Science Foundation (Milan, Italy; Houston, TX, USA) to increase the awareness of the relationship between hearing loss and dementia, and included questions and comments following a presentation from the clinical researcher, Frank Lin, who has been evaluating the relationship between hearing loss and cognitive decline since 2009. PMID:25281432

Bernabei, Roberto; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Maggi, Stefania; Marengoni, Alessandra; Martini, Alessandro; Memo, Maurizio; Pecorelli, Sergio; Peracino, Andrea P; Quaranta, Nicola; Stella, Roberto; Lin, Frank R

2014-12-01

399

Health care reform, 2014: no matter what the question, mission is the answer.  

PubMed

In this column, the president of the Collaborative Family Healthcare Association (CFHA) addresses the lack of understanding and agreement to the question What is health care reform? It is a daunting task to understand, let alone redesign, the most expensive (but not most effective or most efficient) health care system in the world. In this critical window of opportunity, influencing positive movement through leadership, communication, and teamwork is a strategic priority of the CFHA and its journal, Family Systems & Health. The emphases on comprehensive, coordinated, and cost-effective care, although novel concepts for many, have been core features of CFHA's philosophy for almost two decades (see CFHA's mission statement). As we mark the halfway point in this pivotal year in health care reform, we continue to struggle. CFHA can help illuminate the path of what health care reform can be and what it can do for each citizen in our communities. PMID:24955698

Khatri, Parinda

2014-06-01

400

New answers to old questions from genome-wide maps of DNA methylation in hematopoietic cells.  

PubMed

DNA methylation is a well-studied epigenetic modification essential for efficient cellular differentiation. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are a characteristic feature of cancer, including myeloid malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia. Recurrent mutations in DNA-modifying enzymes were identified in acute myeloid leukemia and linked to distinct DNA methylation signatures. In addition, discovery of Tet enzymes provided new mechanisms for the reversal of DNA methylation. Advances in base-resolution profiling of DNA methylation have enabled a more comprehensive understanding of the methylome landscape in the genome. This review will summarize and discuss the key questions in the function of DNA methylation in the hematopoietic system, including where and how DNA methylation regulates diverse biological processes in the genome as elucidated by recent studies. PMID:24993071

Jeong, Mira; Goodell, Margaret A

2014-08-01

401

26 CFR 1.1(i)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income certain minor children (Temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income certain minor children (Temporary). 1.1(i...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes §...

2010-04-01

402

CS21 Lab 10 Worksheet, Swarthmore College, Fall 2011 Print this out and write your answers on the printout. There are questions on both sides. This  

E-print Network

CS21 Lab 10 Worksheet, Swarthmore College, Fall 2011 Name: Print this out and write your answers on the printout. There are questions on both sides. This worksheet is due Wednesday, November 16 in class. 1

Newhall, Tia

403

Overwintering of herbaceous plants in a changing climate. Still more questions than answers.  

PubMed

The increase in surface temperature of the Earth indicates a lower risk of exposure for temperate grassland and crop to extremely low temperatures. However, the risk of low winter survival rate, especially in higher latitudes may not be smaller, due to complex interactions among different environmental factors. For example, the frequency, degree and length of extreme winter warming events, leading to snowmelt during winter increased, affecting the risks of anoxia, ice encasement and freezing of plants not covered with snow. Future climate projections suggest that cold acclimation will occur later in autumn, under shorter photoperiod and lower light intensity, which may affect the energy partitioning between the elongation growth, accumulation of organic reserves and cold acclimation. Rising CO2 levels may also disturb the cold acclimation process. Predicting problems with winter pathogens is also very complex, because climate change may greatly influence the pathogen population and because the plant resistance to these pathogens is increased by cold acclimation. All these factors, often with contradictory effects on winter survival, make plant overwintering viability under future climates an open question. Close cooperation between climatologists, ecologists, plant physiologists, geneticists and plant breeders is strongly required to predict and prevent possible problems. PMID:25017157

Rapacz, Marcin; Ergon, Ashild; Höglind, Mats; Jørgensen, Marit; Jurczyk, Barbara; Ostrem, Liv; Rognli, Odd Arne; Tronsmo, Anne Marte

2014-08-01

404

Evaluating a science diversity program at UC Berkeley: more questions than answers.  

PubMed

For the past three decades, much attention has been focused on developing diversity programs designed to improve the academic success of underrepresented minorities, primarily in mathematics, science, and engineering. However, ethnic minorities remain underrepresented in science majors and careers. Over the last 10 years, the Biology Scholars Program (BSP), a diversity program at the University of California (UC), Berkeley, has worked to increase the participation and success of students majoring in the biological sciences. A quantitative comparison of students in and out of the program indicates that students in BSP graduate with a degree in biology at significantly higher rates than students not in BSP regardless of race/ethnicity. Furthermore, students who are in BSP have statistically lower high school grade point averages (GPAs) and Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) scores than students not in BSP. African-American and Hispanic students who join BSP graduate with significantly higher UC Berkeley biology GPAs than non-BSP African-American and Hispanic students, respectively. Majority (Asian and White) students in BSP graduate with statistically similar UC GPAs despite having lower SAT scores than non-BSP majority students. Although BSP students are more successful in completing a biology degree than non-program members, the results raise a series of questions about why the program works and for whom. PMID:12888847

Matsui, John; Liu, Roger; Kane, Caroline M

2003-01-01

405

Return to competitive football after major knee surgery: more questions than answers?  

PubMed

Despite significant advances in the diagnostics and treatment of knee injuries over the last decade, several challenges related to the subject "return to sport" remain largely unknown. For example, how should "return to sport" be defined precisely? What is the optimal timing and progression to enable a return to sport? Which criteria should be used during this process? What type of training is indicated? Which measurements can support the decision-making process? How do we optimally prepare athletes for competition without risking re-injury? This paper critically addresses these questions, and proposes a return to play model to prepare football players to compete after major knee surgery (anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, cartilage repair). The goal is to re-integrate the player gradually into the game, taking into account his individual characteristics. Several evidence-based and empirical criteria are needed to plan and monitor the efficient return to competitive football. Injury-prevention education should be part of this process to maximise the chance of a durable career and decrease the risk of re-injury. However, because of the paucity of research on "return to sport", further research is more than warranted. PMID:24783969

Bizzini, Mario; Silvers, Holly Jacinda

2014-01-01

406

The nucleation of vortices in superfluid [sup 4]He: Answers and questions  

SciTech Connect

The velocity threshold for phase slips, v[sub c], has been measured in ultra-pure [sup 4]He and ultra-dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He mixtures, down to a temperature of 15 mK. These experiments have revealed a crossover from a temperature-dependent regime above [approximately]150 mK to a plateau of v[sub c] below in ultra-pure [sup 4]He. Concentrations of [sup 3]He impurities as low as a few parts in 10[sup [minus]9] greatly affect the plateau regime, causing v[sub c] to decrease markedly at low temperature. These observations are interpreted in the framework of the nucleation, either thermally activated or by quantum tunnelling, of vortices in the appropriate shape of half-rings. These vortices form on wall asperities at local velocities u[sub s] estimated to be [approximately]22 m/s in these experiments. The half-ring model is shown to yield a critical velocity of the same magnitude but leaves many basic questions unanswered.

Avenel, O.; Ihas G.G. (Centre d'Etudes de Saclay (France)); Varoquaux, E. (Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France))

1993-12-01

407

Feminist bioethics: toward developing a "feminist" answer to the surrogate motherhood question.  

PubMed

Although a wide variety of feminist approaches to bioethics presently share a common feminist methodology (sometimes referred to as "raising the woman question"), they do not all share the same feminist politics, ontology, epistemology, and ethics. As a result of their philosophical differences, feminist bioethicists do not always agree on which biomedical principles, practices, and policies are best suited to serving women's interests. In other words, some feminist bioethicists insist that so-called "assisted reproduction" enhances women's procreative liberty, while others claim that it does nothing of the sort. Although such disagreement among feminist bioethicists reassures the general public that the feminist "program" for bioethics is not ideologically monolithic, it also confuses the public, especially women. In order to overcome this confusion, feminist bioethicists should work toward developing the kind of shared theoretical base that will foster frequent consensus on the biomedical principles, practices, and policies most likely to serve the interests of most women in the U.S. today. PMID:11645320

Tong, Rosemarie

1996-03-01

408

The evolution of centipede venom claws - open questions and possible answers.  

PubMed

The maxilliped venom claw is an intriguing structure in centipedes. We address open questions concerning this structure. The maxillipeds of fossil centipedes from the Carboniferous (about 300 million years old) have been described, but not been depicted previously. Re-investigation demonstrates that they resemble their modern counterparts. A Jurassic geophilomorph centipede (about 150 million years old) was originally described as possessing a rather leg-like maxilliped. Our re-investigation shows that the maxilliped is, in fact, highly specialized as in modern Geophilomorpha. A scenario for the evolution of the centipede maxilliped is presented. It supports one of the two supposed hypotheses of centipede phylogeny, the Pleurostigmophora hypothesis. Although this hypothesis appears now well established, many aspects of character evolution resulting from this phylogeny remain to be told in detail. One such aspect is the special joint of the maxilliped in some species of Cryptops. Cryptops is an in-group of Scolopendromorpha, but its maxilliped joint can resemble that of Lithobiomorpha or even possess a mixture of characters between the both. Detailed investigation of fossils, larger sample sizes of extant species, and developmental data will be necessary to allow further improvements of the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of centipedes. PMID:24211515

Haug, Joachim T; Haug, Carolin; Schweigert, Günter; Sombke, Andy

2014-01-01

409

Birt-hogg-dubé syndrome: answering questions raised by a case report published in 1962.  

PubMed

In 1962, J.J. Collins from the United States Naval Medical Research Laboratory published an unusual case of air embolism precipitated by decompression in The New England Journal of Medicine [1962;266:595-598]. The case was unusual because it was the first where multiple pulmonary cysts were discovered after a successful recompression treatment. Although various hypotheses were put forward by the author, it was thought that the diver might have had 'subclinical cysts' already present because of some disease phenomenon, which then became overinflated during decompression. Nearly 50 years have passed since these questions were raised. Interestingly, now the disease process is trying to unveil itself through various other clues. We present the case of the same diver who later developed a series of other medical problems, along with more than 5 admissions for spontaneous pneumothoraces, all falling into the constellation represented by the Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition clinically characterized by skin fibrofolliculomas, pulmonary cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax, and renal cancer. It was first described in 1977 by Birt, Hogg and Dubé in a family with 'hereditary multiple fibrofolliculomas with trichodiscomas and acrochordons'. Spontaneous pneumothorax can be the first manifestation of this hereditary condition, and prevention in patients diagnosed with the syndrome is aimed at early diagnosis and treatment of the renal cell carcinoma. Physicians need to have a high index of suspicion when they see patients with the constellation of findings of this underdiagnosed syndrome, especially in patients with unexplained spontaneous pneumothoraces. PMID:21829400

Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Dearmond, Daniel T

2011-05-01

410

"Laying Bare of Questions Which Have Been Hidden by Answers": The English Language Arts Standards of the Common Core, K-5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors question the answer the national Common Core State Standards (CCSS, 2010) claims. The questions center on the validity of the new standardized tests based on the CCSS and teachers' evaluations being tied to student test scores on flawed tests. The proposed tests on the CCSS will position children as deficient, and will not recognize…

Gangi, Jane M.; Reilly, Mary Ann

2013-01-01

411

Providing Real-Time Captioning, C-Print Speech To Print Transcription, Assistive Listening Devices and Other Technologies: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides questions and answers for postsecondary educational institutions concerning provision of access and accommodations to individuals who are deaf and hard of hearing. Questions are about assistive listening devices (ALDs), C-Print technology, real-time captioning, and policy issues. Preliminary information concerns the mission…

Davis, Cheryl; Francis, Pamela; Harlan, Denese

412

XMRV: Questions and Answers  

Cancer.gov

Retroviruses are found in a wide range of mammals, and may contribute to the development of cancers, such as leukemia or lymphoma, and neurological diseases. The first of two human retroviruses identified, HTLV-1 has been found to cause adult T cell leukemia and HTLV-II is not associated with any disease. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, is a different type of retrovirus.

413

One Question, Two Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the major policy challenges facing governments today are in some sense collective problems calling for joint solutions. However, even when effective solutions can be developed and implemented only through joint efforts, voluntary cooperation can be hard to establish and maintain, making it all the more impor- tant to understand the conditions for success and the causes of failure.

Arild Underdal

414

Sepsis Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... prevent infections that could lead to sepsis through promotion of vaccination for diseases like pneumococcus and meningitis, smoking cessation programs to prevent community-acquired pneumonia, and strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections. Recently, CDC has ...

415

Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... influenza, why isn’t pneumococcal vaccine also recommended? Influenza virus is easily spread from healthcare personnel to their patients, and infection usually leads to clinical illness. Pneumococcus is ... is influenza, and transmission of pneumococcus does not necessarily lead ...

416

Seasonal Influenza Questions & Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... PCR and Other Molecular Assays for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infection Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Influenza International ... Assessment and Biosafety Level Recommendations Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus H5N1 In Birds and Other Animals H5N1 In ...

417

Rabies: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... of northern and southern continental Europe (e.g., Greece, Portugal, Sweden, Norway) and Latin America (e.g., ... dogs, cats, ferrets) and live- stock (sheep, cattle, horses) against rabies. Don't let your pets wander ...

418

Tetanus: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

Immunization Action Coalition • St. Paul, MN 55104 • (651) 647-9009 • www.vaccineinformation.org • www.immunize.org www.immunize.org/catg.d/p4220.pdf • Item #P4220 (7/13) ... a person develops Immunization Action Coalition • St. Paul, MN 55104 • (651) 647-9009 • www.vaccineinformation.org • www. ...

419

Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... celebration of our 40th anniversary. The Rare Epilepsy Network Registry (REN) will be opening for enrollment in about a month. Find a walk near you to help us Step Forward to Cure Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. Clinicians: Complete a new online CME activity featuring ...

420

26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations... INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations...answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of...

2010-04-01

421

Your answers to the following questions will help us to understand your medical history and the concerns you'd like to discuss with your doctor. Please fill out as much of this questionnaire as possible. If you cannot answer  

E-print Network

Your answers to the following questions will help us to understand your medical history: ________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Average home sugar readings: Yes No Yes No Yes No Not testing: _________ Fasting: _________ 2-hours after of the following symptoms: Vision Problems Numbness/Tingling Chest Pain Nausea/vomiting/diarrhea Low Blood Sugar

Borenstein, Elhanan

422

Metacognitive effects of initial question difficulty on subsequent memory performance.  

PubMed

In two experiments, we examined whether relative retrieval fluency (the relative ease or difficulty of answering questions from memory) would be translated, via metacognitive monitoring and control processes, into an overt effect on the controlled behavior-that is, the decision whether to answer a question or abstain. Before answering a target set of multiple-choice general-knowledge questions (intermediate-difficulty questions in Exp. 1, deceptive questions in Exp. 2), the participants first answered either a set of difficult questions or a set of easy questions. For each question, they provided a forced-report answer, followed by a subjective assessment of the likelihood that their answer was correct (confidence) and by a free-report control decision-whether or not to report the answer for a potential monetary bonus (or penalty). The participants' ability to answer the target questions (forced-report proportion correct) was unaffected by the initial question difficulty. However, a predicted metacognitive contrast effect was observed: When the target questions were preceded by a set of difficult rather than easy questions, the participants were more confident in their answers to the target questions, and hence were more likely to report them, thus increasing the quantity of freely reported correct information. The option of free report was more beneficial after initial question difficulty than after initial question ease, in terms of both the gain in accuracy (Exp. 2) and a smaller cost in quantity (Exps. 1 and 2). These results demonstrate that changes in subjective experience can influence metacognitive monitoring and control, thereby affecting free-report memory performance independently of forced-report performance. PMID:24557603

Pansky, Ainat; Goldsmith, Morris

2014-10-01

423

You must answer all questions. For full credit, an answer must be both correct and well-presented (clear and concise).  

E-print Network

opaque, but light bounces around in the trees) giving a very special quality to the light in the forest, or have seen all possible research on the topic. Question 1: The Fall Forest (3 sub-questions) Imagine a Wisconsin forest in the autumn at the height of the "fall colors." The leaves have changed to the wonderful

Liblit, Ben

424

The case for multimodal analysis of atypical interaction: questions, answers and gaze in play involving a child with autism.  

PubMed

Conversation analysis (CA) continues to accrue interest within clinical linguistics as a methodology that can enable elucidation of structural and sequential orderliness in interactions involving participants who produce ostensibly disordered communication behaviours. However, it can be challenging to apply CA to re-examine clinical phenomena that have initially been defined in terms of linguistics, as a logical starting point for analysis may be to focus primarily on the organisation of language ("talk") in such interactions. In this article, we argue that CA's methodological power can only be fully exploited in this research context when a multimodal analytic orientation is adopted, where due consideration is given to participants' co-ordinated use of multiple semiotic resources including, but not limited to, talk (e.g., gaze, embodied action, object use and so forth). To evidence this argument, a two-layered analysis of unusual question-answer sequences in a play episode involving a child with autism is presented. It is thereby demonstrated that only when the scope of enquiry is broadened to include gaze and other embodied action can an account be generated of orderliness within these sequences. This finding has important implications for CA's application as a research methodology within clinical linguistics. PMID:24067142

Muskett, Tom; Body, Richard

2013-01-01

425

Delay and probability discounting of multiple commodities in smokers and never-smokers using multiple-choice tasks.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate temporal and probabilistic discounting in smokers and never-smokers, across a number of commodities, using a multiple-choice method. One hundred and eighty-two undergraduate university students, of whom 90 had never smoked, 73 were self-reported light smokers (<10 cigarettes/day), and 17 were heavy smokers (10+cigarettes/day), completed computerized batteries of delay and probability discounting questions pertaining to a total of eight commodities and administered in a multiple-choice format. In addition to cigarettes, monetary rewards, and health outcomes, the tasks included novel commodities such as ideal dating partner and retirement income. The results showed that heavy smokers probability discounted commodities at a significantly shallower rate than never-smokers, suggesting greater risk-taking. No effect of smoking status was observed for delay discounting questions. The only commodity that was probability discounted significantly less than others was 'finding an ideal dating partner'. The results suggest that probability discounting tasks using the multiple-choice format can discriminate between non-abstaining smokers and never-smokers and could be further explored in the context of behavioral and drug addictions. PMID:24196025

Poltavski, Dmitri V; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

2013-12-01

426

Prism : an answer projection system  

E-print Network

Prism is an answer projection system that combines the best attributes of traditional and Web-based question answering systems. Traditional question answering systems retrieve answers with pinpoint accuracy but limited ...

Wu, Lynn, 1981-

2003-01-01

427

Entropy state of a multiple choice examination and the evaluation of understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Considering a student's examination as one state of a system which consists of the set of all possible examinations, a new method for evaluating multiple choice examinations is developed by measuring the entropy state of a student's exam above the "thermal background level" (the most probable state). The entropy grade is shown to contain standard scoring as a special case when both the number of questions given and the number of possible selections become large. The entropy grade is also shown to be related to the information it takes a student to go from one state of understanding to another state of understanding. The student's state of understanding is characterized either by his personal probability that his selections will be correct or by experimentally measured probability that the students's selections were correct.

Vawter, Richard

2005-10-17

428

The Testing Methods and Gender Differences in Multiple-Choice Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a comprehensive review of the multiple-choice assessment in the past two decades for facilitating people to conduct effective testing in various subject areas. It was revealed that a variety of multiple-choice test methods viz. conventional multiple-choice, liberal multiple-choice, elimination testing, confidence marking, probability testing, and order-of-preference scheme are available for use in assessing subjects' knowledge and decision ability. However, the best multiple-choice test method for use has not yet been identified. The review also indicated that the existence of gender differences in multiple-choice task performance might be due to the test area, instruction/scoring condition, and item difficulty.

Ng, Annie W. Y.; Chan, Alan H. S.

2009-10-01

429

"If you have the flu symptoms, your asymptomatic spouse may better answer the willingness-to-pay question".  

E-print Network

"If you have the flu symptoms, your asymptomatic spouse may better answer the willingness alleviation of flu symptoms. However, a patient was significantly more likely to anchor his/her answer choice; Patient; proxy; anchoring; structural shift; influenza JEL Classification: I1, C2, H4 inserm

430

Facts & Figures: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students and Bilingual/ESL Programs, 1996-1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In question and answer form, this document presents information about limited English proficient (LEP) students and programs for them in the New York City (New York) schools. City and state regulations govern the identification of LEP students and their selection for English as a second language (ESL) or bilingual programs. The Board of Education…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

431

26 CFR 5f.168(f)(8)-1 - Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF 1982 § 5f.168(f)(8)-1 Questions and answers...before July 2, 1982 (the “window period”), enters into a...delivered to the lessee during the window period, is the property eligible...rules of section 168(f)(8) of the Internal Revenue...

2010-04-01

432

26 CFR 5f.168(f)(8)-1 - Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF 1982 § 5f.168(f)(8)-1 Questions and answers...before July 2, 1982 (the “window period”), enters into a...delivered to the lessee during the window period, is the property eligible...rules of section 168(f)(8) of the Internal Revenue...

2011-04-01

433

How To Talk to Your Kids about Really Important Things: For Children Four to Twelve. Specific Questions and Answers and Useful Things To Say.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help parents find the words they need to talk to their children and answer their children's practical questions, this book offers practical guidance on a wide range of life's experiences, from family changes such as divorce and remarriage, to controversial subjects such as child abuse and AIDS. The major focus is on children ages 4 to…

Schaefer, Charles E.; DiGeronimo, Theresa Foy

434

26 CFR 31.3121(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary).  

...2014-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary). 31.3121(a)-1T Section 31.3121(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

2014-04-01

435

A text of two titles: Kant’s ‘A renewed attempt to answer the question: “Is the human race continually improving?’’’  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essay, ‘A renewed attempt to answer the question: “Is the human race continually improving?”’ appeared as Part II of Kant’s 1798 publication, The conflict of the faculties, where it was subordinated under a second title: ‘The conflict of the philosophy faculty with the faculty of law’. How did this new situation (and title) affects the meaning of the essay?

John H. Zammito

2008-01-01

436

Report to the New Jersey State Board of Agriculture Rutgers NJAES sponsored a forum, "GMOs: Questions and Answers for New Jersey Farmers," on May 9  

E-print Network

, "GMOs: Questions and Answers for New Jersey Farmers," on May 9 at the Rutgers EcoComplex in Bordentown "Busting the Myths Surrounding Genetically Engineered Foods." Cara Cuite, associate research professor on "Public Perceptions of GM Food." Brad Hillman, senior associate director, NJAES, and director

Goodman, Robert M.

437

Review the following outline providing some guidelines for ethical standards in the computing environment. Then answer the questions on the following page.  

E-print Network

Review the following outline providing some guidelines for ethical standards in the computing environment. Then answer the questions on the following page. ETHICS in COMPUTING 1. Respect for intellectual property: a. Honor copyright laws and product licensing. b. Refuse to participate in software piracy

Kreinovich, Vladik

438

Study the kinemage in this file, following along on this worksheet and answering its questions. Use chapter 1 of the Branden & Tooze textbook for background.  

E-print Network

Study the kinemage in this file, following along on this worksheet and answering its questions. Use to be edited". After you are finished, select menu item File:Save as... In KiNG: Choose "Kinemage #2 the twist of the beta sheet. Click "Animate" to switch among the four groupings of side chains (use View2

Richardson, David

439

Using IRT To Combine Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Sections of a Test onto a Common Scale Using A Priori Weights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Free-response (FR) item formats, such as essay questions, are popular in educational assessment. The criticisms against FR items are that they are more expensive to score, take up more testing time, provide less content coverage, and are less reliable than multiple-choice (MC) items. For these reasons, FR items are often combined with MC items.…

Lukhele, Robert; Sireci, Stephen G.

440

Is obesity a risk factor for low back pain? An example of using the evidence to answer a clinical question  

E-print Network

Background: Obesity as a causal factor for low back pain has been controversial with no definitive answer to this date. The objective of this study was to determine whether obesity is associated with low back pain. In ...

Mirtz, Timothy A.; Greene, Leon

2005-04-11

441

Multiple Choice Testing and the Retrieval Hypothesis of the Testing Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking a test often leads to enhanced later memory for the tested information, a phenomenon known as the "testing effect". This memory advantage has been reliably demonstrated with recall tests but not multiple choice tests. One potential explanation for this finding is that multiple choice tests do not rely on retrieval processes to the same…

Sensenig, Amanda E.

2010-01-01

442

Can automated questioning help children's reading comprehension?  

E-print Network

. The choices consist of the missing word plus three distractor words. E.g. Why bother about _____? Choices a randomly inserted generic multiple-choice What/Where/When question, children were likelier to correctly a multiple choice question. It displays a prompt and a menu of choices, and reads them both aloud

Mostow, Jack

443

Chapter 9 From search engines to question answering systems — The problems of world knowledge, relevance, deduction and precisiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing search engines, with Google at the top, have many truly remarkable capabilities. Furthermore, constant progress is being made in improving their performance. But what is not widely recognized is that there is a basic capability which existing search engines do not have: deduction capability — the capability to synthesize an answer to a query by drawing on bodies of

Lotfi A. Zadeh

2006-01-01

444

A comparison of integrated testlet and constructed-response question formats  

E-print Network

Constructed-response (CR) questions are a mainstay of introductory physics courses. However, because of time, cost, and scoring reliability constraints associated with this format, CR questions are being increasingly replaced by multiple-choice (MC) questions in formal exams. The integrated testlet (IT) is a new question structure designed to provide a proxy of the pedagogical advantages of CR questions while procedurally functioning as set of MC questions. ITs utilize an answer-until-correct response format that provides immediate confirmatory/corrective feedback, and thus allow for the granting of partial credit in cases of initially incorrect reasoning. Here, we report on a study that directly compares the functionality of ITs and CR questions in introductory physics exams. To do this, CR questions were converted to concept-equivalent ITs, and both sets of questions were deployed in midterm and final exams. We find that both question types provide adequate discrimination between stronger and weaker student...

Slepkov, Aaron D

2014-01-01

445

Presenter Responses to Questions Not Answered During the Webinar Note: Some of the responses to questions below refer to USGS Circular 1376, Streamflow Depletion by  

E-print Network

-21 of the USGS report SIR 2010-5149 "Simulation of Groundwater Flow and Effects of Groundwater Irrigation were constructed with the USGS MODFLOW groundwater model program. To make the capture maps, a separate to questions below refer to USGS Circular 1376, Streamflow Depletion by Wells. That publication can be accesses

446

Bone Health Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T) in front of the answer.  

E-print Network

EAT SMART Bone Health Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check not planning to use the information from this program. # I have osteoporosis or low bone density. YES NO As you

447

The purpose of this work is to identify potential evaluation criteria for interactive, analytical question-answering (QA)  

E-print Network

from multiple sources. The question "How is the al-Qaeda organization funded?" is an example with factual QA systems (Lin et al., 2003) and seek information for more complex QA tasks (Diekema et al., 2004

448

Heart Health Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T) in front of the answer.  

E-print Network

EAT SMART Heart Health Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check not planning to use the information in this program. # I have heart disease or high blood pressure. YES

449

Quality assessment of expert answers to lay questions about cystic fibrosis from various language zones in Europe: the ECORN-CF project  

PubMed Central

Background The European Centres of Reference Network for Cystic Fibrosis (ECORN-CF) established an Internet forum which provides the opportunity for CF patients and other interested people to ask experts questions about CF in their mother language. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a detailed quality assessment tool to analyze quality of expert answers, 2) evaluate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this tool, and 3) explore changes in the quality of expert answers over the time frame of the project. Methods The quality assessment tool was developed by an expert panel. Five experts within the ECORN-CF project used the quality assessment tool to analyze the quality of 108 expert answers published on ECORN-CF from six language zones. 25 expert answers were scored at two time points, one year apart. Quality of answers was also assessed at an early and later period of the project. Individual rater scores and group mean scores were analyzed for each expert answer. Results A scoring system and training manual were developed analyzing two quality categories of answers: content and formal quality. For content quality, the grades based on group mean scores for all raters showed substantial agreement between two time points, however this was not the case for the grades based on individual rater scores. For formal quality the grades based on group mean scores showed only slight agreement between two time points and there was also poor agreement between time points for the individual grades. The inter-rater agreement for content quality was fair (mean kappa value 0.232 ± 0.036, p < 0.001) while only slight agreement was observed for the grades of the formal quality (mean kappa value 0.105 ± 0.024, p < 0.001). The quality of expert answers was rated high (four language zones) or satisfactory (two language zones) and did not change over time. Conclusions The quality assessment tool described in this study was feasible and reliable when content quality was assessed by a group of raters. Within ECORN-CF, the tool will help ensure that CF patients all over Europe have equal possibility of access to high quality expert advice on their illness. PMID:22309508

2012-01-01

450

Are multiple choice tests fair to medical students with specific learning disabilities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of multiple choice tests of medical knowledge is to estimate as accurately as possible a candidate’s level of\\u000a knowledge. However, concern is sometimes expressed that multiple choice tests may also discriminate in undesirable and irrelevant\\u000a ways, such as between minority ethnic groups or by sex of candidates. There is little literature to establish whether multiple\\u000a choice tests may

Chris Ricketts; Julie Brice; Lee Coombes

2010-01-01

451

Measures of Partial Knowledge and Unexpected Responses in Multiple-Choice Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates differences in the partial scoring performance of examinees in elimination testing and conventional dichotomous scoring of multiple-choice tests implemented on a computer-based system. Elimination testing that uses the same set of multiple-choice items rewards examinees with partial knowledge over those who are simply guessing. This study provides a computer-based test and item analysis system to reduce the

Shao-hua Chang; Pei-chun Lin; Zih-chuan Lin

2007-01-01

452

How to Lose Weight? A Multiple Choice Question for the Patient  

PubMed Central

Obesity malnutrition requires correction - on that society and science agree - but there is no consensus on how best to achieve the desired ends. The impotence of most “scientific” weight reduction programs encourages the appearance of opportunists; they offer unusual programs, such as the use of chorionic gonadotrophin - for a stiff fee. As physicians, we must at least assist the obese patient in tailoring a sensible plan to suit his needs. In so doing, we may be able to save his money and his health. PMID:20469186

Schatz, D. L.

1975-01-01

453

Instructor Perspectives of Multiple-Choice Questions in Summative Assessment for Novice Programmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning to program is known to be difficult for novices. High attrition and high failure rates in foundation-level programming courses undertaken at tertiary level in Computer Science programs, are commonly reported. A common approach to evaluating novice programming ability is through a combination of formative and summative assessments, with…

Shuhidan, Shuhaida; Hamilton, Margaret; D'Souza, Daryl

2010-01-01

454

Phys 111 PRACTICE EXAM 1 Part I: There are 10 multiple choice Questions.  

E-print Network

from left side of field). What is the average velocity of the player between t=0 and t = 3 seconds? A the time of the drop? [neglect air friction]. A) 1.00 km behind the plane. B) 1.00 km ahead of the plane C) 350 km behind the plane. D) more than 1.0 km behind the plane. E) directly beneath the plane. 10

Janow, Rich

455

Chamberlain_Answers D12.pdf Student questions: Page Chamberlain colloquium on "Eocene migration of topography in the  

E-print Network

leading to the concentrations of oxygen isotopes you measured? That is a very good question. It is quite over global climate. At some point in the record there appears to be an event of massive deforestation the isotopic record for missing the high plateau in the south west? We are not sure of this. There is good

Shumway, John

456

Food Safety Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T) in front of the answer.  

E-print Network

EAT SMART Food Safety Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check with soap and water before preparing food. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 I use a thermometer to check if foods Programs serve people of all ages regardless of socioeconomic level, race, color, sex, religion, disability

457

Answering the Big Questions in Neuroscience: DoD's Experimental Research Wing Takes on Massive, High-Risk Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) asks research questions, it goes big. This is, after all, the same agency that put together teams of scientists and engineers to find a way to connect the worlds computers and, in doing so, developed the precursor to the Internet. DARPA, the experimental research wing of the U.S. Department of Defense, funds

Leslie Mertz

2012-01-01

458

Answering Gauguin?s Questions: Where Are We Coming From, Where Are We Going, and What Are We?  

ScienceCinema

Ellis discusses how the knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, known as the Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions, for example: What is the origin of the matter in the Universe, how does its mass originate, what is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe, and are there additional dimensions of space?

John Ellis

2010-09-01

459

Colleges Struggle to Answer Tough Questions about Rates for the Overhead Costs of Government-Sponsored Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As news reports continue to describe questionable charges for indirect costs in government-sponsored research, academic officials try to explain the rates, which vary greatly by institution and are based on complicated accounting formulas, to the press, alumni, trustees, and state legislators. Overhead rates, ranging from 37 percent to 77 percent,…

Cordes, Colleen

1991-01-01

460

Stat 426 EXAM 2 Name: Exam Instructions: Use a separate piece of paper to answer each question. Label the  

E-print Network

. Label the paper with the question number and your name. Try to show as much work as possible and explain your thoughts. There are 4 problems on this test. Calculators/computers are not permitted; one 8. The parameter is known. a. Find the method of moments estimator, ^mom, of . b. Use Chebyshev's inequality

Murphy, Susan A.

461

Desch_Answers N11.pdf Student questions: Steven Desch colloquium on "Geological Processes on Kuiper Belt Objects"  

E-print Network

, though. Question 1: How could you tell the difference between asteroid belt asteroids and Kuiper belt ices more volatile than water not expected to condense in the asteroid belt (like ammonia). KBOs also of our thinking about Earth's formation on what was going on in the asteroid belt. A whole literature has

Shumway, John

462

Detecting Answer Copying Using the Kappa Statistic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A statistical test for detecting answer copying on multiple-choice tests based on Cohen's kappa is proposed. The test is free of any assumptions on the response processes of the examinees suspected of copying and having served as the source, except for the usual assumption that these processes are probabilistic. Because the asymptotic null and…

Sotaridona, Leonardo S.; van der Linden, Wim J.; Meijer, Rob R.

2006-01-01

463

Screening, assessment, and treatment of osteoporosis for the nurse practitioner: Key questions and answers for clinical practice--A Canadian perspective  

PubMed Central

Purpose Using a case-based approach, we review key clinical questions relevant to nurse practitioners (NPs) regarding the screening, assessment, and treatment of patients at risk for osteoporosis and fractures in a Canadian general practice setting. Data sources A case presentation with relevant questions and answers to guide management of a patient. Conclusions Osteoporosis is a common condition in both the aging male and female populations. Screening, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis is lagging behind relative to other chronic disease states. NPs have a unique opportunity to help reduce this care gap by playing an integral role in the identification, risk stratification, and treatment of patients at risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Implications for practice This case highlights the important role an NP can have in screening a patient previously not diagnosed or managed for osteoporosis. Performing a focused history and physical exam of the patient to determine appropriate screening tests and fracture risk will help in guiding treatment decisions. PMID:24911524

Rice, Peggy; Mehan, Upender; Hamilton, Celeste; Kim, Sandra

2014-01-01

464

Mystery #14 Answer  

... questions are provided. 1.   The island is part of a volcanic arc system situated near a tectonic plate boundary. Answer: TRUE ... ocean   trench. 2.   The last major volcanic eruption on this island occurred in 1981. Answer: FALSE Anatahan had ...

2013-04-22

465

Mystery #1 Answer  

... wide. Answers to the questions are provided. 1.   This collection of islands, or archipelago, is part of what country? Answer:  ... main island of Viti Levu includes many species of orchids, water lilies, and tropical plants.     MISR was built and is ...

2013-04-22

466

Treatment of burns in the first 24 hours: simple and practical guide by answering 10 questions in a step-by-step form  

PubMed Central

Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose. PMID:22583548

2012-01-01

467

Inquiry-based Learning in Plant Ecology: Students Collect the Field Data, Ask the Questions, and Propose the Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Experiment is designed to teach upper-level students in a plant ecology course how to collect data on plant populations (distribution and abundance), develop hypotheses to explain observed patterns, and write a research proposal to test their hypotheses. The Experiment describes a semester long project requiring 13 classes that are 2 þ hours long each. The experimental setup is a 2 m X 30 m planted garden plot containing a mixture of planted (forb, grass, and legume) and volunteer plants. Students propose questions with specific measurable dependent and independent variables. Lab work typically required includes preparation and analysis of abiotic samples, such as soil samples, to measure variables such as soil moisture and soil texture.

Griffith, Alan

2010-02-16

468

Answering the big questions in neuroscience: DoD's experimental research wing takes on massive, high-risk projects.  

PubMed

When the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) asks research questions, it goes big. This is, after all, the same agency that put together teams of scientists and engineers to find a way to connect the worlds computers and, in doing so, developed the precursor to the Internet. DARPA, the experimental research wing of the U.S. Department of Defense, funds the types of research queries that scientists and engineers dream of tackling. Unlike a traditional granting agency that conservatively metes out its funding and only to projects with a good chance of success, DARPA puts its money on massive, multi-institutional projects that have no guarantees, but have enormous potential. In the 1990s, DARPA began its biological and medical science research to improve the safety, health, and well being of military personnel, according to DARPA program manager and Army Colonel Geoffrey Ling, Ph.D., M.D. More recently, DARPA has entered the realm of neuroscience and neurotechnology. Its focus with these projects is on its prime customer, the U.S. Department of Defense, but Ling acknowledged that technologies developed in its programs "certainly have potential to cascade into civilian uses." PMID:22344946

Mertz, Leslie

2012-01-01

469

Effects of reinforcer magnitude and alternative reinforcer delay on preference for alcohol during a multiple-choice procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Multiple-Choice Procedure [MCP; Griffiths, R.R., Troisi II, J.R., Silverman, K., Mumford, G.K., 1993. Multiple-choice procedure: an efficient approach for investigating drug reinforcement in humans. Behav. Pharmacol. 4, 3–13; Griffiths, R.R., Rush, C.R., Puhala, K.A., 1996. Validation of the multiple-choice procedure for investigating drug reinforcement in humans. Behav. Pharmacol. 4, 3–13] was developed to investigate the relationship between drug preferences

Trisha A. Benson; Carolyn S. Little; Amber M. Henslee; Christopher J. Correia

2009-01-01

470

FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question "What is life?" is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schrödinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter.

Reutov, Valentin P.; Schechter, A. N.

2010-07-01

471

Read-Aloud Accommodation: Effects on Multiple-Choice Reading and Math Items. Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most prevalent and controversial accommodations for students with disabilities is an audio presentation of written test material, the "read-aloud" accommodation. This study used test administration data from the Missouri Assessment Program to examine effects of using the read-aloud accommodation on the characteristics of multiple-choice

Bielinski, John; Thurlow, Martha; Ysseldyke, James; Freidebach, Jim; Freidebach, Melodie

472

A Cognitive Diagnosis Model for Cognitively Based Multiple-Choice Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive or skills diagnosis models are discrete latent variable models developed specifically for the purpose of identifying the presence or absence of multiple fine-grained skills. However, applications of these models typically involve dichotomous or dichotomized data, including data from multiple-choice (MC) assessments that are scored as…

de la Torre, Jimmy

2009-01-01

473

Sex Differences in the Tendency to Omit Items on Multiple-Choice Tests: 1980-2000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much has been written concerning the potential group differences in responding to multiple-choice achievement test items. This discussion has included references to possible disparities in tendency to omit such test items. When test scores are used for high-stakes decision making, even small differences in scores and rankings that arise from male…

von Schrader, Sarah; Ansley, Timothy

2006-01-01

474

A Modified Beta Binomial Model with Applications to Multiple Choice and Taste Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A modified beta binomial model is presented for use in analyzing random guessing multiple choice tests and taste tests. Detection probabilities for each item are distributed beta across the population subjects. Properties for the observable distribution of correct responses are derived. Two concepts of true score estimates are presented.…

Morrison, Donald G.; Brockway, George

1979-01-01

475

Predicting the severity of motor vehicle accident injuries using models of ordered multiple choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents statistical evidence showing how variations in the attributes of road users can lead to variations in the probabilities of sustaining different levels of injury in motor vehicle accidents. Data from New South Wales, Australia, is used to estimate two models of multiple choice which are reasonably commonplace in the econometrics literature: the ordered logit model and the

C. J. O'Donnell; D. H. Connor

1996-01-01

476

Using the Distractor Categories of Multiple-Choice Items to Improve IRT Linking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simulation and real data studies are used to investigate the value of modeling multiple-choice distractors on item response theory linking. Using the characteristic curve linking procedure for Bock's (1972) nominal response model presented by Kim and Hanson (2002), all-category linking (i.e., a linking based on all category characteristic curves…

Kim, Jee-Seon

2006-01-01

477

Grading Multiple Choice Exams with Low-Cost and Portable Computer-Vision Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although technology for automatic grading of multiple choice exams has existed for several decades, it is not yet as widely available or affordable as it should be. The main reasons preventing this adoption are the cost and the complexity of the setup procedures. In this paper, "Eyegrade," a system for automatic grading of multiple…

Fisteus, Jesus Arias; Pardo, Abelardo; García, Norberto Fernández

2013-01-01

478

Finding Relationships between Multiple-Choice Math Tests and Their Stem-Equivalent Constructed Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study takes a close look at relationships between scores on a Mathematics standardized test in two different testing formats--Multiple-Choice (MC) and Constructed Response (CR). Many studies have been dedicated to finding correlations between item format characteristics with regards to race and gender. Few studies, however, have attempted to…

Chaoui, Nayla Aad

2011-01-01

479

How to Assess Student Performance in Science: Going beyond Multiple-Choice Tests. Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational systems promote student growth in a variety of dimensions. Basic content knowledge can be effectively assessed with multiple-choice and completion tests. However educational reforms have become more concerned with higher-order cognitive dimensions (problem-solving, creativity), social dimensions (communication skills, ability to work…

Butler, Susan M.; McColskey, Wendy; O'Sullivan, Rita

2005-01-01

480

Evaluation of Statistics for Detection of Cheating on Multiple-Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of an index reflecting the probability that the observed correspondence between multiple choice test responses of two examinees was due to chance in the absence of copying was previously reported. The present paper reports the implementation of a statistic requiring less restrictive underlying assumptions but more computation time…

Frary, Robert B.; Tideman, T. Nicolaus

481

A Better Benchmark Assessment: Multiple-Choice versus Project-Based  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this literature review and Ex Post Facto descriptive study was to determine which type of benchmark assessment, multiple-choice or project-based, provides the best indication of general success on the history portion of the CST (California Standards Tests). The result of the study indicates that although the project-based benchmark…

Peariso, Jamon F.

2006-01-01

482

Does Correction for Guessing Reduce Students' Performance on Multiple-Choice Examinations? Yes? No? Sometimes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice (MC) examinations are becoming increasingly popular in higher education because they can be used effectively to assess breadth of knowledge in large cohorts of students. This present research investigated psychology students' performance on, and experiences of, MC examinations with and without correction for guessing. In Study 1,…

Betts, Lucy R.; Elder, Tracey J.; Hartley, James; Trueman, Mark

2009-01-01

483

The Relationship of Constrained Free-Response to Multiple-Choice and Open-Ended Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of a machine-scorable, constrained free-response computer science item that required the student to debug a faulty program to two other types of items: multiple-choice and free-response requiring production of a computer program. The free-response items were from the College Board's Advanced Placement Computer…

Bennett, Randy Elliot; And Others

484

A best first search exact algorithm for the Multiple-choice Multidimensional Knapsack Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an optimal algorithm for the Multiple-choice Multidimensional Knapsack Problem MMKP. The main principle of the approach is twofold: (i) to generate an initial feasible solution as a starting lower bound, and (ii) at different levels of the search tree to determine an intermediate upper bound obtained by solving an auxiliary problem called MMKPaux and perform

Abdelkader Sbihi

2007-01-01

485

Negation in Stems of Single-Response Multiple-Choice Items: An Overestimation of Student Ability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study involving approximately 220 student nurses indicate that the use of negation (e.g., not, except) should be avoided in stems of multiple-choice test items and that the single-response negatively worded item should often be converted to a multiple-response, positively worded item. (SLD)

Harasym, P. H.; And Others

1993-01-01

486

Field-Based Teacher Research: How Teachers and Scientists Working Together Answers Questions about Turtle Nesting Ecology while Enhancing Teachers' Inquiry Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing rigorous academic supplement to a professional development program for teachers, QUEST is a fusion of Drexel University's environmental science research department with Princeton University's Program in Teacher Preparation. Completed in the summers of 2012 (in partnership with Earthwatch) and 2013 in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, QUEST's terrapin field research program enhances K-12 teachers' ecological knowledge, develops inquiry-based thinking in the classroom, and builds citizen science engagement. With a focus on quality question development and data analysis to answer questions, teachers are coached in developing, implementing, and presenting independent research projects on diamondback terrapin nesting ecology. As a result, teachers participating in QUEST's week long program bring a realistic example of science in action into their classrooms, helping to develop their own students' critical thinking skills. For teachers, this program provides training towards educating students on how to do real and imaginative science - subsequently sending students to university better prepared to engage in their own independent research. An essential component of the collaboration through QUEST, in addition to the teacher's experience during and after the summer institute, is the research data collected which supplements that of the Principal Investigator. In 2012, by documenting terrapin nest site predators, teachers gained valuable scientific experience, while Drexel acquired important ecological data which would have not been able to be collected otherwise. In 2013, teachers helped answer important questions about terrapin nesting success post Superstorm Sandy. In fact, the 2013 QUEST teachers are the first to visualize the frighteningly increased erosion of a primary terrapin nesting site due to Sandy; showing how most terrapin nests now lie in the bay, instead of safe on shore. Teachers comment that interacting with scientists in the field, and contributing to the research was 'an invaluable experience.' Conceptual models of QUEST's philosophy will be distributed at our presentation to encourage audience members interested in starting their own field-based educator professional development project. Through our presentation of this unique program, we will share how we have successfully incorporated real scientific research into classrooms through teachers' experiences, and discuss the lessons learned regarding replication and sustainability of educator-scientist collaborations.

Winters, J. M.; Jungblut, D.; Catena, A. N.; Rubenstein, D. I.

2013-12-01

487

Donating Blood Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Under certain circumstances a donor with an indeterminate Western Blot may be tested for possible re-entry after a six-month period if an unlicensed Western Blot was used for the original test. A ...

488

Question & Answer QQ&&AA  

E-print Network

. Quantitative traits include aspects of morphology (height, weight); physiology (blood pressure); behavior (aggression); as well as molecular phenotypes (gene expression levels, high- and low- density cholesterol, but achondroplasia (dwarfism) is caused by a Mendelian autosomal dominant mutation in the fibroblast growth factor

Mackay, Trudy F.C.

489

Questions and Answers about Stroke  

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... the stroke and acts quickly. What should a bystander do? Bystanders should know the signs and act in time. ... disability. Four million Americans are living with the effects of stroke. The length of time to recover ...

490

Question & Answer QQ&&AA  

E-print Network

in equal times) that empirically accoun- ted for Brahe's data. Fifty years later, Newton's law of universal gravitation provided a further abstraction and simplification, with Kepler's laws following as simple-sphere-tetrahedron-sphere-cube- sphere), the sizes of the spheres correspond to the relative sizes of the first six planets' orbits

491

Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers  

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... down the road. A related "all or nothing" misconception is that all heavy drinkers are automatically alcoholics. ... year. This helps to counter a commonly held misconception that “everybody” drinks a lot. The second purpose ...

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Questions and Answers about Monkeypox  

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Answering Questions About Underage Drinking  

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... can respond. Please share. Q. Doesn't the legal drinking age just make teens want alcohol more, because it ... friends when you're not around. Q. The legal drinking age in Europe is younger than it is in ...

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Common Prostate Cancer Questions Answered  

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... or just interested in learning more about the disease, the American Cancer Society is here to help. Here, we will ... aims to help people with certain types of cancer and other diseases get their federal disability claims processed faster. The ...

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Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers  

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... fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark urine, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and ... A virus is spread by getting infected fecal matter into a person’s mouth who has never had ...

496

Internet firewalls: questions and answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As organizations consider connecting to the Internet, the issue of internetwork security becomes more important. There are many tools and components that can be used to secure a network, one of which is a firewall. Modern firewalls offer highly flexible private network security by controlling and monitoring all communications passing into or out of the private network. Specifically designed for security, firewalls become the private network's single point of attack from Internet intruders. Application gateways (or proxies) that have been written to be secure against even the most persistent attacks ensure that only authorized users and services access the private network. One-time passwords prevent intruders from `sniffing' and replaying the usernames and passwords of authorized users to gain access to the private network. Comprehensive logging permits constant and uniform system monitoring. `Address spoofing' attacks are prevented. The private network may use registered or unregistered IP addresses behind the firewall. Firewall-to-firewall encryption establishes a `virtual private network' across the Internet, preventing intruders from eavesdropping on private communications, eliminating the need for costly dedicated lines.

Ker, Keith

1996-03-01

497

Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers  

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Questions and Answers about TB  

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... Rapid Molecular Testing to Detect Drug-Resistant TB in the US Executive Summary Introduction Background on Tests for Molecular ... Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets ...

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HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers  

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... prevents infection with the most harmful kinds of human papillomavirus (also called HPV). HPV vaccine is safe, effective, ... VFC program . Related Pages HPV Vaccine main page Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Topics Top of Page Images and logos ...

500

Answers to Questions: Nuclear Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electricity is an increasingly important part of our everyday lives. Its versatility allows one to heat, cool, and light homes; cook meals; watch television; listen to music; power computers; make medical diagnosis and treatment; explore the vastness of space; and study the tiniest molecules. Nuclear energy, second to coal, surpasses natural gas,…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.