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Sample records for answer multiple-choice questions

  1. The Answering Process for Multiple-Choice Questions in Collaborative Learning: A Mathematical Learning Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nishi, Shinnosuke; Muramatsu, Yuta; Yasutake, Koichi; Yamakawa, Osamu; Tagawa, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a mathematical model for collaborative learning and the answering process for multiple-choice questions. The collaborative learning model is inspired by the Ising spin model and the model for answering multiple-choice questions is based on their difficulty level. An intensive simulation study predicts the possibility of…

  2. Improving Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cristina; Lopes, Ana Paula; Babo, Lurdes; Azevedo, Jose

    2011-01-01

    A MC (multiple-choice) question can be defined as a question in which students are asked to select one alternative from a given set of alternatives in response to a question stem. The objective of this paper is to analyse if MC questions may be considered as an interesting alternative for assessing knowledge, particularly in the mathematics area,…

  3. Another kind of 'BOLD Response': answering multiple-choice questions via online decoded single-trial brain signals.

    PubMed

    Sorger, Bettina; Dahmen, Brigitte; Reithler, Joel; Gosseries, Olivia; Maudoux, Audrey; Laureys, Steven; Goebel, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    The term 'locked-in'syndrome (LIS) describes a medical condition in which persons concerned are severely paralyzed and at the same time fully conscious and awake. The resulting anarthria makes it impossible for these patients to naturally communicate, which results in diagnostic as well as serious practical and ethical problems. Therefore, developing alternative, muscle-independent communication means is of prime importance. Such communication means can be realized via brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) circumventing the muscular system by using brain signals associated with preserved cognitive, sensory, and emotional brain functions. Primarily, BCIs based on electrophysiological measures have been developed and applied with remarkable success. Recently, also blood flow-based neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), have been explored in this context. After reviewing recent literature on the development of especially hemodynamically based BCIs, we introduce a highly reliable and easy-to-apply communication procedure that enables untrained participants to motor-independently and relatively effortlessly answer multiple-choice questions based on intentionally generated single-trial fMRI signals that can be decoded online. Our technique takes advantage of the participants' capability to voluntarily influence certain spatio-temporal aspects of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal: source location (by using different mental tasks), signal onset and offset. We show that healthy participants are capable of hemodynamically encoding at least four distinct information units on a single-trial level without extensive pretraining and with little effort. Moreover, real-time data analysis based on simple multi-filter correlations allows for automated answer decoding with a high accuracy (94.9%) demonstrating the robustness of the presented method. Following our 'proof of concept', the next step will involve clinical trials with LIS patients, undertaken in close collaboration with their relatives and caretakers in order to elaborate individually tailored communication protocols. As our procedure can be easily transferred to MRI-equipped clinical sites, it may constitute a simple and effective possibility for online detection of residual consciousness and for LIS patients to communicate basic thoughts and needs in case no other alternative communication means are available (yet)--especially in the acute phase of the LIS. Future research may focus on further increasing the efficiency and accuracy of fMRI-based BCIs by implementing sophisticated data analysis methods (e.g., multivariate and independent component analysis) and neurofeedback training techniques. Finally, the presented BCI approach could be transferred to portable fNIRS systems as only this would enable hemodynamically based communication in daily life situations. PMID:19818908

  4. Further Support for Changing Multiple-Choice Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrey, Lawrence J.; Case, Susan M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect on test scores of changing answers to multiple-choice questions was studied and compared to earlier research. The current setting was a nationally administered, in-training, specialty examination for medical residents in obstetrics and gynecology. Both low and high scorers improved their scores when they changed answers. (SW)

  5. Delayed, but not immediate, feedback after multiple-choice questions increases performance on a subsequent short-answer, but not multiple-choice, exam: evidence for the dual-process theory of memory.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Neha; Glass, Arnold Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments, two performed in the laboratory and one embedded in a college psychology lecture course, investigated the effects of immediate versus delayed feedback following a multiple-choice exam on subsequent short answer and multiple-choice exams. Performance on the subsequent multiple-choice exam was not affected by the timing of the feedback on the prior exam; however, performance on the subsequent short answer exam was better following delayed than following immediate feedback. This was true regardless of the order in which immediate versus delayed feedback was given. Furthermore, delayed feedback only had a greater effect than immediate feedback on subsequent short answer performance following correct, confident responses on the prior exam. These results indicate that delayed feedback cues a student's prior response and increases subsequent recollection of that response. The practical implication is that delayed feedback is better than immediate feedback during academic testing. PMID:25832741

  6. Analyzing Student Confidence in Classroom Voting with Multiple Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ann; Storm, Christopher; VonEpps, Lahna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present results of a recent study in which students voted on multiple choice questions in mathematics courses of varying levels. Students used clickers to select the best answer among the choices given; in addition, they were also asked whether they were confident in their answer. In this paper we analyze data

  7. Analyzing Student Confidence in Classroom Voting with Multiple Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ann; Storm, Christopher; VonEpps, Lahna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present results of a recent study in which students voted on multiple choice questions in mathematics courses of varying levels. Students used clickers to select the best answer among the choices given; in addition, they were also asked whether they were confident in their answer. In this paper we analyze data…

  8. Challenging Multiple-Choice Questions to Engage Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkman, Dennis D.; Johnson, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines a technique for engaging critical thinking on multiple-choice exams. University students were encouraged to "challenge" the validity of any exam question they believed to be unfair (e.g., more than one equally correct answer, ambiguous wording, etc.). The number of valid challenges a student wrote was a better

  9. A New Approach to the Problem of Changing Initial Responses to Multiple Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiling, Eldon; Taylor, Ryland

    1972-01-01

    The hypothesis that it is unwise to change answers to multiple choice questions was tested using multiple regression analysis. The hypothesis was rejected as results showed that there are gains to be made by changing responses. (Author/CK)

  10. Does the Answer Order Matter on Multiple-Choice Exams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellinghuisen, Joel; Sulikowski, Michelle M.

    2008-01-01

    Surprising version-dependent differences are noted in student performance on certain questions in a standardized general chemistry exam. The exam in question has two versions, on which both questions and answers are ordered differently. For the questions suspected of answer-order bias, the performance is better in ten of twelve cases when students

  11. Comparing comprehension measured by multiple-choice and open-ended questions.

    PubMed

    Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Briner, Stephen; Kurby, Christopher A; McNamara, Danielle S

    2013-09-01

    This study compared the nature of text comprehension as measured by multiple-choice format and open-ended format questions. Participants read a short text while explaining preselected sentences. After reading the text, participants answered open-ended and multiple-choice versions of the same questions based on their memory of the text content. The results indicated that performance on open-ended questions was correlated with the quality of self-explanations, but performance on multiple-choice questions was correlated with the level of prior knowledge related to the text. These results suggest that open-ended and multiple-choice format questions measure different aspects of comprehension processes. The results are discussed in terms of dual process theories of text comprehension. PMID:24041303

  12. A Two-Tier Multiple Choice Questions to Diagnose Thermodynamic Misconception of Thai and Laos Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamcharean, Chanwit; Wattanakasiwich, Pornrat

    The objective of this study was to diagnose misconceptions of Thai and Lao students in thermodynamics by using a two-tier multiple-choice test. Two-tier multiple choice questions consist of the first tier, a content-based question and the second tier, a reasoning-based question. Data of student understanding was collected by using 10 two-tier multiple-choice questions. Thai participants were the first-year students (N = 57) taking a fundamental physics course at Chiang Mai University in 2012. Lao participants were high school students in Grade 11 (N = 57) and Grade 12 (N = 83) at Muengnern high school in Xayaboury province, Lao PDR. As results, most students answered content-tier questions correctly but chose incorrect answers for reason-tier questions. When further investigating their incorrect reasons, we found similar misconceptions as reported in previous studies such as incorrectly relating pressure with temperature when presenting with multiple variables.

  13. An Item Bank for Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chelu, C. J.; Elton, L. R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Provided is information on the development, operation, and evaluation of an item bank for multiple choice questions in physics. While the users of the bank are presently limited, the item banks has saved its members time and provided items and ideas for items. (MA)

  14. A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs

  15. Multiple-Choice and Short-Answer Exam Performance in a College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Steven C.; Dickson, K. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    The authors experimentally investigated the effects of multiple-choice and short-answer format exam items on exam performance in a college classroom. They randomly assigned 50 students to take a 10-item short-answer pretest or posttest on two 50-item multiple-choice exams in an introduction to personality course. Students performed significantly

  16. Item Analysis of Multiple-Choice Questions in Teaching Prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Madhav, V N V

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze multiple-choice questions used in teaching prosthodontics to dental students based on the items' distractor effectiveness and their difficulty and discrimination capacity. The overall goals were to assist the prosthodontics department in modifying its existing question bank and creating a set of prevalidated questions of known difficulty and discrimination capacity. The items selected for this study were from the three formative examinations in prosthodontics for fourth-year BDS students at Sinhgad Dental College and Hospital, Pune, Maharastra, India, during academic year 2011-12. As all the students' completed exams and scores were available, the task was to evaluate the efficacy of items already administered. Based on the item analysis of the questions, the following results were noted. None of the three examinations had items that were too difficult or defective. However, all three examinations had large percentages of easy items and many items had a low discrimination index. More than 60-70% of the items on all three examinations included ineffective distractors. All items therefore needed modifications based on their distractor effectiveness and difficulty and discrimination indices. After the study was completed, the results were discussed in a meeting with all teachers in the prosthodontics department and the test constructors, and suggestions were made with regard to improving the items for better evaluation of students. PMID:26522636

  17. Assessment of Multiple-Choice Questions in Selected Test Banks Accompanying Text Books Used in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Joan C.; Hulsmeyer, Barbara S.; Pike, Mary E.; Leichty, Kathy; Miller, Margaret T.; Verst, Amy L.

    2001-01-01

    A sample of 2,913 questions from 17 nursing test banks was evaluated for adherence to multiple-choice guidelines, cognitive level in Bloom's Taxonomy, and distribution of correct answers. Analysis revealed 2,233 guideline violations; 47.3% of items were written at the knowledge level, 6.5% at the analysis level; and correct answers were evenly

  18. Answering Questions About Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.

    1977-01-01

    Lists suggestions for aiding teachers in answering student questions about sex, including hints for classroom discussions, questioning and answering techniques, and appropriate role for the teacher. Also lists resources (textbooks, filmstrips, pamphlets and reports) for answering questions about sex. (CS)

  19. Beware Answers with Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Answers to mathematical problems come in all forms and most come with a variety of questions. Students often forget to ask questions once they have found an answer. This paper suggests that students would always benefit by questioning answers.

  20. Approaches to Data Analysis of Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics…

  1. Approaches to data analysis of multiple-choice questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert

    2009-12-01

    This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics education research. We minimize mathematics, instead placing emphasis on data interpretation using these approaches.

  2. Using Multiple-Choice Questions to Evaluate In-Depth Learning of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckles, Stephen; Siegfried, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions are the basis of a significant portion of assessment in introductory economics courses. However, these questions, as found in course assessments, test banks, and textbooks, often fail to evaluate students' abilities to use and apply economic analysis. The authors conclude that multiple-choice questions can be used to

  3. Using Multiple-Choice Questions to Evaluate In-Depth Learning of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckles, Stephen; Siegfried, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions are the basis of a significant portion of assessment in introductory economics courses. However, these questions, as found in course assessments, test banks, and textbooks, often fail to evaluate students' abilities to use and apply economic analysis. The authors conclude that multiple-choice questions can be used to…

  4. Can free-response questions be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2013-08-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions can be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another, similar introductory physics course on the final exam. Our findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance on the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

  5. Learning Physics Teaching through Collaborative Design of Conceptual Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Increasing student engagement through Electronic Response Systems (clickers) has been widely researched. Its success largely depends on the quality of multiple-choice questions used by instructors. This paper describes a pilot project that focused on the implementation of online collaborative multiple-choice question repository, PeerWise, in a

  6. Testing Collective Memory: Representing the Soviet Union on Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Gabriel A.

    2011-01-01

    This article tests the assumption that state-mandated multiple-choice history exams are a cultural tool for disseminating an "official" collective memory. Findings from a qualitative study of a collection of multiple-choice questions that relate to the history of the Soviet Union are presented. The 263 questions all come from New York State…

  7. Testing Collective Memory: Representing the Soviet Union on Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Gabriel A.

    2011-01-01

    This article tests the assumption that state-mandated multiple-choice history exams are a cultural tool for disseminating an "official" collective memory. Findings from a qualitative study of a collection of multiple-choice questions that relate to the history of the Soviet Union are presented. The 263 questions all come from New York State

  8. Comparison of Performance on Multiple-Choice Questions and Open-Ended Questions in an Introductory Astronomy Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Michelle M.; Cool, Adrienne M.; Prather, Edward E.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2014-01-01

    When considering the variety of questions that can be used to measure students' learning, instructors may choose to use multiple-choice questions, which are easier to score than responses to open-ended questions. However, by design, analyses of multiple-choice responses cannot describe all of students' understanding. One method that can

  9. Quality Multiple-Choice Test Questions: Item-Writing Guidelines and an Analysis of Auditing Testbanks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James D.; Dexter, Lee

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of test item banks in 10 auditing textbooks found that 75% of questions violated one or more guidelines for multiple-choice items. In comparison, 70% of a certified public accounting exam bank had no violations. (SK)

  10. Memorial Consequences of Answering SAT II Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Elizabeth J.; Agarwal, Pooja K.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2009-01-01

    Many thousands of students take standardized tests every year. In the current research, we asked whether answering standardized test questions affects students' later test performance. Prior research has shown both positive and negative effects of multiple-choice testing on later tests, with negative effects arising from students selecting…

  11. Measuring University students' understanding of the greenhouse effect - a comparison of multiple-choice, short answer and concept sketch assessment tools with respect to students' mental models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, A. U.; Harris, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The greenhouse effect comes up in most discussions about climate and is a key concept related to climate change. Existing studies have shown that students and adults alike lack a detailed understanding of this important concept or might hold misconceptions. We studied the effectiveness of different interventions on University-level students' understanding of the greenhouse effect. Introductory level science students were tested for their pre-knowledge of the greenhouse effect using validated multiple-choice questions, short answers and concept sketches. All students participated in a common lesson about the greenhouse effect and were then randomly assigned to one of two lab groups. One group explored an existing simulation about the greenhouse effect (PhET-lesson) and the other group worked with absorption spectra of different greenhouse gases (Data-lesson) to deepen the understanding of the greenhouse effect. All students completed the same assessment including multiple choice, short answers and concept sketches after participation in their lab lesson. 164 students completed all the assessments, 76 completed the PhET lesson and 77 completed the data lesson. 11 students missed the contrasting lesson. In this presentation we show the comparison between the multiple-choice questions, short answer questions and the concept sketches of students. We explore how well each of these assessment types represents student's knowledge. We also identify items that are indicators of the level of understanding of the greenhouse effect as measured in correspondence of student answers to an expert mental model and expert responses. Preliminary data analysis shows that student who produce concept sketch drawings that come close to expert drawings also choose correct multiple-choice answers. However, correct multiple-choice answers are not necessarily an indicator that a student produces an expert-like correlating concept sketch items. Multiple-choice questions that require detailed knowledge of the greenhouse effect (e.g. direction of re-emission of infrared energy from greenhouse gas) are significantly more likely to be answered correctly by students who also produce expert-like concept sketch items than by students who don't include this aspect in their sketch and don't answer the multiple choice questions correctly. This difference is not as apparent for less technical multiple-choice questions (e.g. type of radiation emitted by Sun). Our findings explore the formation of student's mental models throughout different interventions and how well the different assessment techniques used in this study represent the student understanding of the overall concept.

  12. Comparison of performance on multiple-choice questions and open-ended questions in an introductory astronomy laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooten, Michelle M.; Cool, Adrienne M.; Prather, Edward E.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2014-12-01

    When considering the variety of questions that can be used to measure students' learning, instructors may choose to use multiple-choice questions, which are easier to score than responses to open-ended questions. However, by design, analyses of multiple-choice responses cannot describe all of students' understanding. One method that can be used to learn more about students' learning is the analysis of the open-ended responses students' provide when explaining their multiple-choice response. In this study, we examined the extent to which introductory astronomy students' performance on multiple-choice questions was comparable to their ability to provide evidence when asked to respond to an open-ended question. We quantified students' open-ended responses by developing rubrics that allowed us to score the amount of relevant evidence students' provided. A minimum rubric score was determined for each question based on two astronomy educators perception of the minimum amount of evidence needed to substantiate a scientifically accurate multiple-choice response. The percentage of students meeting both criteria of (1) attaining the minimum rubric score and (2) selecting the correct multiple-choice response was examined at three different phases of instruction: directly before lab instruction, directly after lab instruction, and at the end of the semester. Results suggested that a greater proportion of students were able to choose the correct multiple-choice response than were able to provide responses that attained the minimum rubric score at both the post-lab and post-instruction phases.

  13. Multiple choice questions can be designed or revised to challenge learners' critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E; Gushta, Matthew M; Mulroney, Susan E; Weissinger, Peggy A

    2013-12-01

    Multiple choice (MC) questions from a graduate physiology course were evaluated by cognitive-psychology (but not physiology) experts, and analyzed statistically, in order to test the independence of content expertise and cognitive complexity ratings of MC items. Integration of higher order thinking into MC exams is important, but widely known to be challenging-perhaps especially when content experts must think like novices. Expertise in the domain (content) may actually impede the creation of higher-complexity items. Three cognitive psychology experts independently rated cognitive complexity for 252 multiple-choice physiology items using a six-level cognitive complexity matrix that was synthesized from the literature. Rasch modeling estimated item difficulties. The complexity ratings and difficulty estimates were then analyzed together to determine the relative contributions (and independence) of complexity and difficulty to the likelihood of correct answers on each item. Cognitive complexity was found to be statistically independent of difficulty estimates for 88 % of items. Using the complexity matrix, modifications were identified to increase some item complexities by one level, without affecting the item's difficulty. Cognitive complexity can effectively be rated by non-content experts. The six-level complexity matrix, if applied by faculty peer groups trained in cognitive complexity and without domain-specific expertise, could lead to improvements in the complexity targeted with item writing and revision. Targeting higher order thinking with MC questions can be achieved without changing item difficulties or other test characteristics, but this may be less likely if the content expert is left to assess items within their domain of expertise. PMID:23288470

  14. Sepsis Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Improving Survival Medical Bibliography Data Reports Related Links Sepsis Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... organ failure, and death. When can you get sepsis? Sepsis can occur to anyone, at any time, ...

  15. Perchlorate Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... EPA's Interim Health Advisory for Perchlorate in Public Water Systems On January 8, 2009, the Environmental Protection ... thyroid hormone. Questions and Answers about EPA’s Drinking Water Findings If perchlorate is present in my drinking ...

  16. Salmonella Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and consumers are each critical links in the food safety chain. This document answers common questions about the bacteria Salmonella , describes how the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the U.S. ...

  17. Campylobacter Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and consumers are each critical links in the food safety chain. This document answers common questions about the bacteria " ... at a number of different points in the food production and marketing chain. On the farm: Good sanitary practices on farms, ...

  18. A participatory learning approach to biochemistry using student authored and evaluated multiple-choice questions.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs written by their peers. The technology used to support this activity was PeerWise--a freely available, innovative web-based system that supports students in the creation of an annotated question repository. In this case study, we describe students' contributions to, and perceptions of, the PeerWise system for a cohort of 107 second-year biomedical science students from three degree streams studying a core biochemistry subject. Our study suggests that the students are eager participants and produce a large repository of relevant, good quality MCQs. In addition, they rate the PeerWise system highly and use higher order thinking skills while taking an active role in their learning. We also discuss potential issues and future work using PeerWise for biomedical students. PMID:21948507

  19. The Question Complexity Rubric: Development and Application for a National Archive of Astro 101 Multiple-Choice Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years we have been developing an online national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astro 101 classroom. These questions are intended to either supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or be used for assessment purposes (i.e. exams and homework). In this talk we will describe the development, testing and implementation of the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR), which is designed to guide the ranking of questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge whereas the highest QCR score is given to questions that require multiple pathways of multi-step reasoning. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) search for and download questions based on subject and average QCR score, 2) use the QCR to score questions, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. We will also discuss other potential applications of the QCR, such as how it informs our work in developing and testing of survey instruments by allowing us to calibrate the range of question complexity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  20. A New Approach to Multiple-Choice Question Writing: Example, Transparency, and Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, Carlos A.; Contreras, Luis C.; Blanco, Lorenzo J.; Crdenas, Janeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present article is to provide the teacher with an alternative perspective in writing multiple-choice questions. To the techniques and advice available in the literature on the topic, three further aspects are added whose provenance is an emerging line of research--the exemplification of concepts. The objective is to expand

  1. Multiple Choice Questions Can Be Designed or Revised to Challenge Learners' Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Gushta, Matthew M.; Mulroney, Susan E.; Weissinger, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple choice (MC) questions from a graduate physiology course were evaluated by cognitive-psychology (but not physiology) experts, and analyzed statistically, in order to test the independence of content expertise and cognitive complexity ratings of MC items. Integration of higher order thinking into MC exams is important, but widely known to…

  2. Comparison of Oral Examination and Electronic Examination Using Paired Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventouras, Errikos; Triantis, Dimos; Tsiakas, Panagiotis; Stergiopoulos, Charalampos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to compare the use of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) as an examination method against the oral examination (OE) method. MCQs are widely used and their importance seems likely to grow, due to their inherent suitability for electronic assessment. However, MCQs are influenced by the tendency of examinees to guess…

  3. Student-Generated Content: Enhancing Learning through Sharing Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Judy; Bates, Simon P.; Casey, Morag M.; Galloway, Kyle W.; Galloway, Ross K.; Kay, Alison E.; Kirsop, Peter; McQueen, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between students' use of PeerWise, an online tool that facilitates peer learning through student-generated content in the form of multiple-choice questions (MCQs), and achievement, as measured by their performance in the end-of-module examinations, was investigated in 5 large early-years science modules (in physics, chemistry

  4. A New Approach to Multiple-Choice Question Writing: Example, Transparency, and Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, Carlos A.; Contreras, Luis C.; Blanco, Lorenzo J.; Cárdenas, Janeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present article is to provide the teacher with an alternative perspective in writing multiple-choice questions. To the techniques and advice available in the literature on the topic, three further aspects are added whose provenance is an emerging line of research--the exemplification of concepts. The objective is to expand…

  5. Multiple Choice Questions Can Be Designed or Revised to Challenge Learners' Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Gushta, Matthew M.; Mulroney, Susan E.; Weissinger, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple choice (MC) questions from a graduate physiology course were evaluated by cognitive-psychology (but not physiology) experts, and analyzed statistically, in order to test the independence of content expertise and cognitive complexity ratings of MC items. Integration of higher order thinking into MC exams is important, but widely known to

  6. Question Their Answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royce, Brenda

    2004-10-01

    Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by "questioning their answers."

  7. Set of Criteria for Efficiency of the Process Forming the Answers to Multiple-Choice Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybanov, Alexander Aleksandrovich

    2013-01-01

    Is offered the set of criteria for assessing efficiency of the process forming the answers to multiple-choice test items. To increase accuracy of computer-assisted testing results, it is suggested to assess dynamics of the process of forming the final answer using the following factors: loss of time factor and correct choice factor. The model

  8. [A factor analysis method for contingency table data with unlimited multiple choice questions].

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Hideki; Haiden, Reina; Kubo, Saori; Ikehara, Kazuya; Isobe, Yurie

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a method of factor analysis for analyzing contingency tables developed from the data of unlimited multiple-choice questions. This method assumes that the element of each cell of the contingency table has a binominal distribution and a factor analysis model is applied to the logit of the selection probability. Scree plot and WAIC are used to decide the number of factors, and the standardized residual, the standardized difference between the sample, and the proportion ratio, is used to select items. The proposed method was applied to real product impression research data on advertised chips and energy drinks. Since the results of the analysis showed that this method could be used in conjunction with conventional factor analysis model, and extracted factors were fully interpretable, and suggests the usefulness of the proposed method in the study of psychology using unlimited multiple-choice questions. PMID:26964368

  9. The Relationship of Deep and Surface Study Approaches on Factual and Applied Test-Bank Multiple-Choice Question Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonker, Julie E.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of online test banks and large introductory classes, instructors have often turned to textbook publisher-generated multiple-choice question (MCQ) exams in their courses. Multiple-choice questions are often divided into categories of factual or applied, thereby implicating levels of cognitive processing. This investigation examined

  10. The Impact of Student Ability and Method for Varying the Position of Correct Answers in Classroom Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dane Christian

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-choice item-writing guideline research is in its infancy. Haladyna (2004) calls for a science of item-writing guideline research. The purpose of this study is to respond to such a call. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of student ability and method for varying the location of correct answers in classroom multiple-choice…

  11. Knowledge based question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

    1983-01-01

    The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

  12. [Development of a Set of Rehabilitation Related Multiple-choice-questions in Medical Education].

    PubMed

    Gutt, S; Bergelt, C; Faller, H; Krischak, G; Spyra, K; Uhlmann, A; Mau, W

    2015-08-01

    In the rehabilitation related teaching as in other subjects of the medical training multiple choice (MC) examinations are the most frequent type of examinations. Compared to other subjects only a few MC questions are available for the interdisciplinary subject Rehabilitation. Therefore an internet-based online platform "Pool of rehabilitation related MC questions" was developed to assist teachers regarding the provision, design and organization of high-quality rehabilitation related MC questions. A total of 502 existing MC questions were collected from 12 German Medical Faculties. After removal of 59 questions not suitable for formal and content reasons a total of 443 questions were presented to 6 reviewers for triple reviews (a total of 1?329 expert reviews received). Of the 502 questions 335 (67%) were included in the final pool including short cases with 46 case studies. The questions refer to the following learning objectives: principles of rehabilitation (40%), rehabilitative interventions (20%), diagnosis and assessment (18%), initiation and control of the rehabilitation process (12%) and methods/quality of rehabilitative interventions (10%). The use of the online platform modules resp. the questions are for free for lecturers. This includes the compilation and output of complete examinations, the statistical evaluation, and other audit-related materials. This examination pool counteracts the current lack of quality-assured rehabilitation-related MC questions and contributes to set common standards for the Medical Faculties to rehabilitation related examinations. PMID:26080058

  13. Statistical Detection of Multiple-Choice Test Answer Copying: State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frary, Robert B.

    Practical and effective methods for detecting copying of multiple-choice test responses have been available for many years. These methods have been used routinely by large admissions and licensing testing programs. However, these methods are seldom applied in the areas of standardized or classroom testing in schools or colleges, and knowledge…

  14. Assessment of driving expertise using multiple choice questions including static vs. animated presentation of driving scenarios.

    PubMed

    Malone, Sarah; Brnken, Roland

    2013-03-01

    Novice drivers have a high collision risk compared to more experienced drivers. The optimization of driving assessment's validity should lead to a better identification of those examinees that need further training before solo driving. The aim of the present two studies was to find out whether the integration of animated traffic scenarios can enhance some quality aspects of selected multiple choice items of the official German driving test. For the first study, we developed a static version of a set of multiple choice questions each containing a computerized still picture of a traffic scenario and a dynamic version that included animated instead of still pictures of the same situations. Driving novices (n=57) and experts (n=63) were presented 22 items either in the static or in the dynamic version. Only the novices benefited from the dynamic presentation. Fifty novices and 50 experts participated in a second longitudinal study including three measurements with parallel tests of the dynamic testing materials at intervals of three to four months. The novices, who were currently attending driving school, improved over time whereas the experts' performance remained stable. The results indicate that animation has positive effects on some quality aspects of driving assessment, but the problem of low criterion validity has to be addressed by the means of further approaches. PMID:23207840

  15. Estimating the Effect on Grades of Using Multiple-Choice versus Constructive-Response Questions: Data from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickson, Stephen; Reed, W. Robert; Sander, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the degree to which grades based solely on constructed-response (CR) questions differ from grades based solely on multiple-choice (MC) questions. If CR questions are to justify their higher costs, they should produce different grade outcomes than MC questions. We use a data set composed of thousands of observations on

  16. Constructive Multiple-Choice Testing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jooyong

    2010-01-01

    The newly developed computerized Constructive Multiple-choice Testing system is introduced. The system combines short answer (SA) and multiple-choice (MC) formats by asking examinees to respond to the same question twice, first in the SA format, and then in the MC format. This manipulation was employed to collect information about the two…

  17. The assessment of critical thinking skills in anatomy and physiology students who practice writing higher order multiple choice questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Jason

    Critical thinking is a complex abstraction that defies homogeneous interpretation. This means that no operational definition is universal and no critical thinking measurement tool is all encompassing. Instructors will likely find evidence based strategies to facilitate thinking skills only as numerous research efforts from multiple disciplines accumulate. This study focuses on a question writing exercise designed to help anatomy and physiology students. Students were asked to design multiple choice questions that combined course concepts in new and novel ways. Instructions and examples were provided on how to construct these questions and student attempts were sorted into levels one through three of Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy (Bloom et al. 1956). Students submitted their question designs weekly and received individual feedback as to how they might improve. Eight course examinations were created to contain questions that modeled the Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy levels that students were attempting. Students were assessed on their course examination performance as well as performance on a discipline independent critical thinking test called the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). The performance of students in this study was compared to students from two previous years that took the same course but did not have the question writing activity. Results suggest that students do not improve their ability to answer critical thinking multiple choices questions when they practice the task of creating such problems. The effect of class level on critical thinking is examined and it appears that the longer a student has attended college the better the performance on both discipline specific and discipline independent critical thinking questions. The data were also used to analyze students who improved their course examination grades in the second semester of this course. There is a pattern to suggest that students who improve their performance on course examinations did so largely in non-critical thinking problems. Although, when this subset of students is analyzed by class level it appears that sophomores reverse the pattern and improve much more in critical thinking type questions than their upper classmen. The implications of this are discussed.

  18. Teaching Question Answer Relationships, Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy E.

    1986-01-01

    Offers modifications to the Question Answer Relationships technique that provide (1) a clearer explanation of different sources of information for answering questions, (2) an easier format for considering developmental differences in reading and learning, and (3) an expanded use for the technique both as a tool for teachers and as a strategy for

  19. Developing an Array Binary Code Assessment Rubric for Multiple- Choice Questions Using Item Arrays and Binary-Coded Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haro, Elizabeth K.; Haro, Luis S.

    2014-01-01

    The multiple-choice question (MCQ) is the foundation of knowledge assessment in K-12, higher education, and standardized entrance exams (including the GRE, MCAT, and DAT). However, standard MCQ exams are limited with respect to the types of questions that can be asked when there are only five choices. MCQs offering additional choices more…

  20. Developing an Array Binary Code Assessment Rubric for Multiple- Choice Questions Using Item Arrays and Binary-Coded Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haro, Elizabeth K.; Haro, Luis S.

    2014-01-01

    The multiple-choice question (MCQ) is the foundation of knowledge assessment in K-12, higher education, and standardized entrance exams (including the GRE, MCAT, and DAT). However, standard MCQ exams are limited with respect to the types of questions that can be asked when there are only five choices. MCQs offering additional choices more

  1. Faculty development programs improve the quality of Multiple Choice Questions items' writing

    PubMed Central

    Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad; Ahmad, Farah; Irshad, Mohammad; Khalil, Mahmoud Salah; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer Khalid; Syed, Sadiqa; Aldrees, Abdulmajeed Abdurrahman; Alrowais, Norah; Haque, Shafiul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the utility of long term faculty development programs (FDPs) in order to improve the quality of multiple choice questions (MCQs) items' writing. This was a quasi-experimental study, conducted with newly joined faculty members. The MCQ items were analyzed for difficulty index, discriminating index, reliability, Bloom's cognitive levels, item writing flaws (IWFs) and MCQs' nonfunctioning distractors (NFDs) based test courses of respiratory, cardiovascular and renal blocks. Significant improvement was found in the difficulty index values of pre- to post-training (p = 0.003). MCQs with moderate difficulty and higher discrimination were found to be more in the post-training tests in all three courses. Easy questions were decreased from 36.7 to 22.5%. Significant improvement was also reported in the discriminating indices from 92.1 to 95.4% after training (p = 0.132). More number of higher cognitive level of Bloom's taxonomy was reported in the post-training test items (p<0.0001). Also, NFDs and IWFs were reported less in the post-training items (p<0.02). The MCQs written by the faculties without participating in FDPs are usually of low quality. This study suggests that newly joined faculties need active participation in FDPs as these programs are supportive in improving the quality of MCQs' items writing. PMID:25828516

  2. Multiple-Choice Cloze Exercises: Textual Domain, Science. SPPED Test Development Notebook, Form 81-S [and] Answer Key for Multiple-Choice Cloze Exercises: Textual Domain, Science. SPPED Test Development Notebook, Form 85-S. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Research.

    The "Test Development Notebook" is a resource designed for the preparation of tests of literal comprehension for students in grades 1 through 12. This volume contains 200 multiple-choice cloze exercises taken from textbooks in science, and the accompanying answer key. Each exercise carries the code letter of the section to which it belongs. The…

  3. Gender Differences in Introductory Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Exams: Multiple Choice versus Constructed Response Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Andrew J.; Raptis, Helen

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes 295 male and 194 female examinations from introductory atmospheric and oceanic science courses to determine whether or not there exist gender differences in the performance on multiple choice versus constructed response sections of the exams. (Author/SAH)

  4. A One-Day Dental Faculty Workshop in Writing Multiple-Choice Questions: An Impact Evaluation.

    PubMed

    AlFaris, Eiad; Naeem, Naghma; Irfan, Farhana; Qureshi, Riaz; Saad, Hussain; Al Sadhan, Ra'ed; Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2015-11-01

    Long training workshops on the writing of exam questions have been shown to be effective; however, the effectiveness of short workshops needs to be demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a one-day, seven-hour faculty development workshop at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, on the quality of multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Kirkpatrick's four-level evaluation model was used. Participants' satisfaction (Kirkpatrick's Level 1) was evaluated with a post-workshop questionnaire. A quasi-experimental, randomized separate sample, pretest-posttest design was used to assess the learning effect (Kirkpatrick's Level 2). To evaluate transfer of learning to practice (Kirkpatrick's Level 3), MCQs created by ten faculty members as a result of the training were assessed. To assess Kirkpatrick's Level 4 regarding institutional change, interviews with three key leaders of the school were conducted, coded, and analyzed. A total of 72 course directors were invited to and attended some part of the workshop; all 52 who attended the entire workshop completed the satisfaction form; and 22 of the 36 participants in the experimental group completed the posttest. The results showed that all 52 participants were highly satisfied with the workshop, and significant positive changes were found in the faculty members' knowledge and the quality of their MCQs with effect sizes of 0.7 and 0.28, respectively. At the institutional level, the interviews demonstrated positive structural changes in the school's assessment system. Overall, this one-day item-writing faculty workshop resulted in positive changes at all four of Kirkpatrick's levels; these effects suggest that even a short training session can improve a dental school's assessment of its students. PMID:26522635

  5. ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

  6. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ This page has moved. Please update ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html Print page Share Compartir ...

  7. Effectiveness of Guided Multiple Choice Objective Questions Test on Students' Academic Achievement in Senior School Mathematics by School Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated, using pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design, the effectiveness of guided multiple choice objective questions test on students' academic achievement in Senior School Mathematics, by school location, in Delta State Capital Territory, Nigeria. The sample comprised 640 Students from four coeducation secondary…

  8. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the

  9. Multiple-Choice Question Tests: A Convenient, Flexible and Effective Learning Tool? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Mercedes; Wilson, Juliette; Ennis, Sean

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this paper is part of a project investigating assessment practices, funded by the Scottish Funding Council. Using established principles of good assessment and feedback, the use of online formative and summative multiple choice tests (MCT's) was piloted to support independent and self-directed learning and improve

  10. Multiple-Choice Exam Question Order Influences on Student Performance, Completion Time, and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Sacco, Matthew F.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies to investigate undergraduate performance, perceptions, and time required in completing sequentially ordered, randomly ordered, or reverse ordered exams in introductory psychology classes. Study 1 compared the outcomes and perceptions of students (N = 66) on 3 non-comprehensive multiple-choice exams which were sequentially,

  11. Even Start Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Hampton, NH. Parent Involvement Center.

    This guide for school district administrators answers question about Even Start, a new, special family-centered compensatory education program funded under Chapter 1 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981 that combines adult literacy, parent education, and early childhood education. The following issues about program design are

  12. 3: MBO Questions and Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisey, George L.

    1976-01-01

    Answers a variety of questions on the role of management by objectives in government service. (Available from Public Personnel Management, Room 240, 1313 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637; $15.00 annually, $3.00 single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  13. A Novel Multiple Choice Question Generation Strategy: Alternative Uses for Controlled Vocabulary Thesauri in Biomedical-Sciences Education

    PubMed Central

    Lopetegui, Marcelo A.; Lara, Barbara A.; Yen, Po-Yin; Çatalyürek, Ümit V.; Payne, Philip R.O.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple choice questions play an important role in training and evaluating biomedical science students. However, the resource intensive nature of question generation limits their open availability, reducing their contribution to evaluation purposes mainly. Although applied-knowledge questions require a complex formulation process, the creation of concrete-knowledge questions (i.e., definitions, associations) could be assisted by the use of informatics methods. We envisioned a novel and simple algorithm that exploits validated knowledge repositories and generates concrete-knowledge questions by leveraging concepts’ relationships. In this manuscript we present the development and validation of a prototype which successfully produced meaningful concrete-knowledge questions, opening new applications for existing knowledge repositories, potentially benefiting students of all biomedical sciences disciplines. PMID:26958222

  14. The Empirical Power and Type I Error Rates of the GBT and [omega] Indices in Detecting Answer Copying on Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The generalized binomial test (GBT) and [omega] indices are the most recent methods suggested in the literature to detect answer copying behavior on multiple-choice tests. The [omega] index is one of the most studied indices, but there has not yet been a systematic simulation study for the GBT index. In addition, the effect of the ability levels

  15. The Effects of Different Feedback Strategies Using Computer-Administered Multiple-Choice Questions as Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.; And Others

    The present study investigated the effects of using different forms of material with 100 eleventh grade students enrolled in a 5-week CBI (computer based instruction) summer enrichment program in Memphis, Tennessee. The basic design consisted of two conditions of instructional support (text and questions vs. questions only), two testings…

  16. Students' Ability to Answer Physics Questions Using Auditory Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahyun, S. C.; Gardner, J. A.

    1999-05-01

    The method of creating auditory graphs by mapping the y axis to pitch and the x axis to time, the inclusion of drum beats to mark first and second derivative information, and tonality changes to indicate negative values is demonstrated to be an effective technique for displaying graphical information to students. While not a perfect replacement for the visual graph, students with very little training could effectively use auditory graphs to answer multiple choice physics and math questions. Student performance for the group using only auditory graphs is shown to be 80% of the level attained by subjects using visually presented graphs.

  17. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-10-03

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

  18. Discrepant Performance on Multiple-Choice and Short Answer Assessments and the Relation of Performance to General Scholastic Aptitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleske-Rechek, April; Zeug, Nicole; Webb, Rose Mary

    2007-01-01

    We conducted correlational and performance discrepancy analyses on exam and achievement data taken from students in three psychology courses. Across courses, the same findings emerged. First, only a small fraction of students consistently performed more strongly on one type of assessment (e.g., multiple-choice) than on another (e.g., short

  19. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we plan for? · Should we separate uranium? · If we separate uranium, should we recycle it, store it or dispose of it? · Is it practical to plan to fabricate and handle “hot” fuel? · Which transuranic elements (TRU) should be separated and transmuted? · Of those TRU separated, which should be transmuted together? · Should we separate and/or transmute Cs and Sr isotopes that dominate near-term repository heating? · Should we separate and/or transmute very long-lived Tc and I isotopes? · Which separation technology? · What mix of transmutation technologies? · What fuel technology best supports the above decisions?

  20. A Comparison of the Performance on Three Multiple Choice Question Papers in Obstetrics and Gynecology Over a Period of Three Years Administered at Five London Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, J. M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Five of the medical schools in the University of London collaborated in administering one multiple choice question paper in obstetrics and gynecology, and results showed differences in performance between the five schools on questions and alternatives within questions. The rank order of the schools may result from differences in teaching methods.…

  1. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  2. Answers to Common Questions about Scars

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts Answers to Common Questions About Scars skip to submenu Parents & Individuals Information ... 9044, Fax: (919) 933-9604 [Email] Have a question? Ask us! Thank you! We have received your ...

  3. Improving Question-Answering Performance through Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy

    Three previous investigations of the effects of students' metacognitive awareness of question-answer relationships on reading comprehension led to the development of a four-session question-answer relationship (QAR) training program which can be used as a supplement to a regular reading program. The QAR in the proposed training program is based on

  4. Questions and Answers about TB

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Verified Case of Tuberculosis National Tuberculosis Indicators Project (NTIP): Frequently Asked Questions TB Genotyping TB Genotyping Information Management System (TB GIMS) Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant ...

  5. A comparative study of students' performance in preclinical physiology assessed by multiple choice and short essay questions.

    PubMed

    Oyebola, D D; Adewoye, O E; Iyaniwura, J O; Alada, A R; Fasanmade, A A; Raji, Y

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the performance of medical students in physiology when assessed by multiple choice questions (MCQs) and short essay questions (SEQs). The study also examined the influence of factors such as age, sex, O/level grades and JAMB scores on performance in the MCQs and SEQs. A structured questionnaire was administered to 264 medical students' four months before the Part I MBBS examination. Apart from personal data of each student, the questionnaire sought information on the JAMB scores and GCE O' Level grades of each student in English Language, Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics. The physiology syllabus was divided into five parts and the students were administered separate examinations (tests) on each part. Each test consisted of MCQs and SEQs. The performance in MCQs and SEQs were compared. Also, the effects of JAMB scores and GCE O/level grades on the performance in both the MCQs and SEQs were assessed. The results showed that the students performed better in all MCQ tests than in the SEQs. JAMB scores and O' level English Language grade had no significant effect on students' performance in MCQs and SEQs. However O' level grades in Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics had significant effects on performance in MCQs and SEQs. Inadequate knowledge of physiology and inability to present information in a logical sequence are believed to be major factors contributing to the poorer performance in the SEQs compared with MCQs. In view of the finding of significant association between performance in MCQs and SEQs and GCE O/level grades in science subjects and mathematics, it was recommended that both JAMB results and the GCE results in the four O/level subjects above may be considered when selecting candidates for admission into the medical schools. PMID:11713989

  6. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  7. Incorporating Multiple-Choice Questions into an AACSB Assurance of Learning Process: A Course-Embedded Assessment Application to an Introductory Finance Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Michael R.; Hu, Aidong; Jordan, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The authors offer a classification technique to make a quantitative skills rubric more operational, with the groupings of multiple-choice questions to match the student learning levels in knowledge, calculation, quantitative reasoning, and analysis. The authors applied this classification technique to the mid-term exams of an introductory finance

  8. Incorporating Multiple-Choice Questions into an AACSB Assurance of Learning Process: A Course-Embedded Assessment Application to an Introductory Finance Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Michael R.; Hu, Aidong; Jordan, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The authors offer a classification technique to make a quantitative skills rubric more operational, with the groupings of multiple-choice questions to match the student learning levels in knowledge, calculation, quantitative reasoning, and analysis. The authors applied this classification technique to the mid-term exams of an introductory finance…

  9. A Diagnostic Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Competency in Multiple-Choice Item Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asim, Alice E.; Ekuri, Emmanuel E.; Eni, Eni I.

    2013-01-01

    Large class size is an issue in testing at all levels of Education. As a panacea to this, multiple choice test formats has become very popular. This case study was designed to diagnose pre-service teachers' competency in constructing questions (IQT); direct questions (DQT); and best answer (BAT) varieties of multiple choice items. Subjects were 88…

  10. A Diagnostic Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Competency in Multiple-Choice Item Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asim, Alice E.; Ekuri, Emmanuel E.; Eni, Eni I.

    2013-01-01

    Large class size is an issue in testing at all levels of Education. As a panacea to this, multiple choice test formats has become very popular. This case study was designed to diagnose pre-service teachers' competency in constructing questions (IQT); direct questions (DQT); and best answer (BAT) varieties of multiple choice items. Subjects were 88

  11. Teaching Critical Thinking without (Much) Writing: Multiple-Choice and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Molly H.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, I explore an exam format that pairs multiple-choice questions with required rationales. In a space adjacent to each multiple-choice question, students explain why or how they arrived at the answer they selected. This exercise builds the critical thinking skill known as metacognition, thinking about thinking, into an exam that also…

  12. Teaching Critical Thinking without (Much) Writing: Multiple-Choice and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Molly H.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, I explore an exam format that pairs multiple-choice questions with required rationales. In a space adjacent to each multiple-choice question, students explain why or how they arrived at the answer they selected. This exercise builds the critical thinking skill known as metacognition, thinking about thinking, into an exam that also

  13. Willingness to Answer Multiple-Choice Questions as Manifested Both in Genuine and in Nonsense Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frary, Robert B.; Hutchinson, T.P.

    1982-01-01

    Alternate versions of Hutchinson's theory were compared, and one which implies the existence of partial knowledge was found to be better than one which implies that an appropriate measure of ability is obtained by applying the conventional correction for guessing. (Author/PN)

  14. Better Questions and Answers Equal Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for student

  15. Answers to Health Questions in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert, Ed.

    Culled from the answers of physical education teachers and coaches, this booklet attempts to indicate the scope of health problems and suggests some directions which the solutions may take. It is divided into three parts. Part 1, Health and Safety in Activity Programs, answers questions on first aid, excused absences, and desirability of

  16. Right answers, wrong questions in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Ralph I; Abell, Jill E; Christian, Jennifer B; Wivel, Ashley E

    2014-01-29

    To ensure that clinical research arrives at the "right" answers to the right questions for patients, studies should be designed to more closely approximate real-world use of therapeutics and devices. PMID:24476999

  17. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  18. Frequently Asked Questions and Answers on Smallpox

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Biorisk reduction Frequently asked questions and answers on smallpox What is smallpox? Does it occur naturally? How ... protected? What is WHO doing now? What is smallpox? Smallpox is an ancient disease caused by the ...

  19. Second Language Reading Topic Familiarity and Test Score: Test-Taking Strategies for Multiple-Choice Comprehension Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jia-Ying

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare the strategies used by Chinese-speaking students when confronted with familiar versus unfamiliar topics in a multiple-choice format reading comprehension test. The focus was on describing what students do when they are taking reading comprehension tests by asking students to verbalize their thoughts.…

  20. Beyond Information RetrievalMedical Question Answering

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minsuk; Cimino, James; Zhu, Hai Ran; Sable, Carl; Shanker, Vijay; Ely, John; Yu, Hong

    2006-01-01

    Physicians have many questions when caring for patients, and frequently need to seek answers for their questions. Information retrieval systems (e.g., PubMed) typically return a list of documents in response to a users query. Frequently the number of returned documents is large and makes physicians information seeking practical only after hours and not in the clinical settings. Question answering techniques are based on automatically analyzing thousands of electronic documents to generate short-text answers in response to clinical questions that are posed by physicians. The authors address physicians information needs and described the design, implementation, and evaluation of the medical question answering system (MedQA). Although our long term goal is to enable MedQA to answer all types of medical questions, currently, we currently implement MedQA to integrate information retrieval, extraction, and summarization techniques to automatically generate paragraph-level text for definitional questions (i.e., What is X?). MedQA can be accessed at http://www.dbmi.columbia.edu/~yuh9001/research/MedQA.html. PMID:17238385

  1. Deep Question Answering for protein annotation

    PubMed Central

    Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Pasche, Emilie; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Ruch, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical professionals have access to a huge amount of literature, but when they use a search engine, they often have to deal with too many documents to efficiently find the appropriate information in a reasonable time. In this perspective, question-answering (QA) engines are designed to display answers, which were automatically extracted from the retrieved documents. Standard QA engines in literature process a user question, then retrieve relevant documents and finally extract some possible answers out of these documents using various named-entity recognition processes. In our study, we try to answer complex genomics questions, which can be adequately answered only using Gene Ontology (GO) concepts. Such complex answers cannot be found using state-of-the-art dictionary- and redundancy-based QA engines. We compare the effectiveness of two dictionary-based classifiers for extracting correct GO answers from a large set of 100 retrieved abstracts per question. In the same way, we also investigate the power of GOCat, a GO supervised classifier. GOCat exploits the GOA database to propose GO concepts that were annotated by curators for similar abstracts. This approach is called deep QA, as it adds an original classification step, and exploits curated biological data to infer answers, which are not explicitly mentioned in the retrieved documents. We show that for complex answers such as protein functional descriptions, the redundancy phenomenon has a limited effect. Similarly usual dictionary-based approaches are relatively ineffective. In contrast, we demonstrate how existing curated data, beyond information extraction, can be exploited by a supervised classifier, such as GOCat, to massively improve both the quantity and the quality of the answers with a +100% improvement for both recall and precision. Database URL: http://eagl.unige.ch/DeepQA4PA/ PMID:26384372

  2. Deep Question Answering for protein annotation.

    PubMed

    Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Pasche, Emilie; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Ruch, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical professionals have access to a huge amount of literature, but when they use a search engine, they often have to deal with too many documents to efficiently find the appropriate information in a reasonable time. In this perspective, question-answering (QA) engines are designed to display answers, which were automatically extracted from the retrieved documents. Standard QA engines in literature process a user question, then retrieve relevant documents and finally extract some possible answers out of these documents using various named-entity recognition processes. In our study, we try to answer complex genomics questions, which can be adequately answered only using Gene Ontology (GO) concepts. Such complex answers cannot be found using state-of-the-art dictionary- and redundancy-based QA engines. We compare the effectiveness of two dictionary-based classifiers for extracting correct GO answers from a large set of 100 retrieved abstracts per question. In the same way, we also investigate the power of GOCat, a GO supervised classifier. GOCat exploits the GOA database to propose GO concepts that were annotated by curators for similar abstracts. This approach is called deep QA, as it adds an original classification step, and exploits curated biological data to infer answers, which are not explicitly mentioned in the retrieved documents. We show that for complex answers such as protein functional descriptions, the redundancy phenomenon has a limited effect. Similarly usual dictionary-based approaches are relatively ineffective. In contrast, we demonstrate how existing curated data, beyond information extraction, can be exploited by a supervised classifier, such as GOCat, to massively improve both the quantity and the quality of the answers with a +100% improvement for both recall and precision. Database URL: http://eagl.unige.ch/DeepQA4PA/. PMID:26384372

  3. Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…

  4. From Asking to Answering: Making Questions Explicit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Gene

    2006-01-01

    "From Asking To Answering: Making Questions Explicit" describes a pedagogical procedure the author has used in writing classes (expository, technical and creative) to help students better understand the purpose, and effect, of text-questions. It accomplishes this by means of thirteen discrete categories (e.g., CLAIMS, COMMITMENT, ANAPHORA, or…

  5. Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel

  6. Questions and Answers on Programed Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Sarah T.

    Materials for inservice and preservice teacher education were developed by home economics specialists for use by teachers and college students. The paper attempts to clarify some typical questions confronting teachers of all subject matter areas as they consider incorporating programed instruction in their classes. Using a question-answer format…

  7. The American Indians: Answers to 101 Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Presented in a simple and straightforward manner, this publication answers questions basic to an understanding of the American Indian and his socioeconomic position in the United States. The following identify major areas covered and representative questions: (1) The Indian People (Who is an Indian?); (2) The Legal Status of Indians (Are Indians

  8. Questions & Answers about Aeronautics and Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Answers to 27 questions about aeronautics, space, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are provided in this pamphlet. Among the topics dealt with in these questions are: costs of the space program; NASA's role in aeronautics; benefits received from the space program; why the United States hasn't developed means of rescuing…

  9. Questions and Answers on Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Email AARDA Feedback Newsroom In The News> Statistics Questions and Answers Questions & Answers What is autoimmunity? One of the functions ... Autoimmunity The Common Thread Coping Tools InFocus Newsletter Questions & Answers Fundraising Grassroots Fundraising Workplace Giving Special Events ...

  10. Comprehensive Written Exams: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Janice Valerye

    This document contains four papers that are answers to comprehensive examination questions of a doctoral student in instructional technology. The first paper, "Federal Support and Funding of School Library Media Programs into the 21st Century," includes sections on why federal support and funding are needed, how school library media programs

  11. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  12. Survey Questions Answered Only by Medication Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-eight tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 45 experts in the medication treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of specific disorders, ratings of various medications for specific disorders or symptoms, and preferences in mood stabilizers,…

  13. Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis

  14. Answering the Sphinx's Questions on Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakata, H.

    In answering the difficult questions on neutrinos asked by Sphinx I argue that search for proton decay is the most important experiment in coming 5-10 years. I also emphasize the crucial importance of the neutrinoless double beta decay with sensitivity of

  15. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

  16. Internationally educated workers jeopardy: answers and questions.

    PubMed

    Deber, Raisa

    2010-01-01

    Selecting policies for integrating internationally educated healthcare professionals (IEHPs) into the healthcare workforce depends on how the underlying policy questions are defined and how the resulting trade-offs are managed. Baumann, Blythe and Ross give excellent answers to the question of how to use IEHPs to alleviate health human resources shortages while ensuring quality; this can be linked to the questions of how many providers are "needed" by the system, as well as to how they are paid, who assumes the risks of oversupply and under-supply and whether data are available to track the workforce. But the questions could also be framed as fairness to the IEHPs themselves, fairness to the countries these providers come from or even as ensuring intergovernmental coordination within Canada, where decisions about immigration are not always aligned with decisions about training and certification. Boom-bust cycles have occurred before, and proven both counterproductive and wasteful. Particularly when there are no obviously correct answers, wisdom and balance by policy makers in framing the questions is essential. PMID:20523136

  17. Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Questions (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Questions Booklet.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the 80 multiple choice questions portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1988 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, novel, and…

  18. Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee, Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Questions (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Questions Booklet). June 1988 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the 80 multiple choice questions portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the June 1988 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, the novel, and…

  19. Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Questions (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Questions Booklet).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the 80 multiple choice questions portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1987 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, the novel, and…

  20. Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2012-01-01

    contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

  1. Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions

    ScienceCinema

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2013-05-29

    contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

  2. "I Don't Know" and Multiple Choice Analysis of Pre- and Post-Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Karen; Wilson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation is an essential component of any Extension education program. One tool, the pre- and post-test, provides measurable evaluation data. Yet often the answer "I don't know" or all possible answers to a multiple choice question are not included in the repeated measure analysis. Because more than two answers are offered, the test of marginal…

  3. A Statistical Analysis of Infrequent Events on Multiple-Choice Tests that Indicate Probable Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundermann, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    A statistical analysis of multiple-choice answers is performed to identify anomalies that can be used as evidence of student cheating. The ratio of exact errors in common (EEIC: two students put the same wrong answer for a question) to differences (D: two students get different answers) was found to be a good indicator of cheating under a wide

  4. "I Don't Know" and Multiple Choice Analysis of Pre- and Post-Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Karen; Wilson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation is an essential component of any Extension education program. One tool, the pre- and post-test, provides measurable evaluation data. Yet often the answer "I don't know" or all possible answers to a multiple choice question are not included in the repeated measure analysis. Because more than two answers are offered, the test of marginal

  5. Making the Most of Multiple Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions draw criticism because many people perceive they test only recall or atomistic, surface-level objectives and do not require students to think. Although this can be the case, it does not have to be that way. Susan M. Brookhart suggests that multiple-choice questions are a useful part of any teacher's questioning repertoire…

  6. Making the Most of Multiple Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions draw criticism because many people perceive they test only recall or atomistic, surface-level objectives and do not require students to think. Although this can be the case, it does not have to be that way. Susan M. Brookhart suggests that multiple-choice questions are a useful part of any teacher's questioning repertoire

  7. Model answers to lipid membrane questions.

    PubMed

    Mouritsen, Ole G

    2011-09-01

    Ever since it was discovered that biological membranes have a core of a bimolecular sheet of lipid molecules, lipid bilayers have been a model laboratory for investigating physicochemical and functional properties of biological membranes. Experimental and theoretical models help the experimental scientist to plan experiments and interpret data. Theoretical models are the theoretical scientist's preferred toys to make contact between membrane theory and experiments. Most importantly, models serve to shape our intuition about which membrane questions are the more fundamental and relevant ones to pursue. Here we review some membrane models for lipid self-assembly, monolayers, bilayers, liposomes, and lipid-protein interactions and illustrate how such models can help answering questions in modern lipid cell biology. PMID:21610116

  8. Primary Aldosteronism: New Answers, New Questions.

    PubMed

    Funder, J W

    2015-12-01

    There have been 2, and possibly 3, major questions for primary aldosteronism (PA) answered at least in principle over the past 5 years. The first is that of somatic mutations underlying the majority of aldosterone producing adenomas. The second is the extension of our knowledge of the genetics of familial hypertension, and the third the role of renal intercalated cells in sodium homeostasis. New questions for the next 5 years include a single accepted confirmatory/exclusion test; standardisation of assays and cut-offs; alternatives to universal adrenal venous sampling; reclassification of 'low renin hypertension'; recognition of the extent of 'occult' PA; inclusion of low-dose mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist in first-line therapy for hypertension; and finally, possible resolution of the aldosterone/inappropriate sodium status enigma at the heart of the cardiovascular damage in PA. PMID:26588848

  9. Identifying students' misconceptions in writing balanced equations for dissolving ionic compounds in water and using multiple-choice questions at the symbolic and particulate levels to confront these misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naah, Basil M.

    Students who harbor misconceptions often find chemistry difficult to understand. To improve teaching about the dissolving process, first semester introductory chemistry students were asked to complete a free-response questionnaire on writing balanced equations for dissolving ionic compounds in water. To corroborate errors and misconceptions identified from students' generated balanced equations, another sample of students participated in semi-structured interviews where they were asked to explain their thought processes involved in writing the balanced equations for the dissolving ionic compounds dissolving in water. Misconceptions of the dissolving process were identified and described in detail. The most popular misconception was that water chemically reacts with an ionic compound through double displacement to form a metal oxide and an acid. The second popular misconception was that an ionic compound dissolves as neutral atoms or molecules. The third popular misconception was that students confused subscripts and coefficients. Another sample of introductory chemistry students were assessed on the dissolving process using the three popular misconceptions as three of the four choices in multiple-choice questions at the symbolic- and particulate-level. The symbolic-level questions involved symbolic balanced equations and the particulate-level questions involved dynamic animations or static pictures of the same four choices. Students' responses to these questions were discussed in terms of four variables---Answer (the correct answer and three misconceptions), Representation (symbolic or particulate questions), Visualization (static or animated pictures), and Representation Order (symbolic questions before or after the particulate questions). The same test instrument was used on the same student sample to assess how two types of subscripts affected students understanding of dissolving ionic compounds in water. Two of the ionic compounds had monatomic subscripts (MgCl2, Ag2SO4) and two did not (NaBr, KNO 3). Two had polyatomic subscripts (KNO3, K2SO 4) and two did not (NaBr, MgC12). Students' responses to these questions were also discussed in terms of four variables---Answer (the four choices), Representation (symbolic or particulate questions), Monatomic subscripts, and Polyatomic subscripts. The subscript misconception was more popular for symbolic questions compared to particulate questions, and the correct answer was less popular for particulate and symbolic questions when the question contained a monatomic subscript.

  10. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 361 - Questions and Answers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Questions and Answers A Appendix A to Part 361... Pt. 361, App. A Appendix A to Part 361—Questions and Answers The following questions and answers provide a summary of some of the most common and critical questions that we received regarding this...

  11. Using a Classroom Response System to Improve Multiple-Choice Performance in AP® Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Peggy

    2009-04-01

    Participation in rigorous high school courses such as Advanced Placement (AP) Physics increases the likelihood of college success, especially for students who are traditionally underserved. Tackling difficult multiple-choice exams should be part of any AP program because well-constructed multiple-choice questions, such as those on AP exams and on the Force Concept Inventory,2 are particularly good at rooting out common and persisting student misconceptions. Additionally, there are barriers to multiple-choice performance that have little to do with content mastery. For example, a student might fail to read the question thoroughly, forget to apply a reasonableness test to the answer, or simply work too slowly.

  12. Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part I. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, C. C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Brief analyses are provided of presentations at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues, and application. Papers

  13. A Comparison of Student Performance in Multiple-Choice and Long Essay Questions in the MBBS Stage I Physiology Examination at the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepple, Dagogo J.; Young, Lauriann E.; Carroll, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study compared the performance of preclinical medical students in the multiple-choice question (MCQ) and long essay question components of a comprehensive physiology final examination. During the 3 yr analyzed, 307 students had an average score of 47% (SD 9.9) in the long essay questions and 64% (SD 9.9) in the MCQs. Regression

  14. Question/Answer Adjacency Pairs in a Performance Appraisal Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Katherine L.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the conversational structure of questions and answers in a performance appraisal interview between a manager and an employee. Results demonstrated that both the manager and employee used question-and-answer pairs to demonstrate their understanding of the expectancy to ask and answer questions and to provide sequential implicativeness and

  15. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 361 - Questions and Answers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Questions and Answers A Appendix A to Part 361 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... Appendix A to Part 361Questions and Answers The following questions and answers provide a summary of...

  16. Does Anyone Know the Answer to that Question? Individual Differences in Judging Answerability

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Bodil S. A.; Allwood, Carl Martin; Buratti, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Occasionally people may attempt to judge whether a question can be answered today, or if not, if it can be answered in the future. For example, a person may consider whether enough is known about the dangers of living close to a nuclear plant, or to a major electricity cable, for them to be willing to do so, and state-authorities may consider whether questions about the dangers of new technologies have been answered, or in a reasonable future can be, for them to be willing to invest money in research aiming develop such technologies. A total of 476 participants, for each of 22 knowledge questions, either judged whether it was answerable today (current answerability), or judged when it could be answered (future answerability). The knowledge questions varied with respect to the expected consensus concerning their answerability: consensus questions (high expected consensus), non-consensus questions (lower expected consensus), and illusion questions (formulated to appear answerable, but with crucial information absent). The questions’ judged answerability level on the two scales was highly correlated. For both scales, consensus questions were rated more answerable than the non-consensus questions, with illusion questions falling in-between. The result for the illusion questions indicates that a feeling of answerability can be created even when it is unlikely that somebody can come up with an answer. The results also showed that individual difference variables influenced the answerability judgments. Higher levels of belief in certainty of knowledge, mankind’s knowledge, and mankind’s efficacy were related to judging the non-consensus questions as more answerable. Participants rating the illusion questions as answerable rated the other answerability questions as more, or equally, answerable compared to the other participants and showed tendencies to prefer a combination of more epistemic default processing and less intellectual processing. PMID:26793164

  17. Answering Physicians' Clinical Questions: Obstacles and Potential Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ely, John W.; Osheroff, Jerome A.; Chambliss, M. Lee; Ebell, Mark H.; Rosenbaum, Marcy E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify the most frequent obstacles preventing physicians from answering their patient-care questions and the most requested improvements to clinical information resources. Design: Qualitative analysis of questions asked by 48 randomly selected generalist physicians during ambulatory care. Measurements: Frequency of reported obstacles to answering patient-care questions and recommendations from physicians for improving clinical information resources. Results: The physicians asked 1,062 questions but pursued answers to only 585 (55%). The most commonly reported obstacle to the pursuit of an answer was the physician's doubt that an answer existed (52 questions, 11%). Among pursued questions, the most common obstacle was the failure of the selected resource to provide an answer (153 questions, 26%). During audiotaped interviews, physicians made 80 recommendations for improving clinical information resources. For example, they requested comprehensive resources that answer questions likely to occur in practice with emphasis on treatment and bottom-line advice. They asked for help in locating information quickly by using lists, tables, bolded subheadings, and algorithms and by avoiding lengthy, uninterrupted prose. Conclusion: Physicians do not seek answers to many of their questions, often suspecting a lack of usable information. When they do seek answers, they often cannot find the information they need. Clinical resource developers could use the recommendations made by practicing physicians to provide resources that are more useful for answering clinical questions. PMID:15561792

  18. The Basic Epistemological Questions--Are There Also Valid Answers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oderman, Dale B.

    Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that seeks answers to two main questions: How do we know? and How do we know we know? This paper is concerned with how four major schools of thought have addressed these questions and the implications that their answers to these questions have for education. The paper begins by discussing how four major

  19. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 361 - Questions and Answers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Questions and Answers A Appendix A to Part 361 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... Pt. 361, App. A Appendix A to Part 361Questions and Answers The following questions and...

  20. Multiple-Choice Tests and Student Understanding: What Is the Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Mark G.; Kuechler, William L.

    2005-01-01

    Instructors can use both "multiple-choice" (MC) and "constructed response" (CR) questions (such as short answer, essay, or problem-solving questions) to evaluate student understanding of course materials and principles. This article begins by discussing the advantages and concerns of using these alternate test formats and

  1. Palliative Care Questions and Answers (Hospice Care Comparison)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Palliative Care Questions and Answers Question Palliative Care Hospice Care Who can receive this care? Anyone with a ... Advance Palliative Care: www.getpalliativecare.org Search National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization, www.nhpco.org Web site powered by ...

  2. Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions Past Issues / ... Drug Abuse during their first Drug Facts Chat Day. Photo courtesy of NIDA The questions poured in… ...

  3. Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frana, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

  4. Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frana, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the

  5. Relation of Questions and Answers in Kennedy's Press Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostman, Ronald E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the questions posed by reporters and the answers given by President John F. Kennedy in his formal press conferences. Concludes that questions that followed the rules for interviewing set forth by experts produced better answers than those that did not follow rules. (FL)

  6. Increasing Students' Awareness of Sources of Information for Answering Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy E.; Pearson, P. David

    1985-01-01

    Sixth graders at three reading ability levels were trained in the three types of question answer relationships: text explicit, text implicit, and script implicit. Repeated measures multivariate analyses of variance on two passages indicated that the training enhanced students' understanding of task demands of questions and their answer quality.

  7. Keys to Success: School Facilities Primer, Questions & Answers 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Jim

    This publication provides answers to basic questions to help school board members more fully address the complexities of the planning, design, and construction process in order to maximize the goal of student success. The 101 questions and answers are in the areas of: facility planning; learning environment; information technology; safe schools;…

  8. 99 Facts about the FBI: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA.

    This booklet on the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) attempts to provide an overview of the FBI's functions. Presented in a question and answer format, the 99 questions and answers discuss the federal government agency's history, administrative matters, jurisdiction, criminal investigations, security matters, foreign counter-intelligence, and…

  9. Patient-Care Questions that Physicians Are Unable to Answer

    PubMed Central

    Ely, John W.; Osheroff, Jerome A.; Maviglia, Saverio M.; Rosenbaum, Marcy E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics of unanswered clinical questions and propose interventions that could improve the chance of finding answers. Design In a previous study, investigators observed primary care physicians in their offices and recorded questions that arose during patient care. Questions that were pursued by the physician, but remained unanswered, were grouped into generic types. In the present study, investigators attempted to answer these questions and developed recommendations aimed at improving the success rate of finding answers. Measurements Frequency of unanswered question types and recommendations to increase the chance of finding answers. Results In an earlier study, 48 physicians asked 1062 questions during 192 half-day office observations. Physicians could not find answers to 237 (41%) of the 585 questions they pursued. The present study grouped the unanswered questions into 19 generic types. Three types accounted for 128 (54%) of the unanswered questions: (1) “Undiagnosed finding” questions asked about the management of abnormal clinical findings, such as symptoms, signs, and test results (What is the approach to finding X?); (2) “Conditional” questions contained qualifying conditions that were appended to otherwise simple questions (What is the management of X, given Y? where “given Y” is the qualifying condition that makes the question difficult.); and (3) “Compound” questions asked about the association between two highly specific elements (Can X cause Y?). The study identified strategies to improve clinical information retrieval, listed below. Conclusion To improve the chance of finding answers, physicians should change their search strategies by rephrasing their questions and searching more clinically oriented resources. Authors of clinical information resources should anticipate questions that may arise in practice, and clinical information systems should provide clearer and more explicit answers. PMID:17460122

  10. Infant formulas: practical answers for common questions.

    PubMed

    Tigges, B B

    1997-08-01

    The pediatric health care provider is often faced with myriad decisions related to the use of infant formula. This article compares human milk to cow's milk. It addresses the composition, classification, and use of some of the most common infant formulas manufactured for use with the term infant in the outpatient setting. Common clinical situations are discussed, including the role for low-iron, goat's milk, and follow-up formulas, and formula use for the infant with diarrhea, colic, and atopic disease. The article highlights the poor quality of research and the lack of definitive answers available to the clinician when managing the infant with atopic disease. It concludes with a review of practical aspects of infant formula feeding for use in client education and management, including guidelines for formula preparation, calculating necessary formula intake, frequency, and quantity of infant feedings, and provisions of the WIC program. PMID:9279846

  11. Computers into Classrooms: More Questions than Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beynon, John, Ed.; Mackay, Hughie, Ed.

    This is one of a series of three books addressing the question of the nature of technological literacy. This volume, consisting of an introduction, an epilogue, and 12 chapters, focuses on classrooms and classroom processes involving computers and deals directly with teacher and student usage of microcomputers in teaching and learning. The 12

  12. Spelling Correlation on Handwritten vs. Multiple-Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelso, Genell

    In order to determine if multiple choice spelling tests are as effective as handwritten tests, 265 college freshmen were tested on the same spelling words by traditional oral dictation and then by five-option multiple choice questions. Results were compared to examine the efficacy of multiple choice testing. Of a possible 20 points, the mean score

  13. Better questions, better answers: reporting vs. analytics.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Uhiren

    2015-07-01

    Tracking performance through reporting is a basic obligation for responsible lab management. But creative, visionary leadership requires that lab leaders ask better questions, reach better conclusions, and transform those conclusions into action to achieve better results. The clinical lab has always had the breadth of data to contribute to that process. With analytics, lab leaders now have the depth and control to effect positive change as well. PMID:26299148

  14. Answering Questions and Explaining Answers: A Study of Finnish-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukusa, Soile; Ryder, Nuala; Leinonen, Eeva

    2008-01-01

    This research explores, within the framework of Relevance Theory, how children's ability to answer questions and explain their answers develops between the ages of 3 and 9 years. Two hundred and ten normally developing Finnish-speaking children participated in this study. The children were asked questions requiring processing of inferential

  15. Not Read, but Nevertheless Solved? Three Experiments on PIRLS Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Kimmel, Rumena; Lowenkamp, Lena; Steingraber, Antje; Rost, Detlef H.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-choice (MC) reading comprehension test items comprise three components: text passage, questions about the text, and MC answers. The construct validity of this format has been repeatedly criticized. In three between-subjects experiments, fourth graders (N[subscript 1] = 230, N[subscript 2] = 340, N[subscript 3] = 194) worked on three…

  16. Automated Multiple-Choice Testing for Summative Assessment: What Do Students Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Pete; Appleyard, Rob; Wilson, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports undergraduate student feedback contrasting conventional "Long-answer" examinations with automated multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment. Feedback was gathered after students had undertaken formative MCQ assessments as a revision aid. Feedback was generally supportive of MCQ summative tests, with 74% expressing a preference…

  17. The "None of the Above" Option in Multiple-Choice Testing: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBattista, David; Sinnige-Egger, Jo-Anne; Fortuna, Glenda

    2014-01-01

    The authors assessed the effects of using "none of the above" as an option in a 40-item, general-knowledge multiple-choice test administered to undergraduate students. Examinees who selected "none of the above" were given an incentive to write the correct answer to the question posed. Using "none of the above" as the

  18. Questions and answers based on revised 10 CFR Part 20

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y.; Carter, D.

    1994-05-01

    NUREG/CR-6204 is a collection of questions and answers that were originally issued in seven sets and which pertain to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions came from both outside and within the NRC. The answers were compiled and provided by NRC staff within the offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Nuclear Regulatory Research, the Office of State Programs, and the five regional offices. Although all of the questions and answers have been reviewed by attorneys in the NRC Office of the General Counsel, they do not constitute official legal interpretations relevant to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions and answers do, however, reflect NRC staff decisions and technical options on aspects of the revised 10 CFR Part 20 regulatory requirements. This NUREG is being made available to encourage communication among the public, industry, and NRC staff concerning the major revisions of the NRC`s standards for protection against radiation.

  19. Questions and Answers about Memories of Childhood Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Memories of... EMAIL PRINT Questions and Answers about Memories of Childhood Abuse Can a memory be forgotten and then remembered? Can a 'memory' be suggested and then remembered as true? These ...

  20. Clinical Research Trials and You: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... clinical trial? For More Information Contact Us Share Clinical Research Trials and You: Questions and Answers Download ... ePub Order a free hardcopy What is a clinical trial? Clinical trials are part of clinical research ...

  1. A topic clustering approach to finding similar questions from large question and answer archives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Nan; Liu, Ting; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Rongrong

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of Web 2.0, Community Question Answering (CQA) services such as Yahoo! Answers (http://answers.yahoo.com), WikiAnswer (http://wiki.answers.com), and Baidu Zhidao (http://zhidao.baidu.com), etc., have emerged as alternatives for knowledge and information acquisition. Over time, a large number of question and answer (Q&A) pairs with high quality devoted by human intelligence have been accumulated as a comprehensive knowledge base. Unlike the search engines, which return long lists of results, searching in the CQA services can obtain the correct answers to the question queries by automatically finding similar questions that have already been answered by other users. Hence, it greatly improves the efficiency of the online information retrieval. However, given a question query, finding the similar and well-answered questions is a non-trivial task. The main challenge is the word mismatch between question query (query) and candidate question for retrieval (question). To investigate this problem, in this study, we capture the word semantic similarity between query and question by introducing the topic modeling approach. We then propose an unsupervised machine-learning approach to finding similar questions on CQA Q&A archives. The experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24595052

  2. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  3. Medical marijuana: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin P

    2014-09-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  4. Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain

    2013-02-14

    In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

  5. Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions

    ScienceCinema

    Walker, Iain

    2013-11-14

    In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

  6. Towards a medical question-answering system: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Jacquemart, Pierre; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Question-answering (QA) systems, as have been presented and evaluated in several TREC conferences, are the next generation of search engines. They combine 'traditional' Information Retrieval (IR) with Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Knowledge Engineering techniques to provide shorter, more precise answers to natural language questions. We study here the feasibility of such a system for French in the health care domain. In this purpose, we collected a corpus of student questions in oral surgery. We examined two enabling conditions: on the IR side, how to select the right keywords in a question to identify relevant material on the Web for answering this question, a prerequisite for success; and on the NLP side, whether the contents of the questions fit the conceptual model of an existing QA prototype, a favorable condition for rapid implementation. A manual Web search enabled us to devise automatable principles for building IR queries for these questions. Besides, we could design a semantic model, using UMLS Semantic Network relations, which is consistent with our prototype and covers 90% of the questions. However, the high specialization of the domain and the clinical orientation of the questions, joined with the more limited resources online in the French language, may restrain the quantity of Web material available for answering these questions. PMID:14664030

  7. Teaching about Immigration Issues [and] Immigration: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interchange (Population Education Newsletter), 1982

    1982-01-01

    This issue of "Interchange" contains a reading, discussion questions, activities, and ideas to help educators teach secondary students and adults about immigration issues. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading entitled "Immigration: Questions and Answers." This reading analyzes the concerns about current levels of immigration and

  8. Science for the Primary Grades: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Irvin T.

    This article, which provides answers to commonly asked questions about teaching science in the primary grades, is part of a series included in the Primary Packet of Materials compiled by the Division of Early Childhood Education of the Pennsylvania Department of Public Instruction. Questions considered are: What is science? What should students be

  9. Formatting Issues in Multiple Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siskind, Theresa G.; And Others

    The purposes of the present study were to ascertain whether or not two particular formatting characteristics influenced seventh grade student performance on math tests. One research question focused on the effects of decimal positioning in multiple choice options for computational items. In a second question, labeling format was compared with

  10. Use of Feedback-Oriented Online Exercises to Help Physiology Students Construct Well-Organized Answers to Short-Answer Questions

    PubMed Central

    Carnegie, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Postsecondary education often requires students to use higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) such as analysis, evaluation, and creation as they assess situations and apply what they have learned during lecture to the formulation of solutions. Summative assessment of these abilities is often accomplished using short-answer questions (SAQs). Quandary was used to create feedback-oriented interactive online exercises to help students strengthen certain HOCS as they actively constructed answers to questions concerning the regulation of 1) metabolic rate, 2) blood sugar, 3) erythropoiesis, and 4) stroke volume. Each exercise began with a SAQ presenting an endocrine dysfunction or a physiological challenge; students were prompted to answer between six and eight multiple-choice questions while building their answer to the SAQ. Student outcomes on the SAQ sections of summative exams were compared before and after the introduction of the online tool and also between subgroups of students within the posttool-introduction population who demonstrated different levels of participation in the online exercises. While overall SAQ outcomes were not different before and after the introduction of the online exercises, once the SAQ tool had become available, those students who chose to use it had improved SAQ outcomes compared with those who did not. PMID:26113627

  11. Use of Feedback-Oriented Online Exercises to Help Physiology Students Construct Well-Organized Answers to Short-Answer Questions.

    PubMed

    Carnegie, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Postsecondary education often requires students to use higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) such as analysis, evaluation, and creation as they assess situations and apply what they have learned during lecture to the formulation of solutions. Summative assessment of these abilities is often accomplished using short-answer questions (SAQs). Quandary was used to create feedback-oriented interactive online exercises to help students strengthen certain HOCS as they actively constructed answers to questions concerning the regulation of 1) metabolic rate, 2) blood sugar, 3) erythropoiesis, and 4) stroke volume. Each exercise began with a SAQ presenting an endocrine dysfunction or a physiological challenge; students were prompted to answer between six and eight multiple-choice questions while building their answer to the SAQ. Student outcomes on the SAQ sections of summative exams were compared before and after the introduction of the online tool and also between subgroups of students within the posttool-introduction population who demonstrated different levels of participation in the online exercises. While overall SAQ outcomes were not different before and after the introduction of the online exercises, once the SAQ tool had become available, those students who chose to use it had improved SAQ outcomes compared with those who did not. PMID:26113627

  12. Strategies for the Meaningful Evaluation of Multiple-Choice Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesbro, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Too many multiple-choice tests are administered without an evaluative component. Teachers often return student assessments or Scantron cards--computerized bubble forms--without review, assuming that the printing of the correct answer will suffice. However, a more constructivist approach to follow up multiple-choice tests can make for more

  13. Fillers as Signals: Evidence from a Question-Answering Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Esther J.; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of a human or computer "partner" on the production of fillers ("um" and "uh") during a question and answer task. Experiment 1 investigated whether or not responding to a human partner as opposed to a computer partner results in a higher rate of filler production. Participants

  14. Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

  15. Role-Playing in a Question-and-Answer Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devet, Bonnie

    2000-01-01

    Describes how, as a portion of the oral presentation assignment, business communication professors can foster a professional atmosphere in the classroom for both speakers and listeners by having students in the audience play roles commonly found during a business question and answer session. Discusses the roles, implementing them, and the benefits…

  16. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 361 - Questions and Answers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Questions and Answers A Appendix A to Part 361 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES...

  17. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 361 - Questions and Answers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Questions and Answers A Appendix A to Part 361 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES PROGRAM Pt. 361, App....

  18. Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is

  19. Fillers as Signals: Evidence from a Question-Answering Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Esther J.; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of a human or computer "partner" on the production of fillers ("um" and "uh") during a question and answer task. Experiment 1 investigated whether or not responding to a human partner as opposed to a computer partner results in a higher rate of filler production. Participants…

  20. What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,

  1. "Legal Problem Question Answer Genre" across Jurisdictions and Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessuto, Girolamo

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse discourse patterns of legal opinions in two languages and cultures--namely, Legal Problem Question Answers (LPQs) in the UK academic writing context and Pareri (Ps) in the Italian professional writing context. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of discourse in this paper, based on the tenets of genre analysis,…

  2. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of

  3. Year-Round Education: Some Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Policy and Evaluation Branch.

    Questions concerning year-round schooling are presented and answered in this report. Following a definition of year-round education, examples of single-track and multitrack schedules are described, along with the calendar variations within them. Other issues that are addressed include holidays and intersessions, compliance with the Alberta School

  4. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  5. Answering Questions after Initial Study Guides Attention during Restudy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkx, Kim J.; Thoma, Gun-Brit; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul. A.

    2015-01-01

    Though the testing-effect can be boosted by including a restudy phase after answering test questions, we do not know precisely why it does so. One possible explanation is being tested here. The present study measured attention allocation during initial reading and rereading with a remote eye tracker to gain information on the cognitive processes

  6. "Legal Problem Question Answer Genre" across Jurisdictions and Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessuto, Girolamo

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse discourse patterns of legal opinions in two languages and cultures--namely, Legal Problem Question Answers (LPQs) in the UK academic writing context and Pareri (Ps) in the Italian professional writing context. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of discourse in this paper, based on the tenets of genre analysis,

  7. What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,…

  8. Self-Injury: Answers to Questions for Parents, Teachers, & Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakke, Bruce L.

    This guide to preventing self-injurious behavior, in question-and-answer format, is intended for parents, teachers, and other caregivers of people with disabilities. It describes the more common types of self-injurious behavior, discusses methods for identifying causes of self injury, and outlines interventions. Specifically, the guide covers: (1)

  9. Questions and Answers on Disciplining Students with Disabilities. OSEP Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heumann, Judith E.; Hehir, Thomas

    This document, presented in question and answer format, provides guidance about legal requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) concerning the misconduct of students with disabilities and corrects the misunderstanding that students with disabilities are exempt from discipline under current law. It discusses recent

  10. CERCLA Site Assessment questions and answers (Qs&As)

    SciTech Connect

    Traceski, T.T.

    1993-11-09

    This documents contains commonly asked questions and corresponding answers (Qs&As) on the CERCLA Site Assessment process. These questions were derived from DOE element responses to a solicitation calling for the identification of (unresolved) issues associated with the conduct of CERCLA site assessments, and from inquiries received during a series of Site Assessment Workshops provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231). Answers to these questions were prepared by EH-231 in cooperation with the EPA Federal Facilities Team in Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Site Assessment Branch, and in coordination with the Office of Environmental Compliance, Facilities Compliance Division (EH-222).

  11. Answers at your fingertips: Access to the Internet influences willingness to answer questions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amanda M; McLean, David; Risko, Evan F

    2015-12-01

    Recent technological advances have given rise to an information-gathering tool unparalleled by any in human history-the Internet. Understanding how access to such a powerful informational tool influences how we think represents an important question for psychological science. In the present investigation we examined the impact of access to the Internet on the metacognitive processes that govern our decisions about what we "know" and "don't know." Results demonstrated that access to the Internet influenced individuals' willingness to volunteer answers, which led to fewer correct answers overall but greater accuracy when an answer was offered. Critically, access to the Internet also influenced feeling-of-knowing, and this accounted for some (but not all) of the effect on willingness to volunteer answers. These findings demonstrate that access to the Internet can influence metacognitive processes, and contribute novel insights into the operation of the transactive memory system formed by people and the Internet. PMID:26340105

  12. Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

    2010-01-01

    System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.

  13. Venus Express: Answered and unanswered questions on Venus (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, H.; Titov, D.

    2013-12-01

    After having orbited our sister planet for more than seven Earth years Venus Express has collected a very large data set allowing a great number of fundamental scientific questions to be addressed and answered. Most of the questions included in the mission's science requirement, as formulated in the mission proposal, have been answered. These include topics in atmospheric dynamics, structure and chemistry, clouds and hazes, surface and interior, radiation balance and greenhouse, induced magnetosphere and plasma environment, and planetary evolution. Solid results have been achieved in all these fields but with some weakness in the radiation balance measurements, mostly due to the early loss of the planetary Fourier spectrometer providing data at the mid infrared wavelengths. Naturally, due to the limited scope and budget of the Venus Express mission a number of important questions had to be left unaddressed and to be taken up by future missions. This talk will summarise the major results of Venus Express and discuss a number of questions where additional data will be needed in order to provide answers. A wish list for future missions will be provided.

  14. STS-114: Discovery Question & Answer with Joint Crew on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    STS-114 Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot James Kelly, Mission Specialists Souichi Noguchi, Stephen Robinson, Charles Camarda, Andrew Thomas, Wendy Lawrence, and Expedition 11 Commander Sergei Krikalev and Flight Engineer John Phillips answers questions from United States, Japanese and Russian News media in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. Risk, safety, extravehicular activities, spacewalks, re-entry, gap fillers, tiles, flight operations, flight crew activities, team work, and life in space are topics covered with the News media.

  15. Internet delivered question and answer column for patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Maijala, Riikka; Anttila, Minna; Koivunen, Marita; Pitknen, Anneli; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Vlimki, Maritta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the use of an Internet delivered question and answer column among patients with schizophrenia. The column was developed for research purposes. The study sample consisted of patients (N?=?100) admitted to acute inpatient psychiatric care in two hospital districts. Descriptive data were collected from the column to which a nurse replied within 3 days and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The column had four to five questions weekly. The most common age of users was 18-24 years, and the gender distribution was almost equal. Column use was heaviest among students (44%) and least among unemployed people (19%). Out of 85 questions or comments sent to the column, 25 (29%) were related to program training and the remaining 60 (71%) were related to medication (31%), illness and tests (25%), other questions or comments (9%), daily life and coping with it (4%), and places to receive treatment (2%). An Internet delivered question and answer column can be included in the care of patients with schizophrenia. However, it requires a new type of basic and additional education in the field of mental health care in order for nurses to be able to provide nursing via the Internet forum. PMID:24960233

  16. Real-world trials to answer real-world questions.

    PubMed

    Freemantle, Nick; Blonde, Lawrence; Bolinder, Bjorn; Gerber, Robert A; Hobbs, F D Richard; Martinez, Luc; Ross, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is a discrepancy between clinical trials designed to assess the efficacy and safety of a new medication under investigation and the real-life questions that need to be addressed regarding the clinical use of the medication by patients, healthcare professionals and society. The data necessary to obtain regulatory approval may be of limited relevance to policy makers when calculating economic parameters such as value for money or cost effectiveness. 'Real-world' studies examine questions relevant to health policy and reimbursement. There are many different forms of clinical trials, but in designing trials incorporating realistic budget impact estimates the important issue is to ensure we are asking a sensible question and attempting to answer it with an appropriate experimental design. As an example, a real-world trial currently underway that examines scenarios of introducing inhaled insulin into clinical practice is described. PMID:16097837

  17. AskHERMES: An online question answering system for complex clinical questions

    PubMed Central

    Cao, YongGang; Liu, Feifan; Simpson, Pippa; Antieau, Lamont; Bennett, Andrew; Cimino, James J.; Ely, John; Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Objective Clinical questions are often long and complex and take many forms. We have built a clinical question answering system named AskHERMES to perform robust semantic analysis on complex clinical questions and output question-focused extractive summaries as answers. Design This paper describes the system architecture and a preliminary evaluation of AskHERMES, which implements innovative approaches in question analysis, summarization, and answer presentation. Five types of resources were indexed in this system: MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central full-text articles, eMedicine documents, clinical guidelines and Wikipedia articles. Measurement We compared the AskHERMES system with Google (Google and Google Scholar) and UpToDate and asked physicians to score the three systems by ease of use, quality of answer, time spent, and overall performance. Results AskHERMES allows physicians to enter a question in a natural way with minimal query formulation and allows physicians to efficiently navigate among all the answer sentences to quickly meet their information needs. In contrast, physicians need to formulate queries to search for information in Google and UpToDate. The development of the AskHERMES system is still at an early stage, and the knowledge resource is limited compared with Google or UpToDate. Nevertheless, the evaluation results show that AskHERMES performance is comparable to the other systems. In particular, when answering complex clinical questions, it demonstrates the potential to outperform both Google and UpToDate systems. Conclusions AskHERMES, available at http://www.AskHERMES.org, has the potential to help physicians practice evidence-based medicine and improve the quality of patient care. PMID:21256977

  18. Effects of Test Expectation on Multiple-Choice Performance and Subjective Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduates studied the definitions of 16 psychology terms, expecting either a multiple-choice (n = 132) or short-answer (n = 122) test. All students then received the same multiple-choice test, requiring them to recognize the definitions as well as novel examples of the terms. Compared to students expecting a multiple-choice test, those

  19. Post-conditioning: Promising answers and more questions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Volatile anesthetic agents have been used for decades in the peri-operative setting. Data from the past 15 years have shown that pre-injury administration of volatile anesthetic can decrease the impact of ischemia-reperfusion injury on the heart, brain, and kidney. Recent data demonstrated that volatile agents administered shortly after injury can decrease the ischemia-reperfusion injury. Several questions need to be answered to optimize this therapeutic target, but this is a promising era of secondary injury mitigation. PMID:23176148

  20. Automating the search for answers to open questions

    SciTech Connect

    Wos, L.; Fitelson, B.

    2000-05-31

    This article provides evidence for the arrival of automated reasoning. Indeed, one of its primary goals of the early 1960s has been reached: The use of an automated reasoning program frequently leads to significant contributions to mathematics and to logic. In addition, although not clearly an original objective, the use of such a program now plays an important role for chip design and for program verification. That importance can be sharply increased; indeed, in this article the authors discuss the possible value of automated reasoning to finding better designs of chips, circuits, and computer code. They also provide insight into the mechanisms--in particular, strategy--that have led to numerous successes. To complement the evidence they present and to encourage further research, the offer challenges and open questions for consideration. They include a glimpse of the future and some commentary on the possibly unexpected benefits of automating the search for answers to open questions.

  1. PrimeAnswers: A practical interface for answering primary care questions.

    PubMed

    Ketchell, Debra S; St Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. RESULTS of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem. PMID:15905488

  2. Assessing students' abilities to construct and interpret line graphs: Disparities between multiple-choice and free-response instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Craig A.; Smith, Philip

    The author is concerned about the methodology and instrumentation used to assess both graphing abilities and the impact of microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) on students' graphing abilities for four reasons: (1) the ability to construct and interpret graphs is critical for developing key ideas in science; (2) science educators need to have valid information for making teaching decisions; (3) educators and researchers are heralding the arrival of MBL as a tool for developing graphing abilities; and (4) some of the research which supports using MBL appears to have significant validity problems. In this article, the author will describe the research which challenges the validity of using multiple-choice instruments to assess graphing abilities. The evidence from this research will identify numerous disparities between the results of multiple-choice and free-response instruments. In the first study, 72 subjects in the seventh, ninth, and eleventh grades were administered individual clinical interviews to assess their ability to construct and interpret graphs. A wide variety of graphs and situations were assessed. In three instances during the interview, students drew a graph that would best represent a situation and then explained their drawings. The results of these clinical graphing interviews were very different from similar questions assessed through multiple-choice formats in other research studies. In addition, insights into students' thinking about graphing reveal that some multiple-choice graphing questions from prior research studies and standardized tests do not discriminate between right answers/right reasons, right answers/wrong reasons, and answers scored wrong but correct for valid reasons. These results indicate that in some instances multiple-choice questions are not a valid measure of graphing abilities. In a second study, the researcher continued to pursue the questions raised about the validity of multiple-choice tests to assess graphing, researching the following questions: What can be learned about subjects' graphing abilities when students draw their own graphs compared to assessing by means of a multiple-choice instrument? Does the methodology used to assess graphing abilities: (1) affect the percentage of subjects who answer correctly; (2) alter the percentage of subjects affected by the picture of the event phenomenon? Instruments were constructed consisting of three graphing questions that asked students: (a) multiple-choice-choose a graph that best represents the situation; (b) free-response-draw a graph that best represents the situation. The sample of 1416 subjects from an urbadsuburban area in cluded 50% boys/50% girls from grades 8 through 12; subjects from high, medium, and low ability groups; and subjects from both public and private schools. The subjects completed either the multiple-choice or the free draw instrument. The free draw instrument was scored by comparing the subject's response to categories of possible answers that had been identified from the first study. The results show as much as 19% difference in correct responses, three times as many picture of the events from multiple-choice instruments, and significant differences in how multiple-choice and free-response affect various ability levels and grade levels. As such, some of the research studies that used multiple-choice instruments to examine giaphing and the impact of MBL on student's graphing abilities may be invalid.

  3. Can Multiple-Choice Testing Induce Desirable Difficulties? Evidence from the Laboratory and the Classroom.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon; Soderstrom, Nicholas C; Little, Jeri L

    2015-01-01

    The term desirable difficulties (Bjork, 1994) refers to conditions of learning that, though often appearing to cause difficulties for the learner and to slow down the process of acquisition, actually improve long-term retention and transfer. One known desirable difficulty is testing (as compared with restudy), although typically it is tests that clearly involve retrieval--such as free and cued recall tests--that are thought to induce these learning benefits and not multiple-choice tests. Nonetheless, multiple-choice testing is ubiquitous in educational settings and many other high-stakes situations. In this article, we discuss research, in both the laboratory and the classroom, exploring whether multiple-choice testing can also be fashioned to promote the type of retrieval processes known to improve learning, and we speculate about the necessary properties that multiple-choice questions must possess, as well as the metacognitive strategy students need to use in answering such questions, to achieve this goal. PMID:26255442

  4. 75 FR 54347 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements-Questions and Answers (Question 12...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Guidance (October 5, 2006, 71 FR 58739). In this guidance, FDA is proposing to amend our response to...-- Questions and Answers (Question 12 Update); Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements--Questions and Answers (Question...

  5. Use of Credibility Heuristics in a Social Question-Answering Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study looked at the effect of community peripheral cues (specifically voting score and answerer's reputation) on the user's credibility rating of answers. Method: Students in technology and philosophy were asked to assess the credibility of answers to questions posted on a social question-answering platform. Through the use of a

  6. Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

  7. Heightening Fourth-Grade Students' Sensitivity to Sources of Information for Answering Comprehension Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy E.; Wonnacott, Clydie A.

    1985-01-01

    The primary question raised in two experiments was whether instructing fourth-grade students about different sources of information used when answering comprehension questions would enhance their performance on a comprehension test. The answer was yes. (HOD)

  8. Questions and Answers about the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes (DPPOS) Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HEALTHY Study Questions & Answers Questions & Answers about the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes (DPPOS) Study Page Content October 2009 What is the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)? The DPP was a randomized, ...

  9. Adolescents’ comfort answering questions about sexuality asked by their physicians

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Natacha; Beaulieu, Émilie; Tremblay, Marie-Michelle; Laflamme, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the attitudes of adolescents toward communicating with their doctor about different aspects of their sexuality. METHODS: The present descriptive survey was conducted with the participation of teenagers from four high schools in Sherbrooke, Quebec. In each school, the students of two grade 8 classes (≤14 years of age) and two grade 10 classes (≥15 years of age) anonymously completed a self-administered questionnaire. Permission from the school board and parental consent for every participant was obtained. RESULTS: A total of 387 adolescents completed the self-administered questionnaire. The response rate for the study was 98%. Only 27% of the respondents remembered being questioned by their doctor about sexuality, and 17% of the respondents had already brought up the topic of sexuality themselves with their doctor. More than one-half (57%) of the adolescents reported they would be moderately comfortable to totally comfortable discussing sexuality with their doctor if they felt the need to. Overall, when asked to evaluate their degree of comfort if questioned on specific questions about their sexuality, 73.8% to 99.5% believed they would be moderately to totally comfortable responding. Nevertheless, there was a statistically significant difference between age groups, with the older age group being more comfortable than the younger age group (P<0.001). There was no difference between the level of comfort among boys and girls answering the same questions. Respondents believed that their treating physician should discuss sexuality with them (73.8%) and, in the majority of cases (78%), that he/she should initiate the conversation. CONCLUSION: Regardless of age or sex, teenagers considered themselves to be at ease discussing sexuality with their doctor and found it an important topic best brought up by their practitioner. PMID:24421673

  10. 26 CFR 301.7611-1 - Questions and answers relating to church tax inquiries and examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to church tax... Liability and Enforcement of Title Examination and Inspection § 301.7611-1 Questions and answers relating to church tax inquiries and examinations. Table of Contents Question(s)/Answer(s) Church Tax Inquiry 1, 2,...

  11. 41 CFR 300-2.20 - What is the purpose of the question & answer format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the question & answer format? 300-2.20 Section 300-2.20 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System GENERAL INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.20 What is the purpose of the question & answer format? The Q&A format is an effective way...

  12. The Effect of Metacognitive Training on Children's Question-Answering Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy E.; Pearson, P. David

    A study assessed the effects of metacognitive training in question answering strategies on students' ability to answer postreading comprehension questions. In the first part of the study, baseline data concerning the level of metacognitive awareness exhibited by expert readers when answering questions were gathered through the use of 44 skilled

  13. 25 CFR 162.026 - Who can answer questions about leasing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who can answer questions about leasing? 162.026 Section... General Provisions Lease Administration 162.026 Who can answer questions about leasing? An Indian... BIA under 162.018) with jurisdiction over the land for answers to questions about the...

  14. 25 CFR 162.026 - Who can answer questions about leasing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who can answer questions about leasing? 162.026 Section... General Provisions Lease Administration 162.026 Who can answer questions about leasing? An Indian... BIA under 162.018) with jurisdiction over the land for answers to questions about the...

  15. 75 FR 11641 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Examination Council (FFIEC) in 1996 (61 FR 54647), and were last revised on January 6, 2009 (2009 Questions and Answers) (74 FR 498). The supplementary information published with the 2009 Questions and Answers also proposed for comment one new question and answer (Q&A) and two revised Q&As. 74 FR...

  16. Some questions and answers about the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Office of Energy Research, US DOE is evaluating the concept of obtaining significant amounts of electrical energy from space through the Satellite Power System Project Office (SPS PO) formed for that purpose. The SPS PO prepared and is implementing a Concept Development and Evaluation Program plan. The CDEP runs roughly three years (from July 1977 through July 1980) and consists of four primary elements: (1) Systems Definition, (2) Environmental Assessment, (3) Societal Assessment, and (4) Comparative Assessment. One facet of the Societal Assessment is an investigation of public concerns. To further this investigation, a public outreach experiment was initiated to determine the initial response of three selected interest groups to the SPS, both qualitatively and quantititavely, and to gain some experience for use in future public participation activities. Three groups were contacted and agreed to participate in the experiment. They were: the Citizens Energy Project (CEP), the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), and the L-5 Society (L-5). They each agreed to condense twenty final SPS reports into approximately four pages each, have them typeset, printed and distributed to 3,000 of their constituents for their review, together with a request that they respond to the parent organization regarding the information presented. All responses were summarized and provided to Planning Research Corporation who then solicited the answers from the SPS PO investigator most directly concerned.The questions and answers are presented and will be distributed by the three groups to the individual respondents. Each of the three groups is also preparing a report to the Project Office detailing their work and results. These, together with other responses and studies will be used to more effectively involve the public in the SPS Participatory Technology Process.

  17. Ontology-Based Multiple Choice Question Generation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Yahya, Maha

    2014-01-01

    With recent advancements in Semantic Web technologies, a new trend in MCQ item generation has emerged through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are knowledge representation structures that formally describe entities in a domain and their relationships, thus enabling automated inference and reasoning. Ontology-based MCQ item generation is still in its infancy, but substantial research efforts are being made in the field. However, the applicability of these models for use in an educational setting has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this paper, we present an experimental evaluation of an ontology-based MCQ item generation system known as OntoQue. The evaluation was conducted using two different domain ontologies. The findings of this study show that ontology-based MCQ generation systems produce satisfactory MCQ items to a certain extent. However, the evaluation also revealed a number of shortcomings with current ontology-based MCQ item generation systems with regard to the educational significance of an automatically constructed MCQ item, the knowledge level it addresses, and its language structure. Furthermore, for the task to be successful in producing high-quality MCQ items for learning assessments, this study suggests a novel, holistic view that incorporates learning content, learning objectives, lexical knowledge, and scenarios into a single cohesive framework. PMID:24982937

  18. Answering questions about consciousness by modeling perception as covert behavior.

    PubMed

    Markkula, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Two main open questions in current consciousness research concern (i) the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) and (ii) the relationship between neural activity and first-person, subjective experience. Here, possible answers are sketched for both of these, by means of a model-based analysis of what is required for one to admit having a conscious experience. To this end, a model is proposed that allows reasoning, albeit necessarily in a simplistic manner, about all of the so called "easy problems" of consciousness, from discrimination of stimuli to control of behavior and language. First, it is argued that current neuroscientific knowledge supports the view of perception and action selection as two examples of the same basic phenomenon, such that one can meaningfully refer to neuronal activations involved in perception as covert behavior. Building on existing neuroscientific and psychological models, a narrative behavior model is proposed, outlining how the brain selects covert (and sometimes overt) behaviors to construct a complex, multi-level narrative about what it is like to be the individual in question. It is hypothesized that we tend to admit a conscious experience of X if, at the time of judging consciousness, we find ourselves acceptably capable of performing narrative behavior describing X. It is argued that the proposed account reconciles seemingly conflicting empirical results, previously presented as evidence for competing theories of consciousness, and suggests that well-defined, experiment-independent NCCs are unlikely to exist. Finally, an analysis is made of what the modeled narrative behavior machinery is and is not capable of. It is discussed how an organism endowed with such a machinery could, from its first-person perspective, come to adopt notions such as "subjective experience," and of there being "hard problems," and "explanatory gaps" to be addressed in order to understand consciousness. PMID:26136704

  19. Answering questions about consciousness by modeling perception as covert behavior

    PubMed Central

    Markkula, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Two main open questions in current consciousness research concern (i) the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) and (ii) the relationship between neural activity and first-person, subjective experience. Here, possible answers are sketched for both of these, by means of a model-based analysis of what is required for one to admit having a conscious experience. To this end, a model is proposed that allows reasoning, albeit necessarily in a simplistic manner, about all of the so called “easy problems” of consciousness, from discrimination of stimuli to control of behavior and language. First, it is argued that current neuroscientific knowledge supports the view of perception and action selection as two examples of the same basic phenomenon, such that one can meaningfully refer to neuronal activations involved in perception as covert behavior. Building on existing neuroscientific and psychological models, a narrative behavior model is proposed, outlining how the brain selects covert (and sometimes overt) behaviors to construct a complex, multi-level narrative about what it is like to be the individual in question. It is hypothesized that we tend to admit a conscious experience of X if, at the time of judging consciousness, we find ourselves acceptably capable of performing narrative behavior describing X. It is argued that the proposed account reconciles seemingly conflicting empirical results, previously presented as evidence for competing theories of consciousness, and suggests that well-defined, experiment-independent NCCs are unlikely to exist. Finally, an analysis is made of what the modeled narrative behavior machinery is and is not capable of. It is discussed how an organism endowed with such a machinery could, from its first-person perspective, come to adopt notions such as “subjective experience,” and of there being “hard problems,” and “explanatory gaps” to be addressed in order to understand consciousness. PMID:26136704

  20. NUFACT11 Round Table Discussion — Questions & Answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondel, A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; participants, NUFACT11

    2013-02-01

    This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model; it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large θ13 makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses; it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R&D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and associated detectors, with a variety of (mostly) complementary baselines, proceeding in an incremental way. The ultimate precision and verification of the neutrino mixing picture requires new types of neutrino beams based on storage rings. For low energy neutrinos, the beta-beam is a possible (but substantial) intermediate step. The Neutrino Factory offers the best precision and best sensitivity to deviations from the standard picture. Coordinated international R&D is pursued. International collaboration at the top level would be beneficial in acknowledging the process, so as make sure that intermediate steps are effectively building up in complementary fashion towards the ultimate goals.

  1. Answering Scientific Questions Using an Artistic Framework: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, S. F. B.

    2014-12-01

    Being multidisciplinary, while admired, is not viewed as a goal of education. Instead, extreme specialization is emphasized. One seeks to attain mastery of a given subject, but at what cost? Even those fields viewed as "interdisciplinary" are often quite narrow in scope, only permitting the most closely related subjects to coalesce. The arts however, are by nature both inter- and multi-disciplinary. They attempt to research, analyze, and reflect upon broader questions, often employing techniques garnered from far-flung fields in order to do so. It is an unfortunate dilemma then that the artist should seem so separate from the scientist, as it seems that both are engaged in a sort of hypothesis testing. Perhaps this division is a remnant of the antiquated left- and right-brained dichotomy, which clearly separated the two groups: Science and Art, Left and Right. In this way, the artist was branded as Science's "other," despite the inherent sameness of their processes. This "otherness" has been carried forward to the present, where artists are often viewed as simply craftspeople -object makers- and the concept of the "artistic problem" is rarely considered. As someone possessing degrees in both Fine Art and Hydrology, the author attempts to explain the connection between the two subjects, and the manner in which they compliment and enlighten each other in her own research. She hypothesizes that in addition to this "otherness," it is the multi-dimensional mode of thinking and dealing with problems that sets the artist apart. But this is a dynamic trait, and as such, it should be considered that by approaching scientific endeavors as artistic problems, the researcher could be permitted a broader framework in which to answer a given scientific question.

  2. Structural answers and persistent questions about how nicotinic receptors work

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Gregg B.

    2008-01-01

    The electron diffraction structure of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo marmorata and the X-ray crystallographic structure of acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) are providing new answers to persistent questions about how nAChRs function as biophysical machines and as participants in cellular and systems physiology. New high-resolution information about nAChR structures might come from advances in crystallography and NMR, from extracellular domain nAChRs as high fidelity models, and from prokaryotic nicotinoid proteins. At the level of biophysics, structures of different nAChRs with different pharmacological profiles and kinetics will help describe how agonists and antagonists bind to orthosteric binding sites, how allosteric modulators affect function by binding outside these sites, how nAChRs control ion flow, and how large cytoplasmic domains affect function. At the level of cellular and systems physiology, structures of nAChRs will help characterize interactions with other cellular components, including lipids and trafficking and signaling proteins, and contribute to understanding the roles of nAChRs in addiction, neurodegeneration, and mental illness. Understanding nAChRs at an atomic level will be important for designing interventions for these pathologies. PMID:18508600

  3. TrustQ: a category reputation based question and answer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuhua; Shen, Haiying

    2014-06-01

    Question and Answering (Q/A) systems aggregate the collected intelligence of all users to provide satisfying answers for questions. A well-developed Q/A system should provide high question response rate, low response delay and good answer quality. Previous works use reputation systems to achieve the goals. However, these reputation systems evaluate a user with an overall rating for all questions the user has answered regardless of the question categories, thus the reputation score cannot accurately reflect the user's ability to answer a question in a specific category. In this paper, we propose TtustQ, a category reputation based Q/A System. TtustQ evaluates users' willingness and capability to answer questions in different categories. Considering a user has different willingness to answer questions from different users, TtustQ lets each node evaluate the reputation of other nodes answering its own questions. User a calculates user b's final reputation by considering both user a's direct rating and the indirect ratings on user b from other nodes. The reputation values facilitate forwarding a question to potential answerers, which improves the question response rate, response delay and answer quality. Our trace-driven simulation on PeerSim demonstrates the effectiveness of TtustQ in providing good user experience in terms of response rate and latency, and the answer quality.

  4. How Online Crowds Influence the Way Individual Consumers Answer Health Questions

    PubMed Central

    Lau, A.Y.S.; Kwok, T.M.Y.; Coiera, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether strength of social feedback, i.e. other people who concur (or do not concur) with ones own answer to a question, influences the way one answers health questions. Methods Online prospective study. Two hundred and twenty-seven undergraduate students were recruited to use an online search engine to answer six health questions. Subjects recorded their pre- and post-search answers to each question and their level of confidence in these answers. After answering each question post-search, subjects were presented with a summary of post-search answers provided by previous subjects and were asked to answer the question again. Results There was a statistically significant relationship between the absolute number of others with a different answer (the crowds opinion volume) and the likelihood of an individual changing an answer (P<0.001). For most questions, no subjects changed their answer until the first 1035 subjects completed the study. Subjects likelihood of changing answer increased as the percentage of others with a different answer (the crowds opinion density) increased (P=0.047). Overall, 98.3% of subjects did not change their answer when it concurred with the majority (i.e. >50%) of subjects, and that 25.7% of subjects changed their answer to the majority response when it did not concur with the majority. When subjects had a post-search answer that did not concur with the majority, they were 24% more likely to change answer than those with answers that concurred (P<0.001). Conclusion This study provides empirical evidence that crowd influence, in the form of online social feedback, affects the way consumers answer health questions. PMID:23616869

  5. Design of a Low-Cost Adaptive Question Answering System for Closed Domain Factoid Queries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Huey Ling

    2010-01-01

    Closed domain question answering (QA) systems achieve precision and recall at the cost of complex language processing techniques to parse the answer corpus. We propose a "query-based" model for indexing answers in a closed domain factoid QA system. Further, we use a phrase term inference method for improving the ranking order of related questions.…

  6. Design of a Low-Cost Adaptive Question Answering System for Closed Domain Factoid Queries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Huey Ling

    2010-01-01

    Closed domain question answering (QA) systems achieve precision and recall at the cost of complex language processing techniques to parse the answer corpus. We propose a "query-based" model for indexing answers in a closed domain factoid QA system. Further, we use a phrase term inference method for improving the ranking order of related questions.

  7. Scores Based on Dangerous Responses to Multiple-Choice Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Martin E.

    1986-01-01

    Scores based on the number of correct answers were compared with scores based on dangerous responses to items in the same multiple choice test developed by American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery. Results showed construct validity for both sets of scores. However, both scores were redundant when evaluated by correlation coefficient. (Author/JAZ)

  8. 77 FR 8885 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Biosimilars: Questions and Answers Regarding Implementation of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Biosimilars: Questions and...: Questions and Answers Regarding Implementation of the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009.'' This draft guidance is intended to provide answers to common questions from sponsors interested...

  9. Questions and Answers about Bilingual Education = Preguntas y Respuestas Acerca de la Educacion Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Alicia Salinas

    This resource booklet, in both English and Spanish, was developed to answer commonly asked questions about bilingual education. The booklet is intended to clarify the benefits to be derived from quality bilingual education. Questions and answers are divided under the following headers: (1) program questions (e.g., what is bilingual education and

  10. Selective Benefits of Question Self-Generation and Answering for Remembering Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugg, Julie M.; McDaniel, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined possible memory and metacomprehension benefits of using a combined question self-generation and answering technique, relative to rereading, as a study strategy for expository passages. In the 2 question self-generation and answering conditions (detail or conceptual questions), participants were prompted on how to

  11. 29 CFR 2509.75-5 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Index key to question prefixes DRefers to Definitions. FRRefers to Fiduciary Responsibility. Section... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility... SECURITY ACT OF 1974 2509.75-5 Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility. On June...

  12. 29 CFR 2509.75-5 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Index key to question prefixes DRefers to Definitions. FRRefers to Fiduciary Responsibility. Section... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility... SECURITY ACT OF 1974 2509.75-5 Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility. On June...

  13. Reducing Our Ignorance: Finding Answers to Certain Epistemic Questions for Software Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael; Johnson, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    In previous papers, we asserted that software system safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. We also enumerated a set of 21 foundational epistemic questions, discussed some of the difficulties that exist in answering these questions adequately today, and speculated briefly on possible research that may provide improved confidence in the sufficiency of answers in the future. This paper focuses on three of the foundational questions. For each of these questions, current answers are discussed and potential research is proposed to help increase the justifiable level of confidence.

  14. I Know the Answer, But What's the Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lazer

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the importance of questioning as a means of achieving independent intelligence, critical thinking, and learning to learn. Advocates a science program that encourages investigation, discovery, and questioning. (MA)

  15. Answers to Your Questions about Transgender Individuals and Gender Identity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Questions for a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation & Homosexuality for more information on sexual orientation). The degree ... questions for a better understanding of sexual orientation & homosexuality. Retrieved from http: / / www. apa. org/ topics/ lgbt/ ...

  16. The detection of cheating in multiple choice examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2015-10-01

    Cheating in examinations is acknowledged by an increasing number of organizations to be widespread. We examine two different approaches to assess their effectiveness at detecting anomalous results, suggestive of collusion, using data taken from a number of multiple-choice examinations organized by the UK Radio Communication Foundation. Analysis of student pair overlaps of correct answers is shown to give results consistent with more orthodox statistical correlations for which confidence limits as opposed to the less familiar "Bonferroni method" can be used. A simulation approach is also developed which confirms the interpretation of the empirical approach. Then the variables Xi =(1 -Ui) Yi +Ui Z are a system of symmetric dependent binary variables (0 , 1 ; p) whose correlation matrix is ?ij = r. The proof is easy and given in the paper. Let us add two remarks. We used the expression "symmetric variables" to reflect the fact that all Xi play the same role. The expression "exchangeable variables" is often used with the same meaning. The correlation matrix has only positive elements. This is of course imposed by the symmetry condition. ?12 < 0 and ?23 < 0 would imply ?13 > 0, thus violating the symmetry requirement. In the following subsections we will be concerned with the question of uniqueness of the set of Xi generated above. Needless to say, it is useful to know whether the proposition gives the answer or only one among many. More precisely, the problem can be stated as follows.

  17. Shakespeare's World: A Quiz with Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Megan Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Presents a brief quiz designed to focus on facts often forgotten or about which misperceptions typically swirl, and to concentrate attention on the lives of children and young adults during the Renaissance. Notes that the answers to the quiz are followed by explanations arranged, like the quiz, in three sections that provide some information about…

  18. Violations of Information Structure: An Electrophysiological Study of Answers to Wh-Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, H. W.; Kluender, Robert; Kutas, Marta; Polinsky, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates brain responses to violations of information structure in wh-question-answer pairs, with particular emphasis on violations of focus assignment in it-clefts (It was the queen that silenced the banker). Two types of ERP responses in answers to wh-questions were found. First, all words in the focus-marking (cleft) position…

  19. 77 FR 10662 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Establishment and Maintenance of Records...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... processors. In the Federal Register of December 9, 2004 (69 FR 71562), FDA published a final rule... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1 Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers... availability of a guidance entitled ``Questions and Answers Regarding Establishment and Maintenance of...

  20. 76 FR 4360 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Implementation of the Menu Labeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 52426), FDA announced the availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Draft Guidance for... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding... entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Implementation of the Menu...

  1. 77 FR 74671 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility Registration (Fifth Edition)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ..., 2003, FDA issued an interim final rule (68 FR 58894) to implement amendments to the FD&C Act made by... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food... entitled ``Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility Registration (Fifth Edition).'' The...

  2. 78 FR 16765 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...The OCC, Board, and FDIC (collectively, the Agencies) are proposing to clarify their Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment to address several community development issues. The Agencies propose to revise five questions and answers, which address (i) community development activities outside institutions' assessment areas, both in the broader statewide or regional......

  3. Analyzing Electronic Question/Answer Services: Framework and Evaluations of Selected Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas, Ed.

    This report develops an analytical framework based on systems analysis for evaluating electronic question/answer or AskA services operated by a wide range of types of organizations, including libraries. Version 1.0 of this framework was applied in June 1999 to a selective sample of 11 electronic question/answer services, which cover a range of…

  4. Cosmonaut Solovyev answers questions at STS-71 news conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Cosmonaut Anatoliy Y. Solovyev, mission commander for Mir 19, responds to a question from a news media representative. Crew members for two of the joint Space Shuttle/Mir missions met the press at JSC.

  5. Can Emergency Medicine Residents Reliably Use the Internet to Answer Clinical Questions?

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Richard; Moscati, Ronald; Halpern, Shravanti; Schwartz, Diane G; Abbas, June

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The study objective was to determine the accuracy of answers to clinical questions by emergency medicine (EM) residents conducting Internet searches by using Google. Emergency physicians commonly turn to outside resources to answer clinical questions that arise in the emergency department (ED). Internet access in the ED has supplanted textbooks for references because it is perceived as being more up to date. Although Google is the most widely used general Internet search engine, it is not medically oriented and merely provides links to other sources. Users must judge the reliability of the information obtained on the links. We frequently observed EM faculty and residents using Google rather than medicine-specific databases to seek answers to clinical questions. Methods Two EM faculties developed a clinically oriented test for residents to take without the use of any outside aid. They were instructed to answer each question only if they were confident enough of their answer to implement it in a patient-care situation. Questions marked as unsure or answered incorrectly were used to construct a second test for each subject. On the second test, they were instructed to use Google as a resource to find links that contained answers. Results Thirty-three residents participated. The means for the initial test were 32% correct, 28% incorrect, and 40% unsure. On the Google test, the mean for correct answers was 59%; 33% of answers were incorrect and 8% were unsure. Conclusion EM residents' ability to answer clinical questions correctly by using Web sites from Google searches was poor. More concerning was that unsure answers decreased, whereas incorrect answers increased. The Internet appears to have given the residents a false sense of security in their answers. Innovations, such as Internet access in the ED, should be studied carefully before being accepted as reliable tools for teaching clinical decision making. PMID:22224135

  6. Answers to Questions on Teaching Technology. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Donald, Ed.

    This publication for technology teachers is developed around a series of questions commonly raised about the integrated approach to teaching technology. Responses have been provided by eight experienced teachers. An introduction explains the integrated approach and provides a schematic drawing showing the principal phases of the program plus the

  7. Answering Hard Questions: "Wh"-Movement across Dialects and Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, Jill; Roeper, Thomas; Bland-Stewart, Linda; Pearson, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale study of complex "wh"-questions with 1,000 subjects aged 4-9 years is reported. The subjects' dialects were Mainstream American English or African American English, and approximately one-third were language impaired. The study examined when children permit long distance "wh"-movement, and when they respect a variety of syntactic

  8. Can Nonprofit Management Help Answer Public Management's "Big Questions?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Arthur C.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of nonprofit literature on board governance, volunteer management, and performance measurement shows that study of the nonprofit sector can help inform public management's "big questions": breaking the micromanagement cycle, motivating employees, and measuring performance. Nonprofit studies could enrich public administration curricula.

  9. Personality Measurement and Employment Decisions. Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Robert; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes data concerning personality measurements as predictors of job performance, and offers responses to frequently raised questions about these measurements in the employment process. It is suggested that measures of personality are valid predictors of performance in all occupations, that they do not adversely impact minority group job…

  10. Theorizing the Entrepreneurial University: Open Questions and Possible Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to address theoretical questions regarding the transition towards an entrepreneurial university and the changes associated with this process, namely the increased commodification, the competitive quest for private funding and the introduction of business management practices. The important theoretical advances made in the

  11. Theorizing the Entrepreneurial University: Open Questions and Possible Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to address theoretical questions regarding the transition towards an entrepreneurial university and the changes associated with this process, namely the increased commodification, the competitive quest for private funding and the introduction of business management practices. The important theoretical advances made in the…

  12. STS-71 astronauts and cosmonauts answer questions from the press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Crew members for the joint Space Shuttle / Mir mission field questions from the press at JSC. Left to right are cosmonauts Nikolai M. Budarin, Anatoliy Y. Solovyov, Gennadiy M. Strekalov, Vladimir N. Dezhurov, and astronauts Bonnie J. Dunbar, Norman E. Th

  13. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online "study questions" leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Susan I

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the online study questions and on three to 77 exams given to students in sections that lacked such access. Data from over 1,800 students in sections with access to the online study questions show that those students scored a statistically significant average of 6.6% points higher on the exam questions analyzed than students in sections without access to the study questions. This difference was greater than the average amount necessary to raise students' exam grades by one grade (e.g., from a "B-" to a "B"). In addition, there was a higher correlation between number of questions answered and success on exam questions on material related to the study questions than between number of questions answered and success on exam questions on material unrelated to the study questions. The online study question system required substantial effort to set up, but required minimal effort to maintain and was effective in significantly raising average exam scores for even very large course sections. PMID:26500828

  14. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial: Questions and Answers

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large, randomized study to determine whether the use of certain screening tests will reduce the risk of dying of those four cancers. In addition to answering questions about the screening tests, the PLCO asked questions about many aspects of the study participants health and collected biospecimens (blood and some tissues) to answer many other questions about cancer.

  15. Correcting Grade Deflation Caused by Multiple-Choice Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranchik, Alvin; Cherkas, Barry

    2000-01-01

    Presents a study involving three sections of pre-calculus (n=181) at four-year college where partial credit scoring on multiple-choice questions was examined over an entire semester. Indicates that grades determined by partial credit scoring seemed more reflective of both the quantity and quality of student knowledge than grades determined by…

  16. Racial Differences in Adolescents' Answering Questions About Suicide.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laura M; Lowry, Lynda S; Wuensch, Karl L

    2015-01-01

    The present purpose was to examine racial differences in response rate and serious behavioral suicide risk based on the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBS). Data from 15,245 adolescents (YRBS, 2011) were included. Survey items pertaining to making suicidal plans and attempting suicide were included. Significant differences in responding and content emerged, especially with regard to suicide attempts. Racial minority adolescents are at elevated risk for serious suicidal behaviors and are more likely to omit items pertaining to suicide attempts. African American adolescents rarely reported having attempted suicide, but they also frequently failed to respond to that question. PMID:26083790

  17. Felid Lungworms and Heartworms in Italy: More Questions than Answers?

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    Nematodes infecting the cardiorespiratory system of cats have recently stimulated high scientific interest. Over the past few years, different aspects of these parasites have been clarified and various issues elucidated. This increased knowledge has improved awareness on this topic but, at the same time, some dilemmas have not been solved and new questions have been raised. In this review, we underline and discuss current knowledge of, and new doubts relating to, feline lungworms and heartworms, with the aim of stimulating new studies to fill gaps of basic (i.e., epidemiology and biology) and applied (i.e., clinical aspects) knowledge of the old and new parasites affecting the cardiorespiratory system of cats. PMID:26507151

  18. 36 CFR 1206.1 - How are these Questions and Answers formatted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are these Questions and... these Questions and Answers formatted? As if you, the reader, were asking us, the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, these questions....

  19. Using Written-Answer Questions To Complement Numerical Problems. Case Study: A Separation Processes Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iveson, Simon M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process and outcome of including in assignments and examinations some questions requiring written answers along with traditional questions requiring only numerical calculations. Lists questions used in a chemical engineering course on separation processes along with sample responses from students. Student feedback indicates a…

  20. Understanding the Factors Influencing User Experience of Social Question and Answer Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Shengli; Fang, Yuling; Liu, Yong; Li, Hongxiu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The popularity of social question and answer sites has made it an important and convenient source for obtaining knowledge. This study quantifies how three different system characteristics (interface design, interaction and answer quality) affect users' perceptions (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment),…

  1. Children's Ability to Answer Different Types of Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomo, Dorothe; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Young children answer many questions every day. The extent to which they do this in an adult-like way -- following Grice's Maxim of Quantity by providing the requested information, no more no less -- has been studied very little. In an experiment, we found that two-, three- and four-year-old children are quite skilled at answering

  2. Answerers' Motivations and Strategies for Providing Information and Social Support in Social Q&A an Investigation of Health Question Answering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Sanghee

    2010-01-01

    Social Q&A allows people to ask and answer questions for each other and to solve problems in everyday life collaboratively. The purpose of the current study is to understand the motivations and strategies of answerers in social Q&A. Thus, three research questions were investigated: (1) Why do answerers participate and contribute in social Q&A? (2)…

  3. Answerers' Motivations and Strategies for Providing Information and Social Support in Social Q&A an Investigation of Health Question Answering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Sanghee

    2010-01-01

    Social Q&A allows people to ask and answer questions for each other and to solve problems in everyday life collaboratively. The purpose of the current study is to understand the motivations and strategies of answerers in social Q&A. Thus, three research questions were investigated: (1) Why do answerers participate and contribute in social Q&A? (2)

  4. Legal Challenges and Pitfalls for Start-up Companies - 48 Common Questions and Answers.

    PubMed

    Staehelin, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    Transforming a business idea into reality requires a legal implementation plan. The following 48 questions and answers address key issues that typically arise in start-up situations. Early planning can help avoid costly mistakes. PMID:26508601

  5. Brig. Gen. Richard F. Abel and Col. Natan J. Lindsay answering questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Brigadier General Richard F. Abel, right, director of public affairs for the Air Force, and Colonel Nathan J. Lindsay of the USAF's space division, answer questions concerning STS-4 during a press conference at JSC on May 20, 1982.

  6. Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Campaign About our Partner Spread the Word Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Overview Transmission Symptoms Testing Treatment Overview What is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It ...

  7. Postdischarge nutrition of preterm infants: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    Postnatal growth retardation is inevitable in preterm infants, the more immature the infant the greater the degree of postnatal growth retardation at hospital discharge. After hospital discharge, several studies have shown that growth is poorer in preterm infants fed a standard term formula than those fed a nutrient-enriched infant formula. This is not surprising because term formulas are designed to meet the requirements of the term infant, not the more rapidly growing preterm infant. After hospital discharge, breastfed infants do not grow as well as their formula-fed counterparts. Yet, there are no randomized controlled trials comparing growth in breastfed infants who did and did not receive nutrient supplementation. If mature human milk is designed to meet the needs of the term infant then breastfed preterm infants may also benefit from nutrient supplementation. Questions persist about nutritional support of preterm infants after discharge. What is the ideal composition of a postdischarge formula? Given the wide heterogeneity in nutritional status of preterm infants at hospital discharge and the difference in growth rates and composition between girls and boys, it is not clear that one formula can or will meet the nutritional needs of all infants. Studies in which infants were fed a nutrient-enriched formula to >/=6 months' corrected age show the most consistent advantage while those in which the nutrient-enriched formula was fed to

  8. Answers to questions about updated estimates of occupational radiation doses at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of this question and answer report is to provide a clear, easy-to-understand explanation of revised radiation dose estimates which workers are likely to receive over the course of the cleanup at Three Mile Island, Unit 2, and of the possible health consequences to workers of these new estimates. We will focus primarily on occupational dose, although pertinent questions about public health and safety will also be answered.

  9. The E-Learning Question and Answer Book: A Survival Guide for Trainers and Business Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Allan J.

    This book answers more than 70 key questions that business managers and trainers ask about using e-learning in their company as a business tool. Chapters 1 and 3-11 are comprised of questions and answers related to these topics: what e-learning is all about; what e-learning costs; applying e-learning to the business; what today's e-learning

  10. The 'Sentinel Node' Concept: More Questions Raised than Answers Provided?

    PubMed

    Schlag

    1998-01-01

    The prognosis of malignant disease is essentially determined by the metastatic potential of the primary tumor. In the past, scientific attention was chiefly directed to systemic metastasis. A multitude of biological and molecular tumor markers and mechanisms has been uncovered enabling a better contemporary understanding of the process of hematogenic metastasis. This is in contrast with our knowledge of the mechanisms and pathways of lymphatic tumor spread, which is rather limited. We do know, however, that adequate surgical clearance of the regional lymphatics improves treatment results of many tumors. How far this lymph node dissection is directly therapeutic is a source of controversy. While in some instances, a stage-adjusted survival benefit was demonstrated, this may very well be attributable at least in part to the phenomenon of stage migration (Will Rodgers phenomenon) through better staging. However, it is uncontested that an established diagnosis of regional lymphatic spread is prognostically significant and should influence the indication for additional therapy and eventually for an intensive follow-up. For many tumors, the indication for adjuvant chemotherapy depends on the nodal status. On the other hand, it is equally well known that aggressive lymphatic dissection increases perioperative morbidity and even mortality. Long-term sequellae from regional lymphatic dissection are common and the effect on the local, maybe even the systemic immunological response to the malignant disease, remains unclear. To incur such risk seems especially problematic in those patients without any lymphatic spread at the time of the pathologist's work-up. Thus, there is ongoing debate about the rationale, value, extent, advantage, or disadvantage of regional surgical lymph node dissection or even radiotherapy of the regional lymphatic drainage area for many different tumors. A considerable step forward could be made if there was any diagnostic modality enabling a reliable preoperative lymph node staging. However, there is none. General criteria like size, shape, structure, or texture in variable imaging modalities are unreliable. While it is still too early to definitely evaluate in this context new diagnostic modalities like PET, immunoscintigraphy, or contrast-enhanced MRI, the initial results do not provoke clear enthusiasm toward the development of a sensitive and specific staging tool with regard to the nodal status. Adequate specificity may be obtained by external or endoluminal ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsies. However, uncertainty arises from eventually unrepresentative tissue sampling. The sentinel lymphonodectomy technique may remedy the dilemma, enabling a risk-adapted, individual indication for regional lymphatic dissection. This concept, first introduced in 1977 by Cabanas into the treatment of penis carcinoma, is based on the evidence of orderly and predictable lymphatic drainage pathways. Tumor cell progression within the lymphatic system seems to follow a sequential pattern. Primary draining lymph nodes possess the structural and functional capability to retain and to fight tumor cells efficiently. The 'sentinel node' is defined as the first tumor draining filter, and, if uninvolved, should thus adequately predict the nodal status of the disease. Skip metastases beyond an uninvolved sentinel node are supposed to be a very rare event. The reliability of the 'Cabanas approach', however, was limited by its relatively poor localization technique, and therefore failed to gain widespread acceptance. Unfortunately, the significance of the concept was not fully appreciated at the time. It is to Morton's credit that the procedure was reinstituted in malignant melanoma through a dye injection technique at the primary tumor site. This led to a rapid development and refinement of intraoperative lymphatic mapping. One major step in this process was to use radiolabeled colloids in conjunction with gamma-camera imaging or gamma probe-guided detection of the sentinel node. At present, a multitude of studies are conducted in a variety of tumors and sites, aiming at further refinements of the technique or at clinical evaluation in comparison with established lympadenectomy. The results may well change many aspects of our operative strategy in the near future. However, assuming a technically optimized procedure, will this solve the underlying tumor biological and clinical problem with respect to the necessity and efficacy of a regional lymph node dissection in node-positive cases? This is not the case; moreover, there are additional questions raised and left unanswered so far. Without any doubt, the rate of unnecessary diagnostic lymph node dissections can be considerably reduced as soon as the sentinel node concept is sufficiently validated for general use outside clinical trials. This would be a clear step forward. It is undetermined, however, how far a cancer patient with a positive sentinel node-thus already proven lymphatic metastases-would still profit from a more or less extensive lymph node dissection. It might be sufficient to use the staging information obtained through the sentinel node's status alone to decide upon adjuvant therapies. A further aspect arises from the possibility for investigating this single and supposedly most representative lymph node in far more detail than it would be possible for the large number of nodes previously sampled in conventional lymphatic dissections. This more extensive work-up may include serial sectioning, immunological and molecular techniques to enhance the sensitivity for micrometastases detection. However, very little is known about the true prognostic significance of such conventionally occult micrometastases, and even less experience exists as to the value of adjuvant therapies in those cases. Thus, while the sentinel node procedure will probably enable a more precise though less invasive lymphatic staging of malignant disease, it raises a number of important questions, as well. The general principles of multimodal treatment will have to be redefined with regard to the new diagnostic tool, which will require extensive prospective and randomized testing before a safe and reliable advantage for the patients may be established. PMID:10388128

  11. Are Wikipedia Resources Useful for Discovering Answers to List Questions within Web Snippets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Alejandro

    This paper presents LiSnQA, a list question answering system that extracts answers to list queries from the short descriptions of web-sites returned by search engines, called web snippets. LiSnQA mines Wikipedia resources in order to obtain valuable information that assists in the extraction of these answers. The interesting facet of LiSnQA is, that in contrast to current systems, it does not account for lists in Wikipedia, but for its redirections, categories, sandboxes, and first definition sentences. Results show that these resources strengthen the answering process.

  12. Factors associated with successful answering of clinical questions using an information retrieval system*

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, William R.; Crabtree, M. Katherine; Hickam, David H.; Sacherek, Lynetta; Rose, Linda; Friedman, Charles P.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Despite the growing use of online databases by clinicians, there has been very little research documenting how effectively they are used. This study assessed the ability of medical and nurse-practitioner students to answer clinical questions using an information retrieval system. It also attempted to identify the demographic, experience, cognitive, personality, search mechanics, and user-satisfaction factors associated with successful use of a retrieval system. Methods: Twenty-nine students completed questionnaires of clinical and computer experience as well as tests of cognitive abilities and personality type. They were then administered three clinical questions to answer in a medical library setting using the MEDLINE database and electronic and print full-text resources. Results: Medical students were able to answer more questions correctly than nurse-practitioner students before and after searching, but both had comparable improvements in the number of correct questions before and after searching. Successful ability to answer questions was also associated with having experience in literature searching and higher standardized test-score percentiles. Conclusions: Medical and nurse-practitioner students obtained comparable benefits in the ability to answer clinical questions from use of the information retrieval system. Future research must examine strategies that improve successful search and retrieval of clinical questions posed by clinicians in practice. PMID:11055299

  13. The Use of a Comprehensive Multiple Choice Final Exam in the Macroeconomics Principles Course: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrowsky, Michael C.

    This paper analyzes the results of a pilot study at Glendale Community College (Arizona) to assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive multiple choice final exam in the macroeconomic principles course. The "pilot project" involved the administration of a 50-question multiple choice exam to 71 students in three macroeconomics sections. The…

  14. An Empirical Evaluation of Selected Multiple-Choice Item Writing Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Wiley, Andrew; Keller, Lisa A.

    Seven specific guidelines included in the taxonomy proposed by T. Haladyna and S. Downing (1998) for writing multiple-choice test items were evaluated. These specific guidelines are: (1) avoid the complex multiple-choice, K-type format; (2) state the stem in question format; (3) word the stem positively; (4) avoid the phrase "all of the above";

  15. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

  16. A cognitive evaluation of four online search engines for answering definitional questions posed by physicians.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Kaufman, David

    2007-01-01

    The Internet is having a profound impact on physicians' medical decision making. One recent survey of 277 physicians showed that 72% of physicians regularly used the Internet to research medical information and 51% admitted that information from web sites influenced their clinical decisions. This paper describes the first cognitive evaluation of four state-of-the-art Internet search engines: Google (i.e., Google and Scholar.Google), MedQA, Onelook, and PubMed for answering definitional questions (i.e., questions with the format of "What is X?") posed by physicians. Onelook is a portal for online definitions, and MedQA is a question answering system that automatically generates short texts to answer specific biomedical questions. Our evaluation criteria include quality of answer, ease of use, time spent, and number of actions taken. Our results show that MedQA outperforms Onelook and PubMed in most of the criteria, and that MedQA surpasses Google in time spent and number of actions, two important efficiency criteria. Our results show that Google is the best system for quality of answer and ease of use. We conclude that Google is an effective search engine for medical definitions, and that MedQA exceeds the other search engines in that it provides users direct answers to their questions; while the users of the other search engines have to visit several sites before finding all of the pertinent information. PMID:17990503

  17. Wrong Answer to the Wrong Question: Why We Need Critical Teacher Education, Not Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeloni, Barbara; Gorlewski, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The authors contend that teacher education (like K-12) is under attack by those seeking to exploit the public good and privatize education. Teacher educators find themselves on the defensive, compelled to answer questions about efficacy and accountability that do not reflect their understandings of their work, questions that do not address the

  18. 10 Questions to Answer for Technology to Succeed in Your School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosmire, Doreen; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2007-01-01

    Few principals claim to be technology experts. Most aspire to design a map that leads their schools to success with educational technology. However, the key to success on the journey is not knowing everything or becoming a technology expert. It is about asking the right questions, exploring the answers to those questions, and creating a road map

  19. Warning Signs of Youth Violence. Just the Facts: Answers to Your Questions about Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychological Association (APA), 2002

    2002-01-01

    Violence. It's the act of purposefully hurting someone. And it's a major issue facing today's young adults. This fact sheet answers questions that those aged 12-24 might ask about violence. This age group faces the highest risk of being the victim of violence. Questions regard the causes of youth violence, warning signs, what to do if someone

  20. 76 FR 41157 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    .... Background In the Federal Register of July 9, 2009 (74 FR 33030), FDA issued a final rule requiring shell egg... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 16 and 118 Guidance for Industry: Questions and... guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention...

  1. 75 FR 29350 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... FR 46434). This draft guidance is the second edition of that guidance entitled ``Questions and... 2007'' and gave interested parties an opportunity to submit comments by July 27, 2009 (74 FR 27803... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers...

  2. Question-Answering-Technique to Support Freshman and Senior Engineers in Processes of Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelmann, Constance; Hacker, Winfried

    2010-01-01

    In two experimental studies, the influence of question-based reflection on the quality of design solutions was investigated. Students and experts with different know-how and professional experience had to design an artefact that should meet a list of requirements. Subsequently, they were asked to answer a system of interrogative questions

  3. Questions and Answers about IDEA. 2nd Edition. NICHCY News Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.; Gutierrez, Mary Kate, Ed.

    This document provides answers to questions frequently asked by parents and practitioners about the mandates and requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (IDEA). The 29 questions are organized into six sections: (1) background information on the IDEA (history of IDEA, and obtaining copies of IDEA and

  4. Records--The Achilles' Heel of School Nursing: Answers to Bothersome Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Nadine C.; Pohlman, Katherine J.

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation. Because the issues have been posed by practicing school nurses, the article is in Question and Answer (Q&A) format. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: ownership and storage location of student health records when the

  5. 76 FR 49772 - Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements-Questions and Answers; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements--Questions and Answers'' dated August 2011. The guidance announced in this notice amends the October 2006 guidance document of the same title by incorporating a revised response to question 12 (Q12). The revised response concerns the ability of......

  6. 75 FR 75482 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Drug Products; Questions and Answers; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... guidance for industry 211 entitled ``Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers.'' The draft questions and answers (Q&A) guidance addresses the United States Pharmacopeia (USP)...

  7. 78 FR 29140 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About 517A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ...: Questions and Answers About 517A; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... Radiological Health (CDRH) Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About 517A.'' This draft document provides... ``Center for Devices and Radiological Health Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About 517A'' to...

  8. 41 CFR 300-2.21 - How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... expressed in the question and answer format? 300-2.21 Section 300-2.21 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System GENERAL INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.21 How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? The rule is expressed...

  9. Can primary care physicians' questions be answered using the medical journal literature?

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, P N; Ash, J; Wykoff, L

    1994-01-01

    Medical librarians and informatics professionals believe the medical journal literature can be useful in clinical practice, but evidence suggests that practicing physicians do not share this belief. The authors designed a study to determine whether a random sample of "native" questions asked by primary care practitioners could be answered using the journal literature. Participants included forty-nine active, nonacademic primary care physicians providing ambulatory care in rural and nonrural Oregon, and seven medical librarians. The study was conducted in three stages: (1) office interviews with physicians to record clinical questions; (2) online searches to locate answers to selected questions; and (3) clinician feedback regarding the relevance and usefulness of the information retrieved. Of 295 questions recorded during forty-nine interviews, 60 questions were selected at random for searches. The average total time spent searching for and selecting articles for each question was forty-three minutes. The average cost per question searched was $27.37. Clinician feedback was received for 48 of 56 questions (four physicians could not be located, so their questions were not used in tabulating the results). For 28 questions (56%), clinicians judged the material relevant; for 22 questions (46%) the information provided a "clear answer" to their question. They expected the information would have had an impact on their patient in nineteen (40%) cases, and an impact on themselves or their practice in twenty-four (51%) cases. If the results can be generalized, and if the time and cost of performing searches can be reduced, increased use of the journal literature could significantly improve the extent to which primary care physicians' information needs are met. PMID:7772099

  10. A New Method for Administering and Scoring Multiple-Choice Tests: Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Lawrence H.; And Others

    A new scoring procedure for multiple choice tests attempts to assess partial knowledge and to restrict guessing. It is a variant of Coombs' elimination scoring method, adapted for use with the carbon-shield answer sheets commonly used with answer-until-correct scoring. Examinees are directed to erase the carbon shields of choices they are certain

  11. A New Method for Administering and Scoring Multiple-Choice Tests: Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Lawrence H.; And Others

    A new scoring procedure for multiple choice tests attempts to assess partial knowledge and to restrict guessing. It is a variant of Coombs' elimination scoring method, adapted for use with the carbon-shield answer sheets commonly used with answer-until-correct scoring. Examinees are directed to erase the carbon shields of choices they are certain…

  12. Acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of question-answering skills in autistic children.

    PubMed Central

    Secan, K E; Egel, A L; Tilley, C S

    1989-01-01

    We conducted an investigation to evaluate the effects of a training strategy for teaching autistic students generalized responses to three forms of wh--questions (what, how, and why). Students were taught, using modeling and reinforcement procedures, to answer questions with magazine pictures as the referents. Each question form was divided into two or more subcomponents reflective of common social usage and was taught within the context of a modified multiple probe design across subcomponents. Following acquisition of each subcomponent, generalization to natural context and storybook questions was assessed; additional probes were conducted to assess responding over time and whether acquisition of responses to questions promoted question-asking skills. Results showed that the picture training procedure was effective in teaching a generalized response to questions for which the relevant cue was visible, whereas specific generalization programming was required for situations in which the relevant cue was not visible. All acquired responses were durable over time. PMID:2745239

  13. A Medical Consultation Service on Facebook: Descriptive Analysis of Questions Answered

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media is used increasingly by the general public to access health information. However, a lack of models for health information distribution limits the presence of publicly funded services on social media sites. Objective The goal of the study was to present a model for delivering child health information to parents through a social media site. Methods A Facebook site was launched for 11 months based on a question-and-answer service produced by a pediatrician and open to Facebook users over 18 years old. If the answer did not include a further referral to a health care service provider, the question was considered comprehensively answered. The site was funded by a pharmaceutical company, and it included an advertisement of a pharmaceutical product for childrens fever and pain. Results During the study, 768 questions were submitted: an average of 69.8 (SD 31.7) per month. There were 245,533 independent Facebook users on the site, with an average of 727.0 (SD 2280.6) per day. Infections were the most common theme in questions (355/768, 46.2%). Questions were more likely to be comprehensively answered if they were related to infections (279/355, 78.6%) than questions related to non-infectious symptoms (265/423, 64.2%, P=.003). Conclusions On this site aimed at parents of small children, personalized answers were an effective way of delivering information. The service is likely to have reduced the need for further contacts with a health care service provider in more than half of the cases. The site could serve as a model for publicly funded health information distribution. PMID:25189182

  14. Improving comprehension of science content: Generating self-explanation questions and creating explanatory answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clelland, Peggie L.

    The emphasis on learning in content area classrooms is heavily dependent on remembering facts and memorizing definitions. Because of this, students often achieve shallow levels of comprehension and are deficient in the skills necessary to achieve deeper comprehension. Teaching students to generate self-explanation questions and answers related to teacher lectures and from reading text can improve comprehension. Students who attempt to explain what the content means understand it better and at a deeper level. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of teaching students to ask self-explanation questions as a means for improving comprehension. Eighth-grade students from three heterogeneous science classrooms participated in one of the treatment or comparison groups. The first treatment group was taught to generate self-explanation questions while the second treatment group was taught to generate self-explanation questions and to create explanatory answers using a rubric. The comparison group received their regular science instruction. Self-explanation question/answer participants scored significantly higher than the regular instruction group more often than the self-explanation question only group, on memory and essay measures. Analyses were performed with MANCOVA on all three groups' scores as a set. ANCOVA was used to determine if differences existed between groups on each of the dependent variables, and Bonferonni's post-hoc contrasts were used to determine where differences existed among treatment and comparison groups. Results revealed that students who were taught to generate self-explanation questions and/or to create explanatory answers outperformed the regular instruction students on some of the memory and essay measures. Additionally, teaching students a self-explanation strategy resulted in improved ability to respond to essay questions two weeks following the conclusion of the study compared to students who received regular instruction.

  15. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of two question prompts. We asked four versions of the question with different combinations of the two plant species and order of prompts in an introductory cell biology course. We found that there was not a significant difference in the content of student responses to versions of the question stem with different species or order of prompts, using both computerized lexical analysis and expert scoring. We conducted 20 face-to-face interviews with students to further probe the effects of question wording on student responses. During the interviews, we found that students thought that the plant species was neither relevant nor confusing when answering the question. Students identified the prompts as both relevant and confusing. However, this confusion was not specific to a single version. PMID:25999312

  16. Examining the impact of question surface features on students' answers to constructed-response questions on photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of two question prompts. We asked four versions of the question with different combinations of the two plant species and order of prompts in an introductory cell biology course. We found that there was not a significant difference in the content of student responses to versions of the question stem with different species or order of prompts, using both computerized lexical analysis and expert scoring. We conducted 20 face-to-face interviews with students to further probe the effects of question wording on student responses. During the interviews, we found that students thought that the plant species was neither relevant nor confusing when answering the question. Students identified the prompts as both relevant and confusing. However, this confusion was not specific to a single version. PMID:25999312

  17. Developing Independence in a Capstone Course: Helping Students Ask and Answer Their Own Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camenga, Kristin A.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a mathematics capstone course designed to help students grow in mathematical independence. We describe how the course is structured to support this goal and the major assignments: a course wiki, a group expository project, and an individual problem to solve and extend. Students learn to ask and answer their own questions, helping them

  18. 26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 31.3405(c)-1 Section 31.3405(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX...

  19. Question-Answering-Technique to Support Freshman and Senior Engineers in Processes of Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelmann, Constance; Hacker, Winfried

    2010-01-01

    In two experimental studies, the influence of question-based reflection on the quality of design solutions was investigated. Students and experts with different know-how and professional experience had to design an artefact that should meet a list of requirements. Subsequently, they were asked to answer a system of interrogative questions…

  20. Do-It-Yourself Learning Games: Software That Lets You Pick the Questions--and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hively, Wells

    1984-01-01

    Reviews user-adaptable learning games that can be customized for any subject, including Tic Tac Show and the Game Show from Computer Advanced Ideas, which are question-answer learning programs based on game shows, and Master Match from Computer Advanced Ideas and Square Pairs from Scholastic Inc., which are based on the card game Concentration.

  1. Young Children's Sensitivity to New and Given Information when Answering Predicate-Focus Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomo, Dorothe; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In two studies we investigated 2-year-old children's answers to predicate-focus questions depending on the preceding context. Children were presented with a successive series of short video clips showing transitive actions (e.g., frog washing duck) in which either the action (action-new) or the patient (patient-new) was the changing, and therefore…

  2. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?

  3. Exploring the Learning Mechanism of Web-Based Question-Answering Systems and Their Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yin

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of models concerning question-answering (QA) systems have been put forward. But many of them stress technology and neglect the research of QA itself. In this paper, we analyse the essence of QA and discuss the relationship between technology and QA. On that basis, we propose that when designing web-based QA systems, more…

  4. Young Children's Sensitivity to New and Given Information when Answering Predicate-Focus Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomo, Dorothe; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In two studies we investigated 2-year-old children's answers to predicate-focus questions depending on the preceding context. Children were presented with a successive series of short video clips showing transitive actions (e.g., frog washing duck) in which either the action (action-new) or the patient (patient-new) was the changing, and therefore

  5. A Questioning-Answering Program for Simple Kernel Sentences (QUE2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Bill

    QUE2 is a recently devised, natural language, questioning-answering program written in LISP1-5. It deals in simple, kernel sentences and employs the theory that the semantic content of a sentence is the set of relationships between conceptual objects (represented by the words in it), which the sentence and its structure imply. The data base of the

  6. Using and Developing with CD-Interactive: Frequently Asked Questions Are Answered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lediaev, Lucy; van Sonderen, Lex

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Compact Disc-Interactive (CD-I) using a question-and-answer format. Highlights include development of the CD-I technology; where to purchase discs and players; compatibility with other CD-ROM drives; how to make discs; authoring systems versus custom programs; entertainment and educational applications; licensing issues; specifications;…

  7. Using and Developing with CD-Interactive: Frequently Asked Questions Are Answered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lediaev, Lucy; van Sonderen, Lex

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Compact Disc-Interactive (CD-I) using a question-and-answer format. Highlights include development of the CD-I technology; where to purchase discs and players; compatibility with other CD-ROM drives; how to make discs; authoring systems versus custom programs; entertainment and educational applications; licensing issues; specifications;

  8. Frequently Asked Questions about ADHD and the Answers from the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loechler, Kathy

    1999-01-01

    Identifies useful Internet sites about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the results of searching these sites to answer common questions concerning incidence of ADHD, basic information about Ritalin drug therapy, educational placement of students with ADHD, sources of information about special needs, and what parents can do at

  9. Exploring the Learning Mechanism of Web-Based Question-Answering Systems and Their Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yin

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of models concerning question-answering (QA) systems have been put forward. But many of them stress technology and neglect the research of QA itself. In this paper, we analyse the essence of QA and discuss the relationship between technology and QA. On that basis, we propose that when designing web-based QA systems, more

  10. Home Education Reason and Research: Common Questions and Research-Based Answers about Homeschooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    This is a brief review of research on a variety of topics related to home education and answers the most common questions asked regarding Homeschooling. Examples of the topics addressed are: the teaching parent's education level, academic achievement of students, population growth, philosophy, government (state) regulation and homeschool

  11. Entropy - Some Cosmological Questions Answered by Model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Jozef; Sukenik, Miroslav

    2002-12-01

    The paper summarizes the background of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe model and its potential to offer answers to some open cosmological questions related to entropy. Three problems are faced in more detail, namely that of Hawkings phenomenon of black holes evaporation, maximum entropy of the Universe during its evolution, and time evolution of specific entropy.

  12. 78 FR 69671 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) in 1996 (61 FR 54647) and were last revised by the Agencies on March 11, 2010 (2010 Questions and Answers) (75 FR 11642). On March 18, 2013... ] redesignate one Q&A without substantive change. \\1\\ See 78 FR 16765 (Mar. 18, 2013). Together, the...

  13. Let's Talk About Food. Answers to your Questions About Foods and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Philip L., Ed.; Selvey, Nancy, Ed.

    This book on the subject of nutrition is written in the form of often-asked questions and detailed, informative answers. In ten chapters the following range of nutrition topics is covered: (1) meaning of RDA, nutrition labeling, calorie tables, nutrient density; (2) adequate diet, pregnancy, physical fitness, vitamins, diet for athletes, baby…

  14. Let's Talk About Food. Answers to your Questions About Foods and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Philip L., Ed.; Selvey, Nancy, Ed.

    This book on the subject of nutrition is written in the form of often-asked questions and detailed, informative answers. In ten chapters the following range of nutrition topics is covered: (1) meaning of RDA, nutrition labeling, calorie tables, nutrient density; (2) adequate diet, pregnancy, physical fitness, vitamins, diet for athletes, baby

  15. Olympian Parents Answer the Question of How Parents Contribute towards Their Child's Academic Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, James Reed

    2011-01-01

    How do parents contribute toward their child's academic productivity? This article analyzes studies conducted over the last 30 years on this topic. During these three decades a number of theories and theoretical frameworks have been developed to answer this fundamental question. There have been nine national studies published and six reviews of…

  16. 76 FR 64175 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Insurance'' (Interagency Questions and Answers), which were published on July 21, 2009 (74 FR 35914). Based... these requirements by issuing a joint final rule in the summer of 1996. See 61 FR 45684 (August 29, 1996... to the FDIC. See also 76 FR 39246 (Jul. 6, 2011). In connection with the 1996 joint...

  17. Vector measure for the intelligence of a Question-Answering (Q-A) system

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, A.; Rajaraman, V.

    1995-05-01

    The problem of quantification of intelligence of humans, and of intelligent systems, has been a challenging and controversial topic. IQ tests have been traditionally used to quantify human intelligence based on results of test designed by psychologists. It is in general very difficult to quantify intelligence. In this paper we consider a simple Question-Answering (Q-A) system and use this to quantify intelligence. We quantify intelligence as a vector with three components. The components consist of a measure of knowledge in asking questions, effectiveness of questions asked, and correctness of deduction. We formalize these parameters and have conducted experiments on humans to measure these parameters. 20 refs.

  18. Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

  19. 26 CFR 301.6621-2T - Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the increased... Underpayments § 301.6621-2T Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments attributable to certain tax motivated transactions (temporary). The following questions...

  20. 26 CFR 1.706-2T - Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. 1.706-2T Section 1.706-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-2T Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. Question 1:...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Questions and Answers-Technology and... Supplement No. 1 to Part 734—Questions and Answers—Technology and Software Subject to the EAR This Supplement No. 1 contains explanatory questions and answers relating to technology and software that is...

  2. Environmental Problems, Causes, and Solutions: An Open Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negev, Maya; Garb, Yaakov; Biller, Roni; Sagy, Gonen; Tal, Alon

    2010-01-01

    In a national evaluation of environmental literacy in Israel, (Negev, Sagy, Garb, Salzberg, & Tal, 2008), the authors included both multiple choice questions and open questions. In this article the authors describe the qualitative analysis of the answers to an open question regarding a local environmental problem. Most participants specified solid…

  3. Environmental Problems, Causes, and Solutions: An Open Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negev, Maya; Garb, Yaakov; Biller, Roni; Sagy, Gonen; Tal, Alon

    2010-01-01

    In a national evaluation of environmental literacy in Israel, (Negev, Sagy, Garb, Salzberg, & Tal, 2008), the authors included both multiple choice questions and open questions. In this article the authors describe the qualitative analysis of the answers to an open question regarding a local environmental problem. Most participants specified solid

  4. Super-resolution optical microscopy: multiple choices.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo

    2010-02-01

    The recent invention of super-resolution optical microscopy enables the visualization of fine features in biological samples with unprecedented clarity. It creates numerous opportunities in biology because vast amount of previously obscured subcellular processes now can be directly observed. Rapid development in this field in the past two years offers many imaging modalities that address different needs but they also complicates the choice of the 'perfect' method for answering a specific question. Here I will briefly describe the principles of super-resolution optical microscopy techniques and then focus on comparing their characteristics in various aspects of practical applications. PMID:19897404

  5. Benford's Law: textbook exercises and multiple-choice testbanks.

    PubMed

    Slepkov, Aaron D; Ironside, Kevin B; DiBattista, David

    2015-01-01

    Benford's Law describes the finding that the distribution of leading (or leftmost) digits of innumerable datasets follows a well-defined logarithmic trend, rather than an intuitive uniformity. In practice this means that the most common leading digit is 1, with an expected frequency of 30.1%, and the least common is 9, with an expected frequency of 4.6%. Currently, the most common application of Benford's Law is in detecting number invention and tampering such as found in accounting-, tax-, and voter-fraud. We demonstrate that answers to end-of-chapter exercises in physics and chemistry textbooks conform to Benford's Law. Subsequently, we investigate whether this fact can be used to gain advantage over random guessing in multiple-choice tests, and find that while testbank answers in introductory physics closely conform to Benford's Law, the testbank is nonetheless secure against such a Benford's attack for banal reasons. PMID:25689468

  6. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  7. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  8. 26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... appears in § 1.403(b)-2T of this chapter (as it appeared in the April 1, 1995 edition of 26 CFR part 1... October 19, 1995, § 31.3405(c)-1T (as it appeared in the April 1, 1995 edition of 26 CFR part 1), applies...; questions and answers. 31.3405(c)-1 Section 31.3405(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...

  9. 26 CFR 54.4976-1T - Questions and answers relating to taxes with respect to welfare benefit funds (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to taxes with respect to welfare benefit funds (temporary). 54.4976-1T Section 54.4976-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL... EXCISE TAXES § 54.4976-1T Questions and answers relating to taxes with respect to welfare benefit...

  10. 26 CFR 1.79-4T - Questions and answers relating to the nondiscrimination requirements for group-term life...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the nondiscrimination requirements for group-term life insurance (temporary). 1.79-4T Section 1.79-4T Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.79-4T Questions and answers relating to...

  11. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue... Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to...

  12. 26 CFR 1.404(d)-1T - Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits for independent contractors. (Temporary) 1.404(d)-1T... Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits...

  13. Social Question and Answer Services versus Library Virtual Reference: Evaluation and Comparison from the Users' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yin; Deng, Shengli

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, the introduction of social question and answer services and other Internet tools have expanded the ways in which people have their questions answered. There has been speculation and debate over whether such services and other Internet tools are replacing library virtual reference services. Method: Most previous…

  14. Verbal Paradata and Survey Error: Respondent Speech, Voice, and Question-Answering Behavior Can Predict Income Item Nonresponse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jans, Matthew E.

    2010-01-01

    Income nonresponse is a significant problem in survey data, with rates as high as 50%, yet we know little about why it occurs. It is plausible that the way respondents answer survey questions (e.g., their voice and speech characteristics, and their question- answering behavior) can predict whether they will provide income data, and will reflect

  15. The Communication Skills Used by Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers in a Question-and-Answer Game Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toe, Dianne M.; Paatsch, Louise E.

    2010-01-01

    Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in

  16. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2,' NUREG-0683.

  17. Comparing the Use of an Online Expert Health Network against Common Information Sources to Answer Health Questions

    PubMed Central

    Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank JH; Hulshof, Carel TJ

    2012-01-01

    Background Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). It is unknown whether workers are able to find correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions when they use common information sources, such as websites, or whether they would benefit from using an easily accessible, free-of-charge online network of OSH experts providing advice. Objective To assess the rate of correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions in a group of workers who used an online network of OSH experts (intervention group) compared with a group of workers who used common information sources (control group). Methods In a quasi-experimental study, workers in the intervention and control groups were randomly offered 2 questions from a pool of 16 standardized OSH questions. Both questions were sent by mail to all participants, who had 3 weeks to answer them. The intervention group was instructed to use only the online network ArboAntwoord, a network of about 80 OSH experts, to solve the questions. The control group was instructed that they could use all information sources available to them. To assess answer correctness as the main study outcome, 16 standardized correct model answers were constructed with the help of reviewers who performed literature searches. Subsequently, the answers provided by all participants in the intervention (n = 94 answers) and control groups (n = 124 answers) were blinded and compared with the correct model answers on the degree of correctness. Results Of the 94 answers given by participants in the intervention group, 58 were correct (62%), compared with 24 of the 124 answers (19%) in the control group, who mainly used informational websites found via Google. The difference between the 2 groups was significant (rate difference = 43%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 30%54%). Additional analysis showed that the rate of correct main conclusions of the answers was 85 of 94 answers (90%) in the intervention group and 75 of 124 answers (61%) in the control group (rate difference = 29%, 95% CI 19%40%). Remarkably, we could not identify differences between workers who provided correct answers and workers who did not on how they experienced the credibility, completeness, and applicability of the information found (P > .05). Conclusions Workers are often unable to find correct answers to OSH questions when using common information sources, generally informational websites. Because workers frequently misjudge the quality of the information they find, other strategies are required to assist workers in finding correct answers. Expert advice provided through an online expert network can be effective for this purpose. As many people experience difficulties in finding correct answers to their health questions, expert networks may be an attractive new source of information for health fields in general. PMID:22356848

  18. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  19. The Siren Song of the Absurd Answer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailin, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom states that students rarely choose absurd multiple choice distractors, which therefore simply add noise. In contrast, it is observed that introductory astronomy students are sometimes inexorably drawn to multiple choice answers that are clearly absurd to an expert. I demonstrate this phenomenon using data from the University of Alabama's introductory astronomy for non-majors course and investigate possible explanations, with an eye towards improving multiple choice as an assessment method. I finish with a plea for other instructors to include the same questions in their exams in order to dramatically increase the sample size and uncover correlations with other student behavior that can help understand what leads them to make such obvious mistakes.

  20. Application of Item Analysis to Assess Multiple-Choice Examinations in the Mississippi Master Cattle Producer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Jane A.; Karisch, Brandi B.

    2013-01-01

    Item analysis can serve as a useful tool in improving multiple-choice questions used in Extension programming. It can identify gaps between instruction and assessment. An item analysis of Mississippi Master Cattle Producer program multiple-choice examination responses was performed to determine the difficulty of individual examinations, assess the

  1. Application of Item Analysis to Assess Multiple-Choice Examinations in the Mississippi Master Cattle Producer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Jane A.; Karisch, Brandi B.

    2013-01-01

    Item analysis can serve as a useful tool in improving multiple-choice questions used in Extension programming. It can identify gaps between instruction and assessment. An item analysis of Mississippi Master Cattle Producer program multiple-choice examination responses was performed to determine the difficulty of individual examinations, assess the…

  2. Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

  3. Expected Multiple-Choice Test Item Scores Under Ordinal Response Modes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frary, Robert B.

    Ordinal response modes for multiple choice tests are those under which the examinee marks one or more choices in an effort to identify the correct choice, or include it in a proper subset of the choices. Two ordinal response modes: answer-until-correct, and Coomb's elimination of choices which examinees identify as wrong, were analyzed for scoring

  4. Expected Multiple-Choice Test Item Scores Under Ordinal Response Modes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frary, Robert B.

    Ordinal response modes for multiple choice tests are those under which the examinee marks one or more choices in an effort to identify the correct choice, or include it in a proper subset of the choices. Two ordinal response modes: answer-until-correct, and Coomb's elimination of choices which examinees identify as wrong, were analyzed for scoring…

  5. Illusion of Linearity in Geometry: Effect in Multiple-Choice Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlahovic-Stetic, Vesna; Pavlin-Bernardic, Nina; Rajter, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if there is a difference in the performance on non-linear problems regarding age, gender, and solving situation, and whether the multiple-choice answer format influences students' thinking. A total of 112 students, aged 15-16 and 18-19, were asked to solve problems for which solutions based on proportionality

  6. Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,

  7. Practical question-and-answer guide on VDTS (video display terminals) for BEES (base bioenvironmental engineer). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    The USAF OEHL conducted an extensive literature review of Video Display Terminals (VDTs) and the health problems commonly associated with them. The report is presented in a question-and-answer format in an attempt to paraphrase the most commonly asked questions about VDTs that are forwarded to USAF OEHL/RZN. The questions and answers have been divided into several topic areas: Ionizing Radiation; Nonionizing Radiation; Optical Radiation; Ultrasound; Static Electricity; Health Complaints/Ergonomics; Pregnancy.

  8. Evaluating the Use of In-situ and Remote Sensing Data to Answer Critical Hydrological Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    Water demands of the 21st Century pose challenges for effective decision-making and viable management of hydrological resources. As competition for water becomes more complex, the use of technology to maximize finite water resources becomes increasingly critical. Therefore, accurate methods of gauging relevant data streams must be developed and improved at every level, from basic and applied research to water management to policy oversight. How can the relative value for answering critical hydrologic questions of prospective data streams be gauged? Advancements in technology are producing multiple new sources of hydrological data from in-situ platforms and the developing resource of remote sensing platforms. The in-situ and remote sensing data available from these new sources can be used complementarily to provide answers to critical water resource management questions. Analyses that identify which combination of data resources will offer the most effective methodology for quantifying hydrological variables will establish new best practices for water management. We are going to use new techniques of data assimilation to establish a process for identifying and evaluating the method that provides the most quantitative means for answering key hydrological questions. This research will outline a method for evaluating specific in-situ and remote sensing data sets for complementary use in managing flood hazards, assessing water flows, and improving irrigation practices, to name a few. This will result in improved understanding of multisensory data and its analysis which, in turn, will lead to better informed decision-making, improved policy development and future governance regarding hydrological systems in any given watershed scenario. *** Image: Preliminary Research Road Map / Poster will highlight Quantitative Research (step 1)

  9. Questioning Chemistry: The Role of Level, Familiarity, Language and Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, Susan; Taylor, Neil; Cameron, Margaret; Syme-Smith, Lorraine; Fortuna, Colette

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on data collected via an audience response system, where a convenience sample of 300 adults aged 17-50 pressed a button to register their answers for twenty multiple choice questions. The responses were then discussed with the respondents at the time. The original dataset includes physics, biology and chemistry questions. The…

  10. More questions than answers! Clinical dilemmas in psychopharmacology in pregnancy and lactation

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Geetha; Babu, Girish N.; Rajkumar, Ravi P.; Chandra, Prabha S.

    2009-01-01

    Women in childbearing age frequently suffer from mental illness. Maternal psychiatric disorders may have a devastating impact on the fetus and the newborn. Thus treating or preventing relapse of these disorders during pregnancy and puerperium is a clinical and ethical duty with the necessity to avoid or minimize fetal or neonatal drug exposure. Though there are many guidelines and comprehensive reviews regarding drug safety in pregnancy and lactation, the application of these recommendations into clinical practice appears to be complex. Hence, we present some clinical questions with answers considering the available literature on safety of psychotropics in pregnancy and lactation. PMID:19742205

  11. How Do You Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers Like Beagle 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    To address one of the most important questions in planetary science Is there life on Mars? The scientific community must turn to less costly means of exploring the surface of the Red Planet. The United Kingdom's Beagle 2 Mars lander concept was a small meter-size lander with a scientific payload constituting a large proportion of the flown mass designed to supply answers to the question about life on Mars. A possible reason why Beagle 2 did not send any data was that it was a one-off attempt to land. As Steve Squyres said at the time: "It's difficult to land on Mars - if you want to succeed you have to send two of everything".

  12. Multiple-choice exams: an obstacle for higher-level thinking in introductory science classes.

    PubMed

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities. PMID:22949426

  13. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  14. Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-05-04

    Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL’s Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service – which is often driven by climate – is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.

  15. Answering the right question - integration of InSAR with other datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley, Rachel; McCormack, Harry; Burren, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The capabilities of satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are well known, and utilized across a wide range of academic and commercial applications. However there is a tendency, particularly in commercial applications, for users to ask 'What can we study with InSAR?'. When establishing a new technique this approach is important, but InSAR has been possible for 20 years now and, even accounting for new and innovative algorithms, this ground has been thoroughly explored. Too many studies conclude 'We show the ground is moving here, by this much', and mention the wider context as an afterthought. The focus needs to shift towards first asking the right questions - in fields as diverse as hazard awareness, resource optimization, financial considerations and pure scientific enquiry - and then working out how to achieve the best possible answers. Depending on the question, InSAR (and ground deformation more generally) may provide a large or small contribution to the overall solution, and there are usually benefits to integrating a number of techniques to capitalize on the complementary capabilities and provide the most useful measurements. However, there is still a gap between measurements and answers, and unlocking the value of the data relies heavily on appropriate visualization, integrated analysis, communication between technique and application experts, and appropriate use of modelling. We present a number of application examples, and demonstrate how their usefulness can be transformed by moving from a focus on data to answers - integrating complementary geodetic, geophysical and geological datasets and geophysical modeling with appropriate visualization, to enable comprehensive solution-focused interpretation. It will also discuss how forthcoming developments are likely to further advance realisation of the full potential satellite InSAR holds.

  16. Comparing Assessments of Students' Knowledge by Computerized Open-Ended and Multiple-Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anbar, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Interactive computerized tests accepting unrestricted natural-language input were used to assess knowledge of clinical biophysics at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Comparison of responses to open-ended sequential questions and multiple-choice questions on the same material found the two formats test different aspects of competence.

  17. Improving Students' Capacity to Show Their Knowledge, Understanding and Skills in Exams by Using Combined Question and Answer Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    This research set out to compare the quality, length and nature of (1) exam responses in combined question and answer booklets, with (2) responses in separate answer booklets in order to inform choices about response format. Combined booklets are thought to support candidates by giving more information on what is expected of them. Anecdotal

  18. The Answering System to Yes-No Truth-Functional Questions in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hansook

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in "Br J Psychol" 52:133-142,…

  19. The Answering System to Yes-No Truth-Functional Questions in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hansook

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in "Br J Psychol" 52:133-142,

  20. How well does the Internet answer patients questions about inflammatory bowel disease?

    PubMed Central

    Promislow, Steven; Walker, John R; Taheri, Mohammad; Bernstein, Charles N

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Internet is an increasingly important source of health information. OBJECTIVE To assess how well common websites answered patients questions regarding inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS Thirty websites were identified and evaluated. Based on a previous survey of patient information needs, a comprehensive question list was developed in the three following areas: medical information (seven items), medical treatment (six items) and self-management (eight items). The websites were evaluated for the amount of information they provided to answer each question using two standard measures of information quality the DISCERN and the Ensuring Quality Information for Patients scales. RESULTS Four particularly strong websites, scoring highest (on a scale from 1 to 5) in terms of IBD information, were the Crohns and Colitis Foundation of America (mean information score 4.3), About.com (4.2), HealthCentral (3.8) and WebMD (3.8). These websites also scored well on the DISCERN and the Ensuring Quality Information for Patients quality scales. Most websites provided at least adequate information on common symptoms, complications, treatments and what is known (or not known) about the causes of IBD. However, many web-sites did not provide adequate information about prognosis, possible side effects of treatment and risks of developing cancer. Information regarding self-management was covered to a very limited extent. CONCLUSION Websites could be strengthened by providing more of the information patients deem to be important, and by more clearly identifying sources of information and the date the information was updated. Most websites would benefit from more attention given to reducing the reading level and improving the organization of material. PMID:21157582

  1. 75 FR 52427 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Effect of Section 4205 of the Patient...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... requirements for nutrition labeling of standard menu items for chain retail food establishments and chain... menu items (``chain retail food establishments'') to disclose specific nutrition information about... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding...

  2. Genetic Algorithms for Multiple-Choice Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-04-01

    This thesis investigates the use of problem-specific knowledge to enhance a genetic algorithm approach to multiple-choice optimisation problems.It shows that such information can significantly enhance performance, but that the choice of information and the way it is included are important factors for success.Two multiple-choice problems are considered.The first is constructing a feasible nurse roster that considers as many requests as possible.In the second problem, shops are allocated to locations in a mall subject to constraints and maximising the overall income.Genetic algorithms are chosen for their well-known robustness and ability to solve large and complex discrete optimisation problems.However, a survey of the literature reveals room for further research into generic ways to include constraints into a genetic algorithm framework.Hence, the main theme of this work is to balance feasibility and cost of solutions.In particular, co-operative co-evolution with hierarchical sub-populations, problem structure exploiting repair schemes and indirect genetic algorithms with self-adjusting decoder functions are identified as promising approaches.The research starts by applying standard genetic algorithms to the problems and explaining the failure of such approaches due to epistasis.To overcome this, problem-specific information is added in a variety of ways, some of which are designed to increase the number of feasible solutions found whilst others are intended to improve the quality of such solutions.As well as a theoretical discussion as to the underlying reasons for using each operator,extensive computational experiments are carried out on a variety of data.These show that the indirect approach relies less on problem structure and hence is easier to implement and superior in solution quality.

  3. Clickers in College Classrooms: Fostering Learning with Questioning Methods in Large Lecture Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Stull, Andrew; DeLeeuw, Krista; Almeroth, Kevin; Bimber, Bruce; Chun, Dorothy; Bulger, Monica; Campbell, Julie; Knight, Allan; Zhang, Hangjin

    2009-01-01

    What can be done to promote student-instructor interaction in a large lecture class? One approach is to use a personal response system (or "clickers") in which students press a button on a hand-held remote control device corresponding to their answer to a multiple choice question projected on a screen, then see the class distribution of answers on

  4. A Cost-Consequences Analysis of a Primary Care Librarian Question and Answering Service

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Jessie; Hogg, William; Zhong, Jianwei; Zhao, Xue

    2012-01-01

    Background Cost consequences analysis was completed from randomized controlled trial (RCT) data for the Just-in-time (JIT) librarian consultation service in primary care that ran from October 2005 to April 2006. The service was aimed at providing answers to clinical questions arising during the clinical encounter while the patient waits. Cost saving and cost avoidance were also analyzed. The data comes from eighty-eight primary care providers in the Ottawa area working in Family Health Networks (FHNs) and Family Health Groups (FHGs). Methods We conducted a cost consequences analysis based on data from the JIT project [1]. We also estimated the potential economic benefit of JIT librarian consultation service to the health care system. Results The results show that the cost per question for the JIT service was $38.20. The cost could be as low as $5.70 per question for a regular service. Nationally, if this service was implemented and if family physicians saw additional patients when the JIT service saved them time, up to 61,100 extra patients could be seen annually. A conservative estimate of the cost savings and cost avoidance per question for JIT was $11.55. Conclusions The cost per question, if the librarian service was used at full capacity, is quite low. Financial savings to the health care system might exceed the cost of the service. Saving physician's time during their day could potentially lead to better access to family physicians by patients. Implementing a librarian consultation service can happen quickly as the time required to train professional librarians to do this service is short. PMID:22442727

  5. Turn-taking: a case study of early gesture and word use in answering WHERE and WHICH questions

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Eve V.; Lindsey, Kate L.

    2015-01-01

    When young children answer questions, they do so more slowly than adults and appear to have difficulty finding the appropriate words. Because children leave gaps before they respond, it is possible that they could answer faster with gestures than with words. In this study, we compare gestural and verbal responses from one child between the ages of 1;4 and 3;5, to adult Where and Which questions, which can be answered with gestures and/or words. After extracting all adult Where and Which questions and child answers from longitudinal videotaped sessions, we examined the timing from the end of each question to the start of the response, and compared the timing for gestures and words. Child responses could take the form of a gesture or word(s); the latter could be words repeated from the adult question or new words retrieved by the child. Or responses could be complex: a gesture + word repeat, gesture + new word, or word repeat + new word. Gestures were the fastest overall, followed successively by word-repeats, then new-word responses. This ordering, with gestures ahead of words, suggests that the child knows what to answer but needs more time to retrieve any relevant words. In short, word retrieval and articulation appear to be bottlenecks in the timing of responses: both add to the planning required in answering a question. PMID:26217253

  6. Use of Feedback-Oriented Online Exercises to Help Physiology Students Construct Well-Organized Answers to Short-Answer Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Postsecondary education often requires students to use higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) such as analysis, evaluation, and creation as they assess situations and apply what they have learned during lecture to the formulation of solutions. Summative assessment of these abilities is often accomplished using short-answer questions (SAQs). Quandary

  7. Use of Feedback-Oriented Online Exercises to Help Physiology Students Construct Well-Organized Answers to Short-Answer Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Postsecondary education often requires students to use higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) such as analysis, evaluation, and creation as they assess situations and apply what they have learned during lecture to the formulation of solutions. Summative assessment of these abilities is often accomplished using short-answer questions (SAQs). Quandary…

  8. Developing an Ontology for Improving Question Answering in the Agricultural Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, Katia; Ferrndez, Antonio

    Numerous resources have been developed to have a better access to scientific information in the agricultural domain. However, they are rather concerned with providing general metadata of bibliographic references, which prevents users from accessing precise agricultural information in a transparent and simple manner. To overcome this drawback, in this paper, we propose to use domain-specific resources to improve the results in the answers obtained by an Open-Domain Question Answering (QA) system, obtaining a QA system for the agricultural domain. Specifically, it has been made by (i) creating an ontology that covers concepts and relationships from journal publications of the agricultural domain, (ii) enriching this ontology with some public data sources (e.g the Agrovoc thesaurus and the WordNet lexical database) in order to be precisely used in an agricultural domain, and (iii) aligning this enriched ontology with articles from our case-study journal, i.e. the Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science. Finally, we have developed a set of experiments in order to show the usefulness of our approach.

  9. Method for Atypical Opinion Extraction from Ungrammatical Answers in Open-ended Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Ayako; Tamura, Shingo; Oiso, Hiroaki; Komoda, Norihisa

    This paper presents a method for atypical opinion extraction from ungrammatical answers to open-ended questions supplied through cellular phones. The proposed system excludes typical opinions and extracts only atypical opinions. To cope with incomplete syntax of texts due to the input by cellular phones, the system treats the opinions as the sets of keywords. The combinations of words are established beforehand in a typical word database. Based on the ratio of typical word combinations in sentences of an opinion, the system classifies the opinion typical or atypical. When typical word combinations are sought in an opinion, the system considers the word order and the distance of difference between the positions of words to exclude unnecessary combinations. Furthermore, when an opinion includes meanings the system divides the opinion into phrases at each typical word combination. By applying questionnaire data supplied by users of a mobile game content when they cancel their account, the extraction accuracy of the proposed system was confirmed.

  10. Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics. PMID:18522725

  11. Disaster care: questions and answers on pandemic influenza. Striking a balance between risk and preparedness.

    PubMed

    Davey, Victoria J

    2007-07-01

    Disaster planning based on events such as floods or hurricanes, which are local or regional in scale, may be inadequate for responding to a lethal influenza pandemic that has the potential to overwhelm existing public health infrastructures. However, if a mild strain of the virus achieves pandemic proportions, the current public health system may be able to manage the outbreak relatively easily. Therefore, the challenge in pandemic influenza planning is to find a balance between risk and preparedness. Planners and policy makers must make realistic estimates of the consequences of a pandemic and allocate limited resources wisely, so that everyday health care and social needs aren't shortchanged. This article examines what we've learned from past influenza pandemics and answers some frequently asked questions about pandemics and how to prepare for them. PMID:17589231

  12. Antibody-Mediated Rejection: Emergence of Animal Models to Answer Clinical ?Questions

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, William M.; Valujskikh, Anna; Fairchild, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Decades of experiments in small animals had tipped the balance of opinion away from antibodies as a cause of transplant rejection, but clinical experience, especially with sensitized patients, has convinced basic immunologists of the need to develop models to investigate mechanisms underlying antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). This resurgent interest has resulted in several new rodent models to investigate antibody-mediated mechanisms of heart and renal allograft injury, but satisfactory models of chronic AMR remain more elusive. Nevertheless, these new studies have begun to reveal many insights into the molecular and pathological sequelae of antibody binding to the allograft endothelium. In addition, complement-independent and dependent effects of antibodies on endothelial cells have been identified in vitro. As small animals models become better defined, it is anticipated that they will be more widely used to answer further questions concerning mechanisms of antibody-mediated tissue injury as well as to design therapeutic interventions. PMID:20346069

  13. The ContactFinder agent: Answering bulletin board questions with referrals

    SciTech Connect

    Krulwich, B.; Burkey, C.

    1996-12-31

    ContactFinder is an intelligent agent whose approach to assisting users is valuable and innovative in the following four ways. First, ContactFinder operates proactively in reading and responding to messages on electronic bulletin boards rather than acting in response to user queries. Second, ContactFinder assists users by referring them to other people who can help them, rather than attempting to find information that directly answers the user`s specific question. Third, ContactFinder categorizes messages and extracts their topic areas using a set of heuristics that are very efficient and demonstrably highly effective. Fourth, ContactFinder posts its referrals back to the bulletin boards rather than simply communicating with specific users, to increase the information density and connectivity of the system. This paper discusses these aspects of the system and demonstrates their effectiveness in over six months of use on a large-scale internal bulletin board.

  14. HIV Whole-Genome Sequencing Now: Answering Still-Open Questions.

    PubMed

    Metzner, Karin J

    2016-04-01

    Diversity, evolution, and epidemiology of HIV are directly relevant to HIV transmission and pathogenesis; hence, they play a key role in antiretroviral treatment and vaccine design. Global HIV whole-genome sequencing would provide a treasure chest of data to answer many questions still open in these fields. An article by Berg et al. in this issue of theJournal of Clinical Microbiologydescribes a universal strategy to amplify and sequence heterogeneous HIV whole genomes (M. G. Berg, J. Yamaguchi, E. Alessandri-Gradt, R. W. Tell, J.-C. Plantier, and C. A. Brennan, J Clin Microbiol 54:868-882, 2016,http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02479-15). PMID:26791367

  15. STS-80 CREW ANSWERS PRESS QUESTIONS AT PAD 39B DURING TERMINAL COUNTDOWN DEMONSTRATION TEST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-80 crew members participating in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch, talk to press representatives (off camera) and answer their questions at Launch Pad 39B. From left, are Mission Specialists Thomas D. Jones and Tamara E. Jernigan, Commander Kenneth D. Cockrell (with microphone), Pilot Kent V. Rominger and Mission Specialist Story Musgrave. The STS-80 mission, the seventh and final Shuttle flight of 1996, will feature two spacewalks and the deployment, operation and retrieval of two scientific satellites, the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer- Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 (ORFEUS-SPAS-2) and the Wake Shield Facility-3 (WSF-3). The mission will be conducted aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia.

  16. Tips for giving a memorable presentation, part VI: the effective use of questions by a speaker, and answering questions from listeners.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A

    2012-12-01

    Previous articles in this series have focused on tips for educators and leaders in giving a presentation, followed by articles on composing the talk and PowerPoint slides. This article focuses on how a speaker can effectively use questions to engage the audience and answer questions from the listeners, including members of the media. Additional comments will be given on how to give a clear presentation so that many questions will not be necessary. PMID:23154476

  17. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Alzheimer's disease: key questions and partial answers.

    PubMed

    Calon, F

    2011-08-01

    The current rise in the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unfortunately not matched by new treatment options. In the last 10 years, epidemiological, preclinical and clinical data have enlightened the possible preventive action of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in AD and other diseases. While the contribution of recent studies to our general knowledge is priceless, many important new questions have been raised. In the present review, we aim at addressing some of these timely interrogations. First, the transport of n-3 PUFA across the blood-brain barrier is underscored based on preclinical data. Second, the relative contribution of two neuroactive n-3 PUFA found in fish oil, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3), remains unclear and is reviewed. Third, clinical trials on neurodegenerative diseases consistently remind us that treating early is critical, and this is likely to be the case with n-3 PUFA in AD as well. Fourth, we draw attention to the possibility that the current knowledge translation approach to make health recommendations might have to be adapted to non-patentable endogenous compounds like n-3 PUFA. We propose that answers to these critical questions will be instrumental toward a rational use of n-3 PUFA in AD. PMID:21605051

  18. Explaining topic prevalence in answers to open-ended survey questions about climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvinnereim, Endre; Fløttum, Kjersti

    2015-08-01

    Citizens’ opinions are crucial for action on climate change, but are, owing to the complexity of the issue, diverse and potentially unformed. We contribute to the understanding of public views on climate change and to knowledge needed by decision-makers by using a new approach to analyse answers to the open survey question `what comes to mind when you hear the words `climate change’?’. We apply automated text analysis, specifically structural topic modelling, which induces distinct topics based on the relative frequencies of the words used in 2,115 responses. From these data, originating from the new, nationally representative Norwegian Citizen Panel, four distinct topics emerge: Weather/Ice, Future/Impact, Money/Consumption and Attribution. We find that Norwegians emphasize societal aspects of climate change more than do respondents in previous US and UK studies. Furthermore, variables that explain variation in closed questions, such as gender and education, yield different and surprising results when employed to explain variation in what respondents emphasize. Finally, the sharp distinction between scepticism and acceptance of conventional climate science, often seen in previous studies, blurs in many textual responses as scepticism frequently turns into ambivalence.

  19. 26 CFR 1.404(a)-1T - Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits for employees. (Temporary) 1.404(a)-1T Section 1.404(a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(a)-1T Questions and...

  20. Increasing Students' Sensitivity to Sources of Information: An Instructional Study in Question-Answer Relationships. Technical Report No. 284.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy E.; And Others

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a training program to help teachers instruct students in finding the relationship between questions designed to test their comprehension of a text and the location of possible information for answering those questions. Specifically, the study examined whether training would enhance student

  1. Dear Administrator: Leader's Edge Columnist Susan Brooks-Young Answers Your Questions about Grants, Fundraising, and Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Young, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author provides answers to several questions about grants, fundraising, and budgeting. In one particular question, the author explains why verification is required for administrative support in technology programs. She also suggests several qualities to seek when undergoing a contract with a grant writer.

  2. A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John S.; And Others

    A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

  3. 29 CFR 2509.75-8 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility under the Employee Retirement Income...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... prefixes: Drefers to definitions; FRrefers to fiduciary responsibility. Section No. Question No. 3(21)(A... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility... INTERPRETIVE BULLETINS RELATING TO THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 2509.75-8...

  4. 29 CFR 2509.75-8 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility under the Employee Retirement Income...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... prefixes: Drefers to definitions; FRrefers to fiduciary responsibility. Section No. Question No. 3(21)(A... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility... INTERPRETIVE BULLETINS RELATING TO THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 2509.75-8...

  5. 26 CFR 5f.168(f)(8)-1 - Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers concerning transitional... Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe harbor leases. The following questions and answers concern the transitional rules and related matters...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... Source § 31.3401(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) (Temporary). The following question and answer relates to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) of...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary). The following question and answer relates to the...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... Source 31.3401(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) (Temporary). The following question and answer relates to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) of...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) 31.3306(b)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary). The following question and answer relates to the...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) 31.3306(b)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary). The following question and answer relates to the...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) 31.3306(b)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary). The following question and answer relates to the...

  12. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) 31.3306(b)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary). The following question and answer relates to the...

  13. On the Optimality of Answer-Copying Indices: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Mauricio; Riascos, lvaro; Jara, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice exams are frequently used as an efficient and objective method to assess learning, but they are more vulnerable to answer copying than tests based on open questions. Several statistical tests (known as indices in the literature) have been proposed to detect cheating; however, to the best of our knowledge, they all lack mathematical

  14. Modeling a Collaborative Answer Negotiation Activity Using IMS-Based Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdivia, R.; Nussbaum, M.; Ochoa, S. F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and impact of a face-to-face Computer Supported Collaborative Learning activity named Collaborative Answer Negotiation Activity (CANA). CANA primarily involves face-to-face interactions among students supported by wirelessly interconnected mobile devices to solve collaboratively a set of multiple-choice questions.

  15. A Case Study on Multiple-Choice Testing in Anatomical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golda, Stephanie DuPont

    2011-01-01

    Objective testing techniques, such as multiple-choice examinations, are a widely accepted method of assessment in gross anatomy. In order to deter cheating on these types of examinations, instructors often design several versions of an examination to distribute. These versions usually involve the rearrangement of questions and their corresponding

  16. Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not

  17. Are Faculty Predictions or Item Taxonomies Useful for Estimating the Outcome of Multiple-Choice Examinations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether multiple-choice item difficulty could be predicted either by a subjective judgment by the question author or by applying a learning taxonomy to the items. Eight physiology faculty members teaching an upper-level undergraduate human physiology course consented to participate in the study. The

  18. Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not…

  19. E-Assessment by Design: Using Multiple-Choice Tests to Good Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, David

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decade, larger student numbers, reduced resources and increasing use of new technologies have led to the increased use of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) as a method of assessment in higher education courses. This paper identifies some limitations associated with MCQs from a pedagogical standpoint. It then provides an assessment…

  20. Gender Differences in Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Back Substitution in Multiple-Choice Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, K. Shane; Ostrom, Lee; Scott, Karen Wilson

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative observational study exploring the relationship of gender to mathematics self-efficacy and the frequency of back substitution in multiple-choice assessment sampled undergraduates at a western United States parochial university. Research questions addressed: to what extent are there gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy, as…

  1. Perspectives from the Avian Phylogenomics Project: Questions that Can Be Answered with Sequencing All Genomes of a Vertebrate Class.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Erich D

    2016-02-15

    The rapid pace of advances in genome technology, with concomitant reductions in cost, makes it feasible that one day in our lifetime we will have available extant genomes of entire classes of species, including vertebrates. I recently helped cocoordinate the large-scale Avian Phylogenomics Project, which collected and sequenced genomes of 48 bird species representing most currently classified orders to address a range of questions in phylogenomics and comparative genomics. The consortium was able to answer questions not previously possible with just a few genomes. This success spurred on the creation of a project to sequence the genomes of at least one individual of all extant ?10,500 bird species. The initiation of this project has led us to consider what questions now impossible to answer could be answered with all genomes, and could drive new questions now unimaginable. These include the generation of a highly resolved family tree of extant species, genome-wide association studies across species to identify genetic substrates of many complex traits, redefinition of species and the species concept, reconstruction of the genomes of common ancestors, and generation of new computational tools to address these questions. Here I present visions for the future by posing and answering questions regarding what scientists could potentially do with available genomes of an entire vertebrate class. PMID:26884102

  2. Using LQCD to answer questions about hadronic interactions: a perspective from a traditional nuclear theorist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    As computational resources increase and better algorithms are implemented, LQCD calculations of hadronic interaction observables become less of a pipe dream, and more of a reality, and will eventually become the status quo. One of the greatest strengths of LQCD calculations in the realm of low-energy nuclear physics comes from its predictive capability, as many hadronic systems not accessible by experiments can be calculated on the lattice. These calculations in turn have direct implications to nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, and nuclear astrophysics, as well as the broader nuclear physics community. Thus the import of LQCD on low-energy nuclear physics cannot be overlooked, nor understated. In this talk I discuss current and ongoing efforts to extract hadronic interaction parameters from LQCD, enumerating current difficulties placed by available computer resources and algorithm limitations. I will also talk about future possibilities coming from increased computer resources and algorithm development, giving examples of how such calculations can answer longstanding questions in traditional nuclear physics. Finally, I will discuss the role that national labs can and should play in the area of LQCD as applied to low-energy nuclear physics.

  3. Ten common questions (and their answers) about off-label drug use.

    PubMed

    Wittich, Christopher M; Burkle, Christopher M; Lanier, William L

    2012-10-01

    The term off-label drug use (OLDU) is used extensively in the medical literature, continuing medical education exercises, and the media. Yet, we propose that many health care professionals have an underappreciation of its definition, prevalence, and implications. This article introduces and answers 10 questions regarding OLDU in an effort to clarify the practice's meaning, breadth of application, acceptance, and liabilities. Off-label drug use involves prescribing medications for indications, or using a dosage or dosage form, that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Since the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate the practice of medicine, OLDU has become common. It occurs in every specialty of medicine, but it may be more common in areas of medicine in which the patient population is less likely to be included in clinical trials (eg, pediatric, pregnant, or psychiatric patients). Pharmaceutical companies are not allowed to promote their medications for an off-label use, which has lead to several large settlements for illegal marketing. To limit liability, physicians should prescribe medications only for indications that they believe are in the best interest of the patient. In addition, health care professionals should educate themselves about OLDU to weigh the risks and benefits and provide the best possible care for their patients. PMID:22877654

  4. Creating and using real-world evidence to answer questions about clinical effectiveness.

    PubMed

    De Lusignan, Simon; Crawford, Laura; Munro, Neil

    2015-01-01

    New forms of evidence are needed to complement evidence generated from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Real-World Evidence (RWE) is a potential new form of evidence, but remains undefined.This paper sets to fill that gap by defining RWE as the output from a rigorous research process which: (1) includes a clear a priori statement of a hypothesis to be tested or research question to be answered; (2) defines the data sources that will be used and critically appraises their strengths and weaknesses; and (3) applies appropriate methods, including advanced analytics. These elements should be set out in advance of the study commencing, ideally in a published protocol.The strengths of RWE studies are that they are more inclusive than RCTs and can enable an evidence base to be developed around real-world effectiveness and to start to address the complications of managing other real-world problems such as multimorbidity. Computerised medical record systems and big data provide a rich source of data for RWE studies.However, guidance is needed to help assess the rigour of RWE studies so that the strength of recommendations based on their output can be determined. Additionally, RWE advanced analytics methods need better categorisation and validation.We predict that the core role of RCTs will shift towards assessing safety and achieving regulatory compliance. RWE studies, notwithstanding their limitations, may become established as the best vehicle to assess efficacy. PMID:26577427

  5. Counseling in fetal medicine: evidence-based answers to clinical questions on morbidly adherent placenta.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, F; Palacios-Jaraquemada, J; Lim, P S; Forlani, F; Lanzone, A; Timor-Tritsch, I; Cali, G

    2016-03-01

    Although the incidence of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) has risen progressively in the last two decades, there remains uncertainty about the diagnosis and management of this condition. The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date and evidence-based answers to common clinical questions regarding the diagnosis and management of MAP. Different risk factors have been associated with MAP; however, previous Cesarean section and placenta previa are the most frequently associated. Ultrasound is the primary method for diagnosing MAP and has a good overall diagnostic accuracy for its detection. When considering the different ultrasound signs of MAP, color Doppler seems to provide the best diagnostic performance. Magnetic resonance imaging has the same accuracy in diagnosing MAP as does ultrasound examination; its use should be considered when a resective procedure, such as hysterectomy, is planned as it can provide detailed information about the topography of placental invasion and predict difficulties that may arise in surgery. The optimal gestational age for delivery in pregnancies with MAP is yet to be established; planning surgery between 35 and 36?weeks of gestation provides the best balance between fetal maturity and the risk of unexpected episodes of heavy bleeding, which are more likely to occur with delivery after this timepoint, especially in severe cases of MAP. The optimal surgical approach to MAP depends on multiple factors, including availability of an experienced team, specific surgical skills and hospital resources. Copyright 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26195324

  6. Expert panel answers questions for Super Safety and Health Day at KSC.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A panel of NASA and contractor senior staff, plus officers from the 45th Space Wing, discuss safety- and health-related concerns in front of an audience of KSC employees as part of Super Safety and Health Day. Moderating at the podium is Loren Shriver, deputy director for Launch & Payload Processing. Seated left to right are Burt Summerfield, associate director of the Biomedical Office; Colonel William S. Swindling, commander, 45th Medical Group, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; Ron Dittemore, manager, Space Shuttle Programs, Johnson Space Center; Roy Bridges, Center Director; Col. Tom Deppe, vice commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base; Jim Schoefield, program manager, Payload Ground Operations, Boeing; Bill Hickman, program manager, Space Gateway Support; and Ed Adamek, vice president and associate program manager for Ground Operations, United Space Alliance. Answering a question at the microphone on the floor is Dave King, director, Shuttle Processing. The panel was one of the presentations during KSC's second annual day-long dedication to safety. Most normal work activities were suspended to allow personnel to attend related activities. The theme, 'Safety and Health Go Hand in Hand,' emphasized KSC's commitment to place the safety and health of the public, astronauts, employees and space- related resources first and foremost. Events also included a keynote address, vendor exhibits, and safety training in work groups. The keynote address and panel session were also broadcast internally over NASA television.

  7. A study of advanced training technology: Emerging answers to tough questions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This study reports the result of an extensive nationwide review of military, private sector, and other federal agencies and organizations that are implementing a wide variety of advanced training technologies. This report classifies the general categories of advanced training technologies found and provides an overview of each, including specific types and examples. In addition, the research findings present an organizational model for training development linking overall organizational maturity to readiness to implement specific kinds of advanced training technologies. It also presents proposed methods for selecting media, describes the organizations and the data gathered, and provides a summary of implementation success at each organization. This study is organized as a set of five topics. Each topic raises a number of important questions and provides complete or emerging answers. For organizations who have made advanced training selections, this study is a resource to benchmark their success with other organizations who have made similar selections. For new or developing training organizations, this study will help plan their future technology selections by comparing their level of organizational maturity to the documented experiences of similar organizations.

  8. STS-103 Commander Brown answers question during interview at Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. answers a question from the media about the mission. As a preparation for launch, the crew have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members are Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who is also with ESA. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  9. Ten Common Questions (and Their Answers) About Off-label Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Burkle, Christopher M.; Lanier, William L.

    2012-01-01

    The term off-label drug use (OLDU) is used extensively in the medical literature, continuing medical education exercises, and the media. Yet, we propose that many health care professionals have an underappreciation of its definition, prevalence, and implications. This article introduces and answers 10 questions regarding OLDU in an effort to clarify the practice's meaning, breadth of application, acceptance, and liabilities. Off-label drug use involves prescribing medications for indications, or using a dosage or dosage form, that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Since the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate the practice of medicine, OLDU has become common. It occurs in every specialty of medicine, but it may be more common in areas of medicine in which the patient population is less likely to be included in clinical trials (eg, pediatric, pregnant, or psychiatric patients). Pharmaceutical companies are not allowed to promote their medications for an off-label use, which has lead to several large settlements for illegal marketing. To limit liability, physicians should prescribe medications only for indications that they believe are in the best interest of the patient. In addition, health care professionals should educate themselves about OLDU to weigh the risks and benefits and provide the best possible care for their patients. PMID:22877654

  10. Nested Logit Models for Multiple-Choice Item Response Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Youngsuk; Bolt, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    Nested logit item response models for multiple-choice data are presented. Relative to previous models, the new models are suggested to provide a better approximation to multiple-choice items where the application of a solution strategy precedes consideration of response options. In practice, the models also accommodate collapsibility across all

  11. The Effectiveness of Several Multiple-Choice Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Several multiple-choice item formats are examined in the current climate of test reform. The reform movement is discussed as it affects use of the following formats: (1) complex multiple-choice; (2) alternate choice; (3) true-false; (4) multiple true-false; and (5) the context dependent item set. (SLD)

  12. Reducing the Need for Guesswork in Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The humble multiple-choice test is very widely used within education at all levels, but its susceptibility to guesswork makes it a suboptimal assessment tool. The reliability of a multiple-choice test is partly governed by the number of items it contains; however, longer tests are more time consuming to take, and for some subject areas, it can be

  13. Reducing the Need for Guesswork in Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The humble multiple-choice test is very widely used within education at all levels, but its susceptibility to guesswork makes it a suboptimal assessment tool. The reliability of a multiple-choice test is partly governed by the number of items it contains; however, longer tests are more time consuming to take, and for some subject areas, it can be…

  14. Chemistry 300. Administration Manual for Supervising Teachers, Provincial Examination, Answer Key--Multiple-Choice and Written-Answer Questions, and Provincial Summary Report = Chimie 300. Guide d'administration a l'intention des surveillants d'examen, Examen provincial, Cle de correction--Questions choix multiple et Questions responses ouvertes, et Rapport sommaire provincial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This collection of manuals contains the Manitoba Provincial Chemistry Examination for students seeking credit in Senior 4 Chemistry (Chemistry 300) and instructions for its use and grading. The examination is based on the Core Topics of the Senior 4 Chemistry course and accounts for 30% of the student's final grade in the course. The examination

  15. Chemistry 300. Administration Manual for Supervising Teachers, Provincial Examination, Answer Key--Multiple-Choice and Written-Answer Questions, and Provincial Summary Report = Chimie 300. Guide d'administration a l'intention des surveillants d'examen, Examen provincial, Cle de correction--Questions choix multiple et Questions responses ouvertes, et Rapport sommaire provincial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This collection of manuals contains the Manitoba Provincial Chemistry Examination for students seeking credit in Senior 4 Chemistry (Chemistry 300) and instructions for its use and grading. The examination is based on the Core Topics of the Senior 4 Chemistry course and accounts for 30% of the student's final grade in the course. The examination…

  16. Geophysical Summer Field Camp: Answering questions about the subsurface for the local community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, K.; Batzle, M.; Liberty, L.; Raynolds, R.

    2008-12-01

    Summer Geophysics Field Camp is part of the core requirement for undergraduate Geophysics majors at Boise State University (CSM), as well as at Colorado School of Mines (CSM). We have found it to be most effectively taught when the target of the camp involves answering questions, which impact society. For example, currently the CSM/BSU geophysics summer camp focuses on ground water resources and geothermal potential in the Upper Arkansas River Basin, a part of the Rio Grande Rift system in Chaffee County, Colorado. A prime goal is to train students how to combine diverse sources of information into a unified interpretation: Students examine lithologies and structures on the periphery of the basin. Cross sections are constructed to predict the geophysical signature. Geophysical tools then are used to ascertain the gross structure and examine subsurface conditions in greater detail. These tools include surveying, regional gravity, deep and shallow seismic surveys, magnetics, DC resistivity, Ground Penetrating Radar, electromagnetics, hydrochemistry, and karaoke. While BSU and CSM own a considerable amount of geophysical hardware, our field camps are only possible because of extensive support by corporations and governmental agencies. In addition, the Society of Exploration Geohysics (SEG) Foundation provides financial support, Chaffee County assists with housing costs, and local land owners provide open access. In turn, the field camp results aid the community of Chaffee County in assessing their water resources for long term growth planning, as well as understanding the geothermal potential for hydroelectric power generation. BSU is currently exploring with the SEG Foundation under the Geophysicists Without Borders program to apply this model of combined education and social outreach in the form a geophysics camp for Southeast Asia, where we propose to study geohazards,geoarcheology and groundwater issues.

  17. The Place of Health Information and Socio-Emotional Support in Social Questioning and Answering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrall, Adam; Oh, Sanghee

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the quality of health information in social contexts or how socio-emotional factors impact users' evaluations of quality. We explored how librarians, nurses and users assessed the quality of health answers posted on Yahoo! Answers, focusing on socio-emotional reactions displayed, advice given to users and…

  18. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) Q-1: What does section 404(k)...

  19. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock...

  20. 26 CFR 7.105-1 - Questions and answers relating to exclusions of certain disability income payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... disabled as defined in 38 CFR 3.340 or 3.342 on January 1, 1976 or January 1, 1977. If retired on... Veterans Administration show that the taxpayer was permanently and totally disabled as defined in 38 CFR 3... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to exclusions...

  1. 78 FR 70953 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... the Federal Register of September 10, 2013 (78 FR 55261). In that notice, FDA requested public comment... Federal Register of September 10, 2013 (78 FR 55261), FDA announced the notice of availability for the... Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision 1); Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and...

  2. 29 CFR 2509.75-8 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility under the Employee Retirement Income...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fiduciary responsibility under the Act, thereby supplementing ERISA IB 75-5 (29 CFR 2555.75-5) which was... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility... INTERPRETIVE BULLETINS RELATING TO THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 2509.75-8...

  3. Where Have All the Teachers Gone? Finding Answers to the Most Basic Questions about California's Teacher Workforce. CenterView

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This policy brief presents a strong case for the creation of a statewide teacher data system in California by highlighting some of the simple teacher workforce questions that cannot be answered because such a system does not currently exist. At the state level, data on teacher qualifications are needed to fulfill the new reporting requirements of

  4. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) Q-1: What does section 404(k)...

  5. 26 CFR 1.79-4T - Questions and answers relating to the nondiscrimination requirements for group-term life...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the nondiscrimination requirements for group-term life insurance (temporary). 1.79-4T Section 1.79-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included...

  6. 26 CFR 7.105-1 - Questions and answers relating to exclusions of certain disability income payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to exclusions of certain disability income payments. 7.105-1 Section 7.105-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 7.105-1...

  7. 77 FR 51814 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ....'' The Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012 (GDUFA) is designed to speed the delivery of safe and... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  8. Answers to the Most Frequently Asked Questions about Reinspections under the AHERA Asbestos-In-Schools Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

    This document was prepared in response to inquiries that have been received by the Environmental Protection Agency concerning the reinspection requirements and related provisions of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) regulations. The answers developed represent the Agency's responses to the 15 most frequently asked questions to…

  9. Nevada Education Law: Federal and State Law Governing Nevada K-12 Education in Question/Answer Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Richard F.; Cockerill, Charles P.

    This book provides answers to the most common legal questions of Nevada's school board members, administrators, and educators. Chapter 1, "The Nevada School System: Governance, Programs, and Standards," explores the constitutional, legal, and statutory basis of school system governance. Chapter 2, "The Nevada Plan: Finance of Public Education,"

  10. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. 35.3405-1 Section 35.3405-1 Internal... withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. The following questions and answers relate to withholding on pensions, annuities, and other deferred income under section 3405 of...

  11. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. 35.3405-1 Section 35.3405-1 Internal... withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. The following questions and answers relate to withholding on pensions, annuities, and other deferred income under section 3405 of...

  12. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. 35.3405-1 Section 35.3405-1 Internal... withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. The following questions and answers relate to withholding on pensions, annuities, and other deferred income under section 3405 of...

  13. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. 35.3405-1 Section 35.3405-1 Internal... withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. The following questions and answers relate to withholding on pensions, annuities, and other deferred income under section 3405 of...

  14. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. 35.3405-1 Section 35.3405-1 Internal... withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. The following questions and answers relate to withholding on pensions, annuities, and other deferred income under section 3405 of...

  15. Talking with Children and Teens about Alzheimer's Disease: A Question and Answer Guidebook for Parents, Teachers and Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrea, James M.

    Professionals in the fields of nursing, education, health care, recreation, and social work, who specialize in dealing with Alzheimer's disease, wrote answers to questions collected from discussion sessions held at four Pennsylvania elder facilities and made suggestions for talking to young people about the disease and its impact. This guidebook

  16. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE...

  17. 26 CFR 1.168(j)-1T - Questions and answers concerning tax-exempt entity leasing rules (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... entity leasing rules (temporary). 1.168(j)-1T Section 1.168(j)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168(j)-1T Questions and answers concerning tax-exempt entity... section 168(j) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as enacted by section 31 of the Tax Reform Act...

  18. Using Question Answer Relationships in Science Instruction to Increase the Reading Achievement of Struggling Readers and Students with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinniburgh, Leah H.; Baxter, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    The Question Answer Relationship (QAR) literacy strategy was integrated into science instruction in a fourth grade classroom. Ten students who struggled with reading, including some who were diagnosed with a reading disability, participated in this study. Significant gains were made in reading by the 10 student participants in comprehending

  19. "Remember to Hand out Medals": Peer Rating and Expertise in a Question-and-Answer Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study of giving medals as part of a peer rating system in a question-and-answer (Q&A) study group on Python, a programming language. There are no professional teachers tutoring learners. The study aimed to understand whether and how medals, awarded to responses in a peer-based learning environment, can…

  20. Measuring the Consistency in Change in Hepatitis B Knowledge among Three Different Types of Tests: True/False, Multiple Choice, and Fill in the Blanks Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahai, Vic; Demeyere, Petra; Poirier, Sheila; Piro, Felice

    1998-01-01

    The recall of information about Hepatitis B demonstrated by 180 seventh graders was tested with three test types: (1) short-answer; (2) true/false; and (3) multiple-choice. Short answer testing was the most reliable. Suggestions are made for the use of short-answer tests in evaluating student knowledge. (SLD)

  1. The development and validation of a two-tiered multiple-choice instrument to identify alternative conceptions in earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangione, Katherine Anna

    This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and understanding of earth science concepts, and to describe relationships between content knowledge and alternative conceptions and planning instruction in the science classroom. Eighty-seven preservice teachers enrolled in the MAT program participated in this study. Sixty-eight participants were female, twelve were male, and seven chose not to answer. Forty-seven participants were in the elementary certification program, five were in the middle school certification program, and twenty-nine were pursuing secondary certification. Results indicate that the two-tiered, multiple-choice format can be a reliable and valid method for identifying alternative conceptions. Preservice teachers in all certification areas who participated in this study may possess common alternative conceptions previously identified in the literature. Alternative conceptions included: all rivers flow north to south, the shadow of the Earth covers the Moon causing lunar phases, the Sun is always directly overhead at noon, weather can be predicted by animal coverings, and seasons are caused by the Earth's proximity to the Sun. Statistical analyses indicated differences, however not all of them significant, among all subgroups according to gender and certification area. Generally males outperformed females and preservice teachers pursuing middle school certification had higher scores on the questionnaire followed by those obtaining secondary certification. Elementary preservice teachers scored the lowest. Additionally, self-reported scores of confidence in one's answers and understanding of the earth science concept in question were analyzed. There was a slight positive correlation between overall score and both confidence and understanding. Responses on the questionnaire were investigated with respect to pedagogical choices. Evidence suggests that content knowledge and having alternative conceptions or science fragments may impact a teacher's pedagogical choices. Through careful development of instruments like ACES-Q II-R and other two- tiered, multiple-choice instruments, educators and researchers car not only identify possible alternative conceptions, they can raise an awareness of alternative conceptions held by children and adults.

  2. Multiple choice health insurance: the lessons and challenge to employers.

    PubMed

    Enthoven, A C

    1990-01-01

    This paper offers a second opinion on the issues discussed by Stanley B. Jones in his paper, "Multiple Choice Health Insurance: The Lessons and Challenge to Private Insurers" in the Summer 1990 issue of Inquiry. Multiple choice of health plans is not containing costs of health care or insurance premiums because employers have not yet tried price competition with cost-conscious consumer choice. HMOs in multiple choice arrangements have not saved employers money because of the way employers manage competition. Effective management of competition must be an active process employing an array of tools to create incentives that reward production of high quality economical care. PMID:2148310

  3. A (1)-(2)-(3) Jumpstart Approach to Answer an Open-Ended Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFina, Anthony V.

    2012-01-01

    I propose three guided questions for reflection as a jumpstart organizational formula for students with poor writing application skills to follow when responding to an open-ended question. The recipe prescribes that the student (1) understand the question design, (2) identify the intent or objective of the question, and (3) proceed to identify the

  4. The communication skills used by deaf children and their hearing peers in a question-and-answer game context.

    PubMed

    Toe, Dianne M; Paatsch, Louise E

    2010-01-01

    Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in a "trivia" game with their hearing peers. Thirty-four children with normal hearing and 34 children with a hearing loss ranging from mild to profound (>90 dB HL) participated in this study. Each of the 34 dyads included 1 child with normal hearing and 1 child with hearing loss, matched by gender and grade level at school. Dyads were videotaped and analyzed. Pairs were compared in terms of their capacity to repeat the question, strategies used to seek information, and accuracy of responses. Results showed that the group of hearing children was able to repeat more questions verbatim compared to the deaf/HH children. The deaf/HH group required a significantly greater number of repetitions, sought a greater number of general clarifications, and correctly answered more questions compared with the group of hearing children. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of peer communication and pragmatic skill development. PMID:20299450

  5. Towards spoken clinical-question answering: evaluating and adapting automatic speech-recognition systems for spoken clinical questions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifan; Tur, Gokhan; Hakkani-Tr, Dilek

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate existing automatic speech-recognition (ASR) systems to measure their performance in interpreting spoken clinical questions and to adapt one ASR system to improve its performance on this task. Design and measurements The authors evaluated two well-known ASR systems on spoken clinical questions: Nuance Dragon (both generic and medical versions: Nuance Gen and Nuance Med) and the SRI Decipher (the generic version SRI Gen). The authors also explored language model adaptation using more than 4000 clinical questions to improve the SRI system's performance, and profile training to improve the performance of the Nuance Med system. The authors reported the results with the NIST standard word error rate (WER) and further analyzed error patterns at the semantic level. Results Nuance Gen and Med systems resulted in a WER of 68.1% and 67.4% respectively. The SRI Gen system performed better, attaining a WER of 41.5%. After domain adaptation with a language model, the performance of the SRI system improved 36% to a final WER of 26.7%. Conclusion Without modification, two well-known ASR systems do not perform well in interpreting spoken clinical questions. With a simple domain adaptation, one of the ASR systems improved significantly on the clinical question task, indicating the importance of developing domain/genre-specific ASR systems. PMID:21705457

  6. The methods that college students use to answer questions about stereochemistry involving spatial ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strange de Soria, Luise Ethelyn

    Introduction. The research problem investigated involved determining the spatial techniques used by students when they solved problems relating to stereochemistry using both traditional and non-traditional techniques. The main reason for undertaking this study was to determine how to help students invoke their spatial ability in solving problems during their organic chemistry courses. The project allowed students to generate their own understanding of the material, to gain experience in order to increase their knowledge, and to be actively involved in the learning process in order for true understanding to take place. Methods. The qualitative methodology for the project included a background questionnaire and the Purdue Visualization of Rotations Exam to determine the five students to be interviewed. The class participated in three multimedia lectures, an in-class assignment, and an on-line homework activity, which allowed multiple ways of incorporating the material. These activities included hand-drawing structures, making non-traditional models as well as traditional models, and computer related exercises that required differing aspects of spatial ability and engagement. Five students participated in an individual and small group interview in which rotation ability as well as visualization ability was assessed using physical molecular models as well as computer models. Results. This study is significant for the field of science education and chemistry because it determined that students with varying levels of spatial ability preferred different tools and used different skills when answering questions about stereochemistry that require spatial ability. There was a pronounced difference in the ability of low and high spatial ability students to draw and make structures that required three-dimensional aspects. A distinct preference for working with the physical model kit over the computer-enhanced program was also noted. An online resource for instructors and students of organic chemistry to use when studying stereochemistry was developed during the project. Conclusions. The potential impact on teaching and learning is that other instructors of chemistry will be able to develop problems and training sessions for their specific students that are "tailor made" to fit their students' abilities and interests. Consequently, students with either high or low spatial ability can work problems with tools that best fit their skills.

  7. Discovery and New Frontiers: Science Missions Seeking New Answers to Timeless Questions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, S.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers missions EPOXI, Stardust-NExT, Dawn, MESSENGER, Juno, and GRAIL help comprise NASA’s Year of the Solar System. Each of these investigations is seeking answers to key science questions and each has a unique approach to sharing that quest with the public. To date, spacecraft have photographed only four comets up close. What new information will EPOXI uncover when it flies by comet Hartley 2? Will it be similar to the others or very different? How will comet Tempel 1 appear to Stardust-NExT? The Deep Impact mission sent an impactor into the path of Tempel 1 in 2005. What changes will be visible in this unprecedented return visit? Will we finally see the crater made by the impact? Dawn will arrive at asteroid Vesta in July for a year-long orbit. Then it will millions of miles more to go into orbit around dwarf planet Ceres. Using the same science instruments to study both will yield important new information. MESSENGER has already discovered new phenomena and collected considerable data in its three flybys of Mercury. Once the orbiting phase begins, this dynamic planet is guaranteed to put on a spectacular show. Juno is traveling to the massive gas giant Jupiter to extend our knowledge about this wondrous body. Does it have a solid core? How much water does the atmosphere contain? How does the planet’s enormous magnetic force field affect its atmosphere? GRAIL will send twin space probes flying in tandem around the Moon to take precise gravity field measurements to help determine the structure and composition of the lunar interior from crust to core. In early 2011, the Discovery and New Frontiers Programs are planning a teacher “workshop without walls” to help celebrate YSS! Teachers will gather at 4 or 5 sites across the country, including California, Texas, Minnesota, and Maryland, and tune in via NASA’s digital learning network to hear talks about the missions and their science objectives. The workshops will also include trainings with hands-on activities the teachers can take back to their classroom.

  8. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; questions and answers... Not Deductible § 1.267(a)-2T Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). (a) Introduction—(1) Scope. This section prescribes temporary question...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary). The following question and...

  10. 26 CFR 54.4977-1T - Questions and answers relating to the election concerning lines of business in existence on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the election... TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4977-1T Questions and answers relating to the election concerning lines of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). The following questions and...

  11. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) generally. The following questions and answers deal with the application of section 267(a)(2) and (b... new section 267(b)(3) relationship added by the Tax Reform Act of 1984) of section 1245 class property...) Questions applying section 267(a) to partnerships. The following questions and answers deal with...

  12. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) generally. The following questions and answers deal with the application of section 267(a)(2) and (b... new section 267(b)(3) relationship added by the Tax Reform Act of 1984) of section 1245 class property...) Questions applying section 267(a) to partnerships. The following questions and answers deal with...

  13. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) generally. The following questions and answers deal with the application of section 267(a)(2) and (b... new section 267(b)(3) relationship added by the Tax Reform Act of 1984) of section 1245 class property...) Questions applying section 267(a) to partnerships. The following questions and answers deal with...

  14. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions 31.3121(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary). The following question and...

  15. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions 31.3121(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary). The following question and...

  16. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions 31.3121(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary). The following question and...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions 31.3121(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary). The following question and...

  18. Concept Learning versus Problem Solving: Evaluating a Threat to the Validity of a Particulate Gas Law Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Vaughn, C. Kevin; Binkley, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Three different samples of students were asked to answer five multiple-choice questions concerning the properties of a sample of helium gas (particle speed, state of matter, sample volume, sample pressure, and particle distribution), including a particulate question first used by Nurrenbern and Pickering (particle distribution). In the first…

  19. Concept Learning versus Problem Solving: Evaluating a Threat to the Validity of a Particulate Gas Law Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Vaughn, C. Kevin; Binkley, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Three different samples of students were asked to answer five multiple-choice questions concerning the properties of a sample of helium gas (particle speed, state of matter, sample volume, sample pressure, and particle distribution), including a particulate question first used by Nurrenbern and Pickering (particle distribution). In the first

  20. To Change or Not to Change: Investigating the Value of MCQ Answer Changing for Gulf Arab Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hamly, Mashael; Coombe, Christine

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates whether the practice of answer changing on multiple-choice questions (MCQs) is beneficial to Gulf Arab students' overall test performance. The proficiency exam used in this study is the Michigan English Language Institute College English Test - Grammar, Cloze, Vocabulary, Reading (MELICET-GCVR), which was developed using

  1. Polytomous versus Dichotomous Scoring on Multiple-Choice Examinations: Development of a Rubric for Rating Partial Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunert, Megan L.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of assigning partial credit on multiple-choice test items is considered for items from ACS Exams. Because the items on these exams, particularly the quantitative items, use common student errors to define incorrect answers, it is possible to assign partial credits to some of these incorrect responses. To do so, however, it becomes…

  2. Polytomous versus Dichotomous Scoring on Multiple-Choice Examinations: Development of a Rubric for Rating Partial Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunert, Megan L.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of assigning partial credit on multiple-choice test items is considered for items from ACS Exams. Because the items on these exams, particularly the quantitative items, use common student errors to define incorrect answers, it is possible to assign partial credits to some of these incorrect responses. To do so, however, it becomes

  3. On the Relative Value of Multiple-Choice, Constructed Response, and Examinee-Selected Items on Two Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukhele, Robert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Fitting item response models to data from 2 Advanced Placement exams (18,462 and 82,842 students) demonstrates that constructed response items add little to information provided by multiple choice and that scoring on the basis of student item selection gives almost as much information as scoring on the basis of answers. (SLD)

  4. Beyond the Bubble: How to Use Multiple-Choice Tests to Improve Math Instruction, Grades 4-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickett, Maryann; Hendrix-Martin, Eunice

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-choice testing is an educational reality. Rather than complain about the negative impact these tests may have on teaching and learning, why not use them to better understand your students' true mathematical knowledge and comprehension? Maryann Wickett and Eunice Hendrix-Martin show teachers how to move beyond the student's answer--right

  5. The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

    2009-04-01

    Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple" compatibility. 100% protection against the 100 year event shows to be the optimal degree of protection. Consequently, impacts statistically less frequent than once in 100 year are accepted as the remaining risk. Such floods and debris flows respectively cause a fan of propagation which is substantially reduced due to the protection measures against the 100 year event. III) The "triple loss distribution" shows the monetized triple damage, dependent on its probability. The monetization is performed by the social process of participation of the impacted interests, if not, by official experts in representation. The triple loss distribution rises in time mainly due to the rise in density and value of precious goods. A comparison of the distributions of the triple loss and the triple risk, behaving in opposite direction, is shown and explained within the project. IV) The recommended yearly reserves to be stocked for restoration and compensation of losses, caused by debris flows, amount to 70'000.- according to the approach of the "technical risk premium". The discrepancy in comparison with the much higher amounts according to the common approaches of natural hazards engineering are discussed. V) The sustainable mix of hydraulic and forestry measures with the highest return on investment at lowest risk is performed according to the portfolio theory (Markowitz), based on the triple value curves, generated by the method of TripelBudgetierung. Accordingly, the optimum mix of measures to protect the community of Inzing against the natural hazard of debris flow, thus, the most efficient allocation of resources equals to 2/3 for hydraulic, 1/3 for forestry measures. In detail, the results of the research pilot project "Nachhaltiges Risikomanagement - Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria" may be consulted under www.ibu.hsr.ch/inzing.

  6. Simulation-based multiple-choice test assessment of clinical competence for large groups of medical students: a comparison of auscultation sound identification either with or without clinical context

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Diem Quyen; Patenaude, Jean Victor; Gagnon, Robert; Deligne, Benoit; Bouthillier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Although simulation-based teaching is popular, high-fidelity, high-cost approaches may be unsuitable or unavailable for use with large groups. We designed a multiple-choice test for large groups of medical students to explore a low-cost approach in assessing clinical competence. We tested two different scenarios in assessing students ability to identify heart and lung sounds: by hearing the sounds alone, or in an enhanced scenario where sounds are incorporated into clinical vignettes to give clinical context. Method The two-section test consists of multiple-choice questions with one best answer. In the first section, the student must identify 25 auscultation sounds from amongst a choice of 14 heart sounds and 11 lung-sounds. The second section integrates these same sounds into clinical vignettes to provide clinical context. Students must either identify the illness or the next clinical step, choosing from four possible answers. Performances of 859 students were evaluated. Results The alpha coefficient of reliability is 0.54 and 0.76 respectively for the first and the second section. In the latter section there is significant difference between scores of first, second, fourth year students and residents, in contrast to the first-section scores. Conclusions A multiple-choice test to assess clinical competence based on simulated auscultation sounds incorporated into clinical vignettes allows us to differentiate between training levels and seems to be a valid assessment method suitable for large-group format. PMID:26451229

  7. Usage of Multiple-Choice Examinations in Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerfeld, Jude T.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses rationale for and use of multiple choice examinations in material balances, unit operations, reactor design, and process control courses. Describes computer scoring of student reaction to, and future plans for these examinations. (SK)

  8. Randomized controlled trials in evidence-based mental health care: getting the right answer to the right question.

    PubMed

    Essock, Susan M; Drake, Robert E; Frank, Richard G; McGuire, Thomas G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of clinical research is to answer this question: Would a new treatment, when added to the existing range of treatment options available in practice, help patients? Randomized controlled trials (RCTs)--in particular, double-blind RCTs--have important methodological advantages over observational studies for addressing this question. These advantages, however, come at a price. RCTs compare treatments using a particular allocation rule for assigning patients to treatments (random assignment) that does not mimic real-world practice. "Favorable" results from an RCT indicating that a new treatment is superior to existing treatments are neither necessary nor sufficient for establishing a "yes" answer to the question posed above. Modeled on an experimental design, RCTs are expensive in time and money and must compare simple differences in treatments. Findings have a high internal validity but may not address the needs of the field, particularly where treatment is complex and rapidly evolving. Design of clinical research needs to take account of the way treatments are allocated in actual practice and include flexible designs to answer important questions most effectively. PMID:12908666

  9. Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…

  10. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS MOST FREQUENTLY ASKED BY VISITORS TO FLINT'S COMMUNITY SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint Board of Education, MI.

    QUESTIONS ARE RAISED CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MOTT FOUNDATION PROGRAM, THE FLINT BOARD OF EDUCATION, THE COST OF THE PROGRAM, AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL PROGRAM. QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL DIRECTOR RANGE FROM HIS ROLE TO HIS ON-THE-JOB TRAINING. QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO ADULT EDUCATION AND THE

  11. Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the

  12. Vermont Public Library Almanac: A Compendium of Often-Answered Questions. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotch, Marianne

    This document contains brief answers to some of the most frequently raised issues related to running a small Vermont public library. Areas covered include accessibility, the American Library Association, automation, awards, binding, services for the blind and physically handicapped, the Board of Libraries, the Board of Trustees, book dealers, book

  13. Do Students Know if They Answered Particular Questions Correctly on a Psychology Exam?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Gary T.; Soper, Barlow; McKnight, Richard R.; Price, A. W.; Boudreaux, Monique; Rachal, K. Chris

    2010-01-01

    The current study explores students' abilities to make different metacognitive judgments about the same material. Sophomores in a psychology class indicated how confident they were that each answer on their final was correct (micro-level judgments) and pre- postdicted their overall score (macro-level judgments). Students made the series of simpler

  14. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from Amazon Mechanical Turk, it turned out that the two types of questions performed very closely on all the three measures.

  15. 26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions entered into before the effective date of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.165-13T Section 1.165-13T Internal Revenue INTERNAL...

  16. Analysis of Student Responses to Peer-Instruction Conceptual Questions Answered Using an Electronic Response System: Trends by Gender and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steer, David; McConnell, David; Gray, Kyle; Kortz, Karen; Liang, Xin

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated students' answers to geoscience conceptual questions answered using electronic personal response systems. Answer patterns were examined to evaluate the peer-instruction pedagogical approach in a large general education classroom setting. (Contains 3 figures and 2 tables.)

  17. Question-Answering Behaviors in ESL and EFL Classrooms: Similarities and Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Mikio

    A study examined student responses to teacher-initiated questions in classrooms of English as a Second Language (ESL) and English as a Foreign Language (EFL). The study focused specifically on the similarities and differences in the questions asked by native-speaking (NS) teachers of ESL and by non-native-speaking (NNS) teachers of EFL, and to

  18. 78 FR 44483 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    .... Background In the Federal Register of July 9, 2009 (74 FR 33030), FDA issued a final rule requiring shell egg... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 118 Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and... announcing the availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Questions and...

  19. The Role of Perceptual Availability and Discourse Context in Young Children's Question Answering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomo, Dorothe; Graf, Eileen; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Three- and four-year-old children were asked predicate-focus questions ("What's X doing?") about a scene in which an agent performed an action on a patient. We varied: (i) whether (or not) the preceding discourse context, which established the patient as given information, was available for the questioner; and (ii) whether (or not) the patient was

  20. 26 CFR 1.505(c)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the notification requirement for recognition of exemption under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to the notification requirement for recognition of exemption under paragraphs (9), (17) and (20) of Section 501(c... Questions and answers relating to the notification requirement for recognition of exemption under...

  1. 26 CFR 1.162-10T - Questions and answers relating to the deduction of employee benefits under the Tax Reform Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the deduction of employee benefits under the Tax Reform Act of 1984; certain limits on amounts deductible... and Corporations § 1.162-10T Questions and answers relating to the deduction of employee...

  2. 26 CFR 1.133-1T - Questions and answers relating to interest on certain loans used to acquire employer securities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to interest on certain loans used to acquire employer securities (temporary). 1.133-1T Section 1.133-1T Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.133-1T Questions and answers relating...

  3. 26 CFR 54.4978-1T - Questions and answers relating to the tax on certain dispositions by employee stock ownership...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the tax on certain dispositions by employee stock ownership plans and certain cooperatives (temporary). 54.4978-1T...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4978-1T Questions and answers relating to...

  4. Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2010: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Talking about Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  5. Astronaut Jeff Williams Answers Your Questions - Duration: 6 minutes, 50 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams, aboard the International Space Station 220 miles above Earth, responds to questions posted on YouTube concerning the station's orientation, life in space and ...

  6. Questions and answers on release notification requirements and reportable quantity adjustments

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    EPA is providing the document to promote better understanding of CERCLA and EPCRA release notification requirements and Reportable Quantity (RQ) adjustment issues. Questions are organized by broad subject categories. The table of contents lists topics addressed in each subject section. An index helps the reader locate questions according to key words or issues, and a regulatory index lists topic areas with corresponding regulatory citations where topics are addressed in more detail.

  7. Discussing the diagnosis of HPV-OSCC: common questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Fakhry, Carole; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2013-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a rising proportion of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers (OSCCs). HPV-positive OSCCs (HPV-OSCCs) are associated with oral HPV infection and sexual behavior. Patient questions regarding risk factors, prognosis and implications for past, present and future relationships often arise. This manuscript addresses frequently asked questions by patients with HPV-OSCC and their families. A framework for clinicians to address these conversations and the limitations of our present knowledge base is also presented. PMID:23876627

  8. Primary sleep disorders in people with epilepsy: clinical questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Grigg-Damberger, Madeleine M; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The questions facing clinicians with patients with sleep disorder and epilepsy are addressed in this article. Both adult and child epilepsy are discussed in the context of the most typical questions a clinician would have, such as "Are parasomnias more common in people with epilepsy?", "Is sleep architecture abnormal in children with epilepsy", along with outcomes of numerous questionnaire-based, case-based, and double-blind placebo studies on such aspects as sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, anxiety and fears, limb movement, nocturnal seizures, agitation, behavioral disorders, and learning disorders. PMID:25455580

  9. 77 FR 50372 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 33030), we issued a final rule requiring shell egg producers to implement measures to... the Federal Register of July 13, 2011 (76 FR 41157), we made available a draft guidance entitled... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 16 and 118 Guidance for Industry: Questions...

  10. Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the

  11. Re-Appropriating a Question/Answer System to Support Dialectical Constructivist Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John M.; Wu, Yu; Shih, Patrick C.; Zheng, Saijing

    2016-01-01

    Learning can be engaged by dialectic, that is, by identifying pros and cons that inhere in propositions, and more generally, by raising questions about the validity of claims. We report here on a classroom case study of dialectical constructivist pedagogy: Students created dialectical analyses of two lectures and four books as core activities in a…

  12. [The answers to the questions. The difficult academic and professional equilibrium in pre-European Spain].

    PubMed

    Medina Moya, Jos Luis

    2005-10-01

    After the sweep of the three preceding articles, the author responds to the questions posed in the first article, concluding that a turn towards a practical-reflexive position can, over the medium term, solve the tensions which the positivist conceptions have created between knowledge and professional action. A bibliography for all four articles is included. PMID:16304828

  13. These Two Cases Raise Key Questions (But Offer Ambiguous Answers) about School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendor, Benjamin

    1987-01-01

    Procedural burden-of-proof issues led Federal Circuit Courts to affirm changes in pupil assignment systems in Norfolk, Virginia, but reject changes in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The Supreme Court's decision not to review the Virginia case leaves school boards and federal courts without guidance on questions raised by resegregation. (MLF)

  14. Multi-scale ecosystem monitoring: an application of scaling data to answer multiple ecological questions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Question/Methods Standardized monitoring data collection efforts using a probabilistic sample design, such as in the Bureau of Land Managements (BLM) Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring (AIM) Strategy, provide a core suite of ecological indicators, maximize data collection efficiency,...

  15. A Whole Language Program in the Intermediate Grades: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma; Davies, Anne

    Focusing on a whole language program for the middle grades in Canada's Northwest Territories, this interview transcript consists of responses by Anne Davies, a teacher from Yellow Knife, in the Northwest Territories, and currently a doctoral student, to questions posed by Norma Mickelson, a professor at the University of Victoria in British

  16. Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

  17. Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

  18. "Don't Know" Responding to Answerable and Unanswerable Questions during Misleading and Hypnotic Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving

    2008-01-01

    "Don't know" (DK) responses to interview questions are conceptually heterogeneous, and may represent uncertainty or clear statements about the contents of memory. A study examined the subjective intent of DK responses in relation to the objective status of information queried, in the context of memory distorting procedures. Participants viewed a…

  19. The Answer Depends on the Question: A Reply to Eric Jensen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The question that Eric Jensen addresses in his article is whether brain research can provide a basis for educational practice. He debates John Bruer, president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, and argues that brain research can, in fact, provide a basis for what educators do. Most of Jensen's article is devoted to showing ways in which brain

  20. Re-Appropriating a Question/Answer System to Support Dialectical Constructivist Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John M.; Wu, Yu; Shih, Patrick C.; Zheng, Saijing

    2016-01-01

    Learning can be engaged by dialectic, that is, by identifying pros and cons that inhere in propositions, and more generally, by raising questions about the validity of claims. We report here on a classroom case study of dialectical constructivist pedagogy: Students created dialectical analyses of two lectures and four books as core activities in a