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1

How an enzyme answers multiple-choice questions.  

PubMed

Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) is the first common enzyme in the pathway for the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids. Interest in the enzyme has escalated over the past 20 years since it was discovered that AHAS is the target of the sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides. However, several questions regarding the reaction mechanism have remained unanswered, particularly the way in which AHAS "chooses" its second substrate. A new method for the detection of reaction intermediates enables calculation of the microscopic rate constants required to explain this phenomenon. PMID:15896736

McCourt, Jennifer A; Duggleby, Ronald G

2005-05-01

2

Improving Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A MC (multiple-choice) question can be defined as a question in which students are asked to select one alternative from a given set of alternatives in response to a question stem. The objective of this paper is to analyse if MC questions may be considered as an interesting alternative for assessing knowledge, particularly in the mathematics area,…

Torres, Cristina; Lopes, Ana Paula; Babo, Lurdes; Azevedo, Jose

2011-01-01

3

Further Support for Changing Multiple-Choice Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect on test scores of changing answers to multiple-choice questions was studied and compared to earlier research. The current setting was a nationally administered, in-training, specialty examination for medical residents in obstetrics and gynecology. Both low and high scorers improved their scores when they changed answers. (SW)

Fabrey, Lawrence J.; Case, Susan M.

1985-01-01

4

Analyzing Student Confidence in Classroom Voting with Multiple Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to present results of a recent study in which students voted on multiple choice questions in mathematics courses of varying levels. Students used clickers to select the best answer among the choices given; in addition, they were also asked whether they were confident in their answer. In this paper we analyze data…

Stewart, Ann; Storm, Christopher; VonEpps, Lahna

2013-01-01

5

Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance of the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-04-24

6

Retrieval practice with short-answer, multiple-choice, and hybrid tests.  

PubMed

Retrieval practice improves meaningful learning, and the most frequent way of implementing retrieval practice in classrooms is to have students answer questions. In four experiments (N=372) we investigated the effects of different question formats on learning. Students read educational texts and practised retrieval by answering short-answer, multiple-choice, or hybrid questions. In hybrid conditions students first attempted to recall answers in short-answer format, then identified answers in multiple-choice format. We measured learning 1 week later using a final assessment with two types of questions: those that could be answered by recalling information verbatim from the texts and those that required inferences. Practising retrieval in all format conditions enhanced retention, relative to a study-only control condition, on both verbatim and inference questions. However, there were little or no advantages of answering short-answer or hybrid format questions over multiple-choice questions in three experiments. In Experiment 4, when retrieval success was improved under initial short-answer conditions, there was an advantage of answering short-answer or hybrid questions over multiple-choice questions. The results challenge the simple conclusion that short-answer questions always produce the best learning, due to increased retrieval effort or difficulty, and demonstrate the importance of retrieval success for retrieval-based learning activities. PMID:24059563

Smith, Megan A; Karpicke, Jeffrey D

2014-10-01

7

Writing/Using Multiple-Choice Questions to Assess Higher-Order Thinking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most graduate entrance exams (including the GRE, MCAT, and DAT) are based on multiple-choice questions. Many later exams, such as the medical board exams, are also multiple choice. Therefore, it is important to make sure that students are prepared for higher-order multiple choice exams and the reasoning that is required to answer the questions in a proficient manner. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Preface, and Index. As a special bonus, Chapter 24, entitled Eleven Assessment Lessons Learned at the Gate is also included.

Kerry L. Cheesman, Capital University, Columbus, Ohio

2009-02-01

8

Answering Essay Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the homework I have assigned in physics courses has been of the problem-solving type, although I do assign a few essay questions for most chapters. I have also taught qualitative science courses in which most of the homework and exams involved either multiple-choice or essay questions. What I find surprising is that all physics textbooks go into detail on how to solve physics problems (determining what is asked, choosing the proper formula, showing the work clearly, and checking the results) but never say anything about answering essay questions. Teachers and authors might answer my criticism by saying, ``Isn't it obvious how to answer an essay question?'' Based on my experiences, I do not think it is obvious to a good number of students.

Debuvitz, William

2008-03-01

9

Analysis of Student Performance on Multiple-Choice Questions in General Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The percentage of students choosing the correct answer (PSCA) on 17 multiple-choice algorithmic questions taken from general chemistry exams is analyzed. PSCAs for these questions varied from 47 to 93%, and a decrease of 4.5% in PSCA was observed with each additional step in the algorithm required for solving the problem (R[superscript 2] = 0.80).…

Hartman, JudithAnn R.; Lin, Shirley

2011-01-01

10

Testing Historical Knowledge: Standards, Multiple-Choice Questions and Student Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the reasoning employed by high school students to answer a set of multiple-choice history questions. The questions come from New York State's Global History and Geography Regents exam. The Regents exams, together with a particularly well-regarded and ambitious set of content standards, are the cornerstone of the state's…

Reich, Gabriel A.

2009-01-01

11

GUIDELINES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS TESTS  

PubMed Central

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) are generally recognized as the most widely applicable and useful type of objective test items. They could be used to measure the most important educational outcomes - knowledge, understanding, judgment and problem solving. The objective of this paper is to give guidelines for the construction of MCQs tests. This includes the construction of both “single best option” type, and “extended matching item” type. Some templates for use in the “single best option” type of questions are recommended.

Al-Rukban, Mohammed O.

2006-01-01

12

A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

2011-01-01

13

Multiple-Choice and Short-Answer Exam Performance in a College Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors experimentally investigated the effects of multiple-choice and short-answer format exam items on exam performance in a college classroom. They randomly assigned 50 students to take a 10-item short-answer pretest or posttest on two 50-item multiple-choice exams in an introduction to personality course. Students performed significantly…

Funk, Steven C.; Dickson, K. Laurie

2011-01-01

14

A practical discussion to avoid common pitfalls when constructing multiple choice questions items  

PubMed Central

This paper is an attempt to produce a guide for improving the quality of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) used in undergraduate and postgraduate assessment. Multiple Choice Questions type is the most frequently used type of assessment worldwide. Well constructed, context rich MCQs have a high reliability per hour of testing. Avoidance of technical items flaws is essential to improve the validity evidence of MCQs. Technical item flaws are essentially of two types (i) related to testwiseness, (ii) related to irrelevant difficulty. A list of such flaws is presented together with discussion of each flaw and examples to facilitate learning of this paper and to make it learner friendly. This paper was designed to be interactive with self-assessment exercises followed by the key answer with explanations.

Al-Faris, Eiad A.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Abdel-Hameed, Ahmad A.; Al-Rukban, Mohammed O.

2010-01-01

15

Graded Multiple Choice Questions: Rewarding Understanding and Preventing Plagiarism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an easily implemented method that allows the generation and analysis of graded multiple-choice examinations. The technique, which uses standard functions in user-end software (Microsoft Excel 5+), can also produce several different versions of an examination that can be employed to prevent plagiarism. (MM)

Denyer, Gareth; Hancock, Dale

2002-01-01

16

Approaches to data analysis of multiple-choice questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics education research. We minimize mathematics, instead placing emphasis on data interpretation using these approaches.

Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

2010-06-29

17

Can free-response questions be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions can be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another, similar introductory physics course on the final exam. Our findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance on the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2013-08-01

18

Peer generation of multiple-choice questions: student engagement and experiences.  

PubMed

A free online system for generation of multiple-choice questions (PeerWise) was implemented in three courses (course A, B, and C) in two different years (second and third year) of a veterinary degree program. Students were asked to author questions, and answer and rate each other's questions. Student experiences of the system were explored using an online survey. The majority of students in both years either agreed or strongly agreed that both authoring and answering questions was helpful for their studies and wanted to use the system again in future courses. Thematic analysis highlighted students' views that engaging with the resource increased breadth and depth of knowledge and understanding and was very useful for revision purposes. There was a statistically significant difference between students in second and third year regarding whether students felt it was necessary for academic staff to be involved in the review process. Thematic analysis of this aspect identified issues relating to confidence in the ability of the peer group and the need for reassurance in the second-year group. Student engagement with the system was correlated with examination performance. In courses A and B there was a positive correlation between number of questions answered and examination performance, in course C there was no correlation. This study highlights the benefits of peer activity around question generation and proposes that such activities are an efficient and effective means to support student learning. PMID:23187030

Rhind, Susan M; Pettigrew, Graham W

2012-01-01

19

Memorial Consequences of Answering SAT II Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many thousands of students take standardized tests every year. In the current research, we asked whether answering standardized test questions affects students' later test performance. Prior research has shown both positive and negative effects of multiple-choice testing on later tests, with negative effects arising from students selecting…

Marsh, Elizabeth J.; Agarwal, Pooja K.; Roediger, Henry L., III

2009-01-01

20

Improving multiple-choice questions to better assess dental student knowledge: distractor utilization in oral and maxillofacial pathology course examinations.  

PubMed

How many incorrect response options (known as distractors) to use in multiple-choice questions has been the source of considerable debate in the assessment literature, especially relative to influence on the likelihood of students' guessing the correct answer. This study compared distractor use by second-year dental students in three successive oral and maxillofacial pathology classes that had three different examination question formats and scoring resulting in different levels of academic performance. One class was given all multiple-choice questions; the two other were given half multiple-choice questions, with and without formula scoring, and half un-cued short-answer questions. Use by at least 1 percent of the students was found to better identify functioning distractors than higher cutoffs. The average number of functioning distractors differed among the three classes and did not always correspond to differences in class scores. Increased numbers of functioning distractors were associated with higher question discrimination and greater question difficulty. Fewer functioning distractors fostered more effective student guessing and overestimation of academic achievement. Appropriate identification of functioning distractors is essential for improving examination quality and better estimating actual student knowledge through retrospective use of formula scoring, where the amount subtracted for incorrect answers is based on the harmonic mean number of functioning distractors. PMID:24319131

McMahan, C Alex; Pinckard, R Neal; Prihoda, Thomas J; Hendricson, William D; Jones, Anne Cale

2013-12-01

21

Quality Multiple-Choice Test Questions: Item-Writing Guidelines and an Analysis of Auditing Testbanks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of test item banks in 10 auditing textbooks found that 75% of questions violated one or more guidelines for multiple-choice items. In comparison, 70% of a certified public accounting exam bank had no violations. (SK)

Hansen, James D.; Dexter, Lee

1997-01-01

22

Measuring University students' understanding of the greenhouse effect - a comparison of multiple-choice, short answer and concept sketch assessment tools with respect to students' mental models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greenhouse effect comes up in most discussions about climate and is a key concept related to climate change. Existing studies have shown that students and adults alike lack a detailed understanding of this important concept or might hold misconceptions. We studied the effectiveness of different interventions on University-level students' understanding of the greenhouse effect. Introductory level science students were tested for their pre-knowledge of the greenhouse effect using validated multiple-choice questions, short answers and concept sketches. All students participated in a common lesson about the greenhouse effect and were then randomly assigned to one of two lab groups. One group explored an existing simulation about the greenhouse effect (PhET-lesson) and the other group worked with absorption spectra of different greenhouse gases (Data-lesson) to deepen the understanding of the greenhouse effect. All students completed the same assessment including multiple choice, short answers and concept sketches after participation in their lab lesson. 164 students completed all the assessments, 76 completed the PhET lesson and 77 completed the data lesson. 11 students missed the contrasting lesson. In this presentation we show the comparison between the multiple-choice questions, short answer questions and the concept sketches of students. We explore how well each of these assessment types represents student's knowledge. We also identify items that are indicators of the level of understanding of the greenhouse effect as measured in correspondence of student answers to an expert mental model and expert responses. Preliminary data analysis shows that student who produce concept sketch drawings that come close to expert drawings also choose correct multiple-choice answers. However, correct multiple-choice answers are not necessarily an indicator that a student produces an expert-like correlating concept sketch items. Multiple-choice questions that require detailed knowledge of the greenhouse effect (e.g. direction of re-emission of infrared energy from greenhouse gas) are significantly more likely to be answered correctly by students who also produce expert-like concept sketch items than by students who don't include this aspect in their sketch and don't answer the multiple choice questions correctly. This difference is not as apparent for less technical multiple-choice questions (e.g. type of radiation emitted by Sun). Our findings explore the formation of student's mental models throughout different interventions and how well the different assessment techniques used in this study represent the student understanding of the overall concept.

Gold, A. U.; Harris, S. E.

2013-12-01

23

The Use of Management and Marketing Textbook Multiple-Choice Questions: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management and marketing professors classified multiple-choice questions in four widely adopted introductory textbooks in their respective disciplines according to the two basic cognitive levels of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives: knowledge and intellectual ability and skill. Eighty-seven percent of management and 65% of marketing questions measure the lower level, knowledge. Textbook test files classify the cognitive level of their questions,

David R. Hampton; Kathleen A. Krentler; Aleza B. Martin

1993-01-01

24

Question Their Answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by ``questioning their answers.''

Royce, Brenda

2004-10-01

25

The Question Complexity Rubric: Development and Application for a National Archive of Astro 101 Multiple-Choice Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last two years we have been developing an online national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astro 101 classroom. These questions are intended to either supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or be used for assessment purposes (i.e. exams and homework). In this talk we will describe the development, testing and implementation of the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR), which is designed to guide the ranking of questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge whereas the highest QCR score is given to questions that require multiple pathways of multi-step reasoning. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) search for and download questions based on subject and average QCR score, 2) use the QCR to score questions, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. We will also discuss other potential applications of the QCR, such as how it informs our work in developing and testing of survey instruments by allowing us to calibrate the range of question complexity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

2011-01-01

26

Assessment of item-writing flaws in multiple-choice questions.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the quality of multiple-choice questions used in a hospital's e-learning system. Constructing well-written questions is fraught with difficulty, and item-writing flaws are common. Study results revealed that most items contained flaws and were written at the knowledge/comprehension level. Few items had linked objectives, and no association was found between the presence of objectives and flaws. Recommendations include education for writing test questions. PMID:23657034

Nedeau-Cayo, Rosemarie; Laughlin, Deborah; Rus, Linda; Hall, John

2013-01-01

27

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Gray, Kara; Rebello, Sanjay; Zollman, Dean

2010-12-02

28

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Gray, Kara E.; Rebello, N. S.; Zollman, Dean A.

2006-12-06

29

Set of Criteria for Efficiency of the Process Forming the Answers to Multiple-Choice Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is offered the set of criteria for assessing efficiency of the process forming the answers to multiple-choice test items. To increase accuracy of computer-assisted testing results, it is suggested to assess dynamics of the process of forming the final answer using the following factors: loss of time factor and correct choice factor. The model…

Rybanov, Alexander Aleksandrovich

2013-01-01

30

Comparison of Examination Methods Based on Multiple-Choice Questions and Constructed-Response Questions Using Personal Computers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present research was to compare the use of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) as an examination method, to the examination based on constructed-response questions (CRQs). Despite that MCQs have an advantage concerning objectivity in the grading process and speed in production of results, they also introduce an error in the final…

Ventouras, Errikos; Triantis, Dimos; Tsiakas, Panagiotis; Stergiopoulos, Charalampos

2010-01-01

31

The impact of two multiple-choice question formats on the problem-solving strategies used by novices and experts  

PubMed Central

Background Pencil-and-paper examination formats, and specifically the standard, five-option multiple-choice question, have often been questioned as a means for assessing higher-order clinical reasoning or problem solving. This study firstly investigated whether two paper formats with differing number of alternatives (standard five-option and extended-matching questions) can test problem-solving abilities. Secondly, the impact of the alternatives number on psychometrics and problem-solving strategies was examined. Methods Think-aloud protocols were collected to determine the problem-solving strategy used by experts and non-experts in answering Gastroenterology questions, across the two pencil-and-paper formats. Results The two formats demonstrated equal ability in testing problem-solving abilities, while the number of alternatives did not significantly impact psychometrics or problem-solving strategies utilized. Conclusions These results support the notion that well-constructed multiple-choice questions can in fact test higher order clinical reasoning. Furthermore, it can be concluded that in testing clinical reasoning, the question stem, or content, remains more important than the number of alternatives.

Coderre, Sylvain P; Harasym, Peter; Mandin, Henry; Fick, Gordon

2004-01-01

32

Incorporation of Bloom's Taxonomy into Multiple-Choice Examination Questions for a Pharmacotherapeutics Course  

PubMed Central

Objective. To incorporate Bloom’s taxonomy into multiple-choice examination questions in a pharmacotherapeutics course and assess its effectiveness in detecting areas of improvement in learning. Design. Bloom’s taxonomy was incorporated into examination questions through a multi-step process: Sample questions representing each learning domain within Bloom’s taxonomy (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation) were introduced to students during lecture presentations and discussions. Quiz and examination containing questions categorized according to Bloom’s taxonomy were administered to students. During review sessions following each quiz or examination, the categorization of each question was provided to students and feedback from students was gathered. Assessment. The effect of the 5 types of test questions on the correct response fraction and discrimination index was determined after combining synthesis and evaluation. Correct response fractions for knowledge, comprehension, and application questions were significantly higher than those for analysis and synthesis/evaluation questions (p<0.05). However, discrimination index for application and synthesis/evaluation questions were significantly higher than those for knowledge and comprehension questions (p<0.05). In interviews with students who had requested learning assistance, the majority realized the importance of critical-thinking skills in the learning process. Conclusion. Well-designed multiple-choice questions incorporating different learning domains of Bloom’s taxonomy may be a potential method of assessing critical-thinking skills in large classes of students.

Patel, Rajul A.; Uchizono, James A.; Beck, Lynn

2012-01-01

33

Both multiple-choice and short-answer quizzes enhance later exam performance in middle and high school classes.  

PubMed

Practicing retrieval of recently studied information enhances the likelihood of the learner retrieving that information in the future. We examined whether short-answer and multiple-choice classroom quizzing could enhance retention of information on classroom exams taken for a grade. In seventh-grade science and high school history classes, students took intermittent quizzes (short-answer or multiple-choice, both with correct-answer feedback) on some information, whereas other information was not initially quizzed but received equivalent coverage in all other classroom activities. On the unit exams and on an end-of-semester exam, students performed better for information that had been quizzed than that not quizzed. An unanticipated and key finding is that the format of the quiz (multiple-choice or short-answer) did not need to match the format of the criterial test (e.g., unit exam) for this benefit to emerge. Further, intermittent quizzing cannot be attributed to intermittent reexposure to the target facts: A restudy condition produced less enhancement of later test performance than did quizzing with feedback. Frequent classroom quizzing with feedback improves student learning and retention, and multiple-choice quizzing is as effective as short-answer quizzing for this purpose. PMID:24274234

McDermott, Kathleen B; Agarwal, Pooja K; D'Antonio, Laura; Roediger, Henry L; McDaniel, Mark A

2014-03-01

34

The Relationship of Deep and Surface Study Approaches on Factual and Applied Test-Bank Multiple-Choice Question Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the advent of online test banks and large introductory classes, instructors have often turned to textbook publisher-generated multiple-choice question (MCQ) exams in their courses. Multiple-choice questions are often divided into categories of factual or applied, thereby implicating levels of cognitive processing. This investigation examined…

Yonker, Julie E.

2011-01-01

35

An Online National Archive of Multiple-Choice Questions for Astro 101 and the Development of the Question Complexity Rubric  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astronomy 101 classroom. These questions are intended to supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or for their assessment purposes (i.e., exams and homework). We are also developing the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR) to guide members of the Astro 101 teaching and learning community in assisting us with

S. Cormier; E. Prather; G. Brissenden

2011-01-01

36

Exploiting redundancy in question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to automatically answer brief factual questions of the form ``When was the Battle of Hastings?'' or ``Who wrote The Wind in the Willows?''. Since the answer to nearly any such question can now be found somewhere on the Web, the problem reduces to finding potential answers in large volumes of data and validating their accuracy. We apply

Charles L. A. Clarke; Gordon V. Cormack; Thomas R. Lynam

2001-01-01

37

Common Prostate Cancer Questions Answered  

MedlinePLUS

... with Cancer , Prevention/Early Detection , Prostate Cancer Common Prostate Cancer Questions Answered Article date: August 29, 2009 ... your 50s, should you being getting screened for prostate cancer? Answer: Researchers still don’t know for ...

38

Shaping Faster Question Answering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In laboratory experiments, conducted with 12 college student Ss who completed programed lessons at a teaching machine during twice-per-week sessions, Ss were automatically scored separately for correctness and for speed of correct answering; their points ...

L. O. Brooks

1965-01-01

39

Investigations of Human Question Answering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and testing of QUEST, a model of human question answering, are reported. QUEST accounts for answers adults produce for different categories of open-class questions, identifying the information sources associated with the content words in questions. Each information source is organized in a conceptual graph structure. The model…

Graesser, Arthur C.

40

Instance-Based Question Answering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During recent years, question answering (QA) has grown from simple passage retrieval and information extraction to very complex approaches that incorporate deep question and document analysis, reasoning, planning, and sophisticated uses of knowledge resou...

L. V. Lita

2006-01-01

41

Constructive Multiple-Choice Testing System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The newly developed computerized Constructive Multiple-choice Testing system is introduced. The system combines short answer (SA) and multiple-choice (MC) formats by asking examinees to respond to the same question twice, first in the SA format, and then in the MC format. This manipulation was employed to collect information about the two…

Park, Jooyong

2010-01-01

42

The assessment of critical thinking skills in anatomy and physiology students who practice writing higher order multiple choice questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical thinking is a complex abstraction that defies homogeneous interpretation. This means that no operational definition is universal and no critical thinking measurement tool is all encompassing. Instructors will likely find evidence based strategies to facilitate thinking skills only as numerous research efforts from multiple disciplines accumulate. This study focuses on a question writing exercise designed to help anatomy and physiology students. Students were asked to design multiple choice questions that combined course concepts in new and novel ways. Instructions and examples were provided on how to construct these questions and student attempts were sorted into levels one through three of Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy (Bloom et al. 1956). Students submitted their question designs weekly and received individual feedback as to how they might improve. Eight course examinations were created to contain questions that modeled the Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy levels that students were attempting. Students were assessed on their course examination performance as well as performance on a discipline independent critical thinking test called the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). The performance of students in this study was compared to students from two previous years that took the same course but did not have the question writing activity. Results suggest that students do not improve their ability to answer critical thinking multiple choices questions when they practice the task of creating such problems. The effect of class level on critical thinking is examined and it appears that the longer a student has attended college the better the performance on both discipline specific and discipline independent critical thinking questions. The data were also used to analyze students who improved their course examination grades in the second semester of this course. There is a pattern to suggest that students who improve their performance on course examinations did so largely in non-critical thinking problems. Although, when this subset of students is analyzed by class level it appears that sophomores reverse the pattern and improve much more in critical thinking type questions than their upper classmen. The implications of this are discussed.

Shaw, Jason

43

Changing Answers on Multiple-Choice Examinations Taken by Baccalaureate Nursing Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The answer sheets of 122 nursing students showed that 119 changed at least 1 answer; 93.3% of those who changed answers either gained or did not lose points by changing; changing answers on psychiatric nursing exams made more difference than on medical-surgical tests. However, those who made the smallest number of changes tended to have higher…

Nieswiadomy, Rose M.; Arnold, Wilda K.; Garza, Chris

2001-01-01

44

Textbook Test File Multiple-Choice Questions can Measure (A) Knowledge, (B) Intellectual Ability, (C) Neither, (D) Both  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textbook test file multiple-choice questions have come to play a substantial role in management education, particularly in the large undergraduate introductory course. Most of the questions test the recall of knowledge rather than the exercise of intellectual skills and abilities; many are not accurately classified as to \\

David R. Hampton

1993-01-01

45

Photo-based question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo-based question answering is a useful way of finding information about physical objects. Current question an- swering (QA) systems are text-based and can be difficult to use when a question involves an object with distinct vi- sual features. A photo-based QA system allows direct use of a photo to refer to the object. We develop a three-layer system architecture for

Tom Yeh; John J. Lee; Trevor Darrell

2008-01-01

46

Evaluation of Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences by determining item writing flaws (IWFs) of MCQs along with cognitive level of each item in both methods. Methods: This analytical study evaluated the quality of the assessment tools used for the first batch in a newly established medical college in Karachi, Pakistan. First and sixth module assessment tools in Biochemistry during 2009-2010 were analyzed. Cognitive level of MCQs and SEQs, were noted and MCQ item writing flaws were also evaluated. Results: A total of 36 SEQs and 150 MCQs of four items were analyzed. The cognitive level of 83.33% of SEQs was at recall level while remaining 16.67% were assessing interpretation of data. Seventy six percent of the MCQs were at recall level while remaining 24% were at the interpretation. Regarding IWFs, 69 IWFs were found in 150 MCQs. The commonest among them were implausible distracters (30.43%), unfocused stem (27.54%) and unnecessary information in the stem (24.64%). Conclusion: There is a need to review the quality including the content of assessment tools. A structured faculty development program is recommended for developing improved assessment tools that align with learning outcomes and measure competency of medical students.

Baig, Mukhtiar; Ali, Syeda Kauser; Ali, Sobia; Huda, Nighat

2014-01-01

47

Multiple-Choice Exam Question Order Influences on Student Performance, Completion Time, and Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted 2 studies to investigate undergraduate performance, perceptions, and time required in completing sequentially ordered, randomly ordered, or reverse ordered exams in introductory psychology classes. Study 1 compared the outcomes and perceptions of students (N = 66) on 3 non-comprehensive multiple-choice exams which were sequentially,…

Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Sacco, Matthew F.

2007-01-01

48

Mapping the Question Answering Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a trend analysis of the question answering (QA) domain. Bibliometric mapping was used to sketch the boundary of\\u000a the domain by uncovering the topics central to and peripheral to QA research in the new millennium. This paper visualizes\\u000a the evolution of concepts in the QA domain by studying the dynamics of the QA research during the periods 2000

Mohan John Blooma; Alton Yeow-kuan Chua; Dion Hoe-lian Goh

2008-01-01

49

An assessment of functioning and non-functioning distractors in multiple-choice questions: a descriptive analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Four- or five-option multiple choice questions (MCQs) are the standard in health-science disciplines, both on certification-level examinations and on in-house developed tests. Previous research has shown, however, that few MCQs have three or four functioning distractors. The purpose of this study was to investigate non-functioning distractors in teacher-developed tests in one nursing program in an English-language university in Hong

Marie Tarrant; James Ware; Ahmed M Mohammed

2009-01-01

50

The Prepared Practitioner: Multiple-Choice Season  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spring is almost here. Soon buds will appear on trees, and bubbled-in answers will appear on test response sheets all across America. Spring brings a spate of multiple-choice tests for many students--from SATs to AP exams to final exams to state and district testing. So this month seems an appropriate time to take a look at multiple-choice questioning.

Colburn, Alan

2009-03-01

51

Idea Bank: More than Multiple-Choice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Multiple-choice questions typically dominate tests in high school chemistry classes. The modification described in this article requires students to explain their reasoning behind each multiple-choice answer. This testing format demands more grading time, but awards students partial credit and provides greater feedback to the teacher concerning how well concepts have been learned. Details of the implementation and benefits are provided here.

Ennever, Fanny

2006-10-01

52

The Empirical Power and Type I Error Rates of the GBT and [omega] Indices in Detecting Answer Copying on Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The generalized binomial test (GBT) and [omega] indices are the most recent methods suggested in the literature to detect answer copying behavior on multiple-choice tests. The [omega] index is one of the most studied indices, but there has not yet been a systematic simulation study for the GBT index. In addition, the effect of the ability levels…

Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

2012-01-01

53

Multilingual Question\\/Answering: the DIOGENE System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the DIOGENE question\\/answering system developed at ITC- Irst. The system is based on a rather standard architecture which includes three components for question processing, search and answer extraction. Linguistic processing strongly relies on MULTIWORDNET, an extended version of the English WORDNET. The system has been designed to address two promising directions: multilingual question\\/answering and question\\/answering on the

Bernardo Magnini; Matteo Negri; Roberto Prevete; Hristo Tanev

2001-01-01

54

Assessment of higher order cognitive skills in undergraduate education: modified essay or multiple choice questions? Research paper  

PubMed Central

Background Reliable and valid written tests of higher cognitive function are difficult to produce, particularly for the assessment of clinical problem solving. Modified Essay Questions (MEQs) are often used to assess these higher order abilities in preference to other forms of assessment, including multiple-choice questions (MCQs). MEQs often form a vital component of end-of-course assessments in higher education. It is not clear how effectively these questions assess higher order cognitive skills. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the MEQ to measure higher-order cognitive skills in an undergraduate institution. Methods An analysis of multiple-choice questions and modified essay questions (MEQs) used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate curriculum was undertaken. A total of 50 MCQs and 139 stages of MEQs were examined, which came from three exams run over two years. The effectiveness of the questions was determined by two assessors and was defined by the questions ability to measure higher cognitive skills, as determined by a modification of Bloom's taxonomy, and its quality as determined by the presence of item writing flaws. Results Over 50% of all of the MEQs tested factual recall. This was similar to the percentage of MCQs testing factual recall. The modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the MCQ frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge. Conclusion Construction of MEQs, which will assess higher order cognitive skills cannot be assumed to be a simple task. Well-constructed MCQs should be considered a satisfactory replacement for MEQs if the MEQs cannot be designed to adequately test higher order skills. Such MCQs are capable of withstanding the intellectual and statistical scrutiny imposed by a high stakes exit examination.

Palmer, Edward J; Devitt, Peter G

2007-01-01

55

Using Student Submitted Questions for Practice in Answering Reference Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Real questions, with no predetermined answers, were submitted by students in an introductory reference class and used to supplement instructor developed problems sets for practice in answering reference questions. The methodology and benefits are discussed. (Author/MBR)

Braunagel, Judith S.

1978-01-01

56

Probabilistic question answering on the web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web-based search engines such as Google and NorthernLight return documents that are relevant to a user query, not answers to user questions. We have developed an architecture that augments existing search engines so that they support natural language question answering. The process entails five steps: query modulation, document retrieval, passage extraction, phrase extraction, and answer ranking. In this paper we

Dragomir R. Radev; Weiguo Fan; Hong Qi; Harris Wu; Amardeep Grewal

2002-01-01

57

Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

58

Question Answering Based on Semantic Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability to answer complex questions posed in Natural Language depends on (1) the depth of the available semantic representations and (2) the inferential mechanisms they Support. In this paper we describe a QA architecture where questions are analyzed ...

S. Harabagiu S. Narayanan

2004-01-01

59

A Comparison of the Performance on Three Multiple Choice Question Papers in Obstetrics and Gynecology Over a Period of Three Years Administered at Five London Medical Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five of the medical schools in the University of London collaborated in administering one multiple choice question paper in obstetrics and gynecology, and results showed differences in performance between the five schools on questions and alternatives within questions. The rank order of the schools may result from differences in teaching methods.…

Stevens, J. M.; And Others

1977-01-01

60

Is question answering an acquired skill?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a question answering (QA) system which learns how to detect and rank answer passages by analyzing questions and their answers (QA pairs) provided as training data. We built our system in only a few person-months using off-the-shelf components: a part-of-speech tagger, a shallow parser, a lexical network, and a few well-known supervised learning algorithms. In contrast, many of

Ganesh Ramakrishnan; Soumen Chakrabarti; Deepa Paranjpe; Pushpak Bhattacharyya

2004-01-01

61

Lessons about Asking, Answering Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the web-based lessons highlighted in this article, students learn how to pose questions before, during, and after reading nonfiction, fiction, and diagrams. This reading comprehension strategy is included in the literacy column of the magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, a free, online publication for K-5 teachers.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-07-01

62

From Question Answering to Visual Exploration  

SciTech Connect

Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

2006-08-11

63

Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.  

PubMed

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

64

Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services  

PubMed Central

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

65

Better Questions and Answers Equal Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for student…

Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.

1989-01-01

66

Answers to Health Questions in Physical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culled from the answers of physical education teachers and coaches, this booklet attempts to indicate the scope of health problems and suggests some directions which the solutions may take. It is divided into three parts. Part 1, Health and Safety in Activity Programs, answers questions on first aid, excused absences, and desirability of…

Kaplan, Robert, Ed.

67

Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... About High Blood Pressure Questions and Answers About High Blood Pressure What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of ... by a doctor. Am I at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure. ...

68

Get Answers to Common Questions About...  

Cancer.gov

Get Answers to Common Questions About... Biological Specimens Drug Availability, Labeling and Distribution Ethics Indemnity Insurance Planning Clinical Trials and Navigating Regulatory Requirements Protocols Quality Assurance and Monitoring Software

69

Learning Named Entity Hyponyms for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical mismatch is a problem that con- founds automatic question answering sys- tems. While existing lexical ontologies such as WordNet have been successfully used to match verbal synonyms (e.g., beat and de- feat) and common nouns (tennis is-a sport), their coverage of proper nouns is less ex- tensive. Question answering depends sub- stantially on processing named entities, and thus it

Paul McNamee; Rion Snow; Patrick Schone; James Mayfield

70

Building a question answering test collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC-8 Question Answering (QA) Track was the first large-scale evaluation of domain-independent question answering systems. In addition to fostering research on the QA task, the track was used to investigate whether the evaluation methodology used for document retrieval is appropriate for a different natural language processing task. As with document relevance judging, assessors had legitimate differences of opinions as

Ellen M. Voorhees; Dawn M. Tice

2000-01-01

71

Scaling question answering to the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wealth of information on the web makes it an attractive resource for seeking quick answers to simple, factual questions such as "e;who was the first American in space?"e; or "e;what is the second tallest mountain in the world?"e; Yet today's most advanced web search services (e.g., Google and AskJeeves) make it surprisingly tedious to locate answers to such questions.

Cody C. T. Kwok; Oren Etzioni; Daniel S. Weld

2001-01-01

72

Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…

Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

2005-01-01

73

Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel fashion at 33 and 45 months. The measures encompassed moral emotion (guilt and empathic distress) and

Nazan Aksan; Grazyna Kochanska

2005-01-01

74

The TREC8 Question Answering Track Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC-8 Question Answering track was the first large-scale evaluation of systems that returnanswers, as opposed to lists of documents, in response to a question. As a first evaluation, it is importantto examine the evaluation methodology itself to understand any limits on the conclusions that can bedrawn from the evaluation and possibly to find ways to improve subsequent evaluations. This

Ellen M. Voorhees; Dawn M. Tice

1999-01-01

75

A comparative study of students' performance in preclinical physiology assessed by multiple choice and short essay questions.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare the performance of medical students in physiology when assessed by multiple choice questions (MCQs) and short essay questions (SEQs). The study also examined the influence of factors such as age, sex, O/level grades and JAMB scores on performance in the MCQs and SEQs. A structured questionnaire was administered to 264 medical students' four months before the Part I MBBS examination. Apart from personal data of each student, the questionnaire sought information on the JAMB scores and GCE O' Level grades of each student in English Language, Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics. The physiology syllabus was divided into five parts and the students were administered separate examinations (tests) on each part. Each test consisted of MCQs and SEQs. The performance in MCQs and SEQs were compared. Also, the effects of JAMB scores and GCE O/level grades on the performance in both the MCQs and SEQs were assessed. The results showed that the students performed better in all MCQ tests than in the SEQs. JAMB scores and O' level English Language grade had no significant effect on students' performance in MCQs and SEQs. However O' level grades in Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics had significant effects on performance in MCQs and SEQs. Inadequate knowledge of physiology and inability to present information in a logical sequence are believed to be major factors contributing to the poorer performance in the SEQs compared with MCQs. In view of the finding of significant association between performance in MCQs and SEQs and GCE O/level grades in science subjects and mathematics, it was recommended that both JAMB results and the GCE results in the four O/level subjects above may be considered when selecting candidates for admission into the medical schools. PMID:11713989

Oyebola, D D; Adewoye, O E; Iyaniwura, J O; Alada, A R; Fasanmade, A A; Raji, Y

2000-01-01

76

Second Language Reading Topic Familiarity and Test Score: Test-Taking Strategies for Multiple-Choice Comprehension Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to compare the strategies used by Chinese-speaking students when confronted with familiar versus unfamiliar topics in a multiple-choice format reading comprehension test. The focus was on describing what students do when they are taking reading comprehension tests by asking students to verbalize their thoughts.…

Lee, Jia-Ying

2011-01-01

77

Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

2000-01-01

78

Sea Level : Frequently Asked Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can find answers to frequently asked questions regarding sea level and sea level changes. Topics addressed include how mean sea level is defined, how much sea level would rise if all the worlds ice were to melt, differences in sea level between oceans and at different latitudes, the meaning of altitude above sea level, and others.

2007-12-12

79

Questions and Answers about CD ROM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Question and answer column about the CD ROM medium discusses: (1) optical storage devices available; (2) language teaching applications; (3) types of courseware available; (4) costs to hook up a CD ROM drive as a peripheral to an existing system; (5) how to go about developing and mastering a disk; and (6) mastering and replication costs.…

Kuhn, Carolyn

1987-01-01

80

Global Perspectives: Some Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To enlighten the reader on the status, objectives, and needs of global education, this paper poses and answers questions related to global perspectives. A global perspective is interpreted to include heightened awareness and understanding of the global system as well as increased consciousness of the intimate relationship of self, humankind, and…

Center for Global Perspectives, New York, NY.

81

Question Answering: Technology For Intelligence Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents a former analyst’s perspective on Question Answering (QA) systems. Although the author’s background\\u000a is in intelligence analysis, he is currently engaged in sponsoring basic research in linguistic pragmatics. Given this background,\\u000a the author believes that today’s technology has the potential to help fulfil the vision of providing a highly capable tool\\u000a enabling an analyst – any analyst,

Steven Maiorano

82

Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers  

SciTech Connect

This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

NONE

1995-11-01

83

Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions  

SciTech Connect

contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

Hinchliffe, Ian

2012-01-01

84

Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions  

ScienceCinema

contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

Hinchliffe, Ian

2013-05-29

85

Did Darwin really answer Paley's question?  

PubMed

It is commonly thought that natural selection explains the rise of adaptive complexity. Razeto-Barry and Frick (2011) have recently argued in favour of this view, dubbing it the Creative View. I argue that the Creative View is mistaken if it claims that natural selection serves to answer Paley's question. This is shown by a case that brings out the contrastive structure inherent in this demand for explanation. There is, however, a rather trivial sense in which specific environmental conditions are crucial for the rise of specific adaptations, but this is hardly what opponents of the Creative View are denying. PMID:23591048

Brunnander, Björn

2013-09-01

86

Learning How to Answer Questions Using Trivia Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine a sentence comprehension task: given a question, and an extended sentence known to answer that question, the goal is to extract the short answer to the question. As an initial solution, a novel robust statistical model is presented which combines the semantics of the expected answer with the expected context within which the answer will

Gideon S. Mann

2002-01-01

87

Conscience in childhood: old questions, new answers.  

PubMed

Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel fashion at 33 and 45 months. The measures encompassed moral emotion (guilt and empathic distress) and rule-compatible conduct (internalization of maternal prohibitions and requests and of another adult's rules). Confirmatory factor analyses supported a differentiated view of conscience with 2 latent factors at both ages: Moral Emotion and Rule-Compatible Conduct. The structure of conscience was remarkably stable over time. The coherence between Moral Emotion and Rule-Compatible Conduct factors increased as children grew older. PMID:15910158

Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

2005-05-01

88

Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Questions (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Questions Booklet).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the 80 multiple choice questions portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1987 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, the novel, and…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

89

Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Questions (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Questions Booklet.)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the 80 multiple choice questions portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1988 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, novel, and…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

90

Qualitative Dimensions in Question Answering: Extending the Definitional QA Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current question answering tasks handle definitional questions by seeking answers which are factual in nature. While factual answers are a very important component in defining entities, a wealth of qualitative data is ignored. In this incipient work, we define qualitative dimensions (credibility, sentiment, contradic- tions, temporal etc.) for evaluating answers to definitional ques- tions and we explore potential benefits to

Lucian Vlad Lita; Andrew Hazen Schlaikjer; Weichang Hong; Eric Nyberg

2005-01-01

91

Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part II. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief analyses are provided of presentations made at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues and application.…

Miller, C. C.; And Others

1982-01-01

92

The Artful Dodger: Answering the Wrong Question the Right Way  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What happens when speakers try to "dodge" a question they would rather not answer by answering a different question? In 4 studies, we show that listeners can fail to detect dodges when speakers answer similar--but objectively incorrect--questions (the "artful dodge"), a detection failure that goes hand-in-hand with a failure to rate dodgers more…

Rogers, Todd; Norton, Michael I.

2011-01-01

93

How Physicians' Answers Relate to Health Consumers' Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the semantic relationships in consumers' health-related questions, physician-provided answers, and between questions and answers with the purpose of supporting the design of health consumer question-answering systems. The information present in the text was expressed using a "pilot" ontology that was based on the semantic relationships…

Slaughter, Laura; Soergel, Dagobert

2003-01-01

94

Functional symptoms in neurology: questions and answers  

PubMed Central

Between 10 and 30% of patients seen by neurologists have symptoms for which there is no current pathophysiological explanation. The objective of this review is to answer questions many neurologists have about disorders characterised by unexplained symptoms (functional disorders) by conducting a multidisciplinary review based on published reports and clinical experience. Current concepts explain functional symptoms as resulting from auto-suggestion, innate coping styles, disorders of volition or attention. Predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating aetiological factors can be identified and contribute to a therapeutic formulation. The sympathetic communication of the diagnosis by the neurologist is important and all patients should be screened for psychiatric or psychological symptoms because up to two thirds have symptomatic psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment programmes are likely to be most successful if there is close collaboration between neurologists, (liaison) psychiatrists, psychologists, and general practitioners. Long term, symptoms persist in over 50% of patients and many patients remain dependent on financial help from the government. Neurologists can acquire the skills needed to engage patients in psychological treatment but would benefit from closer working relationships with liaison psychiatry or psychology.

Reuber, M; Mitchell, A; Howlett, S; Crimlisk, H; Grunewald, R

2005-01-01

95

HITIQA: A Data Driven Approach to Interactive Analytical Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the analytic question answering system HITIQA (High-Quality In- teractive Question Answering) which has been developed over the last 2 years as an advanced research tool for information analysts. HITIQA is an interactive open-domain ques- tion answering technology designed to allow analysts to pose complex exploratory ques- tions in natural language and obtain relevant information units

Sharon Small; Tomek Strzalkowski

96

The assessment of critical thinking skills in anatomy and physiology students who practice writing higher order multiple choice questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical thinking is a complex abstraction that defies homogeneous interpretation. This means that no operational definition is universal and no critical thinking measurement tool is all encompassing. Instructors will likely find evidence based strategies to facilitate thinking skills only as numerous research efforts from multiple disciplines accumulate. This study focuses on a question writing exercise designed to help anatomy and

Jason Shaw

2006-01-01

97

A Comparison of Student Performance in Multiple-Choice and Long Essay Questions in the MBBS Stage I Physiology Examination at the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This retrospective study compared the performance of preclinical medical students in the multiple-choice question (MCQ) and long essay question components of a comprehensive physiology final examination. During the 3 yr analyzed, 307 students had an average score of 47% (SD 9.9) in the long essay questions and 64% (SD 9.9) in the MCQs. Regression…

Pepple, Dagogo J.; Young, Lauriann E.; Carroll, Robert G.

2010-01-01

98

Fora: Leveraging the Power of Internet Communities for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a system for searching question an- swer pairs automatically extracted from the discussions in internet communities. The system, named Fora, aggregates discussions from multiple forums and newsgroups in the same domain, automatically extracts question answer pairs from the data, and provides searches of the question answer pairs. The system also ofiers expert search, query sugges- tion, page

Gu Xu; Hang Li; Wei-Ying Ma

2008-01-01

99

The Basic Epistemological Questions--Are There Also Valid Answers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that seeks answers to two main questions: How do we know? and How do we know we know? This paper is concerned with how four major schools of thought have addressed these questions and the implications that their answers to these questions have for education. The paper begins by discussing how four major…

Oderman, Dale B.

100

Learning search engine specific query transformations for question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a method for learning query transformations that im- proves the ability to retrieve answers to questions from an informa- tion retrieval system. During the training stage the method involves automatically learning phrase features for classifying questions into different types, automatically generating candidate query transfor- mations from a training set of question\\/answer pairs, and automat- ically evaluating the candidate

Eugene Agichtein; Steve Lawrence; Luis Gravano

2001-01-01

101

What Makes a Good Answer? The Role of Context in Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question answering systems have proven to be helpful to users because they can provide succinct answers that do not require users to wade through a large number of documents. However, despite recent advances in the underlying question answering technology, the problem of designing effective interfaces has been largely unexplored. We conducted a user study to investigate this area and discovered

Jimmy J. Lin; Dennis Quan; Vineet Sinha; Karun Bakshi; David Huynh; Boris Katz; David R. Karger

2003-01-01

102

The impact of corpus size on question answering performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using our question answering system, questions from the TREC 2001 evaluation were executed over a series of Web data collections, with the sizes of the collections increasing from 25 gigabytes up to nearly a terabyte.

Charles L. A. Clarke; Gordon V. Cormack; M. Laszlo; Thomas R. Lynam; Egidio L. Terra

2002-01-01

103

MAIMAI: A Question Answering System at NTCIR3 QAC-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an question answering system based on syntactic information. Our system extracts answer candidates by ranking of score which shows similarity of syntactic structure. Syntactic structure is estimated based on answer type, density of weighty words, distance between words and depth of parse tree. To analyze syntactic structure, morphological analysis, named entity extraction and parser are uti- lized.

Fumito MASUI; Masayuki MIYAGUCHI

104

Statistical Analysis of Multiple Choice Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The multiple-choice question exam is a very popular method of evaluation used by educators everywhere, The Air Command and Staff College Distance Learning Department uses multiple-choice exams for testing non- residence students, ACSC currently uses the T...

M. A. Colbert

2001-01-01

105

Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

Frana, Ilaria

2010-01-01

106

99 Facts about the FBI: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet on the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) attempts to provide an overview of the FBI's functions. Presented in a question and answer format, the 99 questions and answers discuss the federal government agency's history, administrative matters, jurisdiction, criminal investigations, security matters, foreign counter-intelligence, and…

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA.

107

The Answerable Question and a Hierarchy of Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of a hierarchy of evidence is useful in rapid electronic searching to answer questions arising during the natural course of clinical practice. The answerable question often begins "What is the evidence that ..." and, when focused on a treatment, usually includes a population, an intervention, a comparison group, and an outcome, often…

Hamilton, John

2005-01-01

108

The role of context in question answering systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite recent advances in natural language question an-swering technology, the problem of designing effective user interfaces has been largely unexplored. We conducted a user study to investigate the problem and discovered that overall, users prefer a paragraph-sized chunk of text over just an exact phrase as the answer to their questions. Fur-thermore, users generally prefer answers embedded in con-text, regardless

Jimmy J. Lin; Dennis Quan; Vineet Sinha; Karun Bakshi; David Huynh; Boris Katz; David R. Karger

2003-01-01

109

Astronaut Jeff Williams Answers Your Questions  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams, aboard the International Space Station 220 miles above Earth, responds to questions posted on YouTube concerning the station's orientation, life in space and ...

110

Overview of the TREC 2004 Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC 2004 Question Answering track contained a single task in which question series were used to define a set of targets. Each series contained factoid and list questions and related to a single target. The final question in the series was an \\

Ellen M. Voorhees

2004-01-01

111

Semantic representation of consumer questions and physician answers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify the underlying semantics of health consumers' questions and physicians' answers in order to analyze the semantic patterns within these texts. We manually identified semantic relationships within question-answer pairs from Ask-the-Doctor Web sites. Identification of the semantic relationship instances within the texts was based on the relationship classes and structure of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Semantic Network. We calculated the frequency of occurrence of each semantic relationship class, and conceptual graphs were generated, joining concepts together through the semantic relationships identified. We then analyzed whether representations of physician's answers exactly matched the form of the question representations. Lastly, we examined characteristics of the answer conceptual graphs. We identified 97 semantic relationship instances in the questions and 334 instances in the answers. The most frequently identified semantic relationship in both questions and answers was brings_about (causal). We found that the semantic relationship propositions identified in answers that most frequently contain a concept also expressed in the question were: brings_about, isa, co_occurs_with, diagnoses, and treats. Using extracted semantic relationships from real-life questions and answers can produce a valuable analysis of the characteristics of these texts. This can lead to clues for creating semantic-based retrieval techniques that guide users to further information. For example, we determined that both consumers and physicians often express causative relationships and these play a key role in leading to further related concepts. PMID:16125448

Slaughter, Laura A; Soergel, Dagobert; Rindflesch, Thomas C

2006-07-01

112

Asking Essay Questions: Answering Contemporary Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essay questions have been a stable fixture of teacher assessment activity for decades. Assessment reforms of the early 90's encouraged the development and use of "newer" forms of assessment including portfolios, performance tasks, and authentic assessments. As of late, however, there appears to be a regressive emphasis toward the use of objective…

Criswell, John R.; Criswell, Susan J.

2004-01-01

113

Answering Lord Perry's question: dissecting regulatory overfishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, in response to the distressed condition of the British fishing industry, the House of Lords held a series of hearings on “Fish Stock Conservation and Management.” Lord Perry of Walton posed the straightforward question of why regulation was not succeeding: If one takes all the management systems into account—TACs [total allowable catches, or annual quotas], number of days

Josh Eagle; Barton H Thompson

2003-01-01

114

FERRET: Interactive Question-Answering for Real-World Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes FERRET, an interac- tive question-answering (Q\\/A) system de- signed to address the challenges of inte- grating automatic Q\\/A applications into real-world environments. FERRET utilizes a novel approach to Q\\/A ń known as pre- dictive questioning ń which attempts to identify the questions (and answers) that users need by analyzing how a user inter- acts with a system

Andrew Hickl; Patrick Wang; John Lehmann; Sanda M. Harabagiu

2006-01-01

115

Physicians' use of computer software in answering clinical questions.  

PubMed Central

Descriptive data about the use of medical information software were gathered from physicians who were early users of these resources. Eight clinically active internists and medical subspecialists were lent a microcomputer loaded with six commercially available medical information software products. Participants used the software for two weeks to answer questions arising in their practice and completed written questionnaires. They recorded a total of 50 questions (between 3 and 11 per participant per two-week study period). Using the workstation, participants answered 20 questions (40% of the total), partially answered 16 questions (32%), and did not obtain useful information for 14 questions (28%). Participants found answers outside the workstation to 8 of the 14 questions (57%) not answered by using the software. The most common question topic was drug information (16 questions, or 32% of the total). The most common problems encountered using the workstation were retrieval of incomplete information (20 questions, or 40% of the total) and difficulty navigating the software (16 questions, or 32%). Other problems included difficulty translating clinical problems into questions, inappropriate resource selection, inadequate training for using the software, and excessive time required to access information. The study highlights several opportunities for medical librarians and others involved in clinical information management to facilitate the use of computer software for solving clinical problems.

Osheroff, J A; Bankowitz, R A

1993-01-01

116

Another kind of ‘BOLD Response’: answering multiple-choice questions via online decoded single-trial brain signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term ‘locked-in’syndrome (LIS) describes a medical condition in which persons concerned are severely paralyzed and at the same time fully conscious and awake. The resulting anarthria makes it impossible for these patients to naturally communicate, which results in diagnostic as well as serious practical and ethical problems. Therefore, developing alternative, muscle-independent communication means is of prime importance. Such communication

Bettina Sorger; Brigitte Dahmen; Joel Reithler; Olivia Gosseries; Audrey Maudoux; Steven Laureys; Rainer Goebel

2009-01-01

117

Enhanced Answer Type Inference from Questions using Sequential Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question classification is an important step in factual question answering (QA) and other dialog systems. Several at- tempts have been made to apply statistical machine learning approaches, including Support Vector Machines (SVMs) with sophisticated features and kernels. Curi- ously, the payoff beyond a simple bag-of- words representation has been small. We show that most questions reveal their class through a

Vijay Krishnan; Sujatha Das; Soumen Chakrabarti

2005-01-01

118

CLVQ: cross-language video question\\/answering system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilanguage information retrieval promotes users to browse documents in the form of their mother language, and more and more peoples interested in retrieves short answers rather than a full document. In this paper, we present a cross-language video QA system i.e. CLVQ, which could process the English questions, and find answers in Chinese videos. The main contribution of this research

Yu-Chyeh Wu; Chia-Hui Chang; Yue-Shi Lee

2004-01-01

119

Questions and answers based on revised 10 CFR Part 20  

SciTech Connect

NUREG/CR-6204 is a collection of questions and answers that were originally issued in seven sets and which pertain to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions came from both outside and within the NRC. The answers were compiled and provided by NRC staff within the offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Nuclear Regulatory Research, the Office of State Programs, and the five regional offices. Although all of the questions and answers have been reviewed by attorneys in the NRC Office of the General Counsel, they do not constitute official legal interpretations relevant to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions and answers do, however, reflect NRC staff decisions and technical options on aspects of the revised 10 CFR Part 20 regulatory requirements. This NUREG is being made available to encourage communication among the public, industry, and NRC staff concerning the major revisions of the NRC`s standards for protection against radiation.

Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carter, D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-05-01

120

Put It in Writing: Questions and Answers on Advance Directives  

MedlinePLUS

... Put it in Writing Questions and Answers on Advance Directives Q iii 1 Photo M any people today ... to make such decisions, through legal documents called advance directives. Before deciding what choices about your care at ...

121

Syntactic Clues and Lexical Resources in Question-Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

CL Research's question-answering system (DIMAP-QA) for TREC-9 significantly extends its semantic relation triple (logical form) technology in which documents are fully parsed and databases built around discourse e ntities. This extension further exploits parsing output, most notably appositives and relative clauses, which are quite useful for question-answering. Further, DIMAP-QA integrated machine-readable lexical resources: a full-sized dictionary and a thesaurus with

Kenneth C. Litkowski

2000-01-01

122

Overview of the CLEF 2005 Multilingual Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general aim of the third CLEF Multilingual Question Answering Track was to set up a common and replicable evaluation framework to test both monolingual and cross-language Question Answering (QA) systems that process queries and documents in several European languages. Nine target languages and ten source languages were exploited to enact 8 monolingual and 73 cross-language tasks. Twenty-four groups participated

Alessandro Vallin; Bernardo Magnini; Danilo Giampiccolo; Lili Aunimo; Christelle Ayache; Petya Osenova; Anselmo Peńas; Maarten De Rijke; Bogdan Sacaleanu; Diana Santos; Richard F. E. Sutcliffe

2005-01-01

123

Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions  

SciTech Connect

In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

Walker, Iain

2013-02-14

124

Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions  

ScienceCinema

In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

Walker, Iain

2013-11-14

125

Web Based Pattern Mining and Matching Approach to Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe herein a Web based pattern mining and matching approach to question answering. For each type of questions, a lot of textual patterns can be learned from the Web automatically, using the TREC QA track data as training examples. These textual patterns are assessed by the concepts of support and confidence, which are borrowed from the data mining community.

Dell Zhang; Wee Sun Lee

2002-01-01

126

Teaching about Immigration Issues [and] Immigration: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Interchange" contains a reading, discussion questions, activities, and ideas to help educators teach secondary students and adults about immigration issues. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading entitled "Immigration: Questions and Answers." This reading analyzes the concerns about current levels of immigration and…

Interchange (Population Education Newsletter), 1982

1982-01-01

127

Reading Comprehension Student Template: Question-Answer Relationship  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This template is an instructional tool that can be used to guide elementary students (grades 2-5) through the reading strategy of questioning. The template is based on the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) approach in which students classify questions according to type and then provide answers from text. The template was designed to be used with the Feature Story, The Dance of Life, by students in grades 2-5. It is a PDF document that can be copied and distributed to students.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

128

Automated Multiple-Choice Testing for Summative Assessment: What Do Students Think?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports undergraduate student feedback contrasting conventional "Long-answer" examinations with automated multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment. Feedback was gathered after students had undertaken formative MCQ assessments as a revision aid. Feedback was generally supportive of MCQ summative tests, with 74% expressing a preference…

Bridge, Pete; Appleyard, Rob; Wilson, Rob

2007-01-01

129

Not Read, but Nevertheless Solved? Three Experiments on PIRLS Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice (MC) reading comprehension test items comprise three components: text passage, questions about the text, and MC answers. The construct validity of this format has been repeatedly criticized. In three between-subjects experiments, fourth graders (N[subscript 1] = 230, N[subscript 2] = 340, N[subscript 3] = 194) worked on three…

Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Kimmel, Rumena; Lowenkamp, Lena; Steingraber, Antje; Rost, Detlef H.

2012-01-01

130

A comparison of study strategies for passages: rereading, answering questions, and generating questions.  

PubMed

Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a practice phase. They then read three passages and did one of three tasks on each passage: reread the passage, answered questions set by the experimenter, or generated and answered their own questions. Passages were 575-word (Experiments 1 and 2) or 350-word (Experiment 3) texts on topics such as Venice, the Taj Mahal, and the singer Cesaria Evora. After each task, participants predicted their performance on a later test, which followed the same format as the practice phase test (a short-answer test in Experiments 1 and 2, and a free recall test in Experiment 3). In all experiments, best performance was predicted after generating and answering questions. We show, however, that generating questions led to no improvement over answering comprehension questions, but that both of these tasks were more beneficial than rereading. This was the case on an immediate short-answer test (Experiment 1), a short-answer test taken 2 days after study (Experiment 2), and an immediate free recall test (Experiment 3). Generating questions took at least twice as long as answering questions in all three experiments, so although it is a viable alternative to answering questions in the absence of materials, it is less time-efficient. PMID:20853989

Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B; Roediger, Henry L

2010-09-01

131

A Comparison of Study Strategies for Passages: Rereading, Answering Questions, and Generating Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a…

Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B.; Roediger, Henry L., III

2010-01-01

132

A Comparison of Study Strategies for Passages: Rereading, Answering Questions, and Generating Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a practice phase. They then read three passages and

Yana Weinstein; Kathleen B. McDermott; Henry L. Roediger

2010-01-01

133

Illustrating answers: an evaluation of automatically retrieved illustrations of answers to medical questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss and evaluate a method for automatic text illustration, applied to answers to medical questions. Our method for selecting illustrations is based on the idea that similarities between the answers and picture-related text (the picture’s caption or the section\\/paragraph that includes the picture) can be used as evidence that the picture would be appropriate to illustrate

Wauter Bosma; M. Theune; C. M. J. van Hooijdonk; E. Krahmer; F. Maes

2008-01-01

134

77 FR 10662 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Establishment and Maintenance of Records...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2011-D-0598] Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Establishment...availability of a guidance entitled ``Questions and Answers Regarding Establishment...availability of a guidance entitled ``Questions and Answers Establishment and...

2012-02-23

135

Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

Auwaerter, Paul G.

2002-01-01

136

Questions and Answers on Unfair Labor Practices. A Practitioner's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An unfair labor practice is the violation of any right granted employees, unions, or employers by a collective bargaining law. This guide answers common questions about unfair labor practices in public sector labor relations. The booklet is divided into two sections, unfair employer labor practices and unfair union labor practices. The section…

Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Midwest Center for Public Sector Labor Relations.

137

A Trend Analysis of the Question Answering Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a trend analysis of the question answering (QA) domain. Using bibliometric mapping, we sketched the boundary of the domain by uncovering the topics central to and peripheral to QA research in the new millennium. This paper visualizes the evolution of concepts in the QA domain by studying the dynamics of the QA research during the periods 2000 -

Mohan John Blooma; Alton Yeow-Kuan Chua; Dion Hoe-Lian Goh; Chu Keong Lee

2009-01-01

138

Overview of the CLEF 2004 Multilingual Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the pilot Question Answering Track at CLEF 2003, a new evaluation exercise for multilingual QA systems took place in 2004. This paper reports on the novelties introduced in the new campaign and on participants' results. Almost all the cross-language combinations between nine source languages and seven target languages were exploited to set up more than fifty different tasks, both

Bernardo Magnini; Alessandro Vallin; Christelle Ayache; Gregor Erbach; Anselmo Peńas; Maarten De Rijke; Paulo Rocha; Kiril Ivanov Simov; Richard F. E. Sutcliffe

2004-01-01

139

Interesting nuggets and their impact on definitional question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Current approaches to identifying definitional sentences in the con- text of Question Answering mainly,involve the use of linguistic or syntactic patterns to identify informative nuggets. This is in- sufficient as they do not address the novelty factor that a defini- tional nugget must also possess. This paper proposes to address the deficiency by building a “Human Interest Model” from

Kian-wei Kor; Tat-seng Chua

2007-01-01

140

A Study on NNS's Conference Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates how nonnative speakers of English approach questions and answers posed to them to provide an explanation of how they resolve communication problems they face at an international conference. Results suggest that there are not many differences observed from Japanese and Korean querists and respondents in terms of their use of discourse…

Park, Kyung-Ja; Nakano, Michiko

2000-01-01

141

"Legal Problem Question Answer Genre" across Jurisdictions and Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to analyse discourse patterns of legal opinions in two languages and cultures--namely, Legal Problem Question Answers (LPQs) in the UK academic writing context and Pareri (Ps) in the Italian professional writing context. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of discourse in this paper, based on the tenets of genre analysis,…

Tessuto, Girolamo

2011-01-01

142

Fillers as Signals: Evidence from a Question-Answering Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the influence of a human or computer "partner" on the production of fillers ("um" and "uh") during a question and answer task. Experiment 1 investigated whether or not responding to a human partner as opposed to a computer partner results in a higher rate of filler production. Participants…

Walker, Esther J.; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

2014-01-01

143

Answers to the top ten input modeling questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this tutorial we provide answers to the top ten input-modeling questions that new simulation users ask, point out common mistakes that occur and give relevant references. We assume that commercial input-modeling software will be used when possible, and only suggest non-commercial options when there is little else available. Detailed examples will be provided in the tutorial presentation.

Bahar Biller; Barry L. Nelson

2002-01-01

144

Formatting Issues in Multiple Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of the present study were to ascertain whether or not two particular formatting characteristics influenced seventh grade student performance on math tests. One research question focused on the effects of decimal positioning in multiple choice options for computational items. In a second question, labeling format was compared with…

Siskind, Theresa G.; And Others

145

CERCLA Site Assessment questions and answers (Qs&As)  

SciTech Connect

This documents contains commonly asked questions and corresponding answers (Qs&As) on the CERCLA Site Assessment process. These questions were derived from DOE element responses to a solicitation calling for the identification of (unresolved) issues associated with the conduct of CERCLA site assessments, and from inquiries received during a series of Site Assessment Workshops provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231). Answers to these questions were prepared by EH-231 in cooperation with the EPA Federal Facilities Team in Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Site Assessment Branch, and in coordination with the Office of Environmental Compliance, Facilities Compliance Division (EH-222).

Traceski, T.T.

1993-11-09

146

Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.

Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

2010-01-01

147

Venus Express: Answered and unanswered questions on Venus (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After having orbited our sister planet for more than seven Earth years Venus Express has collected a very large data set allowing a great number of fundamental scientific questions to be addressed and answered. Most of the questions included in the mission's science requirement, as formulated in the mission proposal, have been answered. These include topics in atmospheric dynamics, structure and chemistry, clouds and hazes, surface and interior, radiation balance and greenhouse, induced magnetosphere and plasma environment, and planetary evolution. Solid results have been achieved in all these fields but with some weakness in the radiation balance measurements, mostly due to the early loss of the planetary Fourier spectrometer providing data at the mid infrared wavelengths. Naturally, due to the limited scope and budget of the Venus Express mission a number of important questions had to be left unaddressed and to be taken up by future missions. This talk will summarise the major results of Venus Express and discuss a number of questions where additional data will be needed in order to provide answers. A wish list for future missions will be provided.

Svedhem, H.; Titov, D.

2013-12-01

148

Strategies for the Meaningful Evaluation of Multiple-Choice Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too many multiple-choice tests are administered without an evaluative component. Teachers often return student assessments or Scantron cards--computerized bubble forms--without review, assuming that the printing of the correct answer will suffice. However, a more constructivist approach to follow up multiple-choice tests can make for more…

Chesbro, Robert

2010-01-01

149

The MiPACQ Clinical Question Answering System  

PubMed Central

The Multi-source Integrated Platform for Answering Clinical Questions (MiPACQ) is a QA pipeline that integrates a variety of information retrieval and natural language processing systems into an extensible question answering system. We present the system’s architecture and an evaluation of MiPACQ on a human-annotated evaluation dataset based on the Medpedia health and medical encyclopedia. Compared with our baseline information retrieval system, the MiPACQ rule-based system demonstrates 84% improvement in Precision at One and the MiPACQ machine-learning-based system demonstrates 134% improvement. Other performance metrics including mean reciprocal rank and area under the precision/recall curves also showed significant improvement, validating the effectiveness of the MiPACQ design and implementation.

Cairns, Brian L.; Nielsen, Rodney D.; Masanz, James J.; Martin, James H.; Palmer, Martha S.; Ward, Wayne H.; Savova, Guergana K.

2011-01-01

150

AskHERMES: An online question answering system for complex clinical questions  

PubMed Central

Objective Clinical questions are often long and complex and take many forms. We have built a clinical question answering system named AskHERMES to perform robust semantic analysis on complex clinical questions and output question-focused extractive summaries as answers. Design This paper describes the system architecture and a preliminary evaluation of AskHERMES, which implements innovative approaches in question analysis, summarization, and answer presentation. Five types of resources were indexed in this system: MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central full-text articles, eMedicine documents, clinical guidelines and Wikipedia articles. Measurement We compared the AskHERMES system with Google (Google and Google Scholar) and UpToDate and asked physicians to score the three systems by ease of use, quality of answer, time spent, and overall performance. Results AskHERMES allows physicians to enter a question in a natural way with minimal query formulation and allows physicians to efficiently navigate among all the answer sentences to quickly meet their information needs. In contrast, physicians need to formulate queries to search for information in Google and UpToDate. The development of the AskHERMES system is still at an early stage, and the knowledge resource is limited compared with Google or UpToDate. Nevertheless, the evaluation results show that AskHERMES’ performance is comparable to the other systems. In particular, when answering complex clinical questions, it demonstrates the potential to outperform both Google and UpToDate systems. Conclusions AskHERMES, available at http://www.AskHERMES.org, has the potential to help physicians practice evidence-based medicine and improve the quality of patient care.

Cao, YongGang; Liu, Feifan; Simpson, Pippa; Antieau, Lamont; Bennett, Andrew; Cimino, James J.; Ely, John; Yu, Hong

2012-01-01

151

New shipboard laboratory may answer questions about deep biosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shipboard microbiology laboratory to investigate the extent and diversity of the subsurface biosphere in the ocean basins is being developed by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and may soon provide answers to some of the exciting questions about Earth's deep biosphere. The answers may also be relevant to explorations for extraterrestrial life.The oceanic subsurface biosphere may contain half of Earth's biomass [Whitman et al., 1998]. Each liter of deep sea sediment, even at depths of a kilometer below the seafloor, typically contains more than 1 billion microbes. Volcanic rocks below the sediment also appear to contain microbes at all depths investigated so far, except where the temperature exceeds 100°C. Although microbes probably contribute less than a gram of biomass per cubic meter of oceanic crust, the vast amount of oceanic sediment and rock makes the total microbial biomass globally significant.

Fisk, Martin

152

How to answer the most common zinger questions.  

PubMed

Patients are very likely to hit you with zingers--extremely tough questions that require all of your diplomacy and tact. How well you respond to the inevitable zingers depends in large part upon your preparation. This article describes what you must do to prepare yourself for your patients' zingers. It offers simple guidelines for responding to zinger questions, as well as how-to instruction that will enable you to hone your critical listening skills. This article also offers an effective strategy for preparing a list of potential zinger questions customized to your medical practice. It suggests ways to use zinger preparation as a staff training tool, relying in large part upon brainstorming, group work, and role-playing scenarios. Finally, this article presents the wrong way to answer zingers. Then, through sample dialogues, it offers much better and more effective responses that you might give your patients when you need to answer eight of the most common and difficult medical practice zingers. PMID:16471388

Hills, Laura Sachs

2005-01-01

153

Public library patrons' use of collaborative chat reference service: The effectiveness of question answering by question type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effectiveness of question answering by question types in the inter-institutional collaborative chat reference service at a public library system. In particular, this study examined whether subject-based research type questions are answered as effectively as simple factual type questions, and whether local-specific questions are answered as effectively as non-local questions in the inter-institutional chat reference service. Effectiveness

Nahyun Kwon

2007-01-01

154

On the Role of Visuals in Multimodal Answers to Medical Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two experiments carried out in order to investigate the role of visuals in multimodal answer presentations for a medical question answering system. First, a production experiment was carried out to determine which modalities people choose to answer different types of questions. In this experiment, participants had to create (multimodal) presentations of answers to general medical questions. The

Hooijdonk van Charlotte; Vos de Jurry; Emiel Krahmer; Alfons Maes; Mariët Theune; Wauter Bosma

2007-01-01

155

PrimeAnswers: A Practical Interface for Answering Primary Care Questions  

PubMed Central

This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. Results of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem.

Ketchell, Debra S.; St. Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

2005-01-01

156

PrimeAnswers: A practical interface for answering primary care questions.  

PubMed

This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. RESULTS of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem. PMID:15905488

Ketchell, Debra S; St Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

2005-01-01

157

Model-Driven Knowledge-Based Development of Expected Answer Type Taxonomies for Restricted Domain Question Answering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Question Answering (QA) system must provide concise answers from large collections of documents to questions stated by the user in natural language. Importantly, a question should be correctly classified by means of a predefined taxonomy in order to determine which is the Expected Answer Type (EAT), thus reducing the searching space over documents, while a right answer is obtained. Designing a proper EAT taxonomy is even more crucial in restricted domain QA, since domain experts use specific terminology, thus asking more precise questions and expecting more precise answers. This paper presents a novel model-driven approach in order to ameliorate the task of designing restricted-domain EAT taxonomies by using heterogeneous knowledge resources and collection of documents. To show the applicability of our approach, a set of experiments has been carried out by defining a new EAT taxonomy for being able to answer questions about the agricultural domain.

Vila, Katia; Mazón, Jose-Norberto; Ferrández, Antonio; Gómez, José M.

158

Evaluating Multiple-Choice Exams in Large Introductory Physics Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reliability and validity of professionally written multiple-choice exams have been extensively studied for exams such as the SAT, graduate record examination, and the force concept inventory. Much of the success of these multiple-choice exams is attributed to the careful construction of each question, as well as each response. In this study,…

Scott, Michael; Stelzer, Tim; Gladding, Gary

2006-01-01

159

Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

2012-01-01

160

The Importance of Multiple Choice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A level of organization of inferences in which competing plausible alternatives can be compared, and all but one actively rejected, is a very important aspect of any comprehension model. Multiple choice inference structures help the model stay tuned to th...

C. Rieger

1978-01-01

161

MURAX: a robust linguistic approach for question answering using an on-line encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust linguistic methods are applied to the task of answering closed-class questions using a corpus of natural language. The methods are illustrated in a broad domain: answering general-knowledge questions using an on-line encyclopedia.A closed-class question is a question stated in natural language, which assumes some definite answer typified by a noun phrase rather than a procedural answer. The methods hypothesize

Julian Kupiec

1993-01-01

162

41 CFR 300-2.20 - What is the purpose of the question & answer format?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What is the purpose of the question & answer format? 300-2.20...INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.20 What is the purpose of the question & answer format? The Q&A...

2009-07-01

163

41 CFR 300-2.20 - What is the purpose of the question & answer format?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What is the purpose of the question & answer format? 300-2.20...INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.20 What is the purpose of the question & answer format? The Q&A...

2010-07-01

164

Some questions and answers about the Satellite Power System (SPS)  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Energy Research, US DOE is evaluating the concept of obtaining significant amounts of electrical energy from space through the Satellite Power System Project Office (SPS PO) formed for that purpose. The SPS PO prepared and is implementing a Concept Development and Evaluation Program plan. The CDEP runs roughly three years (from July 1977 through July 1980) and consists of four primary elements: (1) Systems Definition, (2) Environmental Assessment, (3) Societal Assessment, and (4) Comparative Assessment. One facet of the Societal Assessment is an investigation of public concerns. To further this investigation, a public outreach experiment was initiated to determine the initial response of three selected interest groups to the SPS, both qualitatively and quantititavely, and to gain some experience for use in future public participation activities. Three groups were contacted and agreed to participate in the experiment. They were: the Citizens Energy Project (CEP), the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), and the L-5 Society (L-5). They each agreed to condense twenty final SPS reports into approximately four pages each, have them typeset, printed and distributed to 3,000 of their constituents for their review, together with a request that they respond to the parent organization regarding the information presented. All responses were summarized and provided to Planning Research Corporation who then solicited the answers from the SPS PO investigator most directly concerned.The questions and answers are presented and will be distributed by the three groups to the individual respondents. Each of the three groups is also preparing a report to the Project Office detailing their work and results. These, together with other responses and studies will be used to more effectively involve the public in the SPS Participatory Technology Process.

Not Available

1980-01-01

165

WPL`s 12 years experience in hydrotesting answers questions  

SciTech Connect

Recently issued DOT rules requiring pressure testing of older hazardous liquid pipe lines have raised questions in the minds of many operators. Williams Pipe Line (WPL) has been testing its mainline system since 1982 and the results of testing about 6,600 mi over a 12-year period might answer some of those questions. WPL began hydrostatic testing its system by evaluating two sections of a critical line. Knowledge gained encouraged the company to enlarge the program`s scope. In the next five years, six in-service ERW seam failures occurred, one resulting in significant damage. Two lines involved had two seam failures with within a two-year period. All seam failures recorded on the WPL system were analyzed in 1987 revealing that certain lines exhibited higher structural failure rates than others. The longitudinal weld seam in the ERW pipe was made with a low-frequency weld process that left sections of the weld not completely fused. Many of these nonwelded areas eventually developed into failures after years in operation. Based on WPL`s seam-failure analysis, an agreement was made with DOT in 1987 to reduce operating pressure by 20% on lines with higher seam failure rates, establishing a 1.25 safety factor. Since the analysis also revealed several lines installed before DOT regulations required hydrostatic testing, the company decided to establish a prioritization program to test all pipe lines in its system that had not been tested since 1982. Objective was to eliminate in-service seam failures and ensure integrity of the system.

Turner, D. [Williams Pipe Line Co., Tulsa, OK (United States)

1995-06-01

166

Structural answers and persistent questions about how nicotinic receptors work  

PubMed Central

The electron diffraction structure of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo marmorata and the X-ray crystallographic structure of acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) are providing new answers to persistent questions about how nAChRs function as biophysical machines and as participants in cellular and systems physiology. New high-resolution information about nAChR structures might come from advances in crystallography and NMR, from extracellular domain nAChRs as high fidelity models, and from prokaryotic nicotinoid proteins. At the level of biophysics, structures of different nAChRs with different pharmacological profiles and kinetics will help describe how agonists and antagonists bind to orthosteric binding sites, how allosteric modulators affect function by binding outside these sites, how nAChRs control ion flow, and how large cytoplasmic domains affect function. At the level of cellular and systems physiology, structures of nAChRs will help characterize interactions with other cellular components, including lipids and trafficking and signaling proteins, and contribute to understanding the roles of nAChRs in addiction, neurodegeneration, and mental illness. Understanding nAChRs at an atomic level will be important for designing interventions for these pathologies.

Wells, Gregg B.

2008-01-01

167

Testis determination in mammals: more questions than answers.  

PubMed

In humans, testis development depends on a regulated genetic hierarchy initiated by the Y-linked SRY gene. Failure of testicular determination results in the condition termed 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis (GD). Several components of the testis determining pathway have recently been identified though it has been difficult to articulate a cascade with the known elements of the system. It seems, however, that early gonadal development is the result of a network of interactions instead of the outcome of a linear cascade. Accumulating evidence shows that testis formation in man is sensitive to gene dosage. Haploinsufficiency of SF1, WT1 and SOX9 is responsible for 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Besides, data on SRY is consistent with possible dosage anomalies in certain cases of male to female sex reversal. 46,XY GD due to monosomy of distal 9p and 10q might also be associated with an insufficient gene dosage effect. Duplications of the locus DSS can lead to a failure of testicular development and a duplication of the region containing SOX9 has been implicated in XX sex reversal. Transgenic studies in mouse have shown, however, that this mammal is less sensitive to gene dosage than man. Here, we will try to put in place the known pieces of the jigsaw puzzle that is sex determination in mammals, as far as current knowledge obtained from man and animal models allows. We are certain that from this attempt more questions than answers will arise. PMID:11420125

Veitia, R A; Salas-Cortés, L; Ottolenghi, C; Pailhoux, E; Cotinot, C; Fellous, M

2001-06-20

168

How Online Crowds Influence the Way Individual Consumers Answer Health Questions  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether strength of social feedback, i.e. other people who concur (or do not concur) with one’s own answer to a question, influences the way one answers health questions. Methods Online prospective study. Two hundred and twenty-seven undergraduate students were recruited to use an online search engine to answer six health questions. Subjects recorded their pre- and post-search answers to each question and their level of confidence in these answers. After answering each question post-search, subjects were presented with a summary of post-search answers provided by previous subjects and were asked to answer the question again. Results There was a statistically significant relationship between the absolute number of others with a different answer (the crowd’s opinion volume) and the likelihood of an individual changing an answer (P<0.001). For most questions, no subjects changed their answer until the first 10–35 subjects completed the study. Subjects’ likelihood of changing answer increased as the percentage of others with a different answer (the crowd’s opinion density) increased (P=0.047). Overall, 98.3% of subjects did not change their answer when it concurred with the majority (i.e. >50%) of subjects, and that 25.7% of subjects changed their answer to the majority response when it did not concur with the majority. When subjects had a post-search answer that did not concur with the majority, they were 24% more likely to change answer than those with answers that concurred (P<0.001). Conclusion This study provides empirical evidence that crowd influence, in the form of online social feedback, affects the way consumers answer health questions.

Lau, A.Y.S.; Kwok, T.M.Y.; Coiera, E.

2011-01-01

169

A comparison of student performance in multiple-choice and long essay questions in the MBBS stage I physiology examination at the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This retrospective study compared the performance of preclinical medical students in the multiple-choice question (MCQ) and long essay question components of a comprehensive physiology final examination. During the 3 yr analyzed, 307 students had an average score of 47% (SD 9.9) in the long essay questions and 64% (SD 9.9) in the MCQs. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation (r = 0.62, P < 0.01) between MCQs and long essay questions. When student performance was grouped by final course grade, a statistically significant correlation between MCQ and long essay scores existed only for the 210 students who received a passing grade (r = 0.20, P < 0.01). The MCQ and long essay question scores were not correlated for the 57 students who failed (r = 0.25, P = 0.06) or for the 40 students who achieved honors and distinctions (r = ĂÂ0.27, P = 0.11). MCQ scores were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than essay scores for each of the groups when analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The results of this study suggest that for most students, the strong correlation between scores on MCQs and essay questions indicates that student performance was independent of testing format. For students at either end on the performance spectrum, the lack of correlation suggests that the performance in one of the testing formats had a strong influence on the final course grade. In addition, those students who failed the course were likely to be weak in both testing modalities, whereas students in all grade groups were more likely to perform better in the MCQs than in the long essay questions.

Dagogo J. Pepple (University of the West Indies); Lauriann E. Young (University of the West Indies); Robert G. Carroll (East Carolina University)

2010-06-01

170

78 FR 70953 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision 1); Reopening...Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision 1...Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision...

2013-11-27

171

78 FR 55261 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision 1); Availability...Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision 1...provide updated answers to common questions from the generic drug industry...

2013-09-10

172

78 FR 29140 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About 517A...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Radiological Health Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About 517A; Draft Guidance...Health (CDRH) Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About 517A.'' This...Radiological Health Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About 517A'' to...

2013-05-17

173

Wood Chemistry of Western Conifers. Questions and Answers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twelve of the most frequent technical inquiries about western Canadian conifers have been selected, together with answers and suggestions for additional reading. These inquiries are concerned with contamination of drinking water, garden mulches, paint fai...

G. M. Barton

1973-01-01

174

Selective Benefits of Question Self-Generation and Answering for Remembering Expository Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined possible memory and metacomprehension benefits of using a combined question self-generation and answering technique, relative to rereading, as a study strategy for expository passages. In the 2 question self-generation and answering conditions (detail or conceptual questions), participants were prompted on how to…

Bugg, Julie M.; McDaniel, Mark A.

2012-01-01

175

Ontology-Based Multiple Choice Question Generation  

PubMed Central

With recent advancements in Semantic Web technologies, a new trend in MCQ item generation has emerged through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are knowledge representation structures that formally describe entities in a domain and their relationships, thus enabling automated inference and reasoning. Ontology-based MCQ item generation is still in its infancy, but substantial research efforts are being made in the field. However, the applicability of these models for use in an educational setting has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this paper, we present an experimental evaluation of an ontology-based MCQ item generation system known as OntoQue. The evaluation was conducted using two different domain ontologies. The findings of this study show that ontology-based MCQ generation systems produce satisfactory MCQ items to a certain extent. However, the evaluation also revealed a number of shortcomings with current ontology-based MCQ item generation systems with regard to the educational significance of an automatically constructed MCQ item, the knowledge level it addresses, and its language structure. Furthermore, for the task to be successful in producing high-quality MCQ items for learning assessments, this study suggests a novel, holistic view that incorporates learning content, learning objectives, lexical knowledge, and scenarios into a single cohesive framework.

Al-Yahya, Maha

2014-01-01

176

Reducing Our Ignorance: Finding Answers to Certain Epistemic Questions for Software Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In previous papers, we asserted that software system safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. We also enumerated a set of 21 foundational epistemic questions, discussed some of the difficulties that exist in answering these questions adequately today, and speculated briefly on possible research that may provide improved confidence in the sufficiency of answers in the future. This paper focuses on three of the foundational questions. For each of these questions, current answers are discussed and potential research is proposed to help increase the justifiable level of confidence.

Holloway, C. Michael; Johnson, Christopher W.

2011-01-01

177

A Web-Based Platform for User-Interactive Question-Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A user-interactive question-answering (QA) platform named BuyAns (at www.buyans.com) is presented. The platform is a special kind of online community and mainly features a rewarding scheme for answering questions\\u000a among all users, a pattern-based user interface (UI) for questioning and answering, and a pattern-based representation and\\u000a storage scheme for accumulated question-answer pairs. The system actually proposes and promotes a C2C

Liu Wenyin; Tianyong Hao; Wei Chen; Min Feng

2009-01-01

178

Questions and answers on biotechnology permits for genetically engineered plants and microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

The brochure answers questions about permits for the importation, interstate movement, or environmental release of certain genetically engineered plants and microorganisms regulated under 7 CFR Part 340.

Not Available

1991-04-01

179

Questions and Answers on Biotechnology Permits for Genetically Engineered Plants and Microorganisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The brochure answers questions about permits for the importation, interstate movement, or environmental release of certain genetically engineered plants and microorganisms regulated under 7 CFR Part 340.

1991-01-01

180

CAA of Short Non-MCQ Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach for the computer-assisted assessment (CAA) of non- multiple choice questions (Non-MCQ) type and short answers given by students. The technique is developed for the assessment of text contents of free text answers to questions of factual disciplines. The Automated Text Marker (ATM) prototype automatically breaks down an expertly written model answer, to a closed-ended

David Callear; Jenny Jerrams-Smith; Victor Soh

2001-01-01

181

Answering the Complex Question of "How Good Is Good Enough?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Imagine that a student--let's call him Michael--has earned a score of 55 on an examination. How well did he do? Was his score good enough for him to pass the examination, or pass the course, or be deemed at least minimally competent in whatever the exam was assessing? Michael's score alone, in the absence of any other information, cannot answer

Suskie, Linda

2007-01-01

182

Getting Answers to Natural Language Questions on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that investigated the use of natural language questions on Web search engines. Highlights include query languages; differences in search engine syntax; and results of logistic regression and analysis of variance that showed aspects of questions that predicted significantly different performances, including the number of words,…

Radev, Dragomir R.; Libner, Kelsey; Fan, Weiguo

2002-01-01

183

Can Consortial Reference Partners Answer Your Local Users' Library Questions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to explore location-based questions as a weakness of virtual reference consortia and discuss how to mitigate related issues. Content analysis of how both local and non-local academic librarians responded to location-based questions provides insight into considerations academic libraries must make when participating…

Bishop, Bradley Wade

2012-01-01

184

Teaching Students to Ask Questions Instead of Answering Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Philosophers, cognitive scientists, anthropologists, and psychologists have argued convincingly that the act of questioning is central to thinking, to storing and communicating knowledge, even to several important types of social interaction. But while scholars of higher education have written extensively on the topic of questioning for more than…

Bowker, Matthew H.

2010-01-01

185

S.K. Worm - Answers to Questions on Soil & Stuff  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains the basic process of soil formation and describes some of the characteristics of soils for elementary school children. The information is provided in the form of 13 questions about soil, with the final questions addressing the issue of soil conservation. Once the student has read all 13 informational sections they are awarded a Soil Diploma.

186

Guessing, Partial Knowledge, and Misconceptions in Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number right (NR) method, in which students pick one option as the answer, is the conventional method for scoring multiple-choice tests that is heavily criticized for encouraging students to guess and failing to credit partial knowledge. In addition, computer technology is increasingly used in classroom assessment. This paper investigates the…

Lau, Paul Ngee Kiong; Lau, Sie Hoe; Hong, Kian Sam; Usop, Hasbee

2011-01-01

187

Questions and Answers about Memories of Childhood Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

Can a memory be forgotten and then remembered? Can a 'memory' be suggested and then remembered as true? These questions lie ... If there is so much controversy about childhood memories of abuse, should I still seek help from ...

188

Theorizing the Entrepreneurial University: Open Questions and Possible Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article attempts to address theoretical questions regarding the transition towards an entrepreneurial university and the changes associated with this process, namely the increased commodification, the competitive quest for private funding and the introduction of business management practices. The important theoretical advances made in the…

Sotiris, Panagiotis

2012-01-01

189

Can Nonprofit Management Help Answer Public Management's "Big Questions?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of nonprofit literature on board governance, volunteer management, and performance measurement shows that study of the nonprofit sector can help inform public management's "big questions": breaking the micromanagement cycle, motivating employees, and measuring performance. Nonprofit studies could enrich public administration curricula.…

Brooks, Arthur C.

2002-01-01

190

The Answers to Questions That Teachers Most Frequently Ask.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a teacher's responses to various real questions asked by student teachers and beginning teachers. The nine chapters are: (1) "It Don't Mean a Thing if It Ain't Got That Swing: Teacher Attitude"; (2) "Who, What, When, Where, and Why, Oh Why, Me?: Organization"; (3) "A Little Song, A Little Dance, A Little Quiz Tomorrow: Delivery…

Anderson, Julie Wofford

191

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial: Questions and Answers  

Cancer.gov

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large, randomized study to determine whether the use of certain screening tests will reduce the risk of dying of those four cancers. In addition to answering questions about the screening tests, the PLCO asked questions about many aspects of the study participants’ health and collected biospecimens (blood and some tissues) to answer many other questions about cancer.

192

When Students Ask Questions: Teacher and Peer Answers in the Foreign Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on student questions in L2 classrooms has shown conflicting results. Some studies report that foreign language teachers use direct answers and others express concern about ESL teachers' overuse of ineffective display counter-questions. Here, student questions and their resolutions were analyzed in more than thirty hours of first through…

Ohta, Amy Snyder; Nakaone, Tomoko

2004-01-01

193

Using Assessment to Support Higher Level Learning: The Multiple Choice Item Development Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the multiple choice item development assignment (MCIDA) that was developed to support both content and higher level learning. The MCIDA involves students in higher level learning by requiring them to develop multiple choice items, write justifications for both correct and incorrect answer options and determine the highest…

Fellenz, Martin R.

2004-01-01

194

Outpatient commitment and its alternatives: questions yet to be answered.  

PubMed

This Open Forum reviews research findings on outpatient commitment and alternative approaches, such as conditional hospital release and guardianship. Despite the accumulating evidence in favor of these practices, many questions remain about their essential elements and comparative effectiveness. The authors describe the strengths and shortcomings in existing studies and propose a research strategy that would take advantage of advances in methodologies, such as instrumental variables and propensity weighting, to design studies with a level of rigor comparable to that of randomized controlled trials. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) introduces many opportunities and resources to improve care; studies should also be undertaken to investigate use of outpatient commitment and alternative approaches in the post-ACA health care environment. PMID:24881686

Morrissey, Joseph P; Desmarais, Sarah L; Domino, Marisa E

2014-06-01

195

The Crucial Questions School Board Members Must Answer--Or Have Answered for Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fundamental question facing school boards--how to balance the impelling state interest in producing a literate population with the guaranteed civil liberties of the individual--arises in eight areas: accountability, collective bargaining, curriculum, finance, governance, liability, personnel, and student rights. (Author/IRT)

Nolte, M. Chester

1978-01-01

196

Towards Entailment-Based Question Answering: ITC-irst at CLEF 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

This year, besides providing support to other groups participating in cross-language Question Answering (QA) tasks, and submitting runs both for the monolingual Ital- ian and the cross-language Italian\\/English tasks, the ITC-irst participation in the CLEF campaign concentrated on the Answer Validation Exercise (AVE). The partic- ipation in the AVE task, with an answer validation module based on textual entail- ment

Milen Kouylekov; Matteo Negri; Bernardo Magnini; Bonaventura Coppola

2006-01-01

197

Children's Ability to Answer Different Types of Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children answer many questions every day. The extent to which they do this in an adult-like way -- following Grice's Maxim of Quantity by providing the requested information, no more no less -- has been studied very little. In an experiment, we found that two-, three- and four-year-old children are quite skilled at answering

Salomo, Dorothe; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

2013-01-01

198

Scalable mobile video question-answering system with locally aggregated descriptors and random projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a scalable mobile video Question-Answering system with locally aggregated descriptors and random projection using user-generated videos all around the world for ACM Multimedia 2011 Technicolor challenge: \\

Guan-Long Wu; Yu-Chuan Su; Tzu-Hsuan Chiu; Liang-Chi Hsieh; Winston H. Hsu

2011-01-01

199

North American Free Trade Negotiations: Most Frequently Asked Questions and Their Answers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The packet provides general information on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and how to investigate market opportunities in Mexico and Canada. General trade statistics, answers to commonly asked questions, key contacts, and a history of the ...

1991-01-01

200

The E-Learning Question and Answer Book: A Survival Guide for Trainers and Business Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book answers more than 70 key questions that business managers and trainers ask about using e-learning in their company as a business tool. Chapters 1 and 3-11 are comprised of questions and answers related to these topics: what e-learning is all about; what e-learning costs; applying e-learning to the business; what today's e-learning…

Henderson, Allan J.

201

Answers to questions about updated estimates of occupational radiation doses at Three Mile Island, Unit 2  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this question and answer report is to provide a clear, easy-to-understand explanation of revised radiation dose estimates which workers are likely to receive over the course of the cleanup at Three Mile Island, Unit 2, and of the possible health consequences to workers of these new estimates. We will focus primarily on occupational dose, although pertinent questions about public health and safety will also be answered.

Not Available

1983-12-01

202

Are Wikipedia Resources Useful for Discovering Answers to List Questions within Web Snippets?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents LiSnQA, a list question answering system that extracts answers to list queries from the short descriptions of web-sites returned by search engines, called web snippets. LiSnQA mines Wikipedia resources in order to obtain valuable information that assists in the extraction of these answers. The interesting facet of LiSnQA is, that in contrast to current systems, it does not account for lists in Wikipedia, but for its redirections, categories, sandboxes, and first definition sentences. Results show that these resources strengthen the answering process.

Figueroa, Alejandro

203

Factors associated with successful answering of clinical questions using an information retrieval system*  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Despite the growing use of online databases by clinicians, there has been very little research documenting how effectively they are used. This study assessed the ability of medical and nurse-practitioner students to answer clinical questions using an information retrieval system. It also attempted to identify the demographic, experience, cognitive, personality, search mechanics, and user-satisfaction factors associated with successful use of a retrieval system. Methods: Twenty-nine students completed questionnaires of clinical and computer experience as well as tests of cognitive abilities and personality type. They were then administered three clinical questions to answer in a medical library setting using the MEDLINE database and electronic and print full-text resources. Results: Medical students were able to answer more questions correctly than nurse-practitioner students before and after searching, but both had comparable improvements in the number of correct questions before and after searching. Successful ability to answer questions was also associated with having experience in literature searching and higher standardized test-score percentiles. Conclusions: Medical and nurse-practitioner students obtained comparable benefits in the ability to answer clinical questions from use of the information retrieval system. Future research must examine strategies that improve successful search and retrieval of clinical questions posed by clinicians in practice.

Hersh, William R.; Crabtree, M. Katherine; Hickam, David H.; Sacherek, Lynetta; Rose, Linda; Friedman, Charles P.

2000-01-01

204

DIATEST, A System for Programme Control of Multiple Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The DIATEST responder system is a control system for fully programed running of diagnostic tests of multiple-choice type. The system makes use of the control unit earlier developed at the Institute of Technology for programed four-screen slide projection and the electronic response analyser (ESAU). Presentation of a question is done audiovisually,…

Eriksson, Christer

205

Performance on multiple-choice diagnostics and complementary exam problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper compares the responses of university physics students on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and on open-ended examination questions. The Mechanics Baseline Test (MBT) is another multiple choice test. It contains a greater range of topics than the FCI and is intended for use after instruction.

Steinberg, Richard N.; Sabella, Mel

2005-10-17

206

A cognitive evaluation of four online search engines for answering definitional questions posed by physicians.  

PubMed

The Internet is having a profound impact on physicians' medical decision making. One recent survey of 277 physicians showed that 72% of physicians regularly used the Internet to research medical information and 51% admitted that information from web sites influenced their clinical decisions. This paper describes the first cognitive evaluation of four state-of-the-art Internet search engines: Google (i.e., Google and Scholar.Google), MedQA, Onelook, and PubMed for answering definitional questions (i.e., questions with the format of "What is X?") posed by physicians. Onelook is a portal for online definitions, and MedQA is a question answering system that automatically generates short texts to answer specific biomedical questions. Our evaluation criteria include quality of answer, ease of use, time spent, and number of actions taken. Our results show that MedQA outperforms Onelook and PubMed in most of the criteria, and that MedQA surpasses Google in time spent and number of actions, two important efficiency criteria. Our results show that Google is the best system for quality of answer and ease of use. We conclude that Google is an effective search engine for medical definitions, and that MedQA exceeds the other search engines in that it provides users direct answers to their questions; while the users of the other search engines have to visit several sites before finding all of the pertinent information. PMID:17990503

Yu, Hong; Kaufman, David

2007-01-01

207

Teacher's Toolkit: Strategies for the meaningful evaluation of multiple-choice assessments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Too many multiple-choice tests are administered without an evaluative component. Teachers often return student assessments or Scantron cards--computerized bubble forms--without review, assuming that the printing of the correct answer will suffice. However,

Chesbro, Robert

2010-10-01

208

A Subset Selection Technique for Scoring Items on a Multiple Choice Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On a multiple-choice test in which each item has k alternative responses, the test taker is permitted to choose any subset which he believes contains the one correct answer. A scoring system is devised. (Author/CTM)

Gibbons, Jean D.; And Others

1979-01-01

209

Answers to the 50 Most Important Questions about Private Mental Health Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for anyone contemplating or presently established in private mental health practice, this book provides the answers to 50 pertinent questions concerning private practice. Questions were culled from a survey of graduate students in psychology, as well as experienced psychotherapists, psychiatrists, social workers, mental health counselors,…

Forman, Bruce D.; Silverman, Wade H.

210

Researching the Quest: Are Community College Students Motivated by Question-and-Answer Reviews?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any effort to assess the motivational techniques employed by community college faculty is complicated by the inter-connectedness of motivational techniques and teaching techniques, as improved teaching results in improved motivation. Nonetheless, this research poses a motivation-related question: Does the use of daily question-and-answer reviews…

Cavendish, Don F., Jr.

2010-01-01

211

The Varieties of Student Experience--An Open Research Question and Some Ways to Answer It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on meetings of the Society for Research into Higher Education's Student Experience Network over the past three years, the genuinely open research question is posed whether there is one or more undergraduate student experience within English higher education. Answering this question depends on whether what is taught or what is learnt is…

Ainley, Patrick

2008-01-01

212

Selecting Information to Answer Questions: Strategic Individual Differences when Searching Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to explore students' selection of information strategies in a task-oriented reading situation. 72 secondary school students read two texts and answered six questions per text, three of which were manipulated to induce a misleading matching between the wording of the question and distracting pieces of information in the…

Cerdan, Raquel; Gilabert, Ramiro; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo

2011-01-01

213

41 CFR 300-2.21 - How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? 300-2.21...INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.21 How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? The rule...

2009-07-01

214

41 CFR 300-2.21 - How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? 300-2.21...INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.21 How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? The rule...

2010-07-01

215

Responding to Children's Answers: Questions Embedded in the Social Context of Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents analysis of question-answer sequences during problem inquiry between a teacher and two children in an early childhood crčche in New Zealand. Conversation analysis is used to reveal which questions the teacher asks, how children answer the questions, and the teacher's responses to the child's answers. Although…

Bateman, Amanda

2013-01-01

216

Sumlaris Program: Surface Mining and Land Reclamation Information System. Sample Questions Answered Utilizing the Sumlaris Data Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document provides sample questions that can be answered by using the SUMLARIS Indiana data base. The questions were posed by ANL and are listed in Section I. Each question is then repeated, and its answer given, in Section II. The answers are presente...

R. R. MacDonald R. L. Beck T. Heble L. Fehr

1979-01-01

217

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR No...Part 734—Questions and Answers—Technology and Software Subject to the EAR ...explanatory questions and answers relating to technology and software that is...

2011-01-01

218

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR No...Part 734—Questions and Answers—Technology and Software Subject to the EAR ...explanatory questions and answers relating to technology and software that is...

2012-01-01

219

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

...2014-01-01 false Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR No...Part 734—Questions and Answers—Technology and Software Subject to the EAR ...explanatory questions and answers relating to technology and software that is...

2014-01-01

220

The Linear Multiple Choice Knapsack Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We discuss a fast algorithm for the linear programming relaxation of the Multiple Choice Knapsack Problem. Let N be the total number of variables in this problem and let J and J sub max denote the total number of multiple choice variables and the cardinal...

E. Zemel

1979-01-01

221

Factors Associated with Success in Searching medline and Applying Evidence to Answer Clinical Questions  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study sought to assess the ability of medical and nurse practitioner students to use medline to obtain evidence for answering clinical questions and to identify factors associated with the successful answering of questions. Methods: A convenience sample of medical and nurse practitioner students was recruited. After completing instruments measuring demographic variables, computer and searching attitudes and experience, and cognitive traits, the subjects were given a brief orientation to medline searching and the techniques of evidence-based medicine. The subjects were then given 5 questions (from a pool of 20) to answer in two sessions using the Ovid medline system and the Oregon Health & Science University library collection. Each question was answered using three possible responses that reflected the quality of the evidence. All actions capable of being logged by the Ovid system were captured. Statistical analysis was performed using a model based on generalized estimating equations. The relevance-based measures of recall and precision were measured by defining end queries and having relevance judgments made by physicians who were not associated with the study. Results: Forty-five medical and 21 nurse practitioner students provided usable answers to 324 questions. The rate of correctness increased from 32.3 to 51.6 percent for medical students and from 31.7 to 34.7 percent for nurse practitioner students. Ability to answer questions correctly was most strongly associated with correctness of the answer before searching, user experience with medline features, the evidence-based medicine question type, and the spatial visualization score. The spatial visualization score showed multi-collinearity with student type (medical vs. nurse practitioner). Medical and nurse practitioner students obtained comparable recall and precision, neither of which was associated with correctness of the answer. Conclusions: Medical and nurse practitioner students in this study were at best moderately successful at answering clinical questions correctly with the assistance of literature searching. The results confirm the importance of evaluating both search ability and the ability to use the resulting information to accomplish a clinical task.

Hersh, William R.; Crabtree, M. Katherine; Hickam, David H.; Sacherek, Lynetta; Friedman, Charles P.; Tidmarsh, Patricia; Mosbaek, Craig; Kraemer, Dale

2002-01-01

222

What causes the patterns in students' incorrect answers to physics questions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education researchers agree on one thing: the empirical finding that students often answer questions about simple physical phenomena in ways that are not only specific and contrary to the scientific view, but also remarkably similar to answers of other students. What causes these answering patterns? Most efforts focus on students' explicit reasoning, yet it still remains an open question to what extent implicit, automatic learning processes play a role. We provide evidence that such automatic cognitive mechanisms likely play an important role in student responses to science questions. For example, we find that students often choose to base their answer on the dimensions of a problem that are processed the fastest (even if the dimension is incorrect), and forcing a few-second delay can improve their performance. This suggests that respondents are capable of answering correctly, but instead they tend to answer quickly. We also provide evidence suggesting that repetitive training can shift attention to more relevant dimensions in a problem and increase performance, possibly because processing time is decreased.

Heckler, Andrew

2011-04-01

223

Using a Classroom Response System to Improve Multiple-Choice Performance in AP[R] Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation in rigorous high school courses such as Advanced Placement (AP[R]) Physics increases the likelihood of college success, especially for students who are traditionally underserved. Tackling difficult multiple-choice exams should be part of any AP program because well-constructed multiple-choice questions, such as those on AP exams and…

Bertrand, Peggy

2009-01-01

224

Acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of question-answering skills in autistic children.  

PubMed Central

We conducted an investigation to evaluate the effects of a training strategy for teaching autistic students generalized responses to three forms of wh--questions (what, how, and why). Students were taught, using modeling and reinforcement procedures, to answer questions with magazine pictures as the referents. Each question form was divided into two or more subcomponents reflective of common social usage and was taught within the context of a modified multiple probe design across subcomponents. Following acquisition of each subcomponent, generalization to natural context and storybook questions was assessed; additional probes were conducted to assess responding over time and whether acquisition of responses to questions promoted question-asking skills. Results showed that the picture training procedure was effective in teaching a generalized response to questions for which the relevant cue was visible, whereas specific generalization programming was required for situations in which the relevant cue was not visible. All acquired responses were durable over time.

Secan, K E; Egel, A L; Tilley, C S

1989-01-01

225

[Questions and answers to possible side effects of external bleaching therapies].  

PubMed

There are several questions with regard to the application and possible side effects of external bleaching therapies. The following short review gives answers to some questions regarding this topic. It might be concluded that every bleaching therapy should be preceded by a meticulous intraoral examination. To reduce the risk of adverse effects, it is mandatory to have knowledge about the mode of action of bleaching agents. PMID:18998582

Attin, Thomas; Wiegand, Annette; Schmidlin, Patrick R

2008-01-01

226

Assessing the quality of pharmacist answers to telephone drug information questions.  

PubMed

A quality assurance (QA) program is described in which frontline pharmacists were asked test drug information questions via anonymous telephone calls. The program was instituted at a university hospital that began providing decentralized pharmaceutical services in 1985. Questions were developed on the basis of a pilot study conducted to determine the types and complexity of drug information questions received by frontline pharmacists at the hospital. Data on departmental clinical productivity were used to determine the number of questions that would be posed during each shift in the various service areas. The questions were posed during a 10-day period; the pharmacists were aware of the program, but the callers did not identify their affiliation with it. In response to 105 questions asked, 86 were judged to have been answered correctly, 13 answers were deemed incomplete, and 6 were judged incorrect. Pharmacists were more likely to respond incorrectly to complex questions and questions posed during the night shift. As a result of the audit, staff members with advanced clinical knowledge were asked to help less experienced pharmacists, the position of assistant director for drug information and staff development was created, and educational programs were instituted. The QA audit has been repeated twice. Posing test drug information questions via anonymous telephone calls is effective in assessing the quality of drug information provided by pharmacists in patient-care areas. PMID:2321656

Woodward, C T; Stevenson, J G; Poremba, A

1990-04-01

227

Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements, Questions and Answers. Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FDA regulations require that certain human drug and biological product labels contain a bar code consisting of, at a minimum, the National Drug Code (NDC) number (21 CFR 201.25). This guidance provides questions and answers relating to how the bar code la...

2006-01-01

228

Using phylogenetically based comparative methods in anthropology: More questions than answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of adaptation is designed to answer questions about the evolution of organic diversity and entails, as one of its standard tools, analysis of the distribu- tion of traits across individuals, species. This comparative method, used to identify cases of convergent evolution, provides some of the strongest evidence for adaptation, and is central not only to modern biology but

Monique Borgerhoff Mulder

2001-01-01

229

Q & A: Questions and Answers for Teachers About National Board Certification, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure offers answers to questions for teachers about National Board Certification, including: what the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) is; what National Board Certification (NBC) is; how involved teachers are in NBPTS; NBPTS' five core propositions; the NBPTS standards; how NBPTS standards are developed; whether…

National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, Arlington, VA.

230

Are Our Kids All Right? Answers to the Tough Questions about Child Care Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining over 20 years of research findings, including the most recent research on child care and child development, this book attempts to answer the three most important questions parents have about day care: Is day care harmful? Are babies damaged by the fact that their mothers work? and, Are working parents, by being absent during most of the…

Dynerman, Susan B.

231

"The Panama Canal Episode: An Encounter with a Question and Answers." Occasional Paper 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an account of the experience of a college instructor and a group of prospective social studies teachers as they answer a simple question concerned with direction of travel through the Panama Canal and explore the reactions of students. The situation originates in a class discussion focusing on ways of asking and responding to classroom…

Seifman, Eli

232

The CSD–450,000 answers?…?but what are the questions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief survey about the development of knowledge of crystal and molecular structure based on the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is given. The CSD may be considered as a database of answers to the question as to which polymorph will form under given crystallization conditions. The emphasis of research over the years has moved from molecular structural geometry, to intermolecular

W. D. Samuel Motherwell

2008-01-01

233

Questions and Answers on Library Law: The Freedom of Information Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Answers questions regarding the impact of the Freedom of Information Act on libraries. Highlights include the definition of a public body as used in the act, which public records are covered, circulation record, how to submit requests for records, and who is responsible for complying with requests for records. (LRW)

Uhler, Scott; Allison, Rinda; Petsche, Janet

1998-01-01

234

Tax Information for Refugees and Their Sponsors: Questions and Answers. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides Federal income tax information for refugees and their sponsors. Issues covered in a question and answer format include: (1) the tax status of refugees; (2) the criteria for declaring a refugee a dependent; (3) deductions for contributions to refugees or organizations that support them; (4) the distinction between resident and…

Internal Revenue Service (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

235

Performance auditing, new public management and performance improvement: questions and answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is believed that public sector auditing leads to a more efficient and effective performance of the public sector. This assumption recently has been challenged by adherents of the new public management (NPM). Describes characteristics of NPM such as freeing up controls over and devolving greater responsibility to managers. Answers the question, why should performance auditors be interested in this

Frans L. Leeuw

1996-01-01

236

Combining Linguistic Processing and Web Mining for Question Answering: ITC-irst at TREC 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the work we have been done in the last year on the DIOGENE Question Answering system developed at ITC-Irst. We present two preliminary experiments showing the possibility of integrating into DIOGENE a textual entailment engine based on entailment rules. We addressed the problem proposing both a methodology for acquiring rules from the Web and a matching algorithm

Hristo Tanev; Milen Kouylekov; Bernardo Magnini

2004-01-01

237

Questions and Answers on Copyright for the Campus Community. Updated (Includes Recent Court Decisions).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for those members of the higher education community who write and publish (and that includes both students who write research papers, faculty who produce scholarly articles, copy centers, and college stores), this easy-to-understand guide explains the requirements of United States copyright law. The guide, in question and answer format,…

Association of American Publishers, New York, NY.

238

Frequently Asked Questions about ADHD and the Answers from the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies useful Internet sites about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the results of searching these sites to answer common questions concerning incidence of ADHD, basic information about Ritalin drug therapy, educational placement of students with ADHD, sources of information about special needs, and what parents can do at…

Loechler, Kathy

1999-01-01

239

Do-It-Yourself Learning Games: Software That Lets You Pick the Questions--and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews user-adaptable learning games that can be customized for any subject, including Tic Tac Show and the Game Show from Computer Advanced Ideas, which are question-answer learning programs based on game shows, and Master Match from Computer Advanced Ideas and Square Pairs from Scholastic Inc., which are based on the card game Concentration.…

Hively, Wells

1984-01-01

240

Reliability of Tests Used to Make Pass/Fail Decisions: Answering the Right Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional reliability coefficient and standard error of measurement are not adequate measures of reliability for tests used to make pass/fail decisions. Answering the important reliability questions requires estimation of the joint distribution of true and observed scores. Lord's "Method 20" estimates this distribution without the…

Livingston, Samuel A.

241

An Open-Ended, Short Answer, Text Question Tool: Improving Interactivity on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of a study of the development of an innovative learning element designed to be implemented in a computer-facilitated learning (CFL) module. The learning element is an open-ended, short answer, text question tool (TQT) designed to be used in World Wide Web-based courses or incorporated into hybrid Web/CD-ROM systems.…

Kennedy, David M.; Eizenberg, Norm

242

Questions and Answers in Public Sector Labor Relations. A Practitioner's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this guide is to answer common questions about public sector labor relations with special emphasis on how this sector differs from the private sector. A beginning section offers general information defining and explaining public sector labor relations. A segment on labor relations law details legislation and the function of…

Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Midwest Center for Public Sector Labor Relations.

243

Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

US Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

244

What Can Standardized Reading Tests Tell Us? Question-Answer Relationships and Students' Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the comprehension subsection of Nelson-Denny Reading Test Form G (Brown, Fishco, & Hanna, 1993a) and some urban developmental students' performance on it. Three types of question-answer relations were identified using Pearson and Johnson's taxonomy. Students' performance was expressed in their scores on the three types of…

Wang, Danhua

2006-01-01

245

Entropy - Some Cosmological Questions Answered by Model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper summarizes the background of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe model and its potential to offer answers to some open cosmological questions related to entropy. Three problems are faced in more detail, namely that of Hawkings phenomenon of black holes evaporation, maximum entropy of the Universe during its evolution, and time evolution of specific entropy.

Sima, Jozef; Sukenik, Miroslav

2002-12-01

246

The use of theorem-proving techniques in question-answering systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the purpose of this paper, a question-answering system is a computer program that has at least the following three characteristics: (1) The ability to accept statements of fact and store them in its memory (2) The ability to search stored information efficiently and to recognize items that are relevant to a particular query (3) The ability to respond appropriately

C. Cordell Green; Bertram Raphael

1968-01-01

247

Answering questions with an electroencephalogram-based brain-computer interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To demonstrate that humans can learn to control selected electroencephalographic components and use that control to answer simple questions.Methods: Four adults (one with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) learned to use electroencephalogram (EEG) mu rhythm (8 to 12Hz) or beta rhythm (18 to 25Hz) activity over sensorimotor cortex to control vertical cursor movement to targets at the top or bottom edge

Laurie A. Miner; Dennis J. McFarland; Jonathan R. Wolpaw

1998-01-01

248

Vector measure for the intelligence of a Question-Answering (Q-A) system  

SciTech Connect

The problem of quantification of intelligence of humans, and of intelligent systems, has been a challenging and controversial topic. IQ tests have been traditionally used to quantify human intelligence based on results of test designed by psychologists. It is in general very difficult to quantify intelligence. In this paper we consider a simple Question-Answering (Q-A) system and use this to quantify intelligence. We quantify intelligence as a vector with three components. The components consist of a measure of knowledge in asking questions, effectiveness of questions asked, and correctness of deduction. We formalize these parameters and have conducted experiments on humans to measure these parameters. 20 refs.

Srivastava, A.; Rajaraman, V. [Novell India R & D Cent, Bangalore (India)] [Novell India R & D Cent, Bangalore (India)

1995-05-01

249

An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A) network tools, which link questioners directly to experts can overcome some of these barriers. When designing and

Martijn DF Rhebergen; Carel TJ Hulshof; Annet F Lenderink; Frank JH van Dijk

2010-01-01

250

Environmental Problems, Causes, and Solutions: An Open Question  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a national evaluation of environmental literacy in Israel, (Negev, Sagy, Garb, Salzberg, & Tal, 2008), the authors included both multiple choice questions and open questions. In this article the authors describe the qualitative analysis of the answers to an open question regarding a local environmental problem. Most participants specified solid waste, open spaces, or air pollution as the main

Maya Negev; Yaakov Garb; Roni Biller; Gonen Sagy; Alon Tal

2009-01-01

251

Environmental Problems, Causes, and Solutions: An Open Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a national evaluation of environmental literacy in Israel, (Negev, Sagy, Garb, Salzberg, & Tal, 2008), the authors included both multiple choice questions and open questions. In this article the authors describe the qualitative analysis of the answers to an open question regarding a local environmental problem. Most participants specified solid…

Negev, Maya; Garb, Yaakov; Biller, Roni; Sagy, Gonen; Tal, Alon

2010-01-01

252

Adding question answering to an e-tutor for programming languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Control over a closed domain of textual material removes many question answering issues, as does an ontology that is closely intertwined with its sources. This pragmatic, shallow approach to many challenging areas of research in adaptive hypermedia, question answering, intelligent tutoring and humancomputer interaction has been put into practice at Cambridge in the Computer Science undergraduate course to teach the hardware description language Veri/og. This language itself poses many challenges as it crosses the interdisciplinary boundary between hardware and software engineers, giving rise to severalhuman ontologies as well as theprogramming language itself We present further results from ourformal and informal surveys. We look at further work to increase the dialogue between studentand tutor and export our knowledge to the Semantic Web.

Taylor, Kate; Moore, Simon

253

CSShark Answers Frequently Asked Questions: The CSS Know-How Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is an Internet tool that separates the presentation from the structural markup of a Web site. CSS keeps the structure of a document lean and fast while controlling the appearance of its content. This product is not an adapted tool from print or programming; rather, it is a means of enhancing HTML. For users interested in learning more about this tool, this informative and well-constructed site answers some of those frequently asked questions regarding CSS. In addition, the site explains some of the basics of CSS, provides tips and tricks for tackling the problems with Netscape 4, offers a tutorial concerning positioning with CSS (CSS-P, Web design without tables), and gives various resource links to other related sites. In short, for those with questions concerning CSS and its functions, the CSShark is ready to provide answers.

Mako.

2001-01-01

254

Measurement and Modeling of A Web-based Question Answering System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question-answering (QA) is one of the most natural and effective channels for specific information acquisition. QA systems emerged several decades back. In this paper, we perform a measurement study of a popular, large scale Web-QA system, i.e. iAsk, and systematically investigate various behavior patterns and the system performance. To evaluate such a Web-QA system, we propose three performance metrics, namely

Chunyi Peng; Zaoyang Gong; Guobin Shen

2006-01-01

255

Exploiting Linguistic Indices and Syntactic Structures for Multilingual Question Answering: ITC-irst at CLEF 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

This year we participated at 4 Question Answering tasks at CLEF: the Italian mono- lingual (I), Italian-English (I\\/E), Bulgarian monolingual (B), and Bulgarian-English (B\\/E) bilingual task. While we did not change the approach in the Italian task (I), we experimented with several new approaches based on linguistic structures and statistics in the B, I\\/E, and B\\/E tasks.

Hristo Tanev; Milen Kouylekov; Bernardo Magnini; Matteo Negri; Kiril Ivanov Simov

2005-01-01

256

EBM apps that help you search for answers to your clinical questions.  

PubMed

In the age of smartphones and tablets, it has become common place to find apps that help you do or find almost anything. The quality and breadth of medical apps has improved greatly in recent years. You can now find medical apps that recreate textbooks, search for current articles, calculate likelihood ratios and find point-of-care answers to clinical questions. This article describes and reviews apps aimed at helping clinicians search for evidence to support the practice of EBM. PMID:24530997

Windish, Donna

2014-06-01

257

Vidiam: Corpus-based Development of a Dialogue Manager for Multimodal Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes the Vidiam project, which covered the development of a dialogue management system for multimodal question\\u000a answering (QA) dialogues, as carried out in the IMIX project. The approach followed was datadriven, i.e., corpus-based. Since\\u000a research in QA dialogue of multimodal information retrieval is still new, no suitable corpora were available to base a system\\u000a on. This chapter reports

Schooten van Boris; Akker op den Rieks; Bosch van den Antal; Gosse Bouma

2011-01-01

258

Simulation of psychosis on a multiple-choice projective test.  

PubMed

The ability of a new multiple-choice group Rorschach instrument to differentiate 62 undergraduate students asked to simulate psychosis from 75 students and 55 schizophrenics given standard instructions was investigated. For each of 50 responses to miniature inkblots, normals and psychotics chose one of four alternative answers as most descriptive of what the stimulus looked like. Simulators responded as they thought a psychotic or insane person would. As hypothesized, simulators chose significantly more "good form but bizarre wording" responses than normals or psychotics, suggesting that the test is promising as a practical clinical indicator of attempts to simulate psychosis. PMID:6634328

Pettigrew, C G; Tuma, J M; Pickering, J W; Whelton, J

1983-10-01

259

Using IF-AT Based Questions to Reinforce Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sets of multiple choice questions that require students to apply course concepts to new situations or circumstances are used as an active learning exercise in lecture settings. Answer keys in the form of IF-AT scratch-off sheets are provided so students have instant feedback once their group has decided on an answer.

Kirkby, Kent

260

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR No. Supplement...Questions and AnswersâTechnology and Software Subject to the EAR This Supplement...and answers relating to technology and software that is subject to the EAR....

2013-01-01

261

Verbal Paradata and Survey Error: Respondent Speech, Voice, and Question-Answering Behavior Can Predict Income Item Nonresponse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Income nonresponse is a significant problem in survey data, with rates as high as 50%, yet we know little about why it occurs. It is plausible that the way respondents answer survey questions (e.g., their voice and speech characteristics, and their question- answering behavior) can predict whether they will provide income data, and will reflect…

Jans, Matthew E.

2010-01-01

262

The Communication Skills Used by Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers in a Question-and-Answer Game Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in…

Toe, Dianne M.; Paatsch, Louise E.

2010-01-01

263

Americans with Disabilities Act: Responsibilities for Postsecondary Institutions Serving Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students. Questions and Answers. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides answers to questions concerning responsibilities of institutions of postsecondary education toward students who are deaf or hard of hearing under the Americans with Disabilities Act. These questions were originally received but not answered due to time constraints during two satellite conferences held by the Midwest…

Kincaid, Jeanne M.; Rawlinson, Sharaine J.

264

What recruiters can't/won't tell you. 6 questions that good headhunters won't answer.  

PubMed

If you're frustrated because a headhunter won't give you certain information about a hiring organization, get over it. There are some very good reasons why a respectable recruiter won't answer particular questions from job candidates. Find out the questions and why they won't answer them. PMID:11806241

Kennedy, Marilyn Moats

2002-01-01

265

EB 2009 - Writing the Test Question isn't Enough!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Symposium: Writing the Test Question IsnĂÂt Enough! Presented at Experimental Biology, New Orleans LA Monday, April 20, 2009, 8:00-10:00 AM Chairs: Vikki McCleary and Kathy sukalski, Univ. of North Dakota Well constructed multiple choice items can provide a valid, reliable, and unbiased means to assess student learning. Machine scoring and analysis allows for a rapid turnaround of results and provides information about the patterns of responses to individual items. This symposium focused on the construction of valid, reliable multiple choice questions with an emphasis on those that evaluate the studentsĂÂ critical thinking ability in the context of specific learning objectives. The session was introduced by Ellis Bell who considered the process of evaluating student achievement in both content knowledge and critical thinking. Decisions must be made about the types of questions to use (essay, short answer, multiple choice) and timing of the examinations, (midterm and final, block exams). Vikki McCleary focused on multiple choice examinations and reviewed the optimization of stems, answers, and distracters and the evaluation of items according to BloomĂÂs taxonomy. Charles Hosford outlined the use of standard item analyses to improve test questions. The assessment of student understanding during class lectures using multiple choice questions was addressed by Jeannine Matz. Kenneth Ruit presented lessons learned from constructing and administering multiple choice examinations in an integrated medical curriculum. Effective testing of knowledge and critical thinking skills. Ellis Bell, U Richmond. Anatomy of a multiple choice question. Vikki McCleary, UND Using item analysis to improve test questions. Charles Hosford, UND Use of multiple choice questions during lecture. Jeannine Matz, Health Care Mercy Col. of Hlth. Sci., Des Moines. Applying principles and lessons learned in medical education. Kenneth Ruit, UND

Dr. Vikki L. McCleary (University of North Dakota School of Medicine Dept. of Pharmacology/Physiology and Therapeutics)

2009-04-20

266

Explorative search of distributed bio-data to answer complex biomedical questions  

PubMed Central

Background The huge amount of biomedical-molecular data increasingly produced is providing scientists with potentially valuable information. Yet, such data quantity makes difficult to find and extract those data that are most reliable and most related to the biomedical questions to be answered, which are increasingly complex and often involve many different biomedical-molecular aspects. Such questions can be addressed only by comprehensively searching and exploring different types of data, which frequently are ordered and provided by different data sources. Search Computing has been proposed for the management and integration of ranked results from heterogeneous search services. Here, we present its novel application to the explorative search of distributed biomedical-molecular data and the integration of the search results to answer complex biomedical questions. Results A set of available bioinformatics search services has been modelled and registered in the Search Computing framework, and a Bioinformatics Search Computing application (Bio-SeCo) using such services has been created and made publicly available at http://www.bioinformatics.deib.polimi.it/bio-seco/seco/. It offers an integrated environment which eases search, exploration and ranking-aware combination of heterogeneous data provided by the available registered services, and supplies global results that can support answering complex multi-topic biomedical questions. Conclusions By using Bio-SeCo, scientists can explore the very large and very heterogeneous biomedical-molecular data available. They can easily make different explorative search attempts, inspect obtained results, select the most appropriate, expand or refine them and move forward and backward in the construction of a global complex biomedical query on multiple distributed sources that could eventually find the most relevant results. Thus, it provides an extremely useful automated support for exploratory integrated bio search, which is fundamental for Life Science data driven knowledge discovery.

2014-01-01

267

Effects of Take-Home Tests and Study Questions on Retention Learning in Technology Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduates were divided into four groups: (1) no study questions, multiple-choice test (n=71); (2) no questions, take-home test (n=71); (3) questions, no test (n=70); and (4) no questions, no test (n=67). The take-home group scored worst of all on novel information. They seem to have focused only on the required answers. (Contains 25…

Haynie, W. J., III

2003-01-01

268

Demand Characteristics of Multiple-Choice Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen graduate students were asked to indicate for each of 24 multiple-choice items whether the item tested "recall of specific information," a "higher order skill," or "don't know." The students were also asked to state their general basis for judging the items. The 24 items had been previously classified according to Bloom's cognitive-skills…

Diamond, James J.; Williams, David V.

269

Sore Fingers in Multiple-Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the "sore-finger" form of multiple choice test items. "Sore finger" items employ authentic texts making use of the rules of text grammar, achieve high discrimination levels, and show a high validity for several subtests, especially style tests. The use of sore finger items in German nationwide English and German tests is related. (JL)

Bauer, Hannspeter

1991-01-01

270

Practical question-and-answer guide on VDTS (video display terminals) for BEES (base bioenvironmental engineer). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The USAF OEHL conducted an extensive literature review of Video Display Terminals (VDTs) and the health problems commonly associated with them. The report is presented in a question-and-answer format in an attempt to paraphrase the most commonly asked questions about VDTs that are forwarded to USAF OEHL/RZN. The questions and answers have been divided into several topic areas: Ionizing Radiation; Nonionizing Radiation; Optical Radiation; Ultrasound; Static Electricity; Health Complaints/Ergonomics; Pregnancy.

Olson, B.M.

1985-01-01

271

How Do You Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers Like Beagle 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To address one of the most important questions in planetary science Is there life on Mars? The scientific community must turn to less costly means of exploring the surface of the Red Planet. The United Kingdom's Beagle 2 Mars lander concept was a small meter-size lander with a scientific payload constituting a large proportion of the flown mass designed to supply answers to the question about life on Mars. A possible reason why Beagle 2 did not send any data was that it was a one-off attempt to land. As Steve Squyres said at the time: "It's difficult to land on Mars - if you want to succeed you have to send two of everything".

Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

2012-01-01

272

Randomized trial for answers to clinical questions: Evaluating a pre-appraised versus a MEDLINE search protocol  

PubMed Central

Objective: The paper compares the speed, validity, and applicability of two different protocols for searching the primary medical literature. Design: A randomized trial involving medicine residents was performed. Setting: An inpatient general medicine rotation was used. Participants: Thirty-two internal medicine residents were block randomized into four groups of eight. Main Outcome Measures: Success rate of each search protocol was measured by perceived search time, number of questions answered, and proportion of articles that were applicable and valid. Results: Residents randomized to the MEDLINE-first (protocol A) group searched 120 questions, and residents randomized to the MEDLINE-last (protocol B) searched 133 questions. In protocol A, 104 answers (86.7%) and, in protocol B, 117 answers (88%) were found to clinical questions. In protocol A, residents reported that 26 (25.2%) of the answers were obtained quickly or rated as “fast” (<5 minutes) as opposed to 55 (51.9%) in protocol B, (P = 0.0004). A subset of questions and articles (n = 79) were reviewed by faculty who found that both protocols identified similar numbers of answer articles that addressed the questions and were felt to be valid using critical appraisal criteria. Conclusion: For resident-generated clinical questions, both protocols produced a similarly high percentage of applicable and valid articles. The MEDLINE-last search protocol was perceived to be faster. However, in the MEDLINE-last protocol, a significant portion of questions (23%) still required searching MEDLINE to find an answer.

Patel, Manesh R.; Schardt, Connie M.; Sanders, Linda L.; Keitz, Sheri A.

2006-01-01

273

Violations of information structure: An electrophysiological study of answers to wh-questions  

PubMed Central

This study investigates brain responses to violations of information structure in wh-question-answer pairs, with particular emphasis on violations of focus assignment in it-clefts (It was the queen that silenced the banker). Two types of ERP responses in answers to wh-questions were found. First, all words in the focus-marking (cleft) position elicited a large positivity (P3b) characteristic of sentence-final constituents, as did the final words of these sentences, which suggests that focused elements may trigger integration effects like those seen at sentence end. Second, the focusing of an inappropriate referent elicited a smaller, N400-like effect. The results show that comprehenders actively use structural focus cues and discourse-level restrictions during online sentence processing. These results, based on visual stimuli, were different from the brain response to auditory focus violations indicated by pitch-accent (Hruska et al. 2000), but similar to brain responses to newly introduced discourse referents (Bornkessel et al. 2003).

Cowles, H. Wind; Kluender, Robert; Kutas, Marta; Polinsky, Maria

2014-01-01

274

Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.  

SciTech Connect

Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1995-06-01

275

Some Cross-Linguistic Generalizations About Yes-No Questions and Their Answers. Working Papers on Language Universals, No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four hypotheses concerning the linguistic structure of yes-no questions and their answers are considered as hypotheses relating to the abstract structure of yes-no questions and to this abstract structure in all human languages. The universal base hypotheses are the following: (1) The abstract representation of all yes-no questions includes two…

Moravcsik, Edith A.

276

Answering the right question - integration of InSAR with other datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capabilities of satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are well known, and utilized across a wide range of academic and commercial applications. However there is a tendency, particularly in commercial applications, for users to ask 'What can we study with InSAR?'. When establishing a new technique this approach is important, but InSAR has been possible for 20 years now and, even accounting for new and innovative algorithms, this ground has been thoroughly explored. Too many studies conclude 'We show the ground is moving here, by this much', and mention the wider context as an afterthought. The focus needs to shift towards first asking the right questions - in fields as diverse as hazard awareness, resource optimization, financial considerations and pure scientific enquiry - and then working out how to achieve the best possible answers. Depending on the question, InSAR (and ground deformation more generally) may provide a large or small contribution to the overall solution, and there are usually benefits to integrating a number of techniques to capitalize on the complementary capabilities and provide the most useful measurements. However, there is still a gap between measurements and answers, and unlocking the value of the data relies heavily on appropriate visualization, integrated analysis, communication between technique and application experts, and appropriate use of modelling. We present a number of application examples, and demonstrate how their usefulness can be transformed by moving from a focus on data to answers - integrating complementary geodetic, geophysical and geological datasets and geophysical modeling with appropriate visualization, to enable comprehensive solution-focused interpretation. It will also discuss how forthcoming developments are likely to further advance realisation of the full potential satellite InSAR holds.

Holley, Rachel; McCormack, Harry; Burren, Richard

2014-05-01

277

Classroom Assessment Techniques: Multiple Choice Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes how to use a multiple choice test to assess student understanding. The assessment tool is one of a series of Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) provided by the Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) website. The CATs of FLAG were constructed as a resource for science, technology, engineering and mathematics instructors to emphasize deeper levels of learning and to give instructors valuable feedback during a course. The multiple-choice test is a flexible assessment format that can be used to measure knowledge, skills, abilities, values and thinking skills. This site provides an overview of this assessment technique, including information about how, when and why to use it. The site is also linked to a set of discipline-specific "tools" that can be downloaded for immediate use, as well as supplementary links and sources to further explore this assessment tool.

Parkes, Jay; The National Institute for Science Education; College Level One Team

278

Towards Answering Opinion Questions: {S}eparating Facts from Opinions and Identifying the Polarity of Opinion Sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion question answering is a challenging task for natural language processing. In this paper, we discuss a necessary component for an opinion ques- tion answering system: separating opinions from fact, at both the document and sentence level. We present a Bayesian classifier for discriminating be- tween documents with a preponderance of opinions such as editorials from regular news stories, and

Hong Yu; Vasileios Hatzivassiloglou

2003-01-01

279

Addressing challenges to MMPI-2-RF-based testimony: questions and answers.  

PubMed

Introduction of a new version of a psychological test brings with it challenges that can be accentuated by the adversarial nature of the legal process. In the case of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), these challenges can be addressed by becoming familiar with the rationale for and the methods used in revising the inventory, the information contained in the test manuals, and the growing peer-reviewed literature on the test. Potential challenges to MMPI-2-RF-based testimony are identified in this article and discussed in question and answer format. The questions guiding this discussion are based on the Daubert factors, established in 1993 by the US Supreme Court as criteria for gauging the scientific validity of proffered expert testimony. The answers to these questions apply more broadly to testimony in depositions, pre-trial hearings, and at trial. Consideration of the MMPI-2-RF in light of the Daubert factors indicates that the instrument has been subjected to extensive empirical testing and that a substantial peer-reviewed literature is available to guide and support its use. Information about the known and potential rate of error associated with MMPI-2-RF scores is available, and standard procedures for administration, scoring, and interpretation of the inventory are detailed in the test administration manual. Indicators of MMPI-2-RF acceptance can be cited, and criticisms of the MMPI-2-RF can be addressed with information available in the test documents and an extensive, modern, and actively growing peer-reviewed literature. PMID:23076394

Ben-Porath, Yossef S

2012-11-01

280

Why the changing American economy calls for twenty-first century learning: answers to educators' questions.  

PubMed

While struggling with the current pressures of educational reform, some educators will ask whether their efforts make economic sense. Questioning the future makeup of the nation's workforce, many wonder how the educational system should be tempered to better prepare today's youth. This chapter answers educators' and parents' questions around the effect of fluctuations in the American economy on the future of education. The authors offer reassurance that good jobs will always be available, but warn that those jobs will require a new level of skills: expert thinking and complex communication. Schools need to go beyond their current curriculum and prepare students to use reading, math, and communication skills to build a deeper and more thoughtful understanding of subject matter. To explain the implications of the nation's changing economy on jobs, technology, and therefore education, the authors address a range of vital questions. Citing occupational distribution data, the chapter explores the supply and range of jobs in the future, as well as why changes in the U.S. job distribution have taken place. As much of the explanation for the shift in job distribution over the past several decades is due to the computerization of the workforce, the authors discuss how computers will affect the future composition of the workforce. The chapter also addresses the consequences of educational improvement on earnings distribution. The authors conclude that beyond workforce preparedness, students need to learn how to be contributing members of a democracy. PMID:17017257

Levy, Frank; Murnane, Richard J

2006-01-01

281

Improving Educational Assessment: A Computer-Adaptive Multiple Choice Assessment Using NRET as the Scoring Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment is central to any educational process. Number Right (NR) scoring method is a conventional scoring method for multiple choice items, where students need to pick one option as the correct answer. One point is awarded for the correct response and zero for any other responses. However, it has been heavily criticized for guessing and failure…

Sie Hoe, Lau; Ngee Kiong, Lau; Kian Sam, Hong; Bin Usop, Hasbee

2009-01-01

282

Illusion of Linearity in Geometry: Effect in Multiple-Choice Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine if there is a difference in the performance on non-linear problems regarding age, gender, and solving situation, and whether the multiple-choice answer format influences students' thinking. A total of 112 students, aged 15-16 and 18-19, were asked to solve problems for which solutions based on proportionality…

Vlahovic-Stetic, Vesna; Pavlin-Bernardic, Nina; Rajter, Miroslav

2010-01-01

283

Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

2011-01-01

284

Questionnaires for eliciting evaluation data from users of interactive question answering  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating interactive question answering (QA) systems with real users can be challenging because traditional evaluation measures based on the relevance of items returned are difficult to employ since relevance judgments can be unstable in multi-user evaluations. The work reported in this paper evaluates, in distinguishing among a set of interactive QA systems, the effectiveness of three questionnaires: a Cognitive Workload Questionnaire (NASA TLX), and Task and System Questionnaires customized to a specific interactive QA application. These Questionnaires were evaluated with four systems, seven analysts, and eight scenarios during a 2-week workshop. Overall, results demonstrate that all three Questionnaires are effective at distinguishing among systems, with the Task Questionnaire being the most sensitive. Results also provide initial support for the validity and reliability of the Questionnaires.

Kelly, Diane; Kantor, Paul B.; Morse, Emile; Scholtz, Jean; Sun, Y.

2009-01-01

285

Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers  

PubMed Central

Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics.

Kurz, Matthias

2008-01-01

286

Antibody-Mediated Rejection: Emergence of Animal Models to Answer Clinical ?Questions  

PubMed Central

Decades of experiments in small animals had tipped the balance of opinion away from antibodies as a cause of transplant rejection, but clinical experience, especially with sensitized patients, has convinced basic immunologists of the need to develop models to investigate mechanisms underlying antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). This resurgent interest has resulted in several new rodent models to investigate antibody-mediated mechanisms of heart and renal allograft injury, but satisfactory models of chronic AMR remain more elusive. Nevertheless, these new studies have begun to reveal many insights into the molecular and pathological sequelae of antibody binding to the allograft endothelium. In addition, complement-independent and –dependent effects of antibodies on endothelial cells have been identified in vitro. As small animals models become better defined, it is anticipated that they will be more widely used to answer further questions concerning mechanisms of antibody-mediated tissue injury as well as to design therapeutic interventions.

Baldwin, William M.; Valujskikh, Anna; Fairchild, Robert L.

2010-01-01

287

Net Improvement of Correct Answers to Therapy Questions After PubMed Searches: Pre/Post Comparison  

PubMed Central

Background Clinicians search PubMed for answers to clinical questions although it is time consuming and not always successful. Objective To determine if PubMed used with its Clinical Queries feature to filter results based on study quality would improve search success (more correct answers to clinical questions related to therapy). Methods We invited 528 primary care physicians to participate, 143 (27.1%) consented, and 111 (21.0% of the total and 77.6% of those who consented) completed the study. Participants answered 14 yes/no therapy questions and were given 4 of these (2 originally answered correctly and 2 originally answered incorrectly) to search using either the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries narrow therapy filter via a purpose-built system with identical search screens. Participants also picked 3 of the first 20 retrieved citations that best addressed each question. They were then asked to re-answer the original 14 questions. Results We found no statistically significant differences in the rates of correct or incorrect answers using the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries. The rate of correct answers increased from 50.0% to 61.4% (95% CI 55.0%-67.8%) for the PubMed main screen searches and from 50.0% to 59.1% (95% CI 52.6%-65.6%) for Clinical Queries searches. These net absolute increases of 11.4% and 9.1%, respectively, included previously correct answers changing to incorrect at a rate of 9.5% (95% CI 5.6%-13.4%) for PubMed main screen searches and 9.1% (95% CI 5.3%-12.9%) for Clinical Queries searches, combined with increases in the rate of being correct of 20.5% (95% CI 15.2%-25.8%) for PubMed main screen searches and 17.7% (95% CI 12.7%-22.7%) for Clinical Queries searches. Conclusions PubMed can assist clinicians answering clinical questions with an approximately 10% absolute rate of improvement in correct answers. This small increase includes more correct answers partially offset by a decrease in previously correct answers.

Keepanasseril, Arun

2013-01-01

288

Multiple Choice: From Sample to Product  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This archived version of the exhibit: "Multiple Choice: From Sample to Product" provides a PDF of a press release along with information about the content and context of the exhibit.The exhibition traced the process that takes samples to final products in a variety of contexts, ranging from home furnishings to architectural ornament to textile design. Highlights of the exhibition included an earthenware sample plate with transfer-printed decorations, made in England in 1899, associated with a finished plate made using the same technique.

289

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS: EPA'S GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT AND SUPPLEMENTAL GUIDANCE FROM ASSESSING SUSCEPTIBILITY FROM EARLY-LIFE EXPOSURE TO CARCINOGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

March 29, 2005 EPA's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment And Supplemental Guidance from Assessing Susceptibility from Early-life Exposure to Carcinogens Questions and Answers The following questions ...

290

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Question C(1): I teach a university graduate...Do I need a license to teach this course? Answer...make any difference if I talk about recent and as yet...Question C(6): We teach proprietary courses on...research group. We have no way of guaranteeing...

2006-01-01

291

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Question C(1): I teach a university graduate...Do I need a license to teach this course? Answer...make any difference if I talk about recent and as yet...Question C(6): We teach proprietary courses on...research group. We have no way of guaranteeing...

2008-01-01

292

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Question C(1): I teach a university graduate...Do I need a license to teach this course? Answer...make any difference if I talk about recent and as yet...Question C(6): We teach proprietary courses on...research group. We have no way of guaranteeing...

2007-01-01

293

Interteach Preparation: A Comparison of the Effects of Answering versus Generating Study Guide Questions on Quiz Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within an interteaching context, an alternating treatments design was used to compare the effects of answering versus writing study guide questions on quiz performance in a 10-week methods course in special education. Results indicated quiz performance was not substantially influenced by the type of preparation, but that writing questions led to…

Cannella-Malone, Helen I.; Axe, Judah B.; Parker, Edward D.

2009-01-01

294

Over-Answering Yes-No Questions: Extended Responses in a NL Interface to a Vision System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of over-answering yes-no questions, i.e. of generating extended responses that provide additional information to yes-no questions that pragmatically must be interpreted as wh-questions. Although the general notion of extended responses has already been explored, our paper reports on the first attempt to build a NL system able to elaborate on a response as a result

Wolfgang Wahlster; Heinz Marburger; Anthony Jameson; Stephan Busemann

1983-01-01

295

Does the medical literature contain the evidence to answer the questions of primary care physicians? Preliminary findings of a study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of information retrieved in MEDLINE searches performed to answer clinical questions of primary care physicians. SETTING: Ambulatory rural and nonrural practices. PARTICIPANTS: Active, non-academic primary care physicians; professional medical librarians, a general internist. DESIGN: Descriptive study in 3 stages: 1) Office Interviews, to record questions that arise in primary care practice; 2) Online Searches, to locate information that might answer these questions; and 3) Critical Appraisal to determine the quality of the information contained in the articles retrieved. MAIN RESULTS: Of 74 articles judged by clinicians to be relevant to their questions, 2 were critical reviews, 14 reported results of randomized controlled trials, and 4 reported results of cohort studies. The remainder contained weaker evidence: 1 reported results of a case-control study, 6 were longitudinal case series, 13 were cross-sectional descriptions of disease, 12 were cross-sectional descriptions of diagnostic testing, and 22 were review articles which did not meet criteria for a critical review. CONCLUSION: Searching the medical literature to answer the questions of primary care physicians was successful in retrieving recent, relevant information, and often provided "a clear answer" to the question, but the cost of using bibliographic retrieval was high, and fewer than a third of the articles retrieved contained high quality evidence.

Gorman, P.

1993-01-01

296

Eternity's Sunrise and Other Multiple Choice Questions (Reading Professional).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that William Blake's phrase, "eternity's sunrise," captures the essence of the teaching and learning enterprise. Discusses new horizons in education and teachers who are daily reinventing their teaching. Warns against adopting educational change to be fashionable. (PRA)

Neilsen, Lorri

1992-01-01

297

A study of advanced training technology: Emerging answers to tough questions  

SciTech Connect

This study reports the result of an extensive nationwide review of military, private sector, and other federal agencies and organizations that are implementing a wide variety of advanced training technologies. This report classifies the general categories of advanced training technologies found and provides an overview of each, including specific types and examples. In addition, the research findings present an organizational model for training development linking overall organizational maturity to readiness to implement specific kinds of advanced training technologies. It also presents proposed methods for selecting media, describes the organizations and the data gathered, and provides a summary of implementation success at each organization. This study is organized as a set of five topics. Each topic raises a number of important questions and provides complete or emerging answers. For organizations who have made advanced training selections, this study is a resource to benchmark their success with other organizations who have made similar selections. For new or developing training organizations, this study will help plan their future technology selections by comparing their level of organizational maturity to the documented experiences of similar organizations.

NONE

1995-03-01

298

STS-103 Commander Brown answers question during interview at Pad 39B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-103 Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. answers a question from the media about the mission. As a preparation for launch, the crew have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members are Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who is also with ESA. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

1999-01-01

299

Genetic Algorithms for Multiple-Choice Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates the use of problem-specific knowledge to enhance a genetic algorithm approach to multiple-choice optimisation problems.It shows that such information can significantly enhance performance, but that the choice of information and the way it is included are important factors for success.Two multiple-choice problems are considered.The first is constructing a feasible nurse roster that considers as many requests as possible.In the second problem, shops are allocated to locations in a mall subject to constraints and maximising the overall income.Genetic algorithms are chosen for their well-known robustness and ability to solve large and complex discrete optimisation problems.However, a survey of the literature reveals room for further research into generic ways to include constraints into a genetic algorithm framework.Hence, the main theme of this work is to balance feasibility and cost of solutions.In particular, co-operative co-evolution with hierarchical sub-populations, problem structure exploiting repair schemes and indirect genetic algorithms with self-adjusting decoder functions are identified as promising approaches.The research starts by applying standard genetic algorithms to the problems and explaining the failure of such approaches due to epistasis.To overcome this, problem-specific information is added in a variety of ways, some of which are designed to increase the number of feasible solutions found whilst others are intended to improve the quality of such solutions.As well as a theoretical discussion as to the underlying reasons for using each operator,extensive computational experiments are carried out on a variety of data.These show that the indirect approach relies less on problem structure and hence is easier to implement and superior in solution quality.

Aickelin, Uwe

2010-04-01

300

Questions and Answers on Quality, the ISO 9000 Standard Series, Quality System Registration, and Related Issues. More Questions and Answers on the ISO 9000 Standard Series and Related Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides information on the development, content and application of the ISO 9000 standards to readers who are unfamiliar with these aspects of the standards. It attempts to answer some of the most commonly asked questions on quality; quality sy...

M. Breitenberg

1993-01-01

301

Peer interaction through student-made questions: does it facilitate reading comprehension?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to compare the effect of text simplification versus peer interaction generated by student-made questions on the reading comprehension of 83 Iranian adult English as a foreign language students. Three groups of participants were involved in the study. The first experimental group read two unmodified reading passages and answered 15 multiple-choice comprehension questions. They were

Sasan Baleghizadeh

2011-01-01

302

Common drugs and treatments for cancer and age-related diseases: revitalizing answers to NCI's provocative questions  

PubMed Central

In 2011, The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has announced 24 provocative questions on cancer. Some of these questions have been already answered in “NCI's provocative questions on cancer: some answers to ignite discussion” (published in Oncotarget, 2011, 2: 1352.) The questions included “Why do many cancer cells die when suddenly deprived of a protein encoded by an oncogene?” “Can we extend patient survival by using approaches that keep tumors static?” “Why are some disseminated cancers cured by chemotherapy alone?” “Can we develop methods to rapidly test interventions for cancer treatment or prevention?” “Can we use our knowledge of aging to enhance prevention or treatment of cancer?” “What is the mechanism by which some drugs commonly and chronically used for other indications protect against cancer?” “How does obesity contribute to cancer risk?” I devoted a single subchapter to each the answer. As expected, the provocative questions were very diverse and numerous. Now I choose and combine, as a single problem, only three last questions, all related to common mechanisms and treatment of age-related diseases including obesity and cancer. Can we use common existing drugs for cancer prevention and treatment? Can we use some targeted “cancer-selective” agents for other diseases and … aging itself.

Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

2012-01-01

303

Answers to the Most Frequently Asked Questions about Reinspections under the AHERA Asbestos-In-Schools Rule.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document was prepared in response to inquiries that have been received by the Environmental Protection Agency concerning the reinspection requirements and related provisions of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) regulations. The answers developed represent the Agency's responses to the 15 most frequently asked questions to…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

304

26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the...

2013-04-01

305

Where Have All the Teachers Gone? Finding Answers to the Most Basic Questions about California's Teacher Workforce. CenterView  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief presents a strong case for the creation of a statewide teacher data system in California by highlighting some of the simple teacher workforce questions that cannot be answered because such a system does not currently exist. At the state level, data on teacher qualifications are needed to fulfill the new reporting requirements of…

Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2005

2005-01-01

306

`Did you have permission to smash your neighbour's door?' Silly questions and their answers in police—suspect interrogations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the asking and answering of `silly questions' (SQs) (for example, `might sound a bit silly, but do you know whose window it is?') in British police interviews with suspects, the courses of action SQs initiate, and the institutional contingencies they are designed to manage. We show how SQs are asked at an important juncture toward the ends of

Elizabeth Stokoe; Derek Edwards

2008-01-01

307

Can Simply Answering Research Questions Change Behaviour? Systematic Review and Meta Analyses of Brief Alcohol Intervention Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundParticipant reports of their own behaviour are critical for the provision and evaluation of behavioural interventions. Recent developments in brief alcohol intervention trials provide an opportunity to evaluate longstanding concerns that answering questions on behaviour as part of research assessments may inadvertently influence it and produce bias. The study objective was to evaluate the size and nature of effects observed

Jim McCambridge; Kypros Kypri; Peter McCulloch

2011-01-01

308

26 CFR 7.105-1 - Questions and answers relating to exclusions of certain disability income payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 7.105-1 Questions and answers...a) and (c) of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 1566): Q-1: What effect...annuity provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 are effective for taxable years...

2013-04-01

309

Questions and Answers on Copyright for the Campus Community. Includes Software and Internet Issues. Updated for 97.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to aid members of the academic community who produce written material (this includes instructors and students) in conforming to the requirements of U.S. copyright law, this easy-to-understand guide presents a current overview of relevant sections of the Copyright Act. The guide is in question and answer format and discusses: the…

Association of American Publishers, New York, NY.

310

26 CFR 301.6707-1T - Questions and answers relating to penalties for failure to furnish information regarding tax...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters. 301.6707-1T Section 301.6707-1T...failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters. The following questions and answers...to furnish information regarding tax shelters. Penalties for Failure To...

2009-04-01

311

26 CFR 301.6707-1T - Questions and answers relating to penalties for failure to furnish information regarding tax...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters. 301.6707-1T Section 301.6707-1T...failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters. The following questions and answers...to furnish information regarding tax shelters. Penalties for Failure To...

2010-04-01

312

26 CFR 301.6707-1T - Questions and answers relating to penalties for failure to furnish information regarding tax...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters. 301.6707-1T Section 301.6707-1T...failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters. The following questions and answers...to furnish information regarding tax shelters. Penalties for Failure To...

2013-04-01

313

A Caring, Qualified, Well-Supported, and Effective Teacher for Every Student: Questions for Smart School Districts to Answer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smart school communities ask and answer hard questions about which teachers they attract and how they are developed and supported, as well as whether they reward and retain the teachers they most need to help all students achieve. Designed to provoke and inspire, the framework described in this paper offers a blueprint for how school communities…

Berry, Barnett

2007-01-01

314

Gender Differences in Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Back Substitution in Multiple-Choice Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quantitative observational study exploring the relationship of gender to mathematics self-efficacy and the frequency of back substitution in multiple-choice assessment sampled undergraduates at a western United States parochial university. Research questions addressed: to what extent are there gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy, as…

Goodwin, K. Shane; Ostrom, Lee; Scott, Karen Wilson

2009-01-01

315

Differences between multiple choice items and constructed response items in the IEA timss surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In international large-scale surveys, constructed response (CR) items are increasingly being used and multiple-choice (MC) items are being used less frequently. In this article the two item types will be compared in terms of any differences they have on national mean scores. TIMSS 1995 and TIMSS 1999 data have been used. Are there different effects of the question types for

Dirk Hastedt; Heiko Sibberns

2005-01-01

316

A (1)-(2)-(3) Jumpstart Approach to Answer an Open-Ended Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I propose three guided questions for reflection as a jumpstart organizational formula for students with poor writing application skills to follow when responding to an open-ended question. The recipe prescribes that the student (1) understand the question design, (2) identify the intent or objective of the question, and (3) proceed to identify the…

DeFina, Anthony V.

2012-01-01

317

The communication skills used by deaf children and their hearing peers in a question-and-answer game context.  

PubMed

Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in a "trivia" game with their hearing peers. Thirty-four children with normal hearing and 34 children with a hearing loss ranging from mild to profound (>90 dB HL) participated in this study. Each of the 34 dyads included 1 child with normal hearing and 1 child with hearing loss, matched by gender and grade level at school. Dyads were videotaped and analyzed. Pairs were compared in terms of their capacity to repeat the question, strategies used to seek information, and accuracy of responses. Results showed that the group of hearing children was able to repeat more questions verbatim compared to the deaf/HH children. The deaf/HH group required a significantly greater number of repetitions, sought a greater number of general clarifications, and correctly answered more questions compared with the group of hearing children. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of peer communication and pragmatic skill development. PMID:20299450

Toe, Dianne M; Paatsch, Louise E

2010-01-01

318

Discovery and New Frontiers: Science Missions Seeking New Answers to Timeless Questions (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers missions EPOXI, Stardust-NExT, Dawn, MESSENGER, Juno, and GRAIL help comprise NASA’s Year of the Solar System. Each of these investigations is seeking answers to key science questions and each has a unique approach to sharing that quest with the public. To date, spacecraft have photographed only four comets up close. What new information will EPOXI uncover when it flies by comet Hartley 2? Will it be similar to the others or very different? How will comet Tempel 1 appear to Stardust-NExT? The Deep Impact mission sent an impactor into the path of Tempel 1 in 2005. What changes will be visible in this unprecedented return visit? Will we finally see the crater made by the impact? Dawn will arrive at asteroid Vesta in July for a year-long orbit. Then it will millions of miles more to go into orbit around dwarf planet Ceres. Using the same science instruments to study both will yield important new information. MESSENGER has already discovered new phenomena and collected considerable data in its three flybys of Mercury. Once the orbiting phase begins, this dynamic planet is guaranteed to put on a spectacular show. Juno is traveling to the massive gas giant Jupiter to extend our knowledge about this wondrous body. Does it have a solid core? How much water does the atmosphere contain? How does the planet’s enormous magnetic force field affect its atmosphere? GRAIL will send twin space probes flying in tandem around the Moon to take precise gravity field measurements to help determine the structure and composition of the lunar interior from crust to core. In early 2011, the Discovery and New Frontiers Programs are planning a teacher “workshop without walls” to help celebrate YSS! Teachers will gather at 4 or 5 sites across the country, including California, Texas, Minnesota, and Maryland, and tune in via NASA’s digital learning network to hear talks about the missions and their science objectives. The workshops will also include trainings with hands-on activities the teachers can take back to their classroom.

Asplund, S.

2010-12-01

319

The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple" compatibility. 100% protection against the 100 year event shows to be the optimal degree of protection. Consequently, impacts statistically less frequent than once in 100 year are accepted as the remaining risk. Such floods and debris flows respectively cause a fan of propagation which is substantially reduced due to the protection measures against the 100 year event. III) The "triple loss distribution" shows the monetized triple damage, dependent on its probability. The monetization is performed by the social process of participation of the impacted interests, if not, by official experts in representation. The triple loss distribution rises in time mainly due to the rise in density and value of precious goods. A comparison of the distributions of the triple loss and the triple risk, behaving in opposite direction, is shown and explained within the project. IV) The recommended yearly reserves to be stocked for restoration and compensation of losses, caused by debris flows, amount to € 70'000.- according to the approach of the "technical risk premium". The discrepancy in comparison with the much higher amounts according to the common approaches of natural hazards engineering are discussed. V) The sustainable mix of hydraulic and forestry measures with the highest return on investment at lowest risk is performed according to the portfolio theory (Markowitz), based on the triple value curves, generated by the method of TripelBudgetierung®. Accordingly, the optimum mix of measures to protect the community of Inzing against the natural hazard of debris flow, thus, the most efficient allocation of resources equals to 2/3 for hydraulic, 1/3 for forestry measures. In detail, the results of the research pilot project "Nachhaltiges Risikomanagement - Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria" may be consulted under www.ibu.hsr.ch/inzing.

Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

2009-04-01

320

To Change or Not to Change: Investigating the Value of MCQ Answer Changing for Gulf Arab Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether the practice of answer changing on multiple-choice questions (MCQs) is beneficial to Gulf Arab students' overall test performance. The proficiency exam used in this study is the Michigan English Language Institute College English Test - Grammar, Cloze, Vocabulary, Reading (MELICET-GCVR), which was developed using…

Al-Hamly, Mashael; Coombe, Christine

2005-01-01

321

Multiple Choice Examination System 2. Online Quizzes for General Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the main aspects and implementation of an online multiple choice examination system with general chemistry issues for student evaluation. The testing system was used to generate items for a multiple- choice examination for first year undergraduate students in Material Engineering and Environmental Engineering from Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, which all attend the same General Chemistry course.

Horea Iustin; Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

2004-01-01

322

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS MOST FREQUENTLY ASKED BY VISITORS TO FLINT'S COMMUNITY SCHOOLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

QUESTIONS ARE RAISED CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MOTT FOUNDATION PROGRAM, THE FLINT BOARD OF EDUCATION, THE COST OF THE PROGRAM, AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL PROGRAM. QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL DIRECTOR RANGE FROM HIS ROLE TO HIS ON-THE-JOB TRAINING. QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO ADULT EDUCATION AND THE…

Flint Board of Education, MI.

323

INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper

Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

2011-01-01

324

Concept Learning versus Problem Solving: Evaluating a Threat to the Validity of a Particulate Gas Law Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three different samples of students were asked to answer five multiple-choice questions concerning the properties of a sample of helium gas (particle speed, state of matter, sample volume, sample pressure, and particle distribution), including a particulate question first used by Nurrenbern and Pickering (particle distribution). In the first…

Sanger, Michael J.; Vaughn, C. Kevin; Binkley, David A.

2013-01-01

325

Measuring the Consistency in Change in Hepatitis B Knowledge among Three Different Types of Tests: True/False, Multiple Choice, and Fill in the Blanks Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recall of information about Hepatitis B demonstrated by 180 seventh graders was tested with three test types: (1) short-answer; (2) true/false; and (3) multiple-choice. Short answer testing was the most reliable. Suggestions are made for the use of short-answer tests in evaluating student knowledge. (SLD)

Sahai, Vic; Demeyere, Petra; Poirier, Sheila; Piro, Felice

1998-01-01

326

Do Students Know if They Answered Particular Questions Correctly on a Psychology Exam?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores students' abilities to make different metacognitive judgments about the same material. Sophomores in a psychology class indicated how confident they were that each answer on their final was correct (micro-level judgments) and pre- postdicted their overall score (macro-level judgments). Students made the series of simpler…

Rosenthal, Gary T.; Soper, Barlow; McKnight, Richard R.; Price, A. W.; Boudreaux, Monique; Rachal, K. Chris

2010-01-01

327

International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on E7 Studies in Support of Special Populations; Geriatrics; Questions and Answers; availability. Notice.  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled ``E7 Studies in Support of Special Populations: Geriatrics; Questions and Answers.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The questions and answers (Q&A) guidance addresses special considerations for the design and conduct of clinical trials of drugs likely to have significant use in the elderly. The Q&As are intended to provide guidance on the use of geriatric data to adequately characterize and represent the safety and efficacy of a drug for a marketing application, including data collected postmarketing. PMID:22379685

2012-02-21

328

Quick Questions: Learn About Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will collect and analyze data to learn about the people around them. How many letters in everyoneâs first name? Whatâs the most common number of letters? Whatâs most or least? Start out by posing a multiple choice question. Everyone records answers on a large chart. Then, explore the data. This works well as a family activity or in a public areaâmuseum, library, school building. Post the chart and review answers after at least 100 people have responded. Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

329

Regulation of memory accuracy with multiple answers: the plurality option.  

PubMed

We report two experiments that investigated the regulation of memory accuracy with a new regulatory mechanism: the plurality option. This mechanism is closely related to the grain-size option but involves control over the number of alternatives contained in an answer rather than the quantitative boundaries of a single answer. Participants were presented with a slideshow depicting a robbery (Experiment 1) or a murder (Experiment 2), and their memory was tested with five-alternative multiple-choice questions. For each question, participants were asked to generate two answers: a single answer consisting of one alternative and a plural answer consisting of the single answer and two other alternatives. Each answer was rated for confidence (Experiment 1) or for the likelihood of being correct (Experiment 2), and one of the answers was selected for reporting. Results showed that participants used the plurality option to regulate accuracy, selecting single answers when their accuracy and confidence were high, but opting for plural answers when they were low. Although accuracy was higher for selected plural than for selected single answers, the opposite pattern was evident for confidence or likelihood ratings. This dissociation between confidence and accuracy for selected answers was the result of marked overconfidence in single answers coupled with underconfidence in plural answers. We hypothesize that these results can be attributed to overly dichotomous metacognitive beliefs about personal knowledge states that cause subjective confidence to be extreme. PMID:21500935

Luna, Karlos; Higham, Philip A; Martín-Luengo, Beatriz

2011-06-01

330

Analysis of Student Responses to Peer-Instruction Conceptual Questions Answered Using an Electronic Response System: Trends by Gender and Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study investigated students' answers to geoscience conceptual questions answered using electronic personal response systems. Answer patterns were examined to evaluate the peer-instruction pedagogical approach in a large general education classroom setting. (Contains 3 figures and 2 tables.)

Steer, David; McConnell, David; Gray, Kyle; Kortz, Karen; Liang, Xin

2009-01-01

331

The Role of Perceptual Availability and Discourse Context in Young Children's Question Answering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three- and four-year-old children were asked predicate-focus questions ("What's X doing?") about a scene in which an agent performed an action on a patient. We varied: (i) whether (or not) the preceding discourse context, which established the patient as given information, was available for the questioner; and (ii) whether (or not) the patient was…

Salomo, Dorothe; Graf, Eileen; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

2011-01-01

332

Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

2009-01-01

333

29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604âQuestions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

2010-07-01

334

29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604âQuestions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

2009-07-01

335

Beyond the Bubble: How to Use Multiple-Choice Tests to Improve Math Instruction, Grades 4-5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice testing is an educational reality. Rather than complain about the negative impact these tests may have on teaching and learning, why not use them to better understand your students' true mathematical knowledge and comprehension? Maryann Wickett and Eunice Hendrix-Martin show teachers how to move beyond the student's answer--right…

Wickett, Maryann; Hendrix-Martin, Eunice

2011-01-01

336

Searching for Better Scoring of Multiple-Choice Tests: Proper Treatment of Misinformation, Guessing and Partial Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief explanations are presented of some of the different methods used to score multiple-choice tests; and some studies of partial information, guessing strategies, and test-taking behaviors are reviewed. Studies are grouped in three categories of effort to improve scoring: (1) those that require extra effort from the examinee to answer

Zin, Than Than; Williams, John

337

Polytomous versus Dichotomous Scoring on Multiple-Choice Examinations: Development of a Rubric for Rating Partial Credit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of assigning partial credit on multiple-choice test items is considered for items from ACS Exams. Because the items on these exams, particularly the quantitative items, use common student errors to define incorrect answers, it is possible to assign partial credits to some of these incorrect responses. To do so, however, it becomes…

Grunert, Megan L.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

338

Security Clearance Process: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions, September 9, 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a primer on some of the fundamental aspects of the security clearance process, using a Frequently Asked Questions format. A security clearance is a determination that an individualwhether a direct federal employee or a private contrac...

F. M. Kaiser M. D. Christensen

2013-01-01

339

An Additive Algorithm for the Multiple Choice Integer Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem dealt with in this report is the Multiple Choice Integer Program (MCIP), a special case of the integer linear programming problem with binary variables. In this problem the variables are partitioned (using the classical definition of 'partitio...

J. C. Bean

1980-01-01

340

Test Equating under the Multiple-Choice Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a characteristic curve procedure for comparing transformations of the item response theory ability scale assuming the multiple-choice model. Illustrates the use of the method with an example equating American College Testing mathematics tests. (SLD)

Kim, Jee-Seon; Hanson, Bradley A.

2002-01-01

341

Is aFederal Mandate the Answer? If So, What Was the Question?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article questions whether advocacy efforts in gifted education have been misguided by over emphasis on achieving a federal mandate. It uses the creative problem solving framework to redefine the problem as one of availability of gifted and talented programs and emphasizes the importance of state financial solutions to existing inequities.…

Baker, Bruce D.; Friedman-Nimz, Reva

2002-01-01

342

Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

Boyle, Philip

1989-01-01

343

Can the First Pregnancy of a Young Adolescent Be Prevented? A Question Which Must Be Answered  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on adolescent cognitive development and issues related to the prevention of teenage pregnancy are briefly discussed. The author outlines relevant questions which should be understood by professionals working in sex education and human services programs, and presents implications for research. (GDC)

Baizerman, Michael

1977-01-01

344

Securing and Managing Child Care Subsidies--Questions and Answers for Centers Considering Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports findings of a mail survey concerning day care providers' motivation and experiences when participating in subsidized day care. Probes definition of subsidized day care, reasons for joining and continuing participation, learning about and becoming a participant, and problems encountered in the program. Lists 11 questions to ask before…

Bordin, Judith

2001-01-01

345

Questions in the Answers to Primary School Educational Reconstruction in Sierra Leone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to review current issues in pre- and primary school reform and to pose questions on the long-term implications of present day solutions. Such an exercise will open up discussion on the probable effects of educational policy decisions with a view to minimize negative effects brought on by new policies. Because data…

Hinton, Samuel

2009-01-01

346

These Two Cases Raise Key Questions (But Offer Ambiguous Answers) about School Desegregation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedural burden-of-proof issues led Federal Circuit Courts to affirm changes in pupil assignment systems in Norfolk, Virginia, but reject changes in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The Supreme Court's decision not to review the Virginia case leaves school boards and federal courts without guidance on questions raised by resegregation. (MLF)

Sendor, Benjamin

1987-01-01

347

Answering the Question that Matters Most: Has Student Achievement Increased since No Child Left Behind?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2002, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) has spurred far-reaching changes in elementary and secondary education, all aimed at accomplishing the same fundamental goal--to improve students' academic achievement. As the Congress prepares to reauthorize the Act, two related questions matter most: (1) Has student achievement in reading and…

Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

2007-01-01

348

Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

Foubert, John D.

2011-01-01

349

The Answer Depends on the Question: A Reply to Eric Jensen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question that Eric Jensen addresses in his article is whether brain research can provide a basis for educational practice. He debates John Bruer, president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, and argues that brain research can, in fact, provide a basis for what educators do. Most of Jensen's article is devoted to showing ways in which brain…

Sternberg, Robert J.

2008-01-01

350

The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically.

P. Hardegger; J. T. Sausgruber; H. O. Schiegg

2009-01-01

351

Top Official Answers American Questions about Higher-Education Changes in Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses are presented by the Soviet Union's Minister of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education to questions about proposed changes in the Soviet higher education system, the system's strengths and problems, Soviet perceptions of the American system, and efforts to encourage student and faculty initiative in academic planning and curricular…

Jacobson, Robert L.

1988-01-01

352

Questions and Answers About the Effects of Septic Systems on Water Quality in the La Pine Area, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nitrate levels in the ground-water aquifer underlying the central Oregon city of La Pine and the surrounding area are increasing due to contamination from residential septic systems. This contamination has public health implications because ground water is the sole source of drinking water for area residents. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Deschutes County and the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, studied the movement and chemistry of nitrate in the aquifer and developed computer models that can be used to predict future nitrate levels and to evaluate alternatives for protecting water quality. This fact sheet summarizes the results of that study in the form of questions and answers.

Williams, John S.; Morgan, David S.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

2007-01-01

353

SMP-SoC is the Answer if You Ask the Right Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With growing interest in multiprocessor system-on-chip (SoC) designs and the increasing number of multicore designs at the high to medium end of the desktop and server markets, the question arises as to whether there should be convergence of the two concepts. This paper explores design principles for SoC multiprocessors and relates them to more general system requirements. It makes a

PHILIP MACHANICK

2006-01-01

354

Answering the ultimate question "What is the Proximal Cause of Aging?"  

PubMed Central

Recent discoveries suggest that aging is neither driven by accumulation of molecular damage of any cause, nor by random damage of any kind. Some predictions of a new theory, quasi-programmed hyperfunction, have already been confirmed and a clinically-available drug slows aging and delays diseases in animals. The relationship between diseases and aging becomes easily apparent. Yet, the essence of aging turns out to be so startling that the theory cannot be instantly accepted and any possible arguments are raised for its disposal. I discuss that these arguments actually support a new theory. Are any questions remaining? And might accumulation of molecular damage still play a peculiar role in aging?

Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

2012-01-01

355

The need for a lunar base - Answering basic questions about planetary science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After assessing the state of current understanding of the planetological characteristics of the moon, attention is given to numerous questions that have arisen about the history of the moon and to prospective methods for their investigation through lunar exploration. One such exploratory mission will be that of the unmanned Lunar Geoscience Observer; the greatest prospects for important discoveries, however, are foreseen in manned lunar exploration. More sophisticated instruments and preliminary analyses are noted to be possible in manned exploration, although the possibility of contamination of samples is greater.

Taylor, G. J.

1985-01-01

356

Questions and answers about the effects of the depletion of the ozone layer on humans and the environment.  

PubMed

The ozone molecule contains three atoms of oxygen and is mainly formed by the action of the ultraviolet rays of the sun on the diatomic oxygen molecules in the upper part of the Earth's atmosphere (called the stratosphere). Atmospheric pollution near the Earth's surface can form localized areas of ozone. The stratospheric ozone layer protects life on Earth by absorbing most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. In the mid 1970s it was discovered that some manmade products destroy ozone molecules in the stratosphere. This destruction can result in damage to ecosystems and to materials such as plastics. It may cause an increase in human diseases such as skin cancers and cataracts. The discovery of the role of the synthetic ozone-depleting chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) stimulated increased research and monitoring in this field. Computer models predicted a disaster if no action was taken to protect the ozone layer. Based on this research and monitoring, the nations of the world took action in 1985 with the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer followed by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987. The Convention and Protocol were amended and adjusted several times as new knowledge was obtained. The Meetings of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol appointed three Assessment Panels to review the progress in scientific knowledge on their behalf. These panels are the Scientific Assessment Panel, the Technological and Economic Assessment Panel and the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel. Each panel covers a designated area and there is a natural level of overlap. The main reports of the Panels are published every four years as required by the Meeting of the Parties. All the reports have an executive summary that is distributed more widely than the main report itself. It became customary to add a set of questions and answers--mainly for non-expert readers--to the executive summaries. This document contains the questions and answers prepared by experts who comprise the Environmental Assessment Panel. It is based mainly on the 2006 report of the Panel but also contains information from previous assessments. Readers who need detailed information on any question should consult the full reports for a more complete scientific discussion. This set of questions refers mainly to the environmental effects of ozone depletion and climate change. The report of the Scientific Assessment Panel contains questions and answers related to the other scientific issues addressed by that Panel. All these reports can be found on the UNEP website (http://ozone.unep.org). PMID:17344966

Aucamp, Pieter J

2007-03-01

357

A text of two titles: Kant's 'A renewed attempt to answer the question: "is the human race continually improving"?  

PubMed

The essay, 'A renewed attempt to answer the question: "Is the human race continually improving?"' appeared as Part II of Kant's 1798 publication, The conflict of the faculties, where it was subordinated under a second title: 'The conflict of the philosophy faculty with the faculty of law'. How did this new situation (and title) affects the meaning of the essay? My argument considers first, the conflict of the faculty of philosophy with the faculty of law; second, the earlier philosophy of history Kant had developed; and, finally, the revision of this position in 'A renewed attempt'. The situation of his argument in the contest between the philosophical and the legal faculties points to other veins of argumentation in Kant's political theory, particularly his appeal to a principle of publicity, but they hardly achieve the theoretical clarity or the systematic centrality they should command. They are displaced in the quest for prediction of the future history of mankind. The question of human progress exceeds the frame of the coordination of the university, and the main question must remain: what was new in Kant's approach to the question of human progress, and was it in fact an enhancement of his philosophy of history? In those terms, 'A renewed attempt' must be regarded a distinct failure. Its innovations prove problematic. Its retreats and equivocations, moreover, threaten to undermine the grander vision of Kant's philosophical history and his political theory, entangling them in an unacceptably theological recourse. PMID:19391372

Zammito, John H

2008-12-01

358

Return to competitive football after major knee surgery: more questions than answers?  

PubMed

Abstract Despite significant advances in the diagnostics and treatment of knee injuries over the last decade, several challenges related to the subject "return to sport" remain largely unknown. For example, how should "return to sport" be defined precisely? What is the optimal timing and progression to enable a return to sport? Which criteria should be used during this process? What type of training is indicated? Which measurements can support the decision-making process? How do we optimally prepare athletes for competition without risking re-injury? This paper critically addresses these questions, and proposes a return to play model to prepare football players to compete after major knee surgery (anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, cartilage repair). The goal is to re-integrate the player gradually into the game, taking into account his individual characteristics. Several evidence-based and empirical criteria are needed to plan and monitor the efficient return to competitive football. Injury-prevention education should be part of this process to maximise the chance of a durable career and decrease the risk of re-injury. However, because of the paucity of research on "return to sport", further research is more than warranted. PMID:24783969

Bizzini, Mario; Silvers, Holly Jacinda

2014-07-01

359

The evolution of centipede venom claws - open questions and possible answers.  

PubMed

The maxilliped venom claw is an intriguing structure in centipedes. We address open questions concerning this structure. The maxillipeds of fossil centipedes from the Carboniferous (about 300 million years old) have been described, but not been depicted previously. Re-investigation demonstrates that they resemble their modern counterparts. A Jurassic geophilomorph centipede (about 150 million years old) was originally described as possessing a rather leg-like maxilliped. Our re-investigation shows that the maxilliped is, in fact, highly specialized as in modern Geophilomorpha. A scenario for the evolution of the centipede maxilliped is presented. It supports one of the two supposed hypotheses of centipede phylogeny, the Pleurostigmophora hypothesis. Although this hypothesis appears now well established, many aspects of character evolution resulting from this phylogeny remain to be told in detail. One such aspect is the special joint of the maxilliped in some species of Cryptops. Cryptops is an in-group of Scolopendromorpha, but its maxilliped joint can resemble that of Lithobiomorpha or even possess a mixture of characters between the both. Detailed investigation of fossils, larger sample sizes of extant species, and developmental data will be necessary to allow further improvements of the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of centipedes. PMID:24211515

Haug, Joachim T; Haug, Carolin; Schweigert, Günter; Sombke, Andy

2014-01-01

360

Eye tracking research to answer questions about augmentative and alternative communication assessment and intervention.  

PubMed

Recently, eye tracking technologies (i.e., technologies that automatically track the point of an individual's gaze while that person views or interacts with a visual image) have become available for research purposes. Based on the sampling of the orientation of the individual's eyes, researchers can quantify which locations within the visual image were fixated (viewed), for how long, and how many times. These automated eye tracking research technologies open up a wealth of avenues for investigating how individuals with developmental or acquired communication disabilities may respond to aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems. In this paper, we introduce basic terminology and explore some of the special challenges of conducting eye tracking research with populations with disabilities who might use AAC, including challenges of inferring attention from the presence of fixation and challenges related to calibration that may result from participant characteristics, behavioral idiosyncracies, and/or the number of calibration points. We also examine how the technology can be applied to ask well-structured experimental questions that have direct clinical relevance, with a focus on the unique contributions that eye tracking research can provide by (a) allowing evaluation of skills in individuals who are difficult to assess via traditional methods, and (b) facilitating access to information on underlying visual cognitive processes that is not accessible via traditional behavioral measures. PMID:24758526

Wilkinson, Krista M; Mitchell, Teresa

2014-06-01

361

Constructed-Response Test Questions: Why We Use Them; How We Score Them. R&D Connections. Number 11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To many people, standardized testing means multiple-choice testing. However, some tests contain questions that require the test taker to produce the answer, rather than simply choosing it from a list. The required response can be as simple as the writing of a single word as complex as the design of a laboratory experiment to test a scientific…

Livingston, Samuel A.

2009-01-01

362

STS-103 M.S. Mike Foale answers question during interview at Pad 39B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-103 Mission Specialist C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.) (at right) responds to a question from the media about the mission during an interview at Launch Pad 39B. Next to him is Mission Specialist John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.). As a preparation for launch, the crew have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

1999-01-01

363

STS-103 Pilot Kelly answers questions during interview at Pad 39B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During an interview at Launch Pad 39B, STS-103 Pilot Scott J. Kelly responds to a question from the media about the mission. Standing with him are the remainder of the crew: (left to right) Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who is also with ESA. As a preparation for launch, they have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

1999-01-01

364

Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits.  

PubMed

Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students) were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex) and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective. PMID:24478680

Potvin, Patrice; Turmel, Elaine; Masson, Steve

2014-01-01

365

Modeling a Collaborative Answer Negotiation Activity Using IMS-Based Learning Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and impact of a face-to-face computer supported collaborative learning activity named collaborative answer negotiation activity (CANA). CANA primarily involves face-to-face interactions among students supported by wirelessly interconnected mobile devices to solve collaboratively a set of multiple-choice questions. The learning outcomes of a CANA applied in two computer science courses are presented. Better results were obtained

Ricardo Valdivia; Miguel Nussbaum; Sergio F. Ochoa

2009-01-01

366

Multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate student understanding of energy and momentum concepts at the level of introductory physics by designing and administering a 25-item multiple choice test and conducting individual interviews. We find that most students have difficulty in qualitatively interpreting basic principles related to energy and momentum and in applying them in physical situations.

Singh, Chandralekha; Rosengrant, David

2003-06-01

367

Multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We investigate student understanding of energy and momentum concepts at the level of introductory physics by designing and administering a 25-item multiple choice test and conducting individual interviews. We find that most students have difficulty in qualitatively interpreting basic principles related to energy and momentum and in applying them in physical situations.

Singh, Chandralekha; Rosengrant, David

2012-04-27

368

Evaluation of Negation in Stems of Multiple-Choice Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from a study with approximately 200 first-year University of Calgary (Canada) nursing students provide evidence that the use of negation (e.g., not, except) should be limited in stems of multiple-choice test items and that a single-response negatively worded item should be converted to a multiple-response positively worded item. (SLD)

Harasym, P. H.; And Others

1992-01-01

369

Multiple-Choice Test Items of Foreign Language Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the various multiple-choice formats used in testing foreign language vocabulary with special reference to the underlying constructs of vocabulary competence. While all formats are argued to categorically measure recognition of second language word meaning, they are claimed to differ with respect to whether they measure receptive recognition or productive recognition, following a distinction drawn by Nation (2001).

Meral Öztürk

2007-01-01

370

Using the Multiple Choice Procedure to Measure College Student Gambling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that gambling is similar to addictive behaviors such as substance use. In the current study, gambling was investigated from a behavioral economics perspective. The Multiple Choice Procedure (MCP) with gambling as the target behavior was used to assess for relative reinforcing value, the effect of alternative reinforcers, and…

Butler, Leon Harvey

2010-01-01

371

Positive and Negative Multiple Choice Items: How Different Are They?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance of 254 Israeli twelfth graders on multiple-choice tests with positive or negative item stems was studied. For items requiring low cognitive reasoning, performance does not differ, but, for items requiring high cognitive reasoning, the negative mode is more difficult. Implications for test construction are discussed. (SLD)

Tamir, Pinchas

1993-01-01

372

Multiple-choice Assessment for Upper-division Electricity and Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Colorado Upper-division Electrostatics (CUE) diagnostic was designed as an open-ended assessment in order to capture elements of student reasoning in upper-division electrostatics. The diagnostic has been given for many semesters at several universities resulting in an extensive database of CUE responses. To increase the utility and scalability of the assessment, we used this database along with research on studentsâ difficulties to create a multiple-choice version. The new version explores the viability of a novel test format where students select multiple responses and can receive partial credit based on the accuracy and consistency of their selections. This format was selected with the goal of preserving insights afforded by the open-ended format while exploiting the logistical advantages of a multiple-choice assessment. Here, we present examples of the questions and scoring of the multiple-choice CUE as well as initial analysis of the testâs validity, item difficulty, discrimination, and overall consistency with the open-ended version.

Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

2014-01-31

373

Providing Real-Time Captioning, C-Print Speech To Print Transcription, Assistive Listening Devices and Other Technologies: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides questions and answers for postsecondary educational institutions concerning provision of access and accommodations to individuals who are deaf and hard of hearing. Questions are about assistive listening devices (ALDs), C-Print technology, real-time captioning, and policy issues. Preliminary information concerns the mission…

Davis, Cheryl; Francis, Pamela; Harlan, Denese

374

"Laying Bare of Questions Which Have Been Hidden by Answers": The English Language Arts Standards of the Common Core, K-5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors question the answer the national Common Core State Standards (CCSS, 2010) claims. The questions center on the validity of the new standardized tests based on the CCSS and teachers' evaluations being tied to student test scores on flawed tests. The proposed tests on the CCSS will position children as deficient, and will not recognize…

Gangi, Jane M.; Reilly, Mary Ann

2013-01-01

375

Rubella: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... in 1967, followed by the rubella vaccine in 1969. These three vaccines were combined in 1971 to ... outbreak of any of the diseases, regardless of birth date. Who recommends this vaccine? The Centers for ...

376

Poultry Processing: Questions & Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety and Inspection Service United States Department of Agriculture About FSIS District Offices Careers Contact Us Ask ... public health agency in the U.S. Department of Agriculture responsible for ensuring that the nation's commercial supply ...

377

Salmonella Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety and Inspection Service United States Department of Agriculture About FSIS District Offices Careers Contact Us Ask ... Inspection Service (FSIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is addressing the problems of Salmonella contamination ...

378

Campylobacter Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety and Inspection Service United States Department of Agriculture About FSIS District Offices Careers Contact Us Ask ... Inspection Service (FSIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is addressing the problems of " Campylobacter " contamination ...

379

Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms. Pneumococcal pneumonia (lung disease) is the most common disease caused by pneumococcal bacteria. It is estimated that ... as the organism remains in respiratory secretions. How common is pneumococcal disease in the United States? Healthcare providers are not ...

380

Tetanus: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... vaccine first become available for diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis? The first inactivated toxin, or toxoid, against diphtheria ... armed services during World War II. The first pertussis vaccine was developed in the 1930s and was ...

381

Answering the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a mother of a daughter with special needs, as well as to a son without, the author can say having had both experiences, all mothers, regardless of her children, struggle in one form or another. That may actually be a part of the job description: Mother: must be able to function well with minimal sleep; is capable of multi-tasking; be clever…

Wolfe, Julie Leavitt

2011-01-01

382

Perchlorate Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... were selected for the survey based on their high water content, relatively high consumption, and early indications of perchlorate ... spinach, and cantaloupe, FDA collected samples of other high water content foods, including fruits and fruit juices such as ...

383

Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... therapies, people with tuberous sclerosis can expect improved health care. Since there is no cure, what can be done? Early intervention is helping to overcome developmental delays. Advancements in ...

384

Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers  

SciTech Connect

George Orwell`s {open_quotes}doublethink{close_quotes} should be generalized to {open_quotes}polythink{close_quotes} to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics.

Strom, D.J.; Stansbury, P.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Porter, S.W. Jr. [Porter Consultants, Inc., Ardmore, PA (United States)

1995-01-01

385

Beyond the Bubble, Grades 2-3: How to Use Multiple-Choice Tests to Improve Math Instruction, Grades 2-3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice testing is an educational reality. Rather than complain about the negative impact these tests may have on teaching and learning, why not use them to better understand your students' true mathematical knowledge and comprehension? Maryann Wickett and Eunice Hendrix-Martin show teachers how to move beyond the student's answer--right…

Wickett, Maryann; Hendrix-Martin, Eunice

2011-01-01

386

A Comparison of a Multiple Choice and an Essay Test of Writing Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The test scores of college freshmen given both a multiple choice test and an essay test of writing skills were compared to assess the validity of a multiple choice test compared with an essay test. (HOD)

Culpepper, Marilyn Mayer; Ramsdell, Rae

1982-01-01

387

I Didn't Know Oxygen Could Boil! What Preservice and Inservice Elementary Teachers' Answers to "Simple" Science Questions Reveals about Their Subject Matter Knowledge. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this descriptive study, the science subject matter knowledge of preservice and inservice elementary teachers was examined and compared. Over an eight-year period, answers to 13 science questions, including 10 from the US National Science Foundation's Survey of Public Attitudes Toward and Understanding of Science and Technology, were collected…

Rice, Diana C.

2005-01-01

388

How To Talk to Your Kids about Really Important Things: For Children Four to Twelve. Specific Questions and Answers and Useful Things To Say.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help parents find the words they need to talk to their children and answer their children's practical questions, this book offers practical guidance on a wide range of life's experiences, from family changes such as divorce and remarriage, to controversial subjects such as child abuse and AIDS. The major focus is on children ages 4 to…

Schaefer, Charles E.; DiGeronimo, Theresa Foy

389

An Analysis of Test Bank Multiple-Choice Items Using Item Response Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An item analysis study was conducted for two multiple-choice tests of introductory psychology created from a publisher's test bank. A 47-item multiple-choice test was administered to 247 students, and 433 students took a different 42-item multiple-choice test. Participants were from a large northeastern suburban community college. The difficulty…

Richichi, Rudolph V.

390

An Investigation of Explanation Multiple-Choice Items in Science Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both multiple-choice and constructed-response items have known advantages and disadvantages in measuring scientific inquiry. In this article we explore the function of explanation multiple-choice (EMC) items and examine how EMC items differ from traditional multiple-choice and constructed-response items in measuring scientific reasoning. A group…

Liu, Ou Lydia; Lee, Hee-Sun; Linn, Marcia C.

2011-01-01

391

The Validity of Pre-Calculus Multiple Choice and Performance-Based Testing as a Predictor of Undergraduate Mathematics and Chemistry Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been concern over the validity of the Algebra Diagnostic Test (ADT) used to determine the actual level of student preparation for the first quarter of calculus as taught at the University of California, Santa Barbara. It has been hypothesized that performance-based questions, along with the more traditional multiple choice questions,…

Fisher, Gwen Laura

392

Qualitative and quantitative differences in learning associated with multiple-choice testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study assesses some effects of the Computer-Assisted Self-Evaluation (CASE) system of frequent multiple-choice testing with immediate computer feedback; it is part of a larger project aiming to combine the principal strengths of individualized instruction with lecture teaching (Fisher, 1979). Learning and retention are examined in two equivalent groups of undergraduates enrolled in an upper division science course. One group (N =34) received 24 CASE quizzes with immediate feedback and the other (N=30) received two CASE-generated midterms with delayed feedback. Quiz students significantly outperformed Midterm students on the posttest; the Quiz section scored nine percentage points higher on rote items and fourteen points higher on meaningful items. Quiz students also had more positive attitudes toward and were more involved in the course. On a retention test given two years later, the Quiz Group scored eight percentage points higher than the Midterm Group on meaningful items. This study suggests that, contrary to popular opinion, multiple-choice questions promote meaningful learning at least as well as, and possibly better than, rote learning. The CASE system appears to be about as effective as other forms of frequent testing and immediate feedback in enhancing learning, and it provides a simple, cost-effective means of individualized testing in large lecture classes.

Fisher, K.; Williams, S.; Roth, J.

393

A pilot study exploring the relationship between internists' self-reported sleepiness, performance on multiple-choice exam items and prefrontal cortex activity.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Studies of resident fatigue and performance have shown mixed results. However, research has not examined daytime sleepiness and performance among attending physicians. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sleep, performance and prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity. We hypothesized that sleepiness scores would negatively correlate with multiple-choice question (MCQ) performance and would also correlate with PFC activity. Methods: Board-certified physicians completed an Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and then answered MCQs from licensing examinations while in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner. Results: Seventeen board-certified internists completed the study. The mean number of correct responses was 18.5/32. The correlation between the ESS and MCQ score was -0.30, and higher ESS scores were negatively associated with statistically significant changes in medial PFC (mPFC) activity. Conclusions: Attending physicians who reported higher sleepiness scores performed worse on licensing exam questions. Notably, our cohort had normal to mild sleepiness scores. Moreover, higher sleepiness scores were negatively associated with changes in mPFC activity on fMRI, which is consistent with emerging work implicating the PFC in fatigue-related cognitive impairment. Our findings have implications regarding the impact of sleep on physician performance during examinations and potentially on their care of patients. PMID:24593696

Durning, Steven J; Capaldi Ii, Vincent F; Artino, Anthony R; Graner, John; van der Vleuten, Cees; Beckman, Thomas J; Costanzo, Michelle; Holmboe, Eric; Schuwirth, Lambert

2014-05-01

394

Delay and probability discounting of multiple commodities in smokers and never-smokers using multiple-choice tasks.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate temporal and probabilistic discounting in smokers and never-smokers, across a number of commodities, using a multiple-choice method. One hundred and eighty-two undergraduate university students, of whom 90 had never smoked, 73 were self-reported light smokers (<10 cigarettes/day), and 17 were heavy smokers (10+cigarettes/day), completed computerized batteries of delay and probability discounting questions pertaining to a total of eight commodities and administered in a multiple-choice format. In addition to cigarettes, monetary rewards, and health outcomes, the tasks included novel commodities such as ideal dating partner and retirement income. The results showed that heavy smokers probability discounted commodities at a significantly shallower rate than never-smokers, suggesting greater risk-taking. No effect of smoking status was observed for delay discounting questions. The only commodity that was probability discounted significantly less than others was 'finding an ideal dating partner'. The results suggest that probability discounting tasks using the multiple-choice format can discriminate between non-abstaining smokers and never-smokers and could be further explored in the context of behavioral and drug addictions. PMID:24196025

Poltavski, Dmitri V; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

2013-12-01

395

Entropy state of a multiple choice examination and the evaluation of understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Considering a student's examination as one state of a system which consists of the set of all possible examinations, a new method for evaluating multiple choice examinations is developed by measuring the entropy state of a student's exam above the "thermal background level" (the most probable state). The entropy grade is shown to contain standard scoring as a special case when both the number of questions given and the number of possible selections become large. The entropy grade is also shown to be related to the information it takes a student to go from one state of understanding to another state of understanding. The student's state of understanding is characterized either by his personal probability that his selections will be correct or by experimentally measured probability that the students's selections were correct.

Vawter, Richard

2005-10-17

396

Fitting Polytomous Item Response Theory Models to Multiple-Choice Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how well current software implementations of four polytomous item response theory models fit several multiple-choice tests. The models were Bock's (1972) nominal model, Samejima's (1979) multiple-choice Model C, Thissen & Steinberg's (1984) multiple-choice model, and Levine's (1993) maximum-likelihood formula scoring model. The parameters of the first three of these models were estimated with Thissen's (1986) MULTILOG computer

Fritz Drasgow; Michael V Levine; Sherman Tsien; Bruce Williams; Alan D. Mead

1995-01-01

397

Using IRT To Combine Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Sections of a Test onto a Common Scale Using A Priori Weights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Free-response (FR) item formats, such as essay questions, are popular in educational assessment. The criticisms against FR items are that they are more expensive to score, take up more testing time, provide less content coverage, and are less reliable than multiple-choice (MC) items. For these reasons, FR items are often combined with MC items.…

Lukhele, Robert; Sireci, Stephen G.

398

Quality assessment of expert answers to lay questions about cystic fibrosis from various language zones in Europe: the ECORN-CF project  

PubMed Central

Background The European Centres of Reference Network for Cystic Fibrosis (ECORN-CF) established an Internet forum which provides the opportunity for CF patients and other interested people to ask experts questions about CF in their mother language. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a detailed quality assessment tool to analyze quality of expert answers, 2) evaluate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this tool, and 3) explore changes in the quality of expert answers over the time frame of the project. Methods The quality assessment tool was developed by an expert panel. Five experts within the ECORN-CF project used the quality assessment tool to analyze the quality of 108 expert answers published on ECORN-CF from six language zones. 25 expert answers were scored at two time points, one year apart. Quality of answers was also assessed at an early and later period of the project. Individual rater scores and group mean scores were analyzed for each expert answer. Results A scoring system and training manual were developed analyzing two quality categories of answers: content and formal quality. For content quality, the grades based on group mean scores for all raters showed substantial agreement between two time points, however this was not the case for the grades based on individual rater scores. For formal quality the grades based on group mean scores showed only slight agreement between two time points and there was also poor agreement between time points for the individual grades. The inter-rater agreement for content quality was fair (mean kappa value 0.232 ± 0.036, p < 0.001) while only slight agreement was observed for the grades of the formal quality (mean kappa value 0.105 ± 0.024, p < 0.001). The quality of expert answers was rated high (four language zones) or satisfactory (two language zones) and did not change over time. Conclusions The quality assessment tool described in this study was feasible and reliable when content quality was assessed by a group of raters. Within ECORN-CF, the tool will help ensure that CF patients all over Europe have equal possibility of access to high quality expert advice on their illness.

2012-01-01

399

Multiple Choice Knapsack Problem: example of planning choice in transportation.  

PubMed

Transportation programming, a process of selecting projects for funding given budget and other constraints, is becoming more complex as a result of new federal laws, local planning regulations, and increased public involvement. This article describes the use of an integer programming tool, Multiple Choice Knapsack Problem (MCKP), to provide optimal solutions to transportation programming problems in cases where alternative versions of projects are under consideration. In this paper, optimization methods for use in the transportation programming process are compared and then the process of building and solving the optimization problems is discussed. The concepts about the use of MCKP are presented and a real-world transportation programming example at various budget levels is provided. This article illustrates how the use of MCKP addresses the modern complexities and provides timely solutions in transportation programming practice. While the article uses transportation programming as a case study, MCKP can be useful in other fields where a similar decision among a subset of the alternatives is required. PMID:19596437

Zhong, Tao; Young, Rhonda

2010-05-01

400

A Multiple-Choice Task with Changes of Mind  

PubMed Central

The role of changes of mind and multiple choices has recently received increased attention in the study of perceptual decision-making. Previously, these extensions to standard two-alternative tasks have been studied separately. Here we explored how changes of mind depend on the number of choice-alternatives. To this end, we tested 14 human subjects on a 2- and 4-alternative direction-discrimination task. Changes of mind in the participants' movement trajectories could be observed for two and for four choice alternatives. With fewer alternatives, participants responded faster and more accurately. The frequency of changes of mind, however, did not significantly differ for the different numbers of choice alternatives. Nevertheless, mind-changing improved the participants' final performance, particularly for intermediate difficulty levels, in both experimental conditions. Moreover, the mean reaction times of individual participants were negatively correlated with their overall tendency to make changes of mind. We further reproduced these findings with a multi-alternative attractor model for decision-making, while a simple race model could not account for the experimental data. Our experiment, combined with the theoretical models allowed us to shed light on: (1) the differences in choice behavior between two and four alternatives, (2) the differences between the data of our human subjects and previous monkey data, (3) individual differences between participants, and (4) the inhibitory interaction between neural representations of choice alternatives.

Albantakis, Larissa; Branzi, Francesca M.; Costa, Albert; Deco, Gustavo

2012-01-01

401

Answering the Big Questions in Neuroscience: DoD's Experimental Research Wing Takes on Massive, High-Risk Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) asks research questions, it goes big. This is, after all, the same agency that put together teams of scientists and engineers to find a way to connect the worlds computers and, in doing so, developed the precursor to the Internet. DARPA, the experimental research wing of the U.S. Department of Defense, funds

Leslie Mertz

2012-01-01

402

Answering Gauguin?s Questions: Where Are We Coming From, Where Are We Going, and What Are We?  

ScienceCinema

Ellis discusses how the knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, known as the Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions, for example: What is the origin of the matter in the Universe, how does its mass originate, what is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe, and are there additional dimensions of space?

John Ellis

2010-09-01

403

Exploring the Validity of Assessment in Anatomy: Do Images Influence Cognitive Processes Used in Answering Extended Matching Questions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment is an important aspect of medical education because it tests students' competence and motivates them to study. Various assessment methods, with and without images, are used in the study of anatomy. In this study, we investigated the use of extended matching questions (EMQs). To gain insight into the influence of images on the…

Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Bouter, Shifra T.; van den Hurk, Marianne M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

2014-01-01

404

Answering Gauguin’s Questions: Where Are We Coming From, Where Are We Going, and What Are We?  

SciTech Connect

Ellis discusses how the knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, known as the Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions, for example: What is the origin of the matter in the Universe, how does its mass originate, what is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe, and are there additional dimensions of space?

John Ellis

2010-05-26

405

A Combination of Hand-held Models and Computer Imaging Programs Helps Students Answer Oral Questions about Molecular Structure and Function: A Controlled Investigation of Student Learning  

PubMed Central

We conducted a controlled investigation to examine whether a combination of computer imagery and tactile tools helps introductory cell biology laboratory undergraduate students better learn about protein structure/function relationships as compared with computer imagery alone. In all five laboratory sections, students used the molecular imaging program, Protein Explorer (PE). In the three experimental sections, three-dimensional physical models were made available to the students, in addition to PE. Student learning was assessed via oral and written research summaries and videotaped interviews. Differences between the experimental and control group students were not found in our typical course assessments such as research papers, but rather were revealed during one-on-one interviews with students at the end of the semester. A subset of students in the experimental group produced superior answers to some higher-order interview questions as compared with students in the control group. During the interview, students in both groups preferred to use either the hand-held models alone or in combination with the PE imaging program. Students typically did not use any tools when answering knowledge (lower-level thinking) questions, but when challenged with higher-level thinking questions, students in both the control and experimental groups elected to use the models.

Peck, Ronald F.; Colton, Shannon; Morris, Jennifer; Chaibub Neto, Elias; Kallio, Julie

2009-01-01

406

Puzzling questions about excited superdeformed rotational bands of atomic nuclei are answered by the two-revolving-cluster model.  

PubMed Central

The two-revolving-cluster model provides explanations of several questions about excited superdeformed bands: restriction to the lanthanons and the Hg-Tl-Pb region and to the smaller values of the neutron number for each element, truncation of the gamma-ray cascades, differences in shape of the lanthanon and Hg-Tl-Pb bands, alignment of quantified spins, and the existence of pairs of bands with nearly identical gamma-ray sequences. A previously unrecognized kind of pairing (intercalation of gamma-ray values) is also reported and a discussion is given of the values of electric quadrupole moments.

Pauling, L

1992-01-01

407

When additional multiple-choice lures aid versus hinder later memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Three experiments were conducted to investigate whether increasing the number of lures on a multiple-choice test helps, hinders or has no effect on later memory. All three patterns have been reported in the literature. In Experiment 1, the stimuli were unrelated word lists, and increasing the number of lures on an initial multiple-choice test led to better performance on

Andrew C. Butler; Elizabeth J. Marsh; Michael K. Goode; Henry L. Roediger

2006-01-01

408

Are Multiple Choice Tests Fair to Medical Students with Specific Learning Disabilities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of multiple choice tests of medical knowledge is to estimate as accurately as possible a candidate's level of knowledge. However, concern is sometimes expressed that multiple choice tests may also discriminate in undesirable and irrelevant ways, such as between minority ethnic groups or by sex of candidates. There is little literature…

Ricketts, Chris; Brice, Julie; Coombes, Lee

2010-01-01

409

Sample Selection Effect on AP Multiple-Choice Score to Composite Score Scaling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scores on the multiple-choice sections of alternate forms are equated through anchor-test equating for the Advanced Placement Program (AP) examinations. There is no linkage of free-response sections since different free-response items are given yearly. However, the free-response and multiple-choice sections are combined to produce a composite.…

Yang, Wen-Ling; Dorans, Neil J.; Tateneni, Krishna

410

Inquiry-based Learning in Plant Ecology: Students Collect the Field Data, Ask the Questions, and Propose the Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Experiment is designed to teach upper-level students in a plant ecology course how to collect data on plant populations (distribution and abundance), develop hypotheses to explain observed patterns, and write a research proposal to test their hypotheses. The Experiment describes a semester long project requiring 13 classes that are 2 ĂÂľ hours long each. The experimental setup is a 2 m X 30 m planted garden plot containing a mixture of planted (forb, grass, and legume) and volunteer plants. Students propose questions with specific measurable dependent and independent variables. Lab work typically required includes preparation and analysis of abiotic samples, such as soil samples, to measure variables such as soil moisture and soil texture.

Griffith, Alan

2010-02-16

411

COMPUTER TECHNIQUES FOR WEEKLY MULTIPLE-CHOICE TESTING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO ENCOURAGE POLITICAL SCIENCE STUDENTS TO READ PROPERLY AND CONTINUOUSLY, THE AUTHOR GIVES FREQUENT SHORT QUIZZES BASED ON THE ASSIGNED READINGS. FOR EASE IN ADMINISTRATION AND SCORING, HE USES MARK-SENSE CARDS, ON WHICH THE STUDENT MARKS DESIGNATED AREAS TO INDICATE HIS NUMBER AND HIS CHOICE OF ANSWERS. TO EMPHASIZE THE VALUE OF CONTINUED HIGH…

BROYLES, DAVID

412

Treatment of burns in the first 24 hours: simple and practical guide by answering 10 questions in a step-by-step form  

PubMed Central

Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose.

2012-01-01

413

Evaluation of Questions in General Chemistry Textbooks According to the Form of the Questions and the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR): The Case of Intra-and Intermolecular Chemical Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way of checking to what extent instructional textbooks achieve their aim is to evaluate the questions they contain. In this work, we analyze the questions that are included in the chapters on chemical bonding of ten general chemistry textbooks. We study separately the questions on intra- and on intermolecular bonding, with the former…

Pappa, Eleni T.; Tsaparlis, Georgios

2011-01-01

414

Answering the big questions in neuroscience: DoD's experimental research wing takes on massive, high-risk projects.  

PubMed

When the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) asks research questions, it goes big. This is, after all, the same agency that put together teams of scientists and engineers to find a way to connect the worlds computers and, in doing so, developed the precursor to the Internet. DARPA, the experimental research wing of the U.S. Department of Defense, funds the types of research queries that scientists and engineers dream of tackling. Unlike a traditional granting agency that conservatively metes out its funding and only to projects with a good chance of success, DARPA puts its money on massive, multi-institutional projects that have no guarantees, but have enormous potential. In the 1990s, DARPA began its biological and medical science research to improve the safety, health, and well being of military personnel, according to DARPA program manager and Army Colonel Geoffrey Ling, Ph.D., M.D. More recently, DARPA has entered the realm of neuroscience and neurotechnology. Its focus with these projects is on its prime customer, the U.S. Department of Defense, but Ling acknowledged that technologies developed in its programs "certainly have potential to cascade into civilian uses." PMID:22344946

Mertz, Leslie

2012-01-01

415

Do cortical gamma oscillations promote or suppress perception? An under-asked question with an over-assumed answer  

PubMed Central

Cortical gamma oscillations occur alongside perceptual processes, and in proportion to perceptual salience. They have a number of properties that make them ideal candidates to explain perception, including incorporating synchronized discharges of neural assemblies, and their emergence over a fast timescale consistent with that of perception. These observations have led to widespread assumptions that gamma oscillations' role is to cause or facilitate conscious perception (i.e., a “positive” role). While the majority of the human literature on gamma oscillations is consistent with this interpretation, many or most of these studies could equally be interpreted as showing a suppressive or inhibitory (i.e., “negative”) role. For example, presenting a stimulus and recording a response of increased gamma oscillations would only suggest a role for gamma oscillations in the representation of that stimulus, and would not specify what that role were; if gamma oscillations were inhibitory, then they would become selectively activated in response to the stimulus they acted to inhibit. In this review, we consider two classes of gamma oscillations: “broadband” and “narrowband,” which have very different properties (and likely roles). We first discuss studies on gamma oscillations that are non-discriminatory, with respect to the role of gamma oscillations, followed by studies that specifically support specifically a positive or negative role. These include work on perception in healthy individuals, and in the pathological contexts of phantom perception and epilepsy. Reference is based as much as possible on magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) studies, but we also consider evidence from invasive recordings in humans and other animals. Attempts are made to reconcile findings within a common framework. We conclude with a summary of the pertinent questions that remain unanswered, and suggest how future studies might address these.

Sedley, William; Cunningham, Mark O.

2013-01-01

416

Detecting Answer Copying Using the Kappa Statistic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A statistical test for detecting answer copying on multiple-choice tests based on Cohen's kappa is proposed. The test is free of any assumptions on the response processes of the examinees suspected of copying and having served as the source, except for the usual assumption that these processes are probabilistic. Because the asymptotic null and…

Sotaridona, Leonardo S.; van der Linden, Wim J.; Meijer, Rob R.

2006-01-01

417

Instructor perspectives of multiple-choice questions in summative assessment for novice programmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning to program is known to be difficult for novices. High attrition and high failure rates in foundation-level programming courses undertaken at tertiary level in Computer Science programs, are commonly reported. A common approach to evaluating novice programming ability is through a combination of formative and summative assessments, with the latter typically represented by a final examination. Preparation of such

Shuhaida Shuhidan; Margaret Hamilton; Daryl D'Souza

2010-01-01

418

The Use of Question Types to Match Questions in FAQFinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

One useful way to find the answer to a question is to search a library of previously-answered questions. This is the idea behind FAQFinder, a Web-based natural language question- answering system which uses Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) files to answer users' questions. FAQFinder tries to answer a user's question by retrieving a similar FAQ ques- tion, if one exists, and

Steven L. Lytinen; Noriko Tomuro

2002-01-01

419

Piecewise Method of Reciprocal Averages for Dual Scaling of Multiple-Choice Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A modification of the method of reciprocal averages for scaling multiple choice data is proposed. The proposed method handles the data in a piecewise fashion and allows for faster convergence to a solution. (Author/JKS)

Nishisato, Shizuhiko; Sheu, Wen-Jenn

1980-01-01

420

HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... 452-9622 Will HPV vaccination be covered by health insurance? Most health insurance plans cover recommended vaccines. But there may be ... American Indian, or Alaska Native or have no health insurance. "Underinsured" children who have health insurance that does ...

421

Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... product. The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, more commonly known as the ... market for prescription drugs, and innovator companies gained restoration of patent life of their products lost during ...

422

Questions and Answers about Monkeypox  

MedlinePLUS

... the sale of infected prairie dogs. CDC laboratory testing of some animals by using PCR and virus isolation demonstrated that ... to assist with the investigation. Conducted extensive laboratory testing on specimens from humans and animals thought to have been exposed to monkeypox. Issued ...

423

Bone Cancer: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... of Oncology. Vol. 2. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2004. Pizzo P, Poplack DG, editors. ... Practice of Pediatric Oncology . 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2002. Ries LAG, Smith MA, Gurney ...

424

Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark urine, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and ... A virus is spread by getting infected fecal matter into a person’s mouth who has never had ...

425

Greenland: More Questions than Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Journal entries, reflections, and interviews from a phenomenological study indicate the benefits experienced by 70 British youth participating in a six-week Greenland expedition. Themes emerging from the data include reflection on values, life and career plans, friendships and relationships, connectedness to self and society, environmental…

Allison, Pete

1998-01-01

426

Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... other health care provider. Based on the drinking pattern results from your web site, my friends and ... it's safest to quit. According to the drinking patterns quiz, men have an increased risk of a ...

427

Questions and Answers about TB  

MedlinePLUS

... TB Print page ? Listen to audio/Podcast Espańol (Spanish) Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... Laws Publications & Products Fact Sheets General Fact sheets - Spanish TB - General Information The Difference Between Latent TB ...

428

Medical Questions? Medline has Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the electronic version of "Index Medicus," Medline is the world's largest collection of published medical knowledge. Discussion includes accessing Medline (cost-free) with a Web browser, librarians as links between patients and physicians; and examples of Medline searches. (AEF)

Modlin, Melanie

1998-01-01

429

Learn to Answer Tough Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... you were tempted to try alcohol and why underage drinking is dangerous. You could even give your child ... why can’t I? Remind your child that underage drinking is against the law – for good reason. Point ...

430

Get Your Medicare Questions Answered  

MedlinePLUS

... and through your State Health Insurance Assistance Program (SHIP). SHIPs are state programs that get money from the ... local health insurance counseling to people with Medicare. SHIPs are independent and not connected to any insurance ...

431

Questions and Answers about PKU  

MedlinePLUS

... Protein Diet and Hair Falling Out PKU and Aggression PKU and Arm Twitching Vomiting PKU Formula PKU ... your dietitian for advice on formula. PKU and Aggression Q. Is there a relationship between PKU and ...

432

Folic Acid Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... defects of the brain and spine ( anencephaly and spina bifida ) happen in the first few weeks of pregnancy; ... materials » Q: I already have a child with spina bifida. Should I do anything different to prepare for ...

433

Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Questions & Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... and infection, particularly in the elderly. So, a flu shot given during one season, or an infection acquired ... Drug Resistance Cell-based Flu Vaccines Febrile Seizures Flu Shot Flublok Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Fluzone High-Dose Seasonal ...

434

Constructing a Multiple-choice Assessment for Upper-division Quantum Physics from an Open-ended Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of an ongoing investigation of studentsâ learning in upper-division quantum mechanics, we needed a high-quality conceptual assessment instrument for comparing outcomes of different curricular approaches. The 14 item open-ended Quantum Mechanics Assessment Tool (QMAT) was previously developed for this purpose. However, open-ended tests require complex scoring rubrics, are difficult to score consistently, and demand substantial investment of faculty time to grade. Here, we present the process of converting open-ended questions to multiple-choice (MC) format. We highlight the construction of effective distractors and the use of student interviews to revise and validate questions and distractors. We examine other elements of the process, including results of a preliminary implementation of the MC assessment given at Cal Poly Pomona and CU Boulder. This test will likely go through more iterations and further statistical analyses of reliability and validity are pending upon collection of additional.

Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.; Miller, John; Pollock, Steven J.; Rehn, Daniel

2014-02-01

435

The accuracy of inferring left ventricular volume from dimension depends on the frequency of information needed to answer a given question.  

PubMed

Left ventricular volume is an important variable in cardiovascular physiology. Because volume cannot be transduced directly, by necessity people measure one or more cardiac dimensions, then implicitly or explicitly estimate volume. Despite its common use, this practice has never been adequately justified. Previous validations of the use of left ventricular dimensions to infer volume have ignored the complexity of the relation between dimensions and volume, particularly over a broad range of hemodynamic states, and have not considered the frequency content of the volume signal needed to answer a given physiological question. We show that, strictly speaking, the assumptions underlying this practice are false. The resulting errors are of little practical consequence under many circumstances, whereas they can be quite important under other circumstances. We consider the frequency content of the volume signal to organize our examples and findings. In this general framework, we find that, for most assessments of volume change from dimension change at or below a frequency of about the heart rate (e.g., beat-to-beat end-diastolic volume), there is no limitation, provided all relevant dimensions are measured. However, for information at frequencies above the heart rate (i.e., rapid changes in volume or dimension), it is probably not possible to draw accurate conclusions about left ventricular volume from dimension data. PMID:3971498

Slinker, B K; Glantz, S A

1985-02-01

436

Examining students' understanding of electrical circuits through multiple-choice testing and interviews  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research has shown that high school and university students have misconceptions about direct current resistive electric circuits. At present, there are no standard diagnostic examinations in electric circuits. Such an instrument would be useful in determining what conceptual problems students have before or after instruction. The information provided by the exam can be used by classroom instructors to evalu Two versions of a diagnostic instrument known as Determining and Interpreting Resistive Electric circuits Concepts Tests (DIRECT) were developed, each consisting of 29 questions. DIRECT was administered to groups of students in the United States, Canada and Germany that had completed their study of electrostatics and direct current electric circuits. Individual interviews were conducted after the administration of version 1.0 to determine how students interpreted the questions and to uncover the reasoning behind their selections. The analyses indicate that students, especially females, tend to hold multiple misconceptions, even after instruction. The idea that the battery is a constant source of current was used most often in answering the questions. Although students tend to use different misconceptions for each question presented, they do use misconceptions associated with the global objective of the question. Studentsâ definitions of terms used on the exam and their misconceptions were examined. Students tended to confuse terms, especially current. They assigned the properties of current to voltage and/or resistance. One of the major findings was that students were able to translate easily from a ârealisticâ representation of a circuit to the corresponding schematic diagram. Results indicated that students do not have a clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms of electric circuit phenomena. Students had difficulty handling simultaneous changes of variable. Some of the students who were interviewed reverted to formulas to answer the questions.

Engelhardt, Paula V.

2012-01-20

437

Test Pool Questions, Area III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains multiple choice questions to be used in testing students on nurse training objectives. Each test includes several questions covering each concept. The concepts in section A, medical surgical nursing, are diseases of the following systems: musculoskeletal; central nervous; cardiovascular; gastrointestinal; urinary and male…

Sloan, Jamee Reid

438

Cheating on Multiple-Choice Exams: Monitoring, Assessment, and an Optional Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic dishonesty is unethical. Exam cheating is viewed as more serious than most other forms (Pincus and Schmelkin 2003). The authors review the general cheating problem, introduce a program to conservatively identify likely cheaters on multiple-choice exams, and offer a procedure for handling likely cheaters. Feedback from students who confess…

Nath, Leda; Lovaglia, Michael

2009-01-01

439

A Case Study on Multiple-Choice Testing in Anatomical Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study investigating whether the distribution of different versions of an examination affects student performance in a lower division anatomical science course. In particular this study focuses on objective testing techniques (multiple choice test). Methods and outcomes are discussed.

Stephanie Golda (University of Missouri Anthropology, Pathology and Anatomy)

2011-01-02

440

A Latent-Change Scaling Model for Longitudinal Multiple Choice Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A latent-change scaling model for the analysis of repeated-measures multiple-choice data is presented. The model extends previous work by combining latent class analysis and low dimensional scaling techniques in a longitudinal framework where subjects may change their preferences for the response categories over time. The latent structural…

Kim, Jee-Seon

2005-01-01

441

A Response Model for Multiple Choice Items. Psychometric Technical Report No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An extension of the Bock-Samejima model for multiple choice items is introduced. The model provides for varying probabilities of the response alternative when the examinee guesses. A marginal maximum likelihood method is devised for estimating the item parameters, and likelihood ratio tests for comparing more and less constrained forms of the…

Thissen, David; Steinberg, Lynne

442

Free-Response and Multiple-Choice Items: Measures of the Same Ability?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of multiple-choice and free-response items contained on the College Board's Advanced Placement Computer Science (APCS) examination. Subjects were two samples of 1,000 randomly drawn from the population of 7,372 high school students taking the 1988 examination of the APCS "AB" form. Most were high school…

Bennett, Randy Elliot; And Others

443

Investigating the Reliability and Validity of the Fixed Ratio Multiple-Choice Cloze Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is two fold: to investigate the reliability and validity of the fixed ratio multiple-choice (M-C) cloze test in authentic EFL classroom settings, and also to investigate the possibility of using it as the sole testing technique in assessing EFL students' achievement. 348 subjects, learning EFL at the English i Language Center of the Institute of

Ibrahim S. M. Al-Fallay

444

A FORTRAN IV Program for Multiple-choice Tests with Predetermined Minimal Acceptable Performance Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Fortran IV multiple choice test scoring program for an IBM 370 computer is described that computes minimally acceptable performance levels and compares student scores to these levels. The program accomodates up to 500 items with no more than nine alternatives from a group of examinees numbering less than 10,000. (Author)

Noe, Michael J.

1976-01-01

445

Multiple-Choice versus Constructed-Response Tests in the Assessment of Mathematics Computation Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The equivalence of multiple-choice (MC) and constructed response (discrete) (CR-D) response formats as applied to mathematics computation at grade levels two to six was tested. The difference between total scores from the two response formats was tested for statistical significance, and the factor structure of items in both response formats was…

Gadalla, Tahany M.

446

A Method for Imputing Response Options for Missing Data on Multiple-Choice Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When missing values are present in item response data, there are a number of ways one might impute a correct or incorrect response to a multiple-choice item. There are significantly fewer methods for imputing the actual response option an examinee may have provided if he or she had not omitted the item either purposely or accidentally. This…

Wolkowitz, Amanda A.; Skorupski, William P.

2013-01-01

447

Research on the Multiple-Choice Test Item in Japan: Toward the Validation of Mathematical Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research related to the multiple choice test item is reported, as it is conducted by educational technologists in Japan. Sato's number of hypothetical equivalent alternatives is introduced. The based idea behind this index is that the expected uncertainty of the m events, or alternatives, be large and the number of hypothetical, equivalent…

Samejima, Fumiko

448

Further Issues in Effect Size Estimation for One-Sample Multiple-Choice-Type Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses models underlying the use of 1-sample effect size indicators that permit the comparison of effect sizes obtained from different multiple-choice studies by indexing all studies to the results that would have been obtained if there had been only 2 choices. The effect size indicator, the proportion index, (II), is based on a model implying that the probability

Robert Rosenthal; Donald B. Rubin

1991-01-01

449

A Practical Methodology for the Systematic Development of Multiple Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Guttman's facet design analysis, four parallel forms of a multiple-choice test were developed. A mapping sentence, logically representing the universe of content of a basic cardiology course, specified the facets of the course and the semantic structural units linking them. The facets were: cognitive processes, disease priority, specific…

Blumberg, Phyllis; Felner, Joel

450

WWC Quick Review of the Report "Multiple Choice: Charter School Performance in 16 States"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study, "Multiple Choice: Charter School Performance in 16 States" examined the effect of charter school attendance on annual student achievement growth in math and reading. The study analyzed data on a large sample of students in grades 1 through 12 who were attending charter schools and traditional public schools in 16 states. The study…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

2010-01-01

451

An evaluation of multiple?choice test images for comprehension assessment in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Using images in multiple?choice formats for comprehension testing in aphasia is common. It is generally assumed that persons being assessed perceive the content of the images represented in such tasks. However, specific visual characteristics of individual images may influence visual attention, which may influence accuracy in the selection of a correct target image corresponding to a verbal stimulus. The

Sabine Heuer; Brooke Hallowell

2007-01-01

452

The Subset Selection Technique for Multiple-Choice Tests: An Empirical Inquiry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of the Subset Selection Technique (SST) for multiple-choice items on certain properties of a test was compared with that of two other methods, the Number Right and the Correction for Guessing Formula. Results indicated that SST outperformed the other two, producing higher reliability and validity without favoring high risk takers.…

Jaradat, Derar; Sawaged, Sari

1986-01-01

453

Ranking community answers via analogical reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the lexical gap between questions and answers, automati- cally detecting right answers becomes very challenging for com- munity question-answering sites. In this paper, we propose an analogical reasoning-based method. It treats questions and an- swers as relational data and ranks an answer by measuring the analogy of its link to a query with the links embedded in previous

Xudong Tu; Xin-jing Wang; Dan Feng; Lei Zhang

2009-01-01

454

catcher: A Software Program to Detect Answer Copying in Multiple-Choice Tests Based on Nominal Response Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

catcher is a software program designed to compute the [omega] index, a common statistical index for the identification of collusions (cheating) among examinees taking an educational or psychological test. It requires (a) responses and (b) ability estimations of individuals, and (c) item parameters to make computations and outputs the results of…

Kalender, Ilker

2012-01-01

455

Meta-Evaluation in Clinical Anatomy: A Practical Application of Item Response Theory in Multiple Choice Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of anatomy education has changed substantially in recent decades, though the traditional multiple-choice written examination remains the cornerstone of assessing students' knowledge. This study sought to measure the quality of a clinical anatomy multiple-choice final examination using item response theory (IRT) models. One hundred…

Severo, Milton; Tavares, Maria A. Ferreira

2010-01-01

456

Sustainable Assessment for Large Science Classes: Non-Multiple Choice, Randomised Assignments through a Learning Management System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the development of a tool that generates randomised, non-multiple choice assessment within the BlackBoard Learning Management System interface. An accepted weakness of multiple-choice assessment is that it cannot elicit learning outcomes from upper levels of Biggs' SOLO taxonomy. However, written assessment items require…

Schultz, Madeleine

2011-01-01

457

Meta-Evaluation in Clinical Anatomy: A Practical Application of Item Response Theory in Multiple Choice Examinations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study measuring the quality of a clinical anatomy multiple-choice final examination using item response theory (IRT) models. The purpose for this study was to evaluate how well a traditional multiple choice exam from an older curriculum discriminated undergraduate medical students taking an updated clinical based anatomy course. Outcomes are discussed.

Milton Severo (University of Porto Medical Education); Maria Ferreira Tavares (University of Porto Anatomy)

2009-11-18

458

USING IRT PSYCHOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN EXAMINING THE QUALITY OF JUNIOR CERTIFICATE MATHEMATICS MULTIPLE CHOICE EXAMINATION TEST ITEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at providing the psychometric analysis of 2010 Botswana mathematics JC paper 1 in determining the quality of the junior certificate mathematics multiple choice examination test items. The mathematics paper 1 consisted of forty (40) multiple choice test items which was constructed using the three year JC mathematics curriculum. The population for the study was all the 36,940

O. O Adedoyin; T Mokobi

2013-01-01

459

Four Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

2013-01-01

460

Examining students' understanding of electrical circuits through multiple-choice testing and interviews  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research has shown that both high school and university students have misconceptions about direct current resistive electric circuits. At present, there are no standard diagnostic examinations in electric circuits. Such an instrument would be useful in determining what conceptual problems students have either before or after instruction. The information provided by the exam can be used by classroom instructors to evaluate their instructional methods and the progress and conceptual problems of their students. It can be used to evaluate curricular packages and/or other supplemental materials for their effectiveness in overcoming students' conceptual difficulties. Two versions of a diagnostic instrument known as Determining and Interpreting Resistive Electric circuits Concepts Tests (DIRECT) were developed, each consisting of 29 questions. DIRECT was administered to groups of high school and university students in the United States, Canada and Germany. The students had completed their study of electrostatics and direct current electric circuits prior to taking the exam. Individual interviews were conducted after the administration of version 1.0 to determine how students were interpreting the questions and to uncover their reasoning behind their selections. The analyses indicate that students, especially females, tend to hold multiple misconceptions, even after instruction. The idea that the battery is a constant source of current was used most often in answering the questions. Although students tend to use different misconceptions for each question presented, they do use misconceptions associated with the global objective of the question. Students' definitions of terms used on the exam and their misconceptions were examined. Students tended to confuse terms, especially current. They assigned the properties of current to voltage and/or resistance. One of the major findings from the study was that students were able to translate easily from a "realistic" representation of a circuit to the corresponding schematic diagram. Results indicated that students do not have a clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms of electric circuit phenomena. Students had difficulty handling simultaneous changes of variable. Current was the main concept used in solving the problems. Some of the students who were interviewed reverted to formulas to answer the questions.

Engelhardt, Paula Vetter

461

Questions and answers on the use of dabigatran and perspectives on the use of other new oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation. A consensus document of the Italian Federation of Thrombosis Centers (FCSA).  

PubMed

Dabigatran and other new oral anticoagulants (OAC) represent a step forward in stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). They indeed have been shown to be an alternative to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) without the burden of laboratory control. However, these new drugs compete with an effective and well-established therapy, thus bringing about a series of questions and doubts. In this report members of the board of the Italian Federation of Thrombosis Centers (FCSA) answer some questions every clinician might be confronted with. PMID:21946939

Pengo, V; Crippa, L; Falanga, A; Finazzi, G; Marongiu, F; Palareti, G; Poli, D; Testa, S; Tiraferri, E; Tosetto, A; Tripodi, A; Manotti, C

2011-11-01

462

Two New Statistics To Detect Answer Copying. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two new indices to detect answer copying on a multiple-choice test, S(1) and S(2) (subscripts), are proposed. The S(1) index is similar to the K-index (P. Holland, 1996) and the K-overscore(2), (K2) index (L. Sotaridona and R. Meijer, in press), but the distribution of the number of matching incorrect answers of the source (examinee s) and the…

Sotaridona, Leonardo S.; Meijer, Rob R.

463

About Provocative Questions — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The provocative questions initiative has assembled a list of 24 important questions from the research community to stimulate the NCI’s research communities to use laboratory, clinical and populations sciences in especially effective and imaginative ways to answer the questions. The questions are not simple restatements of long-term goals of the National Cancer Program, which are to improve the prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment of all forms of cancer.

464

Unexpected Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to statistical situations where the probabilities or outcomes might not be what is first expected. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities motivated by the idea of unexpected answers. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with an introduction to probability and unexpected answers in probability.

Shodor

2012-03-30

465

Alternative Response and Scoring Methods for Multiple Choice Items: An Empirical Study of Probabilistic and Ordinal Response Modes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Binary, probability, and ordinal scoring procedures for multiple-choice items were examined. In two situations, it was found that both the probability and ordinal scoring systems were more reliable than the binary scoring method. (Author/CTM)

Poizner, Sharon B.; And Others

1978-01-01

466

Playing Forty Questions: Responding to Justice Roberts' Concerns in Caperton and Some Tentative Answers About Operationalizing Judicial Recusal and Due Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chief Justice of the United States would probably have excelled as a negative debater in high school forensics competitions. Good negative debaters are, as my high school English teacher put it, “great point-pickers” in that they frequently challenge affirmative proposals with a series of “what if?” or “how about?” or “what would you do if?” questions designed to leave

Jeffrey W. Stempel

2009-01-01

467

If ‘Something Works’ is the Answer, What is the Question?Supporting Pluralist Evaluation in Community Corrections in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the paper are to present the argument for pluralistic evaluation, by outlining and assessing the various measures that have been and might be used in the United Kingdom, and to question the value of relying on reconviction rates. Most evaluation studies of offender programmes in the community and in prison have been based on single measures, mostly

Mark Israel; Wing Hong Chui

2006-01-01

468

Do Workshops in Evidence-Based Practice Equip Participants to Identify and Answer Questions Requiring Consideration of Clinical Research? A Diagnostic Skill Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires practitioners to identify and formulate questions in response to patient encounters, and to seek, select, and appraise applicable clinical research. A standardized workshop format serves as the model for training of medical educators in these skills. We developed an evaluation exercise to assess the ability…

Wyer, Peter C,; Naqvi, Zoon; Dayan, Peter S.; Celentano, James J.; Eskin, Barnet; Graham, Mark J.

2009-01-01

469

Modeling Confidence Judgments, Response Times, and Multiple Choices in Decision Making: Recognition Memory and Motion Discrimination  

PubMed Central

Confidence in judgments is a fundamental aspect of decision making, and tasks that collect confidence judgments are an instantiation of multiple-choice decision making. We present a model for confidence judgments in recognition memory tasks that uses a multiple-choice diffusion decision process with separate accumulators of evidence for the different confidence choices. The accumulator that first reaches its decision boundary determines which choice is made. Five algorithms for accumulating evidence were compared, and one of them produced proportions of responses for each of the choices and full response time distributions for each choice that closely matched empirical data. With this algorithm, an increase in the evidence in one accumulator is accompanied by a decrease in the others so that the total amount of evidence in the system is constant. Application of the model to the data from an earlier experiment (Ratcliff, McKoon, & Tindall, 1994) uncovered a relationship between the shapes of z-transformed receiver operating characteristics and the behavior of response time distributions. Both are explained in the model by the behavior of the decision boundaries. For generality, we also applied the decision model to a 3-choice motion discrimination task and found it accounted for data better than a competing class of models. The confidence model presents a coherent account of confidence judgments and response time that cannot be explained with currently popular signal detection theory analyses or dual-process models of recognition.

Ratcliff, Roger; Starns, Jeffrey J.

2014-01-01

470

The Answer Machine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

Feldman, Susan

2000-01-01

471

USING MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS TO MEASURE THE EFFECT ON COMPREHENSION OF MATERIAL WRITTEN WITH SELECT ORAL LANGUAGE PATTERNS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE EFFECT OF FREQUENTLY USED ORAL LANGUAGE PATTERNS IN WRITTEN MATERIAL ON THE READING COMPREHENSION OF FOURTH GRADERS WAS EXAMINED. RUDDELL'S FREQUENCY PATTERNS WERE USED. TWO PASSAGES WERE CONSTRUCTED -- THE FIRST WITH 4 HIGH FREQUENCY PATTERNS (PASSAGE A) AND THE SECOND WITH 4 LOW FREQUENCY PATTERNS (PASSAGE B). FACTORS WITHIN THE PASSAGES…

TATHAM, SUSAN M.

472

Toward semantics-based answer pinpointing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the treatment of questions (Question-Answer Typology, question parsing, and results) in the Weblcopedia question answering system. Window-based pinpointing is therefore not satisfactory in the long run, even for factoid QA. In this paper we describe work in our Webclopedia project on semantics-based answer pinpointing. Initially, though, recognizing the simplicity and power of the window-based technique for getting started,

Eduard Hovy; Laurie Gerber; Ulf Hermjakob; Chin-yew Lin; Deepak Ravichandran

2000-01-01

473

Predictors of answer quality in online Q&A sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question and answer (Q&A) sites such as Yahoo! Answers are places where users ask questions and others answer them. In this paper, we investigate predictors of answer quality through a comparative, controlled field study of responses provided across several online Q&A sites. Along with several quantitative results concerning the effects of factors such as question topic and rhetorical strategy, we

F. Maxwell Harper; Daphne R. Raban; Sheizaf Rafaeli; Joseph A. Konstan

2008-01-01

474

Insect Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from Texas A&M University's Department of Entomology is a consolidated body of information on insects. Clicking on "Insect Help Publications" provides links to a number of extension service documents, with topics such as Home Gardens, Urban and Household, Medical and Veterinary, and Spanish. Other Insect Answers include information on managing pest problems, insect images and sounds, identification, and honey bees. On the right hand side of the page more information about the Entomology Department can be found as well as their bi-monthly podcast: Bug Bytes.

2007-11-28

475

The Subskills of Reading: Rule-Space Analysis of a Multiple-Choice Test of Second Language Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used the rule-space methodology to analyze performance on a multiple-choice reading comprehension test by students of English as a Second Language in Japan in an international business setting. Findings indicate that the rule-space methodology can explain performance on complex verbal tasks, such as reading tests, and provide diagnostic scores to…

Buck, Gary; Tatsuoka, Kumi; Kostin, Irene

1997-01-01

476

The Multiple-Choice Model: Some Solutions for Estimation of Parameters in the Presence of Omitted Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with some of the problems that have hindered the application of Samejima's and Thissen and Steinberg's multiple-choice models: (a) parameter estimation difficulties owing to the large number of parameters involved, (b) parameter identifiability problems in the Thissen and Steinberg model, and (c) their treatment of omitted…

Abad, Francisco J.; Olea, Julio; Ponsoda, Vicente

2009-01-01

477

So Many Choices, So Little Time: Strategies for Understanding and Taking Multiple-Choice Exams in History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning as much as possible about what to expect and how best to select among response choices enables students to improve their scores so as to reflect more fully their knowledge and abilities, whether taking the SAT, ACT, AP history exams, multiple-choice exams in college courses, the GRE, or any other standardized examinations that include…

Blackey, Robert

2009-01-01

478

Understanding Rasch Measurement: Distractors with Information in Multiple Choice Items: A Rationale Based on the Rasch Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a substantial literature on attempts to obtain information on the proficiency of respondents from distractors in multiple choice items. Information in a distractor implies that a person who chooses that distractor has greater proficiency than if the person chose another distractor with no information. A further implication is that the…

Andrich, David; Styles, Irene

2011-01-01

479

Force Concept Inventory-based multiple-choice test for investigating students' representational consistency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates students’ ability to interpret multiple representations consistently (i.e., representational consistency) in the context of the force concept. For this purpose we developed the Representational Variant of the Force Concept Inventory (R-FCI), which makes use of nine items from the 1995 version of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). These original FCI items were redesigned using various representations (such as motion map, vectorial and graphical), yielding 27 multiple-choice items concerning four central concepts underpinning the force concept: Newton’s first, second, and third laws, and gravitation. We provide some evidence for the validity and reliability of the R-FCI; this analysis is limited to the student population of one Finnish high school. The students took the R-FCI at the beginning and at the end of their first high school physics course. We found that students’ (n=168) representational consistency (whether scientifically correct or not) varied considerably depending on the concept. On average, representational consistency and scientifically correct understanding increased during the instruction, although in the post-test only a few students performed consistently both in terms of representations and scientifically correct understanding. We also compared students’ (n=87) results of the R-FCI and the FCI, and found that they correlated quite well.

Nieminen, Pasi; Savinainen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni

2010-07-01

480

Test of understanding of vectors: A reliable multiple-choice vector concept test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we discuss the findings of our research on students' understanding of vector concepts in problems without physical context. First, we develop a complete taxonomy of the most frequent errors made by university students when learning vector concepts. This study is based on the results of several test administrations of open-ended problems in which a total of 2067 students participated. Using this taxonomy, we then designed a 20-item multiple-choice test [Test of understanding of vectors (TUV)] and administered it in English to 423 students who were completing the required sequence of introductory physics courses at a large private Mexican university. We evaluated the test's content validity, reliability, and discriminatory power. The results indicate that the TUV is a reliable assessment tool. We also conducted a detailed analysis of the students' understanding of the vector concepts evaluated in the test. The TUV is included in the Supplemental Material as a resource for other researchers studying vector learning, as well as instructors teaching the material.

Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

2014-06-01

481

Force Concept Inventory-based multiple-choice test for investigating students' representational consistency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates studentsâ ability to interpret multiple representations consistently (i.e., representational consistency) in the context of the force concept. For this purpose we developed the Representational Variant of the Force Concept Inventory (R-FCI), which makes use of nine items from the 1995 version of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). These original FCI items were redesigned using various representations (such as motion map, vectorial and graphical), yielding 27 multiple-choice items concerning four central concepts underpinning the force concept: Newtonâs first, second, and third laws, and gravitation. We provide some evidence for the validity and reliability of the R-FCI; this analysis is limited to the student population of one Finnish high school. The students took the R-FCI at the beginning and at the end of their first high school physics course. We found that studentsâ (n=168) representational consistency (whether scientifically correct or not) varied considerably depending on the concept. On average, representational consistency and scientifically correct understanding increased during the instruction, although in the post-test only a few students performed consistently both in terms of representations and scientifically correct understanding. We also compared studentsâ (n=87) results of the R-FCI and the FCI, and found that they correlated quite well. Please note the published erratum when examining this article.

Nieminen, Pasi; Savinainen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni

2012-01-20

482

Detecting Answer Copying when the Regular Response Process Follows a Known Response Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A statistical test for detecting answer copying on multiple-choice items is presented. The test is based on the exact null distribution of the number of random matches between two test takers under the assumption that the response process follows a known response model. The null distribution can easily be generalized to the family of distributions…

van der Linden, Wim J.; Sotaridona, Leonardo

2006-01-01

483

Finding Answers to Questions about School Finance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the California School Finance (CASF) Web site, which explains the complexities of school funding in California. The Web site, www.californiaschoolfinance.org, was developed by EdSource, an organization that has been trusted in California for 30 years to explain school finance in simple, jargon-free language. The CASF site…

Leadership, 2007

2007-01-01

484

Questions and Answers about Sjoegren's Syndrome (Revised).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sjoeren's (SHOW-grens) syndrome is an autoimmune disease that is, a disease in which the immune system turns against the body's own cells. Normally, the immune system works to protect us from disease by destroying harmful invading organisms like viruses a...

2006-01-01

485

Questions and Answers: Information about Your Hearing  

MedlinePLUS

... tags = tags.replace("", window.location) tags = tags.replace("", document.title); // Get the index of any next matching substring. intIndexOfMatch = tags.indexOf(""); } return tags; } document.write(GetDivTag()); Contact Us Privacy Accessibility FOIA Site ...

486

Fouled Anchors: The CONSTELLATION Question Answered.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The USS Constellation, said to have been built in Baltimore in 1797, was transferred in 1955 by the Navy to a group of Baltimore citizens for preservation and display. Since 1947 some historians have believed the ship now on display is an entirely differe...

C. D. Ratliff D. M. Wegner K. Lynaugh

1991-01-01

487

VFC Detailed Questions and Answers for Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... FQHCs include community and migrant health centers, special health facilities such as those for the homeless and persons ... CDC-INFO VFC Home Page For Awardees Vaccine Management & Accountability CDC Vaccine Price List CDC Vaccine Price ...

488

Questions and Answers about Foodborne Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... world, Shigella dysenteriae type 1, can cause deadly epidemics (tracked by FoodNet ). Some common diseases are occasionally ... oyster beds in Galveston Bay and caused an epidemic of diarrheal illness in persons eating the oysters ...

489

Brief Questions and Answers on Ozone Depletion  

MedlinePLUS

... in the ozone layer. The layer of the Earth's atmosphere that surrounds us is called the troposphere . ... layer, extends about 10-50 kilometers above the Earth's surface. Stratospheric ozone is a naturally-occurring gas ...

490

Climate Change Facts: Answers to Common Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... from human activities have a big impact on Earth's climate? Plants, oceans, and soils release and absorb ... of the greenhouse effect. In the past, has Earth been warmer than it is today? If so, ...

491

Questions and Answers about Reactive Arthritis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The arthritis associated with reactive arthritis typically involves pain and swelling in the knees, ankles, and feet. wrists, fingers, and other joints are affected less often. People with reactive arthritis commonly develop inflammation of the tendons (t...

2002-01-01

492

Questions and Answers about Spinal Stenosis (Revised).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication contains general information about spinal stenosis. It describes the conditions causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments. At the end is a list of additional resources. Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of spaces in the spine (backbone) th...

2004-01-01

493

Answers to the Question: "Who Developed Race?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having served as a college and university instructor at several institutions, the author has taught numerous history courses that have dealt with race relations in the United States. A class that he currently teaches, titled "Race in America," focuses specifically upon this topic. It is designed for non-history majors who are in their early years…

Eden, Jason

2011-01-01

494

American Indians: Answers to Today's Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book aims to fill part of the gap that exists between commonly held misconceptions and the realities of American Indian history and modern life. Part I discusses the "doctrine of discovery," a European legal theory invented to justify the acquisition of Indian lands, and explains why the issue of discovery has had so great an impact on…

Utter, Jack

495

Questions and Answers: Smallpox Vaccine and Monkeypox  

MedlinePLUS

... least 85% effective in preventing monkeypox. Why have smallpox vaccination recommendations changed? When there is no "pox" outbreak, ... not prevent the disease. Who decided to offer smallpox vaccination to people exposed to monkeypox? CDC recommendations on ...

496

Antioxidants and disease: More questions than answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species are widely believed to be involved in the etiology of many diseases as indicated by the signs of oxidative stress seen in those diseases. Conversely, antioxidants are believed to be protective. An important part of the supporting evidence is the consistently-seen inverse association between, on the one hand, intake of ?-carotene and vitamin C and of fruit

Norman J. Temple

2000-01-01

497

Lipstick and Lead: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... 32 127 Estée Lauder Origins Estée Lauder Flower Fusion 21 Calla Lily A39 1.31 128 Lancôme ... 185 Revlon Revlon Super Lustrous Pearl 657 Fuchsia Fusion 09167 0.95 186 Stargazer Stargazer Glitter d ...

498

Response to Intervention: Questions and Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A better understanding of the basic mechanisms of the Problem-solving/Response to Intervention (PS/RtI) framework will help educators address students' diverse learning and behavioral needs. It will also help educators who may view PS/RtI as a compliance matter rather than an informative educational process that helps children reach their…

Monetti, David M.; Breneiser, Jennifer E.; McAuley, Michael G.

2013-01-01

499

Working within the Law: Copyright Questions Answered.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses copyright issues: what can be copyrighted, rights of copyright holders, avoiding copyright infringement, using copyrighted works, and addresses for more information concerning copyright laws. (CT)

Davis, Susan S.

1986-01-01

500

Layering as Optimization Decomposition: Questions and Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network protocols in layered architectures have historically been obtained on an ad-hoc basis, and much of the recent cross-layer designs are conducted through piecemeal approaches. Network protocols may instead be holistically analyzed and systematically designed as distributed solutions to some global optimization problems in the form of generalized Network Utility Maximization (NUM), providing insight on what they optimize and on

Mung Chiang; Steven H. Low; A. Robert Calderbank; John C. Doyle

2006-01-01