Science.gov

Sample records for answer multiple-choice questions

  1. Sometimes Adults Miss the Main Ideas and Do Not Realize It: Confidence in Responses to Short-Answer and Multiple-Choice Comprehension Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines the relation between question characteristics and awareness of comprehension. Finds that readers have great confidence that their answers to thematic questions in both short-answer and multiple-choice formats are correct, even when they were wrong. Suggests that readers of challenging, inconsiderate texts are unaware of gross…

  2. Delayed, but not immediate, feedback after multiple-choice questions increases performance on a subsequent short-answer, but not multiple-choice, exam: evidence for the dual-process theory of memory.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Neha; Glass, Arnold Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments, two performed in the laboratory and one embedded in a college psychology lecture course, investigated the effects of immediate versus delayed feedback following a multiple-choice exam on subsequent short answer and multiple-choice exams. Performance on the subsequent multiple-choice exam was not affected by the timing of the feedback on the prior exam; however, performance on the subsequent short answer exam was better following delayed than following immediate feedback. This was true regardless of the order in which immediate versus delayed feedback was given. Furthermore, delayed feedback only had a greater effect than immediate feedback on subsequent short answer performance following correct, confident responses on the prior exam. These results indicate that delayed feedback cues a student's prior response and increases subsequent recollection of that response. The practical implication is that delayed feedback is better than immediate feedback during academic testing. PMID:25832741

  3. STATISTICS 8 CHAPTERS 1 TO 6, SAMPLE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

    E-print Network

    Utts, Jessica

    STATISTICS 8 CHAPTERS 1 TO 6, SAMPLE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Circle the best answer that might affect lung capacity are smoking habits and exercise habits. The smoking habits of the two worker of the following is the explanatory variable in this study? a. Exercise b. Lung capacity c. Smoking or not d

  4. A Two-Tier Multiple Choice Questions to Diagnose Thermodynamic Misconception of Thai and Laos Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamcharean, Chanwit; Wattanakasiwich, Pornrat

    The objective of this study was to diagnose misconceptions of Thai and Lao students in thermodynamics by using a two-tier multiple-choice test. Two-tier multiple choice questions consist of the first tier, a content-based question and the second tier, a reasoning-based question. Data of student understanding was collected by using 10 two-tier multiple-choice questions. Thai participants were the first-year students (N = 57) taking a fundamental physics course at Chiang Mai University in 2012. Lao participants were high school students in Grade 11 (N = 57) and Grade 12 (N = 83) at Muengnern high school in Xayaboury province, Lao PDR. As results, most students answered content-tier questions correctly but chose incorrect answers for reason-tier questions. When further investigating their incorrect reasons, we found similar misconceptions as reported in previous studies such as incorrectly relating pressure with temperature when presenting with multiple variables.

  5. Does the Answer Order Matter on Multiple-Choice Exams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellinghuisen, Joel; Sulikowski, Michelle M.

    2008-01-01

    Surprising version-dependent differences are noted in student performance on certain questions in a standardized general chemistry exam. The exam in question has two versions, on which both questions and answers are ordered differently. For the questions suspected of answer-order bias, the performance is better in ten of twelve cases when students…

  6. Testing Historical Knowledge: Standards, Multiple-Choice Questions and Student Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Gabriel A.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the reasoning employed by high school students to answer a set of multiple-choice history questions. The questions come from New York State's Global History and Geography Regents exam. The Regents exams, together with a particularly well-regarded and ambitious set of content standards, are the cornerstone of the state's…

  7. Research on Multiple-Choice Questions: Implications for Strategy Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.

    This review of the literature examines the effectiveness of instructing students in various test-taking strategies, particularly in reference to multiple choice questions. Among findings reported are that while test-wiseness strategies may be taught, these strategies have limited generalizability across exams and learners who proactively process…

  8. Physics 4C Practice Mid-Term Exam #2 Instructions: Read the problems carefully and give the best answer. The multiple-choice questions on

    E-print Network

    Ringwald, Frederick A.

    . Silicon has a work function of 1.125 eV, where 1 eV = 1 electron volt = 1.602 × 10-19 J. What) none of the above 2 #12;Problems: Box your final answers. No work = No credit on this part. (A. CCDs detect light by the photoelectric effect: photons that land on a silicon crystal knock electrons

  9. A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

  10. 10 Tips on Writing Good Multiple Choice Questions Karen A. Garman Ed.D., MAPP, President, HELP, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    . Healthcare Education, Leadership & Performance, Inc. www.helpconsulting.com The multiple choice question discrimination on the part of the student. 6. Avoid giving irrelevant clues to the answer such as: length of clue

  11. Assessment of Multiple-Choice Questions in Selected Test Banks Accompanying Text Books Used in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Joan C.; Hulsmeyer, Barbara S.; Pike, Mary E.; Leichty, Kathy; Miller, Margaret T.; Verst, Amy L.

    2001-01-01

    A sample of 2,913 questions from 17 nursing test banks was evaluated for adherence to multiple-choice guidelines, cognitive level in Bloom's Taxonomy, and distribution of correct answers. Analysis revealed 2,233 guideline violations; 47.3% of items were written at the knowledge level, 6.5% at the analysis level; and correct answers were evenly…

  12. Item Analysis of Multiple-Choice Questions in Teaching Prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Madhav, V N V

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze multiple-choice questions used in teaching prosthodontics to dental students based on the items' distractor effectiveness and their difficulty and discrimination capacity. The overall goals were to assist the prosthodontics department in modifying its existing question bank and creating a set of prevalidated questions of known difficulty and discrimination capacity. The items selected for this study were from the three formative examinations in prosthodontics for fourth-year BDS students at Sinhgad Dental College and Hospital, Pune, Maharastra, India, during academic year 2011-12. As all the students' completed exams and scores were available, the task was to evaluate the efficacy of items already administered. Based on the item analysis of the questions, the following results were noted. None of the three examinations had items that were too difficult or defective. However, all three examinations had large percentages of easy items and many items had a low discrimination index. More than 60-70% of the items on all three examinations included ineffective distractors. All items therefore needed modifications based on their distractor effectiveness and difficulty and discrimination indices. After the study was completed, the results were discussed in a meeting with all teachers in the prosthodontics department and the test constructors, and suggestions were made with regard to improving the items for better evaluation of students. PMID:26522636

  13. Wrong Answers on Multiple-Choice Achievement Tests: Blind Guesses or Systematic Choices?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, J. C.

    A multi-faceted model for the selection of answers for multiple-choice tests was developed from the findings of a series of exploratory studies. This model implies that answer selection should be curvilinear. A series of models were tested for fit using the chi square procedure. Data were collected from 359 elementary school students ages 9-12.…

  14. Using Multiple-Choice Questions to Evaluate In-Depth Learning of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckles, Stephen; Siegfried, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions are the basis of a significant portion of assessment in introductory economics courses. However, these questions, as found in course assessments, test banks, and textbooks, often fail to evaluate students' abilities to use and apply economic analysis. The authors conclude that multiple-choice questions can be used to…

  15. Can free-response questions be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2013-08-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions can be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another, similar introductory physics course on the final exam. Our findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance on the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

  16. Testing Collective Memory: Representing the Soviet Union on Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Gabriel A.

    2011-01-01

    This article tests the assumption that state-mandated multiple-choice history exams are a cultural tool for disseminating an "official" collective memory. Findings from a qualitative study of a collection of multiple-choice questions that relate to the history of the Soviet Union are presented. The 263 questions all come from New York State…

  17. Learning Physics Teaching through Collaborative Design of Conceptual Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Increasing student engagement through Electronic Response Systems (clickers) has been widely researched. Its success largely depends on the quality of multiple-choice questions used by instructors. This paper describes a pilot project that focused on the implementation of online collaborative multiple-choice question repository, PeerWise, in a…

  18. Quality Multiple-Choice Test Questions: Item-Writing Guidelines and an Analysis of Auditing Testbanks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James D.; Dexter, Lee

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of test item banks in 10 auditing textbooks found that 75% of questions violated one or more guidelines for multiple-choice items. In comparison, 70% of a certified public accounting exam bank had no violations. (SK)

  19. Beware Answers with Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Answers to mathematical problems come in all forms and most come with a variety of questions. Students often forget to ask questions once they have found an answer. This paper suggests that students would always benefit by questioning answers.

  20. Measuring University students' understanding of the greenhouse effect - a comparison of multiple-choice, short answer and concept sketch assessment tools with respect to students' mental models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, A. U.; Harris, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The greenhouse effect comes up in most discussions about climate and is a key concept related to climate change. Existing studies have shown that students and adults alike lack a detailed understanding of this important concept or might hold misconceptions. We studied the effectiveness of different interventions on University-level students' understanding of the greenhouse effect. Introductory level science students were tested for their pre-knowledge of the greenhouse effect using validated multiple-choice questions, short answers and concept sketches. All students participated in a common lesson about the greenhouse effect and were then randomly assigned to one of two lab groups. One group explored an existing simulation about the greenhouse effect (PhET-lesson) and the other group worked with absorption spectra of different greenhouse gases (Data-lesson) to deepen the understanding of the greenhouse effect. All students completed the same assessment including multiple choice, short answers and concept sketches after participation in their lab lesson. 164 students completed all the assessments, 76 completed the PhET lesson and 77 completed the data lesson. 11 students missed the contrasting lesson. In this presentation we show the comparison between the multiple-choice questions, short answer questions and the concept sketches of students. We explore how well each of these assessment types represents student's knowledge. We also identify items that are indicators of the level of understanding of the greenhouse effect as measured in correspondence of student answers to an expert mental model and expert responses. Preliminary data analysis shows that student who produce concept sketch drawings that come close to expert drawings also choose correct multiple-choice answers. However, correct multiple-choice answers are not necessarily an indicator that a student produces an expert-like correlating concept sketch items. Multiple-choice questions that require detailed knowledge of the greenhouse effect (e.g. direction of re-emission of infrared energy from greenhouse gas) are significantly more likely to be answered correctly by students who also produce expert-like concept sketch items than by students who don't include this aspect in their sketch and don't answer the multiple choice questions correctly. This difference is not as apparent for less technical multiple-choice questions (e.g. type of radiation emitted by Sun). Our findings explore the formation of student's mental models throughout different interventions and how well the different assessment techniques used in this study represent the student understanding of the overall concept.

  1. An Online National Archive of Multiple-Choice Questions for Astro 101 and the Development of the Question Complexity Rubric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, S.; Prather, E.; Brissenden, G.

    2011-09-01

    We are developing a national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astronomy 101 classroom. These questions are intended to supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or for their assessment purposes (i.e., exams and homework). We are also developing the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR) to guide members of the Astro 101 teaching and learning community in assisting us with hierarchically ranking questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge. The highest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway that requires multiple connected cognitive steps. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) use the QCR to score questions 2) search for and download questions based on topic and/or QCR score, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. Stop by our poster to test your skills at determining question complexity by trying out the QCR with our sample questions.

  2. The Impact of Student Ability and Method for Varying the Position of Correct Answers in Classroom Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dane Christian

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-choice item-writing guideline research is in its infancy. Haladyna (2004) calls for a science of item-writing guideline research. The purpose of this study is to respond to such a call. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of student ability and method for varying the location of correct answers in classroom multiple-choice

  3. A real-time multiple-choice question generation for language testing a preliminary study

    E-print Network

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    of multiple- choice questions is one of the promising examples of educational applications of NLP techniques. A machine learning ap- proach seems to be useful for this pur- pose because some of the processes can be done by classification. Using basic ma- chine learning algorithms as Naive Bayes and K

  4. Multiple Choice Questions Can Be Designed or Revised to Challenge Learners' Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Gushta, Matthew M.; Mulroney, Susan E.; Weissinger, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple choice (MC) questions from a graduate physiology course were evaluated by cognitive-psychology (but not physiology) experts, and analyzed statistically, in order to test the independence of content expertise and cognitive complexity ratings of MC items. Integration of higher order thinking into MC exams is important, but widely known to…

  5. Student-Generated Content: Enhancing Learning through Sharing Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Judy; Bates, Simon P.; Casey, Morag M.; Galloway, Kyle W.; Galloway, Ross K.; Kay, Alison E.; Kirsop, Peter; McQueen, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between students' use of PeerWise, an online tool that facilitates peer learning through student-generated content in the form of multiple-choice questions (MCQs), and achievement, as measured by their performance in the end-of-module examinations, was investigated in 5 large early-years science modules (in physics, chemistry…

  6. A New Approach to Multiple-Choice Question Writing: Example, Transparency, and Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, Carlos A.; Contreras, Luis C.; Blanco, Lorenzo J.; Cárdenas, Janeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present article is to provide the teacher with an alternative perspective in writing multiple-choice questions. To the techniques and advice available in the literature on the topic, three further aspects are added whose provenance is an emerging line of research--the exemplification of concepts. The objective is to expand…

  7. The Question Complexity Rubric: Development and Application for a National Archive of Astro 101 Multiple-Choice Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years we have been developing an online national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astro 101 classroom. These questions are intended to either supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or be used for assessment purposes (i.e. exams and homework). In this talk we will describe the development, testing and implementation of the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR), which is designed to guide the ranking of questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge whereas the highest QCR score is given to questions that require multiple pathways of multi-step reasoning. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) search for and download questions based on subject and average QCR score, 2) use the QCR to score questions, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. We will also discuss other potential applications of the QCR, such as how it informs our work in developing and testing of survey instruments by allowing us to calibrate the range of question complexity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  8. The Relationship of Deep and Surface Study Approaches on Factual and Applied Test-Bank Multiple-Choice Question Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonker, Julie E.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of online test banks and large introductory classes, instructors have often turned to textbook publisher-generated multiple-choice question (MCQ) exams in their courses. Multiple-choice questions are often divided into categories of factual or applied, thereby implicating levels of cognitive processing. This investigation examined…

  9. Sepsis Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Improving Survival Medical Bibliography Data Reports Related Links Sepsis Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... organ failure, and death. When can you get sepsis? Sepsis can occur to anyone, at any time, ...

  10. Potential Values of Incorporating a Multiple-Choice Question Construction in Physics Experimentation Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fu-Yun; Liu, Yu-Hsin

    2005-09-01

    The potential value of a multiple-choice question-construction instructional strategy for the support of students’ learning of physics experiments was examined in the study. Forty-two university freshmen participated in the study for a whole semester. A constant comparison method adopted to categorize students’ qualitative data indicated that the influences of multiple-choice question construction were evident in several significant ways (promoting constructive and productive studying habits; reflecting and previewing course-related materials; increasing in-group communication and interaction; breaking passive learning style and habits, etc.), which, worked together, not only enhanced students’ comprehension and retention of the obtained knowledge, but also helped distil a sense of empowerment and learning community within the participants. Analysis with one-group t-tests, using 3 as the expected mean, on quantitative data further found that students’ satisfaction toward past learning experience, and perceptions toward this strategy’s potentials for promoting learning were statistically significant at the 0.0005 level, while learning anxiety was not statistically significant. Suggestions for incorporating question-generation activities within classroom and topics for future studies were rendered.

  11. Targeted Question Answering on Smartphones Utilizing App Based User Classification

    E-print Network

    Demirbas, Murat

    answers which makes it hard to aggregate the responses from the crowd to produce a final answer. On the other hand, presenting binary or multiple choices for the questions facilitates the aggregation. It also using ontologies and lightweight ML techniques [4]. In this work, we study collaboration techniques

  12. [Development of a Set of Rehabilitation Related Multiple-choice-questions in Medical Education].

    PubMed

    Gutt, S; Bergelt, C; Faller, H; Krischak, G; Spyra, K; Uhlmann, A; Mau, W

    2015-08-01

    In the rehabilitation related teaching as in other subjects of the medical training multiple choice (MC) examinations are the most frequent type of examinations. Compared to other subjects only a few MC questions are available for the interdisciplinary subject Rehabilitation. Therefore an internet-based online platform "Pool of rehabilitation related MC questions" was developed to assist teachers regarding the provision, design and organization of high-quality rehabilitation related MC questions. A total of 502 existing MC questions were collected from 12 German Medical Faculties. After removal of 59 questions not suitable for formal and content reasons a total of 443 questions were presented to 6 reviewers for triple reviews (a total of 1?329 expert reviews received). Of the 502 questions 335 (67%) were included in the final pool including short cases with 46 case studies. The questions refer to the following learning objectives: principles of rehabilitation (40%), rehabilitative interventions (20%), diagnosis and assessment (18%), initiation and control of the rehabilitation process (12%) and methods/quality of rehabilitative interventions (10%). The use of the online platform modules resp. the questions are for free for lecturers. This includes the compilation and output of complete examinations, the statistical evaluation, and other audit-related materials. This examination pool counteracts the current lack of quality-assured rehabilitation-related MC questions and contributes to set common standards for the Medical Faculties to rehabilitation related examinations. PMID:26080058

  13. The assessment of critical thinking skills in anatomy and physiology students who practice writing higher order multiple choice questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Jason

    Critical thinking is a complex abstraction that defies homogeneous interpretation. This means that no operational definition is universal and no critical thinking measurement tool is all encompassing. Instructors will likely find evidence based strategies to facilitate thinking skills only as numerous research efforts from multiple disciplines accumulate. This study focuses on a question writing exercise designed to help anatomy and physiology students. Students were asked to design multiple choice questions that combined course concepts in new and novel ways. Instructions and examples were provided on how to construct these questions and student attempts were sorted into levels one through three of Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy (Bloom et al. 1956). Students submitted their question designs weekly and received individual feedback as to how they might improve. Eight course examinations were created to contain questions that modeled the Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy levels that students were attempting. Students were assessed on their course examination performance as well as performance on a discipline independent critical thinking test called the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). The performance of students in this study was compared to students from two previous years that took the same course but did not have the question writing activity. Results suggest that students do not improve their ability to answer critical thinking multiple choices questions when they practice the task of creating such problems. The effect of class level on critical thinking is examined and it appears that the longer a student has attended college the better the performance on both discipline specific and discipline independent critical thinking questions. The data were also used to analyze students who improved their course examination grades in the second semester of this course. There is a pattern to suggest that students who improve their performance on course examinations did so largely in non-critical thinking problems. Although, when this subset of students is analyzed by class level it appears that sophomores reverse the pattern and improve much more in critical thinking type questions than their upper classmen. The implications of this are discussed.

  14. Developing an Array Binary Code Assessment Rubric for Multiple- Choice Questions Using Item Arrays and Binary-Coded Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haro, Elizabeth K.; Haro, Luis S.

    2014-01-01

    The multiple-choice question (MCQ) is the foundation of knowledge assessment in K-12, higher education, and standardized entrance exams (including the GRE, MCAT, and DAT). However, standard MCQ exams are limited with respect to the types of questions that can be asked when there are only five choices. MCQs offering additional choices more…

  15. Changing Answers on Multiple-Choice Examinations Taken by Baccalaureate Nursing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieswiadomy, Rose M.; Arnold, Wilda K.; Garza, Chris

    2001-01-01

    The answer sheets of 122 nursing students showed that 119 changed at least 1 answer; 93.3% of those who changed answers either gained or did not lose points by changing; changing answers on psychiatric nursing exams made more difference than on medical-surgical tests. However, those who made the smallest number of changes tended to have higher…

  16. Faculty development programs improve the quality of Multiple Choice Questions items' writing

    PubMed Central

    Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad; Ahmad, Farah; Irshad, Mohammad; Khalil, Mahmoud Salah; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer Khalid; Syed, Sadiqa; Aldrees, Abdulmajeed Abdurrahman; Alrowais, Norah; Haque, Shafiul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the utility of long term faculty development programs (FDPs) in order to improve the quality of multiple choice questions (MCQs) items' writing. This was a quasi-experimental study, conducted with newly joined faculty members. The MCQ items were analyzed for difficulty index, discriminating index, reliability, Bloom's cognitive levels, item writing flaws (IWFs) and MCQs' nonfunctioning distractors (NFDs) based test courses of respiratory, cardiovascular and renal blocks. Significant improvement was found in the difficulty index values of pre- to post-training (p = 0.003). MCQs with moderate difficulty and higher discrimination were found to be more in the post-training tests in all three courses. Easy questions were decreased from 36.7 to 22.5%. Significant improvement was also reported in the discriminating indices from 92.1 to 95.4% after training (p = 0.132). More number of higher cognitive level of Bloom's taxonomy was reported in the post-training test items (p<0.0001). Also, NFDs and IWFs were reported less in the post-training items (p<0.02). The MCQs written by the faculties without participating in FDPs are usually of low quality. This study suggests that newly joined faculties need active participation in FDPs as these programs are supportive in improving the quality of MCQs' items writing. PMID:25828516

  17. Knowledge based question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

    1983-01-01

    The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

  18. Gender Differences in Introductory Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Exams: Multiple Choice versus Constructed Response Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Andrew J.; Raptis, Helen

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes 295 male and 194 female examinations from introductory atmospheric and oceanic science courses to determine whether or not there exist gender differences in the performance on multiple choice versus constructed response sections of the exams. (Author/SAH)

  19. Comparison of Collegial Individual and Group Reviews of General Practice Multiple Choice Questions

    PubMed Central

    Böhme, Klaus; Schelling, Jörg; Streitlein-Böhme, Irmgard; Glassen, Katharina; Schübel, Jeannine; Jünger, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Aims: In most German medical faculties, credits in general practice can be earned via exams using multiple-choice questions (MCQ). Measures such as peer-reviews may help assure the quality of these exams. In order to use time and personnel intensive peer reviews effectively and efficiently, the procedures used are key. Therefore, we wanted to find out whether there are differences between group and individual reviews regarding defined parameters. Methods: We conducted a controlled cross-over study with three GP reviewers from four different German universities. Each reviewed 80 MCQs, 40 individually and 40 within a group, including external assessments by a panel of experts. Furthermore all reviewers were asked to evaluate the review process and the time spent carrying out these reviews. Outcomes: We found no significant differences between the reliability and the validity of individual reviews versus group reviews. On average slightly more time was spent on group reviews compared with the individual reviews. The subjective assessments of the study participants regarding their satisfaction with the process and the efficiency and effectiveness of the reviews suggest a preference for group reviews. Conclusions: Based on this study, there are no definite recommendations for or against either approach. When choosing between the two, the specific work structures and organisation at the local faculty should be taken into account. PMID:22916083

  20. Effectiveness of Guided Multiple Choice Objective Questions Test on Students' Academic Achievement in Senior School Mathematics by School Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated, using pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design, the effectiveness of guided multiple choice objective questions test on students' academic achievement in Senior School Mathematics, by school location, in Delta State Capital Territory, Nigeria. The sample comprised 640 Students from four coeducation secondary…

  1. Automated question answering for clinical comparison questions 

    E-print Network

    Leonhard, Annette Christa

    2012-06-25

    This thesis describes the development and evaluation of new automated Question Answering (QA) methods tailored to clinical comparison questions that give clinicians a rank-ordered list of MEDLINE® abstracts targeted to ...

  2. Consequences the extensive use of multiple-choice questions might have on student's reasoning structure

    E-print Network

    Raduta, C M

    2013-01-01

    Learning physics is a context dependent process. I consider a broader interdisciplinary problem of where differences in understanding and reasoning arise. I suggest the long run effects a multiple choice based learning system as well as society cultural habits and rules might have on student reasoning structure.

  3. Multiple-Choice Exam Question Order Influences on Student Performance, Completion Time, and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Sacco, Matthew F.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies to investigate undergraduate performance, perceptions, and time required in completing sequentially ordered, randomly ordered, or reverse ordered exams in introductory psychology classes. Study 1 compared the outcomes and perceptions of students (N = 66) on 3 non-comprehensive multiple-choice exams which were sequentially,…

  4. Cultures in Community Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Kayes, Imrul; Quercia, Daniele; Iamnitchi, Adriana; Bonchi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    CQA services are collaborative platforms where users ask and answer questions. We investigate the influence of national culture on people's online questioning and answering behavior. For this, we analyzed a sample of 200 thousand users in Yahoo Answers from 67 countries. We measure empirically a set of cultural metrics defined in Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions and Robert Levine's Pace of Life and show that behavioral cultural differences exist in community question answering platforms. We find that national cultures differ in Yahoo Answers along a number of dimensions such as temporal predictability of activities, contribution-related behavioral patterns, privacy concerns, and power inequality.

  5. Multiple choice questions are superior to extended matching questions to identify medicine and biomedical sciences students who perform poorly.

    PubMed

    Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; van den Brand, Tessa L; Hopman, Maria T E

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, medical faculties at Dutch universities have implemented a legally binding study advice to students of medicine and biomedical sciences during their propaedeutic phase. Appropriate examination is essential to discriminate between poor (grade <6), moderate (grade 6-8) and excellent (grade ?8) students. Therefore, we compared the discriminatory properties of extended matching questions (EMQs) versus multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and identified the role of sex, age and examination preference on this score. Data were collected for 452 first-year medical and biomedical science students during three distinct course examinations: one examination with EMQ only, one with MCQ only and one mixed examination (including EMQ and MCQ). Logistic regression analysis revealed that MCQ examination was 3 times better in identifying poor students compared with EMQ (RR 3.0, CI 2.0-4.5), whereas EMQ better detected excellent students (average grade ?8) (RR 1.93, CI 1.47-2.53). Mixed examination had comparable characteristics to MCQ. Sex and examination preference did not impact the score of the student. Students ?20 years had a 4-fold higher risk ratio of obtaining a poor grade (<6) compared with students ?18 years old (RR 4.1, CI 2.1-8.0). Given the strong discriminative capacity of MCQ examinations to identify poor students, we recommend the use of this type of examination during the propaedeutic phase of medicine and biomedical science study programmes, in the light of the binding study advice. PMID:24203858

  6. Teaching Question Answer Relationships, Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy E.

    1986-01-01

    Offers modifications to the Question Answer Relationships technique that provide (1) a clearer explanation of different sources of information for answering questions, (2) an easier format for considering developmental differences in reading and learning, and (3) an expanded use for the technique both as a tool for teachers and as a strategy for…

  7. Question All Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barre, Nancy

    1989-01-01

    The Council for Advancement and Support of Education's Teacher of the Year John Roth teaches students that conclusions shouldn't come easily, encouraging them to question everything they hear, read, or assume, including what he says. (MSE)

  8. The Empirical Power and Type I Error Rates of the GBT and [omega] Indices in Detecting Answer Copying on Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The generalized binomial test (GBT) and [omega] indices are the most recent methods suggested in the literature to detect answer copying behavior on multiple-choice tests. The [omega] index is one of the most studied indices, but there has not yet been a systematic simulation study for the GBT index. In addition, the effect of the ability levels…

  9. ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

  10. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ This page has moved. Please update ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html Print page Share Compartir ...

  11. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  12. Questions and Answers about COTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Vocational Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Garfield Wilson, director of Florida's Council on Teacher Education (COTE), answers questions about present efforts to change teacher certification requirements, including rationale for the change, how the COTE model's twenty-three competencies were arrived at, their reliability as a measure of student learning and the system's possible effects on…

  13. QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER

    E-print Network

    QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER Q: What are the early signs of lung cancer? How would I know I have it? A: Some of the early warning signs of lung cancer are: · A cough that doesn't go away what may be causing these symptoms. Q: How is lung cancer diagnosed? A: Your doctor may do one or more

  14. A Diagnostic Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Competency in Multiple-Choice Item Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asim, Alice E.; Ekuri, Emmanuel E.; Eni, Eni I.

    2013-01-01

    Large class size is an issue in testing at all levels of Education. As a panacea to this, multiple choice test formats has become very popular. This case study was designed to diagnose pre-service teachers' competency in constructing questions (IQT); direct questions (DQT); and best answer (BAT) varieties of multiple choice items. Subjects were 88…

  15. A Factoid Question Answering System Using Answer Pattern Matching

    E-print Network

    Cicekli, Ilyas

    their potential for Turkish factoid question an- swering. Our factoid question answering system learns answer, we describe a Turkish factoid QA system which uses surface level patterns called answer patterns are learned using five different answer pattern extraction methods with the help of the web. Our novel

  16. CE399 Diagnostic Test The following multiple-choice questions are indicative of the scope and difficulty of the problems that

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Diagnostic Test Summer 2013 2 Diagnostic Criteria/Evaluation To be prepared for the upper-division Civil/Environmental) required to solve the problem. #12;CE399 Diagnostic Test Summer 2013 3 Mathematics Math-001 Question WhatCE399 Diagnostic Test General The following multiple-choice questions are indicative of the scope

  17. Incorporating Multiple-Choice Questions into an AACSB Assurance of Learning Process: A Course-Embedded Assessment Application to an Introductory Finance Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Michael R.; Hu, Aidong; Jordan, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The authors offer a classification technique to make a quantitative skills rubric more operational, with the groupings of multiple-choice questions to match the student learning levels in knowledge, calculation, quantitative reasoning, and analysis. The authors applied this classification technique to the mid-term exams of an introductory finance…

  18. A Web-based Question Answering System

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Dell

    The Web is apparently an ideal source of answers to a large variety of questions, due to the tremendous amount of information available online. This paper describes a Web-based question answering system LAMP, which is ...

  19. Short-answer questions and formula scoring separately enhance dental student academic performance.

    PubMed

    Pinckard, R Neal; McMahan, C Alex; Prihoda, Thomas J; Littlefield, John H; Jones, Anne Cale

    2012-05-01

    In this study, numerical course scores of second-year dental students in four successive classes in an oral and maxillofacial pathology course were compared. While the course content and teaching methods were essentially unchanged throughout the four years, two modest departures from the sole use of multiple-choice format questions were made in the assessment of student achievements. The modifications consisted of creating a more challenging examination procedure through the inclusion of un-cued short-answer format questions and the institution of correction-for-guessing scoring on multiple-choice examinations. Academically, the students in the four classes were comparable, as indicated by their respective numerical course score distributions in a prerequisite general pathology course in which the course content was unchanged, and all multiple-choice format questions were used to assess student academic achievements. This four-year study demonstrated that two qualitative changes in the educational environment-utilization of un-cued short-answer questions and correction for guessing scoring of multiple-choice questions-separately resulted in significant improvements in student course scores. Our results support the notion that, without any changes in curricular content or emphasis, combinations of qualitative changes in the assessment procedures alter student behavior and, as a consequence, appreciably improve their academic achievements. PMID:22550108

  20. Second Language Reading Topic Familiarity and Test Score: Test-Taking Strategies for Multiple-Choice Comprehension Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jia-Ying

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare the strategies used by Chinese-speaking students when confronted with familiar versus unfamiliar topics in a multiple-choice format reading comprehension test. The focus was on describing what students do when they are taking reading comprehension tests by asking students to verbalize their thoughts.…

  1. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  2. Answering comparison questions : what's the difference 

    E-print Network

    Scheible, Silke

    2005-01-01

    This Masters thesis is a first attempt at dealing with comparison questions in open domain question answering. Research so far has only been conducted within closed domains. While closed-domain systems assume that all ...

  3. Answering definitional questions before they are asked

    E-print Network

    Fernandes, Aaron D. (Aaron David)

    2004-01-01

    Most question answering systems narrow down their search space by issuing a boolean IR query on a keyword indexed corpus. This technique often proves futile for definitional questions, because they only contain one keyword ...

  4. Questions and Answers about Sex (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pregnant? What to Expect Questions and Answers About Sex KidsHealth > Parents > School & Family Life > Tough Topics > Questions ... extent can parents depend on schools to teach sex education? Parents should begin the sex education process ...

  5. Improving Question-Answering Performance through Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy

    Three previous investigations of the effects of students' metacognitive awareness of question-answer relationships on reading comprehension led to the development of a four-session question-answer relationship (QAR) training program which can be used as a supplement to a regular reading program. The QAR in the proposed training program is based on…

  6. To appear: 1999 AAAI Fall Symposium on Question Answering Systems Question Answering from Large Document Collections

    E-print Network

    Breck, Eric

    with a hybrid design, combining techniques from knowledge representation, information retrieval, and naturalTo appear: 1999 AAAI Fall Symposium on Question Answering Systems Question Answering from Large {ebreck, john, dhouse, light, imani}@mitre.org Abstract We present a question answering system

  7. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  8. Making the Most of Multiple Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions draw criticism because many people perceive they test only recall or atomistic, surface-level objectives and do not require students to think. Although this can be the case, it does not have to be that way. Susan M. Brookhart suggests that multiple-choice questions are a useful part of any teacher's questioning repertoire…

  9. Questions and Answers about TB

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Verified Case of Tuberculosis National Tuberculosis Indicators Project (NTIP): Frequently Asked Questions TB Genotyping TB Genotyping Information Management System (TB GIMS) Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant ...

  10. Language Technologies: Question Answering in Speech Transcripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turmo, Jordi; Surdeanu, Mihai; Galibert, Olivier; Rosset, Sophie

    The question answering (QA) task consists of providing short, relevant answers to natural language questions. Most QA research has focused on extracting information from text sources, providing the shortest relevant text in response to a question. For example, the correct answer to the question, “How many groups participate in the CHIL project?” is “15”, whereas the response to “Who are the partners in CHIL?” is a list of them. This simple example illustrates the two main advantages of QA over current search engines: First, the input is a natural-language question rather a keyword query; and second, the answer provides the desired information content and not simply a potentially large set of documents or URLs that the user must plow through.

  11. WRONG QUESTIONS, NO ANSWERS JASON ROSENHOUSE

    E-print Network

    Rosenhouse, Jason D.

    WRONG QUESTIONS, NO ANSWERS JASON ROSENHOUSE A Review of The Right Questions: Truth, Meaning (p.91). "Most Christian professors" claim to accept evolution to avoid offending the secular questions are three in number: Is it wrong to mix science and religion, or is such mixing inescapable

  12. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  13. Capturing negation in question answering systems 

    E-print Network

    Gavriel, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This masters thesis will present my research on the world of Negation, as well as my attempt to apply the Negation Algorithm on a new Question Answering system which is able to accept negative input in natural language. ...

  14. Questions and Answers on Unapproved Chelation Products

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumers (Drugs) Buying & Using Medicine Safely Medication Health Fraud Section Contents Menu Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Buying & Using Medicine Safely Medication Health Fraud Questions and Answers on Unapproved Chelation Products The ...

  15. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for You Consumers Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... it Email Print July 15, 2013 What is arsenic? Arsenic is present in the environment as a ...

  16. Beyond Information Retrieval—Medical Question Answering

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minsuk; Cimino, James; Zhu, Hai Ran; Sable, Carl; Shanker, Vijay; Ely, John; Yu, Hong

    2006-01-01

    Physicians have many questions when caring for patients, and frequently need to seek answers for their questions. Information retrieval systems (e.g., PubMed) typically return a list of documents in response to a user’s query. Frequently the number of returned documents is large and makes physicians’ information seeking “practical only ‘after hours’ and not in the clinical settings”. Question answering techniques are based on automatically analyzing thousands of electronic documents to generate short-text answers in response to clinical questions that are posed by physicians. The authors address physicians’ information needs and described the design, implementation, and evaluation of the medical question answering system (MedQA). Although our long term goal is to enable MedQA to answer all types of medical questions, currently, we currently implement MedQA to integrate information retrieval, extraction, and summarization techniques to automatically generate paragraph-level text for definitional questions (i.e., “What is X?”). MedQA can be accessed at http://www.dbmi.columbia.edu/~yuh9001/research/MedQA.html. PMID:17238385

  17. Deep Question Answering for protein annotation

    PubMed Central

    Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Pasche, Emilie; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Ruch, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical professionals have access to a huge amount of literature, but when they use a search engine, they often have to deal with too many documents to efficiently find the appropriate information in a reasonable time. In this perspective, question-answering (QA) engines are designed to display answers, which were automatically extracted from the retrieved documents. Standard QA engines in literature process a user question, then retrieve relevant documents and finally extract some possible answers out of these documents using various named-entity recognition processes. In our study, we try to answer complex genomics questions, which can be adequately answered only using Gene Ontology (GO) concepts. Such complex answers cannot be found using state-of-the-art dictionary- and redundancy-based QA engines. We compare the effectiveness of two dictionary-based classifiers for extracting correct GO answers from a large set of 100 retrieved abstracts per question. In the same way, we also investigate the power of GOCat, a GO supervised classifier. GOCat exploits the GOA database to propose GO concepts that were annotated by curators for similar abstracts. This approach is called deep QA, as it adds an original classification step, and exploits curated biological data to infer answers, which are not explicitly mentioned in the retrieved documents. We show that for complex answers such as protein functional descriptions, the redundancy phenomenon has a limited effect. Similarly usual dictionary-based approaches are relatively ineffective. In contrast, we demonstrate how existing curated data, beyond information extraction, can be exploited by a supervised classifier, such as GOCat, to massively improve both the quantity and the quality of the answers with a +100% improvement for both recall and precision. Database URL: http://eagl.unige.ch/DeepQA4PA/ PMID:26384372

  18. Deep Question Answering for protein annotation.

    PubMed

    Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Pasche, Emilie; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Ruch, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical professionals have access to a huge amount of literature, but when they use a search engine, they often have to deal with too many documents to efficiently find the appropriate information in a reasonable time. In this perspective, question-answering (QA) engines are designed to display answers, which were automatically extracted from the retrieved documents. Standard QA engines in literature process a user question, then retrieve relevant documents and finally extract some possible answers out of these documents using various named-entity recognition processes. In our study, we try to answer complex genomics questions, which can be adequately answered only using Gene Ontology (GO) concepts. Such complex answers cannot be found using state-of-the-art dictionary- and redundancy-based QA engines. We compare the effectiveness of two dictionary-based classifiers for extracting correct GO answers from a large set of 100 retrieved abstracts per question. In the same way, we also investigate the power of GOCat, a GO supervised classifier. GOCat exploits the GOA database to propose GO concepts that were annotated by curators for similar abstracts. This approach is called deep QA, as it adds an original classification step, and exploits curated biological data to infer answers, which are not explicitly mentioned in the retrieved documents. We show that for complex answers such as protein functional descriptions, the redundancy phenomenon has a limited effect. Similarly usual dictionary-based approaches are relatively ineffective. In contrast, we demonstrate how existing curated data, beyond information extraction, can be exploited by a supervised classifier, such as GOCat, to massively improve both the quantity and the quality of the answers with a +100% improvement for both recall and precision. Database URL: http://eagl.unige.ch/DeepQA4PA/. PMID:26384372

  19. Questions & Answers about Aeronautics and Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Answers to 27 questions about aeronautics, space, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are provided in this pamphlet. Among the topics dealt with in these questions are: costs of the space program; NASA's role in aeronautics; benefits received from the space program; why the United States hasn't developed means of rescuing…

  20. Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…

  1. From Asking to Answering: Making Questions Explicit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Gene

    2006-01-01

    "From Asking To Answering: Making Questions Explicit" describes a pedagogical procedure the author has used in writing classes (expository, technical and creative) to help students better understand the purpose, and effect, of text-questions. It accomplishes this by means of thirteen discrete categories (e.g., CLAIMS, COMMITMENT, ANAPHORA, or…

  2. Knowledge Tracking: Answering Implicit Questions Reinhard Stolle, Daniel G. Bobrow,

    E-print Network

    Stolle, Reinhard

    Knowledge Tracking: Answering Implicit Questions Reinhard Stolle, Daniel G. Bobrow, Cleo Condoravdi 94304 {stolle, bobrow, condorav, crouch, paiva}@parc.com Abstract Research on Question Answering has

  3. 75 FR 54347 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements-Questions and Answers (Question 12...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ...Requirements-- Questions and Answers (Question 12 Update); Availability...Requirements--Questions and Answers (Question 12 Update)'' dated August...Requirements--Questions and Answers (Question 12 Update)'' dated...

  4. Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

  5. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  6. Answering the Sphinx's Questions on Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakata, H.

    In answering the difficult questions on neutrinos asked by Sphinx I argue that search for proton decay is the most important experiment in coming 5-10 years. I also emphasize the crucial importance of the neutrinoless double beta decay with sensitivity of

  7. Multiple-Choice Tests and Student Understanding: What Is the Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Mark G.; Kuechler, William L.

    2005-01-01

    Instructors can use both "multiple-choice" (MC) and "constructed response" (CR) questions (such as short answer, essay, or problem-solving questions) to evaluate student understanding of course materials and principles. This article begins by discussing the advantages and concerns of using these alternate test formats and…

  8. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

  9. Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2012-01-01

    contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

  10. Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions

    ScienceCinema

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2013-05-29

    contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

  11. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 361 - Questions and Answers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Questions and Answers A Appendix A to Part 361... Pt. 361, App. A Appendix A to Part 361—Questions and Answers The following questions and answers provide a summary of some of the most common and critical questions that we received regarding this...

  12. Model answers to lipid membrane questions.

    PubMed

    Mouritsen, Ole G

    2011-09-01

    Ever since it was discovered that biological membranes have a core of a bimolecular sheet of lipid molecules, lipid bilayers have been a model laboratory for investigating physicochemical and functional properties of biological membranes. Experimental and theoretical models help the experimental scientist to plan experiments and interpret data. Theoretical models are the theoretical scientist's preferred toys to make contact between membrane theory and experiments. Most importantly, models serve to shape our intuition about which membrane questions are the more fundamental and relevant ones to pursue. Here we review some membrane models for lipid self-assembly, monolayers, bilayers, liposomes, and lipid-protein interactions and illustrate how such models can help answering questions in modern lipid cell biology. PMID:21610116

  13. Not Read, but Nevertheless Solved? Three Experiments on PIRLS Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Kimmel, Rumena; Lowenkamp, Lena; Steingraber, Antje; Rost, Detlef H.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-choice (MC) reading comprehension test items comprise three components: text passage, questions about the text, and MC answers. The construct validity of this format has been repeatedly criticized. In three between-subjects experiments, fourth graders (N[subscript 1] = 230, N[subscript 2] = 340, N[subscript 3] = 194) worked on three…

  14. Automated Multiple-Choice Testing for Summative Assessment: What Do Students Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Pete; Appleyard, Rob; Wilson, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports undergraduate student feedback contrasting conventional "Long-answer" examinations with automated multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment. Feedback was gathered after students had undertaken formative MCQ assessments as a revision aid. Feedback was generally supportive of MCQ summative tests, with 74% expressing a preference…

  15. The "None of the Above" Option in Multiple-Choice Testing: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBattista, David; Sinnige-Egger, Jo-Anne; Fortuna, Glenda

    2014-01-01

    The authors assessed the effects of using "none of the above" as an option in a 40-item, general-knowledge multiple-choice test administered to undergraduate students. Examinees who selected "none of the above" were given an incentive to write the correct answer to the question posed. Using "none of the above" as the…

  16. New Directions in Question Answering Mark T. Maybury (editor)

    E-print Network

    Licuanan) 6 Question Answering in Terminology-Rich Technical Domains (Fabio Rinaldi, Michael Hess, James Answers to Complex Questions (Anne R. Diekema, Ozgur Yilmazel, Jiangping Chen, Sarah Harwell, Lan H

  17. DalTREC 2004: Question Answering using Regular Expression Rewriting

    E-print Network

    Keselj, Vlado

    DalTREC 2004: Question Answering using Regular Expression Rewriting Vlado Ke#20;selj and Anthony in 2003 and serves as an umbrella for TREC-related activities at the Dalhousie university. The topics of interest were Question Answering, HARD, Genomics, and Web. We submitted the runs for the Question Answering

  18. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 361 - Questions and Answers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Questions and Answers A Appendix A to Part 361 Education...App. A Appendix A to Part 361—Questions and Answers The following questions and answers provide a summary of some of the...

  19. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 361 - Questions and Answers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Questions and Answers A Appendix A to Part 361 Education...App. A Appendix A to Part 361—Questions and Answers The following questions and answers provide a summary of some of the...

  20. Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part I. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, C. C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Brief analyses are provided of presentations at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues, and application. Papers…

  1. Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part II. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, C. C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Brief analyses are provided of presentations made at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues and application.…

  2. Finding Answers to Definition Questions Using Web Knowledge Bases

    E-print Network

    Finding Answers to Definition Questions Using Web Knowledge Bases Han Ren a , Donghong Ji a , Jing Wan b , and Chong Teng a a School of Computer Science, Wuhan University 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 researches on Question Answering concern more complex questions than factoid ones. Since definition questions

  3. NUFACT11 Round Table Discussion — Questions & Answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondel, A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; participants, NUFACT11

    2013-02-01

    This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model; it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large ?13 makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses; it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R&D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and associated detectors, with a variety of (mostly) complementary baselines, proceeding in an incremental way. The ultimate precision and verification of the neutrino mixing picture requires new types of neutrino beams based on storage rings. For low energy neutrinos, the beta-beam is a possible (but substantial) intermediate step. The Neutrino Factory offers the best precision and best sensitivity to deviations from the standard picture. Coordinated international R&D is pursued. International collaboration at the top level would be beneficial in acknowledging the process, so as make sure that intermediate steps are effectively building up in complementary fashion towards the ultimate goals.

  4. Scaling Question Answering to the Web Oren Etzioni

    E-print Network

    Scaling Question Answering to the Web Cody Kwok Oren Etzioni Daniel S. Weld ctkwok, etzioni, weld]. MULDER utilizes several natural- language parsers and heuristics in order to return high-quality answers

  5. The Basic Epistemological Questions--Are There Also Valid Answers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oderman, Dale B.

    Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that seeks answers to two main questions: How do we know? and How do we know we know? This paper is concerned with how four major schools of thought have addressed these questions and the implications that their answers to these questions have for education. The paper begins by discussing how four major…

  6. Strategies for the Meaningful Evaluation of Multiple-Choice Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesbro, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Too many multiple-choice tests are administered without an evaluative component. Teachers often return student assessments or Scantron cards--computerized bubble forms--without review, assuming that the printing of the correct answer will suffice. However, a more constructivist approach to follow up multiple-choice tests can make for more…

  7. Exploring Web Browsing Context for Collaborative Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Agichtein, Eugene

    context to answer this question (in this case, browsing a Wikipedia page about Phishing). Other candidate) is illustrated in Figure 1. An asker has a question "What is the difference between Phishing and Hacking

  8. Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions Past Issues / ... Drug Abuse during their first Drug Facts Chat Day. Photo courtesy of NIDA The questions poured in… ...

  9. Increasing Students' Awareness of Sources of Information for Answering Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy E.; Pearson, P. David

    1985-01-01

    Sixth graders at three reading ability levels were trained in the three types of question answer relationships: text explicit, text implicit, and script implicit. Repeated measures multivariate analyses of variance on two passages indicated that the training enhanced students' understanding of task demands of questions and their answer quality.…

  10. HITIQA: An Interactive Question Answering System A Preliminary Report

    E-print Network

    question answering technology designed to allow intelligence analysts and other users of information is the best?", "How do I stop my baby's crying?"). Instead, an- swers to analytical questions are often judged as helpful, or useful, or satisfactory, etc. "Technically correct" answers (e.g., "feed the baby milk") may

  11. 99 Facts about the FBI: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA.

    This booklet on the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) attempts to provide an overview of the FBI's functions. Presented in a question and answer format, the 99 questions and answers discuss the federal government agency's history, administrative matters, jurisdiction, criminal investigations, security matters, foreign counter-intelligence, and…

  12. Keys to Success: School Facilities Primer, Questions & Answers 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Jim

    This publication provides answers to basic questions to help school board members more fully address the complexities of the planning, design, and construction process in order to maximize the goal of student success. The 101 questions and answers are in the areas of: facility planning; learning environment; information technology; safe schools;…

  13. Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frana, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

  14. 76 FR 49772 - Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements-Questions and Answers; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ...Code Label Requirements--Questions and Answers; Availability AGENCY: Food...Requirements--Questions and Answers (Question 12 Update)'' dated August...Requirements--Questions and Answers (Question 12 Update)'' dated...

  15. Answering Questions and Explaining Answers: A Study of Finnish-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukusa, Soile; Ryder, Nuala; Leinonen, Eeva

    2008-01-01

    This research explores, within the framework of Relevance Theory, how children's ability to answer questions and explain their answers develops between the ages of 3 and 9 years. Two hundred and ten normally developing Finnish-speaking children participated in this study. The children were asked questions requiring processing of inferential…

  16. Semantic Decomposition for Question Answering Sven Hartrumpf1

    E-print Network

    Helbig, Hermann

    Semantic Decomposition for Question Answering Sven Hartrumpf1 Abstract. Appeared in In Proceedings to a simpler, revised question. We present six decomposition classes, which are employed for an- notating the 996 different German QA@CLEF questions from 2004 till 2008 and trigger different decomposition methods

  17. A Topic Clustering Approach to Finding Similar Questions from Large Question and Answer Archives

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Nan; Liu, Ting; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Rongrong

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of Web 2.0, Community Question Answering (CQA) services such as Yahoo! Answers (http://answers.yahoo.com), WikiAnswer (http://wiki.answers.com), and Baidu Zhidao (http://zhidao.baidu.com), etc., have emerged as alternatives for knowledge and information acquisition. Over time, a large number of question and answer (Q&A) pairs with high quality devoted by human intelligence have been accumulated as a comprehensive knowledge base. Unlike the search engines, which return long lists of results, searching in the CQA services can obtain the correct answers to the question queries by automatically finding similar questions that have already been answered by other users. Hence, it greatly improves the efficiency of the online information retrieval. However, given a question query, finding the similar and well-answered questions is a non-trivial task. The main challenge is the word mismatch between question query (query) and candidate question for retrieval (question). To investigate this problem, in this study, we capture the word semantic similarity between query and question by introducing the topic modeling approach. We then propose an unsupervised machine-learning approach to finding similar questions on CQA Q&A archives. The experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24595052

  18. A topic clustering approach to finding similar questions from large question and answer archives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Nan; Liu, Ting; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Rongrong

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of Web 2.0, Community Question Answering (CQA) services such as Yahoo! Answers (http://answers.yahoo.com), WikiAnswer (http://wiki.answers.com), and Baidu Zhidao (http://zhidao.baidu.com), etc., have emerged as alternatives for knowledge and information acquisition. Over time, a large number of question and answer (Q&A) pairs with high quality devoted by human intelligence have been accumulated as a comprehensive knowledge base. Unlike the search engines, which return long lists of results, searching in the CQA services can obtain the correct answers to the question queries by automatically finding similar questions that have already been answered by other users. Hence, it greatly improves the efficiency of the online information retrieval. However, given a question query, finding the similar and well-answered questions is a non-trivial task. The main challenge is the word mismatch between question query (query) and candidate question for retrieval (question). To investigate this problem, in this study, we capture the word semantic similarity between query and question by introducing the topic modeling approach. We then propose an unsupervised machine-learning approach to finding similar questions on CQA Q&A archives. The experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24595052

  19. Computers into Classrooms: More Questions than Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beynon, John, Ed.; Mackay, Hughie, Ed.

    This is one of a series of three books addressing the question of the nature of technological literacy. This volume, consisting of an introduction, an epilogue, and 12 chapters, focuses on classrooms and classroom processes involving computers and deals directly with teacher and student usage of microcomputers in teaching and learning. The 12…

  20. Infant formulas: practical answers for common questions.

    PubMed

    Tigges, B B

    1997-08-01

    The pediatric health care provider is often faced with myriad decisions related to the use of infant formula. This article compares human milk to cow's milk. It addresses the composition, classification, and use of some of the most common infant formulas manufactured for use with the term infant in the outpatient setting. Common clinical situations are discussed, including the role for low-iron, goat's milk, and follow-up formulas, and formula use for the infant with diarrhea, colic, and atopic disease. The article highlights the poor quality of research and the lack of definitive answers available to the clinician when managing the infant with atopic disease. It concludes with a review of practical aspects of infant formula feeding for use in client education and management, including guidelines for formula preparation, calculating necessary formula intake, frequency, and quantity of infant feedings, and provisions of the WIC program. PMID:9279846

  1. Use of Feedback-Oriented Online Exercises to Help Physiology Students Construct Well-Organized Answers to Short-Answer Questions.

    PubMed

    Carnegie, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Postsecondary education often requires students to use higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) such as analysis, evaluation, and creation as they assess situations and apply what they have learned during lecture to the formulation of solutions. Summative assessment of these abilities is often accomplished using short-answer questions (SAQs). Quandary was used to create feedback-oriented interactive online exercises to help students strengthen certain HOCS as they actively constructed answers to questions concerning the regulation of 1) metabolic rate, 2) blood sugar, 3) erythropoiesis, and 4) stroke volume. Each exercise began with a SAQ presenting an endocrine dysfunction or a physiological challenge; students were prompted to answer between six and eight multiple-choice questions while building their answer to the SAQ. Student outcomes on the SAQ sections of summative exams were compared before and after the introduction of the online tool and also between subgroups of students within the posttool-introduction population who demonstrated different levels of participation in the online exercises. While overall SAQ outcomes were not different before and after the introduction of the online exercises, once the SAQ tool had become available, those students who chose to use it had improved SAQ outcomes compared with those who did not. PMID:26113627

  2. Just-In-Time Question Answering Sanda M. Harabagiu

    E-print Network

    Harabagiu, Sanda M.

    - tions like \\Where is the Taj Mahal ?" or \\Why did David Koresh ask the FBI for a word processor ?" were returned as answers of better quality. This form of advanced Q/A, that we coin Just-In-Time Question Answering uses multi- ple forms of pragmatic knowledge, extending open-domain factual Q/A with knowledge im

  3. Questions and answers based on revised 10 CFR Part 20

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y.; Carter, D.

    1994-05-01

    NUREG/CR-6204 is a collection of questions and answers that were originally issued in seven sets and which pertain to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions came from both outside and within the NRC. The answers were compiled and provided by NRC staff within the offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Nuclear Regulatory Research, the Office of State Programs, and the five regional offices. Although all of the questions and answers have been reviewed by attorneys in the NRC Office of the General Counsel, they do not constitute official legal interpretations relevant to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions and answers do, however, reflect NRC staff decisions and technical options on aspects of the revised 10 CFR Part 20 regulatory requirements. This NUREG is being made available to encourage communication among the public, industry, and NRC staff concerning the major revisions of the NRC`s standards for protection against radiation.

  4. Topic indexing and retrieval for open domain factoid question answering 

    E-print Network

    Ahn, Kisuh

    2009-01-01

    Factoid Question Answering is an exciting area of Natural Language Engineering that has the potential to replace one major use of search engines today. In this dissertation, I introduce a new method of handling factoid ...

  5. Better questions, better answers: reporting vs. analytics.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Uhiren

    2015-07-01

    Tracking performance through reporting is a basic obligation for responsible lab management. But creative, visionary leadership requires that lab leaders ask better questions, reach better conclusions, and transform those conclusions into action to achieve better results. The clinical lab has always had the breadth of data to contribute to that process. With analytics, lab leaders now have the depth and control to effect positive change as well. PMID:26299148

  6. Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions

    ScienceCinema

    Walker, Iain

    2013-11-14

    In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

  7. Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain

    2013-02-14

    In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

  8. Answering Definition Questions Using Multiple Knowledge Sources Wesley Hildebrandt, Boris Katz, and Jimmy Lin

    E-print Network

    Daume III, Hal

    -level evaluation and from an end- to-end evaluation of our implemented system at the TREC 2003 Question Answering Track. 1 Introduction To date, research in question answering has concentrated on factoid questions Question Answering Track. 2 Answering Definition Questions Our first step in answering a definition

  9. Reranking using Supervised Learning in a Question Answering System

    E-print Network

    Reranking using Supervised Learning in a Question Answering System Mattias Eklund D10 Lund of the top nouns using supervised learning. Testing of the system showed 69% of the questions could it could be improved. This project was initially thought of as mainly educational, wherein the partitioners

  10. Asking and Answering Questions about Unfamiliar APIs: An Exploratory Study

    E-print Network

    Robillard, Martin

    Asking and Answering Questions about Unfamiliar APIs: An Exploratory Study Ekwa Duala}@cs.mcgill.ca Abstract--The increasing size of APIs and the increase in the number of APIs available imply developers must fre- quently learn how to use unfamiliar APIs. To identify the types of questions developers want

  11. Green Sturgeon ESA Questions & Answers North American green sturgeon

    E-print Network

    Green Sturgeon ESA Questions & Answers North American green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) NORTH AMERICAN GREEN STURGEON LISTING UNDER THE ESA: FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Background On June 12, 2001, NOAA list the green sturgeon as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA

  12. Medical marijuana: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin P

    2014-09-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  13. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  14. Can Multiple-Choice Testing Induce Desirable Difficulties? Evidence from the Laboratory and the Classroom.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon; Soderstrom, Nicholas C; Little, Jeri L

    2015-01-01

    The term desirable difficulties (Bjork, 1994) refers to conditions of learning that, though often appearing to cause difficulties for the learner and to slow down the process of acquisition, actually improve long-term retention and transfer. One known desirable difficulty is testing (as compared with restudy), although typically it is tests that clearly involve retrieval--such as free and cued recall tests--that are thought to induce these learning benefits and not multiple-choice tests. Nonetheless, multiple-choice testing is ubiquitous in educational settings and many other high-stakes situations. In this article, we discuss research, in both the laboratory and the classroom, exploring whether multiple-choice testing can also be fashioned to promote the type of retrieval processes known to improve learning, and we speculate about the necessary properties that multiple-choice questions must possess, as well as the metacognitive strategy students need to use in answering such questions, to achieve this goal. PMID:26255442

  15. 26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration...Records § 301.6111-1T Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration. The following questions and answers relate to the tax...

  16. 26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 31.3405(c)-1 Section 31...Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The following questions and answers relate to withholding on...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 31.3405(c)-1 Section 31...Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The following questions and answers relate to withholding on...

  18. 77 FR 74671 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility Registration (Fifth Edition)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ...Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility Registration...for industry entitled ``Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility Registration...for industry entitled ``Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility...

  19. 75 FR 59322 - Notice of Availability of Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Buy America & FRA's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ...of Availability of Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Buy America...the availability of Answers to Frequently Asked Questions regarding Buy America...Rail Program. The Answers to Frequently Asked Questions can be found on...

  20. 29 CFR 2509.75-5 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility...OF 1974 § 2509.75-5 Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility...ERISA IB 75-5, containing questions and answers relating to certain...

  1. 77 FR 10662 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Establishment and Maintenance of Records...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ...Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Establishment and...of a guidance entitled ``Questions and Answers Regarding Establishment and...of a guidance entitled ``Questions and Answers Establishment and...

  2. 76 FR 4360 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Implementation of the Menu Labeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Implementation of...Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Implementation of...Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Implementation...

  3. 29 CFR 2509.75-5 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility...OF 1974 § 2509.75-5 Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility...ERISA IB 75-5, containing questions and answers relating to certain...

  4. 26 CFR 1.402(f)-1 - Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 1.402(f)-1 Section 1.402...explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The following questions and answers concern the written...

  5. Children's ability to answer different types of questions.

    PubMed

    Salomo, Dorothé; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Young children answer many questions every day. The extent to which they do this in an adult-like way - following Grice's Maxim of Quantity by providing the requested information, no more no less - has been studied very little. In an experiment, we found that two-, three- and four-year-old children are quite skilled at answering argument-focus questions and predicate-focus questions with intransitives in which their response requires only a single element. But predicate-focus questions for transitives - requiring both the predicate and the direct object - are difficult for children below four years of age. Even more difficult for children this young are sentence-focus questions such as "What's happening?", which give the child no anchor in given information around which to structure their answer. In addition, in a corpus study, we found that parents ask their children predicate-focus and sentence-focus questions very infrequently, thus giving children little experience with them. PMID:22436663

  6. Question Analysis and Answer Passage Retrieval for Opinion Question Answering Systems

    E-print Network

    consider the US-Iraq war?" and "What are the public's opinions on human cloning?") revealing answers about systems provide an elegant way for people to access an underlying knowledge base. Humans are not only toward that in QA systems. Cardie et al. (2003) took advantage of opinion summarization to support Multi

  7. Quantitative Evaluation of Passage Retrieval Algorithms for Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Tellex, Stefanie

    for passage retrieval and question answering. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.3.4 [Information Systems]: Information Storage and Retrieval, Systems and Software General Terms Measurement, performance-to-end performance of complex systems that typically involve a combination of information retrieval, in- formation

  8. Answering Questions after Initial Study Guides Attention during Restudy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkx, Kim J.; Thoma, Gun-Brit; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul. A.

    2015-01-01

    Though the testing-effect can be boosted by including a restudy phase after answering test questions, we do not know precisely why it does so. One possible explanation is being tested here. The present study measured attention allocation during initial reading and rereading with a remote eye tracker to gain information on the cognitive processes…

  9. Fillers as Signals: Evidence from a Question-Answering Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Esther J.; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of a human or computer "partner" on the production of fillers ("um" and "uh") during a question and answer task. Experiment 1 investigated whether or not responding to a human partner as opposed to a computer partner results in a higher rate of filler production. Participants…

  10. Year-Round Education: Some Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Policy and Evaluation Branch.

    Questions concerning year-round schooling are presented and answered in this report. Following a definition of year-round education, examples of single-track and multitrack schedules are described, along with the calendar variations within them. Other issues that are addressed include holidays and intersessions, compliance with the Alberta School…

  11. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  12. Residency Program Questions & AnswersCore Internal Medicine Residency Training

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    Residency Program Questions & AnswersCore Internal Medicine Residency Training Program DEPARTMENT as evidenced by an eclectic mix of electives which may include Obstetrics and Gynecology, Anesthesia, Rural Medicine Residency Program - effective for the 2007 CaRMS match, applicants interested in Occupational

  13. Questions I will answer What is a solar cell?

    E-print Network

    McGehee, Michael

    grid 4 #12;5 #12;Solar panels on the Interna9onal Space Sta9on 6 #12;Area needed to power the country (150 km)2 of Nevada covered with 15 % efficient solar cells could provide#12;Questions I will answer · What is a solar cell? · How are solar cells

  14. The Effects of Daycare: Persistent Questions, Elusive Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shpancer, Noam

    2006-01-01

    Despite nearly half a century of research on the effects of daycare on children, the fundamental question of whether non-parental daycare adversely affects young children has not been answered conclusively. This article explores the conceptual and methodological difficulties associated with daycare research and how the unique socio-historical…

  15. IFinal Inspection I Design questions and answers for geomembranes

    E-print Network

    reinforcement products. such as geogrids and high strength geotextiles. Q What design strength should be usedIFinal Inspection I Design questions and answers for geomembranes By Timothy O. Stark Q What of the failure envelope and 0 and /5 represent the slope of the strength envelope. The strength envelope

  16. 500 Questions and Answers for New Teachers: A Survival Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torreano, Joanna Montagna

    This book presents tips, in the form of questions and answers, to help beginning teachers feel less isolated. There are six sections. "Getting Your Act Together" includes "What To Do Before School Opens"; "The First Day of School"; "Open House"; "Goal Setting"; and "Last Day of School.""Getting To Know You" includes "Administrators"; "Board of…

  17. DalTREC 2004: Question Answering using Regular Expression Rewriting

    E-print Network

    Keselj, Vlado

    DalTREC 2004: Question Answering using Regular Expression Rewriting Vlado Keselj and Anthony Cox This is the first year that the Dalhousie University participated in TREC. We submitted three runs for the QA track in 2003 and serves as an umbrella for TREC-related activities at the Dalhousie university. The topics

  18. What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,…

  19. "Legal Problem Question Answer Genre" across Jurisdictions and Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessuto, Girolamo

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse discourse patterns of legal opinions in two languages and cultures--namely, Legal Problem Question Answers (LPQs) in the UK academic writing context and Pareri (Ps) in the Italian professional writing context. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of discourse in this paper, based on the tenets of genre analysis,…

  20. Questions and Answers about RTI: A Guide to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Heather; Petruzzelli, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    As Response-to-Intervention (RTI) models continue to attract a great deal of attention, school and district leaders need to understand the structures needed, the personnel required, the challenges faced, and rewards realized from RTI. "Questions and Answers About RTI: A Guide to Success" is designed to guide a school or district through the…

  1. Climate Service -Questions and Answers Updated: February 15, 2011

    E-print Network

    Climate Service - Questions and Answers Updated: February 15, 2011 Table of Contents Next Steps........................................................................................................................9 Next Steps and Timeframe Q: What is the timeframe and next steps for establishing a Climate a Climate Service in NOAA. The Department and NOAA will continue to engage with Congress in the coming year

  2. Solutions to Review Multiple Choice No hamsters were harmed in any way as a result of Math 317. Please don't tell the dean

    E-print Network

    Stange, Katherine E.

    Solutions to Review Multiple Choice No hamsters were harmed in any way as a result of Math 317. Please don't tell the dean about the hamsters. Question 1 - Answer B You can find pictures of such things theorem states that the total outward flux through the hamster cage must be equal to the divergence within

  3. CERCLA Site Assessment questions and answers (Qs&As)

    SciTech Connect

    Traceski, T.T.

    1993-11-09

    This documents contains commonly asked questions and corresponding answers (Qs&As) on the CERCLA Site Assessment process. These questions were derived from DOE element responses to a solicitation calling for the identification of (unresolved) issues associated with the conduct of CERCLA site assessments, and from inquiries received during a series of Site Assessment Workshops provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231). Answers to these questions were prepared by EH-231 in cooperation with the EPA Federal Facilities Team in Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Site Assessment Branch, and in coordination with the Office of Environmental Compliance, Facilities Compliance Division (EH-222).

  4. Cem Kaner Essay Questions Page 1 How to Answer Essay Questions in the Graduate Level

    E-print Network

    of space on irrelevant material. Several answers were so disorganized that it took significant work. Now answer your sample questions. No one would prepare to run a race primarily by talking about races with friends, or watching a race on television, or reading about races in books. o To prepare to run a race

  5. Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

    2010-01-01

    System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.

  6. Answers at your fingertips: Access to the Internet influences willingness to answer questions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amanda M; McLean, David; Risko, Evan F

    2015-12-01

    Recent technological advances have given rise to an information-gathering tool unparalleled by any in human history-the Internet. Understanding how access to such a powerful informational tool influences how we think represents an important question for psychological science. In the present investigation we examined the impact of access to the Internet on the metacognitive processes that govern our decisions about what we "know" and "don't know." Results demonstrated that access to the Internet influenced individuals' willingness to volunteer answers, which led to fewer correct answers overall but greater accuracy when an answer was offered. Critically, access to the Internet also influenced feeling-of-knowing, and this accounted for some (but not all) of the effect on willingness to volunteer answers. These findings demonstrate that access to the Internet can influence metacognitive processes, and contribute novel insights into the operation of the transactive memory system formed by people and the Internet. PMID:26340105

  7. Benford's Law and Distractors in Multiple Choice Exams

    E-print Network

    Hoppe, Fred M

    2013-01-01

    Suppose that in a multiple choice examination the leading digit of the correct options follows Benford's Law, while the the leading digit of the distractors are uniform. Consider a strategy for guessing at answers that selects the option with the lowest leading digit with ties broken at random. We provide an expression for the probability that this strategy selects the correct option.

  8. AskHERMES: An online question answering system for complex clinical questions

    PubMed Central

    Cao, YongGang; Liu, Feifan; Simpson, Pippa; Antieau, Lamont; Bennett, Andrew; Cimino, James J.; Ely, John; Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Objective Clinical questions are often long and complex and take many forms. We have built a clinical question answering system named AskHERMES to perform robust semantic analysis on complex clinical questions and output question-focused extractive summaries as answers. Design This paper describes the system architecture and a preliminary evaluation of AskHERMES, which implements innovative approaches in question analysis, summarization, and answer presentation. Five types of resources were indexed in this system: MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central full-text articles, eMedicine documents, clinical guidelines and Wikipedia articles. Measurement We compared the AskHERMES system with Google (Google and Google Scholar) and UpToDate and asked physicians to score the three systems by ease of use, quality of answer, time spent, and overall performance. Results AskHERMES allows physicians to enter a question in a natural way with minimal query formulation and allows physicians to efficiently navigate among all the answer sentences to quickly meet their information needs. In contrast, physicians need to formulate queries to search for information in Google and UpToDate. The development of the AskHERMES system is still at an early stage, and the knowledge resource is limited compared with Google or UpToDate. Nevertheless, the evaluation results show that AskHERMES’ performance is comparable to the other systems. In particular, when answering complex clinical questions, it demonstrates the potential to outperform both Google and UpToDate systems. Conclusions AskHERMES, available at http://www.AskHERMES.org, has the potential to help physicians practice evidence-based medicine and improve the quality of patient care. PMID:21256977

  9. Ontology-Based Multiple Choice Question Generation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Yahya, Maha

    2014-01-01

    With recent advancements in Semantic Web technologies, a new trend in MCQ item generation has emerged through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are knowledge representation structures that formally describe entities in a domain and their relationships, thus enabling automated inference and reasoning. Ontology-based MCQ item generation is still in its infancy, but substantial research efforts are being made in the field. However, the applicability of these models for use in an educational setting has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this paper, we present an experimental evaluation of an ontology-based MCQ item generation system known as OntoQue. The evaluation was conducted using two different domain ontologies. The findings of this study show that ontology-based MCQ generation systems produce satisfactory MCQ items to a certain extent. However, the evaluation also revealed a number of shortcomings with current ontology-based MCQ item generation systems with regard to the educational significance of an automatically constructed MCQ item, the knowledge level it addresses, and its language structure. Furthermore, for the task to be successful in producing high-quality MCQ items for learning assessments, this study suggests a novel, holistic view that incorporates learning content, learning objectives, lexical knowledge, and scenarios into a single cohesive framework. PMID:24982937

  10. The detection of cheating in multiple choice examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2015-10-01

    Cheating in examinations is acknowledged by an increasing number of organizations to be widespread. We examine two different approaches to assess their effectiveness at detecting anomalous results, suggestive of collusion, using data taken from a number of multiple-choice examinations organized by the UK Radio Communication Foundation. Analysis of student pair overlaps of correct answers is shown to give results consistent with more orthodox statistical correlations for which confidence limits as opposed to the less familiar "Bonferroni method" can be used. A simulation approach is also developed which confirms the interpretation of the empirical approach. Then the variables Xi =(1 -Ui) Yi +Ui Z are a system of symmetric dependent binary variables (0 , 1 ; p) whose correlation matrix is ?ij = r. The proof is easy and given in the paper. Let us add two remarks. • We used the expression "symmetric variables" to reflect the fact that all Xi play the same role. The expression "exchangeable variables" is often used with the same meaning. • The correlation matrix has only positive elements. This is of course imposed by the symmetry condition. ?12 < 0 and ?23 < 0 would imply ?13 > 0, thus violating the symmetry requirement. In the following subsections we will be concerned with the question of uniqueness of the set of Xi generated above. Needless to say, it is useful to know whether the proposition gives the answer or only one among many. More precisely, the problem can be stated as follows.

  11. 75 FR 75482 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ...Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers; Availability AGENCY: Food...drug products. This document answers questions regarding CVM's implementation...Answers.'' This document answers questions regarding CVM's...

  12. Model-Driven Knowledge-Based Development of Expected Answer Type Taxonomies for Restricted Domain Question Answering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, Katia; Mazón, Jose-Norberto; Ferrández, Antonio; Gómez, José M.

    A Question Answering (QA) system must provide concise answers from large collections of documents to questions stated by the user in natural language. Importantly, a question should be correctly classified by means of a predefined taxonomy in order to determine which is the Expected Answer Type (EAT), thus reducing the searching space over documents, while a right answer is obtained. Designing a proper EAT taxonomy is even more crucial in restricted domain QA, since domain experts use specific terminology, thus asking more precise questions and expecting more precise answers. This paper presents a novel model-driven approach in order to ameliorate the task of designing restricted-domain EAT taxonomies by using heterogeneous knowledge resources and collection of documents. To show the applicability of our approach, a set of experiments has been carried out by defining a new EAT taxonomy for being able to answer questions about the agricultural domain.

  13. PrimeAnswers: A practical interface for answering primary care questions.

    PubMed

    Ketchell, Debra S; St Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. RESULTS of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem. PMID:15905488

  14. The Social World of Content Abusers in Community Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Kayes, Imrul; Quercia, Daniele; Iamnitchi, Adriana; Bonchi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Community-based question answering platforms can be rich sources of information on a variety of specialized topics, from finance to cooking. The usefulness of such platforms depends heavily on user contributions (questions and answers), but also on respecting the community rules. As a crowd-sourced service, such platforms rely on their users for monitoring and flagging content that violates community rules. Common wisdom is to eliminate the users who receive many flags. Our analysis of a year of traces from a mature Q&A site shows that the number of flags does not tell the full story: on one hand, users with many flags may still contribute positively to the community. On the other hand, users who never get flagged are found to violate community rules and get their accounts suspended. This analysis, however, also shows that abusive users are betrayed by their network properties: we find strong evidence of homophilous behavior and use this finding to detect abusive users who go under the community radar. Ba...

  15. Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

  16. Use of Credibility Heuristics in a Social Question-Answering Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study looked at the effect of community peripheral cues (specifically voting score and answerer's reputation) on the user's credibility rating of answers. Method: Students in technology and philosophy were asked to assess the credibility of answers to questions posted on a social question-answering platform. Through the use of a…

  17. Heightening Fourth-Grade Students' Sensitivity to Sources of Information for Answering Comprehension Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy E.; Wonnacott, Clydie A.

    1985-01-01

    The primary question raised in two experiments was whether instructing fourth-grade students about different sources of information used when answering comprehension questions would enhance their performance on a comprehension test. The answer was yes. (HOD)

  18. Development of an Evaluation Model for Question Answering Systems Chorng-Shyong Ong 1

    E-print Network

    Hsu, Wen-Lian

    Development of an Evaluation Model for Question Answering Systems Chorng-Shyong Ong 1 , Min-Yuh Day of an evaluation model for them. The purpose of this study is to develop an evaluation model for question answering systems. The proposed evaluation model provides a framework for the design of question answering systems

  19. The Effect of Metacognitive Training on Children's Question-Answering Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy E.; Pearson, P. David

    A study assessed the effects of metacognitive training in question answering strategies on students' ability to answer postreading comprehension questions. In the first part of the study, baseline data concerning the level of metacognitive awareness exhibited by expert readers when answering questions were gathered through the use of 44 skilled…

  20. 76 FR 64175 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... (collectively, the Agencies) are finalizing two new questions and answers, one relating to insurable value and one relating to force placement, and withdrawing one question and answer regarding insurable value... Insurance'' (Interagency Questions and Answers), which were published on July 21, 2009 (74 FR 35914)....

  1. DalTREC 2005 QA System Jellyfish: Mark-and-Match Approach to Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Keselj, Vlado

    as an umbrella for different TREC-related activities at Dalhousie. The tracks of interest were Question AnsweringDalTREC 2005 QA System Jellyfish: Mark-and-Match Approach to Question Answering Tony Abou that Dalhousie University actively participated in TREC. Three runs were submitted for the Question Answering

  2. Overview of the TREC 2006 Question Answering Track Hoa Trang Dang1

    E-print Network

    Daume III, Hal

    Overview of the TREC 2006 Question Answering Track Hoa Trang Dang1 , Jimmy Lin2 , and Diane Kelly3 27599 dianek@email.unc.edu Abstract The TREC 2006 question answering (QA) track contained two tasks Introduction The goal of the TREC question answering (QA) track is to foster research on systems that return

  3. Overview of the TREC 2007 Question Answering Track Hoa Trang Dang1

    E-print Network

    Daume III, Hal

    Overview of the TREC 2007 Question Answering Track Hoa Trang Dang1 , Diane Kelly2 , and Jimmy Lin3 answer question such as How many calories are there in a Big Mac? The task in the TREC 2003 QA track, MD 20742 jimmylin@umd.edu Abstract The TREC 2007 question answering (QA) track contained two tasks

  4. 41 CFR 300-2.20 - What is the purpose of the question & answer format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... What is the purpose of the question & answer format? 300-2.20 Section...INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.20 What is the purpose of the question & answer format? The Q&A...

  5. 41 CFR 300-2.20 - What is the purpose of the question & answer format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... What is the purpose of the question & answer format? 300-2.20 Section...INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.20 What is the purpose of the question & answer format? The Q&A...

  6. An Analysis of Multiple-Choice Test Item Booklets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.

    Marks made by students on test item booklets were analyzed as a clue to better understanding of the metacognitive strategies employed during the completion of a 100-question multiple-choice final examination. Test item booklets of 56 undergraduates were scrutinized for the frequency of the following item markings; (1) no markings at all; (2)…

  7. If bone is the answer, then what is the question?

    PubMed Central

    HUISKES, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the 19th century, several scientists attempted to relate bone trabecular morphology to its mechanical, load-bearing function. It was suggested that bone architecture was an answer to requirements of optimal stress transfer, pairing maximal strength to minimal weight, according to particular mathematical design rules. Using contemporary methods of analysis, stress transfer in bones was studied and compared with anatomical specimens, from which it was hypothesised that trabecular architecture is associated with stress trajectories. Others focused on the biological processes by which trabecular architectures are formed and on the question of how bone could maintain the relationship between external load and architecture in a variable functional environment. Wilhelm Roux introduced the principle of functional adaptation as a self-organising process based in the tissues. Julius Wolff, anatomist and orthopaedic surgeon, entwined these 3 issues in his book The Law of Bone Remodeling (translation), which set the stage for biomechanical research goals in our day. ‘Wolff's Law’ is a question rather than a law, asking for the requirements of structural optimisation. In this article, based on finite element analysis (FEA) results of stress transfer in bones, it is argued that it was the wrong question, putting us on the wrong foot. The maximal strength/minimal weight principle does not provide a rationale for architectural formation or adaptation; the similarity between trabecular orientation and stress trajectories is circumstantial, not causal. Based on computer simulations of bone remodelling as a regulatory process, governed by mechanical usage and orchestrated by osteocyte mechanosensitivity, it is shown that Roux's paradigm, conversely, is a realistic proposition. Put in a quantitative regulatory context, it can predict both trabecular formation and adaptation. Hence, trabecular architecture is not an answer to Wolff's question, in the sense of this article's title. There are no mathematical optimisation rules for bone architecture; there is just a biological regulatory process, producing a structure adapted to mechanical demands by the nature of its characteristics, adequate for evolutionary endurance. It is predicted that computer simulation of this process can help us to unravel its secrets. PMID:11005707

  8. Adolescents’ comfort answering questions about sexuality asked by their physicians

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Natacha; Beaulieu, Émilie; Tremblay, Marie-Michelle; Laflamme, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the attitudes of adolescents toward communicating with their doctor about different aspects of their sexuality. METHODS: The present descriptive survey was conducted with the participation of teenagers from four high schools in Sherbrooke, Quebec. In each school, the students of two grade 8 classes (?14 years of age) and two grade 10 classes (?15 years of age) anonymously completed a self-administered questionnaire. Permission from the school board and parental consent for every participant was obtained. RESULTS: A total of 387 adolescents completed the self-administered questionnaire. The response rate for the study was 98%. Only 27% of the respondents remembered being questioned by their doctor about sexuality, and 17% of the respondents had already brought up the topic of sexuality themselves with their doctor. More than one-half (57%) of the adolescents reported they would be moderately comfortable to totally comfortable discussing sexuality with their doctor if they felt the need to. Overall, when asked to evaluate their degree of comfort if questioned on specific questions about their sexuality, 73.8% to 99.5% believed they would be moderately to totally comfortable responding. Nevertheless, there was a statistically significant difference between age groups, with the older age group being more comfortable than the younger age group (P<0.001). There was no difference between the level of comfort among boys and girls answering the same questions. Respondents believed that their treating physician should discuss sexuality with them (73.8%) and, in the majority of cases (78%), that he/she should initiate the conversation. CONCLUSION: Regardless of age or sex, teenagers considered themselves to be at ease discussing sexuality with their doctor and found it an important topic best brought up by their practitioner. PMID:24421673

  9. How Online Crowds Influence the Way Individual Consumers Answer Health Questions

    PubMed Central

    Lau, A.Y.S.; Kwok, T.M.Y.; Coiera, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether strength of social feedback, i.e. other people who concur (or do not concur) with one’s own answer to a question, influences the way one answers health questions. Methods Online prospective study. Two hundred and twenty-seven undergraduate students were recruited to use an online search engine to answer six health questions. Subjects recorded their pre- and post-search answers to each question and their level of confidence in these answers. After answering each question post-search, subjects were presented with a summary of post-search answers provided by previous subjects and were asked to answer the question again. Results There was a statistically significant relationship between the absolute number of others with a different answer (the crowd’s opinion volume) and the likelihood of an individual changing an answer (P<0.001). For most questions, no subjects changed their answer until the first 10–35 subjects completed the study. Subjects’ likelihood of changing answer increased as the percentage of others with a different answer (the crowd’s opinion density) increased (P=0.047). Overall, 98.3% of subjects did not change their answer when it concurred with the majority (i.e. >50%) of subjects, and that 25.7% of subjects changed their answer to the majority response when it did not concur with the majority. When subjects had a post-search answer that did not concur with the majority, they were 24% more likely to change answer than those with answers that concurred (P<0.001). Conclusion This study provides empirical evidence that crowd influence, in the form of online social feedback, affects the way consumers answer health questions. PMID:23616869

  10. 78 FR 29140 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About 517A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ...Radiological Health Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About...Radiological Health (CDRH) Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About...added by the FDA Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA), as those...Radiological Health Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers...

  11. 29 CFR 2509.75-8 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility under the Employee Retirement Income...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility...OF 1974 § 2509.75-8 Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility...Department of Labor today issued questions and answers relating to certain...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6707-1T - Questions and answers relating to penalties for failure to furnish information regarding tax...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to penalties for...Amounts § 301.6707-1T Questions and answers relating to penalties for...shelters. The following questions and answers relate to the...

  13. 26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the treatment...Corporations § 1.165-13T Questions and answers relating to the treatment...temporary). The following questions and answers concern the treatment...

  14. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to withholding on...OF 1982 § 35.3405-1 Questions and answers relating to withholding on...deferred income. The following questions and answers relate to withholding...

  15. 78 FR 70953 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ...User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision 1); Reopening...User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision 1)'', published...User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision 1).''...

  16. 26 CFR 7.105-1 - Questions and answers relating to exclusions of certain disability income payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to exclusions of...OF 1976 § 7.105-1 Questions and answers relating to exclusions of...payments. The following questions and answers relate to the...

  17. 26 CFR 7.105-1 - Questions and answers relating to exclusions of certain disability income payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to exclusions of...OF 1976 § 7.105-1 Questions and answers relating to exclusions of...payments. The following questions and answers relate to the...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6621-2T - Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the increased...Underpayments § 301.6621-2T Questions and answers relating to the increased...temporary). The following questions and answers relate to the...

  19. 26 CFR 1.6050J-1T - Questions and answers concerning information returns relating to foreclosures and abandonments of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Questions and answers concerning information returns...Returns § 1.6050J-1T Questions and answers concerning information returns...temporary). The following questions and answers relate to the...

  20. 26 CFR 1.6050J-1T - Questions and answers concerning information returns relating to foreclosures and abandonments of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers concerning information returns...Returns § 1.6050J-1T Questions and answers concerning information returns...temporary). The following questions and answers relate to the...

  1. 29 CFR 102.177 - Exclusion from hearings; Refusal of witness to answer questions; Misconduct by attorneys and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...hearings; Refusal of witness to answer questions; Misconduct by attorneys...hearings; Refusal of witness to answer questions; Misconduct by attorneys...witness at any such hearing to answer any question which has been ruled to...

  2. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to withholding on...OF 1982 § 35.3405-1 Questions and answers relating to withholding on...deferred income. The following questions and answers relate to withholding...

  3. 26 CFR 301.6707-1T - Questions and answers relating to penalties for failure to furnish information regarding tax...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to penalties for...Amounts § 301.6707-1T Questions and answers relating to penalties for...shelters. The following questions and answers relate to the...

  4. 26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the treatment...Corporations § 1.165-13T Questions and answers relating to the treatment...temporary). The following questions and answers concern the treatment...

  5. 29 CFR 102.177 - Exclusion from hearings; Refusal of witness to answer questions; Misconduct by attorneys and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...hearings; Refusal of witness to answer questions; Misconduct by attorneys...hearings; Refusal of witness to answer questions; Misconduct by attorneys...witness at any such hearing to answer any question which has been ruled to...

  6. 1 Modular Design multiple choice quiz

    E-print Network

    Verschelde, Jan

    / 28 #12;modular design software cycle & quality 1 Modular Design multiple choice quiz bottom-up design to Computer Science (MCS 260) software cycle & quality L-22 4 March 2015 5 / 28 #12;modular design software cycle & quality 1 Modular Design multiple choice quiz bottom-up design 2 Python Implementation

  7. Some questions and answers about the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Office of Energy Research, US DOE is evaluating the concept of obtaining significant amounts of electrical energy from space through the Satellite Power System Project Office (SPS PO) formed for that purpose. The SPS PO prepared and is implementing a Concept Development and Evaluation Program plan. The CDEP runs roughly three years (from July 1977 through July 1980) and consists of four primary elements: (1) Systems Definition, (2) Environmental Assessment, (3) Societal Assessment, and (4) Comparative Assessment. One facet of the Societal Assessment is an investigation of public concerns. To further this investigation, a public outreach experiment was initiated to determine the initial response of three selected interest groups to the SPS, both qualitatively and quantititavely, and to gain some experience for use in future public participation activities. Three groups were contacted and agreed to participate in the experiment. They were: the Citizens Energy Project (CEP), the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), and the L-5 Society (L-5). They each agreed to condense twenty final SPS reports into approximately four pages each, have them typeset, printed and distributed to 3,000 of their constituents for their review, together with a request that they respond to the parent organization regarding the information presented. All responses were summarized and provided to Planning Research Corporation who then solicited the answers from the SPS PO investigator most directly concerned.The questions and answers are presented and will be distributed by the three groups to the individual respondents. Each of the three groups is also preparing a report to the Project Office detailing their work and results. These, together with other responses and studies will be used to more effectively involve the public in the SPS Participatory Technology Process.

  8. Crowdsourcing Control: Moving Beyond Multiple Choice Christopher H. Lin Mausam Daniel S. Weld

    E-print Network

    Mausam

    , and Weld 2010; 2011) to quality control is the restriction to multiple choice questions, i.e., jobs whereCrowdsourcing Control: Moving Beyond Multiple Choice Christopher H. Lin Mausam Daniel S. Weld Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195 {chrislin,mausam,weld

  9. Using a Classroom Response System to Improve Multiple-Choice Performance in AP[R] Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Participation in rigorous high school courses such as Advanced Placement (AP[R]) Physics increases the likelihood of college success, especially for students who are traditionally underserved. Tackling difficult multiple-choice exams should be part of any AP program because well-constructed multiple-choice questions, such as those on AP exams and…

  10. Answering questions about consciousness by modeling perception as covert behavior.

    PubMed

    Markkula, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Two main open questions in current consciousness research concern (i) the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) and (ii) the relationship between neural activity and first-person, subjective experience. Here, possible answers are sketched for both of these, by means of a model-based analysis of what is required for one to admit having a conscious experience. To this end, a model is proposed that allows reasoning, albeit necessarily in a simplistic manner, about all of the so called "easy problems" of consciousness, from discrimination of stimuli to control of behavior and language. First, it is argued that current neuroscientific knowledge supports the view of perception and action selection as two examples of the same basic phenomenon, such that one can meaningfully refer to neuronal activations involved in perception as covert behavior. Building on existing neuroscientific and psychological models, a narrative behavior model is proposed, outlining how the brain selects covert (and sometimes overt) behaviors to construct a complex, multi-level narrative about what it is like to be the individual in question. It is hypothesized that we tend to admit a conscious experience of X if, at the time of judging consciousness, we find ourselves acceptably capable of performing narrative behavior describing X. It is argued that the proposed account reconciles seemingly conflicting empirical results, previously presented as evidence for competing theories of consciousness, and suggests that well-defined, experiment-independent NCCs are unlikely to exist. Finally, an analysis is made of what the modeled narrative behavior machinery is and is not capable of. It is discussed how an organism endowed with such a machinery could, from its first-person perspective, come to adopt notions such as "subjective experience," and of there being "hard problems," and "explanatory gaps" to be addressed in order to understand consciousness. PMID:26136704

  11. Answering questions about consciousness by modeling perception as covert behavior

    PubMed Central

    Markkula, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Two main open questions in current consciousness research concern (i) the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) and (ii) the relationship between neural activity and first-person, subjective experience. Here, possible answers are sketched for both of these, by means of a model-based analysis of what is required for one to admit having a conscious experience. To this end, a model is proposed that allows reasoning, albeit necessarily in a simplistic manner, about all of the so called “easy problems” of consciousness, from discrimination of stimuli to control of behavior and language. First, it is argued that current neuroscientific knowledge supports the view of perception and action selection as two examples of the same basic phenomenon, such that one can meaningfully refer to neuronal activations involved in perception as covert behavior. Building on existing neuroscientific and psychological models, a narrative behavior model is proposed, outlining how the brain selects covert (and sometimes overt) behaviors to construct a complex, multi-level narrative about what it is like to be the individual in question. It is hypothesized that we tend to admit a conscious experience of X if, at the time of judging consciousness, we find ourselves acceptably capable of performing narrative behavior describing X. It is argued that the proposed account reconciles seemingly conflicting empirical results, previously presented as evidence for competing theories of consciousness, and suggests that well-defined, experiment-independent NCCs are unlikely to exist. Finally, an analysis is made of what the modeled narrative behavior machinery is and is not capable of. It is discussed how an organism endowed with such a machinery could, from its first-person perspective, come to adopt notions such as “subjective experience,” and of there being “hard problems,” and “explanatory gaps” to be addressed in order to understand consciousness. PMID:26136704

  12. Answering Scientific Questions Using an Artistic Framework: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, S. F. B.

    2014-12-01

    Being multidisciplinary, while admired, is not viewed as a goal of education. Instead, extreme specialization is emphasized. One seeks to attain mastery of a given subject, but at what cost? Even those fields viewed as "interdisciplinary" are often quite narrow in scope, only permitting the most closely related subjects to coalesce. The arts however, are by nature both inter- and multi-disciplinary. They attempt to research, analyze, and reflect upon broader questions, often employing techniques garnered from far-flung fields in order to do so. It is an unfortunate dilemma then that the artist should seem so separate from the scientist, as it seems that both are engaged in a sort of hypothesis testing. Perhaps this division is a remnant of the antiquated left- and right-brained dichotomy, which clearly separated the two groups: Science and Art, Left and Right. In this way, the artist was branded as Science's "other," despite the inherent sameness of their processes. This "otherness" has been carried forward to the present, where artists are often viewed as simply craftspeople -object makers- and the concept of the "artistic problem" is rarely considered. As someone possessing degrees in both Fine Art and Hydrology, the author attempts to explain the connection between the two subjects, and the manner in which they compliment and enlighten each other in her own research. She hypothesizes that in addition to this "otherness," it is the multi-dimensional mode of thinking and dealing with problems that sets the artist apart. But this is a dynamic trait, and as such, it should be considered that by approaching scientific endeavors as artistic problems, the researcher could be permitted a broader framework in which to answer a given scientific question.

  13. Selective Benefits of Question Self-Generation and Answering for Remembering Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugg, Julie M.; McDaniel, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined possible memory and metacomprehension benefits of using a combined question self-generation and answering technique, relative to rereading, as a study strategy for expository passages. In the 2 question self-generation and answering conditions (detail or conceptual questions), participants were prompted on how to…

  14. Questions and Answers about Bilingual Education = Preguntas y Respuestas Acerca de la Educacion Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Alicia Salinas

    This resource booklet, in both English and Spanish, was developed to answer commonly asked questions about bilingual education. The booklet is intended to clarify the benefits to be derived from quality bilingual education. Questions and answers are divided under the following headers: (1) program questions (e.g., what is bilingual education and…

  15. Automatic Derivation of Surface Text Patterns for a Maximum Entropy Based Question Answering System

    E-print Network

    in an un- supervised fashion using a collection of trivia question and answer pairs as seeds. These pat Wat- son Research Center during Summer 2002. KM database. Each of the pairs in KM represents a trivia question and its corresponding answer, such as the ones used in the trivia card game. The question

  16. DalTREC 2005 QA System Jelly sh: Mark-and-Match Approach to Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Keselj, Vlado

    DalTREC 2005 QA System Jelly#12;sh: Mark-and-Match Approach to Question Answering Tony Abou that Dalhousie University actively participated in TREC. Three runs were submitted for the Question Answering as an umbrella for di#11;erent TREC-related activities at Dalhousie. The tracks of interest were Question

  17. 29 CFR 2509.75-5 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Index key to question prefixes D—Refers to Definitions. FR—Refers to Fiduciary Responsibility. Section... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility... SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 2509.75-5 Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility. On June...

  18. 29 CFR 2509.75-5 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Index key to question prefixes D—Refers to Definitions. FR—Refers to Fiduciary Responsibility. Section... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility... SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 2509.75-5 Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility. On June...

  19. 29 CFR 2509.75-5 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Index key to question prefixes D—Refers to Definitions. FR—Refers to Fiduciary Responsibility. Section... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility... SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 2509.75-5 Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility. On June...

  20. Reducing Our Ignorance: Finding Answers to Certain Epistemic Questions for Software Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael; Johnson, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    In previous papers, we asserted that software system safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. We also enumerated a set of 21 foundational epistemic questions, discussed some of the difficulties that exist in answering these questions adequately today, and speculated briefly on possible research that may provide improved confidence in the sufficiency of answers in the future. This paper focuses on three of the foundational questions. For each of these questions, current answers are discussed and potential research is proposed to help increase the justifiable level of confidence.

  1. Use of social network sites for question and answer behavior

    E-print Network

    Panovich, Katrina (Katrina Marie)

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we look at the behavior of posting questions as status updates on popular social network sites like Twitter and Facebook. This question asking behavior is similar to the use of search engines, question and ...

  2. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online “study questions” leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ?265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the online study questions and on three to 77 exams given to students in sections that lacked such access. Data from over 1,800 students in sections with access to the online study questions show that those students scored a statistically significant average of 6.6% points higher on the exam questions analyzed than students in sections without access to the study questions. This difference was greater than the average amount necessary to raise students’ exam grades by one grade (e.g., from a “B-” to a “B”). In addition, there was a higher correlation between number of questions answered and success on exam questions on material related to the study questions than between number of questions answered and success on exam questions on material unrelated to the study questions. The online study question system required substantial effort to set up, but required minimal effort to maintain and was effective in significantly raising average exam scores for even very large course sections. PMID:26500828

  3. Multiple-Engine Question Answering in TextMap Abdessamad Echihabi, Ulf Hermjakob, Eduard Hovy,

    E-print Network

    Marcu, Daniel

    ,ulf,hovy,marcu,melz,ravichan}@isi.edu 1. Introduction At TREC-2003, TextMap participated in the Main task, which encompassed answeringMultiple-Engine Question Answering in TextMap Abdessamad Echihabi, Ulf Hermjakob, Eduard Hovy by the NIST assessors, on each of these tracks. 2. System architecture 2.1 Answering factoid and list

  4. 75 FR 54347 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements-Questions and Answers (Question 12...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Guidance (October 5, 2006, 71 FR 58739). In this guidance, FDA is proposing to amend our response to... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements-- Questions... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements--Questions and Answers (Question...

  5. I Know the Answer, But What's the Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lazer

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the importance of questioning as a means of achieving independent intelligence, critical thinking, and learning to learn. Advocates a science program that encourages investigation, discovery, and questioning. (MA)

  6. Cluster-Based Query Expansion for Statistical Question Answering Lucian Vlad Lita

    E-print Network

    Introduction Information retrieval has received sporadic exam- ination in the context of question answering (QA methods. By improving retrieval along these dimensions, we provide QA systems with ad- ditional new Document retrieval is a critical component of question answering (QA), yet little work has been done

  7. Violations of Information Structure: An Electrophysiological Study of Answers to Wh-Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, H. W.; Kluender, Robert; Kutas, Marta; Polinsky, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates brain responses to violations of information structure in wh-question-answer pairs, with particular emphasis on violations of focus assignment in it-clefts (It was the queen that silenced the banker). Two types of ERP responses in answers to wh-questions were found. First, all words in the focus-marking (cleft) position…

  8. Analyzing Electronic Question/Answer Services: Framework and Evaluations of Selected Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas, Ed.

    This report develops an analytical framework based on systems analysis for evaluating electronic question/answer or AskA services operated by a wide range of types of organizations, including libraries. Version 1.0 of this framework was applied in June 1999 to a selective sample of 11 electronic question/answer services, which cover a range of…

  9. An Analysis of Clarification Dialogue for Question Answering Marco De Boni

    E-print Network

    domain question answering systems such as the ones presented at the TREC workshops, apart from , pp. 48-55 Proceedings of HLT-NAACL 2003 #12;2 The TREC Context Experiments The TREC-2001 QA trackAn Analysis of Clarification Dialogue for Question Answering Marco De Boni School of Computing

  10. Answering English Questions using Foreign-Language, Semi-Structured Sources

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, InfoLab

    Answering English Questions using Foreign-Language, Semi-Structured Sources Boris Katz, Gary in machine translation technology, users who lack familiarity with particular foreign languages have no good and implemented system that answers English questions on the basis of information in foreign-language, semi

  11. Acquisition of Intraverbal Behavior: Teaching Children with Autism to Mand for Answers to Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Hollobaugh, Tatia

    2010-01-01

    Four boys with autism were taught via echoic prompting and constant prompt delay to mand for answers to questions by saying "I don't know please tell me" (IDKPTM). This intervention resulted in acquisition of the IDKPTM response for all 4 participants and in acquisition of correct answers to most of the previously unknown questions for 2…

  12. 78 FR 16765 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...The OCC, Board, and FDIC (collectively, the Agencies) are proposing to clarify their Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment to address several community development issues. The Agencies propose to revise five questions and answers, which address (i) community development activities outside institutions' assessment areas, both in the broader statewide or regional......

  13. 26 CFR 1.706-2T - Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984...706-2T Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. Question 1: For purposes of section...

  14. 26 CFR 1.706-2T - Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984...706-2T Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. Question 1: For purposes of section...

  15. Using Minimal Recursion Semantics in Japanese Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Dridan, Rebecca

    , identified as the two tasks most likely to benefit from linguistic knowledge, are question classification of training data (2000 questions), machine learning achieves better classification accuracy than pattern accuracy possible with named entity taxonomies of different sizes and shapes. Results demonstrate that

  16. Getting Answers to Natural Language Questions on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radev, Dragomir R.; Libner, Kelsey; Fan, Weiguo

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the use of natural language questions on Web search engines. Highlights include query languages; differences in search engine syntax; and results of logistic regression and analysis of variance that showed aspects of questions that predicted significantly different performances, including the number of words,…

  17. Teaching Students to Ask Questions Instead of Answering Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Matthew H.

    2010-01-01

    Philosophers, cognitive scientists, anthropologists, and psychologists have argued convincingly that the act of questioning is central to thinking, to storing and communicating knowledge, even to several important types of social interaction. But while scholars of higher education have written extensively on the topic of questioning for more than…

  18. Can Consortial Reference Partners Answer Your Local Users' Library Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Bradley Wade

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore location-based questions as a weakness of virtual reference consortia and discuss how to mitigate related issues. Content analysis of how both local and non-local academic librarians responded to location-based questions provides insight into considerations academic libraries must make when participating…

  19. [Use of multiple-choice tests in medical education].

    PubMed

    Kasal, P; Ohlídková, B; Feberová, J

    1997-05-14

    The actual state of the is connected some problems. The rules for the creation tests from the viewpoint of logics of questions and formal structure are mostly not respected. The mentioned rules are prepared in the field of theoretical pedagogics, but did not entered until now enough in the medical education. The result is the lower relevance of the tests in terms of their validity and reliability. In the paper is presented the set of principles for the correct structure of questions and in the same time the classification of the multiple-choice tests with the rules of their creation. PMID:9296885

  20. Discourse Processing for Context Question Answering Based on Linguistic Knowledge

    E-print Network

    is Hawaii located? Q2: What is the state fish? Q3: Is it endangered? Q4: Any other endangered species? We endangered species in Hawaii. This example in- dicates that each of these questions needs to be interpreted

  1. 75 FR 54347 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements-Questions and Answers (Question 12...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements-- Questions and Answers (Question 12 Update); Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Guidance (October 5, 2006, 71 FR 58739). In this guidance, FDA is proposing to amend our response...

  2. Environmental Problems, Causes, and Solutions: An Open Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negev, Maya; Garb, Yaakov; Biller, Roni; Sagy, Gonen; Tal, Alon

    2010-01-01

    In a national evaluation of environmental literacy in Israel, (Negev, Sagy, Garb, Salzberg, & Tal, 2008), the authors included both multiple choice questions and open questions. In this article the authors describe the qualitative analysis of the answers to an open question regarding a local environmental problem. Most participants specified solid…

  3. MULTIPLE CHOICE TRIES AND DISTRIBUTED HASH TABLES

    E-print Network

    Devroye, Luc

    MULTIPLE CHOICE TRIES AND DISTRIBUTED HASH TABLES Luc Devroye Gâ??abor Lugosi Gahyun Park­04­1­3074, and NIH Grant R01 GM068959­01. #12; Abstract. In this paper we consider tries built from n strings is to obtain tries as balanced as possible. Various parameters such as height and fill­up level are analyzed

  4. MULTIPLE CHOICE TRIES AND DISTRIBUTED HASH TABLES

    E-print Network

    Devroye, Luc

    MULTIPLE CHOICE TRIES AND DISTRIBUTED HASH TABLES Luc Devroye G´abor Lugosi Gahyun Park-04-1-3074, and NIH Grant R01 GM068959-01. #12;Abstract. In this paper we consider tries built from n strings is to obtain tries as balanced as possible. Various parameters such as height and fill-up level are analyzed

  5. Getting Answers to Natural Language Questions Dragomir R. Radev

    E-print Network

    Radev, Dragomir R.

    , the presence of a proper noun, and whether the question is time dependent. An additional analysis tested in the United States?," "What percentage of the world's plant and animal species can be found in the Amazon, different search engines have different syntaxes. Some support advanced query languages, others do not. Stop

  6. Can Nonprofit Management Help Answer Public Management's "Big Questions?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Arthur C.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of nonprofit literature on board governance, volunteer management, and performance measurement shows that study of the nonprofit sector can help inform public management's "big questions": breaking the micromanagement cycle, motivating employees, and measuring performance. Nonprofit studies could enrich public administration curricula.…

  7. Learning to Find Answers to Questions on the Web EUGENE AGICHTEIN

    E-print Network

    Agichtein, Eugene

    Learning to Find Answers to Questions on the Web EUGENE AGICHTEIN Columbia University STEVE (answers.- google.com) facilitate interaction with human experts. Authors' addresses: Eugene Agichtein (eugene@cs.columbia.edu), Steve Lawrence (lawrence@necmail.com), Luis Gravano (gravano

  8. Children's Ability to Answer Different Types of Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomo, Dorothe; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Young children answer many questions every day. The extent to which they do this in an adult-like way -- following Grice's Maxim of Quantity by providing the requested information, no more no less -- has been studied very little. In an experiment, we found that two-, three- and four-year-old children are quite skilled at answering

  9. Question Answering using Constraint Satisfaction: QA-by-Dossier-with-Constraints

    E-print Network

    Question Answering using Constraint Satisfaction: QA-by-Dossier-with-Constraints John Prager T a new methodology which attempts to use QA holistically, along with constraint satisfaction, to better engine, but the system was un- able to sufficiently promote the correct answer and/or deprecate

  10. Legal Challenges and Pitfalls for Start-up Companies - 48 Common Questions and Answers.

    PubMed

    Staehelin, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    Transforming a business idea into reality requires a legal implementation plan. The following 48 questions and answers address key issues that typically arise in start-up situations. Early planning can help avoid costly mistakes. PMID:26508601

  11. Forest Fires: Answers to 12 Common Questions 1. Is wildfire bad for forests?

    E-print Network

    North, Malcolm

    Forest Fires: Answers to 12 Common Questions 1. Is wildfire bad for forests? No. Some forests need to this fire type. Note live seed trees on the distant ridgeline Even a few live trees after a wildfire can

  12. Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Campaign About our Partner Spread the Word Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Overview Transmission Symptoms Testing Treatment Overview What is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It ...

  13. 78 FR 44483 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ...production systems that provide laying hens with access to the outdoors, including questions and answers...www.regulations.gov. IV. Electronic Access Persons with access to the Internet may obtain the draft guidance at...

  14. 75 FR 29350 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2009-D-0260...Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as Established by the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of...

  15. Fixing past mistakes. Answers to questions about reviews, refunds, disclosures.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T Jeffrey

    2003-10-01

    A medical group must address practical and legal issues when it discovers improper payments, billing mistakes or alleged misconduct. Its response has a significant impact on how the charges are resolved. A group and its providers can come under fraud and abuse investigations, whistle-blower allegations and Medicare payment reviews. Many questions arise in response to billing errors or allegations of misconduct. PMID:14571591

  16. The E-Learning Question and Answer Book: A Survival Guide for Trainers and Business Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Allan J.

    This book answers more than 70 key questions that business managers and trainers ask about using e-learning in their company as a business tool. Chapters 1 and 3-11 are comprised of questions and answers related to these topics: what e-learning is all about; what e-learning costs; applying e-learning to the business; what today's e-learning…

  17. Benford's Law: textbook exercises and multiple-choice testbanks.

    PubMed

    Slepkov, Aaron D; Ironside, Kevin B; DiBattista, David

    2015-01-01

    Benford's Law describes the finding that the distribution of leading (or leftmost) digits of innumerable datasets follows a well-defined logarithmic trend, rather than an intuitive uniformity. In practice this means that the most common leading digit is 1, with an expected frequency of 30.1%, and the least common is 9, with an expected frequency of 4.6%. Currently, the most common application of Benford's Law is in detecting number invention and tampering such as found in accounting-, tax-, and voter-fraud. We demonstrate that answers to end-of-chapter exercises in physics and chemistry textbooks conform to Benford's Law. Subsequently, we investigate whether this fact can be used to gain advantage over random guessing in multiple-choice tests, and find that while testbank answers in introductory physics closely conform to Benford's Law, the testbank is nonetheless secure against such a Benford's attack for banal reasons. PMID:25689468

  18. 26 CFR 1.79-4T - Questions and answers relating to the nondiscrimination requirements for group-term life...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Questions and answers relating to the nondiscrimination requirements for group-term...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED...79-4T Questions and answers relating to the nondiscrimination requirements for...

  19. 26 CFR 301.6621-2T - Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION...6621-2T Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on...

  20. 26 CFR 1.404(d)-1T - Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation...Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(d)-1T Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred...

  1. 26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income...Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-5T Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable...

  2. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend...Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain...

  3. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend...Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain...

  4. 26 CFR 1.79-4T - Questions and answers relating to the nondiscrimination requirements for group-term life...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the nondiscrimination requirements...Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.79-4T Questions and answers relating to the nondiscrimination...

  5. 26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income...Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-5T Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable...

  6. 26 CFR 1.404(a)-1T - Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation...Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(a)-1T Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred...

  7. 26 CFR 1.404(a)-1T - Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation...Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(a)-1T Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred...

  8. 26 CFR 1.404(d)-1T - Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation...Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(d)-1T Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred...

  9. Racial Differences in Adolescents' Answering Questions About Suicide.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laura M; Lowry, Lynda S; Wuensch, Karl L

    2015-01-01

    The present purpose was to examine racial differences in response rate and serious behavioral suicide risk based on the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBS). Data from 15,245 adolescents (YRBS, 2011) were included. Survey items pertaining to making suicidal plans and attempting suicide were included. Significant differences in responding and content emerged, especially with regard to suicide attempts. Racial minority adolescents are at elevated risk for serious suicidal behaviors and are more likely to omit items pertaining to suicide attempts. African American adolescents rarely reported having attempted suicide, but they also frequently failed to respond to that question. PMID:26083790

  10. Application of Item Analysis to Assess Multiple-Choice Examinations in the Mississippi Master Cattle Producer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Jane A.; Karisch, Brandi B.

    2013-01-01

    Item analysis can serve as a useful tool in improving multiple-choice questions used in Extension programming. It can identify gaps between instruction and assessment. An item analysis of Mississippi Master Cattle Producer program multiple-choice examination responses was performed to determine the difficulty of individual examinations, assess the…

  11. 41 CFR 300-2.21 - How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? 300-2.21 Section... 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.21 How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? The rule is...

  12. Responding to Children's Answers: Questions Embedded in the Social Context of Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article presents analysis of question-answer sequences during problem inquiry between a teacher and two children in an early childhood crèche in New Zealand. Conversation analysis is used to reveal which questions the teacher asks, how children answer the questions, and the teacher's responses to the child's answers. Although…

  13. 41 CFR 300-2.21 - How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? 300-2.21 Section... 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.21 How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? The rule is...

  14. Felid Lungworms and Heartworms in Italy: More Questions than Answers?

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    Nematodes infecting the cardiorespiratory system of cats have recently stimulated high scientific interest. Over the past few years, different aspects of these parasites have been clarified and various issues elucidated. This increased knowledge has improved awareness on this topic but, at the same time, some dilemmas have not been solved and new questions have been raised. In this review, we underline and discuss current knowledge of, and new doubts relating to, feline lungworms and heartworms, with the aim of stimulating new studies to fill gaps of basic (i.e., epidemiology and biology) and applied (i.e., clinical aspects) knowledge of the old and new parasites affecting the cardiorespiratory system of cats. PMID:26507151

  15. Probabilistic Models for Answer-Ranking in Multilingual Question-Answering

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    and NTCIR questions. Categories and Subject Descriptors: H.3.3 [Information Storage and Retrieval]: Information Search and Retrieval--Search process General Terms: Algorithm, Design, Experimentation Additional.1145/1777432.1777439 http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1777432.1777439 ACM Transactions on Information Systems, Vol. 28, No. 3

  16. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

  17. An evaluation of spoken and textual interaction in the RITEL interactive question answering system

    E-print Network

    -domain information retrieval system in order to enable human users to ask a general question and to refine language dialogue system and an open-domain information retrieval system in order to enable human usersAn evaluation of spoken and textual interaction in the RITEL interactive question answering system

  18. Questions, Answers and Wait-Time: Implications for Assessment of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Neva Ann Medcalf

    2003-01-01

    While testing children for readiness to enter Kindergarten using the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-R and interview probes, a pattern of responses developed indicating that some of the children were continuing to process answers to questions and to formulate elaborations to statements long after the testing had moved to other questions and…

  19. Evaluating the Evaluation: A Case Study Using the TREC 2002 Question Answering Track

    E-print Network

    to examine the validity of an evaluation task. In this paper, we assess the quality of the new question such assessment by analyzing the task within the TREC 2002 question answer- ing track. The analysis demonstrates of documents in response to a statement of information need, but also includes other tasks, called tracks

  20. Wrong Answer to the Wrong Question: Why We Need Critical Teacher Education, Not Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeloni, Barbara; Gorlewski, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The authors contend that teacher education (like K-12) is under attack by those seeking to exploit the public good and privatize education. Teacher educators find themselves on the defensive, compelled to answer questions about efficacy and accountability that do not reflect their understandings of their work, questions that do not address the…

  1. Records--The Achilles' Heel of School Nursing: Answers to Bothersome Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Nadine C.; Pohlman, Katherine J.

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation. Because the issues have been posed by practicing school nurses, the article is in Question and Answer (Q&A) format. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: ownership and storage location of student health records when the…

  2. Question and Answering Made Interactive An Exploration of Interactions in Social Q&A

    E-print Network

    Jansen, James

    Question and Answering Made Interactive An Exploration of Interactions in Social Q&A Zhe Liu in social Q&A. With the aim to understand the patterns of user interactions in the social Q&A context proposed research questions. Our results demonstrate the importance of studying the interactions in social

  3. Question-Answering-Technique to Support Freshman and Senior Engineers in Processes of Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelmann, Constance; Hacker, Winfried

    2010-01-01

    In two experimental studies, the influence of question-based reflection on the quality of design solutions was investigated. Students and experts with different know-how and professional experience had to design an artefact that should meet a list of requirements. Subsequently, they were asked to answer a system of interrogative questions

  4. Researching the Quest: Are Community College Students Motivated by Question-and-Answer Reviews?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavendish, Don F., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Any effort to assess the motivational techniques employed by community college faculty is complicated by the inter-connectedness of motivational techniques and teaching techniques, as improved teaching results in improved motivation. Nonetheless, this research poses a motivation-related question: Does the use of daily question-and-answer reviews…

  5. Postdischarge nutrition of preterm infants: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    Postnatal growth retardation is inevitable in preterm infants, the more immature the infant the greater the degree of postnatal growth retardation at hospital discharge. After hospital discharge, several studies have shown that growth is poorer in preterm infants fed a standard term formula than those fed a nutrient-enriched infant formula. This is not surprising because term formulas are designed to meet the requirements of the term infant, not the more rapidly growing preterm infant. After hospital discharge, breastfed infants do not grow as well as their formula-fed counterparts. Yet, there are no randomized controlled trials comparing growth in breastfed infants who did and did not receive nutrient supplementation. If mature human milk is designed to meet the needs of the term infant then breastfed preterm infants may also benefit from nutrient supplementation. Questions persist about nutritional support of preterm infants after discharge. What is the ideal composition of a postdischarge formula? Given the wide heterogeneity in nutritional status of preterm infants at hospital discharge and the difference in growth rates and composition between girls and boys, it is not clear that one formula can or will meet the nutritional needs of all infants. Studies in which infants were fed a nutrient-enriched formula to >/=6 months' corrected age show the most consistent advantage while those in which the nutrient-enriched formula was fed to

  6. Multiple Choice Examination Performance and Metamemory Accuracy in Good and Poor Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinkavich, Frank J.

    The relationship between metamemorial accuracy and student test performance was assessed in a graduate educational psychology class. Metamemory is defined as information about the content of one's own memory. Adult students in two courses (N=67) were asked to select multiple choice answers in two midterms and a final examination and to rate their…

  7. Questioning Chemistry: The Role of Level, Familiarity, Language and Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, Susan; Taylor, Neil; Cameron, Margaret; Syme-Smith, Lorraine; Fortuna, Colette

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on data collected via an audience response system, where a convenience sample of 300 adults aged 17-50 pressed a button to register their answers for twenty multiple choice questions. The responses were then discussed with the respondents at the time. The original dataset includes physics, biology and chemistry questions. The…

  8. Analysis of the question-answer service of the Emma Children's Hospital information centre.

    PubMed

    Kruisinga, Frea H; Heinen, Richard C; Heymans, Hugo S A

    2010-07-01

    The information centre of the Emma Children's Hospital AMC (EKZ AMC) is a specialised information centre where paediatric patients and persons involved with the patient can ask questions about all aspects of disease and its social implications. The aim of the study was to evaluate the question-answer service of this information centre in order to determine the role of a specialised information centre in an academic children's hospital, identify the appropriate resources for the service and potential positive effects. For this purpose, a case management system was developed in MS ACCESS. The characteristics of the requester and the question, the time it took to answer questions, the information sources used and the extent to which we were able to answer the questions were registered. The costs of the service were determined. We analysed all questions that were asked in the year 2007. Fourteen hundred thirty-four questions were asked. Most questions were asked by parents (23.3%), healthcare workers (other than nurses; 16.5%) and nurses (15.3%). The scope of the most frequently asked questions include disease (20.2%) and treatment (13.0%). Information on paper was the main information source used. Most questions could be solved within 15 min. Twelve percent to 28% of total working hours are used for the question-answer service. Total costs including staff salary are rather large. In conclusions, taking over the task of providing additional medical information and by providing readily available, good quality information that healthcare professionals can use to inform their patients will lead to less time investment of these more expensive staff members. A specialised information service can anticipate on the information need of parents and persons involved with the paediatric patient. It improves information by providing with relatively simple resources that has the potential to improve patient and parent satisfaction, coping and medical results. A specialised information centre is therefore a valuable and affordable asset to an academic children's hospital. PMID:20052489

  9. 26 CFR 54.4977-1T - Questions and answers relating to the election concerning lines of business in existence on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the election...TAXES § 54.4977-1T Questions and answers relating to the election...temporary). The following questions and answers relate to the...

  10. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(31)-1 - Requirement to offer direct rollover of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...rollover of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 1.401(a)(31)-1 Section...rollover of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The following questions and answers relate to the qualification...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3501(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the time employers must collect and pay the taxes on noncash...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the time employers... § 31.3501(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the time employers...Temporary). The following questions and answers relate to the time...

  12. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform... Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform...section prescribes temporary question and answer regulations under...

  13. 26 CFR 5f.168(f)(8)-1 - Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 true Questions and answers concerning transitional...5f.168(f)(8)-1 Questions and answers concerning transitional rules...harbor leases. The following questions and answers concern the transitional...

  14. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(31)-1 - Requirement to offer direct rollover of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...rollover of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 1.401(a)(31)-1 Section...rollover of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The following questions and answers relate to the qualification...

  15. 26 CFR 5f.168(f)(8)-1 - Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers concerning transitional...5f.168(f)(8)-1 Questions and answers concerning transitional rules...harbor leases. The following questions and answers concern the transitional...

  16. 26 CFR 31.3501(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the time employers must collect and pay the taxes on noncash...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the time employers... § 31.3501(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the time employers...Temporary). The following questions and answers relate to the time...

  17. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform... Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform...section prescribes temporary question and answer regulations under...

  18. 26 CFR 54.4977-1T - Questions and answers relating to the election concerning lines of business in existence on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the election...TAXES § 54.4977-1T Questions and answers relating to the election...temporary). The following questions and answers relate to the...

  19. Comparing Assessments of Students' Knowledge by Computerized Open-Ended and Multiple-Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anbar, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Interactive computerized tests accepting unrestricted natural-language input were used to assess knowledge of clinical biophysics at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Comparison of responses to open-ended sequential questions and multiple-choice questions on the same material found the two formats test different aspects of competence.…

  20. Using the Weighted Keyword Model to Improve Information Retrieval for Answering Biomedical Questions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Cao, Yong-gang

    2009-01-01

    Physicians ask many complex questions during the patient encounter. Information retrieval systems that can provide immediate and relevant answers to these questions can be invaluable aids to the practice of evidence-based medicine. In this study, we first automatically identify topic keywords from ad hoc clinical questions with a Condition Random Field model that is trained over thousands of manually annotated clinical questions. We then report on a linear model that assigns query weights based on their automatically identified semantic roles: topic keywords, domain specific terms, and their synonyms. Our evaluation shows that this weighted keyword model improves information retrieval from the Text Retrieval Conference Genomics track data. PMID:21347188

  1. A Medical Consultation Service on Facebook: Descriptive Analysis of Questions Answered

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media is used increasingly by the general public to access health information. However, a lack of models for health information distribution limits the presence of publicly funded services on social media sites. Objective The goal of the study was to present a model for delivering child health information to parents through a social media site. Methods A Facebook site was launched for 11 months based on a question-and-answer service produced by a pediatrician and open to Facebook users over 18 years old. If the answer did not include a further referral to a health care service provider, the question was considered comprehensively answered. The site was funded by a pharmaceutical company, and it included an advertisement of a pharmaceutical product for children’s fever and pain. Results During the study, 768 questions were submitted: an average of 69.8 (SD 31.7) per month. There were 245,533 independent Facebook users on the site, with an average of 727.0 (SD 2280.6) per day. Infections were the most common theme in questions (355/768, 46.2%). Questions were more likely to be comprehensively answered if they were related to infections (279/355, 78.6%) than questions related to non-infectious symptoms (265/423, 64.2%, P=.003). Conclusions On this site aimed at parents of small children, personalized answers were an effective way of delivering information. The service is likely to have reduced the need for further contacts with a health care service provider in more than half of the cases. The site could serve as a model for publicly funded health information distribution. PMID:25189182

  2. Examining the impact of question surface features on students' answers to constructed-response questions on photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of two question prompts. We asked four versions of the question with different combinations of the two plant species and order of prompts in an introductory cell biology course. We found that there was not a significant difference in the content of student responses to versions of the question stem with different species or order of prompts, using both computerized lexical analysis and expert scoring. We conducted 20 face-to-face interviews with students to further probe the effects of question wording on student responses. During the interviews, we found that students thought that the plant species was neither relevant nor confusing when answering the question. Students identified the prompts as both relevant and confusing. However, this confusion was not specific to a single version. PMID:25999312

  3. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students’ Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of two question prompts. We asked four versions of the question with different combinations of the two plant species and order of prompts in an introductory cell biology course. We found that there was not a significant difference in the content of student responses to versions of the question stem with different species or order of prompts, using both computerized lexical analysis and expert scoring. We conducted 20 face-to-face interviews with students to further probe the effects of question wording on student responses. During the interviews, we found that students thought that the plant species was neither relevant nor confusing when answering the question. Students identified the prompts as both relevant and confusing. However, this confusion was not specific to a single version. PMID:25999312

  4. Clickers in College Classrooms: Fostering Learning with Questioning Methods in Large Lecture Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Stull, Andrew; DeLeeuw, Krista; Almeroth, Kevin; Bimber, Bruce; Chun, Dorothy; Bulger, Monica; Campbell, Julie; Knight, Allan; Zhang, Hangjin

    2009-01-01

    What can be done to promote student-instructor interaction in a large lecture class? One approach is to use a personal response system (or "clickers") in which students press a button on a hand-held remote control device corresponding to their answer to a multiple choice question projected on a screen, then see the class distribution of answers on…

  5. 26 CFR 1.706-2T - Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. 1.706-2T Section 1.706-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Partnerships § 1.706-2T Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. Question...

  6. 26 CFR 1.706-2T - Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. 1.706-2T Section 1.706-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-2T Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. Question 1:...

  7. Using the Web as Corpus for Un-supervised Learning in Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Using the Web as Corpus for Un-supervised Learning in Question Answering Yi-Chia Wang1 , Jian-Cheng Wu2 , Tyne Liang1 and Jason S. Chang2 1. Dep. of Computer and Information Science, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, R.O.C. 2. Dep. of Computer Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, R

  8. Home Education Reason and Research: Common Questions and Research-Based Answers about Homeschooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    This is a brief review of research on a variety of topics related to home education and answers the most common questions asked regarding Homeschooling. Examples of the topics addressed are: the teaching parent's education level, academic achievement of students, population growth, philosophy, government (state) regulation and homeschool…

  9. 77 FR 74671 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility Registration (Fifth Edition)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... rule (68 FR 58894) to implement amendments to the FD&C Act made by the Public Health Security and... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility Registration (Fifth Edition) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food...

  10. VisKE: Visual Knowledge Extraction and Question Answering by Visual Verification of Relation Phrases

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    for AI {fsadeghi,ali}@cs.washington.edu, santoshd@allenai.org Do dogs eat ice cream? Open elephant? OpenIE ConceptNet VisKE ) ( , , dog dog eaAng ice cream lion. Do dogs eat ice cream? While we humans have no trouble answering this question, existing text

  11. Where To Go For Answers Question Who to See Where to Go Contact

    E-print Network

    Julius, Anak Agung

    Where To Go For Answers Question Who to See Where to Go Contact Jeannie Steigler Sage 2106 x 6269 Office Academy Hall 4600 x 6266 Academic Regulations Jeannie Steigler Sage 2106 x 6269 Adding a Course (After Add Deadline) Advising & Learning Assistance Center Sage 2106 x 6269 SIS Registration Website http

  12. Applying Federal Civil Rights Laws to Public Charter Schools: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Designed to assist charter school developers and operators, this question-and-answer publication provides general information that covers a broad range of federal civil rights issues related to public charter schools. Sections of the document discuss: (1) the growth of public charter schools and federal agencies that oversee charter schools; (2)…

  13. Questions and Answers About Kidney CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION

    E-print Network

    risk of cancer by maintaining a healthy diet and exercising. Where to Find More Information on KidneyQuestions and Answers About Kidney CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION What is kidney cancer? Kidney cancer is a malignant tumor that develops from the cells of the kidney It accounts

  14. 26 CFR 1.402(c)-2 - Eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 1.402(c)-2 Section 1.402(c)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.402(c)-2 Eligible...

  15. Let's Talk About Food. Answers to your Questions About Foods and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Philip L., Ed.; Selvey, Nancy, Ed.

    This book on the subject of nutrition is written in the form of often-asked questions and detailed, informative answers. In ten chapters the following range of nutrition topics is covered: (1) meaning of RDA, nutrition labeling, calorie tables, nutrient density; (2) adequate diet, pregnancy, physical fitness, vitamins, diet for athletes, baby…

  16. UCSD Graduate Student Researcher (GSR) Child Care Reimbursement Program Questions & Answers

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    UCSD Graduate Student Researcher (GSR) Child Care Reimbursement Program Questions & Answers UCSD provided by the spouse, a child of the GSR under age 19, or someone else the GSR claims as a dependent a GSR no longer has an active appointment, then the reimbursement will probably be via a paper check. 5

  17. Frequently Asked Questions about ADHD and the Answers from the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loechler, Kathy

    1999-01-01

    Identifies useful Internet sites about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the results of searching these sites to answer common questions concerning incidence of ADHD, basic information about Ritalin drug therapy, educational placement of students with ADHD, sources of information about special needs, and what parents can do at…

  18. Large-scale Semantic Parsing without Question-Answer Pairs Siva Reddy, Mirella Lapata, Mark Steedman

    E-print Network

    gaining momentum as a means of scaling semantic parsers to large, open-domain problems (Kwiatkowski et alLarge-scale Semantic Parsing without Question-Answer Pairs Siva Reddy, Mirella Lapata, Mark on a sub- set of the FREE917 and WEBQUESTIONS benchmark datasets show our semantic parser improves over

  19. DFKI's LT-lab at the CLEF 2005 Multiple Language Question Answering Track

    E-print Network

    Neumann, Günter

    of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF). We de- scribe the extensions made to our 2004 QA@CLEF German Keywords Open­Domain Question Answering, Mono­Lingual German, Cross­Lingual German/English, Qtype in the monolingual German, bilingual English/German, and bilingual German/English tasks are presented and discussed

  20. Questions and Answers Explaining the New Tax Rules Applicable to Tax-Sheltered Annuities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David E.; Spuehler, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    The Tax Reform Act of 1986 and subsequent legislation have radically altered the rules needed to maintain favorable tax status of tax-sheltered annuity plans for college employees. Application of the new rules is complex. Critical questions facing institutions and organizations are answered, and potential liabilities facing educational employers…

  1. Hope for Tomorrow: A Booklet of Questions and Answers. The United Nations for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY.

    Suitable for junior and senior high school students and presented in a synthesized, easy-to-read format, this booklet includes more than 80 questions and answers relating to the United Nations. With the U.N. proclamation of 1985 as International Youth Year serving as an underlying theme, the booklet begins by outlining U.N. activities during…

  2. Questions and answers, and references for the presentation, "Relativity, Time and Black Holes",

    E-print Network

    Lathrop, Daniel P.

    Questions and answers, and references for the presentation, "Relativity, Time and Black Holes. On the other hand, he will have experienced more time up to that point than you. Q: If I fall into a black hole: If the universe has enough matter to re-collapse, does that mean we are inside a black hole? A: No. It is similar

  3. v1.3 (19 March 2015) IMMIGRATION HEALTH SURCHARGE -QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

    E-print Network

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    v1.3 (19 March 2015) IMMIGRATION HEALTH SURCHARGE - QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Customer Q&A 1. When granted will be payable upfront. 3. Why is the surcharge being introduced? The immigration health to the NHS in a manner in line with their immigration status. The surcharge is not a visa fee. The payment

  4. 26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 31.3405(c)-1 Section 31.3405(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX...

  5. Exploring the Learning Mechanism of Web-Based Question-Answering Systems and Their Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yin

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of models concerning question-answering (QA) systems have been put forward. But many of them stress technology and neglect the research of QA itself. In this paper, we analyse the essence of QA and discuss the relationship between technology and QA. On that basis, we propose that when designing web-based QA systems, more…

  6. 77 FR 8885 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Biosimilars: Questions and Answers Regarding Implementation of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Biosimilars: Questions and Answers Regarding Implementation of the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  7. INFLUENZA VACCINE Please answer the questions on the right before you

    E-print Network

    INFLUENZA VACCINE CONSENT Please answer the questions on the right before you get your influenza vaccination. The information you give us will not be given to anyone else and will be kept private or doctor before your vaccination. NOTE: It's important to let us know if this is the first time that you

  8. Public Records Brief: Questions and Answers on Access to Public Records in Maryland

    E-print Network

    Suri, Manil

    records o hospital records o student records (public schools) o medical, psychological or sociologicalPublic Records Brief: Questions and Answers on Access to Public Records in Maryland As an entity provide public access to its records unless certain exceptions apply. The following is a brief summary

  9. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  10. Entropy - Some Cosmological Questions Answered by Model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Jozef; Sukenik, Miroslav

    2002-12-01

    The paper summarizes the background of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe model and its potential to offer answers to some open cosmological questions related to entropy. Three problems are faced in more detail, namely that of Hawkings phenomenon of black holes evaporation, maximum entropy of the Universe during its evolution, and time evolution of specific entropy.

  11. !! Plan to answer a specific question. !! Limit the number of variables in the test.

    E-print Network

    KEY POINTS !! Plan to answer a specific question. !! Limit the number of variables in the test FOR ESTABLISHING ANIMAL EXCLOSURES FOR RESEARCH IN CEDAR STANDS Raymond O. Miller Wildlife exclosures have been and others who are considering building small wildlife exclosures for testing or demonstration purposes

  12. Young Children's Sensitivity to New and Given Information when Answering Predicate-Focus Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomo, Dorothe; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In two studies we investigated 2-year-old children's answers to predicate-focus questions depending on the preceding context. Children were presented with a successive series of short video clips showing transitive actions (e.g., frog washing duck) in which either the action (action-new) or the patient (patient-new) was the changing, and therefore…

  13. Questions & Answers on NOAA Fisheries Service Review of Cherry Point Herring & Updated Review of

    E-print Network

    Questions & Answers on NOAA Fisheries Service Review of Cherry Point Herring & Updated Review herring stocks, including Cherry Point, belonged to a larger group of Pacific herring consisting of more herring stocks within the Georgia Basin (the Cherry Point and Discovery Bay stocks) that have shown marked

  14. What Can Standardized Reading Tests Tell Us? Question-Answer Relationships and Students' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Danhua

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the comprehension subsection of Nelson-Denny Reading Test Form G (Brown, Fishco, & Hanna, 1993a) and some urban developmental students' performance on it. Three types of question-answer relations were identified using Pearson and Johnson's taxonomy. Students' performance was expressed in their scores on the three types of…

  15. 26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration. 301.6111-1T Section 301.6111-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records §...

  16. 78 FR 69671 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) in 1996 (61 FR 54647) and were last revised by the Agencies on March 11, 2010 (2010 Questions and Answers) (75 FR 11642). On March 18, 2013... ] redesignate one Q&A without substantive change. \\1\\ See 78 FR 16765 (Mar. 18, 2013). Together, the...

  17. Using and Developing with CD-Interactive: Frequently Asked Questions Are Answered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lediaev, Lucy; van Sonderen, Lex

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Compact Disc-Interactive (CD-I) using a question-and-answer format. Highlights include development of the CD-I technology; where to purchase discs and players; compatibility with other CD-ROM drives; how to make discs; authoring systems versus custom programs; entertainment and educational applications; licensing issues; specifications;…

  18. Genetic Algorithms for Multiple-Choice Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-04-01

    This thesis investigates the use of problem-specific knowledge to enhance a genetic algorithm approach to multiple-choice optimisation problems.It shows that such information can significantly enhance performance, but that the choice of information and the way it is included are important factors for success.Two multiple-choice problems are considered.The first is constructing a feasible nurse roster that considers as many requests as possible.In the second problem, shops are allocated to locations in a mall subject to constraints and maximising the overall income.Genetic algorithms are chosen for their well-known robustness and ability to solve large and complex discrete optimisation problems.However, a survey of the literature reveals room for further research into generic ways to include constraints into a genetic algorithm framework.Hence, the main theme of this work is to balance feasibility and cost of solutions.In particular, co-operative co-evolution with hierarchical sub-populations, problem structure exploiting repair schemes and indirect genetic algorithms with self-adjusting decoder functions are identified as promising approaches.The research starts by applying standard genetic algorithms to the problems and explaining the failure of such approaches due to epistasis.To overcome this, problem-specific information is added in a variety of ways, some of which are designed to increase the number of feasible solutions found whilst others are intended to improve the quality of such solutions.As well as a theoretical discussion as to the underlying reasons for using each operator,extensive computational experiments are carried out on a variety of data.These show that the indirect approach relies less on problem structure and hence is easier to implement and superior in solution quality.

  19. Benford's Law: Textbook Exercises and Multiple-choice Testbanks

    E-print Network

    Slepkov, Aaron D; DiBattista, David

    2013-01-01

    Benford's Law describes the finding that the distribution of leading (or leftmost) digits of innumerable datasets follows a well-defined logarithmic trend, rather than an intuitive uniformity. In practice this means that the most common leading digit is 1, with an expected frequency of 30.1%, and the least common is 9, with an expected frequency of 4.6%. The history and development of Benford's Law is inexorably linked to physics, yet there has been a dearth of physics-related Benford datasets reported in the literature. Currently, the most common application of Benford's Law is in detecting number invention and tampering such as found in accounting-, tax-, and voter-fraud. We demonstrate that answers to end-of-chapter exercises in physics and chemistry textbooks conform to Benford's Law. Subsequently, we investigate whether this fact can be used to gain advantage over random guessing in multiple-choice tests, and find that while testbank answers in introductory physics closely conform to Benford's Law, the t...

  20. Kant's answer to the question 'what is man?' and its implications for anthropology.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alix A

    2008-12-01

    This paper examines Kant's anthropological project and its relationship to his conception of 'man' in order to show that Kant's answer to the question 'what is man?' entails a decisive re-evaluation of traditional conceptions of human nature. I argue that Kant redirects the question 'what is man?' away from defining man in terms of what he is, and towards defining him in terms of what he does, in particular through the distinction between three levels of what I will call 'man's praxis': the levels of technicality, prudence, and morality. As soon as man is understood in terms of what he makes of himself rather than in terms of what he is, two crucial issues arise: what is the purpose of his making? And how can he reach this destination? My claim is that whilst the first question is answered by ethics and a doctrine of prudence, the second question is answered by anthropology. In this sense, anthropology plays the crucial role of identifying the worldly helps and hindrances to the realisation of man's purposes--and this is the reason why it should be understood as a 'pragmatic' discipline. PMID:19391368

  1. Gender Differences in Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Back Substitution in Multiple-Choice Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, K. Shane; Ostrom, Lee; Scott, Karen Wilson

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative observational study exploring the relationship of gender to mathematics self-efficacy and the frequency of back substitution in multiple-choice assessment sampled undergraduates at a western United States parochial university. Research questions addressed: to what extent are there gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy, as…

  2. Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not…

  3. A Case Study on Multiple-Choice Testing in Anatomical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golda, Stephanie DuPont

    2011-01-01

    Objective testing techniques, such as multiple-choice examinations, are a widely accepted method of assessment in gross anatomy. In order to deter cheating on these types of examinations, instructors often design several versions of an examination to distribute. These versions usually involve the rearrangement of questions and their corresponding…

  4. Security Question and Answer -Extremely Important! In order to ensure secure access to your records, we require the creation of a security question and answer that you share only

    E-print Network

    Texas at San Antonio, University of

    to Enrollment Services Center for processing. Student must present valid photo ID at Enrollment Services at time records, we require the creation of a security question and answer that you share only with the designee the security question and answer, then whatever access level you have granted will be shared with your designee

  5. On the Optimality of Answer-Copying Indices: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Mauricio; Riascos, Álvaro; Jara, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice exams are frequently used as an efficient and objective method to assess learning, but they are more vulnerable to answer copying than tests based on open questions. Several statistical tests (known as indices in the literature) have been proposed to detect cheating; however, to the best of our knowledge, they all lack mathematical…

  6. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  7. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  8. Social Question and Answer Services versus Library Virtual Reference: Evaluation and Comparison from the Users' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yin; Deng, Shengli

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, the introduction of social question and answer services and other Internet tools have expanded the ways in which people have their questions answered. There has been speculation and debate over whether such services and other Internet tools are replacing library virtual reference services. Method: Most previous…

  9. In Question Answering, Two Heads Are Better Than One Jennifer Chu-Carroll Krzysztof Czuba John Prager Abraham Ittycheriah

    E-print Network

    In Question Answering, Two Heads Are Better Than One Jennifer Chu-Carroll Krzysztof Czuba John Prager Abraham Ittycheriah IBM T.J. Watson Research Center P.O. Box 704 Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, U)). Such ensemble methods have recently been adopted in question answering (Chu-Carroll et al., 2003b; Burger et al

  10. The Communication Skills Used by Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers in a Question-and-Answer Game Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toe, Dianne M.; Paatsch, Louise E.

    2010-01-01

    Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in…

  11. 75 FR 75482 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug... industry 211 entitled ``Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers.'' The draft... industry 211 entitled ``Residual Solvents in Animal ] Drug Products; Questions and Answers.'' This...

  12. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2,' NUREG-0683.

  13. 26 CFR 54.4976-1T - Questions and answers relating to taxes with respect to welfare benefit funds (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to taxes with respect to welfare benefit...CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4976-1T Questions and answers relating to taxes with respect to welfare...

  14. 26 CFR 54.4976-1T - Questions and answers relating to taxes with respect to welfare benefit funds (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to taxes with respect to welfare benefit...CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4976-1T Questions and answers relating to taxes with respect to welfare...

  15. Question Answering in Terminology-rich Technical Domains Fabio Rinaldi, Michael Hess, James Dowdall Diego Moll, Rolf Schwitter

    E-print Network

    Schwitter, Rolf

    Chapter 15 Question Answering in Terminology-rich Technical Domains Fabio Rinaldi, Michael Hess sublanguage and terminology makes them unsuitable to (some of) the approaches seen in the TREC QA competition on large volumes of text, the #12;2 Question Answering in Terminology-rich Technical Domains competing

  16. Clickers in college classrooms: Fostering learning with questioning methods in large lecture classes q

    E-print Network

    Almeroth, Kevin C.

    Clickers in college classrooms: Fostering learning with questioning methods in large lecture s t r a c t What can be done to promote student­instructor interaction in a large lecture class? One-held remote control device corresponding to their answer to a multiple choice question projected on a screen

  17. STATISTICS 8 CHAPTERS 1 TO 6, SAMPLE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

    E-print Network

    Utts, Jessica

    with high blood pressure were more likely to read a book than to walk. d. It can be concluded. This is a randomized experiment rather than an observational study because: a. Blood pressure was measured three times a week and reading a book for half an hour three times a week. b. Having blood pressure

  18. The Effectiveness of Several Multiple-Choice Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Several multiple-choice item formats are examined in the current climate of test reform. The reform movement is discussed as it affects use of the following formats: (1) complex multiple-choice; (2) alternate choice; (3) true-false; (4) multiple true-false; and (5) the context dependent item set. (SLD)

  19. Reducing the Need for Guesswork in Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The humble multiple-choice test is very widely used within education at all levels, but its susceptibility to guesswork makes it a suboptimal assessment tool. The reliability of a multiple-choice test is partly governed by the number of items it contains; however, longer tests are more time consuming to take, and for some subject areas, it can be…

  20. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  1. Attempting to answer a meaningful question enhances subsequent learning even when feedback is delayed.

    PubMed

    Kornell, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Attempting to retrieve information from memory enhances subsequent learning even if the retrieval attempt is unsuccessful. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit materializes only if subsequent study occurs immediately after the retrieval attempt. Previous studies have prompted retrieval using a cue (e.g., whale-???) that has no intrinsic answer. Experiment 1 replicated prior word pair studies, but in Experiment 2, when participants learned meaningful trivia questions, testing enhanced learning even when subsequent study was delayed. Even in Experiment 3, when subsequent study was delayed by up to 24 hr, tests enhanced learning on a final test another 24 hr later. These findings may give comfort to educators who worry that asking a question or giving a test, on which students inevitably make mistakes, impairs learning if feedback is not immediate. They also suggest that there is a consensus in the literature thus far: Questions with rich semantic content enhance subsequent learning even when feedback is delayed, but less meaningful questions without an intrinsic answer enhance learning only when feedback is immediate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23855547

  2. Practical question-and-answer guide on VDTS (video display terminals) for BEES (base bioenvironmental engineer). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    The USAF OEHL conducted an extensive literature review of Video Display Terminals (VDTs) and the health problems commonly associated with them. The report is presented in a question-and-answer format in an attempt to paraphrase the most commonly asked questions about VDTs that are forwarded to USAF OEHL/RZN. The questions and answers have been divided into several topic areas: Ionizing Radiation; Nonionizing Radiation; Optical Radiation; Ultrasound; Static Electricity; Health Complaints/Ergonomics; Pregnancy.

  3. The development and validation of a two-tiered multiple-choice instrument to identify alternative conceptions in earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangione, Katherine Anna

    This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and understanding of earth science concepts, and to describe relationships between content knowledge and alternative conceptions and planning instruction in the science classroom. Eighty-seven preservice teachers enrolled in the MAT program participated in this study. Sixty-eight participants were female, twelve were male, and seven chose not to answer. Forty-seven participants were in the elementary certification program, five were in the middle school certification program, and twenty-nine were pursuing secondary certification. Results indicate that the two-tiered, multiple-choice format can be a reliable and valid method for identifying alternative conceptions. Preservice teachers in all certification areas who participated in this study may possess common alternative conceptions previously identified in the literature. Alternative conceptions included: all rivers flow north to south, the shadow of the Earth covers the Moon causing lunar phases, the Sun is always directly overhead at noon, weather can be predicted by animal coverings, and seasons are caused by the Earth's proximity to the Sun. Statistical analyses indicated differences, however not all of them significant, among all subgroups according to gender and certification area. Generally males outperformed females and preservice teachers pursuing middle school certification had higher scores on the questionnaire followed by those obtaining secondary certification. Elementary preservice teachers scored the lowest. Additionally, self-reported scores of confidence in one's answers and understanding of the earth science concept in question were analyzed. There was a slight positive correlation between overall score and both confidence and understanding. Responses on the questionnaire were investigated with respect to pedagogical choices. Evidence suggests that content knowledge and having alternative conceptions or science fragments may impact a teacher's pedagogical choices. Through careful development of instruments like ACES-Q II-R and other two- tiered, multiple-choice instruments, educators and researchers car not only identify possible alternative conceptions, they can raise an awareness of alternative conceptions held by children and adults.

  4. Measuring the Consistency in Change in Hepatitis B Knowledge among Three Different Types of Tests: True/False, Multiple Choice, and Fill in the Blanks Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahai, Vic; Demeyere, Petra; Poirier, Sheila; Piro, Felice

    1998-01-01

    The recall of information about Hepatitis B demonstrated by 180 seventh graders was tested with three test types: (1) short-answer; (2) true/false; and (3) multiple-choice. Short answer testing was the most reliable. Suggestions are made for the use of short-answer tests in evaluating student knowledge. (SLD)

  5. Simulation-based multiple-choice test assessment of clinical competence for large groups of medical students: a comparison of auscultation sound identification either with or without clinical context

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Diem Quyen; Patenaude, Jean Victor; Gagnon, Robert; Deligne, Benoit; Bouthillier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Although simulation-based teaching is popular, high-fidelity, high-cost approaches may be unsuitable or unavailable for use with large groups. We designed a multiple-choice test for large groups of medical students to explore a low-cost approach in assessing clinical competence. We tested two different scenarios in assessing student’s ability to identify heart and lung sounds: by hearing the sounds alone, or in an enhanced scenario where sounds are incorporated into clinical vignettes to give clinical context. Method The two-section test consists of multiple-choice questions with one best answer. In the first section, the student must identify 25 auscultation sounds from amongst a choice of 14 heart sounds and 11 lung-sounds. The second section integrates these same sounds into clinical vignettes to provide clinical context. Students must either identify the illness or the next clinical step, choosing from four possible answers. Performances of 859 students were evaluated. Results The alpha coefficient of reliability is 0.54 and 0.76 respectively for the first and the second section. In the latter section there is significant difference between scores of first, second, fourth year students and residents, in contrast to the first-section scores. Conclusions A multiple-choice test to assess clinical competence based on simulated auscultation sounds incorporated into clinical vignettes allows us to differentiate between training levels and seems to be a valid assessment method suitable for large-group format. PMID:26451229

  6. Evaluating the Use of In-situ and Remote Sensing Data to Answer Critical Hydrological Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    Water demands of the 21st Century pose challenges for effective decision-making and viable management of hydrological resources. As competition for water becomes more complex, the use of technology to maximize finite water resources becomes increasingly critical. Therefore, accurate methods of gauging relevant data streams must be developed and improved at every level, from basic and applied research to water management to policy oversight. How can the relative value for answering critical hydrologic questions of prospective data streams be gauged? Advancements in technology are producing multiple new sources of hydrological data from in-situ platforms and the developing resource of remote sensing platforms. The in-situ and remote sensing data available from these new sources can be used complementarily to provide answers to critical water resource management questions. Analyses that identify which combination of data resources will offer the most effective methodology for quantifying hydrological variables will establish new best practices for water management. We are going to use new techniques of data assimilation to establish a process for identifying and evaluating the method that provides the most quantitative means for answering key hydrological questions. This research will outline a method for evaluating specific in-situ and remote sensing data sets for complementary use in managing flood hazards, assessing water flows, and improving irrigation practices, to name a few. This will result in improved understanding of multisensory data and its analysis which, in turn, will lead to better informed decision-making, improved policy development and future governance regarding hydrological systems in any given watershed scenario. *** Image: Preliminary Research Road Map / Poster will highlight Quantitative Research (step 1)

  7. Concept Learning versus Problem Solving: Evaluating a Threat to the Validity of a Particulate Gas Law Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Vaughn, C. Kevin; Binkley, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Three different samples of students were asked to answer five multiple-choice questions concerning the properties of a sample of helium gas (particle speed, state of matter, sample volume, sample pressure, and particle distribution), including a particulate question first used by Nurrenbern and Pickering (particle distribution). In the first…

  8. Polytomous versus Dichotomous Scoring on Multiple-Choice Examinations: Development of a Rubric for Rating Partial Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunert, Megan L.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of assigning partial credit on multiple-choice test items is considered for items from ACS Exams. Because the items on these exams, particularly the quantitative items, use common student errors to define incorrect answers, it is possible to assign partial credits to some of these incorrect responses. To do so, however, it becomes…

  9. Beyond the Bubble: How to Use Multiple-Choice Tests to Improve Math Instruction, Grades 4-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickett, Maryann; Hendrix-Martin, Eunice

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-choice testing is an educational reality. Rather than complain about the negative impact these tests may have on teaching and learning, why not use them to better understand your students' true mathematical knowledge and comprehension? Maryann Wickett and Eunice Hendrix-Martin show teachers how to move beyond the student's answer--right…

  10. How Do You Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers Like Beagle 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    To address one of the most important questions in planetary science Is there life on Mars? The scientific community must turn to less costly means of exploring the surface of the Red Planet. The United Kingdom's Beagle 2 Mars lander concept was a small meter-size lander with a scientific payload constituting a large proportion of the flown mass designed to supply answers to the question about life on Mars. A possible reason why Beagle 2 did not send any data was that it was a one-off attempt to land. As Steve Squyres said at the time: "It's difficult to land on Mars - if you want to succeed you have to send two of everything".

  11. Improving Students' Capacity to Show Their Knowledge, Understanding and Skills in Exams by Using Combined Question and Answer Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    This research set out to compare the quality, length and nature of (1) exam responses in combined question and answer booklets, with (2) responses in separate answer booklets in order to inform choices about response format. Combined booklets are thought to support candidates by giving more information on what is expected of them. Anecdotal…

  12. The Answering System to Yes-No Truth-Functional Questions in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hansook

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in "Br J Psychol" 52:133-142,…

  13. Coling 2008: Proceedings of the workshop on Knowledge and Reasoning for Answering Questions, pages 1724 Manchester, August 2008

    E-print Network

    question answering system, especially in herbal medicines when assisting the locals to understand more `causality' for extracting Know- Why from the herbal medicine domain and `causation' for answering What basil leaf is used as a medicine releasing gas. [The leaf] stops nausea. [The leaf] stops paining

  14. 77 FR 51814 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-0880...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  15. Reference Question Answered: Bibliographic Sources for the Ukrainian Periodical Press in the 1840’s: Encyclopedias, Bibliographies, Guides, and Library Catalogs

    E-print Network

    Giullian, Jon C.

    2008-01-01

    The author answers a reference question on the bibliographic sources for the Ukrainian periodical press from 1840-1850. Helpful publications include bibliographies, guides, and library catalogs that can be used to identify ...

  16. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  17. Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-05-04

    Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL’s Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service – which is often driven by climate – is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.

  18. Answering the right question - integration of InSAR with other datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley, Rachel; McCormack, Harry; Burren, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The capabilities of satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are well known, and utilized across a wide range of academic and commercial applications. However there is a tendency, particularly in commercial applications, for users to ask 'What can we study with InSAR?'. When establishing a new technique this approach is important, but InSAR has been possible for 20 years now and, even accounting for new and innovative algorithms, this ground has been thoroughly explored. Too many studies conclude 'We show the ground is moving here, by this much', and mention the wider context as an afterthought. The focus needs to shift towards first asking the right questions - in fields as diverse as hazard awareness, resource optimization, financial considerations and pure scientific enquiry - and then working out how to achieve the best possible answers. Depending on the question, InSAR (and ground deformation more generally) may provide a large or small contribution to the overall solution, and there are usually benefits to integrating a number of techniques to capitalize on the complementary capabilities and provide the most useful measurements. However, there is still a gap between measurements and answers, and unlocking the value of the data relies heavily on appropriate visualization, integrated analysis, communication between technique and application experts, and appropriate use of modelling. We present a number of application examples, and demonstrate how their usefulness can be transformed by moving from a focus on data to answers - integrating complementary geodetic, geophysical and geological datasets and geophysical modeling with appropriate visualization, to enable comprehensive solution-focused interpretation. It will also discuss how forthcoming developments are likely to further advance realisation of the full potential satellite InSAR holds.

  19. 26 CFR 1.162-10T - Questions and answers relating to the deduction of employee benefits under the Tax Reform Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the deduction of employee benefits...Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-10T Questions and answers relating to the deduction of employee...

  20. 26 CFR 1.505(c)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the notification requirement for recognition of exemption under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to the notification requirement for... Exempt Organizations § 1.505(c)-1T Questions and answers relating to the notification requirement...

  1. 26 CFR 1.505(c)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the notification requirement for recognition of exemption under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to the notification requirement for... Exempt Organizations § 1.505(c)-1T Questions and answers relating to the notification requirement...

  2. 26 CFR 1.162-10T - Questions and answers relating to the deduction of employee benefits under the Tax Reform Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the deduction of employee benefits...Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-10T Questions and answers relating to the deduction of employee...

  3. Turn-taking: a case study of early gesture and word use in answering WHERE and WHICH questions

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Eve V.; Lindsey, Kate L.

    2015-01-01

    When young children answer questions, they do so more slowly than adults and appear to have difficulty finding the appropriate words. Because children leave gaps before they respond, it is possible that they could answer faster with gestures than with words. In this study, we compare gestural and verbal responses from one child between the ages of 1;4 and 3;5, to adult Where and Which questions, which can be answered with gestures and/or words. After extracting all adult Where and Which questions and child answers from longitudinal videotaped sessions, we examined the timing from the end of each question to the start of the response, and compared the timing for gestures and words. Child responses could take the form of a gesture or word(s); the latter could be words repeated from the adult question or new words retrieved by the child. Or responses could be complex: a gesture + word repeat, gesture + new word, or word repeat + new word. Gestures were the fastest overall, followed successively by word-repeats, then new-word responses. This ordering, with gestures ahead of words, suggests that the child knows what to answer but needs more time to retrieve any relevant words. In short, word retrieval and articulation appear to be bottlenecks in the timing of responses: both add to the planning required in answering a question. PMID:26217253

  4. Addressing challenges to MMPI-2-RF-based testimony: questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2012-11-01

    Introduction of a new version of a psychological test brings with it challenges that can be accentuated by the adversarial nature of the legal process. In the case of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), these challenges can be addressed by becoming familiar with the rationale for and the methods used in revising the inventory, the information contained in the test manuals, and the growing peer-reviewed literature on the test. Potential challenges to MMPI-2-RF-based testimony are identified in this article and discussed in question and answer format. The questions guiding this discussion are based on the Daubert factors, established in 1993 by the US Supreme Court as criteria for gauging the scientific validity of proffered expert testimony. The answers to these questions apply more broadly to testimony in depositions, pre-trial hearings, and at trial. Consideration of the MMPI-2-RF in light of the Daubert factors indicates that the instrument has been subjected to extensive empirical testing and that a substantial peer-reviewed literature is available to guide and support its use. Information about the known and potential rate of error associated with MMPI-2-RF scores is available, and standard procedures for administration, scoring, and interpretation of the inventory are detailed in the test administration manual. Indicators of MMPI-2-RF acceptance can be cited, and criticisms of the MMPI-2-RF can be addressed with information available in the test documents and an extensive, modern, and actively growing peer-reviewed literature. PMID:23076394

  5. Use of Feedback-Oriented Online Exercises to Help Physiology Students Construct Well-Organized Answers to Short-Answer Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Postsecondary education often requires students to use higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) such as analysis, evaluation, and creation as they assess situations and apply what they have learned during lecture to the formulation of solutions. Summative assessment of these abilities is often accomplished using short-answer questions (SAQs). Quandary…

  6. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... Source § 31.3401(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) (Temporary). The following question and answer relates to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) of...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary). The following question and answer relates to the...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary). The following question and answer relates to the...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary). The following question and answer relates to the...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... Source § 31.3401(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) (Temporary). The following question and answer relates to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) of...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... Source § 31.3401(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) (Temporary). The following question and answer relates to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) of...

  12. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... Source § 31.3401(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) (Temporary). The following question and answer relates to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) of...

  13. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary). The following question and answer relates to the...

  14. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary). The following question and answer relates to the...

  15. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... Source § 31.3401(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) (Temporary). The following question and answer relates to the definition of wages in section 3401(a) of...

  16. A Cost-Consequences Analysis of a Primary Care Librarian Question and Answering Service

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Jessie; Hogg, William; Zhong, Jianwei; Zhao, Xue

    2012-01-01

    Background Cost consequences analysis was completed from randomized controlled trial (RCT) data for the Just-in-time (JIT) librarian consultation service in primary care that ran from October 2005 to April 2006. The service was aimed at providing answers to clinical questions arising during the clinical encounter while the patient waits. Cost saving and cost avoidance were also analyzed. The data comes from eighty-eight primary care providers in the Ottawa area working in Family Health Networks (FHNs) and Family Health Groups (FHGs). Methods We conducted a cost consequences analysis based on data from the JIT project [1]. We also estimated the potential economic benefit of JIT librarian consultation service to the health care system. Results The results show that the cost per question for the JIT service was $38.20. The cost could be as low as $5.70 per question for a regular service. Nationally, if this service was implemented and if family physicians saw additional patients when the JIT service saved them time, up to 61,100 extra patients could be seen annually. A conservative estimate of the cost savings and cost avoidance per question for JIT was $11.55. Conclusions The cost per question, if the librarian service was used at full capacity, is quite low. Financial savings to the health care system might exceed the cost of the service. Saving physician's time during their day could potentially lead to better access to family physicians by patients. Implementing a librarian consultation service can happen quickly as the time required to train professional librarians to do this service is short. PMID:22442727

  17. Answers to Common Questions About the Use and Safety of CT Scans.

    PubMed

    McCollough, Cynthia H; Bushberg, Jerrold T; Fletcher, Joel G; Eckel, Laurence J

    2015-10-01

    Articles in the scientific literature and lay press over the past several years have implied that computed tomography (CT) may cause cancer and that physicians and patients must exercise caution in its use. Although there is broad agreement on the latter point-unnecessary medical tests of any type should always be avoided-there is considerable controversy surrounding the question of whether, or to what extent, CT scans can lead to future cancers. Although the doses used in CT are higher than those used in conventional radiographic examinations, they are still 10 to 100 times lower than the dose levels that have been reported to increase the risk of cancer. Despite the fact that at the low doses associated with a CT scan the risk either is too low to be convincingly demonstrated or does not exist, the magnitude of the concern among patients and some medical professionals that CT scans increase cancer risk remains unreasonably high. In this article, common questions about CT scanning and radiation are answered to provide physicians with accurate information on which to base their medical decisions and respond to patient questions. PMID:26434964

  18. Answering Clinical Questions with Role Identification Yun Niu, Graeme Hirst, Gregory McArthur, and Patricia Rodriguez-Gianolli

    E-print Network

    Motivation In every aspect of patient treatment, questions arise for which a search of the publishedmedical of otherclinicians. For example:1 Q: In a child with asthma, do increased doses of inhaled cor- ticosteroids lead in the literature can help clinicians in answering questions generated in patient treatment (Gorman et al., 1994

  19. A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John S.; And Others

    A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

  20. Increasing Students' Sensitivity to Sources of Information: An Instructional Study in Question-Answer Relationships. Technical Report No. 284.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy E.; And Others

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a training program to help teachers instruct students in finding the relationship between questions designed to test their comprehension of a text and the location of possible information for answering those questions. Specifically, the study examined whether training would enhance student…

  1. Assessment Strategies for a History Exam, or, Why Short-Answer Questions Are Better than In-Class Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The in-class essay is not an effective means to assess student ability in a history exam. History teachers should instead ask short-answer questions in order to test what the American Historical Association calls "objective" knowledge: the ability to identify concepts, historical actors, organizations, events, and so forth. Such questions,…

  2. 29 CFR 2509.75-8 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility under the Employee Retirement Income...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prefixes: D—refers to definitions; FR—refers to fiduciary responsibility. Section No. Question No. 3(21)(A... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility... INTERPRETIVE BULLETINS RELATING TO THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 2509.75-8...

  3. 29 CFR 2509.75-8 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility under the Employee Retirement Income...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... prefixes: D—refers to definitions; FR—refers to fiduciary responsibility. Section No. Question No. 3(21)(A... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility... INTERPRETIVE BULLETINS RELATING TO THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 2509.75-8...

  4. 29 CFR 2509.75-8 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility under the Employee Retirement Income...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... prefixes: D—refers to definitions; FR—refers to fiduciary responsibility. Section No. Question No. 3(21)(A... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility... INTERPRETIVE BULLETINS RELATING TO THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 2509.75-8...

  5. The ContactFinder agent: Answering bulletin board questions with referrals

    SciTech Connect

    Krulwich, B.; Burkey, C.

    1996-12-31

    ContactFinder is an intelligent agent whose approach to assisting users is valuable and innovative in the following four ways. First, ContactFinder operates proactively in reading and responding to messages on electronic bulletin boards rather than acting in response to user queries. Second, ContactFinder assists users by referring them to other people who can help them, rather than attempting to find information that directly answers the user`s specific question. Third, ContactFinder categorizes messages and extracts their topic areas using a set of heuristics that are very efficient and demonstrably highly effective. Fourth, ContactFinder posts its referrals back to the bulletin boards rather than simply communicating with specific users, to increase the information density and connectivity of the system. This paper discusses these aspects of the system and demonstrates their effectiveness in over six months of use on a large-scale internal bulletin board.

  6. Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics. PMID:18522725

  7. The Structural Biology of Protein Aggregation Diseases: Fundamental Questions and Some Answers

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, David; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R.; Balbirnie, Melinda; Sambashivan, Shilpa; Ivanova, Magdalena I.; Madsen, Anders Ø; Riekel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are found in association with at least two dozen fatal diseases. The tendency of numerous proteins to convert into amyloid-like fibrils poses fundamental questions for structural biology, and for protein science in general. Among these are: What is the structure of the cross-? spine, common to amyloid-like fibrils? Is there a sequence signature for proteins that form amyloid-like fibrils? What is the nature of the structural conversion from native to amyloid states, and do fibril-forming proteins have two distinct, stable states, the native state and the amyloid state? What is the basis of protein complementarity, in which a protein chain can bind to itself? We offer tentative answers here, based on our own recent structural studies, recognizing that there is much complementary research in the field, some of which is summarized in other papers in this issue, as well as elsewhere1–11. PMID:16981672

  8. Explaining topic prevalence in answers to open-ended survey questions about climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvinnereim, Endre; Fløttum, Kjersti

    2015-08-01

    Citizens’ opinions are crucial for action on climate change, but are, owing to the complexity of the issue, diverse and potentially unformed. We contribute to the understanding of public views on climate change and to knowledge needed by decision-makers by using a new approach to analyse answers to the open survey question `what comes to mind when you hear the words `climate change’?’. We apply automated text analysis, specifically structural topic modelling, which induces distinct topics based on the relative frequencies of the words used in 2,115 responses. From these data, originating from the new, nationally representative Norwegian Citizen Panel, four distinct topics emerge: Weather/Ice, Future/Impact, Money/Consumption and Attribution. We find that Norwegians emphasize societal aspects of climate change more than do respondents in previous US and UK studies. Furthermore, variables that explain variation in closed questions, such as gender and education, yield different and surprising results when employed to explain variation in what respondents emphasize. Finally, the sharp distinction between scepticism and acceptance of conventional climate science, often seen in previous studies, blurs in many textual responses as scepticism frequently turns into ambivalence.

  9. Towards Automatic Generation of Multimodal Answers to Medical Questions: A Cognitive Engineering Approach

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    answer, like "RSI stands for Repetitive Strain Injury". However, the presentation of an answer through does RSI stand for?" could be an extended one: "RSI stands for Repetitive Strain Injury. This disorder

  10. Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Patrice; Turmel, Élaine; Masson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students) were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex) and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective. PMID:24478680

  11. Student Research Workshop, RANLP 2009 -Borovets, Bulgaria, pages 2934 Improving the Output from Software that Generates Multiple Choice

    E-print Network

    ) with 62 manually created MCQ test items to form an item bank. A usability score is assigned to each item in this paper the evaluation is done by analyzing the selections made by a domain expert from a bank of MCQ test Software that Generates Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) Test Items Automatically using Controlled Rhetorical

  12. The Development of Multiple-Choice Items Consistent with the AP Chemistry Curriculum Framework to More Accurately Assess Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domyancich, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions are an important part of large-scale summative assessments, such as the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam. However, past AP chemistry exam items often lacked the ability to test conceptual understanding and higher-order cognitive skills. The redesigned AP chemistry exam shows a distinctive shift in item types toward…

  13. Mineral metabolism and vitamin D in chronic kidney disease--more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, David J A; Cunningham, John

    2011-06-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of total and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The underlying pathophysiology of this association remains largely unexplained and there is currently no clear interventional pathway. Emphasis has been placed on measuring serum levels of calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) to monitor disease progression, driven by the assumption that achieving values within the 'normal' range will translate into improved outcomes. Retrospective studies have provided a body of evidence that abnormal levels of mineral biomarkers, and phosphate in particular, are associated with clinical events. Disturbances in vitamin D metabolism are also likely to contribute to the pathophysiology of CKD. Designing studies that yield useful information has proved to be difficult, partly owing to conceptual and financial limitations, but also because of the tight interdependency of calcium, phosphate and PTH, and the potential impact of vitamin D on these mineral metabolites. An intervention that perturbs any one of these factors is likely to exert effects on the others, making isolation of the individual variables almost impossible. However, some therapies in current use have the potential to act as probes to answer questions relating to the association between mineral biomarkers and outcomes in CKD. PMID:21537350

  14. Ten Common Questions (and Their Answers) About Off-label Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Burkle, Christopher M.; Lanier, William L.

    2012-01-01

    The term off-label drug use (OLDU) is used extensively in the medical literature, continuing medical education exercises, and the media. Yet, we propose that many health care professionals have an underappreciation of its definition, prevalence, and implications. This article introduces and answers 10 questions regarding OLDU in an effort to clarify the practice's meaning, breadth of application, acceptance, and liabilities. Off-label drug use involves prescribing medications for indications, or using a dosage or dosage form, that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Since the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate the practice of medicine, OLDU has become common. It occurs in every specialty of medicine, but it may be more common in areas of medicine in which the patient population is less likely to be included in clinical trials (eg, pediatric, pregnant, or psychiatric patients). Pharmaceutical companies are not allowed to promote their medications for an off-label use, which has lead to several large settlements for illegal marketing. To limit liability, physicians should prescribe medications only for indications that they believe are in the best interest of the patient. In addition, health care professionals should educate themselves about OLDU to weigh the risks and benefits and provide the best possible care for their patients. PMID:22877654

  15. Creating and using real-world evidence to answer questions about clinical effectiveness.

    PubMed

    De Lusignan, Simon; Crawford, Laura; Munro, Neil

    2015-01-01

    New forms of evidence are needed to complement evidence generated from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Real-World Evidence (RWE) is a potential new form of evidence, but remains undefined.This paper sets to fill that gap by defining RWE as the output from a rigorous research process which: (1) includes a clear a priori statement of a hypothesis to be tested or research question to be answered; (2) defines the data sources that will be used and critically appraises their strengths and weaknesses; and (3) applies appropriate methods, including advanced analytics. These elements should be set out in advance of the study commencing, ideally in a published protocol.The strengths of RWE studies are that they are more inclusive than RCTs and can enable an evidence base to be developed around real-world effectiveness and to start to address the complications of managing other real-world problems such as multimorbidity. Computerised medical record systems and big data provide a rich source of data for RWE studies.However, guidance is needed to help assess the rigour of RWE studies so that the strength of recommendations based on their output can be determined. Additionally, RWE advanced analytics methods need better categorisation and validation.We predict that the core role of RCTs will shift towards assessing safety and achieving regulatory compliance. RWE studies, notwithstanding their limitations, may become established as the best vehicle to assess efficacy. PMID:26577427

  16. A study of advanced training technology: Emerging answers to tough questions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This study reports the result of an extensive nationwide review of military, private sector, and other federal agencies and organizations that are implementing a wide variety of advanced training technologies. This report classifies the general categories of advanced training technologies found and provides an overview of each, including specific types and examples. In addition, the research findings present an organizational model for training development linking overall organizational maturity to readiness to implement specific kinds of advanced training technologies. It also presents proposed methods for selecting media, describes the organizations and the data gathered, and provides a summary of implementation success at each organization. This study is organized as a set of five topics. Each topic raises a number of important questions and provides complete or emerging answers. For organizations who have made advanced training selections, this study is a resource to benchmark their success with other organizations who have made similar selections. For new or developing training organizations, this study will help plan their future technology selections by comparing their level of organizational maturity to the documented experiences of similar organizations.

  17. STS-103 Commander Brown answers question during interview at Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. answers a question from the media about the mission. As a preparation for launch, the crew have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members are Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who is also with ESA. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  18. Expert panel answers questions for Super Safety and Health Day at KSC.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A panel of NASA and contractor senior staff, plus officers from the 45th Space Wing, discuss safety- and health-related concerns in front of an audience of KSC employees as part of Super Safety and Health Day. Moderating at the podium is Loren Shriver, deputy director for Launch & Payload Processing. Seated left to right are Burt Summerfield, associate director of the Biomedical Office; Colonel William S. Swindling, commander, 45th Medical Group, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; Ron Dittemore, manager, Space Shuttle Programs, Johnson Space Center; Roy Bridges, Center Director; Col. Tom Deppe, vice commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base; Jim Schoefield, program manager, Payload Ground Operations, Boeing; Bill Hickman, program manager, Space Gateway Support; and Ed Adamek, vice president and associate program manager for Ground Operations, United Space Alliance. Answering a question at the microphone on the floor is Dave King, director, Shuttle Processing. The panel was one of the presentations during KSC's second annual day-long dedication to safety. Most normal work activities were suspended to allow personnel to attend related activities. The theme, 'Safety and Health Go Hand in Hand,' emphasized KSC's commitment to place the safety and health of the public, astronauts, employees and space- related resources first and foremost. Events also included a keynote address, vendor exhibits, and safety training in work groups. The keynote address and panel session were also broadcast internally over NASA television.

  19. Using the Multiple Choice Procedure to Measure College Student Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Leon Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that gambling is similar to addictive behaviors such as substance use. In the current study, gambling was investigated from a behavioral economics perspective. The Multiple Choice Procedure (MCP) with gambling as the target behavior was used to assess for relative reinforcing value, the effect of alternative reinforcers, and…

  20. Samejima Items in Multiple-Choice Tests: Identification and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Nazia

    2013-01-01

    Samejima hypothesized that non-monotonically increasing item response functions (IRFs) of ability might occur for multiple-choice items (referred to here as "Samejima items") if low ability test takers with some, though incomplete, knowledge or skill are drawn to a particularly attractive distractor, while very low ability test takers…

  1. Appropriateness of Advice: DCT and Multiple Choice Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkel, Eli

    1997-01-01

    Investigates what can be learned about second language (L2) speech acts using English language multiple choice (MC) instruments and discourse completion tests (DCTs). The study focuses on the primary language (L1) responses of native speakers and the L2 responses given by speakers of Chinese to MC questionnaires and DCTs dealing with the…

  2. Valuing Assessment in Teacher Education - Multiple-Choice Competency Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Dona L.; Itter, Diane

    2014-01-01

    When our focus is on assessment educators should work to value the nature of assessment. This paper presents a new approach to multiple-choice competency testing in mathematics education. The instrument discussed here reflects student competence, encourages self-regulatory learning behaviours and links content with current curriculum documents and…

  3. Multiple Choice Learning: Learning to Produce Multiple Structured Outputs

    E-print Network

    Kohli, Pushmeet

    predictions: 1. Interactive Intelligent Systems. The goal of interactive machine-learning algorithmsMultiple Choice Learning: Learning to Produce Multiple Structured Outputs Abner Guzman for structured predic- tion tasks that involve interaction with users or successive components in a cas- caded

  4. Success on Multiple Choice Examinations: A Model and Workshop Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowering, Elizabeth R.; Wetmore, Ann A.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a theoretical model that identifies the context in which students experience difficulties with complex multiple choice exams (MCE). Provides a structured approach that facilitates the development of critical thinking and metacognitive skills. Discusses a workshop in which participants reported increased knowledge concerning the process…

  5. Common drugs and treatments for cancer and age-related diseases: revitalizing answers to NCI's provocative questions

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has announced 24 provocative questions on cancer. Some of these questions have been already answered in “NCI's provocative questions on cancer: some answers to ignite discussion” (published in Oncotarget, 2011, 2: 1352.) The questions included “Why do many cancer cells die when suddenly deprived of a protein encoded by an oncogene?” “Can we extend patient survival by using approaches that keep tumors static?” “Why are some disseminated cancers cured by chemotherapy alone?” “Can we develop methods to rapidly test interventions for cancer treatment or prevention?” “Can we use our knowledge of aging to enhance prevention or treatment of cancer?” “What is the mechanism by which some drugs commonly and chronically used for other indications protect against cancer?” “How does obesity contribute to cancer risk?” I devoted a single subchapter to each the answer. As expected, the provocative questions were very diverse and numerous. Now I choose and combine, as a single problem, only three last questions, all related to common mechanisms and treatment of age-related diseases including obesity and cancer. Can we use common existing drugs for cancer prevention and treatment? Can we use some targeted “cancer-selective” agents for other diseases and … aging itself. PMID:23565531

  6. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary). The following question and...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary). The following question and...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary). The following question and...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary). The following question and...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(a)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary). The following question and...

  11. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) Q-1: What does section 404(k)...

  12. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock...

  13. 26 CFR 7.105-1 - Questions and answers relating to exclusions of certain disability income payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to exclusions of certain disability income payments. 7.105-1 Section 7.105-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 §...

  14. 26 CFR 7.105-1 - Questions and answers relating to exclusions of certain disability income payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to exclusions of certain disability income payments. 7.105-1 Section 7.105-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 7.105-1...

  15. Nevada Education Law: Federal and State Law Governing Nevada K-12 Education in Question/Answer Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Richard F.; Cockerill, Charles P.

    This book provides answers to the most common legal questions of Nevada's school board members, administrators, and educators. Chapter 1, "The Nevada School System: Governance, Programs, and Standards," explores the constitutional, legal, and statutory basis of school system governance. Chapter 2, "The Nevada Plan: Finance of Public Education,"…

  16. 75 FR 52427 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Effect of Section 4205 of the Patient...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... requirements for nutrition labeling of standard menu items for chain retail food establishments and chain... menu items (``chain retail food establishments'') to disclose specific nutrition information about... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Effect...

  17. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. 35.3405-1 Section 35.3405-1 Internal... withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. The following questions and answers relate to withholding on pensions, annuities, and other deferred income under section 3405 of...

  18. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. 35.3405-1 Section 35.3405-1 Internal... withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. The following questions and answers relate to withholding on pensions, annuities, and other deferred income under section 3405 of...

  19. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. 35.3405-1 Section 35.3405-1 Internal... withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. The following questions and answers relate to withholding on pensions, annuities, and other deferred income under section 3405 of...

  20. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. 35.3405-1 Section 35.3405-1 Internal... withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. The following questions and answers relate to withholding on pensions, annuities, and other deferred income under section 3405 of...

  1. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. 35.3405-1 Section 35.3405-1 Internal... withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. The following questions and answers relate to withholding on pensions, annuities, and other deferred income under section 3405 of...

  2. The purpose of this work is to identify potential evaluation criteria for interactive, analytical question-answering (QA)

    E-print Network

    in realistic settings, with realistic tasks. This requires holistic evaluation methods and metrics that shouldThe purpose of this work is to identify potential evaluation criteria for interactive, analytical question-answering (QA) systems by analyzing evaluative comments made by users of such a system

  3. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue... Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) Q-1: What does section 404(k) provide? A-1:...

  4. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) Q-1: What does section 404(k)...

  5. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE...

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE...

  7. 26 CFR 35.3405-1T - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income (temporary regulations). 35.3405-1T Section 35.3405-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT...

  8. "Remember to Hand out Medals": Peer Rating and Expertise in a Question-and-Answer Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study of giving medals as part of a peer rating system in a question-and-answer (Q&A) study group on Python, a programming language. There are no professional teachers tutoring learners. The study aimed to understand whether and how medals, awarded to responses in a peer-based learning environment, can…

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Software Subject to the EAR No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... Supplement No. 1 to Part 734—Questions and Answers—Technology and Software Subject to the EAR This Supplement... to the EAR. It is intended to give the public guidance in understanding how BIS interprets this...

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Software Subject to the EAR No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... Supplement No. 1 to Part 734—Questions and Answers—Technology and Software Subject to the EAR This Supplement... to the EAR. It is intended to give the public guidance in understanding how BIS interprets this...

  11. INTERNSHIP/CO-OP APPLICATION FORM Please fill out the form, answering every question/category. Under "Approved by," be

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    INTERNSHIP/CO-OP APPLICATION FORM Please fill out the form, answering every question/category. Under "Approved by," be sure to sign the form yourself and get the Internship Coordinator's signature form to Shambhu Upadhyaya, Internship Coordinator, at 329 Davis Hall. Also, please attach a copy

  12. Where Have All the Teachers Gone? Finding Answers to the Most Basic Questions about California's Teacher Workforce. CenterView

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This policy brief presents a strong case for the creation of a statewide teacher data system in California by highlighting some of the simple teacher workforce questions that cannot be answered because such a system does not currently exist. At the state level, data on teacher qualifications are needed to fulfill the new reporting requirements of…

  13. Talking with Children and Teens about Alzheimer's Disease: A Question and Answer Guidebook for Parents, Teachers and Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrea, James M.

    Professionals in the fields of nursing, education, health care, recreation, and social work, who specialize in dealing with Alzheimer's disease, wrote answers to questions collected from discussion sessions held at four Pennsylvania elder facilities and made suggestions for talking to young people about the disease and its impact. This guidebook…

  14. Using Question Answer Relationships in Science Instruction to Increase the Reading Achievement of Struggling Readers and Students with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinniburgh, Leah H.; Baxter, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    The Question Answer Relationship (QAR) literacy strategy was integrated into science instruction in a fourth grade classroom. Ten students who struggled with reading, including some who were diagnosed with a reading disability, participated in this study. Significant gains were made in reading by the 10 student participants in comprehending…

  15. Broecker_Answers to student questions 115.pdf Student questions: Wallace Broecker colloquium on "The Collision that Changed the World"

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    understand the chemical reactions, just not how this affects the world on a global scale.) By building to erosion and lead to an increase in global CO2 and temperature at the earlier stages of the collision of chain reaction? No, just a steady increase in mountain building #12;Broecker_Answers to student

  16. An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A) network tools, which link questioners directly to experts can overcome some of these barriers. When designing and testing online tools, assessing the usability and applicability is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the usability and applicability of a new online Q&A network tool for answers on OSH questions. Methods We applied a cross-sectional usability test design. Eight occupational health experts and twelve potential questioners from the working population (workers) were purposively selected to include a variety of computer- and internet-experiences. During the test, participants were first observed while executing eight tasks that entailed important features of the tool. In addition, they were interviewed. Through task observations and interviews we assessed applicability, usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction) and facilitators and barriers in use. Results Most features were usable, though several could be improved. Most tasks were executed effectively. Some tasks, for example searching stored questions in categories, were not executed efficiently and participants were less satisfied with the corresponding features. Participants' recommendations led to improvements. The tool was found mostly applicable for additional information, to observe new OSH trends and to improve contact between OSH experts and workers. Hosting and support by a trustworthy professional organization, effective implementation campaigns, timely answering and anonymity were seen as important use requirements. Conclusions This network tool is a promising new strategy for offering company workers high quality information to answer OSH questions. Q&A network tools can be an addition to existing information facilities in the field of OSH, but also to other healthcare fields struggling with how to answer questions from people in practice with high quality information. In the near future, we will focus on the use of the tool and its effects on information and knowledge dissemination. PMID:20969777

  17. Geophysical Summer Field Camp: Answering questions about the subsurface for the local community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, K.; Batzle, M.; Liberty, L.; Raynolds, R.

    2008-12-01

    Summer Geophysics Field Camp is part of the core requirement for undergraduate Geophysics majors at Boise State University (CSM), as well as at Colorado School of Mines (CSM). We have found it to be most effectively taught when the target of the camp involves answering questions, which impact society. For example, currently the CSM/BSU geophysics summer camp focuses on ground water resources and geothermal potential in the Upper Arkansas River Basin, a part of the Rio Grande Rift system in Chaffee County, Colorado. A prime goal is to train students how to combine diverse sources of information into a unified interpretation: Students examine lithologies and structures on the periphery of the basin. Cross sections are constructed to predict the geophysical signature. Geophysical tools then are used to ascertain the gross structure and examine subsurface conditions in greater detail. These tools include surveying, regional gravity, deep and shallow seismic surveys, magnetics, DC resistivity, Ground Penetrating Radar, electromagnetics, hydrochemistry, and karaoke. While BSU and CSM own a considerable amount of geophysical hardware, our field camps are only possible because of extensive support by corporations and governmental agencies. In addition, the Society of Exploration Geohysics (SEG) Foundation provides financial support, Chaffee County assists with housing costs, and local land owners provide open access. In turn, the field camp results aid the community of Chaffee County in assessing their water resources for long term growth planning, as well as understanding the geothermal potential for hydroelectric power generation. BSU is currently exploring with the SEG Foundation under the Geophysicists Without Borders program to apply this model of combined education and social outreach in the form a geophysics camp for Southeast Asia, where we propose to study geohazards,geoarcheology and groundwater issues.

  18. The communication skills used by deaf children and their hearing peers in a question-and-answer game context.

    PubMed

    Toe, Dianne M; Paatsch, Louise E

    2010-01-01

    Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in a "trivia" game with their hearing peers. Thirty-four children with normal hearing and 34 children with a hearing loss ranging from mild to profound (>90 dB HL) participated in this study. Each of the 34 dyads included 1 child with normal hearing and 1 child with hearing loss, matched by gender and grade level at school. Dyads were videotaped and analyzed. Pairs were compared in terms of their capacity to repeat the question, strategies used to seek information, and accuracy of responses. Results showed that the group of hearing children was able to repeat more questions verbatim compared to the deaf/HH children. The deaf/HH group required a significantly greater number of repetitions, sought a greater number of general clarifications, and correctly answered more questions compared with the group of hearing children. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of peer communication and pragmatic skill development. PMID:20299450

  19. Measuring Strategy Use in Context with Multiple-Choice Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer; Azevedo, Roger

    2011-01-01

    A number of authors have presented data that challenge the validity of self-report of strategy use or choice of strategy. We created a multiple-choice measure of students' strategy use based on the work of Kozminsky, E., and Kozminsky, L. (2001), and tested it with three samples as part of a series of studies testing the fit of the DIME model of…

  20. Evaluating Question-Answering Techniques in Chinese Xiaoyan Li and W. Bruce Croft

    E-print Network

    taking aspirin repeatedly?" and topic 308 "What are the advantages and/or disadvantages of tooth implants-answering experiments have, to date, used only English text. As the first step towards our goal of cross

  1. Analysis of Student Responses to Peer-Instruction Conceptual Questions Answered Using an Electronic Response System: Trends by Gender and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steer, David; McConnell, David; Gray, Kyle; Kortz, Karen; Liang, Xin

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated students' answers to geoscience conceptual questions answered using electronic personal response systems. Answer patterns were examined to evaluate the peer-instruction pedagogical approach in a large general education classroom setting. (Contains 3 figures and 2 tables.)

  2. The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

    2009-04-01

    Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple" compatibility. 100% protection against the 100 year event shows to be the optimal degree of protection. Consequently, impacts statistically less frequent than once in 100 year are accepted as the remaining risk. Such floods and debris flows respectively cause a fan of propagation which is substantially reduced due to the protection measures against the 100 year event. III) The "triple loss distribution" shows the monetized triple damage, dependent on its probability. The monetization is performed by the social process of participation of the impacted interests, if not, by official experts in representation. The triple loss distribution rises in time mainly due to the rise in density and value of precious goods. A comparison of the distributions of the triple loss and the triple risk, behaving in opposite direction, is shown and explained within the project. IV) The recommended yearly reserves to be stocked for restoration and compensation of losses, caused by debris flows, amount to € 70'000.- according to the approach of the "technical risk premium". The discrepancy in comparison with the much higher amounts according to the common approaches of natural hazards engineering are discussed. V) The sustainable mix of hydraulic and forestry measures with the highest return on investment at lowest risk is performed according to the portfolio theory (Markowitz), based on the triple value curves, generated by the method of TripelBudgetierung®. Accordingly, the optimum mix of measures to protect the community of Inzing against the natural hazard of debris flow, thus, the most efficient allocation of resources equals to 2/3 for hydraulic, 1/3 for forestry measures. In detail, the results of the research pilot project "Nachhaltiges Risikomanagement - Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria" may be consulted under www.ibu.hsr.ch/inzing.

  3. An Automatic Query Augmentation Model for Answering Well-Defined Questions in Top-1 Search Result

    E-print Network

    of some well-defined questions such as "the birthday of Bill Gates"(and most factoid questions. In comparison with the basic two-term query form, which submits a key entity query term (`Bill Gates') plus

  4. 26 CFR 1.133-1T - Questions and answers relating to interest on certain loans used to acquire employer securities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to interest on certain loans used to...Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.133-1T Questions and answers relating to interest on certain loans used...

  5. 26 CFR 1.40-1 - Questions and answers relating to the meaning of the term “qualified mixture” in section 40(b)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to the meaning of the term âqualified...INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.40-1 Questions and answers relating to the meaning of the term...

  6. 26 CFR 54.4978-1T - Questions and answers relating to the tax on certain dispositions by employee stock ownership...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the tax on certain dispositions by...CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4978-1T Questions and answers relating to the tax on certain dispositions...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1(i)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income certain minor children (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income certain...Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.1(i)-1T Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income...

  8. 26 CFR 54.4978-1T - Questions and answers relating to the tax on certain dispositions by employee stock ownership...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the tax on certain dispositions by...CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4978-1T Questions and answers relating to the tax on certain dispositions...

  9. 26 CFR 1.133-1T - Questions and answers relating to interest on certain loans used to acquire employer securities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to interest on certain loans used to...Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.133-1T Questions and answers relating to interest on certain loans used...

  10. 26 CFR 1.40-1 - Questions and answers relating to the meaning of the term “qualified mixture” in section 40(b)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to the meaning of the term âqualified...INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.40-1 Questions and answers relating to the meaning of the term...

  11. Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…

  12. Beyond the Bubble, Grades 2-3: How to Use Multiple-Choice Tests to Improve Math Instruction, Grades 2-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickett, Maryann; Hendrix-Martin, Eunice

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-choice testing is an educational reality. Rather than complain about the negative impact these tests may have on teaching and learning, why not use them to better understand your students' true mathematical knowledge and comprehension? Maryann Wickett and Eunice Hendrix-Martin show teachers how to move beyond the student's answer--right…

  13. The answering system to yes-no truth-functional questions in Korean-English bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hansook

    2014-06-01

    This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961) were provided as questions such as true affirmative (TA), true negative (TN), false affirmative (FA), and false negative (FN). The bilingual children's answers were observed in separate language settings, English and Korean. The results by the bilingual in the Korean setting were compared with those by the monolinguals. The results show that bilingual children can process two systems rather successfully by providing correct responses to the given questions. But difficulty patterns, measured from error rates in each setting, are found different in two languages. The bilinguals' difficulty patterns in English and Korean, however, show deviation from monolinguals' difficulty patterns suggested in previous studies (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961, Akiyama in Dev Psychol 20:219-228, 1984, Kim in Dev Psychol 21(3):462-472, 1985, Choi in Dev Psychol 29(3):407-420, 1991). The present work also shows that negatives are not uniformly reported with more errors than affirmatives when the truth condition and the answering system are further involved. All in all, the current study suggests that bilingual children have two separate processing systems for yes-no truth-functional questions. However, the two systems cannot be understood as a simple coexistence of two monolingual systems. Interaction of the two competing linguistic systems is discussed further. PMID:23639994

  14. Effective Use of Multiple-Choice Items in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Angela T.; Marolt, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-choice items are commonly viewed as a summative check for skill attainment, but they can be used to assess other dimensions of student learning. The purpose of this article is to offer an expanded view of the use of multiple-choice items in the middle level mathematics classroom. It presents three alternative uses of multiple-choice items…

  15. Question Answering on Speech Transcriptions: the QAST evaluation in CLEF , S. Rosset1

    E-print Network

    : document retrieval and precise information retrieval. In the first approach, documents matching a user.g. The answer to Who won the 2005 Tour de France? is Lance Armstrong.). In the QA and Information Retrieval project, was carried out under the CLEF umbrella for the evaluation of QA systems on Speech Transcriptions

  16. Do Students Know if They Answered Particular Questions Correctly on a Psychology Exam?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Gary T.; Soper, Barlow; McKnight, Richard R.; Price, A. W.; Boudreaux, Monique; Rachal, K. Chris

    2010-01-01

    The current study explores students' abilities to make different metacognitive judgments about the same material. Sophomores in a psychology class indicated how confident they were that each answer on their final was correct (micro-level judgments) and pre- postdicted their overall score (macro-level judgments). Students made the series of simpler…

  17. 77 FR 50372 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 33030), we issued a final rule requiring shell egg producers to implement measures to... the Federal Register of July 13, 2011 (76 FR 41157), we made available a draft guidance entitled... Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During...

  18. 78 FR 44483 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    .... Background In the Federal Register of July 9, 2009 (74 FR 33030), FDA issued a final rule requiring shell egg... Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production... Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage,...

  19. Paraphrase-Driven Learning for Open Question Answering Anthony Fader Luke Zettlemoyer Oren Etzioni

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    and cons of social networking sites? How do you say Santa Claus in Sweden? Say santa clause in sweden? How do you say santa clause in swedish? How do they say santa in Sweden? In Sweden what is santa called? Who is sweden santa? Table 1: Examples of paraphrase clusters from the WikiAnswers corpus. Within each

  20. [The concept of man in nursing education: evaluation of the students' answers to the exam questions in nursing].

    PubMed

    Elomaa, L

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the concept of man in nursing education. The data consisted of the nursing students' answers to the summative exam questions in seven courses in nursing. The total number of answers in the study was 202. The data was analyzed by the method of content analysis. Four dimensions of the concept of man were formed on the basis of the theoretical background: the holistic concept of man, the reduced concept of man, man as an active subject, man as a passive object. From the answers 40% described man as a holistic, active subject and 30% as a reduced, passive object. Man as a holistic, passive object was identified in 16% of the answers and as a reduced, active subject in the rest. The holistic concept of man was expressed as a bio-psychosocial wholeness. The reduced concept meant that man was described mostly as a biological organism. The activity of man was described as concrete activity, man was not described as a decision maker. PMID:2322476

  1. 77 FR 50372 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ...Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation...Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation...those questions, and is intended to assist egg producers and other persons who are...

  2. A Neural Network for Factoid Question Answering over Mohit Iyyer1

    E-print Network

    Daume III, Hal

    textual composition- ality. We apply our model, qanta, to a dataset of questions from a trivia competition and college students play a game where they map raw text to well-known entities. This is a trivia competition

  3. Astronaut Jeff Williams Answers Your Questions - Duration: 6 minutes, 50 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams, aboard the International Space Station 220 miles above Earth, responds to questions posted on YouTube concerning the station's orientation, life in space and ...

  4. Question & Answer with Heather Harward: H2O4Texas Coalition promotes state water plan implementations 

    E-print Network

    Kalisek, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    stream_source_info H2o4 Texas Coalition.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 8369 Content-Encoding windows-1252 stream_name H2o4 Texas Coalition.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=windows-1252 26 tx H... & Answer with Heather Harward H?O?TEXAS Coalition promotes state water plan implementation 2 Texans at the grassroots and get them energized about the plan?s implementation. In order to achieve full implementation, we ultimately need to come up with a...

  5. Questions and Answers About the Effects of Septic Systems on Water Quality in the La Pine Area, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John S.; Morgan, David S.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate levels in the ground-water aquifer underlying the central Oregon city of La Pine and the surrounding area are increasing due to contamination from residential septic systems. This contamination has public health implications because ground water is the sole source of drinking water for area residents. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Deschutes County and the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, studied the movement and chemistry of nitrate in the aquifer and developed computer models that can be used to predict future nitrate levels and to evaluate alternatives for protecting water quality. This fact sheet summarizes the results of that study in the form of questions and answers.

  6. Primary sleep disorders in people with epilepsy: clinical questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Grigg-Damberger, Madeleine M; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The questions facing clinicians with patients with sleep disorder and epilepsy are addressed in this article. Both adult and child epilepsy are discussed in the context of the most typical questions a clinician would have, such as "Are parasomnias more common in people with epilepsy?", "Is sleep architecture abnormal in children with epilepsy", along with outcomes of numerous questionnaire-based, case-based, and double-blind placebo studies on such aspects as sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, anxiety and fears, limb movement, nocturnal seizures, agitation, behavioral disorders, and learning disorders. PMID:25455580

  7. "Don't Know" Responding to Answerable and Unanswerable Questions during Misleading and Hypnotic Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving

    2008-01-01

    "Don't know" (DK) responses to interview questions are conceptually heterogeneous, and may represent uncertainty or clear statements about the contents of memory. A study examined the subjective intent of DK responses in relation to the objective status of information queried, in the context of memory distorting procedures. Participants viewed a…

  8. Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

  9. A Decision Tree for Psychology Majors: Supplying Questions as Well as Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Retta E.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the development of a psychology careers decision tree to help faculty advise students plan their program. States that students using the decision tree may benefit by learning more about their career options and by acquiring better question-asking skills. (GEA)

  10. ES2A7 -Fluid Mechanics Example Classes Model Answers to Example Questions (Set III)

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Peter J.

    - in vaporous state at T=400K and P=1bar. This gas is assumed to follow the law of perfect gas. Data: - Density: Type of Fluid #12;Classify the following fluid: Ketchup, Silly putty, mixture of water and corn flour of water and corn flour Newtonian : Honey Thixotropic: Ketchup Question 4: Venturi Effect Consider two

  11. Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

  12. The Answer Depends on the Question: A Reply to Eric Jensen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The question that Eric Jensen addresses in his article is whether brain research can provide a basis for educational practice. He debates John Bruer, president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, and argues that brain research can, in fact, provide a basis for what educators do. Most of Jensen's article is devoted to showing ways in which brain…

  13. Questions in the Answers to Primary School Educational Reconstruction in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review current issues in pre- and primary school reform and to pose questions on the long-term implications of present day solutions. Such an exercise will open up discussion on the probable effects of educational policy decisions with a view to minimize negative effects brought on by new policies. Because data…

  14. Answering Gauguin?s Questions: Where Are We Coming From, Where Are We Going, and What Are We?

    ScienceCinema

    Ellis, John [CERN

    2010-09-01

    The knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, the so-called Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions. What is the origin of the matter in the Universe? How does its mass originate? What is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe? Are there additional dimensions of space? The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, where high-energy experiments have now started, will take physics into a new realm of energy and time, and will address these physics analogues of Gauguin's questions. The answers will set the stage for possible future experiments beyond the scope of the LHC.

  15. Answering Gauguin’s Questions: Where Are We Coming From, Where Are We Going, and What Are We?

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John

    2010-05-26

    The knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, the so-called Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions. What is the origin of the matter in the Universe? How does its mass originate? What is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe? Are there additional dimensions of space? The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, where high-energy experiments have now started, will take physics into a new realm of energy and time, and will address these physics analogues of Gauguin's questions. The answers will set the stage for possible future experiments beyond the scope of the LHC.

  16. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.267(a)-2T Section 1.267(a)-2T Internal Revenue... Not Deductible § 1.267(a)-2T Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform... Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. No. 98-369. (2) Effective date. Except as otherwise provided by Answer 2...

  17. Reference Question Answered: Discussion of Russian funeral rites as depicted in V posikakh schast’ia (In Search of Happiness), Film, 2006

    E-print Network

    Giullian, Jon C.

    2008-01-01

    The author answers a reference question on the depiction of a funeral in the 2006 Russian documentary film V poiskakh schast’ia (In Search of Happiness), which takes place in the Jewish Autonomous Region in Siberia. Consultations and reference...

  18. Therapeutic hypothermia post out-of-hospital cardiac arrest - more questions than answers?

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Nearly a decade since the introduction of therapeutic hypothermia to the ICU for cooling out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients, key questions remain unanswered: when should cooling be initiated, how rapidly should the patient be cooled and using which device? The Time to Target Temperature study group provides important baseline data on the striking direct relationship between body temperature and survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. PMID:21542884

  19. 26 CFR 1.40-1 - Questions and answers relating to the meaning of the term “qualified mixture” in section 40(b)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the meaning of the term âqualified mixtureâ in section 40(b)(1). 1.40-1 Section 1.40-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.40-1 Questions and answers relating to the meaning of...

  20. The use of statins in patients with heart failure: more questions than answers

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    The use of statins to treat patients with heart failure (HF) is controversial due to conflicting results from large, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trials and other smaller studies. A recent comprehensive, well-conducted meta-analysis from Preiss and colleagues sought to determine whether statin therapy had an effect on major HF outcomes such as hospitalization and death. Although the study demonstrated a significant effect of statin therapy on HF hospitalizations, several limitations involving the participant data and nature of statin used in the analyzed trials raise questions about the inferences that can be drawn from the study results. PMID:26623083