Sample records for answer multiple-choice questions

  1. The Answering Process for Multiple-Choice Questions in Collaborative Learning: A Mathematical Learning Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nishi, Shinnosuke; Muramatsu, Yuta; Yasutake, Koichi; Yamakawa, Osamu; Tagawa, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a mathematical model for collaborative learning and the answering process for multiple-choice questions. The collaborative learning model is inspired by the Ising spin model and the model for answering multiple-choice questions is based on their difficulty level. An intensive simulation study predicts the possibility of…

  2. Group Discovery with Multiple-Choice Exams and Consumer Surveys: The Group-Question-Answer Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Beatty; William Gerace

    Multiple choice questions (MCQs) are a common data gathering tool. We extend the La- tent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) framework to a collection of MCQ surveys. Topic discovery is turned into group discovery based on survey response patterns. Question choices are equiv- alent to vocabulary words and are conditioned on the question and the latent group that is used to cluster

  3. i>clicker SelfPaced Polling Student Guide To answer multiple choice (AE) questions using the i>clicker2 remote

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    1 i>clicker SelfPaced Polling Student Guide To answer multiple choice (AE) questions using the AE buttons to select your answer for question 1. 2. Press the blue "mode/refresh" button to ensure that you are in selfpaced polling mode. 5. Your answer choice and a checkmark will appear

  4. Improving Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cristina; Lopes, Ana Paula; Babo, Lurdes; Azevedo, Jose

    2011-01-01

    A MC (multiple-choice) question can be defined as a question in which students are asked to select one alternative from a given set of alternatives in response to a question stem. The objective of this paper is to analyse if MC questions may be considered as an interesting alternative for assessing knowledge, particularly in the mathematics area,…

  5. Answer Changing on Multiple-Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidler, Derek; Hansen, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Relationships among patterns of answer changing and item characteristics on multiple-choice tests are discussed. Results obtained were similar to those found in previous studies but pointed to further relationships among these variables. (Author/GK)

  6. Challenging Multiple-Choice Questions to Engage Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkman, Dennis D.; Johnson, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines a technique for engaging critical thinking on multiple-choice exams. University students were encouraged to "challenge" the validity of any exam question they believed to be unfair (e.g., more than one equally correct answer, ambiguous wording, etc.). The number of valid challenges a student wrote was a better…

  7. INTRODUCING MULTIPLE CHOICE ALONGSIDE SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS INTO THE END-OF-YEAR EXAMINATION: THE IMPACT ON STUDENT LEARNING IN FIRST YEAR ECONOMICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Reimann

    The study investigates the impact of a change to the format of the examination of a large module in introductory Economics, where essay questions were replaced by multiple choice questions (MCQ). The paper explores the impact of the examination on the quality of student learning and students' experiences and perceptions of the new format The data comprised questionnaire data, semi-structured

  8. Mind the Red Herrings--Deliberate Distraction of Pupil's Strategies Solving Multiple Choice Questions in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    This study assumes that multiple choice test items generally provide the testee with several solutions, one of which is correct and the others of which are wrong. If pupils are unable to answer a question, one would expect that the wrong choices have equal chances of being selected. In many multiple choice items on stoichiometric calculation which…

  9. Answer changing in multiple choice assessment change that answer when in doubt – and spread the word!

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Bauer; Veronika Kopp; Martin R Fischer

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies during the last decades have shown that answer changing in multiple choice examinations is generally beneficial for examinees. In spite of this the common misbelief still prevails that answer changing in multiple choice examinations results in an increased number of wrong answers rather than an improved score. One suggested consequence of newer studies is that examinees should

  10. Does the Answer Order Matter on Multiple-Choice Exams?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Tellinghuisen; Michelle M. Sulikowski

    2008-01-01

    Surprising version-dependent differences are noted in student performance on certain questions in a standardized general chemistry exam. The exam in question has two versions, on which both questions and answers are ordered differently. For the questions suspected of answer-order bias, the performance is better in ten of twelve cases when students see the correct answer earlier in the list of

  11. A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

  12. The Database Format Question: An Alternative to Multiple Choice and Free Format for Computer Based Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of computer-based testing (CBT) focuses on the development of the database format question (DFQ) which allows the user to build up a more complex answer than multiple choice by selecting items from a database presented on the computer screen. Programing is explained and an evaluation of DFQ is included. (Seven references) (LRW)

  13. GUIDELINES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS TESTS

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rukban, Mohammed O.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) are generally recognized as the most widely applicable and useful type of objective test items. They could be used to measure the most important educational outcomes - knowledge, understanding, judgment and problem solving. The objective of this paper is to give guidelines for the construction of MCQs tests. This includes the construction of both “single best option” type, and “extended matching item” type. Some templates for use in the “single best option” type of questions are recommended. PMID:23012132

  14. Does the Answer Order Matter on Multiple-Choice Exams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellinghuisen, Joel; Sulikowski, Michelle M.

    2008-04-01

    Surprising version-dependent differences are noted in student performance on certain questions in a standardized general chemistry exam. The exam in question has two versions, on which both questions and answers are ordered differently. For the questions suspected of answer-order bias, the performance is better in ten of twelve cases when students see the correct answer earlier in the list of four choices. Expansion of the study to more abundant data for the same exam from the ACS DivCHED Examinations Institute supports the interpretation of these observations as a primacy effect, characteristic of guessing, but with an aversion for the first choice. However, the single problem that shows the greatest disparity between versions in both data sets is one most chemists would view as so simple as to make guessing unnecessary, hence unlikely as an explanation.

  15. Wireless Keypads - A New Classroom Technology Using Enhanced Multiple-Choice Questions

    E-print Network

    Burnstein, R A

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the advantages of using wireless keypads in the Lecture/classroom. This new technology requires multiple-choice (MC) questions to mate with the keypad entry features of these devices. The format of the traditional MC response is constrained to five choices and only one best response is allowed. For this reason, we propose enhancements to the traditional MC question. This enhanced MC question allows as many as ten answers. The answers can vary in their degree of correctness and can be assigned partial credit. By combining wireless keypads and multiple-choice questions, we can readily perform both formative and summative assessments of student learning. Examples and classroom applications are presented.

  16. Multiple-Choice and Short-Answer Exam Performance in a College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Steven C.; Dickson, K. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    The authors experimentally investigated the effects of multiple-choice and short-answer format exam items on exam performance in a college classroom. They randomly assigned 50 students to take a 10-item short-answer pretest or posttest on two 50-item multiple-choice exams in an introduction to personality course. Students performed significantly…

  17. A Statistical Test for Detecting Answer Copying on Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Sotaridona, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    A statistical test for the detection of answer copying on multiple-choice tests is presented. The test is based on the idea that the answers of examinees to test items may be the result of three possible processes: (1) knowing, (2) guessing, and (3) copying, but that examinees who do not have access to the answers of other examinees can arrive at…

  18. Answer Changing on Multiple-Choice Test Items among Eighth-Grade Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casteel, Clifton A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of answer-changing on a multiple-choice test were studied for 27 poor readers and 26 good readers (19 males and 34 females) in eighth grade. Overall, subjects benefited from answer-changing. Answer-changing among young examinees should be encouraged if there is reasonable doubt about their first impression. (SLD)

  19. Graded Multiple Choice Questions: Rewarding Understanding and Preventing Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denyer, Gareth; Hancock, Dale

    2002-01-01

    Describes an easily implemented method that allows the generation and analysis of graded multiple-choice examinations. The technique, which uses standard functions in user-end software (Microsoft Excel 5+), can also produce several different versions of an examination that can be employed to prevent plagiarism. (MM)

  20. Benefiting from Multiple?Choice Exams: The positive impact of answer switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Di Milia

    2007-01-01

    The extent and benefit of answer switching when completing multiple?choice exams was investigated in an undergraduate course (n = 1,152) and a postgraduate course (n = 1,624). Answer switching was identified in 1.7% and 2.4% of cases, respectively. In both samples, more than half the participants changed at least one answer and, of these, approximately 50% increased their test score

  1. Memorial consequences of answering SAT II questions.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Elizabeth J; Agarwal, Pooja K; Roediger, Henry L

    2009-03-01

    Many thousands of students take standardized tests every year. In the current research, we asked whether answering standardized test questions affects students' later test performance. Prior research has shown both positive and negative effects of multiple-choice testing on later tests, with negative effects arising from students selecting incorrect alternatives on multiple-choice tests and then believing they were correct (Roediger & Marsh, 2005). In the current experiments, undergraduates and high school students answered multiple-choice questions retired from SAT II tests (that are no longer in the testing pool) on biology, chemistry, U.S. history, and world history, and later answered cued-recall questions about these subjects. In 3 experiments, we observed positive testing effects: More final cued-recall questions were answered correctly if the items had appeared on the initial multiple-choice test. We also sometimes observed negative testing effects: intrusions of multiple-choice distractors as answers on the final cued-recall test. Students who scored well on the initial test benefited from taking the test, but lower achieving students showed either less benefit (undergraduates) or costs from the testing (high school students). PMID:19309212

  2. Quality Multiple-Choice Test Questions: Item-Writing Guidelines and an Analysis of Auditing Testbanks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James D.; Dexter, Lee

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of test item banks in 10 auditing textbooks found that 75% of questions violated one or more guidelines for multiple-choice items. In comparison, 70% of a certified public accounting exam bank had no violations. (SK)

  3. Beware Answers with Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Answers to mathematical problems come in all forms and most come with a variety of questions. Students often forget to ask questions once they have found an answer. This paper suggests that students would always benefit by questioning answers.

  4. Measuring University students' understanding of the greenhouse effect - a comparison of multiple-choice, short answer and concept sketch assessment tools with respect to students' mental models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, A. U.; Harris, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The greenhouse effect comes up in most discussions about climate and is a key concept related to climate change. Existing studies have shown that students and adults alike lack a detailed understanding of this important concept or might hold misconceptions. We studied the effectiveness of different interventions on University-level students' understanding of the greenhouse effect. Introductory level science students were tested for their pre-knowledge of the greenhouse effect using validated multiple-choice questions, short answers and concept sketches. All students participated in a common lesson about the greenhouse effect and were then randomly assigned to one of two lab groups. One group explored an existing simulation about the greenhouse effect (PhET-lesson) and the other group worked with absorption spectra of different greenhouse gases (Data-lesson) to deepen the understanding of the greenhouse effect. All students completed the same assessment including multiple choice, short answers and concept sketches after participation in their lab lesson. 164 students completed all the assessments, 76 completed the PhET lesson and 77 completed the data lesson. 11 students missed the contrasting lesson. In this presentation we show the comparison between the multiple-choice questions, short answer questions and the concept sketches of students. We explore how well each of these assessment types represents student's knowledge. We also identify items that are indicators of the level of understanding of the greenhouse effect as measured in correspondence of student answers to an expert mental model and expert responses. Preliminary data analysis shows that student who produce concept sketch drawings that come close to expert drawings also choose correct multiple-choice answers. However, correct multiple-choice answers are not necessarily an indicator that a student produces an expert-like correlating concept sketch items. Multiple-choice questions that require detailed knowledge of the greenhouse effect (e.g. direction of re-emission of infrared energy from greenhouse gas) are significantly more likely to be answered correctly by students who also produce expert-like concept sketch items than by students who don't include this aspect in their sketch and don't answer the multiple choice questions correctly. This difference is not as apparent for less technical multiple-choice questions (e.g. type of radiation emitted by Sun). Our findings explore the formation of student's mental models throughout different interventions and how well the different assessment techniques used in this study represent the student understanding of the overall concept.

  5. Closing Panel Question & Answer

    E-print Network

    Moore, Paul A.

    N E X T #12;Closing Panel Question & Answer REDDIN SYMPOSIUM XXI CANADIAN STUDIES"Unsecure"World Question and Answer Inuit Rights and Responsibilities in the Changing North Question & Answer Environmental to translate science into public policy. 1 #12;Closing Panel Question & Answer REDDIN SYMPOSIUM XXI CANADIAN

  6. Using a Reciprocal Teaching Strategy to Create Multiple-Choice Exam Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Murray; Duranczyk, Irene; Staats, Susan; Moore, Randy; Hatch, Jay; Somdahl, Chas

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates a new type of multiple-choice test question that is relatively easy to construct and that challenges students' understandings of biological concepts. The questions involve a small narrative of scientific text that students must evaluate for accuracy. These are termed "You are the Teacher" questions because the…

  7. SHOULD YOU CHANGE? AN EXAMINATION OF CHANGING ANSWERS ON MULTIPLE CHOICE EXAMS IN AN INFORMATION SYSTEMS COURSE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirotoshi Takeda

    This is research in progress taking an exploratory look at the issue of changing one's answers on a multiple choice exam. Past research has provided support for conclusions ranging from the old adage of not changing your answer and going with one's first instinct, to concluding that changing answers results in more correct answers. The data of this study was

  8. Memorial Consequences of Answering SAT II Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Elizabeth J.; Agarwal, Pooja K.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2009-01-01

    Many thousands of students take standardized tests every year. In the current research, we asked whether answering standardized test questions affects students' later test performance. Prior research has shown both positive and negative effects of multiple-choice testing on later tests, with negative effects arising from students selecting…

  9. Wireless Keypads - A New Classroom Technology Using Enhanced Multiple-Choice Questions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Burnstein; L. M. Lederman

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the advantages of using wireless keypads in the Lecture\\/classroom. This new technology requires multiple-choice (MC) questions to mate with the keypad entry features of these devices. The format of the traditional MC response is constrained to five choices and only one best response is allowed. For this reason, we propose enhancements to the traditional MC question. This

  10. Wireless Keypads - A New Classroom Technology Using Enhanced Multiple-Choice Questions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RAY A. BURNSTEIN; LEON M. LEDERMAN

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the advantages of using wireless keypads in the\\u000aLecture\\/classroom. This new technology requires multiple-choice (MC) questions\\u000ato mate with the keypad entry features of these devices. The format of the\\u000atraditional MC response is constrained to five choices and only one best\\u000aresponse is allowed. For this reason, we propose enhancements to the\\u000atraditional MC question. This

  11. The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gray, Kara

    This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

  12. Comparison of examination methods based on multiple-choice questions and constructed-response questions using personal computers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Errikos Ventouras; Dimos Triantis; Panagiotis Tsiakas; Charalampos Stergiopoulos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to compare the use of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) as an examination method, to the examination based on constructed-response questions (CRQs). Despite that MCQs have an advantage concerning objectivity in the grading process and speed in production of results, they also introduce an error in the final formulation of the score. The error is

  13. An Online National Archive of Multiple-Choice Questions for Astro 101 and the Development of the Question Complexity Rubric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Cormier; E. Prather; G. Brissenden

    2011-01-01

    We are developing a national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astronomy 101 classroom. These questions are intended to supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or for their assessment purposes (i.e., exams and homework). We are also developing the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR) to guide members of the Astro 101 teaching and learning community in assisting us with

  14. Lexical validation of answers in Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Ligozat, Anne-Laure

    Lexical validation of answers in Question Answering Anne-Laure Ligozat, Brigitte Grau, Anne Vilnat answering (QA) aims at retrieving precise in- formation from a large collection of documents, typically, it is impor- tant to evaluate question answering systems. The objective of an Answer Validation task

  15. Constructive Multiple-Choice Testing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jooyong

    2010-01-01

    The newly developed computerized Constructive Multiple-choice Testing system is introduced. The system combines short answer (SA) and multiple-choice (MC) formats by asking examinees to respond to the same question twice, first in the SA format, and then in the MC format. This manipulation was employed to collect information about the two…

  16. The relationship of deep and surface study approaches on factual and applied test?bank multiple?choice question performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie E. Yonker

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of online test banks and large introductory classes, instructors have often turned to textbook publisher?generated multiple?choice question (MCQ) exams in their courses. Multiple?choice questions are often divided into categories of factual or applied, thereby implicating levels of cognitive processing. This investigation examined the influence student study approaches have on performance of shallow compared to deep, cognitive process

  17. Answer Passage Retrieval for Question Answering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andres Corrada-Emmanuel; W. Bruce Croft; Vanessa Murdock

    Document or passage retrieval is typically used as the first step in current question answering systems. The accuracy of the answer that is extracted from the passages and the efficiency of the question answering process will depend to some extent on the quality of this initial ranking. We show how language model approaches can be used to improve answer passage

  18. Estimating the Effect on Grades of Using Multiple-Choice versus Constructive-Response Questions: Data from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickson, Stephen; Reed, W. Robert; Sander, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the degree to which grades based solely on constructed-response (CR) questions differ from grades based solely on multiple-choice (MC) questions. If CR questions are to justify their higher costs, they should produce different grade outcomes than MC questions. We use a data set composed of thousands of observations on…

  19. Poultry Processing: Questions & Answers

    MedlinePLUS

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  20. Multiple-Choice Cloze Exercises: Textual Domain, Science. SPPED Test Development Notebook, Form 81-S [and] Answer Key for Multiple-Choice Cloze Exercises: Textual Domain, Science. SPPED Test Development Notebook, Form 85-S. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Research.

    The "Test Development Notebook" is a resource designed for the preparation of tests of literal comprehension for students in grades 1 through 12. This volume contains 200 multiple-choice cloze exercises taken from textbooks in science, and the accompanying answer key. Each exercise carries the code letter of the section to which it belongs. The…

  1. Multiple-Choice Cloze Exercises: Textual Domain, Mathematics. SPPED Test Development Notebook, Form 81-M [and] Answer Key for Multiple-Choice Cloze Exercises: Textual Domain, Mathematics. SPPED Test Development Notebook, Form 85-M. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Research.

    The "Test Development Notebook" is a resource designed for the preparation of tests of literal comprehension for students in grades 1 through 12. This volume contains 200 multiple-choice cloze exercises taken from textbooks in mathematics, and the accompanying answer key. Each exercise carries the code letter of the section to which it belongs.…

  2. Comparison of Collegial Individual and Group Reviews of General Practice Multiple Choice Questions

    PubMed Central

    Böhme, Klaus; Schelling, Jörg; Streitlein-Böhme, Irmgard; Glassen, Katharina; Schübel, Jeannine; Jünger, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Aims: In most German medical faculties, credits in general practice can be earned via exams using multiple-choice questions (MCQ). Measures such as peer-reviews may help assure the quality of these exams. In order to use time and personnel intensive peer reviews effectively and efficiently, the procedures used are key. Therefore, we wanted to find out whether there are differences between group and individual reviews regarding defined parameters. Methods: We conducted a controlled cross-over study with three GP reviewers from four different German universities. Each reviewed 80 MCQs, 40 individually and 40 within a group, including external assessments by a panel of experts. Furthermore all reviewers were asked to evaluate the review process and the time spent carrying out these reviews. Outcomes: We found no significant differences between the reliability and the validity of individual reviews versus group reviews. On average slightly more time was spent on group reviews compared with the individual reviews. The subjective assessments of the study participants regarding their satisfaction with the process and the efficiency and effectiveness of the reviews suggest a preference for group reviews. Conclusions: Based on this study, there are no definite recommendations for or against either approach. When choosing between the two, the specific work structures and organisation at the local faculty should be taken into account. PMID:22916083

  3. The Prepared Practitioner: Multiple-Choice Season

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alan Colburn

    2009-03-01

    Spring is almost here. Soon buds will appear on trees, and bubbled-in answers will appear on test response sheets all across America. Spring brings a spate of multiple-choice tests for many students--from SATs to AP exams to final exams to state and district testing. So this month seems an appropriate time to take a look at multiple-choice questioning.

  4. Idea Bank: More than Multiple-Choice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fanny Ennever

    2006-10-01

    Multiple-choice questions typically dominate tests in high school chemistry classes. The modification described in this article requires students to explain their reasoning behind each multiple-choice answer. This testing format demands more grading time, but awards students partial credit and provides greater feedback to the teacher concerning how well concepts have been learned. Details of the implementation and benefits are provided here.

  5. Multiple-Choice Question Tests: A Convenient, Flexible and Effective Learning Tool? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Mercedes; Wilson, Juliette; Ennis, Sean

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this paper is part of a project investigating assessment practices, funded by the Scottish Funding Council. Using established principles of good assessment and feedback, the use of online formative and summative multiple choice tests (MCT's) was piloted to support independent and self-directed learning and improve…

  6. Cultural differences in answering physics questions: Could they arise from the difference between reasoning expected in answering exam questions in those cultures?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristian Raduta; Gordon Aubrecht

    2005-01-01

    In many ways, the American learning system is unique in its reliance on testing using multiple-choice questions. Learning in physics, as well as in any other subject, is a context-dependent process. In this paper, I consider a broader problem of where differences in understanding arise; often styles of answering questions arise from the way the questions are posed. I speculate

  7. Campylobacter Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... and Disease / Campylobacter Q and Answers Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  8. The Empirical Power and Type I Error Rates of the GBT and [omega] Indices in Detecting Answer Copying on Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The generalized binomial test (GBT) and [omega] indices are the most recent methods suggested in the literature to detect answer copying behavior on multiple-choice tests. The [omega] index is one of the most studied indices, but there has not yet been a systematic simulation study for the GBT index. In addition, the effect of the ability levels…

  9. ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

  10. Answer Formulation for Question-Answering Leila Kosseim1

    E-print Network

    Kosseim, Leila

    Answer Formulation for Question-Answering Leila Kosseim1 , Luc Plamondon2 and Louis experimentations in evaluating answer formulation for question-answering (QA) systems. In the context of QA, answer formulation can serve two purposes: improving answer ex- traction or improving human-computer interaction (HCI

  11. A Survey of Answer Extraction Techniques in Factoid Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Pratt, Vaughan

    of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Factoid question answering is the most widely studied taskA Survey of Answer Extraction Techniques in Factoid Question Answering Mengqiu Wang School in question answering. In this paper, we survey several different techniques to answer extraction for factoid

  12. ASKING AND ANSWERING QUESTIONS Guidelines for Asking Good Questions

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Diane

    ASKING AND ANSWERING QUESTIONS Guidelines for Asking Good Questions: A good, substantive question are addressing. Providing this context helps both the person who is answering the question and helps the rest of the audience understand what you are talking about. #12;Guidelines for Answering Questions: Question and answer

  13. Folic Acid Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Multimedia & Tools Partners About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Questions and Answers Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Q: Why can’t I wait until I’m pregnant—or planning to get pregnant to start taking folic acid? ...

  14. Question & Answer QQ&&AA

    E-print Network

    ssyysstteemmss bbiioollooggyy?? Systems biology is the study of com- plex gene networks, protein networks as an amplifier, a switch or a logic gate. Typically, the graphs of these systems possess fewer than a dozen (or a good answer to this question. He likens biology's current status to that of planetary astronomy

  15. Finding similar questions in large question and answer archives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiwoon Jeon; Joon Ho Lee

    2005-01-01

    There has recently been a significant increase in the number of community-based question and answer services on the Web where people answer other peoples' questions. These services rapidly build up large archives of questions and answers, and these archives are a valuable linguistic resource. One of the major tasks in a question and answer service is to find questions in

  16. Discrepant Performance on Multiple-Choice and Short Answer Assessments and the Relation of Performance to General Scholastic Aptitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleske-Rechek, April; Zeug, Nicole; Webb, Rose Mary

    2007-01-01

    We conducted correlational and performance discrepancy analyses on exam and achievement data taken from students in three psychology courses. Across courses, the same findings emerged. First, only a small fraction of students consistently performed more strongly on one type of assessment (e.g., multiple-choice) than on another (e.g., short…

  17. Answers to Questions in Class Andrew Binder

    E-print Network

    Weinberger, Hans

    Answers to Questions in Class Andrew Binder March 8, 2012 This page contains the answers only to the questions I wrote on the board in class today. There may be typos in this answer sheet, so if your answer stated in class that the phase angle for the last problem is /8. The answer should be /4, and you can

  18. A Factoid Question Answering System Using Answer Pattern Matching

    E-print Network

    Cicekli, Ilyas

    A Factoid Question Answering System Using Answer Pattern Matching Nagehan Pala Er Department, we describe a Turkish factoid QA system which uses surface level patterns called answer patterns in order to extract the answers from the documents that are retrieved from the web. The answer patterns

  19. Exploiting Redundancy in Question Answering Charles L. A. Clarke Gordon V. Cormack Thomas R. Lynam

    E-print Network

    Clarke, Charlie

    Department of Computer Science, University of Waterloo, Canada mt@plg.uwaterloo.ca ABSTRACT Our goal is extended to answer multiple choice trivia questions of the form typically asked in trivia quizzes;ed domain Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal

  20. A Web-based Question Answering System

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Dell

    The Web is apparently an ideal source of answers to a large variety of questions, due to the tremendous amount of information available online. This paper describes a Web-based question answering system LAMP, which is ...

  1. Incorporating Multiple-Choice Questions into an AACSB Assurance of Learning Process: A Course-Embedded Assessment Application to an Introductory Finance Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Michael R.; Hu, Aidong; Jordan, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The authors offer a classification technique to make a quantitative skills rubric more operational, with the groupings of multiple-choice questions to match the student learning levels in knowledge, calculation, quantitative reasoning, and analysis. The authors applied this classification technique to the mid-term exams of an introductory finance…

  2. WHAT CAN YOU LEARN FROM A (GOOD) MULTIPLE-CHOICE EXAM? Lei Baoa, Edward F. Redishb

    E-print Network

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    multiple-choice exams that goes beyond how many students answered each question correctly. First extracts from a multiple-choice exam is limited. Basically, one learns: How many students in my class can equivalent reasoning by students. Qualitative research has documented many different clusters of semi

  3. Web-MCQ: a set of methods and freely available open source code for administering online multiple choice question assessments.

    PubMed

    Hewson, Claire

    2007-08-01

    E-learning approaches have received increasing attention in recent years. Accordingly, a number of tools have become available to assist the nonexpert computer user in constructing and managing virtual learning environments, and implementing computer-based and/or online procedures to support pedagogy. Both commercial and free packages are now available, with new developments emerging periodically. Commercial products have the advantage of being comprehensive and reliable, but tend to require substantial financial investment and are not always transparent to use. They may also restrict pedagogical choices due to their predetermined ranges of functionality. With these issues in mind, several authors have argued for the pedagogical benefits of developing freely available, open source e-learning resources, which can be shared and further developed within a community of educational practitioners. The present paper supports this objective by presenting a set of methods, along with supporting freely available, downloadable, open source programming code, to allow administration of online multiple choice question assessments to students. PMID:17958158

  4. Education techniques for lifelong learning: writing multiple-choice questions for continuing medical education activities and self-assessment modules.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jannette

    2006-01-01

    The multiple-choice question (MCQ) is the most commonly used type of test item in radiologic graduate medical and continuing medical education examinations. Now that radiologists are participating in the maintenance of certification process, there is an increased need for self-assessment modules that include MCQs and persons with test item-writing skills to develop such modules. Although principles of effective test item writing have been documented, violations of these principles are common in medical education. Guidelines for test construction are related to development of educational objectives, defining levels of learning for each objective, and writing effective MCQs that test that learning. Educational objectives should be written in observable, behavioral terms that allow for an accurate assessment of whether the learner has achieved the objectives. Learning occurs at many levels, from simple recall to problem solving. The educational objectives and the MCQs that accompany them should target all levels of learning appropriate for the given content. Characteristics of effective MCQs can be described in terms of the overall item, the stem, and the options. Flawed MCQs interfere with accurate and meaningful interpretation of test scores and negatively affect student pass rates. Therefore, to develop reliable and valid tests, items must be constructed that are free of such flaws. The article provides an overview of established guidelines for writing effective MCQs, a discussion of writing appropriate educational objectives and MCQs that match those objectives, and a brief review of item analysis. PMID:16549616

  5. Identification of technical item flaws leads to improvement of the quality of single best Multiple Choice Questions

    PubMed Central

    Fayyaz Khan, Humaira; Farooq Danish, Khalid; Saeed Awan, Azra; Anwar, Masood

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to identify technical item flaws in the multiple choice questions submitted for the final exams for the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in Islamic International Medical College (IIMC). The Data was collected from the MCQ’s submitted by the faculty for the final exams for the year 2009, 2010 and 2011. The data was compiled and evaluated by a three member assessment committee. The data was analyzed for frequency and percentages the categorical data was analyzed by chi-square test. Results: Overall percentage of flawed item was 67% for the year 2009 of which 21% were for testwiseness and 40% were for irrelevant difficulty. In year 2010 the total item flaws were 36% and 11% testwiseness and 22% were for irrelevant difficulty. The year 2011 data showed decreased overall flaws of 21%. The flaws of testwisness were 7%, irrelevant difficulty were 11%. Conclusion: Technical item flaws are frequently encountered during MCQ construction, and the identification of flaws leads to improved quality of the single best MCQ’s. PMID:24353614

  6. Formal Verification: All Questions and Some Answers

    E-print Network

    Pnueli, Amir

    , WIS 9.5.99 CS Leading Teachers Course, WIS, 9.5.99 #12; Formal Verification: Questions and Answers A Leading Teachers Course, WIS, 9.5.99 1 #12; Formal Verification: Questions and Answers A. Pnueli Mathematics! CS Leading Teachers Course, WIS, 9.5.99 2 #12; Formal Verification: Questions and Answers A

  7. Answering Student Questions Saurabh W. Jha

    E-print Network

    Glashausser, Charles

    Answering Student Questions Saurabh W. Jha Rutgers DELTA-P Seminar October 16, 2014 1Thursday, October 16, 14 #12;Answering Student Questions Saurabh W. Jha Rutgers DELTA-P Seminar October 16, 2014 2Thursday, October 16, 14 #12;answering students' questions well · helps students learn! · student

  8. Answering Science Questions: Deduction with Answer Extraction and Procedural Attachment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Waldinger; Jeff Shrager

    An approach to question answering through automated deduction is advocated. Answers to questions are extracted from proofs of associated conjectures over an axiomatic theory of the subject domain. External knowledge resources, including data and software, are consulted through a mechanism known as procedural attachment. A researcher ignorant of the subject domain theory or its logical language can formulate questions via

  9. Minister Peng answers correspondents' questions.

    PubMed

    1991-02-01

    Following a press conference where she presented the results of the 1990 census and the accomplishments of China's family planning program, Peng Peiyun, minister of the State Family Planning Commission, and other officials answered the questions of Chinese and foreign correspondents. Asked about the implementation of family planning in rural areas, Peng explained that while the 1-child policy has been followed, farmers with only 1 daughter have been allowed a second child. Nonetheless, the total fertility rate (TFR) of rural women has fallen bellow 4. On the issue of abortion, an official explained that for the past few years, there have been 10 million abortions annually. Abortion, however, is used only when contraception fails. Despite China's impressive achievements in curbing population growth, Peng noted that the country still faces serious problems. As the country enters its 8th 5-year plan, China will undergo a baby boom. An average of 17 million births each year is expected throughout the plan's duration. Peng acknowledged that the previous target of controlling China's population to 1.2 billion by the year 2000 will not be achieved. Under the new plan, which hopes to reduce the TFR from 2.35 in 1989 to 2.0 by the turn of the century, calls for the population to stabilize somewhere between 1.5 and 1.6 billion. Peng also answered questions concerning abuses by family planning workers. She stressed that China's family planning program is voluntary, although economic disincentives are used. Furthermore, Peng addressed issues concerning religion and family planning, infanticide, the safety of contraceptives, and concerns over the ageing of the population. PMID:12284670

  10. A Tree Kernel approach to Question and Answer Classification Question Answering Systems

    E-print Network

    Moschitti, Alessandro

    A Tree Kernel approach to Question and Answer Classification in Question Answering Systems Alessandro Moschitti and Roberto Basili University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Computer Science in Question Answering design is the definition of the models for question focus identification and answer

  11. Answering complex, list and context questions with LCC's Question-Answering Server

    E-print Network

    Mihalcea, Rada

    Answering complex, list and context questions with LCC's Question-Answering Server Sanda Harabagiu the architecture of the Question- Answering Server (QAS) developed at the Language Computer Corporation (LCC) and used in the TREC- 10 evaluations. LCC's QAS TM extracts answers for (a) factual questions of vairable

  12. Question Answering Based on Semantic Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorand Dali; Delia Rusu; Marko Grobelnik

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a question answering system supported by semantic graphs. Aside from providing answers to natural language questions, the system offers explanations for these answers via a visual representation of documents, their associated list of facts described by subject - verb - object triplets, and their summaries. The triplets, automatically extracted from the Penn Treebank parse tree

  13. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we plan for? · Should we separate uranium? · If we separate uranium, should we recycle it, store it or dispose of it? · Is it practical to plan to fabricate and handle “hot” fuel? · Which transuranic elements (TRU) should be separated and transmuted? · Of those TRU separated, which should be transmuted together? · Should we separate and/or transmute Cs and Sr isotopes that dominate near-term repository heating? · Should we separate and/or transmute very long-lived Tc and I isotopes? · Which separation technology? · What mix of transmutation technologies? · What fuel technology best supports the above decisions?

  14. Name___________________________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

    E-print Network

    DeMaio, Joe

    classified by blood type and sex. 103 86 25 11 225 74 71 14 6 165 177 157 39 17 390 If a person is selected at random from the sample, find the probability that the person has blood type A or is female. 8) A) 0.382 B that the person has blood type A and is female. 9) A) 0.246 B) 0.427 C) 0.749 D) 0.589 E) 0.995 10) You draw

  15. Name___________________________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

    E-print Network

    DeMaio, Joe

    a scatterplot by collecting data for the given pair of variables. Determine the likely direction, form, and strength. 9) Hot chocolate sales, heater sales A) Positive, nonlinear, moderate B) Negative, nonlinear to investigate the relationship between the pH of the water of a river and its waters hardness (measured

  16. Name___________________________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

    E-print Network

    DeMaio, Joe

    and alternative hypothesis. 7) You want to see if the number of minutes cell phone users use each month has changed from its mean of 120 minutes 2 years ago. You take a random sample of 100 cell phone users. In an effort to track 50 of these children, researchers test 950 newborns for the presence of this gene. What

  17. Improving Question Retrieval in Community Question Answering with Label Ranking

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Albert

    Improving Question Retrieval in Community Question Answering with Label Ranking Wei Wang, Baichuan Li Department of Computer Science and Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong Shatin, N@research.att.com Abstract-- Community question answering services (CQA), which provides a platform for people with diverse

  18. Internal Audit RFP 2013 Questions and Answers Question set 1

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    ;Internal Audit RFP 2013 ­ Questions and Answers b. High risk areas · Accounts Payable · Accounts Receivable) for the fiscal 2013 Internal Audit Plan? We will establish our own estimates based upon our risk assessmentInternal Audit RFP 2013 ­ Questions and Answers Question set 1: 1. What do you like about your

  19. Indexing Low Frequency Information for Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Kosseim, Leila

    system over questions formulated by proxy users. To test the influence of the IR component in the context to capitalize on the redundancy of the Web and bypass the document collection for answering a question (e

  20. SUPPLEMENTAL APPLICATION PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS

    E-print Network

    Glasser, Adrian

    SUPPLEMENTAL APPLICATION PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS a. If you have ever applied to UHCO? Applicant Full Name: OptomCas ID#: RESIDENCY Yes No 1. Are you a Texas Resident? 2. If you answered "No" What is your State of Residency? 3. If you answered "Yes" to Q1, On whom are you basing your claim

  1. Developing Offline Strategies for Answering Medical Questions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Tjong Kim Sang; G. Bouma; Rijke de M

    2005-01-01

    We describe ongoing developments on two offline strategies for automatically answering questions in the medical domain: one based on an analysis of the document structure, the other based on dependency parsing. We highlight differences with open domain question answering, and provide a preliminary evaluation of the current state of our strategies. Copyright (c) 2005, American Association for Artificial Intelligence (www.aaai.org).

  2. Global Warming: Questions and Answers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Back to Example Detailed Example of Using Socratic Questioning in Class This sample of plausible questions and responses is designed to help guide the instructor through a Socratic lesson. It will help instructors ...

  3. "I Don't Know" and Multiple Choice Analysis of Pre- and Post-Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Karen; Wilson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation is an essential component of any Extension education program. One tool, the pre- and post-test, provides measurable evaluation data. Yet often the answer "I don't know" or all possible answers to a multiple choice question are not included in the repeated measure analysis. Because more than two answers are offered, the test of marginal…

  4. Bernard Jacquemin, A derivational rephrasing experiment for question answering A derivational rephrasing experiment for question answering

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Bernard Jacquemin, A derivational rephrasing experiment for question answering A derivational rephrasing experiment for question answering Bernard Jacquemin Université de Haute Alace / CREM EA3476 10 rue, preserving the initial meaning; its impact on the re- sults coping with a real issue, ie a question answering

  5. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  6. Answering Questions About Underage Drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problem? Despite the law, the statistics, and the science, some people still think teen drinking is not a serious problem. Here are some of the more common questions and assertions you may hear from neighbors and ...

  7. Better Questions and Answers Equal Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for student…

  8. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Questions and Answers About High Blood Pressure What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... a doctor. Am I at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure. But ...

  9. Sending diagnostic samples: your questions answered

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue Cade

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic veterinary laboratories are regularly asked exactly how samples should be packaged and sent to them. In this article, Sue Cade answers the most commonly asked questions and explains the rules behind sample transportation.

  10. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  11. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Food Resources for You Consumers Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic July 15, 2013 What is ... MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The ...

  12. Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…

  13. DICK'S HOUSE Questions and answers to frequently

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    DICK'S HOUSE FAQ Questions and answers to frequently asked questions at the Geisel School of Medicine Always identify yourself as a Geisel student when you contact Dick's House!! Updated: December 2013 #12;Dick's House FAQ Contents How do I find what I need quickly in this document? 2 Mental Health

  14. From Asking to Answering: Making Questions Explicit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Gene

    2006-01-01

    "From Asking To Answering: Making Questions Explicit" describes a pedagogical procedure the author has used in writing classes (expository, technical and creative) to help students better understand the purpose, and effect, of text-questions. It accomplishes this by means of thirteen discrete categories (e.g., CLAIMS, COMMITMENT, ANAPHORA, or…

  15. Student Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty

    E-print Network

    Student Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty What is the SFU Student Learning Commons with academic writing, studying and learning strategies, English language support, and works closely lectures, or developing more effective studying strategies. Can faculty send students to the SLC? Faculty

  16. Children answered 24 questions in 3 sections

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    Children answered 24 questions in 3 sections: · General knowledge ­ e.g. how many minutes month comes after August? Short-Term Tasks Children completed two computer tasks designed using Kinelab: · Sequencing: Children saw six shapes in succession, before having to indicate the order they were presented

  17. Comprehensive Written Exams: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Janice Valerye

    This document contains four papers that are answers to comprehensive examination questions of a doctoral student in instructional technology. The first paper, "Federal Support and Funding of School Library Media Programs into the 21st Century," includes sections on why federal support and funding are needed, how school library media programs…

  18. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  19. Questions and Answers about CD ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Carolyn

    1987-01-01

    Question and answer column about the CD ROM medium discusses: (1) optical storage devices available; (2) language teaching applications; (3) types of courseware available; (4) costs to hook up a CD ROM drive as a peripheral to an existing system; (5) how to go about developing and mastering a disk; and (6) mastering and replication costs.…

  20. Data-driven Type Checking in Open Domain Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Ahn, David

    Data-driven Type Checking in Open Domain Question Answering Stefan Schlobach a,1 David Ahn b,2 question answering systems answer questions by first harvesting a large number of candidate answers, and then picking the most promising one from the list. One criterion for this answer selection is type checking

  1. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

  2. Learning How to Answer Questions Using Trivia Games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gideon S. Mann

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we examine a sentence comprehension task: given a question, and an extended sentence known to answer that question, the goal is to extract the short answer to the question. As an initial solution, a novel robust statistical model is presented which combines the semantics of the expected answer with the expected context within which the answer will

  3. Answering List Questions using Co-occurrence and Clustering

    E-print Network

    Kosseim, Leila

    Answering List Questions using Co-occurrence and Clustering Majid Razmara and Leila Kosseim CLa answering list questions is not a new research area, answering them automatically still remains a challenge. The median F-score of systems that participated in TREC 2007 Question Answering track is still very low (0

  4. A QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    A QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS Jinxing Cheng1 , Bimal Kumar2 of these tools. A question answering system can potentially provide a means to directly extracting answers from these computer outputs. This paper examines various issues involved in building such a question answering system

  5. Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions

    ScienceCinema

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2013-05-29

    contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

  6. Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2012-01-01

    contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

  7. Document Retrieval in the Context of Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Monz, Christof

    -mail: christof@science.uva.nl URL: www.science.uva.nl/~christof Abstract. Current question answering systems relyDocument Retrieval in the Context of Question Answering Christof Monz Language & Inference's question. A question answering system heavily depends on the effectiveness of a retrieval system

  8. Natural Language Question Answering Over Triple Knowledge Bases

    E-print Network

    Sanner, Scott

    for translating questions into queries over the knowledge base. is report describes a question answering systemNatural Language Question Answering Over Triple Knowledge Bases Aaron Defazio Supervisor: Scott answering system built over a triple knowledge base. Typical document retrieval systems and some question

  9. A Novel Multi-Forms Multiple Choice Editor Exam Tool Based on HTML Website

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rjoub; B. Tall; N. Sharou; L. Mardeeni

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel software package tool creates multi-forms multiple-choice and true\\/false exams as well as the correspondence answer keys for each form automatically. The multiform exam can be created randomly from question database or manually with shuffled answers for each question. In order the proposed package to be widely used; various facilities are inserted: The tool is built

  10. Answer Selection in a Multi-Stream Open Domain Question Answering System

    E-print Network

    de Rijke, Maarten

    Answer Selection in a Multi-Stream Open Domain Question Answering System Valentin Jijkoun, 1018 WV Amsterdam, The Netherlands E-mail: jijkoun, mdr@science.uva.nl Abstract. Question answering systems aim to meet users' informa- tion needs by returning exact answers in response to a question. Tra

  11. Not Read, but Nevertheless Solved? Three Experiments on PIRLS Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Kimmel, Rumena; Lowenkamp, Lena; Steingraber, Antje; Rost, Detlef H.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-choice (MC) reading comprehension test items comprise three components: text passage, questions about the text, and MC answers. The construct validity of this format has been repeatedly criticized. In three between-subjects experiments, fourth graders (N[subscript 1] = 230, N[subscript 2] = 340, N[subscript 3] = 194) worked on three…

  12. The "None of the Above" Option in Multiple-Choice Testing: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBattista, David; Sinnige-Egger, Jo-Anne; Fortuna, Glenda

    2014-01-01

    The authors assessed the effects of using "none of the above" as an option in a 40-item, general-knowledge multiple-choice test administered to undergraduate students. Examinees who selected "none of the above" were given an incentive to write the correct answer to the question posed. Using "none of the above" as the…

  13. Combining Resources to Find Answers to Biomedical Questions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dina Demner-fushman; Susanne M. Humphrey; Nicholas C. Ide; Russell F. Loane; James G. Mork; Patrick Ruch; Miguel E. Ruiz; Lawrence H. Smith; W. John Wilbur; Alan R. Aronson

    2007-01-01

    One of the NLM experimental approaches to the 2007 Genomics track question answering task followed the track evaluation design: we attempted identifying exact answers in the form of semantic relations between biomedical entities named in questions and the potential answer types and then marked the passages containing the relations as containing the answers. The goal of this knowledge- based approach

  14. Questions and Answers about Paget's Disease of Bone

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disease of Bone Paget's Disease Basics Questions and Answers about Paget's Disease of Bone Related Resources Paget's ... Your Health Care Team (FDA) Questions Are the Answer: Get More Involved in Your Health Care (AHRQ) ...

  15. Facilitating Students' Collaboration and Learning in a Question and Answer

    E-print Network

    Narayanan, N. Hari

    Facilitating Students' Collaboration and Learning in a Question and Answer System Abstract Green Dolphin (GD) is a question and answer system for students learning programming, with a social web interface. It crowd-sources the task of answering technical questions to the peers of students who ask

  16. Open-Domain Question Answering Mark Andrew Greenwood

    E-print Network

    Bontcheva, Kalina

    Open-Domain Question Answering Mark Andrew Greenwood Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Computer Science University of Sheffield, UK Macdonald (1999) #12;#12;Table of Contents Preface xi I What Is Question Answering? 1 Question Answering

  17. Automatic question answering for Turkish with pattern parsing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erbug Celebi; Burak Gunel; Baturman Sen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, documents are processed with pattern matching techniques and features of documents are extracted for question answering system. We propose to categorize the questions automatically and then select the correct answer from corresponding answer set. We have used name entity recognition and pattern matching to categorize the type of questions. Additionally we have used range queries to submit

  18. Multiple Choice Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jay Parkes

    This site presents a guide to developing and deploying effective multiple choice tests. The site also discusses the costs and benefits of this method, as well as the philosophy of this commonly used assessment method. Links to more detailed information are included as well.

  19. You've Got Answers: Towards Personalized Models for Predicting Success in Community Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Agichtein, Eugene

    You've Got Answers: Towards Personalized Models for Predicting Success in Community Question Answering Yandong Liu and Eugene Agichtein Emory University {yliu49,eugene}@mathcs.emory.edu Abstract Question answering communities such as Ya- hoo! Answers have emerged as a popular al- ternative to general

  20. Actions, Answers, and Uncertainty: A Decision-Making Perspective on Web-Based Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, Eric

    Actions, Answers, and Uncertainty: A Decision-Making Perspective on Web-Based Question Answering/936-7329 Abstract We present research on methods for generating answers to freely posed questions, based upon multiple queries to search engines and then combining the search results into an answer. We focus

  1. Discovering authorities in question answer communities by using link analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pawel Jurczyk; Eugene Agichtein

    2007-01-01

    Question-Answer portals such as Naver and Yahoo! Answers are quickly becoming rich sources of knowledge on many topics which are not well served by general web search engines. Unfortunately, the quality of the submitted answers is uneven, ranging from excellent detailed answers to snappy and insulting remarks or even advertisements for commercial content. Furthermore, user feedback for many topics is

  2. Discovering Authorities in Question Answer Communities by Using Link Analysis

    E-print Network

    Agichtein, Eugene

    Discovering Authorities in Question Answer Communities by Using Link Analysis Pawel Jurczyk of Mathematics and Computer Science Emory University eugene@mathcs.emory.edu ABSTRACT Question-Answer portals such as Naver and Yahoo! Answers are quickly becoming rich sources of knowledge on many topics which

  3. Q. How Many Options Should a Multiple-Choice Question Have? (a) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. At-a-glance Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catts, Ralph

    The reliability of multiple choice tests--containing different numbers of response options--was investigated for 260 students enrolled in technical college economics courses. Four test forms, constructed from previously used four-option items, were administered, consisting of (1) 60 two-option items--two distractors randomly discarded; (2) 40…

  4. Core Renewal What we have been hearing: Questions and Answers

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    Core Renewal What we have been hearing: Questions and Answers August this issue? Answer: The renewed Core does not increase the overall size the requirements of the renewed Core. We all believe that the benefit to most

  5. Functional symptoms in neurology: questions and answers

    PubMed Central

    Reuber, M; Mitchell, A; Howlett, S; Crimlisk, H; Grunewald, R

    2005-01-01

    Between 10 and 30% of patients seen by neurologists have symptoms for which there is no current pathophysiological explanation. The objective of this review is to answer questions many neurologists have about disorders characterised by unexplained symptoms (functional disorders) by conducting a multidisciplinary review based on published reports and clinical experience. Current concepts explain functional symptoms as resulting from auto-suggestion, innate coping styles, disorders of volition or attention. Predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating aetiological factors can be identified and contribute to a therapeutic formulation. The sympathetic communication of the diagnosis by the neurologist is important and all patients should be screened for psychiatric or psychological symptoms because up to two thirds have symptomatic psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment programmes are likely to be most successful if there is close collaboration between neurologists, (liaison) psychiatrists, psychologists, and general practitioners. Long term, symptoms persist in over 50% of patients and many patients remain dependent on financial help from the government. Neurologists can acquire the skills needed to engage patients in psychological treatment but would benefit from closer working relationships with liaison psychiatry or psychology. PMID:15716517

  6. Intermittent quizzing enhances learning in a middle school classroom 1 Both Multiple-Choice and Short-Answer Quizzes Enhance Later Exam

    E-print Network

    McDermott, Kathleen

    in all other classroom activities. On the unit exams and on an end-of-semester exam, students performed-Choice and Short-Answer Quizzes Enhance Later Exam Performance in Middle and High School Classes At all levels-Choice and Short-Answer Quizzes Enhance Later Exam Performance in Middle and High School Classes Kathleen B. Mc

  7. Strategies for the Meaningful Evaluation of Multiple-Choice Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesbro, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Too many multiple-choice tests are administered without an evaluative component. Teachers often return student assessments or Scantron cards--computerized bubble forms--without review, assuming that the printing of the correct answer will suffice. However, a more constructivist approach to follow up multiple-choice tests can make for more…

  8. Data-Driven Dialogue for Interactive Question Answering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Basili; Diego De Cao; Cristina Giannone; Paolo Marocco

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a light framework for dialogue based interactive question answering is presented. The resulting architecture\\u000a is called REQUIRE (Robust Empirical QUestion answering for Intelligent Retrieval), and represents a flexible and adaptive platform for domain specific dialogue. REQUIRE characterizes as a domain-driven\\u000a dialogue system, whose aim is to support the specific tasks evoked by interactive question answering scenarios. Among

  9. Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions Past Issues / ... Drug Abuse during their first Drug Facts Chat Day. Photo courtesy of NIDA The questions poured in… ...

  10. Answering Questions about Moving Objects in Surveillance Videos

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jimmy

    Answering Questions about Moving Objects in Surveillance Videos Boris Katz, Jimmy Lin, Chris answering capabilities to video footage captured in a surveillance setting. Our pro- totype system, called on video footage captured in a surveillance setting. We have developed Spot, a system that answers

  11. Question Answering and Generation Arthur C. Graesser1

    E-print Network

    Rus, Vasile

    Question Answering and Generation Arthur C. Graesser1 , Vasile Rus2 , Zhiqiang Cai1 , and Xiangen Hu1 1 Department of Psychology 2 Department of Computer Science Institute for Intelligent Systems The University of Memphis Memphis, TN 38152 USA ABSTRACT Automated Question Answering and Asking are two active

  12. Modeling Community Question-Answering Archives Zainab Zolaktaf

    E-print Network

    Milios, Evangelos E.

    Modeling Community Question-Answering Archives Zainab Zolaktaf Faculty of Computer Science Faculty of Computer Science Dalhousie University eem@cs.dal.ca Abstract Community Question Answering (CQA Dalhousie University zolaktaf@cs.dal.ca Fatemeh Riahi Faculty of Computer Science Dalhousie University riahi

  13. Is Context Actually Helpful? Preliminary Experiments in Contextual Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Kosseim, Leila

    Is Context Actually Helpful? Preliminary Experiments in Contextual Question Answering Steven Winikoff and Leila Kosseim Department of Computer Science Concordia University Montreal, Canada [smw|kosseim]@cs.concordia.ca Abstract In this paper, we present a preliminary experiment in contextual question- answering

  14. Model Tree Learning for Query Term Weighting in Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Monz, Christof

    Model Tree Learning for Query Term Weighting in Question Answering Christof Monz Department of Computer Science Queen Mary, University of London Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, United Kingdom E-mail: christof@dcs.qmul.ac.uk URL: www.dcs.qmul.ac.uk/christof Abstract. Question answering systems rely

  15. Knowledge-Intensive Question Answering Christof Monz Maarten de Rijke

    E-print Network

    de Rijke, Maarten

    Knowledge-Intensive Question Answering Christof Monz Maarten de Rijke Language and Inference Technology, ILLC, U. of Amsterdam Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam Email: {christof,mdr}@science's Textual Question Answering System, in: E. Voorhees and D.K. Harman (eds), The Tenth Text REtrieval

  16. Unsupervised Question Answering Data Acquisition From Local Corpora

    E-print Network

    Carbonell, Jaime

    Unsupervised Question Answering Data Acquisition From Local Corpora Lucian Vlad Lita Computer Science Department Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA llita, PA 15213 USA jgc@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT Data-driven approaches in question answering (QA) are in

  17. Keys to Success: School Facilities Primer, Questions & Answers 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Jim

    This publication provides answers to basic questions to help school board members more fully address the complexities of the planning, design, and construction process in order to maximize the goal of student success. The 101 questions and answers are in the areas of: facility planning; learning environment; information technology; safe schools;…

  18. 99 Facts about the FBI: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA.

    This booklet on the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) attempts to provide an overview of the FBI's functions. Presented in a question and answer format, the 99 questions and answers discuss the federal government agency's history, administrative matters, jurisdiction, criminal investigations, security matters, foreign counter-intelligence, and…

  19. Frequently begged questions and how to answer them [software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Zvegintzov

    1998-01-01

    Typical empirical questions about software and the software business include “How productive are programming teams?”, “What are the industry norms?”, “What are the best practices?”, and “How should I measure the productivity of a programming team?” These, and others like them, are frequently asked questions. I always answer these questions with a question. “What are you trying to decide?” People

  20. Answers to review questions in the book On these pages you find the author's answers to the review questions presented at the end of each book

    E-print Network

    Fossen, Haakon

    Answers to review questions in the book On these pages you find the author's answers to the review about how to answer some of those questions. Any- way, some of the questions can be answered in different ways, so do not consider them as an absolute key. In general, when answering questions

  1. Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frana, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

  2. Evaluating Multiple-Choice Exams in Large Introductory Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Michael; Stelzer, Tim; Gladding, Gary

    2006-01-01

    The reliability and validity of professionally written multiple-choice exams have been extensively studied for exams such as the SAT, graduate record examination, and the force concept inventory. Much of the success of these multiple-choice exams is attributed to the careful construction of each question, as well as each response. In this study,…

  3. What Makes a Good Answer? The Role of Context in Question Answering Jimmy Lin, Dennis Quan, Vineet Sinha, Karun Bakshi,

    E-print Network

    What Makes a Good Answer? The Role of Context in Question Answering Jimmy Lin, Dennis Quan, Vineet: Question answering systems have proven to be helpful to users because they can provide succinct answers in the underlying question answering technology, the problem of designing effective interfaces has been largely

  4. A Topic Clustering Approach to Finding Similar Questions from Large Question and Answer Archives

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Nan; Liu, Ting; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Rongrong

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of Web 2.0, Community Question Answering (CQA) services such as Yahoo! Answers (http://answers.yahoo.com), WikiAnswer (http://wiki.answers.com), and Baidu Zhidao (http://zhidao.baidu.com), etc., have emerged as alternatives for knowledge and information acquisition. Over time, a large number of question and answer (Q&A) pairs with high quality devoted by human intelligence have been accumulated as a comprehensive knowledge base. Unlike the search engines, which return long lists of results, searching in the CQA services can obtain the correct answers to the question queries by automatically finding similar questions that have already been answered by other users. Hence, it greatly improves the efficiency of the online information retrieval. However, given a question query, finding the similar and well-answered questions is a non-trivial task. The main challenge is the word mismatch between question query (query) and candidate question for retrieval (question). To investigate this problem, in this study, we capture the word semantic similarity between query and question by introducing the topic modeling approach. We then propose an unsupervised machine-learning approach to finding similar questions on CQA Q&A archives. The experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24595052

  5. A topic clustering approach to finding similar questions from large question and answer archives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Nan; Liu, Ting; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Rongrong

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of Web 2.0, Community Question Answering (CQA) services such as Yahoo! Answers (http://answers.yahoo.com), WikiAnswer (http://wiki.answers.com), and Baidu Zhidao (http://zhidao.baidu.com), etc., have emerged as alternatives for knowledge and information acquisition. Over time, a large number of question and answer (Q&A) pairs with high quality devoted by human intelligence have been accumulated as a comprehensive knowledge base. Unlike the search engines, which return long lists of results, searching in the CQA services can obtain the correct answers to the question queries by automatically finding similar questions that have already been answered by other users. Hence, it greatly improves the efficiency of the online information retrieval. However, given a question query, finding the similar and well-answered questions is a non-trivial task. The main challenge is the word mismatch between question query (query) and candidate question for retrieval (question). To investigate this problem, in this study, we capture the word semantic similarity between query and question by introducing the topic modeling approach. We then propose an unsupervised machine-learning approach to finding similar questions on CQA Q&A archives. The experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24595052

  6. Pick-N multiple choice-exams: a comparison of scoring algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel BauerMatthias; Matthias Holzer; Veronika Kopp; Martin R. Fischer

    2011-01-01

    To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability,\\u000a student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students’ end of term exams\\u000a in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students, 180 Pick-N items in total). Scoring\\u000a Algorithms: Each question scored a

  7. Use of Feedback-Oriented Online Exercises to Help Physiology Students Construct Well-Organized Answers to Short-Answer Questions.

    PubMed

    Carnegie, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Postsecondary education often requires students to use higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) such as analysis, evaluation, and creation as they assess situations and apply what they have learned during lecture to the formulation of solutions. Summative assessment of these abilities is often accomplished using short-answer questions (SAQs). Quandary was used to create feedback-oriented interactive online exercises to help students strengthen certain HOCS as they actively constructed answers to questions concerning the regulation of 1) metabolic rate, 2) blood sugar, 3) erythropoiesis, and 4) stroke volume. Each exercise began with a SAQ presenting an endocrine dysfunction or a physiological challenge; students were prompted to answer between six and eight multiple-choice questions while building their answer to the SAQ. Student outcomes on the SAQ sections of summative exams were compared before and after the introduction of the online tool and also between subgroups of students within the posttool-introduction population who demonstrated different levels of participation in the online exercises. While overall SAQ outcomes were not different before and after the introduction of the online exercises, once the SAQ tool had become available, those students who chose to use it had improved SAQ outcomes compared with those who did not. PMID:26113627

  8. Question Answering from FrequentlyAsked Question Files: Experiences with the FAQ Finder System

    E-print Network

    Burke, Robin

    Question Answering from Frequently­Asked Question Files: Experiences with the FAQ Finder System, Noriko Tomuro, & Scott Schoenberg School of Computer Science, DePaul University 243 S. Wabash, Chicago -- not for citation Abstract This paper describes FAQ Finder, a natural language question­answering system that uses

  9. BioGrapher: Biography Questions as a Restricted Domain Question Answering Task

    E-print Network

    de Rijke, Maarten

    University of Amsterdam simaan@science.uva.nl Abstract We address Question Answering (QA) for biograph- icalBioGrapher: Biography Questions as a Restricted Domain Question Answering Task Oren Tsur Text University of Amsterdam mdr@science.uva.nl Khalil Sima'an Institute for Logic, Language and Computation

  10. On Claims That Answer the Wrong Questions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Greeno

    1997-01-01

    Anderson, Reder, and Simon (1996) contested four propositions that they incorrectly called “claims of situated learning.” This response argues that the important differences between situative and cognitive perspectives are not addressed by discussion of these imputed claims. Instead, there are significant differences in the framing assumptions of the two perspectives. I clarify these differences by inferring questions to which Anderson

  11. Italian Language Resources in a Question Answering Task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Bertagna

    The paper describes the first phase of a work dedicated to the exploitation of lin- guistic resources in a QA application for Italian. In particular, the form of Italian Wh-questions introduced by Quale and Che is analyzed, in order to highlight the information that is crucial for singling out the answer(s) in a document collection. A preliminar investigation of the

  12. Tie strength in question answer on social network sites

    E-print Network

    Panovich, Katrina Marie

    Asking friends, colleagues, or other trusted people to help answer a question or find information is a familiar and tried-and-true concept. Widespread use of online social networks has made social information seeking easier, ...

  13. Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions

    ScienceCinema

    Walker, Iain

    2013-11-14

    In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

  14. Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain

    2013-02-14

    In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

  15. Cem Kaner Essay Questions Page 1 How to Answer Essay Questions in the Graduate Level

    E-print Network

    of your answer to a long essay question. Create a set of sample questions that covers the material you of sample questions. For the rest, make a list of every significant topic in the course you are studying, and make up questions for every topic not already well covered with the sample questions you have on hand

  16. Biology 253 Human Anatomy Exam II Fall 2010 page 1 of 8 IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS: ANSWER ONLY 50 QUESTIONS. Do not answer more than 50 questions. If

    E-print Network

    Houde, Peter

    Biology 253 Human Anatomy Exam II Fall 2010 page 1 of 8 IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS: ANSWER ONLY 50 QUESTIONS. Do not answer more than 50 questions. If you answer more than 50 questions, then you will be graded on only the first 50 of these, regardless of whether the extra questions are answered correctly

  17. Answering Questions about Unanswered Questions of Stack Overflow

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Kevin A.

    is an ex- ample of such a service that targets developers and software engineers. In general, questions of knowledge on the site. SO's active community attracts information seekers from around the globe harvesting its knowledge-base. Many visitors become members of the site and contribute to the site dynamics

  18. Finding Expert Users in Community Question Answering Fatemeh Riahi

    E-print Network

    Milios, Evangelos E.

    Finding Expert Users in Community Question Answering Fatemeh Riahi Faculty of Computer Science@cs.dal.ca Evangelos Milios Faculty of Computer Science Dalhousie University eem@cs.dal.ca ABSTRACT Community Question Dalhousie University riahi@cs.dal.ca Zainab Zolaktaf Faculty of Computer Science Dalhousie University

  19. Climate Science: Key Questions and Answers Tuesday, May 11, 2010

    E-print Network

    Climate Science: Key Questions and Answers Tuesday, May 11, 2010 12:00 to 1:30pm Capitol Visitor (IPCC) have led to questions about some climate change research results, the ethics of practicing to examine which climate change science results are well understood and where key uncertainties exist

  20. Contextual Concept Language Model for Answering Biomedical Questions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi Sun; Jinguo Yao; Junyu Niu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we utilize MeSH vocabulary to capture concepts of each word appearing in questions and documents and two new methods, contextual concept smoothing language model (CCSLM) and contextual concept language model (CCLM), are proposed to find the answer sentences from biomedical literature to questions proposed by biomedical experts. The concepts employed in the models, instead of keywords, guarantee

  1. Multiple-choice tests stabilize access to marginal knowledge.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Allison D; Eslick, Andrea N; Marsh, Elizabeth J; Bjork, Robert A; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

    2015-02-01

    Marginal knowledge refers to knowledge that is stored in memory, but is not accessible at a given moment. For example, one might struggle to remember who wrote The Call of the Wild, even if that knowledge is stored in memory. Knowing how best to stabilize access to marginal knowledge is important, given that new learning often requires accessing and building on prior knowledge. While even a single opportunity to restudy marginal knowledge boosts its later accessibility (Berger, Hall, & Bahrick, 1999), in many situations explicit relearning opportunities are not available. Our question is whether multiple-choice tests (which by definition expose the learner to the correct answers) can also serve this function and, if so, how testing compares to restudying given that tests can be particularly powerful learning devices (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006). In four experiments, we found that multiple-choice testing had the power to stabilize access to marginal knowledge, and to do so for at least up to a week. Importantly, such tests did not need to be paired with feedback, although testing was no more powerful than studying. Overall, the results support the idea that one's knowledge base is unstable, with individual pieces of information coming in and out of reach. The present findings have implications for a key educational challenge: ensuring that students have continuing access to information they have learned. PMID:25201690

  2. Offline Strategies for Online Question Answering: Answering Questions Before They Are Asked

    E-print Network

    Hovy, Eduard

    Clinton" and "Bill Clinton, president of the USA,"). We then compare answers based on these relations-instance relations from newspaper text using syntactic patterns and machine-learned filters (e.g., "president Bill

  3. Solutions to Review Multiple Choice No hamsters were harmed in any way as a result of Math 317. Please don't tell the dean

    E-print Network

    Stange, Katherine E.

    Solutions to Review Multiple Choice No hamsters were harmed in any way as a result of Math 317. Please don't tell the dean about the hamsters. Question 1 - Answer B You can find pictures of such things theorem states that the total outward flux through the hamster cage must be equal to the divergence within

  4. Question Answering using Integrated Information Retrieval and Information Extraction

    E-print Network

    Schiffman, Barry

    Question Answering using Integrated Information Retrieval and Information Extraction Barry Schiffman and Kathleen R. McKeown Department of Computer Science Columbia University New York, NY 10027 bschiff,kathy@cs.columbia.edu Ralph Grishman Department of Computer Science New York University New York

  5. UNION ORGANIZING EFFORTS AT TUFTS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

    E-print Network

    Tufts University

    UNION ORGANIZING EFFORTS AT TUFTS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS TEA AND HUCTW Q. What is the Tufts Employee itself as an "employee association...organizing around the model of the Harvard Union of Clerical and Technical Workers." It appears that the Harvard Union has played a primary role in forming the TEA, defining

  6. Questions and Answers about RTI: A Guide to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Heather; Petruzzelli, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    As Response-to-Intervention (RTI) models continue to attract a great deal of attention, school and district leaders need to understand the structures needed, the personnel required, the challenges faced, and rewards realized from RTI. "Questions and Answers About RTI: A Guide to Success" is designed to guide a school or district through the…

  7. Fillers as Signals: Evidence from a Question-Answering Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Esther J.; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of a human or computer "partner" on the production of fillers ("um" and "uh") during a question and answer task. Experiment 1 investigated whether or not responding to a human partner as opposed to a computer partner results in a higher rate of filler production. Participants…

  8. Please answer the following questions: 1. Title of Proposed Project

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Please answer the following questions: 1. Title of Proposed Project 2. How did you learn about. Please note that WIF funded projects may not be eligible to receive other campus fellowships. Upon completion of the project, the student is required to submit a copy of their final paper or product, as well

  9. Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Questions, Answers, and Presuppositions

    E-print Network

    Belnap, Nuel

    Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Questions, Answers, and Presuppositions Author(s): Nuel D. Belnap, Jr. Source: The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 63, No. 20, American Philosophical Association Eastern Division Sixty-Third Annual Meeting (Oct. 27, 1966), pp. 609-611 Published by: Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Stable

  10. American Indians Today: Answers to Your Questions. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This booklet answers briefly the most common questions about American Indians asked by students, teachers, researchers, librarians, government agencies, and the news media. Sections outline the history, responsibilities, educational programs, and housing programs of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA); President Bush's American Indian policy;…

  11. Answering Clinical Questions with Knowledge-Based and Statistical Techniques

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jimmy

    designed to satisfy the information needs of physicians practicing evidence-based medicine. We haveAnswering Clinical Questions with Knowledge-Based and Statistical Techniques Dina Demner to structured representations of information needs, in accordance with the principles of evidence- based

  12. 500 Questions and Answers for New Teachers: A Survival Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torreano, Joanna Montagna

    This book presents tips, in the form of questions and answers, to help beginning teachers feel less isolated. There are six sections. "Getting Your Act Together" includes "What To Do Before School Opens"; "The First Day of School"; "Open House"; "Goal Setting"; and "Last Day of School.""Getting To Know You" includes "Administrators"; "Board of…

  13. What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,…

  14. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  15. Questions, Answers, and Clarifications Addendum 2 Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure Solicitation

    E-print Network

    Questions, Answers, and Clarifications ­ Addendum 2 Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure Solicitation PON-13-607 Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program California Energy Commission December 2030 January 29, 2013 2014 How an Award is Determined Q.1 For the 100% Renewable Hydrogen

  16. Semantic passage segmentation based on sentence topics for question answering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyo-Jung Oh; Sung-Hyon Myaeng; Myung-Gil Jang

    2007-01-01

    We propose a semantic passage segmentation method for a Question Answering (QA) system. We define a semantic passage as sentences grouped by semantic coherence, determined by the topic assigned to individual sentences. Topic assignments are done by a sentence classifier based on a statistical classification technique, Maximum Entropy (ME), com- bined with multiple linguistic features. We ran experiments to evaluate

  17. Indexing UMLS Semantic Types for Medical Question-Answering

    E-print Network

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    -language medical text collection, obtained from health-oriented Web sites, with UMLS (Unified Medical Connecting Language, Text Mining and Information Retrieval #12;Language System) concepts and semantic types. WeIndexing UMLS Semantic Types for Medical Question-Answering Thierry Delbecquea , Pierre Jacquemarta

  18. Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

  19. Questions and Answers as a Means of Teaching Argumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Bill

    Intended for use by instructors of upper division speech courses, this paper describes a questioning and answering technique for teaching argumentation. The first section of the paper discusses the concept of argumentative exchange, which is defined as an episode between two or more individuals wherein one or more feel that differences of belief…

  20. CERCLA Site Assessment questions and answers (Qs&As)

    SciTech Connect

    Traceski, T.T.

    1993-11-09

    This documents contains commonly asked questions and corresponding answers (Qs&As) on the CERCLA Site Assessment process. These questions were derived from DOE element responses to a solicitation calling for the identification of (unresolved) issues associated with the conduct of CERCLA site assessments, and from inquiries received during a series of Site Assessment Workshops provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231). Answers to these questions were prepared by EH-231 in cooperation with the EPA Federal Facilities Team in Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Site Assessment Branch, and in coordination with the Office of Environmental Compliance, Facilities Compliance Division (EH-222).

  1. Survey Design Research: A Tool for Answering Nursing Research Questions.

    PubMed

    Siedlecki, Sandra L; Butler, Robert S; Burchill, Christian N

    2015-01-01

    The clinical nurse specialist is in a unique position to identify and study clinical problems in need of answers, but lack of time and resources may discourage nurses from conducting research. However, some research methods can be used by the clinical nurse specialist that are not time-intensive or cost prohibitive. The purpose of this article is to explain the utility of survey methodology for answering a number of nursing research questions. The article covers survey content, reliability and validity issues, sample size considerations, and methods of survey delivery. PMID:26053608

  2. STS-114: Discovery Question & Answer with Joint Crew on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    STS-114 Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot James Kelly, Mission Specialists Souichi Noguchi, Stephen Robinson, Charles Camarda, Andrew Thomas, Wendy Lawrence, and Expedition 11 Commander Sergei Krikalev and Flight Engineer John Phillips answers questions from United States, Japanese and Russian News media in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. Risk, safety, extravehicular activities, spacewalks, re-entry, gap fillers, tiles, flight operations, flight crew activities, team work, and life in space are topics covered with the News media.

  3. Internet delivered question and answer column for patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Maijala, Riikka; Anttila, Minna; Koivunen, Marita; Pitkänen, Anneli; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Välimäki, Maritta

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the use of an Internet delivered question and answer column among patients with schizophrenia. The column was developed for research purposes. The study sample consisted of patients (N?=?100) admitted to acute inpatient psychiatric care in two hospital districts. Descriptive data were collected from the column to which a nurse replied within 3 days and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The column had four to five questions weekly. The most common age of users was 18-24 years, and the gender distribution was almost equal. Column use was heaviest among students (44%) and least among unemployed people (19%). Out of 85 questions or comments sent to the column, 25 (29%) were related to program training and the remaining 60 (71%) were related to medication (31%), illness and tests (25%), other questions or comments (9%), daily life and coping with it (4%), and places to receive treatment (2%). An Internet delivered question and answer column can be included in the care of patients with schizophrenia. However, it requires a new type of basic and additional education in the field of mental health care in order for nurses to be able to provide nursing via the Internet forum. PMID:24960233

  4. Public library patrons' use of collaborative chat reference service: The effectiveness of question answering by question type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nahyun Kwon

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of question answering by question types in the inter-institutional collaborative chat reference service at a public library system. In particular, this study examined whether subject-based research type questions are answered as effectively as simple factual type questions, and whether local-specific questions are answered as effectively as non-local questions in the inter-institutional chat reference service. Effectiveness

  5. Looking Under the Hood : Tools for Diagnosing your Question Answering Engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Breck; Marc Light; Gideon S. Mann; Ellen Riloff; Brianne Brown Pranav Anand; Pranav Anand; Mats Rooth; Michael Thelen

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyze two question answering tasks : the TREC-8 ques- tion answering task and a set of reading comprehension exams. First, we show that Q\\/A systems perform better when there are multiple answer opportunities per question. Next, we analyze com- mon approaches to two subproblems: term overlap for answer sentence iden- tification, and answer typing for short

  6. Measuring the Appropriateness of Multiple-Choice Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael V.; Rubin, Donald B.

    1979-01-01

    A student may be so unlike other students that his/her aptitude test score fails to be a completely appropriate measure. We consider the problem of using the student's pattern of multiple-choice aptitude test answers to decide whether his/her score is an appropriate ability measure. (Author/CTM)

  7. Ontology-based multiple choice question generation.

    PubMed

    Al-Yahya, Maha

    2014-01-01

    With recent advancements in Semantic Web technologies, a new trend in MCQ item generation has emerged through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are knowledge representation structures that formally describe entities in a domain and their relationships, thus enabling automated inference and reasoning. Ontology-based MCQ item generation is still in its infancy, but substantial research efforts are being made in the field. However, the applicability of these models for use in an educational setting has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this paper, we present an experimental evaluation of an ontology-based MCQ item generation system known as OntoQue. The evaluation was conducted using two different domain ontologies. The findings of this study show that ontology-based MCQ generation systems produce satisfactory MCQ items to a certain extent. However, the evaluation also revealed a number of shortcomings with current ontology-based MCQ item generation systems with regard to the educational significance of an automatically constructed MCQ item, the knowledge level it addresses, and its language structure. Furthermore, for the task to be successful in producing high-quality MCQ items for learning assessments, this study suggests a novel, holistic view that incorporates learning content, learning objectives, lexical knowledge, and scenarios into a single cohesive framework. PMID:24982937

  8. RECONS Answers Fundamental Questions in the Solar Neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; Dieterich, S.; Ianna, P. A.; Jao, W.; Koerner, D. W.; Riedel, A. R.; Slatten, K. J.; Subasavage, J. P.; Winters, J. G.; RECONS

    2013-06-01

    Comprehensive surveys are often the best way to answer fundamental questions about the Universe, but it is typically difficult to get reliable results unless great care is taken to develop and understand the sample. By observing a complete sample of red and brown dwarfs (spectral types mid-M to mid-L) in the southern sky within 15 pc --- defined by trigonometric parallax --- the RECONS (www.recons.org, REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars) team is searching for answers to three basic questions: (1) where are the breaks in the luminosity and mass functions at the stellar/substellar border? (2) what are the populations of stellar, brown dwarf, and Jovian planets orbiting the red dwarfs that account for 75% of all stars? and (3) do the smallest stars exhibit long-term activity cycles like our Sun? We identify a sample of more than 300 of the nearest red and brown dwarfs using a combination of astrometry (parallaxes, proper motions, orbits), and photometry (plate BRI from SuperCOSMOS, VRI from our CCD observations, JHK from 2MASS, and new WISE data). Our observing program, now in its 14th year, is carried out at the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9m telescope. This is the largest long-term study of members of the solar neighborhood in the southern hemisphere, so it provides unparalleled astrometric and photometric time coverage for the nearest red and brown dwarfs. By focusing on a carefully vetted sample of the Sun's neighbors, we can hope to reveal the real answers to the three questions posed above. This effort is supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402 and AST-1109445, and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  9. The effect of distributed questioning with varied examples on exam performance on inference questions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold Lewis Glass

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the distributed presentation of different versions of a question would produce better performance on a new version of the question than distributed presentation of the same version of the question. A total of 48 four question sets of five alternative multiple?choice questions were presented during a college lecture course. The answers

  10. PrimeAnswers: A Practical Interface for Answering Primary Care Questions

    PubMed Central

    Ketchell, Debra S.; St. Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. Results of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem. PMID:15905488

  11. 76 FR 64175 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ...and answers, one relating to insurable value and one relating to force placement, and...question and answer regarding insurable value. The two final questions and answers supplement...answers addressed issues related to insurable value and force placement of flood...

  12. Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

  13. Use of Credibility Heuristics in a Social Question-Answering Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study looked at the effect of community peripheral cues (specifically voting score and answerer's reputation) on the user's credibility rating of answers. Method: Students in technology and philosophy were asked to assess the credibility of answers to questions posted on a social question-answering platform. Through the use of a…

  14. Immediate Feedback and Opportunity to Revise Answers to Open-Ended Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Powers, Don

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examine the psychometric effects of providing immediate feedback on the correctness of answers to open-ended questions, and allowing participants to revise their answers following feedback. Participants answering verbal and math questions are able to correct many of their initial incorrect answers, resulting in higher revised…

  15. 26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 31.3405... Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The following...to withholding on eligible rollover distributions under section 3405(c) of...

  16. 26 CFR 1.402(f)-1 - Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 1.402...Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The...Internal Revenue Code of 1986 relating to distributions eligible for rollover...

  17. Computer Architecture Screening Exam For the Breadth exam, answer questions (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5).

    E-print Network

    Liblit, Ben

    Computer Architecture Screening Exam Fall 1988 Directions For the Breadth exam, answer questions (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5). For the Depth exam, answer all 8 questions. (1) Suppose you want to design a 4

  18. Rats answer an unexpected question after incidental encoding.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenyi; Hohmann, Andrea G; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2012-06-19

    A fundamental aspect of episodic memory is that retrieval of information can occur when encoding is incidental and memory assessment is unexpected. These features are difficult to model in animals because behavioral training likely gives rise to well-learned expectations about the sequence of events. Thus, the possibility remains that animals may solve an episodic memory test by using well-learned semantic rules without remembering the episode at memory assessment. Here we show that rats can answer an unexpected question after incidental encoding in a hippocampal-dependent manner, consistent with the use of episodic memory. Rats were initially trained to report about a recent event (food versus no food) and separately searched for food where there was no expectation of being asked about the presence of food. To test episodic memory, we gave rats the opportunity to incidentally encode the presence or absence of food and unexpectedly asked them to report about the recent event. Temporary inactivation of the CA3 region of the hippocampus with bilateral infusions of lidocaine selectively eliminated the ability of rats to answer the unexpected, but not the expected, question. Our studies suggest that rats remember an earlier episode after incidental encoding based upon hippocampal-dependent episodic memory. PMID:22633809

  19. Open Questions in Charm Decays Deserving an Answer

    E-print Network

    I. I. Bigi

    1994-08-04

    A list is given of those open questions concerning the dynamics of charm decays where there exists a strong need for an answer. Such a need is based on lessons to be learnt about QCD -- either in their own right or for a better understanding of $B$ physics -- or on searches for New Physics with a small background from the Standard Model. The major items on this list are: lifetimes of the $\\Xi _c^{0,+}$ baryons; semileptonic branching ratios of $D_s$, $\\Lambda _c$ and $\\Xi _c$ hadrons and absolute branching ratios for those states; radiative decays $D\\rightarrow \\gamma K^*,\\, \\gamma \\rho /\\omega , \\, D_s \\rightarrow \\gamma \\phi /\\omega ,\\, D\\rightarrow l^+l^-K/K^*$; $D^0-\\bar D^0$ oscillations down to a sensitivity below $10^{-4}$ and CP asymmetries in non-leptonic $D$ decays down to 0.1\\%. Ongoing and already approved experiments will produce important new insights, which are unlikely to provide sufficient answers to all these questions yet. It is discussed how a third-generation fixed-target experiment like CHARM2000 or a $\\tau$-charm factory can fill the bill.

  20. Combining resources to find answers to biomedical questions Dina Demner-Fushman,a

    E-print Network

    Ruiz, Miguel E.

    Combining resources to find answers to biomedical questions Dina Demner-Fushman,a Susanne M to the 2007 Genomics track question answering task followed the track evaluation design: we attempted identifying exact answers in the form of semantic relations between biomedical entities named in questions

  1. Answering Why and How questions with respect to a frame-based knowledge base: a preliminary

    E-print Network

    Baral, Chitta

    Answering Why and How questions with respect to a frame-based knowledge base: a preliminary report.liang@asu.edu Abstract Being able to answer questions with respect to a given text is the cornerstone of language un- derstanding and at the primary school level students are taught how to answer various kinds of questions

  2. 41 CFR 300-2.20 - What is the purpose of the question & answer format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...What is the purpose of the question & answer format? 300-2.20 Section 300-2... 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.20 What is the purpose of the question & answer format? The Q&A format is an...

  3. 41 CFR 300-2.20 - What is the purpose of the question & answer format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...What is the purpose of the question & answer format? 300-2.20 Section 300-2... 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.20 What is the purpose of the question & answer format? The Q&A format is an...

  4. 41 CFR 300-2.20 - What is the purpose of the question & answer format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...What is the purpose of the question & answer format? 300-2.20 Section 300-2... 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.20 What is the purpose of the question & answer format? The Q&A format is an...

  5. 41 CFR 300-2.20 - What is the purpose of the question & answer format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...What is the purpose of the question & answer format? 300-2.20 Section 300-2... 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.20 What is the purpose of the question & answer format? The Q&A format is an...

  6. 77 FR 74671 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility Registration (Fifth Edition)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ...FDA-2012-D-1002] Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food...announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Questions and Answers Regarding...under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended...announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Questions and Answers...

  7. Teacher's Toolkit: Strategies for the meaningful evaluation of multiple-choice assessments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert Chesbro

    2010-10-01

    Too many multiple-choice tests are administered without an evaluative component. Teachers often return student assessments or Scantron cards--computerized bubble forms--without review, assuming that the printing of the correct answer will suffice. However,

  8. Correcting Grade Deflation Caused by Multiple-Choice Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranchik, Alvin; Cherkas, Barry

    2000-01-01

    Presents a study involving three sections of pre-calculus (n=181) at four-year college where partial credit scoring on multiple-choice questions was examined over an entire semester. Indicates that grades determined by partial credit scoring seemed more reflective of both the quantity and quality of student knowledge than grades determined by…

  9. Combining Low-Level and Summary Representations of Opinions for Multi-Perspective Question Answering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Cardie; Janyce Wiebe; Theresa Wilson; Diane J. Litman

    2003-01-01

    While much recent progress has been made in research on fact-based question answering (Voorhees and Dice, 2000; Voorhees, 2001), our work aims to extend question-answering re- search in a different direction — to handle multi-perspective question-answering tasks, i.e. ques- tion-answering tasks that require an ability to find and organize opinions in text. In particular, this paper proposes an approach to

  10. How Online Crowds Influence the Way Individual Consumers Answer Health Questions

    PubMed Central

    Lau, A.Y.S.; Kwok, T.M.Y.; Coiera, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether strength of social feedback, i.e. other people who concur (or do not concur) with one’s own answer to a question, influences the way one answers health questions. Methods Online prospective study. Two hundred and twenty-seven undergraduate students were recruited to use an online search engine to answer six health questions. Subjects recorded their pre- and post-search answers to each question and their level of confidence in these answers. After answering each question post-search, subjects were presented with a summary of post-search answers provided by previous subjects and were asked to answer the question again. Results There was a statistically significant relationship between the absolute number of others with a different answer (the crowd’s opinion volume) and the likelihood of an individual changing an answer (P<0.001). For most questions, no subjects changed their answer until the first 10–35 subjects completed the study. Subjects’ likelihood of changing answer increased as the percentage of others with a different answer (the crowd’s opinion density) increased (P=0.047). Overall, 98.3% of subjects did not change their answer when it concurred with the majority (i.e. >50%) of subjects, and that 25.7% of subjects changed their answer to the majority response when it did not concur with the majority. When subjects had a post-search answer that did not concur with the majority, they were 24% more likely to change answer than those with answers that concurred (P<0.001). Conclusion This study provides empirical evidence that crowd influence, in the form of online social feedback, affects the way consumers answer health questions. PMID:23616869

  11. 78 FR 70953 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ...Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision 1); Reopening of the Comment...Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision 1)'', published in the...Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision 1).'' Interested...

  12. Questions and answers about using magnets to treat pain.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine of the National Institutes of Health has published a detailed set of questions and answers about using magnets to treat pain. This resource cites the relevant scientific literature and addresses the following questions. What are magnets? Is the use of magnets considered conventional medicine or complementary and alternative medicine? What is the history of the discovery and use of magnets to treat pain? How common is the use of magnets to treat pain? What are some examples of theories and beliefs about magnets and pain? How are static magnets used in attempts to treat pain? How are electromagnets used in attempts to treat pain? What is known from the scientific evidence about the effectiveness of magnets in treating pain? Are there scientific controversies associated with using magnets for pain? Have any side effects or complications occurred from using magnets for pain? What should consumers know if they are considering using magnets to treat pain? Is the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) funding research on magnets for pain and other diseases and conditions? The report also includes definitions and three appendices that address the following issues: Research on Theories and Beliefs On How Magnets Might Relieve Pain, General and Systematic Reviews on CAM Magnetic Therapy for Pain Published From August 1999 to August 2003, and Reports on Randomized Clinical Trials of Magnetic Therapy for Pain from January 1997 to March 2004. PMID:16061466

  13. How to Evaluate your Question Answering System Every Day and Still Get Real Work Done

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric J. Breck; John D. Burger; Lisa Ferro; Lynette Hirschman; David House; Marc Light; Inderjeet Mani

    2000-01-01

    I n this paper, we report on Qaviar, an experimental automated evaluation system for question answering applications. The goal of our research was to find an automatically calculated measure that correlates well with human judges' assessment of answer correctness in the c ontext of question answering tasks. Qaviar judges the response by computing recall against the stemmed content words in

  14. Looking Under the Hood: Tools for Diagnosing Your Question Answering Engine1

    E-print Network

    Breck, Eric

    Looking Under the Hood: Tools for Diagnosing Your Question Answering Engine1 Eric Breck , Marc of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, gsm@cs.jhu.edu School of Computing analyze two question answering tasks : the TREC-8 ques- tion answering task and a set of reading

  15. Cross-Language Question Answering at the USC Information Sciences Institute

    E-print Network

    Marcu, Daniel

    Cross-Language Question Answering at the USC Information Sciences Institute Abdessamad Echihabi, Douglas W. Oard , Daniel Marcu, and Ulf Hermjakob University of Southern California Information Sciences@umd.edu Abstract. The TextMap-TMT cross-language question answering sys- tem at USC-ISI was designed to answer

  16. Finding the right facts in the crowd: factoid question answering over social media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang Bian; Yandong Liu; Eugene Agichtein; Hongyuan Zha

    2008-01-01

    Community Question Answering has emerged as a popu- lar and efiective paradigm for a wide range of information needs. For example, to flnd out an obscure piece of trivia, it is now possible and even very efiective to post a question on a popular community QA site such as Yahoo! Answers, and to rely on other users to provide answers,

  17. How to Answer These Tricky Interview Questions By Kate Lorenz, CareerBuilder.com

    E-print Network

    Hart, Gus

    How to Answer These Tricky Interview Questions By Kate Lorenz, CareerBuilder.com Does the thought recommend that you spend at least three hours preparing for each interview. You should draft answers that are common across the board. Reading through the following questions and developing your own answers

  18. Pick-N multiple choice-exams: a comparison of scoring algorithms.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R

    2011-05-01

    To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students, 180 Pick-N items in total). Scoring Algorithms: Each question scored a maximum of one point. We compared: (a) Dichotomous scoring (DS): One point if all true and no wrong answers were chosen. (b) Partial credit algorithm 1 (PS(50)): One point for 100% true answers; 0.5 points for 50% or more true answers; zero points for less than 50% true answers. No point deduction for wrong choices. (c) Partial credit algorithm 2 (PS(1/m)): A fraction of one point depending on the total number of true answers was given for each correct answer identified. No point deduction for wrong choices. Application of partial crediting resulted in psychometric results superior to dichotomous scoring (DS). Algorithms examined resulted in similar psychometric data with PS(50) only slightly exceeding PS(1/m) in higher coefficients of reliability. The Pick-N MC format and its scoring using the PS(50) and PS(1/m) algorithms are suited for undergraduate medical examinations. Partial knowledge should be awarded in Pick-N MC exams. PMID:21038082

  19. Some questions and answers about the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Office of Energy Research, US DOE is evaluating the concept of obtaining significant amounts of electrical energy from space through the Satellite Power System Project Office (SPS PO) formed for that purpose. The SPS PO prepared and is implementing a Concept Development and Evaluation Program plan. The CDEP runs roughly three years (from July 1977 through July 1980) and consists of four primary elements: (1) Systems Definition, (2) Environmental Assessment, (3) Societal Assessment, and (4) Comparative Assessment. One facet of the Societal Assessment is an investigation of public concerns. To further this investigation, a public outreach experiment was initiated to determine the initial response of three selected interest groups to the SPS, both qualitatively and quantititavely, and to gain some experience for use in future public participation activities. Three groups were contacted and agreed to participate in the experiment. They were: the Citizens Energy Project (CEP), the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), and the L-5 Society (L-5). They each agreed to condense twenty final SPS reports into approximately four pages each, have them typeset, printed and distributed to 3,000 of their constituents for their review, together with a request that they respond to the parent organization regarding the information presented. All responses were summarized and provided to Planning Research Corporation who then solicited the answers from the SPS PO investigator most directly concerned.The questions and answers are presented and will be distributed by the three groups to the individual respondents. Each of the three groups is also preparing a report to the Project Office detailing their work and results. These, together with other responses and studies will be used to more effectively involve the public in the SPS Participatory Technology Process.

  20. Answering questions about consciousness by modeling perception as covert behavior.

    PubMed

    Markkula, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Two main open questions in current consciousness research concern (i) the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) and (ii) the relationship between neural activity and first-person, subjective experience. Here, possible answers are sketched for both of these, by means of a model-based analysis of what is required for one to admit having a conscious experience. To this end, a model is proposed that allows reasoning, albeit necessarily in a simplistic manner, about all of the so called "easy problems" of consciousness, from discrimination of stimuli to control of behavior and language. First, it is argued that current neuroscientific knowledge supports the view of perception and action selection as two examples of the same basic phenomenon, such that one can meaningfully refer to neuronal activations involved in perception as covert behavior. Building on existing neuroscientific and psychological models, a narrative behavior model is proposed, outlining how the brain selects covert (and sometimes overt) behaviors to construct a complex, multi-level narrative about what it is like to be the individual in question. It is hypothesized that we tend to admit a conscious experience of X if, at the time of judging consciousness, we find ourselves acceptably capable of performing narrative behavior describing X. It is argued that the proposed account reconciles seemingly conflicting empirical results, previously presented as evidence for competing theories of consciousness, and suggests that well-defined, experiment-independent NCCs are unlikely to exist. Finally, an analysis is made of what the modeled narrative behavior machinery is and is not capable of. It is discussed how an organism endowed with such a machinery could, from its first-person perspective, come to adopt notions such as "subjective experience," and of there being "hard problems," and "explanatory gaps" to be addressed in order to understand consciousness. PMID:26136704

  1. Answering Scientific Questions Using an Artistic Framework: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, S. F. B.

    2014-12-01

    Being multidisciplinary, while admired, is not viewed as a goal of education. Instead, extreme specialization is emphasized. One seeks to attain mastery of a given subject, but at what cost? Even those fields viewed as "interdisciplinary" are often quite narrow in scope, only permitting the most closely related subjects to coalesce. The arts however, are by nature both inter- and multi-disciplinary. They attempt to research, analyze, and reflect upon broader questions, often employing techniques garnered from far-flung fields in order to do so. It is an unfortunate dilemma then that the artist should seem so separate from the scientist, as it seems that both are engaged in a sort of hypothesis testing. Perhaps this division is a remnant of the antiquated left- and right-brained dichotomy, which clearly separated the two groups: Science and Art, Left and Right. In this way, the artist was branded as Science's "other," despite the inherent sameness of their processes. This "otherness" has been carried forward to the present, where artists are often viewed as simply craftspeople -object makers- and the concept of the "artistic problem" is rarely considered. As someone possessing degrees in both Fine Art and Hydrology, the author attempts to explain the connection between the two subjects, and the manner in which they compliment and enlighten each other in her own research. She hypothesizes that in addition to this "otherness," it is the multi-dimensional mode of thinking and dealing with problems that sets the artist apart. But this is a dynamic trait, and as such, it should be considered that by approaching scientific endeavors as artistic problems, the researcher could be permitted a broader framework in which to answer a given scientific question.

  2. Answering questions about consciousness by modeling perception as covert behavior

    PubMed Central

    Markkula, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Two main open questions in current consciousness research concern (i) the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) and (ii) the relationship between neural activity and first-person, subjective experience. Here, possible answers are sketched for both of these, by means of a model-based analysis of what is required for one to admit having a conscious experience. To this end, a model is proposed that allows reasoning, albeit necessarily in a simplistic manner, about all of the so called “easy problems” of consciousness, from discrimination of stimuli to control of behavior and language. First, it is argued that current neuroscientific knowledge supports the view of perception and action selection as two examples of the same basic phenomenon, such that one can meaningfully refer to neuronal activations involved in perception as covert behavior. Building on existing neuroscientific and psychological models, a narrative behavior model is proposed, outlining how the brain selects covert (and sometimes overt) behaviors to construct a complex, multi-level narrative about what it is like to be the individual in question. It is hypothesized that we tend to admit a conscious experience of X if, at the time of judging consciousness, we find ourselves acceptably capable of performing narrative behavior describing X. It is argued that the proposed account reconciles seemingly conflicting empirical results, previously presented as evidence for competing theories of consciousness, and suggests that well-defined, experiment-independent NCCs are unlikely to exist. Finally, an analysis is made of what the modeled narrative behavior machinery is and is not capable of. It is discussed how an organism endowed with such a machinery could, from its first-person perspective, come to adopt notions such as “subjective experience,” and of there being “hard problems,” and “explanatory gaps” to be addressed in order to understand consciousness.

  3. [Dental care in pregnancy. Ten questions and answers].

    PubMed

    Patcas, Raphael; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Zimmermann, Roland; Gnoinski, Wanda

    2012-01-01

    Dental care of pregnant patients is a demanding task. On one hand, clinicians are facing patients with an altered physiology that may cause a greater need for treatment. On the other hand, pregnancy in itself as well as the unborn child involves potential contraindications to dental interventions. It is therefore essential that dentists be knowledgeable of the ramifications pregnancy has on medical findings and therapy. Also, clinicians must be able to conduct their treatment based on well-grounded data to avoid any harm to the pregnant woman and her unborn child. This article focuses on facts specifically relevant to clinicians. Based on most current scientific data, we aim to answer the following ten questions: 1. What are the physiological changes during pregnancy? 2. What is the adequate lying position for a pregnant patient? 3. Is there a pregnancy-related gingivitis? 4. What is the association between periodontitis, pregnancy and preterm birth? 5. Are there oral manifestations of pregnancy-related therapies? 6. Are caries and erosions inevitable during pregnancy? 7. Should the intake of fluoride be advocated? 8. Is it permissible to x-ray pregnant patients? 9. Is orthodontics contraindicated during pregnancy and 10. Which medication should be administered with caution? PMID:23023311

  4. Mass Media Coverage of the Social Sciences: Some New Answers to Old Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunwoody, Sharon

    Data collected in three recent reseach reports were examined to answer two basic questions about social science coverage in the news media. The first question, whether the media prefer social science stories to other kinds of science questions, was answered affirmatively by three kinds of evidence. First, combined analysis of 1977 and 1979…

  5. Reducing Our Ignorance: Finding Answers to Certain Epistemic Questions for Software Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael; Johnson, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    In previous papers, we asserted that software system safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. We also enumerated a set of 21 foundational epistemic questions, discussed some of the difficulties that exist in answering these questions adequately today, and speculated briefly on possible research that may provide improved confidence in the sufficiency of answers in the future. This paper focuses on three of the foundational questions. For each of these questions, current answers are discussed and potential research is proposed to help increase the justifiable level of confidence.

  6. Sample Questions There are some facts from Elementary Particles that you need to answer simple

    E-print Network

    Adler, Joan

    Sample Questions There are some facts from Elementary Particles that you need to answer simple questions and questions that are really from the earlier part of the course with a slight twist. Questions is the weakest force at shortrange? A. Gravitational Questions about the Baryon table. 1. Q. How many quarks make

  7. Use of social network sites for question and answer behavior

    E-print Network

    Panovich, Katrina (Katrina Marie)

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we look at the behavior of posting questions as status updates on popular social network sites like Twitter and Facebook. This question asking behavior is similar to the use of search engines, question and ...

  8. What did Spot Hide? A Question-Answering Game for Preschool Children

    E-print Network

    Canny, John

    in their parents' utterances, their parents' high propensity to ask yes/no questions, especially auxiliary sufficient information at hand to answer a child's question. This explains the need for expert interactive

  9. Mining Semi-Structured Online Knowledge Bases to Answer Natural Language Questions on Community QA

    E-print Network

    Zhai, ChengXiang

    to know the right types of foods and drinks and self care i can do. Thanks in advance. Answer value from eMedicine be poten- tially automatically answered by mining an answer para- graph from eMedicineHealth: Question medicine for you, you can still take many steps at home to lower your blood pressure and reduce your risk

  10. Are faculty predictions or item taxonomies useful for estimating the outcome of multiple-choice examinations?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jonathan D. Kibble (University of Central Florida College of Medicine)

    2011-12-01

    This article describes a study evaluating whether multiple-choice item difficulty could be predicted either by a subjective judgment by the question author or by applying a learning taxonomy to the items.

  11. Creating the DISEQuA Corpus: a Test Set for Multilingual Question Answering

    E-print Network

    de Rijke, Maarten

    Creating the DISEQuA Corpus: a Test Set for Multilingual Question Answering Bernardo Magnini Amsterdam, The Netherlands. mdr@science.uva.nl Abstract. This paper describes the procedure adopted by the three coordinators of the CLEF 2003 question answering track (ITC-irst, UNED and ILLC) to create

  12. Study on question-answering system based on Meta search engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feijuan Lil; Haiyan Kang; Yangsen Zhang; Wenjie SUI

    2010-01-01

    Meta search engine which can provide rich information is obviously an ideal source of answers to many types of questions. This paper describes a question answering system based on web, and puts forward to a new method to search information based on Meta search engine and new word discovery. In the information retrieval module, N-gram model and web pages which

  13. Public Records Brief: Questions and Answers on Access to Public Records in Maryland

    E-print Network

    Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

    Public Records Brief: Questions and Answers on Access to Public Records in Maryland As an entity provide public access to its records unless certain exceptions apply. The following is a brief summary and control of the record Question #3. Who can get access to public records? Answer: Anybody -at minimal cost

  14. Acquisition of Intraverbal Behavior: Teaching Children with Autism to Mand for Answers to Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Hollobaugh, Tatia

    2010-01-01

    Four boys with autism were taught via echoic prompting and constant prompt delay to mand for answers to questions by saying "I don't know please tell me" (IDKPTM). This intervention resulted in acquisition of the IDKPTM response for all 4 participants and in acquisition of correct answers to most of the previously unknown questions for 2…

  15. Web Question Answering by Exploiting Wide-Coverage Lexical Resources

    E-print Network

    Narasayya, Vivek

    are parsed, e.g.: "By 1832 Samuel FB Morse had invented the telegraph." Because the system knows where- ceding "had", thus: "Samuel FB Morse" For the given example, the system was able to find the correct, exact answer and the open proposition from above can now be completed: invent_272(Cognizer = "Samuel FB

  16. Overview of the NTCIR-5 Cross-Lingual Question Answering Task (CLQA1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Sasaki; Hsin-Hsi Chen; Kuang-hua Chen; Chuan-Jie Lin

    2005-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the NTCIR-5 Cross-Lingual Question Answering Task (CLQA1), an evaluation campaign for Cross-Lingual Question An- swering technology. This evaluation was carried out in June 2005. In CLQA1, we aimed to promote re- search on cross-lingual Question Answering technol- ogy mainly for East Asian languages. As the first attempt, we conducted evaluations of five subtasks: JE,

  17. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial: Questions and Answers

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large, randomized study to determine whether the use of certain screening tests will reduce the risk of dying of those four cancers. In addition to answering questions about the screening tests, the PLCO asked questions about many aspects of the study participants’ health and collected biospecimens (blood and some tissues) to answer many other questions about cancer.

  18. Getting Answers to Natural Language Questions on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radev, Dragomir R.; Libner, Kelsey; Fan, Weiguo

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the use of natural language questions on Web search engines. Highlights include query languages; differences in search engine syntax; and results of logistic regression and analysis of variance that showed aspects of questions that predicted significantly different performances, including the number of words,…

  19. Culture and Survey Question Answering: A Behavior Coding Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young Ik Cho; Anne Fuller; Thom File; Allyson L. Holbrook; Timothy P. Johnson

    Creating survey questions that are well understood uniformly across cultures is a challenge of growing importance for survey researchers conducting surveys of increasingly heterogeneous populations. A number of studies have demonstrated that respondent comprehension of survey questions varies across cultures (e.g., Warnecke et al., 1997). One approach to doing so has been to use behavior coding, a methodology in which

  20. Pulp Healing and Regeneration: More Questions than Answers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Goldberg

    2011-01-01

    Differences between pulp repair and regeneration guide different strategic options. After mild carious dentin lesions, odontoblasts and Hoehl’s cells are implicated in the formation of reactionary dentin. Reparative dentin formation and\\/or pulp regeneration after partial degradation is under the control of pulp progenitors. A series of questions arise from recent researches on tissue engineering. In this series of questions, we

  1. The detection of cheating in multiple choice examinations

    E-print Network

    Richmond, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cheating in examinations is acknowledged by an increasing number of organizations to be widespread. We examine two different approaches to assess their effectiveness at detecting anomalous results, suggestive of collusion, using data taken from a number of multiple-choice examinations organized by the UK Radio Communication Foundation. Analysis of student pair overlaps of correct answers is shown to give results consistent with more orthodox statistical correlations for which confidence limits as opposed to the less familiar "Bonferroni method" can be used. A simulation approach is also developed which confirms the interpretation of the empirical approach.

  2. The Americans with Disabilities Act: Some Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allred, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) will be phased in over a two-year period beginning July 26, 1992. Title I of ADA prohibits discrimination in employment. Some questions relevant to education and employment are addressed. (14 references) (MLF)

  3. Questions and Answers about Writing and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miels, Jill

    1998-01-01

    Discusses 10 often-asked questions regarding writing and young children, synthesizing current research on developmental writing stages, information from experienced classroom teachers, and observations from a variety of early childhood settings. (SR)

  4. Cosmonaut Solovyev answers questions at STS-71 news conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Cosmonaut Anatoliy Y. Solovyev, mission commander for Mir 19, responds to a question from a news media representative. Crew members for two of the joint Space Shuttle/Mir missions met the press at JSC.

  5. EB 2009 - Writing the Test Question isn't Enough!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Vikki L. McCleary (University of North Dakota School of Medicine Dept. of Pharmacology/Physiology and Therapeutics)

    2009-04-20

    Symposium: Writing the Test Question IsnÂ?t Enough! Presented at Experimental Biology, New Orleans LA Monday, April 20, 2009, 8:00-10:00 AM Chairs: Vikki McCleary and Kathy sukalski, Univ. of North Dakota Well constructed multiple choice items can provide a valid, reliable, and unbiased means to assess student learning. Machine scoring and analysis allows for a rapid turnaround of results and provides information about the patterns of responses to individual items. This symposium focused on the construction of valid, reliable multiple choice questions with an emphasis on those that evaluate the studentsÂ? critical thinking ability in the context of specific learning objectives. The session was introduced by Ellis Bell who considered the process of evaluating student achievement in both content knowledge and critical thinking. Decisions must be made about the types of questions to use (essay, short answer, multiple choice) and timing of the examinations, (midterm and final, block exams). Vikki McCleary focused on multiple choice examinations and reviewed the optimization of stems, answers, and distracters and the evaluation of items according to BloomÂ?s taxonomy. Charles Hosford outlined the use of standard item analyses to improve test questions. The assessment of student understanding during class lectures using multiple choice questions was addressed by Jeannine Matz. Kenneth Ruit presented lessons learned from constructing and administering multiple choice examinations in an integrated medical curriculum. Effective testing of knowledge and critical thinking skills. Ellis Bell, U Richmond. Anatomy of a multiple choice question. Vikki McCleary, UND Using item analysis to improve test questions. Charles Hosford, UND Use of multiple choice questions during lecture. Jeannine Matz, Health Care Mercy Col. of Hlth. Sci., Des Moines. Applying principles and lessons learned in medical education. Kenneth Ruit, UND

  6. Student Evaluations That Generate More Questions Than Answers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maria Oliver-Hoyo

    2008-09-01

    As a chemical educator, one of the author's primary goals is to provide students with tools for effective learning, hopefully doing so in an engaging, motivating, and incrementally challenging experience. In her quest to figure out how to do a better job, student evaluations seemed a logical place to start looking for answers. Even though others have contested the meaningfulness of student evaluations as tools for teaching improvements (Kelter 2004), her experience, which is described in this article, provides valuable insights into how these evaluations could help improve her teaching.

  7. Answers to Questions on the Sample POCAT 1. The correct answer is (b). The ACM Code is not a legally binding code. It is possible that at some

    E-print Network

    Xuan, Dong

    Answers to Questions on the Sample POCAT 1. The correct answer is (b). The ACM Code might become legally binding. But that is not the case currently. 2. The correct answer is (a-terminals in the parse tree corresponding to a given program. 3. The correct answer is (c). Acceptance testing

  8. Domain names (panel session, abstract only): more questions than answers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry L. Peterson

    1985-01-01

    The DARPA domain name project raises several interesting questions about the underlying assumptions and issues involved in providing a hierarchical naming scheme in an environment the size of the Internet. For example, the project was motivated by the growth of the Internet. However, because the proliferation of hosts took place within the sites belonging to the Internet (due in part

  9. Complex Question Answering: Unsupervised Learning Approaches and Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yllias Chali; Shafiq R. Joty; Sadid A. Hasan

    2009-01-01

    Complex questions that require inferencing and synthesizing information from multiple documents can be seen as a kind of topic-oriented, informative multi-document summa- rization where the goal is to produce a single text as a compressed version of a set of documents with a minimum loss of relevant information. In this paper, we experiment with one empirical method and two unsupervised

  10. STS-71 astronauts and cosmonauts answer questions from the press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Crew members for the joint Space Shuttle / Mir mission field questions from the press at JSC. Left to right are cosmonauts Nikolai M. Budarin, Anatoliy Y. Solovyov, Gennadiy M. Strekalov, Vladimir N. Dezhurov, and astronauts Bonnie J. Dunbar, Norman E. Th

  11. 75 FR 29350 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2009-D-0260...Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as Established by the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of...

  12. Questions and Answers about the BP Oil Spill in the Gulf Coast

    MedlinePLUS

    ... do for more information? Dispersant Use in BP Oil Spill Questions and Answers on dispersants Statement on dispersant ... Dispersant Application More on dispersant use in BP oil spill EPA's Response What sampling did EPA do along ...

  13. Retirement and Health Care Coverage: Questions and Answers for Dislocated Workers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Assets In Summary For More Information Retirement and Health Care Coverage... Questions and Answers for Dislocated Workers ... care coverage and your retirement benefits. Protecting Your Health and Retirement Benefits The Employee Benefits Security Administration ( ...

  14. Questions and Answers about the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes (DPPOS) Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Reporters Media Contacts Questions & Answers about the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes (DPPOS) Study Page Content October 2009 What is the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)? The DPP was a randomized, ...

  15. Out of State Employee Report Complete this document if you answer no to both questions below.

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Out of State Employee Report Complete this document if you answer no to both questions below: ____________________________________________________________ State the employee is resident of: ___________________________________________ Address of employee's out: _________________________________________________________ Department contact & phone number: ________________________________________ Is this employee working out

  16. Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Campaign About our Partner Spread the Word Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Overview Transmission Symptoms Testing Treatment Overview What is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It ...

  17. Question Answering in a Natural Language Understanding System Based on Object-Oriented Semantics

    E-print Network

    Ostapov, Yuriy

    2011-01-01

    Algorithms of question answering in a computer system oriented on input and logical processing of text information are presented. A knowledge domain under consideration is social behavior of a person. A database of the system includes an internal representation of natural language sentences and supplemental information. The answer {\\it Yes} or {\\it No} is formed for a general question. A special question containing an interrogative word or group of interrogative words permits to find a subject, object, place, time, cause, purpose and way of action or event. Answer generation is based on identification algorithms of persons, organizations, machines, things, places, and times. Proposed algorithms of question answering can be realized in information systems closely connected with text processing (criminology, operation of business, medicine, document systems).

  18. 26 CFR 301.6621-2T - Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION...6621-2T Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on...

  19. 26 CFR 301.6621-2T - Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION...6621-2T Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on...

  20. 26 CFR 301.6621-2T - Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION...6621-2T Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on...

  1. 26 CFR 1.79-4T - Questions and answers relating to the nondiscrimination requirements for group-term life...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Questions and answers relating to the nondiscrimination requirements for group-term...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED...79-4T Questions and answers relating to the nondiscrimination requirements for...

  2. Writing Multiple Choice Tests Academic Learning Centre

    E-print Network

    Major, Arkady

    Writing Multiple Choice Tests Academic Learning Centre 201 Tier 480-1481 #12;Hierarchy of Learning are at a party. A person walks up to you and accidentally spills a drink all over your new pants. You begin to social psychologists, there is a cognitive bias known as the primacy effect that overemphasizes

  3. Typeface and Multiple Choice Option Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; And Others

    The effects of typeface and item options arrangement on comprehension as indicated by multiple-choice test performance were investigated. Copies of the Ability to Interpret Reading Materials in the Social Studies, SRA Iowa Tests of Educational Development, Form X-4 were prepared in four typefaces: elite, pica, proportional, and script. For each…

  4. Overview of the NTCIR-6 Cross-Lingual Question Answering (CLQA) Task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Sasaki; Chuan-Jie Lin

    This paper describes an overview of the NTCIR-6 Cross-Lingual Question Answering (CLQA) Task, an evaluation campaign for Cross-Lingual Question Answering technology. In NTCIR-5, the first CLQA task targeting Chinese, English, and Japanese languages was carried out. Following the success of NTCIR-5 CLQA, NTCIR-6 hosted the second campaign on the CLQA task. Since the handling of Named Entities is a major

  5. Obstacles to answering doctors' questions about patient care with evidence: qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W Ely; Jerome A Osheroff; Mark H Ebell; M Lee Chambliss; Daniel C Vinson; James J Stevermer; Eric A Pifer

    2002-01-01

    AbstractObjective: To describe the obstacles encountered when attempting to answer doctors' questions with evidence.Design: Qualitative study.Setting: General practices in Iowa.Participants: 9 academic generalist doctors, 14 family doctors, and 2 medical librarians.Main outcome measure: A taxonomy of obstacles encountered while searching for evidence based answers to doctors' questions.Results: 59 obstacles were encountered and organised according to the five steps in asking

  6. Pulp healing and regeneration: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M

    2011-07-01

    Differences between pulp repair and regeneration guide different strategic options. After mild carious dentin lesions, odontoblasts and Hoehl's cells are implicated in the formation of reactionary dentin. Reparative dentin formation and/or pulp regeneration after partial degradation is under the control of pulp progenitors. A series of questions arise from recent researches on tissue engineering. In this series of questions, we compare the therapeutic potential of pluripotent embryonic and adult stem cells, both being used in cell-based dental therapies. Crucial questions arise on the origin of stem cells and the localization of niches of progenitors in adult teeth. Circulating progenitor cells may also be candidate for promoting pulp regeneration. Then, we focus on strategies allowing efficient progenitors recruitment. Along this line, we compare the potential of embryonic stem cells versus adult stem cells. Re-programming adult pulp cells to become induced pluripotent stem cells constitute another option. Genes, transcription factors and growth factors may be used to stimulate the differentiation cascade. Extracellular matrix molecules or some bioactive specific domains after enzymatic cleavage may also contribute to the formation of an artificial pulp and ultimately to its mineralization. PMID:21677077

  7. 41 CFR 300-2.21 - How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the rule expressed in the question and answer format? 300-2.21 Section 300-2...2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.21 How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? The rule is expressed...

  8. 41 CFR 300-2.21 - How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the rule expressed in the question and answer format? 300-2.21 Section 300-2...2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.21 How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? The rule is expressed...

  9. 41 CFR 300-2.21 - How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the rule expressed in the question and answer format? 300-2.21 Section 300-2...2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.21 How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? The rule is expressed...

  10. 41 CFR 300-2.21 - How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the rule expressed in the question and answer format? 300-2.21 Section 300-2...2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.21 How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? The rule is expressed...

  11. 41 CFR 300-2.21 - How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the rule expressed in the question and answer format? 300-2.21 Section 300-2...2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.21 How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? The rule is expressed...

  12. Answering Fundamental Questions about Cataclysmic Variables and Classical Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, T. E.

    2014-09-01

    Cataclysmic variables (CVs) are interacting binaries consisting of a white dwarf primary, and a non-degenerate secondary star. There are numerous subclasses of CVs (any of which could become a Classical Nova), but broadly, these classifications are believed to arise from either differing values of the mass accretion rate, or whether the white dwarf primary is magnetic. There continue to be numerous questions about the origin, and evolution of these systems. We will review some of the outstanding issues, and address how advances in interferometry might be used to resolve them.

  13. English as a Second Language: 25 Questions and Answers. Fastback 347.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R.

    Frequently-asked questions about English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction are posed and answered. Questions address the following: the goals of ESL instruction; how ESL differs from bilingual education; how students needing ESL are identified; where interpreters are found; the "Lau Decision"; how to find out how much English the student…

  14. The Structure and Performance of an Open-Domain Question Answering System

    E-print Network

    Harabagiu, Sanda M.

    The Structure and Performance of an Open-Domain Question Answering System Dan Moldovan, Sanda Science and Engineering Southern Methodist University Dallas, Texas, 75275-0122 moldovan@seas.smu.edu Abstract This paper presents the architec- ture, operation and results obtained with the Lasso Question

  15. Questions and Answers Regarding the Ad Hoc Committee's Position [on Copyright Law Revision].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1973

    The Ad Hoc Committee on Copyright Law Revision describes its position in a question and answer format. General questions about the committee and its objectives are followed by a description of the differing needs of copyright holders and educators. Since the committee's primary concern is that educators have adequate access to and use of…

  16. Classroom Assessment Techniques: Multiple Choice Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jay Parkes

    This page describes how to use a multiple choice test to assess student understanding. The assessment tool is one of a series of Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) provided by the Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) website. The CATs of FLAG were constructed as a resource for science, technology, engineering and mathematics instructors to emphasize deeper levels of learning and to give instructors valuable feedback during a course. The multiple-choice test is a flexible assessment format that can be used to measure knowledge, skills, abilities, values and thinking skills. This site provides an overview of this assessment technique, including information about how, when and why to use it. The site is also linked to a set of discipline-specific "tools" that can be downloaded for immediate use, as well as supplementary links and sources to further explore this assessment tool.

  17. The Siren Song of the Absurd Answer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailin, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom states that students rarely choose absurd multiple choice distractors, which therefore simply add noise. In contrast, it is observed that introductory astronomy students are sometimes inexorably drawn to multiple choice answers that are clearly absurd to an expert. I demonstrate this phenomenon using data from the University of Alabama's introductory astronomy for non-majors course and investigate possible explanations, with an eye towards improving multiple choice as an assessment method. I finish with a plea for other instructors to include the same questions in their exams in order to dramatically increase the sample size and uncover correlations with other student behavior that can help understand what leads them to make such obvious mistakes.

  18. Improving Educational Assessment: A Computer-Adaptive Multiple Choice Assessment Using NRET as the Scoring Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sie Hoe, Lau; Ngee Kiong, Lau; Kian Sam, Hong; Bin Usop, Hasbee

    2009-01-01

    Assessment is central to any educational process. Number Right (NR) scoring method is a conventional scoring method for multiple choice items, where students need to pick one option as the correct answer. One point is awarded for the correct response and zero for any other responses. However, it has been heavily criticized for guessing and failure…

  19. Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

  20. A Note on Decisionmaking Processes for Multiple-Choice Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The second response conditional probability model of decision-making strategies used by examinees answering multiple choice test items was revised. Increasing the number of distractors or providing distractors giving examinees (N=106) the option to follow the model improved results and gave a good fit to data for 29 of 30 items. (SLD)

  1. Models of Decisionmaking Processes for Multiple-Choice Test Items: An Analysis of Spatial Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.; Wilcox, Karen Thompson

    1988-01-01

    Use of latent class models to examine strategies that examinees (92 college students) use for a specific task is illustrated, via a multiple-choice test of spatial ability. Under an answer-until-correct scoring procedure, models representing an improvement over simplistic random guessing are proposed. (SLD)

  2. Detecting excessive similarity in answers on multiple choice exams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George O. Wesolowsky

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a simple and robust method for detecting cheating. Unlike some methods, non-cheating behaviour and not cheating behaviour is modelled because this requires the fewest assumptions. The main concern is the prevention of false accusations. The model is suitable for screening large classes and the results are simple to interpret. Simulation and the Bonferroni inequality are used to

  3. Detecting Excessive Similarity in Answers on Multiple Choice Exams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George O. Wesolowsky

    1999-01-01

    abstract,This paper provides a simple and robust method for detecting cheating. Unlike some methods, non-cheating behaviour and not cheating behaviour is modelled because this requires the fewest assumptions. The main concern is the prevention offalse accusations. The model is suitable for screening large classes and the results are simple to interpret. Simulation and the Bonferroni inequality are used to prevent

  4. Multiple choice exams Only the forms with 9-digit student ID numbers can be used for multiple-choice exams. An exam

    E-print Network

    Kambhampati, Patanjali

    Multiple choice exams Only the forms with 9-digit student ID numbers can be used for multiple number of 000000000 or all blank. Standard Exams A "standard exam" is a single-version or multiple A "weighted exam" is a single-version or multiple-version exam in which some, or all of the questions

  5. Bone Health Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T) in front of the answer.

    E-print Network

    (T) in front of the answer. # I learned new information at this program. YES ____ NO # Which answer each question, think about how you do things now after attending the nutrition program and how you answers. Everything you report will remain confidential. Please circle the number that best answers each

  6. First Steps Toward Linking Dialogues: Mediating Between Free-text Questions and Pre-recorded Video Answers

    E-print Network

    Oard, Doug

    Answers Sudeep Gandhe Andrew Gordon Anton Leuski David R. Traum USC Institute for Creative Technologies segments can be very compelling for a variety of immersive training purposes, including providing answers to questions in after-action reviews. Answering questions fluently using pre-recorded video poses challenges

  7. The Effect of Language on Student Performance on Multiple Choice Tests in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassels, J. R. T.; Johnstone, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    Indicates that the language in which a multiple-choice question is couched may be a significant factor in student performance. Effects of changing key words, terms of quantity, negative to positive forms, and from passive to active voice are discussed. Also discusses the effect of rewording long or complex questions. (JN)

  8. Multiple-choice exams: an obstacle for higher-level thinking in introductory science classes.

    PubMed

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities. PMID:22949426

  9. Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes

    PubMed Central

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities. PMID:22949426

  10. Multiple Choice: From Sample to Product

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This archived version of the exhibit: "Multiple Choice: From Sample to Product" provides a PDF of a press release along with information about the content and context of the exhibit.The exhibition traced the process that takes samples to final products in a variety of contexts, ranging from home furnishings to architectural ornament to textile design. Highlights of the exhibition included an earthenware sample plate with transfer-printed decorations, made in England in 1899, associated with a finished plate made using the same technique.

  11. Examining the impact of question surface features on students' answers to constructed-response questions on photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-06-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of two question prompts. We asked four versions of the question with different combinations of the two plant species and order of prompts in an introductory cell biology course. We found that there was not a significant difference in the content of student responses to versions of the question stem with different species or order of prompts, using both computerized lexical analysis and expert scoring. We conducted 20 face-to-face interviews with students to further probe the effects of question wording on student responses. During the interviews, we found that students thought that the plant species was neither relevant nor confusing when answering the question. Students identified the prompts as both relevant and confusing. However, this confusion was not specific to a single version. PMID:25999312

  12. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students’ Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of two question prompts. We asked four versions of the question with different combinations of the two plant species and order of prompts in an introductory cell biology course. We found that there was not a significant difference in the content of student responses to versions of the question stem with different species or order of prompts, using both computerized lexical analysis and expert scoring. We conducted 20 face-to-face interviews with students to further probe the effects of question wording on student responses. During the interviews, we found that students thought that the plant species was neither relevant nor confusing when answering the question. Students identified the prompts as both relevant and confusing. However, this confusion was not specific to a single version. PMID:25999312

  13. Dr. Peter Smith answers questions after his presentation on Sunday, Jan. 12. Smith was just one

    E-print Network

    Kaufman, Glennis A.

    Dr. Peter Smith answers questions after his presentation on Sunday, Jan. 12. Smith was just one Research, on Saturday. Dr. Peter Smith, Directory of the Bioinformatics Satellite Core at KUMC gave estimates strikes over 50% of individuals over the age of 85. On Sunday, Dr. Smith talked about using

  14. INFLUENZA VACCINE Please answer the questions on the right before you

    E-print Network

    INFLUENZA VACCINE CONSENT Please answer the questions on the right before you get your influenza have had an influenza vaccination. ThINgS yOU ShOULd kNOw · Influenza vaccine can never give you read and understood this information and the Consumer Medicine Information for influenza vaccine. I

  15. Questions & Answers What can I do with a Women's and Gender Study degree?

    E-print Network

    for Magazines Author Legislative Assistant Public Servant Human Resources Management Women's Advocacy CounsellorQuestions & Answers What can I do with a Women's and Gender Study degree? How do I register in my should I visit an Academic Advisor? Who is the academic advisor in Women's and Gender Studies? To whom

  16. Hope for Tomorrow: A Booklet of Questions and Answers. The United Nations for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY.

    Suitable for junior and senior high school students and presented in a synthesized, easy-to-read format, this booklet includes more than 80 questions and answers relating to the United Nations. With the U.N. proclamation of 1985 as International Youth Year serving as an underlying theme, the booklet begins by outlining U.N. activities during…

  17. Teacher's practices after Experimental Activities: questioning and feedback to students' answers

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Teacher's practices after Experimental Activities: questioning and feedback to students' answers the teacher / students relations are based on students' experimental activities more than on lectures (Buty et to be taught, we found out many teachers' reluctances to keep teaching this way. Our hypothesis

  18. ASQA: Academia Sinica Question Answering System for NTCIR-5 CLQA Cheng-Wei Lee12

    E-print Network

    Day, Min-Yuh

    ASQA: Academia Sinica Question Answering System for NTCIR-5 CLQA Cheng-Wei Lee12 , Cheng-Wei Shih1 , Shih-Hung Wu3 , Wen-Lian Hsu1§ 1 Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, R.O.C 2 Department of Computer Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Taiwan, R.O.C 3 Department of CSIE, Chaoyang

  19. Web based Question Answering with Aggregation Dell Zhang1,2

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Dell

    Web based Question Answering with Aggregation Strategy Dell Zhang1,2 1 Department of Computer Science, School of Computing, National University of Singapore, S15-05-24, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 2 Computer Science Programme, Singapore-MIT Alliance E4-04-10, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore

  20. Knowledge-Based Question Answering Fabio Rinaldi, James Dowdall, Michael Hess,

    E-print Network

    Schwitter, Rolf

    Knowledge-Based Question Answering Fabio Rinaldi½, James Dowdall½, Michael Hess½, Diego Moll¨urich, Switzerland rinaldi,dowdall,hess,kalju @cl.unizh.ch ¾ Centre for Language Technology, Macquarie University with the size of the TREC collections (a few gigabytes). #12;2 Rinaldi, Dowdall, Hess, Moll´a, Schwitter

  1. Answering questions with an electroencephalogram-based brain-computer interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie A. Miner; Dennis J. McFarland; Jonathan R. Wolpaw

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate that humans can learn to control selected electroencephalographic components and use that control to answer simple questions.Methods: Four adults (one with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) learned to use electroencephalogram (EEG) mu rhythm (8 to 12Hz) or beta rhythm (18 to 25Hz) activity over sensorimotor cortex to control vertical cursor movement to targets at the top or bottom edge

  2. Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities Solicitation

    E-print Network

    Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities biofuels production facility? A.1 An existing biofuels facility is an existing facility that, as of the application due date of PON-13-601, produces (or did produce) biofuels in California. Q.2 Must an eligible

  3. INVARIANT PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS Abstract. In this paper, we attempt to answer the three questions about the

    E-print Network

    May, J. Peter

    INVARIANT PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS BOTAO WU Abstract. In this paper, we attempt to answer the three questions about the invariant probability distribution for stochastic matrices: (1) does every sto- chastic matrix have an invariant probability distribution?; (2) is the invariant probability distribution

  4. Quick, answer this question: What business are we in at Robert Morris University?

    E-print Network

    VanDieren, Monica

    of providing students with a diploma sells short what actually goes on here. Make no mistake: RMU always. But students don't come to college simply to earn a degree, nor are strong academic credentials any longerQuick, answer this question: What business are we in at Robert Morris University? I bet many of you

  5. Should I submit a landscape plant sample for Phytophthora ramorum testing? Answer the following questions....

    E-print Network

    Should I submit a landscape plant sample for Phytophthora ramorum testing? Answer the following questions.... (from USDA Phytophthora ramorum Educate to Detect Program (PRED); Adapted for Indiana by Gail/plant_pest_info/pram/downloads/pdf_files/usdaprlist.pdf purchased since 2002 - go to 2 c. None of the above - unlikely to be P. ramorum. Do not submit sample.1 2

  6. "The Panama Canal Episode: An Encounter with a Question and Answers." Occasional Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifman, Eli

    This is an account of the experience of a college instructor and a group of prospective social studies teachers as they answer a simple question concerned with direction of travel through the Panama Canal and explore the reactions of students. The situation originates in a class discussion focusing on ways of asking and responding to classroom…

  7. Parrot claylick distribution in South America: do patterns of ``where'' help answer the question ``why''?

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Lee

    Parrot claylick distribution in South America: do patterns of ``where'' help answer the question known among some Neotropical parrots. The clay apparently adsorbs dietary toxins and/or provides and examined how parrot assemblages using claylicks changed with distance from the centre of claylick

  8. not an impossible, question to answer. Most magnetars reside in the disk of our

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    SGR AXP not an impossible, question to answer. Most magnetars reside in the disk of our Galaxy (Fig,10 . Given this motley crew of magnetar proper- ties, it is not surprising that Stefanescu et al.2 (page 503 to observe the source just 421 seconds after its first X-ray burst. The OPTIMA camera was following

  9. Who Wants to Know? Question-asking and Answering Practices among Facebook Users

    E-print Network

    Michigan, University of

    Who Wants to Know? Question-asking and Answering Practices among Facebook Users Rebecca Gray1@umd.edu ABSTRACT Research has identified a link between Facebook use and bridging social capital, which speaks through which Facebook may help individuals mobilize these embedded informational and support resources

  10. A Questioning-Answering Program for Simple Kernel Sentences (QUE2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Bill

    QUE2 is a recently devised, natural language, questioning-answering program written in LISP1-5. It deals in simple, kernel sentences and employs the theory that the semantic content of a sentence is the set of relationships between conceptual objects (represented by the words in it), which the sentence and its structure imply. The data base of the…

  11. Medical Amnesty Question and Answer Prepared by Rebecca Allen, MSU Student Health Services

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    of obtaining medical assistance for a legitimate health care concern. How will medical amnesty affect me that if they seek medical assistance when there are health care concerns related to alcohol use, they will not faceMedical Amnesty Question and Answer Prepared by Rebecca Allen, MSU Student Health Services

  12. Effects of Applicant Race, Sex, Suitability, and Answers on Interviewer's Questioning Strategy and Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Tracy; Hakel, Milton D.

    1985-01-01

    To determine if interviewers utilize confirmatory information seeking strategies, 170 subjects rated applicant suitability after reading resumes, posing questions, and receiving written answers. Seventy-three percent of the variance in applicant ratings was accounted for by the content of applicants' responses; no clear-cut confirmatory…

  13. Frequently Asked Questions about ADHD and the Answers from the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loechler, Kathy

    1999-01-01

    Identifies useful Internet sites about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the results of searching these sites to answer common questions concerning incidence of ADHD, basic information about Ritalin drug therapy, educational placement of students with ADHD, sources of information about special needs, and what parents can do at…

  14. Questions and Answers About Kidney CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION

    E-print Network

    Questions and Answers About Kidney CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION What is kidney in the kidney. About 70% of kidney cancers are renal cell carcinomas. Wilm's Tumor occurs mostly in children by quitting. Additionally, obesity has been consistently linked with renal cell cancer. You may reduce your

  15. Medical Questions? MEDLINEplus and the National Library of Medicine Has Answers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay Hogan

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses MEDLINEplus, a new WorldWide Web consumer health resource from the National Library of Medicine that was recently unveiled in conjunction with their “Medical Questions? MEDLINE Has Answers” promotional pilot project. It is a well-organized, thorough resource for consumers with an uncluttered, easily understood format.

  16. To appear in Proceedings of AAAI94 Automated Modeling for Answering Prediction Questions

    E-print Network

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    , which separates as­ pects of the scenario that must be modeled from those that can be ignored is comprehensible. To balance these competing requirements, a modeler must choose a system boundary that separatesTo appear in Proceedings of AAAI­94 Automated Modeling for Answering Prediction Questions

  17. Counter-intuitive answers to some questions concerning minimal-palindromic extensions of

    E-print Network

    Ba�iæ, Bojan

    Counter-intuitive answers to some questions concerning minimal-palindromic extensions of binary palindromic words, Discrete Appl. Math. 157 (2009), 953­959] the authors proposed to measure the degree of "palindromicity" of a binary word w by ratio |rws| |w| , where the word rws is minimal-palindromic--that is, does

  18. Questions and Answers on Copyright for the Campus Community. Updated (Includes Recent Court Decisions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Publishers, New York, NY.

    Intended for those members of the higher education community who write and publish (and that includes both students who write research papers, faculty who produce scholarly articles, copy centers, and college stores), this easy-to-understand guide explains the requirements of United States copyright law. The guide, in question and answer format,…

  19. What Can Standardized Reading Tests Tell Us? Question-Answer Relationships and Students' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Danhua

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the comprehension subsection of Nelson-Denny Reading Test Form G (Brown, Fishco, & Hanna, 1993a) and some urban developmental students' performance on it. Three types of question-answer relations were identified using Pearson and Johnson's taxonomy. Students' performance was expressed in their scores on the three types of…

  20. Notice to Post on Queen's Parking Website Questions & Answers about Queen's New Parking Rates

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Randy

    Notice to Post on Queen's Parking Website Questions & Answers about Queen's New Parking Rates Q. What are the new parking rates? A. Parking rate increases happen every year, but given the financial situation of our parking facilities, a larger than average increase will happen this year. The university

  1. Developing Independence in a Capstone Course: Helping Students Ask and Answer Their Own Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camenga, Kristin A.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a mathematics capstone course designed to help students grow in mathematical independence. We describe how the course is structured to support this goal and the major assignments: a course wiki, a group expository project, and an individual problem to solve and extend. Students learn to ask and answer their own questions, helping them…

  2. Olympian Parents Answer the Question of How Parents Contribute towards Their Child's Academic Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, James Reed

    2011-01-01

    How do parents contribute toward their child's academic productivity? This article analyzes studies conducted over the last 30 years on this topic. During these three decades a number of theories and theoretical frameworks have been developed to answer this fundamental question. There have been nine national studies published and six reviews of…

  3. A 3D Audio-Visual Animated Agent for Expressive Conversational Question Answering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-C. Martin; C. Jacquemin; L. Pointal; B. Katz; C. d'Alessandro; A. Max; M. Courgeon

    This paper reports on the ACQA (Animated agent for Conversational Question Answering) project conducted at LIMSI. The aim is to design an expressive animated conversational agent (ACA) for conducting research along two main lines: 1\\/ perceptual experiments (eg perception of expressivity and 3D movements in both audio and visual channels): 2\\/ design of human-computer interfaces requiring head models at different

  4. Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-08-01

    Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

  5. Genetic Algorithms for Multiple-Choice Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-04-01

    This thesis investigates the use of problem-specific knowledge to enhance a genetic algorithm approach to multiple-choice optimisation problems.It shows that such information can significantly enhance performance, but that the choice of information and the way it is included are important factors for success.Two multiple-choice problems are considered.The first is constructing a feasible nurse roster that considers as many requests as possible.In the second problem, shops are allocated to locations in a mall subject to constraints and maximising the overall income.Genetic algorithms are chosen for their well-known robustness and ability to solve large and complex discrete optimisation problems.However, a survey of the literature reveals room for further research into generic ways to include constraints into a genetic algorithm framework.Hence, the main theme of this work is to balance feasibility and cost of solutions.In particular, co-operative co-evolution with hierarchical sub-populations, problem structure exploiting repair schemes and indirect genetic algorithms with self-adjusting decoder functions are identified as promising approaches.The research starts by applying standard genetic algorithms to the problems and explaining the failure of such approaches due to epistasis.To overcome this, problem-specific information is added in a variety of ways, some of which are designed to increase the number of feasible solutions found whilst others are intended to improve the quality of such solutions.As well as a theoretical discussion as to the underlying reasons for using each operator,extensive computational experiments are carried out on a variety of data.These show that the indirect approach relies less on problem structure and hence is easier to implement and superior in solution quality.

  6. Analysis Qualifying Exam Winter 2008 This exam has five (5) questions. Please answer each part as completely as possible.

    E-print Network

    Sze, Lawrence

    Analysis Qualifying Exam Winter 2008 This exam has five (5) questions. Please answer each part partial credit. Each question is worth five (5) points, for a grand total of 25 points possible. Good luck

  7. Analysis Qualifying Exam Spring 2008 This exam has five (5) questions. Please answer each part as completely as

    E-print Network

    Sze, Lawrence

    Analysis Qualifying Exam Spring 2008 This exam has five (5) questions. Please answer each part partial credit. Each question is worth five (5) points, for a grand total of 25 points possible. Good luck

  8. OBJECTS THAT WE GIVE OURSELVES My answer to the question: "Where do mathematical objects come from?" will

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OBJECTS THAT WE GIVE OURSELVES My answer to the question: "Where do mathematical objects come from of such a thesis, but firstly I should try to explain why it is to my mind an answer. Such an explanation is necessary because I can see perfectly well in what sense my answer is unexpected, as well as the reason why

  9. Differences between multiple choice items and constructed response items in the IEA timss surveys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Hastedt; Heiko Sibberns

    2005-01-01

    In international large-scale surveys, constructed response (CR) items are increasingly being used and multiple-choice (MC) items are being used less frequently. In this article the two item types will be compared in terms of any differences they have on national mean scores. TIMSS 1995 and TIMSS 1999 data have been used. Are there different effects of the question types for

  10. A computer-aided environment for generating multiple-choice test items

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RUSLAN M ITKOV; IKIFOROS K ARAMANIS

    This paper describes a novel computer-aided procedure for generating multiple-choice test items from electronic documents. In addition to employing various Natural Language Processing techniques, including shallow parsing, automatic term extraction, sentence trans- formation and computing of semantic distance, the system makes use of language resources such as corpora and ontologies. It identifies important concepts in the text and generates questions

  11. Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not…

  12. Gender Differences in Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Back Substitution in Multiple-Choice Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, K. Shane; Ostrom, Lee; Scott, Karen Wilson

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative observational study exploring the relationship of gender to mathematics self-efficacy and the frequency of back substitution in multiple-choice assessment sampled undergraduates at a western United States parochial university. Research questions addressed: to what extent are there gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy, as…

  13. The Communication Skills Used by Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers in a Question-and-Answer Game Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toe, Dianne M.; Paatsch, Louise E.

    2010-01-01

    Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in…

  14. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2,' NUREG-0683.

  15. Are internet searches a reliable source of information for answering residents' clinical questions in the emergency room

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane G. Schwartz; June Abbas; Richard Krause; Ronald Moscati; Shravanti Halpern

    2010-01-01

    Emergency Department (ED) residents perceived Internet resources to be reliable and regularly searched the Internet to answer clinical questions in the ED. A single blinded prospective study was conducted to determine if Emergency Medicine residents (EMR) working in a teaching hospital could accurately answer clinical questions, such as those that routinely occur in an ED, using only Google. Thirty-three EMR

  16. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  17. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  18. Comparing the Use of an Online Expert Health Network against Common Information Sources to Answer Health Questions

    PubMed Central

    Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank JH; Hulshof, Carel TJ

    2012-01-01

    Background Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). It is unknown whether workers are able to find correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions when they use common information sources, such as websites, or whether they would benefit from using an easily accessible, free-of-charge online network of OSH experts providing advice. Objective To assess the rate of correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions in a group of workers who used an online network of OSH experts (intervention group) compared with a group of workers who used common information sources (control group). Methods In a quasi-experimental study, workers in the intervention and control groups were randomly offered 2 questions from a pool of 16 standardized OSH questions. Both questions were sent by mail to all participants, who had 3 weeks to answer them. The intervention group was instructed to use only the online network ArboAntwoord, a network of about 80 OSH experts, to solve the questions. The control group was instructed that they could use all information sources available to them. To assess answer correctness as the main study outcome, 16 standardized correct model answers were constructed with the help of reviewers who performed literature searches. Subsequently, the answers provided by all participants in the intervention (n = 94 answers) and control groups (n = 124 answers) were blinded and compared with the correct model answers on the degree of correctness. Results Of the 94 answers given by participants in the intervention group, 58 were correct (62%), compared with 24 of the 124 answers (19%) in the control group, who mainly used informational websites found via Google. The difference between the 2 groups was significant (rate difference = 43%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 30%–54%). Additional analysis showed that the rate of correct main conclusions of the answers was 85 of 94 answers (90%) in the intervention group and 75 of 124 answers (61%) in the control group (rate difference = 29%, 95% CI 19%–40%). Remarkably, we could not identify differences between workers who provided correct answers and workers who did not on how they experienced the credibility, completeness, and applicability of the information found (P > .05). Conclusions Workers are often unable to find correct answers to OSH questions when using common information sources, generally informational websites. Because workers frequently misjudge the quality of the information they find, other strategies are required to assist workers in finding correct answers. Expert advice provided through an online expert network can be effective for this purpose. As many people experience difficulties in finding correct answers to their health questions, expert networks may be an attractive new source of information for health fields in general. PMID:22356848

  19. A Tool for Extension and Restructuring Natural Language Question Answering Domains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Galitsky

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we present the system that allows various forms of knowledge exchange for users of the natural language question\\u000a answering system. The tool is also capable of performing the domain restructuring by domain experts to adjust it to a particular\\u000a audience of customers. The tool is implemented for financial and legal advisors, where the information is extremely dynamic

  20. Finding an answer based on the recognition of the question focus O. Ferret, B. Grau, M. Hurault-Plantet, G. Illouz, L. Monceaux, I. Robba, A. Vilnat

    E-print Network

    Illouz, Gabriel

    Finding an answer based on the recognition of the question focus O. Ferret, B. Grau, M. Hurault In this report we describe how the QALC system (the Question-Answering program of the LIR group at LIMSI answer in selected sentences. The purpose of the main Question-Answering track in TREC10 was to find text

  1. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  2. Attempting to answer a meaningful question enhances subsequent learning even when feedback is delayed.

    PubMed

    Kornell, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Attempting to retrieve information from memory enhances subsequent learning even if the retrieval attempt is unsuccessful. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit materializes only if subsequent study occurs immediately after the retrieval attempt. Previous studies have prompted retrieval using a cue (e.g., whale-???) that has no intrinsic answer. Experiment 1 replicated prior word pair studies, but in Experiment 2, when participants learned meaningful trivia questions, testing enhanced learning even when subsequent study was delayed. Even in Experiment 3, when subsequent study was delayed by up to 24 hr, tests enhanced learning on a final test another 24 hr later. These findings may give comfort to educators who worry that asking a question or giving a test, on which students inevitably make mistakes, impairs learning if feedback is not immediate. They also suggest that there is a consensus in the literature thus far: Questions with rich semantic content enhance subsequent learning even when feedback is delayed, but less meaningful questions without an intrinsic answer enhance learning only when feedback is immediate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23855547

  3. Human studies using isotope labeled fatty acids: answered and unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Emken, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Human studies using deuterium-labeled fatty acids have answered many questions related to the metabolism and health effects of dietary fats. These studies also raised a number of unanswered questions and unresolved issues. For example, studies with cis and trans positional isomers dispelled concerns and allegations that the isomers in partially hydrogenated fats were poorly absorbed, accumulate in undesirable phospholipid acyl positions, mimic stearic acid and competed with oleic acid. Trans 18:1 isomers were metabolically intermediate between 16:0 and 18:0, so the unanswered question is why are the metabolic properties of trans fatty acids not consistent with their physiological effects? Results from ²H-18:0 studies address questions regarding stearic acid absorption and desaturation. Contrary to accepted dogma, stearic acid was well absorbed and less than 10% was desaturation to oleic acid. The still unanswered question is what is the metabolic basis for why 18:0 is less hypercholesterolemic than other saturated fatty acids? The question of whether humans convert 18:3n-3 to EPA and DHA was investigated by feeding male subjects a mixture of ²H-18:3n-3 and ²H-18:2n-6. The unequivocal answer was that 18:3n-3 is converted to EPA and DHA and the conversions for 18:3n-3 to 20:5n-3 and 18:2n-6 to 20:4n-6 were about equal. A major issue that remains unresolved is the wide variability between studies for the estimated conversion of 18:3n-3 to 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. The commercial availability of liquid oils hardened by interesterified with 18:0 has raised the question of whether fatty acids in the sn-2 and sn-1,3 TAG positions are metabolically equivalent. To answer this question, subjects were fed triglycerides containing ²H-16:0 and ²H-18:2n-6 at specific sn-1(3) and sn-2 acyl positions. The result was that dietary fatty acids at the sn-1(3) and sn-2 triacylglycerol positions are essentially metabolically equivalent. PMID:23648399

  4. Multiple Choice Examination System 2. Online Quizzes for General Chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horea Iustin; Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the main aspects and implementation of an online multiple choice examination system with general chemistry issues for student evaluation. The testing system was used to generate items for a multiple- choice examination for first year undergraduate students in Material Engineering and Environmental Engineering from Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, which all attend the same General Chemistry course.

  5. Reducing the Need for Guesswork in Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The humble multiple-choice test is very widely used within education at all levels, but its susceptibility to guesswork makes it a suboptimal assessment tool. The reliability of a multiple-choice test is partly governed by the number of items it contains; however, longer tests are more time consuming to take, and for some subject areas, it can be…

  6. Efficient Validation of Teaching and Learning Using Multiple-Choice Exams

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Mark DeSantis (University of Idaho Department of Biological Sciences/WWAMI Medical Education Program)

    2003-03-01

    One purpose of this study was to quantify, by means of single-format, multiple-choice questions at the beginning and end of the course, the extent to which first-year medical students learn neuroscience material from an introductory course in their curriculum. A second goal was to evaluate a two-dimensional, computer-generated matrix as a way to assess test question validity and value.

  7. Assertion?reason multiple?choice testing as a tool for deep learning: a qualitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy B. Williams

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects on the ongoing debate surrounding the usefulness (or otherwise) of multiple?choice questions (MCQ) as an assessment instrument. The context is a graduate school of business in Australia where an experiment was conducted to investigate the use of assertion?reason questions (ARQ), a sophisticated form of MCQ that aims to encourage higher?order thinking on the part of the student.

  8. Measuring the Consistency in Change in Hepatitis B Knowledge among Three Different Types of Tests: True/False, Multiple Choice, and Fill in the Blanks Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahai, Vic; Demeyere, Petra; Poirier, Sheila; Piro, Felice

    1998-01-01

    The recall of information about Hepatitis B demonstrated by 180 seventh graders was tested with three test types: (1) short-answer; (2) true/false; and (3) multiple-choice. Short answer testing was the most reliable. Suggestions are made for the use of short-answer tests in evaluating student knowledge. (SLD)

  9. Knowledge assessment: Squeezing information from multiple-choice testing.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Raymond S; Butler, Susan F; Carlin, Michael T

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge assessment via testing can be viewed from two vantage points: that of the test administrator and that of the test taker. From the administrator's perspective, the objective is to discover what an individual knows about a domain of interest. From that of the test taker, the challenge is to reveal what one knows. In this article we describe a procedure for administering and scoring multiple-choice tests that satisfies both of these objectives and we present experimental data that demonstrate its effectiveness. The method allows test takers to provide specific information about their confidence that each alternative for an item is the correct answer and makes guessing not only unnecessary but detrimental. From this information the administrator can derive measures of both knowledge and confidence, which, we argue, provides better estimates than systems that do not allow measurement of partial knowledge. The use of such measures for purposes of evaluation both of individual test takers' knowledge of a subject of interest and of the effectiveness of instruction with respect to that subject is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25642780

  10. Qualitative Researchers on Paradigm Proliferation in Educational Research: A Question-and-Answer Session as Multi-Voiced Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Handel K.

    2006-01-01

    This unconventional essay is the (slightly modified) transcript of the question-and-answer period of an AERA conference session on the topic of paradigm proliferation. Through responses to the discussants prepared questions and audience members' comments and questions, each panelist extends and defends the ideas put forward in her or his paper and…

  11. Evaluating the Use of In-situ and Remote Sensing Data to Answer Critical Hydrological Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    Water demands of the 21st Century pose challenges for effective decision-making and viable management of hydrological resources. As competition for water becomes more complex, the use of technology to maximize finite water resources becomes increasingly critical. Therefore, accurate methods of gauging relevant data streams must be developed and improved at every level, from basic and applied research to water management to policy oversight. How can the relative value for answering critical hydrologic questions of prospective data streams be gauged? Advancements in technology are producing multiple new sources of hydrological data from in-situ platforms and the developing resource of remote sensing platforms. The in-situ and remote sensing data available from these new sources can be used complementarily to provide answers to critical water resource management questions. Analyses that identify which combination of data resources will offer the most effective methodology for quantifying hydrological variables will establish new best practices for water management. We are going to use new techniques of data assimilation to establish a process for identifying and evaluating the method that provides the most quantitative means for answering key hydrological questions. This research will outline a method for evaluating specific in-situ and remote sensing data sets for complementary use in managing flood hazards, assessing water flows, and improving irrigation practices, to name a few. This will result in improved understanding of multisensory data and its analysis which, in turn, will lead to better informed decision-making, improved policy development and future governance regarding hydrological systems in any given watershed scenario. *** Image: Preliminary Research Road Map / Poster will highlight Quantitative Research (step 1)

  12. [Veno-venous extracorporeal oxygenation and veno-arterial extracorporeal oxygenation. Questions, answers].

    PubMed

    Isetta, C; Lebreton, G; Janot, N; Prommenschenkel, M; Rilos, Z; Roques, F; Longrois, D

    2014-04-01

    A round table, organized by the French Society of Perfusion (Sofraperf) at the French national congress on extracorporeal circulations (Perfusion 2013), was attended by perfusionists, anaesthesiologists, intensivists and surgeons around the theme of respiratory veno-venous support and veno-arterial circulatory support with extracorporeal oxygenation in intensive care units. The debate was conducted in a participatory manner by bi-directional questions-answers session between moderators and assistance. The authors report management of this type of therapy that is not perfectly homogeneous, supported on literature data. Cannulae, cannulation, circuit, oxygenator, anticoagulation, control, surveillance, weaning are subject to paragraphs with defined entry whose contents are mutually enriching. PMID:24630169

  13. 'Big data' reporting guidelines: how to answer big questions, yet avoid big problems.

    PubMed

    Perry, D C; Parsons, N; Costa, M L

    2014-12-01

    The extent and depth of routine health care data are growing at an ever-increasing rate, forming huge repositories of information. These repositories can answer a vast array of questions. However, an understanding of the purpose of the dataset used and the quality of the data collected are paramount to determine the reliability of the result obtained. This Editorial describes the importance of adherence to sound methodological principles in the reporting and publication of research using 'big' data, with a suggested reporting framework for future Bone & Joint Journal submissions. PMID:25452357

  14. Polytomous versus Dichotomous Scoring on Multiple-Choice Examinations: Development of a Rubric for Rating Partial Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunert, Megan L.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of assigning partial credit on multiple-choice test items is considered for items from ACS Exams. Because the items on these exams, particularly the quantitative items, use common student errors to define incorrect answers, it is possible to assign partial credits to some of these incorrect responses. To do so, however, it becomes…

  15. Beyond the Bubble: How to Use Multiple-Choice Tests to Improve Math Instruction, Grades 4-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickett, Maryann; Hendrix-Martin, Eunice

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-choice testing is an educational reality. Rather than complain about the negative impact these tests may have on teaching and learning, why not use them to better understand your students' true mathematical knowledge and comprehension? Maryann Wickett and Eunice Hendrix-Martin show teachers how to move beyond the student's answer--right…

  16. The Answering System to Yes-No Truth-Functional Questions in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hansook

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in "Br J Psychol" 52:133-142,…

  17. Improving students' capacity to show their knowledge, understanding and skills in exams by using combined question and answer papers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria Crisp

    2008-01-01

    This research set out to compare the quality, length and nature of (1) exam responses in combined question and answer booklets, with (2) responses in separate answer booklets in order to inform choices about response format. Combined booklets are thought to support candidates by giving more information on what is expected of them. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the use of

  18. Bio Search Computing: Bioinformatics web service integration for data-driven answering of complex Life Science questions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Masseroli; Giorgio Ghisalberti; Stefano Ceri

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of bioinformatics web services are available that provide answer to specific data extraction and analysis needs. Yet, biomedical questions are often complex and regard many different aspects of an organism and its biomolecular entities. Their answer hence requires searching multiple heterogeneous data that frequently are inherently ordered, or are associated with ranked confidence values. Search Computing has

  19. Towards Answering Opinion Questions: {S}eparating Facts from Opinions and Identifying the Polarity of Opinion Sentences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Yu; Vasileios Hatzivassiloglou

    2003-01-01

    Opinion question answering is a challenging task for natural language processing. In this paper, we discuss a necessary component for an opinion ques- tion answering system: separating opinions from fact, at both the document and sentence level. We present a Bayesian classifier for discriminating be- tween documents with a preponderance of opinions such as editorials from regular news stories, and

  20. 1.Answer the following questions: (a)& you have learned in your physical metallurgy class, diffusion rate in solid may be

    E-print Network

    Huang, Haimei

    1.Answer the following questions: (a)& you have learned in your physical metallurgy class on the physical metallurgy principles, the student suggested two possibilities for the stress drop: 1) The stress

  1. 26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-5T Questions and answers relating to the...

  2. 26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-5T Questions and answers relating to the...

  3. 26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-5T Questions and answers relating to the...

  4. 26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-5T Questions and answers relating to the...

  5. 77 FR 51814 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-0880...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  6. Koerner_Answers 912.pdf Student questions: David Koerner colloquium on "NAU studies of Asteroids & Comets around

    E-print Network

    Shumway, John

    Koerner_Answers 912.pdf 1 Student questions: David Koerner colloquium on "NAU studies of Asteroids year mission. At what rate are asteroids in our solar system growing in mass due to debris accretion? I

  7. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

  8. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  9. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS: EPA'S GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT AND SUPPLEMENTAL GUIDANCE FROM ASSESSING SUSCEPTIBILITY FROM EARLY-LIFE EXPOSURE TO CARCINOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    March 29, 2005 EPA's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment And Supplemental Guidance from Assessing Susceptibility from Early-life Exposure to Carcinogens Questions and Answers The following questions ...

  10. Quick Questions: Learn About Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners will collect and analyze data to learn about the people around them. How many letters in everyone’s first name? What’s the most common number of letters? What’s most or least? Start out by posing a multiple choice question. Everyone records answers on a large chart. Then, explore the data. This works well as a family activity or in a public area—museum, library, school building. Post the chart and review answers after at least 100 people have responded. Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

  11. Addressing challenges to MMPI-2-RF-based testimony: questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2012-11-01

    Introduction of a new version of a psychological test brings with it challenges that can be accentuated by the adversarial nature of the legal process. In the case of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), these challenges can be addressed by becoming familiar with the rationale for and the methods used in revising the inventory, the information contained in the test manuals, and the growing peer-reviewed literature on the test. Potential challenges to MMPI-2-RF-based testimony are identified in this article and discussed in question and answer format. The questions guiding this discussion are based on the Daubert factors, established in 1993 by the US Supreme Court as criteria for gauging the scientific validity of proffered expert testimony. The answers to these questions apply more broadly to testimony in depositions, pre-trial hearings, and at trial. Consideration of the MMPI-2-RF in light of the Daubert factors indicates that the instrument has been subjected to extensive empirical testing and that a substantial peer-reviewed literature is available to guide and support its use. Information about the known and potential rate of error associated with MMPI-2-RF scores is available, and standard procedures for administration, scoring, and interpretation of the inventory are detailed in the test administration manual. Indicators of MMPI-2-RF acceptance can be cited, and criticisms of the MMPI-2-RF can be addressed with information available in the test documents and an extensive, modern, and actively growing peer-reviewed literature. PMID:23076394

  12. Multiple Choice Story Writing: An Approach to Teaching Characterization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Jeffrey

    1980-01-01

    A multiple choice exercise, in which students choose personality characteristics, brief lines of dialogue, and action is presented as a method for teaching students unfamiliar with literary devices or critical reading. (HTH)

  13. I. Multiple Choices. Please choose the one alternativethat best answers the question. (50%, 2% of each). I. The diameter of the Earth is approximately 12750 krn. If one could dig down straight towards the

    E-print Network

    Huang, Haimei

    the originalsolution? [A] 3.10 x M [B] 1.55 x lo4M [Dl 3.11 x M [El 1.55 x M [C] 6.20 x M 5. 9.45 g of liquid hexane (C] -238.7 #12;7. A ground-state atom of iron has -unpaired electrons and is . [A] 0, diamagnetic [B] 6 of the electrolyte HC1 and enough water to make 0.500 L of solution at 1g°C? [A] 0.55 atm [B] 1.10 atm [C] 8.95 atrn

  14. Proceedings of NTCIR-7 Workshop Meeting, December 1619, 2008, Tokyo, Japan Complex Question Answering with ASQA at NTCIR 7 ACLIA

    E-print Network

    Lee, Cheng-Wei

    Proceedings of NTCIR-7 Workshop Meeting, December 16­19, 2008, Tokyo, Japan Complex Question of Information Science, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, R.O.C 2 Department of Computer Science, National Tsing,vincent,journey,dapi,annabel,hsu}@iis.sinica.edu.tw Abstract At NTCIR 7, we implemented the Academia Sinica Question Answering (ASQA) system for complex

  15. A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John S.; And Others

    A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

  16. Your individual answers and results are private! If you need assistance in answering any of the questions, please consult a family member or trusted friend. Providence and the University of Oregon follow all Federal Health Insurance Portability and Accoun

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    Your individual answers and results are private! If you need assistance in answering any Assessment Questionnaire" · Please answer all questions. Except those that may require lab or other medical click submit, you will not be able to come back later and change your answers. 11. If you enrolled

  17. Antibody-Mediated Rejection: Emergence of Animal Models to Answer Clinical ?Questions

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, William M.; Valujskikh, Anna; Fairchild, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Decades of experiments in small animals had tipped the balance of opinion away from antibodies as a cause of transplant rejection, but clinical experience, especially with sensitized patients, has convinced basic immunologists of the need to develop models to investigate mechanisms underlying antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). This resurgent interest has resulted in several new rodent models to investigate antibody-mediated mechanisms of heart and renal allograft injury, but satisfactory models of chronic AMR remain more elusive. Nevertheless, these new studies have begun to reveal many insights into the molecular and pathological sequelae of antibody binding to the allograft endothelium. In addition, complement-independent and –dependent effects of antibodies on endothelial cells have been identified in vitro. As small animals models become better defined, it is anticipated that they will be more widely used to answer further questions concerning mechanisms of antibody-mediated tissue injury as well as to design therapeutic interventions. PMID:20346069

  18. STS-80 CREW ANSWERS PRESS QUESTIONS AT PAD 39B DURING TERMINAL COUNTDOWN DEMONSTRATION TEST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-80 crew members participating in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch, talk to press representatives (off camera) and answer their questions at Launch Pad 39B. From left, are Mission Specialists Thomas D. Jones and Tamara E. Jernigan, Commander Kenneth D. Cockrell (with microphone), Pilot Kent V. Rominger and Mission Specialist Story Musgrave. The STS-80 mission, the seventh and final Shuttle flight of 1996, will feature two spacewalks and the deployment, operation and retrieval of two scientific satellites, the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer- Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 (ORFEUS-SPAS-2) and the Wake Shield Facility-3 (WSF-3). The mission will be conducted aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia.

  19. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Alzheimer's disease: key questions and partial answers.

    PubMed

    Calon, F

    2011-08-01

    The current rise in the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unfortunately not matched by new treatment options. In the last 10 years, epidemiological, preclinical and clinical data have enlightened the possible preventive action of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in AD and other diseases. While the contribution of recent studies to our general knowledge is priceless, many important new questions have been raised. In the present review, we aim at addressing some of these timely interrogations. First, the transport of n-3 PUFA across the blood-brain barrier is underscored based on preclinical data. Second, the relative contribution of two neuroactive n-3 PUFA found in fish oil, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3), remains unclear and is reviewed. Third, clinical trials on neurodegenerative diseases consistently remind us that treating early is critical, and this is likely to be the case with n-3 PUFA in AD as well. Fourth, we draw attention to the possibility that the current knowledge translation approach to make health recommendations might have to be adapted to non-patentable endogenous compounds like n-3 PUFA. We propose that answers to these critical questions will be instrumental toward a rational use of n-3 PUFA in AD. PMID:21605051

  20. Constructed-Response Test Questions: Why We Use Them; How We Score Them. R&D Connections. Number 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Samuel A.

    2009-01-01

    To many people, standardized testing means multiple-choice testing. However, some tests contain questions that require the test taker to produce the answer, rather than simply choosing it from a list. The required response can be as simple as the writing of a single word as complex as the design of a laboratory experiment to test a scientific…

  1. Chemistry 300. Administration Manual for Supervising Teachers, Provincial Examination, Answer Key--Multiple-Choice and Written-Answer Questions, and Provincial Summary Report = Chimie 300. Guide d'administration a l'intention des surveillants d'examen, Examen provincial, Cle de correction--Questions choix multiple et Questions responses ouvertes, et Rapport sommaire provincial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This collection of manuals contains the Manitoba Provincial Chemistry Examination for students seeking credit in Senior 4 Chemistry (Chemistry 300) and instructions for its use and grading. The examination is based on the Core Topics of the Senior 4 Chemistry course and accounts for 30% of the student's final grade in the course. The examination…

  2. Math 250, Section 7, Quiz 1 Instructions: Clearly answer each of the questions below. Remember to check the back side. Use full

    E-print Network

    Reluga, Tim

    Math 250, Section 7, Quiz 1 Name: ID Number: Instructions: Clearly answer each of the questions below. Remember to check the back side. Use full sentences and proper grammer for verbal answers. Show your work and any formulas you employ. Simplify all answers as far as possible. Box your answers. 1. (3

  3. Math 250, Section 7, Quiz 5 Instructions: Clearly answer each of the questions below. Remember to check the back side. Use full

    E-print Network

    Reluga, Tim

    Math 250, Section 7, Quiz 5 Name: ID Number: Instructions: Clearly answer each of the questions below. Remember to check the back side. Use full sentences and proper grammer for verbal answers. Show your work and any formulas you employ. Simplify all answers as far as possible. Box your answers. 1

  4. Math 250, Section 7, Quiz 4 Instructions: Clearly answer each of the questions below. Remember to check the back side. Use full

    E-print Network

    Reluga, Tim

    Math 250, Section 7, Quiz 4 Name: ID Number: Instructions: Clearly answer each of the questions below. Remember to check the back side. Use full sentences and proper grammer for verbal answers. Show your work and any formulas you employ. Simplify all answers as far as possible. Box your answers. 1. (7

  5. Prior Conduct Statement Form Please answer the following questions. Sign, date and return this form to the Office of Admissions. Please note

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Prior Conduct Statement Form Please answer the following questions. Sign, date and return this form ________ No If your answer to any of the following is YES, you must complete the next page of the Prior Conduct to applicable law, then you are not required to answer YES to these questions. You must supply, however, a copy

  6. Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Patrice; Turmel, Élaine; Masson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students) were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex) and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective. PMID:24478680

  7. The Development of Multiple-Choice Items Consistent with the AP Chemistry Curriculum Framework to More Accurately Assess Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domyancich, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions are an important part of large-scale summative assessments, such as the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam. However, past AP chemistry exam items often lacked the ability to test conceptual understanding and higher-order cognitive skills. The redesigned AP chemistry exam shows a distinctive shift in item types toward…

  8. Ten Common Questions (and Their Answers) About Off-label Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Burkle, Christopher M.; Lanier, William L.

    2012-01-01

    The term off-label drug use (OLDU) is used extensively in the medical literature, continuing medical education exercises, and the media. Yet, we propose that many health care professionals have an underappreciation of its definition, prevalence, and implications. This article introduces and answers 10 questions regarding OLDU in an effort to clarify the practice's meaning, breadth of application, acceptance, and liabilities. Off-label drug use involves prescribing medications for indications, or using a dosage or dosage form, that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Since the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate the practice of medicine, OLDU has become common. It occurs in every specialty of medicine, but it may be more common in areas of medicine in which the patient population is less likely to be included in clinical trials (eg, pediatric, pregnant, or psychiatric patients). Pharmaceutical companies are not allowed to promote their medications for an off-label use, which has lead to several large settlements for illegal marketing. To limit liability, physicians should prescribe medications only for indications that they believe are in the best interest of the patient. In addition, health care professionals should educate themselves about OLDU to weigh the risks and benefits and provide the best possible care for their patients. PMID:22877654

  9. STS-103 Commander Brown answers question during interview at Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. answers a question from the media about the mission. As a preparation for launch, the crew have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members are Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who is also with ESA. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  10. 9/4/2014 www.vault.com/blog/interviewing/how-to-answer-difficult-situational-interview-questions/BlogsArticlePrintTemplate http://www.vault.com/blog/interviewing/how-to-answer-difficult-situational-interview-questions/BlogsArticlePrintTemplate 1/2

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    9/4/2014 www.vault.com/blog/interviewing/how-to-answer-difficult-situational-interview-questions/BlogsArticlePrintTemplate http://www.vault.com/blog/interviewing/how-to-answer-difficult-situational-interview-questions/BlogsArticlePrintTemplate 1/2 How to Answer Difficult Situational Interview Questions by Vault Careers | August 13, 2014

  11. An Introduction to Internet Resources for K-12 Educators. Part II: Question Answering, Listservs, Discussion Groups, Update 1996. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Nancy A.

    As K-12 schools connect to the Internet, a new means of communication opens up to educators and students. This updated digest describes some sample services and resources available to the K-12 community via electronic mail. Information sources covered include: question answering services, including AskERIC and the Online Writing Lab; listservs or…

  12. Question Answering in Terminology-rich Technical Domains Fabio Rinaldi, Michael Hess, James Dowdall Diego Moll, Rolf Schwitter

    E-print Network

    Schwitter, Rolf

    Chapter 15 Question Answering in Terminology-rich Technical Domains Fabio Rinaldi, Michael Hess Technology University of Zürich, Switzerland Macquarie University, Australia {rinaldi, hess, dowdall-volume/high-value type of text (Hess et al., 2002). In both respects this is the exact opposite of newswire or newspaper

  13. Answers to the Most Frequently Asked Questions about Reinspections under the AHERA Asbestos-In-Schools Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

    This document was prepared in response to inquiries that have been received by the Environmental Protection Agency concerning the reinspection requirements and related provisions of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) regulations. The answers developed represent the Agency's responses to the 15 most frequently asked questions to…

  14. Template for NSF Data Management Plan In general, the data management plan should answer these two questions

    E-print Network

    He, Chuan

    for Political and Social Research, etc.). Also note if you submit your data in the form of tables, graphsTemplate for NSF Data Management Plan In general, the data management plan should answer these two questions: 1) What data is generated by your project? 2) What is your plan for managing the data? 1

  15. Nevada Education Law: Federal and State Law Governing Nevada K-12 Education in Question/Answer Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Richard F.; Cockerill, Charles P.

    This book provides answers to the most common legal questions of Nevada's school board members, administrators, and educators. Chapter 1, "The Nevada School System: Governance, Programs, and Standards," explores the constitutional, legal, and statutory basis of school system governance. Chapter 2, "The Nevada Plan: Finance of Public Education,"…

  16. Where Have All the Teachers Gone? Finding Answers to the Most Basic Questions about California's Teacher Workforce. CenterView

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This policy brief presents a strong case for the creation of a statewide teacher data system in California by highlighting some of the simple teacher workforce questions that cannot be answered because such a system does not currently exist. At the state level, data on teacher qualifications are needed to fulfill the new reporting requirements of…

  17. Using Question Answer Relationships in Science Instruction to Increase the Reading Achievement of Struggling Readers and Students with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinniburgh, Leah H.; Baxter, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    The Question Answer Relationship (QAR) literacy strategy was integrated into science instruction in a fourth grade classroom. Ten students who struggled with reading, including some who were diagnosed with a reading disability, participated in this study. Significant gains were made in reading by the 10 student participants in comprehending…

  18. "Remember to Hand out Medals": Peer Rating and Expertise in a Question-and-Answer Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study of giving medals as part of a peer rating system in a question-and-answer (Q&A) study group on Python, a programming language. There are no professional teachers tutoring learners. The study aimed to understand whether and how medals, awarded to responses in a peer-based learning environment, can…

  19. Valuing Assessment in Teacher Education - Multiple-Choice Competency Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Dona L.; Itter, Diane

    2014-01-01

    When our focus is on assessment educators should work to value the nature of assessment. This paper presents a new approach to multiple-choice competency testing in mathematics education. The instrument discussed here reflects student competence, encourages self-regulatory learning behaviours and links content with current curriculum documents and…

  20. Using the Multiple Choice Procedure to Measure College Student Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Leon Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that gambling is similar to addictive behaviors such as substance use. In the current study, gambling was investigated from a behavioral economics perspective. The Multiple Choice Procedure (MCP) with gambling as the target behavior was used to assess for relative reinforcing value, the effect of alternative reinforcers, and…

  1. Clinicians' Perceptions of Medical Students' Reasoning on Multiple Choice Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triska, Olive H.; And Others

    The domination of the information processing approach has shifted research from problem solving strategies to the structure and organization of knowledge that characterizes expertise. The purpose of this study was to compare the reasoning processes of 12 clinicians and 40 medical students as they responded to 6 positively stated multiple choice

  2. Rasch Analysis of Distractors in Multiple-choice Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-chung

    1998-01-01

    A Rasch-type analysis is presented for multiple-choice items in which one parameter is assigned to each distractor. Results of a small simulation study show that the parameter recovery of the distractor model is very satisfactory. Analysis of a real dataset shows that some items fit the Rasch model rather than the distractor model. (SLD)

  3. The communication skills used by deaf children and their hearing peers in a question-and-answer game context.

    PubMed

    Toe, Dianne M; Paatsch, Louise E

    2010-01-01

    Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in a "trivia" game with their hearing peers. Thirty-four children with normal hearing and 34 children with a hearing loss ranging from mild to profound (>90 dB HL) participated in this study. Each of the 34 dyads included 1 child with normal hearing and 1 child with hearing loss, matched by gender and grade level at school. Dyads were videotaped and analyzed. Pairs were compared in terms of their capacity to repeat the question, strategies used to seek information, and accuracy of responses. Results showed that the group of hearing children was able to repeat more questions verbatim compared to the deaf/HH children. The deaf/HH group required a significantly greater number of repetitions, sought a greater number of general clarifications, and correctly answered more questions compared with the group of hearing children. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of peer communication and pragmatic skill development. PMID:20299450

  4. TH APPLICATION OF THEOREM PROVING TO QUESTION-ANSWERING SYSTEMS Cordell Green

    E-print Network

    principle , as its deductive mechanism. The resolu- t ion proof procedure is extended to a construct i ve proof procedure. An answer construction algorithm is given whereby the system is able not only to produce yes or no answers but also to find or construct an object satisfying a specified condition

  5. The Place of Health Information and Socio-Emotional Support in Social Questioning and Answering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrall, Adam; Oh, Sanghee

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the quality of health information in social contexts or how socio-emotional factors impact users' evaluations of quality. We explored how librarians, nurses and users assessed the quality of health answers posted on Yahoo! Answers, focusing on socio-emotional reactions displayed, advice given to users and…

  6. Effectiveness and efficiency of a literature search strategy to answer questions on the etiology of occupational diseases: a controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederieke Schaafsma; Carel Hulshof; Angela de Boer; Frank van Dijk

    2007-01-01

    Objectives  To evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of a search strategy to find evidence-based answers to questions related to the\\u000a possible occupational etiology of diseases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A controlled trial of 70 occupational health physicians and 55 insurance physicians who were asked to answer one out of four\\u000a ‘occupational disease case-vignettes’ following the steps of evidence-based medicine (EBM). The intervention group were given

  7. Blakey_Answers to student questions 314.pdf Student questions: Ronald Blakey colloquium on "Using Paleogeographic Maps to Portray

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    period witnessed the most profound geological evolution of modern-day North America? Probably the Archean, and it's the area I know best. Question 2: You mentioned in a slide of Old Jurassic, that rivers drained

  8. Edgar_Answers to student questions 414.pdf Student questions: Lauren Edgar colloquium on "Martian Sedimentology as Revealed by the

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    Sedimentology as Revealed by the Curiosity Rover" 3/26/14 Question 1: How are the studies that you've done of the same kinds of instruments to investigate the sedimentology and stratigraphy at each landing site

  9. Analysis of Student Responses to Peer-Instruction Conceptual Questions Answered Using an Electronic Response System: Trends by Gender and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steer, David; McConnell, David; Gray, Kyle; Kortz, Karen; Liang, Xin

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated students' answers to geoscience conceptual questions answered using electronic personal response systems. Answer patterns were examined to evaluate the peer-instruction pedagogical approach in a large general education classroom setting. (Contains 3 figures and 2 tables.)

  10. Measuring Strategy Use in Context with Multiple-Choice Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer; Azevedo, Roger

    2011-01-01

    A number of authors have presented data that challenge the validity of self-report of strategy use or choice of strategy. We created a multiple-choice measure of students' strategy use based on the work of Kozminsky, E., and Kozminsky, L. (2001), and tested it with three samples as part of a series of studies testing the fit of the DIME model of…

  11. The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

    2009-04-01

    Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple" compatibility. 100% protection against the 100 year event shows to be the optimal degree of protection. Consequently, impacts statistically less frequent than once in 100 year are accepted as the remaining risk. Such floods and debris flows respectively cause a fan of propagation which is substantially reduced due to the protection measures against the 100 year event. III) The "triple loss distribution" shows the monetized triple damage, dependent on its probability. The monetization is performed by the social process of participation of the impacted interests, if not, by official experts in representation. The triple loss distribution rises in time mainly due to the rise in density and value of precious goods. A comparison of the distributions of the triple loss and the triple risk, behaving in opposite direction, is shown and explained within the project. IV) The recommended yearly reserves to be stocked for restoration and compensation of losses, caused by debris flows, amount to € 70'000.- according to the approach of the "technical risk premium". The discrepancy in comparison with the much higher amounts according to the common approaches of natural hazards engineering are discussed. V) The sustainable mix of hydraulic and forestry measures with the highest return on investment at lowest risk is performed according to the portfolio theory (Markowitz), based on the triple value curves, generated by the method of TripelBudgetierung®. Accordingly, the optimum mix of measures to protect the community of Inzing against the natural hazard of debris flow, thus, the most efficient allocation of resources equals to 2/3 for hydraulic, 1/3 for forestry measures. In detail, the results of the research pilot project "Nachhaltiges Risikomanagement - Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria" may be consulted under www.ibu.hsr.ch/inzing.

  12. How many faces does a cube have?the answer is 6. Okay, I'm going to restate the question: how many 2-dimensional faces does

    E-print Network

    McCann, Robert J.

    1 Cube face How many faces does a cube have?­­the answer is 6. Okay, I'm going to restate the question: how many 2-dimensional faces does a 3-dimensional cube have? The answer hasn't changed--it's still 6. But now we are aware of more gen- eral questions. There are different dimensions of cubes

  13. Two New Statistics To Detect Answer Copying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotaridona, Leonardo S.; Meijer, Rob R.

    2003-01-01

    Proposed two new indices to detect answer copying on a multiple choice test and conducted a simulation study to investigate the usefulness of both indexes. Discusses conditions under which the proposed indexes can be useful. (SLD)

  14. Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…

  15. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-01-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper

  16. Towards a virtual teaching assistant to answer questions asked by students in introductory computer science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiner, Cecily

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural language of the questions to a vector space, and then utilizing cosine similarity to identify similar previous questions. I report classification accuracies between 23% and 56%, obtaining substantial improvements by exploiting domain knowledge (compiler error messages) and educational context (assignment name). My results are especially timely and relevant for online courses where students are completing the same set of assignments asynchronously and access to staff is limited.

  17. Answer Keys

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Answer keys provide acceptable answers to the questions posed in a case. Since these questions are intended to be answered by students and are often graded, keys are password-protected and access limited to registered instructors affiliated with an educational institution.

  18. Guide to the Family and Medical Leave Act: Questions & Answers. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Partnership for Women and Families, Washington, DC.

    The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) provided workers with the right to take time off from work to care for their families or themselves without fear of losing their jobs. Although this law is relatively straightforward, some employees and employers may be unsure about how it actually works. This guide is designed to answer many…

  19. Do Students Know if They Answered Particular Questions Correctly on a Psychology Exam?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Gary T.; Soper, Barlow; McKnight, Richard R.; Price, A. W.; Boudreaux, Monique; Rachal, K. Chris

    2010-01-01

    The current study explores students' abilities to make different metacognitive judgments about the same material. Sophomores in a psychology class indicated how confident they were that each answer on their final was correct (micro-level judgments) and pre- postdicted their overall score (macro-level judgments). Students made the series of simpler…

  20. Vermont Public Library Almanac: A Compendium of Often-Answered Questions. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotch, Marianne

    This document contains brief answers to some of the most frequently raised issues related to running a small Vermont public library. Areas covered include accessibility, the American Library Association, automation, awards, binding, services for the blind and physically handicapped, the Board of Libraries, the Board of Trustees, book dealers, book…

  1. A CrossLanguage Question/AnsweringSystem for German and English

    E-print Network

    Neumann, Günter

    plan to extend the system for English query and German document analysis (and to support mixed language- CLEF)" that offers tasks to test monolingual and cross-language QA­systems. In particular we developed express the found answers in the query language (German).1 In contrast to a standard cross-language IR

  2. An Investigation of Explanation Multiple-Choice Items in Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Lee, Hee-Sun; Linn, Marcia C.

    2011-01-01

    Both multiple-choice and constructed-response items have known advantages and disadvantages in measuring scientific inquiry. In this article we explore the function of explanation multiple-choice (EMC) items and examine how EMC items differ from traditional multiple-choice and constructed-response items in measuring scientific reasoning. A group…

  3. Proceedings of NTCIR-6 Workshop Meeting, May 15-18, 2007, Tokyo, Japan Chinese-Chinese and English-Chinese Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Lee, Cheng-Wei

    -Chinese Question Answering with ASQA at NTCIR-6 CLQA Cheng-Wei Lee12 , Min-Yuh Day1 , Cheng-Lung Sung1 , Yi of Information Science, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, R.O.C 2 Department of Computer Science, National Tsing,tmjiang,cwwu,dapi,yrchen,hsu}@iis.sinica.edu.tw Abstract For NTCIR-6 CLQA, we improved our question answering system ASQA (Academia Sinica Question

  4. Studies designed to disentangle genetic and environmental variables in schizophrenia: some epistemological questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Kety, S S

    1976-10-01

    The author addresses questions raised by Dr. Lorna S. Benjamin in the preceding paper. He quotes from the original studies to respond to questions regarding statistical logic, the relative prevalence of schizophrenia among half-siblings and parents of index adoptees, and the possible role of socioeconomic status as a confounding variable. PMID:970484

  5. Analysis of Interrater Reliability on the Evaluation of Answers to Open-Ended Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crews, William E., Jr.

    As part of a study of teacher evaluation of student replies to open-ended questions, a second question--the best method of determining interrater reliability--was examined. The standard method, the Pearson Product-Moment correlation, overestimated the degree of match between researchers' and teachers' scoring of tests. The simpler percent…

  6. Your answers to the following questions will help us to understand your medical history and the concerns you'd like to discuss with your doctor. Please fill out as much of this questionnaire as possible. If you cannot answer

    E-print Network

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    Your answers to the following questions will help us to understand your medical history you for your help. PATIENT NAME meal: _________ Physical activity: _________ # times per week Comments/how can we help

  7. A Neural Network for Factoid Question Answering over Mohit Iyyer1

    E-print Network

    Daume III, Hal

    textual composition- ality. We apply our model, qanta, to a dataset of questions from a trivia competition and college students play a game where they map raw text to well-known entities. This is a trivia competition

  8. Questions and Answers About the Effects of Septic Systems on Water Quality in the La Pine Area, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John S.; Morgan, David S.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate levels in the ground-water aquifer underlying the central Oregon city of La Pine and the surrounding area are increasing due to contamination from residential septic systems. This contamination has public health implications because ground water is the sole source of drinking water for area residents. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Deschutes County and the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, studied the movement and chemistry of nitrate in the aquifer and developed computer models that can be used to predict future nitrate levels and to evaluate alternatives for protecting water quality. This fact sheet summarizes the results of that study in the form of questions and answers.

  9. Answering patient questions about the role lifestyle factors play in cancer onset and recurrence: what do health care professionals say?

    PubMed

    Miles, Anne; Simon, Alice; Wardle, Jane

    2010-03-01

    This qualitative study examined how cancer specialists answer patient questions about what might have caused their cancer. Findings showed that while they were often candid about the role of smoking and drinking in cancer onset and that of diet in cancer recurrence, body weight and exercise were rarely mentioned. Any reluctance to discuss the role of lifestyle factors in cancer onset and recurrence arose from a desire to minimize patient distress, limitations in specialists' knowledge of the causes of cancer and perceived inadequacy of the available causal explanations when risk factors are multiple and probabilistic. PMID:20207672

  10. Beginning Teachers and Classroom Management: Questions from Practice, Answers from Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, Edwin G.

    1993-01-01

    Examines critical questions concerning classroom management posed by beginning teachers, highlighting strategies for establishing and sustaining an effective classroom climate at the middle level. Teachers establish good management by proactive preplanning, deliberate introduction of rules and procedures, and immediate assertiveness. Order is…

  11. Nikzad_Answers 314.pdf Student questions: Shouleh Nikzad colloquium on "From Nebulae to Neurons

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    of light have to be compatible. Question 1: It was mentioned that some micro devices could be tailored smaller, that is why back illumination comes into play to restore the photon sensing portion of the pixel, we still need to have pixels that can detect photons and the length scale of pixels and wavelength

  12. Ontology-Based Question Answering in a Federation of University Sites: The MOSES Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Atzeni; Roberto Basili; Dorte Haltrup Hansen; Paolo Missier; Patrizia Paggio; Maria Teresa Pazienza; Fabio Massimo Zanzotto

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with a new approach to ontology-based QA in which users ask questions in natural language to knowledge bases of facts extracted from a federation of Web sites and organised in topic map repositories. Our approach is being investigated in the context of EU project MOSES with the objective of developing an ontology-based methodology to search, create, maintain

  13. Can the First Pregnancy of a Young Adolescent Be Prevented? A Question Which Must Be Answered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baizerman, Michael

    1977-01-01

    The literature on adolescent cognitive development and issues related to the prevention of teenage pregnancy are briefly discussed. The author outlines relevant questions which should be understood by professionals working in sex education and human services programs, and presents implications for research. (GDC)

  14. [The answers to the questions. The difficult academic and professional equilibrium in pre-European Spain].

    PubMed

    Medina Moya, José Luis

    2005-10-01

    After the sweep of the three preceding articles, the author responds to the questions posed in the first article, concluding that a turn towards a practical-reflexive position can, over the medium term, solve the tensions which the positivist conceptions have created between knowledge and professional action. A bibliography for all four articles is included. PMID:16304828

  15. Leaving Footprints in Houston: Answers to Questions on Women and the Gülen Movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna J. Stephenson

    Feminists question the extent to which M. Fethullah Gülen, the Gülen movement, and individuals inspired by the movement promote women's status, self-determination, and equal professional opportunity with men in Turkish culture characterized by patriarchal gender norms. Two major critiques are that gender norms in the Gülen movement reflect limits on women's professional equality found in wider Turkish culture and that

  16. These Two Cases Raise Key Questions (But Offer Ambiguous Answers) about School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendor, Benjamin

    1987-01-01

    Procedural burden-of-proof issues led Federal Circuit Courts to affirm changes in pupil assignment systems in Norfolk, Virginia, but reject changes in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The Supreme Court's decision not to review the Virginia case leaves school boards and federal courts without guidance on questions raised by resegregation. (MLF)

  17. Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

  18. "Don't Know" Responding to Answerable and Unanswerable Questions during Misleading and Hypnotic Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving

    2008-01-01

    "Don't know" (DK) responses to interview questions are conceptually heterogeneous, and may represent uncertainty or clear statements about the contents of memory. A study examined the subjective intent of DK responses in relation to the objective status of information queried, in the context of memory distorting procedures. Participants viewed a…

  19. Pasqualetti_Answers 111.pdf Student questions: Martin (Mike) Pasqualetti colloquium on "Renewable Energy and

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    "sustainable" technologies require huge amounts of rare earth elements which are in dwindling supply? I don't think the rare earth's are so rare. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rare_earths. Question 2 many miles from a power plant? Using roof tops is so logical, it is almost criminal

  20. Report Subjects Answer the questions below and turn in the report no later than

    E-print Network

    Hirotani, Kouichi

    velocity is slightly greater than the velocity of light, c. Question 2: Show that the group velocity passes to the right of the intersection of the P = 0 and R = bounding surfaces. For underdense plasmas. The wave characteristics change as determined by the wave normal surface. The topology of one of the two

  1. FLEXIBLE MEDICAL CARE AND DEPENDENT CARE REIMBURSMENT ACCOUNTS Frequently Asked Questions and Answers

    E-print Network

    Snider, Barry B.

    FLEXIBLE MEDICAL CARE AND DEPENDENT CARE REIMBURSMENT ACCOUNTS Frequently Asked Questions a portion of your salary for non-reimbursed medical expenses or dependent care expenses on a pre-tax basis is placed into a medical care and/or dependent care reimbursement account and reimbursed to you as you incur

  2. Robust Question Answering over the Web of Linked Data Mohamed Yahya, Klaus Berberich,

    E-print Network

    have become important assets for search, recommendation, and analytics. Natural-language questions and Subject Descriptors H.3.3 [Information systems]: Information Search and Re- trieval; I.2.1 [Artificial- ambiguation; usability 1. INTRODUCTION Motivation: With the success of IBM's Watson system [23], natural

  3. The Answer Depends on the Question: A Reply to Eric Jensen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The question that Eric Jensen addresses in his article is whether brain research can provide a basis for educational practice. He debates John Bruer, president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, and argues that brain research can, in fact, provide a basis for what educators do. Most of Jensen's article is devoted to showing ways in which brain…

  4. Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

  5. Multi-scale ecosystem monitoring: an application of scaling data to answer multiple ecological questions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Question/Methods Standardized monitoring data collection efforts using a probabilistic sample design, such as in the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring (AIM) Strategy, provide a core suite of ecological indicators, maximize data collection efficiency,...

  6. 77 FR 10662 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Establishment and Maintenance of Records...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ...AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...FDA-2011-D-0598] Guidance for Industry: Questions and...Hold, or Import Food (Edition 5) AGENCY...foods intended for distribution to consumers, institutions...human and animal food industries with an...

  7. A Whole Language Program in the Intermediate Grades: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma; Davies, Anne

    Focusing on a whole language program for the middle grades in Canada's Northwest Territories, this interview transcript consists of responses by Anne Davies, a teacher from Yellow Knife, in the Northwest Territories, and currently a doctoral student, to questions posed by Norma Mickelson, a professor at the University of Victoria in British…

  8. Questions in the Answers to Primary School Educational Reconstruction in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review current issues in pre- and primary school reform and to pose questions on the long-term implications of present day solutions. Such an exercise will open up discussion on the probable effects of educational policy decisions with a view to minimize negative effects brought on by new policies. Because data…

  9. Finding Evidence-Based Answers to Clinical Questions Quickly and Effectively See also the Biomedical Libraries' Evidence-Based Medicine Research Guide

    E-print Network

    for the treatment of Alzheimer's? Clinical Pharmacology Online Micromedex Epocrates Online evidenceFinding Evidence-Based Answers to Clinical Questions ­ Quickly and Effectively See also the Biomedical Libraries' Evidence-Based Medicine Research Guide Finding Evidence-Based Answers to Clinical

  10. Questions and answers about the effects of the depletion of the ozone layer on humans and the environment.

    PubMed

    Aucamp, Pieter J

    2007-03-01

    The ozone molecule contains three atoms of oxygen and is mainly formed by the action of the ultraviolet rays of the sun on the diatomic oxygen molecules in the upper part of the Earth's atmosphere (called the stratosphere). Atmospheric pollution near the Earth's surface can form localized areas of ozone. The stratospheric ozone layer protects life on Earth by absorbing most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. In the mid 1970s it was discovered that some manmade products destroy ozone molecules in the stratosphere. This destruction can result in damage to ecosystems and to materials such as plastics. It may cause an increase in human diseases such as skin cancers and cataracts. The discovery of the role of the synthetic ozone-depleting chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) stimulated increased research and monitoring in this field. Computer models predicted a disaster if no action was taken to protect the ozone layer. Based on this research and monitoring, the nations of the world took action in 1985 with the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer followed by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987. The Convention and Protocol were amended and adjusted several times as new knowledge was obtained. The Meetings of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol appointed three Assessment Panels to review the progress in scientific knowledge on their behalf. These panels are the Scientific Assessment Panel, the Technological and Economic Assessment Panel and the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel. Each panel covers a designated area and there is a natural level of overlap. The main reports of the Panels are published every four years as required by the Meeting of the Parties. All the reports have an executive summary that is distributed more widely than the main report itself. It became customary to add a set of questions and answers--mainly for non-expert readers--to the executive summaries. This document contains the questions and answers prepared by experts who comprise the Environmental Assessment Panel. It is based mainly on the 2006 report of the Panel but also contains information from previous assessments. Readers who need detailed information on any question should consult the full reports for a more complete scientific discussion. This set of questions refers mainly to the environmental effects of ozone depletion and climate change. The report of the Scientific Assessment Panel contains questions and answers related to the other scientific issues addressed by that Panel. All these reports can be found on the UNEP website (http://ozone.unep.org). PMID:17344966

  11. [Delayed reactions of simians in a multiple-choice situation].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, V S

    1981-01-01

    Delayed reactions were studied on six rhesus macaques and three chimpanzees by means of a modified multiple choice method. The data obtained showed that the initial capacity of short-term memory did not exceed the reproduction of two spatial discrete elements in macaques and of three elements of shimpanzees. It was found that successful operation with sets beyond the initial capacity of short-term memory did not exceed the reproduction of two spatial discrete elements in macaques and of three elements in shimpanzees. It was found that successful operation with sets beyond the initial capacity of short-term memory is due to secondary processes of formation of visual engrams and related motor stereotypes. The significance of extension of short-time memory capacity for the transition of higher animals from monodetermined reactions to active relations with their surroundings is discussed. PMID:7281991

  12. The need for a lunar base - Answering basic questions about planetary science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    After assessing the state of current understanding of the planetological characteristics of the moon, attention is given to numerous questions that have arisen about the history of the moon and to prospective methods for their investigation through lunar exploration. One such exploratory mission will be that of the unmanned Lunar Geoscience Observer; the greatest prospects for important discoveries, however, are foreseen in manned lunar exploration. More sophisticated instruments and preliminary analyses are noted to be possible in manned exploration, although the possibility of contamination of samples is greater.

  13. Do calendrical savants use calculation to answer date questions? A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Richard; Frith, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Calendrical savants can name the weekdays for dates from different years with remarkable speed and accuracy. Whether calculation rather than just memory is involved is disputed. Grounds for doubting whether they can calculate are reviewed and criteria for attributing date calculation skills to them are discussed. At least some calendrical savants possess date calculation skills. A behavioural characteristic observed in many calendrical savants is increased response time for questions about more remote years. This may be because more remote years require more calculation or because closer years are more practised. An experiment is reported that used functional magnetic resonance imaging to attempt to discriminate between these explanations. Only two savants could be scanned and excessive head movement corrupted one savant's mental arithmetic data. Nevertheless, there was increased parietal activation during both mental arithmetic and date questions and this region showed increased activity with more remote dates. These results suggest that the calendrical skills observed in savants result from intensive practice with calculations used in solving mental arithmetic problems. The mystery is not how they solve these problems, but why. PMID:19528025

  14. The Fill-In Test: Combining Multiple-Choice and Modified Cloze Techniques to Test English as a Foreign Language Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensoussan, Marsha; Ramraz, Rachel

    The fill-in-test, a modified version of the cloze procedure, is relatively easy to construct, is easier to score than the cloze procedure, and yields a greater number of questions per line of text than the conventional multiple choice comprehension test. The fill-in-test is constructed by inserting blank spaces into a text and providing a number…

  15. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...and answers relate to withholding on pensions, annuities, and other deferred...

  16. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...and answers relate to withholding on pensions, annuities, and other deferred...

  17. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...and answers relate to withholding on pensions, annuities, and other deferred...

  18. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...and answers relate to withholding on pensions, annuities, and other deferred...

  19. The Testing Methods and Gender Differences in Multiple-Choice Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Annie W. Y.; Chan, Alan H. S.

    2009-10-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of the multiple-choice assessment in the past two decades for facilitating people to conduct effective testing in various subject areas. It was revealed that a variety of multiple-choice test methods viz. conventional multiple-choice, liberal multiple-choice, elimination testing, confidence marking, probability testing, and order-of-preference scheme are available for use in assessing subjects' knowledge and decision ability. However, the best multiple-choice test method for use has not yet been identified. The review also indicated that the existence of gender differences in multiple-choice task performance might be due to the test area, instruction/scoring condition, and item difficulty.

  20. Genetic effects of ionizing radiation--some questions with no answers.

    PubMed

    Mosse, Irma B

    2012-10-01

    There are a lot of questions about genetic effects of ionizing radiation, the main one is does ionizing radiation induce mutations in humans? There is no direct evidence that exposure of parents to radiation leads to excess heritable disease in offspring. What is the difference between human and other species in which radiation induced mutations are easily registered? During evolution germ cell selection ex vivo has been changed to a selection in vivo and we cannot observe such selection of radiation damaged cells in human. Low radiation doses - are they harmful or beneficial? The "hormesis" phenomenon as well as radioadaptive response proves positive effects of low radiation dose. Can analysis of chromosomal aberration rate in lymphocytes be used for dosimetry? Many uncontrolled factors may be responsible for significant mistakes of this method. Why did evolution preserve the bystander effect? This paper is discussion one and its goal is to pay attention on some effects of ionizing radiation. PMID:22683898

  1. Hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults: questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Bernabei, Roberto; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Maggi, Stefania; Marengoni, Alessandra; Martini, Alessandro; Memo, Maurizio; Pecorelli, Sergio; Peracino, Andrea P; Quaranta, Nicola; Stella, Roberto; Lin, Frank R

    2014-12-01

    The association between hearing impairment, the diagnosis of dementia, and the role of sensory therapy has been proposed for some time, but further research is needed. Current understanding of this association requires the commitment of those experts who can integrate experience and research from several fields to be able to understand the link from hearing to dementia. A workshop whose panelists included experts from many areas, ranging from ear, nose and throat (ENT) to dementia's specialists, was promoted and organized by the Giovanni Lorenzini Medical Science Foundation (Milan, Italy; Houston, TX, USA) to increase the awareness of the relationship between hearing loss and dementia, and included questions and comments following a presentation from the clinical researcher, Frank Lin, who has been evaluating the relationship between hearing loss and cognitive decline since 2009. PMID:25281432

  2. Health care reform, 2014: no matter what the question, mission is the answer.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Parinda

    2014-06-01

    In this column, the president of the Collaborative Family Healthcare Association (CFHA) addresses the lack of understanding and agreement to the question What is health care reform? It is a daunting task to understand, let alone redesign, the most expensive (but not most effective or most efficient) health care system in the world. In this critical window of opportunity, influencing positive movement through leadership, communication, and teamwork is a strategic priority of the CFHA and its journal, Family Systems & Health. The emphases on comprehensive, coordinated, and cost-effective care, although novel concepts for many, have been core features of CFHA's philosophy for almost two decades (see CFHA's mission statement). As we mark the halfway point in this pivotal year in health care reform, we continue to struggle. CFHA can help illuminate the path of what health care reform can be and what it can do for each citizen in our communities. PMID:24955698

  3. Benford’s Law: Textbook Exercises and Multiple-Choice Testbanks

    PubMed Central

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ironside, Kevin B.; DiBattista, David

    2015-01-01

    Benford’s Law describes the finding that the distribution of leading (or leftmost) digits of innumerable datasets follows a well-defined logarithmic trend, rather than an intuitive uniformity. In practice this means that the most common leading digit is 1, with an expected frequency of 30.1%, and the least common is 9, with an expected frequency of 4.6%. Currently, the most common application of Benford’s Law is in detecting number invention and tampering such as found in accounting-, tax-, and voter-fraud. We demonstrate that answers to end-of-chapter exercises in physics and chemistry textbooks conform to Benford’s Law. Subsequently, we investigate whether this fact can be used to gain advantage over random guessing in multiple-choice tests, and find that while testbank answers in introductory physics closely conform to Benford’s Law, the testbank is nonetheless secure against such a Benford’s attack for banal reasons. PMID:25689468

  4. Providing Real-Time Captioning, C-Print Speech To Print Transcription, Assistive Listening Devices and Other Technologies: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cheryl; Francis, Pamela; Harlan, Denese

    This booklet provides questions and answers for postsecondary educational institutions concerning provision of access and accommodations to individuals who are deaf and hard of hearing. Questions are about assistive listening devices (ALDs), C-Print technology, real-time captioning, and policy issues. Preliminary information concerns the mission…

  5. "Laying Bare of Questions Which Have Been Hidden by Answers": The English Language Arts Standards of the Common Core, K-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Jane M.; Reilly, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    The authors question the answer the national Common Core State Standards (CCSS, 2010) claims. The questions center on the validity of the new standardized tests based on the CCSS and teachers' evaluations being tied to student test scores on flawed tests. The proposed tests on the CCSS will position children as deficient, and will not recognize…

  6. STS-103 M.S. Mike Foale answers question during interview at Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Mission Specialist C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.) (at right) responds to a question from the media about the mission during an interview at Launch Pad 39B. Next to him is Mission Specialist John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.). As a preparation for launch, the crew have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  7. STS-103 Pilot Kelly answers questions during interview at Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During an interview at Launch Pad 39B, STS-103 Pilot Scott J. Kelly responds to a question from the media about the mission. Standing with him are the remainder of the crew: (left to right) Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who is also with ESA. As a preparation for launch, they have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  8. Test-taking Behaviors on a Multiple-Choice Exam are Associated with Performance on the Exam and with Learning Style

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. McNulty; Beth Sonntag; James M. Sinacore

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the study was three-fold: to investigate medical student behaviors (e.g., changing answers) while taking high-stakes multiple-choice exams; to determine if specific behaviors were associated with performance on the exam; and to determine if there are associations of learning style, as measured by Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI), with test-taking activities. We developed high-stakes, on-line exam applications that

  9. A Multiple-Choice Task with Changes of Mind

    PubMed Central

    Albantakis, Larissa; Branzi, Francesca M.; Costa, Albert; Deco, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    The role of changes of mind and multiple choices has recently received increased attention in the study of perceptual decision-making. Previously, these extensions to standard two-alternative tasks have been studied separately. Here we explored how changes of mind depend on the number of choice-alternatives. To this end, we tested 14 human subjects on a 2- and 4-alternative direction-discrimination task. Changes of mind in the participants' movement trajectories could be observed for two and for four choice alternatives. With fewer alternatives, participants responded faster and more accurately. The frequency of changes of mind, however, did not significantly differ for the different numbers of choice alternatives. Nevertheless, mind-changing improved the participants' final performance, particularly for intermediate difficulty levels, in both experimental conditions. Moreover, the mean reaction times of individual participants were negatively correlated with their overall tendency to make changes of mind. We further reproduced these findings with a multi-alternative attractor model for decision-making, while a simple race model could not account for the experimental data. Our experiment, combined with the theoretical models allowed us to shed light on: (1) the differences in choice behavior between two and four alternatives, (2) the differences between the data of our human subjects and previous monkey data, (3) individual differences between participants, and (4) the inhibitory interaction between neural representations of choice alternatives. PMID:22916216

  10. Multiple Choice Knapsack Problem: example of planning choice in transportation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tao; Young, Rhonda

    2010-05-01

    Transportation programming, a process of selecting projects for funding given budget and other constraints, is becoming more complex as a result of new federal laws, local planning regulations, and increased public involvement. This article describes the use of an integer programming tool, Multiple Choice Knapsack Problem (MCKP), to provide optimal solutions to transportation programming problems in cases where alternative versions of projects are under consideration. In this paper, optimization methods for use in the transportation programming process are compared and then the process of building and solving the optimization problems is discussed. The concepts about the use of MCKP are presented and a real-world transportation programming example at various budget levels is provided. This article illustrates how the use of MCKP addresses the modern complexities and provides timely solutions in transportation programming practice. While the article uses transportation programming as a case study, MCKP can be useful in other fields where a similar decision among a subset of the alternatives is required. PMID:19596437

  11. Intuitive Judgments Govern Students' Answering Patterns in Multiple-Choice Exercises in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graulich, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Research in chemistry education has revealed that students going through their undergraduate and graduate studies in organic chemistry have a fragmented conceptual knowledge of the subject. Rote memorization, rule-based reasoning, and heuristic strategies seem to strongly influence students' performances. There appears to be a gap between what we…

  12. Prism : an answer projection system

    E-print Network

    Wu, Lynn, 1981-

    2003-01-01

    Prism is an answer projection system that combines the best attributes of traditional and Web-based question answering systems. Traditional question answering systems retrieve answers with pinpoint accuracy but limited ...

  13. Validating Measurement of Knowledge Integration in Science Using Multiple-Choice and Explanation Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hee-Sun; Liu, Ou Lydia; Linn, Marcia C.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores measurement of a construct called knowledge integration in science using multiple-choice and explanation items. We use construct and instructional validity evidence to examine the role multiple-choice and explanation items plays in measuring students' knowledge integration ability. For construct validity, we analyze item…

  14. Examination of the Quality of Multiple-Choice Items on Classroom Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBattista, David; Kurzawa, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Because multiple-choice testing is so widespread in higher education, we assessed the quality of items used on classroom tests by carrying out a statistical item analysis. We examined undergraduates' responses to 1198 multiple-choice items on sixteen classroom tests in various disciplines. The mean item discrimination coefficient was +0.25, with…

  15. Are Multiple Choice Tests Fair to Medical Students with Specific Learning Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Chris; Brice, Julie; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of multiple choice tests of medical knowledge is to estimate as accurately as possible a candidate's level of knowledge. However, concern is sometimes expressed that multiple choice tests may also discriminate in undesirable and irrelevant ways, such as between minority ethnic groups or by sex of candidates. There is little literature…

  16. Multiple Choice Testing and the Retrieval Hypothesis of the Testing Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensenig, Amanda E.

    2010-01-01

    Taking a test often leads to enhanced later memory for the tested information, a phenomenon known as the "testing effect". This memory advantage has been reliably demonstrated with recall tests but not multiple choice tests. One potential explanation for this finding is that multiple choice tests do not rely on retrieval processes to the same…

  17. The Question Answered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Ralph P.

    2006-04-01

    Fifty years ago, theoreticians T.D. Lee and C.N. Yang reached the conclusion that no experimental evidence existed to show that parity is conserved in weak interactions. The speaker will explain how it happened that that a team of physicists at the U.S. National Bureau of Standards in Washington, DC came to perform the revolutionary experiment that demonstrated the failure of parity conservation in nuclear beta-decay.

  18. Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... damage is common among survivors. People with a cochlear implant appear to be at increased risk of pneumococcal ... fluid • Anyone who has or is getting a cochlear implant (a surgically implanted device that provides a sense ...

  19. Tetanus: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... needed? The usual schedule for infants is a series of four doses of DTaP given at 2, 4, 6, and 15–18 months of age. A fifth ... completed a series of shots, a 3-dose series of Td should be given with 1 to 2 months between dose #1 and #2, and 6 to 12 months between dose #2 and #3. ...

  20. Answering the Crucial Questions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan M. Fein

    Emphysema and other forms of COPD are not only common, but also have a poor prognosis. Mortality with severe COPD may be as high as 60% at 5 years and is associated with a significant degree of disability and cost to the health-care system. Building on Dr. Otto Brantigan's experience in the 1950s, when multiple-wedge resections of emphysematous lung were

  1. Salmonella Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... and Disease / Salmonella Q and A Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  2. Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pikulski, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Refutes the notion that remedial readers are unable to use context clues, arguing that poor readers simply have difficulty with automatic word identification. Suggests three approaches to heighten students' sensitivity to the use of context clues. (MM)

  3. A comparison of integrated testlet and constructed-response question formats

    E-print Network

    Slepkov, Aaron D

    2014-01-01

    Constructed-response (CR) questions are a mainstay of introductory physics courses. However, because of time, cost, and scoring reliability constraints associated with this format, CR questions are being increasingly replaced by multiple-choice (MC) questions in formal exams. The integrated testlet (IT) is a new question structure designed to provide a proxy of the pedagogical advantages of CR questions while procedurally functioning as set of MC questions. ITs utilize an answer-until-correct response format that provides immediate confirmatory/corrective feedback, and thus allow for the granting of partial credit in cases of initially incorrect reasoning. Here, we report on a study that directly compares the functionality of ITs and CR questions in introductory physics exams. To do this, CR questions were converted to concept-equivalent ITs, and both sets of questions were deployed in midterm and final exams. We find that both question types provide adequate discrimination between stronger and weaker student...

  4. Answering the big questions about differential response in Colorado: safety and cost outcomes from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Winokur, Marc; Ellis, Raquel; Drury, Ida; Rogers, John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, jurisdictions across the United States have implemented differential response (DR), which provides child protective services with the flexibility to tailor their response to reports of child abuse or neglect based on the level of risk. Given the widespread adoption of DR, there has been an increasing demand from policymakers, practitioners, and community stakeholders to build the evidence base for this innovative child welfare approach. This study was designed to answer the big questions regarding the effect of differential response on child welfare outcomes and costs using a randomized controlled trial in five Colorado counties. Specifically, the study examined the safety outcomes and costs of families who were randomly assigned to either a family assessment response (FAR) or an investigation response (IR). According to the regression results, there were no differences between the tracks on measures of system re-involvement. However, survival analysis findings indicate that FAR families were 18% less likely, over time, to have a high risk assessment after their initial accepted referral than were IR families. The cost study revealed no differences between the tracks on initial costs for caseworker contacts, services, and out-of-home placements. However, the results suggest that follow-up costs for IR cases were significantly higher (p<0.001) than for FAR cases. The authors discuss policy and practice implications for jurisdictions considering DR. PMID:24997071

  5. CoPub update: CoPub 5.0 a text mining system to answer biological questions.

    PubMed

    Fleuren, Wilco W M; Verhoeven, Stefan; Frijters, Raoul; Heupers, Bart; Polman, Jan; van Schaik, René; de Vlieg, Jacob; Alkema, Wynand

    2011-07-01

    In this article, we present CoPub 5.0, a publicly available text mining system, which uses Medline abstracts to calculate robust statistics for keyword co-occurrences. CoPub was initially developed for the analysis of microarray data, but we broadened the scope by implementing new technology and new thesauri. In CoPub 5.0, we integrated existing CoPub technology with new features, and provided a new advanced interface, which can be used to answer a variety of biological questions. CoPub 5.0 allows searching for keywords of interest and its relations to curated thesauri and provides highlighting and sorting mechanisms, using its statistics, to retrieve the most important abstracts in which the terms co-occur. It also provides a way to search for indirect relations between genes, drugs, pathways and diseases, following an ABC principle, in which A and C have no direct connection but are connected via shared B intermediates. With CoPub 5.0, it is possible to create, annotate and analyze networks using the layout and highlight options of Cytoscape web, allowing for literature based systems biology. Finally, operations of the CoPub 5.0 Web service enable to implement the CoPub technology in bioinformatics workflows. CoPub 5.0 can be accessed through the CoPub portal http://www.copub.org. PMID:21622961

  6. Questions and Answers on Obligations of Public Agencies in Serving Children with Disabilities Placed by Their Parents at Private Schools. Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warlick, Kenneth R.

    This memorandum from the federal Office of Special Education Programs to chief state school officers presents questions and answers related to the obligations of public agencies in serving children with disabilities who are placed by their parents in private schools under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997. The 45…

  7. I didn't know oxygen could boil! What preservice and inservice elementary teachers' answers to ‘simple’ science questions reveals about their subject matter knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana C. Rice

    2005-01-01

    In this descriptive study, the science subject matter knowledge of preservice and inservice elementary teachers was examined and compared. Over an eight?year period, answers to 13 science questions, including 10 from the US National Science Foundation's Survey of Public Attitudes Toward and Understanding of Science and Technology, were collected from a total of 414 preservice and 67 inservice teachers during

  8. I Didn't Know Oxygen Could Boil! What Preservice and Inservice Elementary Teachers' Answers to "Simple" Science Questions Reveals about Their Subject Matter Knowledge. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Diana C.

    2005-01-01

    In this descriptive study, the science subject matter knowledge of preservice and inservice elementary teachers was examined and compared. Over an eight-year period, answers to 13 science questions, including 10 from the US National Science Foundation's Survey of Public Attitudes Toward and Understanding of Science and Technology, were collected…

  9. Effective intraverbal training of children with autism to mand for questions to answers via the “I don’t know please tell me” response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan D. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This review provides a summary and appraisal commentary on the treatment review by Ingvarsson, E. T., & Hollobaugh, T. (2010). Acquisition of intraverbal behavior: Teaching children with autism to mand for answers to questions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43, 1–17.Source of funding and disclosure of interest: No source of funding reported, and the original authors of this research report

  10. Answers to Questions Frequently Asked About the Classified Student. A Professional Supplement Provided through the Central Burlington County Region for Special Education. Special Education Information Series. Booklet #5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissman, Blossom S.

    This booklet provides answers to questions that may arise when learning or socially disabled children are placed in regular classrooms. The introduction gives the background of classifying students in the New Jersey school system and lists the twelve classification categories: (1) emotionally disturbed; (2) neurologically impaired; (3) trainable…

  11. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...because she is pregnant or has had an abortion. She usually cannot be forced to...health insurance for expenses arising from abortion is not required except where the life...medical complications have arisen from an abortion. Some questions and answers...

  12. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...because she is pregnant or has had an abortion. She usually cannot be forced to...health insurance for expenses arising from abortion is not required except where the life...medical complications have arisen from an abortion. Some questions and answers...

  13. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...because she is pregnant or has had an abortion. She usually cannot be forced to...health insurance for expenses arising from abortion is not required except where the life...medical complications have arisen from an abortion. Some questions and answers...

  14. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...because she is pregnant or has had an abortion. She usually cannot be forced to...health insurance for expenses arising from abortion is not required except where the life...medical complications have arisen from an abortion. Some questions and answers...

  15. Answers to Questions on Vocational Education; Curriculum Planning--Metalworking, Environmental Control, Public Services, Construction, Food Processing and Distribution, Health, and Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, J. David; Magisos, Joel H.

    This short booklet contains questions and answers concerning aspects of vocational-technical education, including (1) information needed when curriculum for a new occupation is initiated, (2) importance of cooperating with business and industry in program development, (3) making education responsive to emerging job requirements, and (4) examples…

  16. Lab 6. Using HMM software. Answers to specific questions are in red, below. See the original lab for details on individual steps.

    E-print Network

    Sjölander, Kimmen

    Lab 6. Using HMM software. Answers to specific questions are in red, below. See the original lab'll need to reformat so you can view it with belvu. 8. Reformat the *mult alignment for belvu prettyalign can view it with belvu) 9. Create an HMM from the reformatted alignment, using the w0.5 software w0

  17. Physics 201, Exam 2 Name_______________________________________________________ The multiple-choice problems carry no partial credit. Circle the correct answer or answers.

    E-print Network

    Allen, Roland E.

    in for a downward dive (see figure). The bottom part of the path is a quarter circle having a radius of curvature of mass m revolves around the Earth in a circular orbit, at a distance of 20 000 km above the Earth's surface. The mass M of the Earth is 5.97 !1024 kg and the radius of the Earth is 6380 km. (a) (3) Let us

  18. Text-to-text generation for question answering Wauter Bosma, Erwin Marsi, Emiel Krahmer and Mariet Theune

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    answer (Strza- lkowski et al., 2000). Someone querying a system about RSI may be interested to know what to an arbitrary length, providing not just a direct answer but also related information so to better address if an unambiguous Wauter Bosma VU University Amsterdam, e-mail: w.bosma@let.vu.nl Erwin Marsi Norwegian University

  19. On the Separation Level of Grades on a Multiple-Choice Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdan, M. A.; Krutchkoff, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The separation level of grades on a multiple-choice examination as a quantitative probabilistic criterion for correct classification of students by the examination was introduced by Krutchoff. (Author)

  20. On the Equivalence of Constructed- Response and Multiple-Choice Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross E. Traub; Charles W. Fisher

    1977-01-01

    Two sets of mathematical reasoning and two sets of verbal comprehension items were cast into each of three formats—constructed response, standard multiple-choice, and Coombs multiple- choice—in order to assess whether tests with iden tical content but different formats measure the same attribute, except for possible differences in error variance and scaling factors. The resulting 12 tests were administered to 199