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1

Multiple Choice Questions for Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online quiz was written by Dr. John C. Butler at the University of Houston for 100-level geology students. There are 44 multiple choice questions and 8 fill in the blank questions, Topics include groundwater resources, the water cycle, karst features, the water table and parts of an aquifer. Answers are linked directly from the quiz page.

John C. Butler

2

Crowdsourcing for Multiple-Choice Question Answering Bahadir Ismail Aydin, Yavuz Selim Yilmaz, Yaliang Li, Qi Li, Jing Gao and Murat Demirbas  

E-print Network

Crowdsourcing for Multiple-Choice Question Answering Bahadir Ismail Aydin, Yavuz Selim Yilmaz, Yaliang Li, Qi Li, Jing Gao and Murat Demirbas Department of Computer Science and Engineering University) and the machine learn- ing (ML) communities. While search engines can answer well-formed factual queries

Demirbas, Murat

3

Analyzing Student Confidence in Classroom Voting with Multiple Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to present results of a recent study in which students voted on multiple choice questions in mathematics courses of varying levels. Students used clickers to select the best answer among the choices given; in addition, they were also asked whether they were confident in their answer. In this paper we analyze data…

Stewart, Ann; Storm, Christopher; VonEpps, Lahna

2013-01-01

4

Assessing multiple choice question (MCQ) tests - a mathematical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reasoning behind popular methods for analysing the raw data generated by multiple choice question (MCQ) tests is not always appreciated, occasionally with disastrous results.This article discusses and analyses three options for processing the raw data produced by MCQ tests. The article shows that one extreme option is not to penalize a student for wrong answers or for missing out

Eric M. Scharf; Lynne P. Baldwin

2007-01-01

5

Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance of the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-04-24

6

Writing/Using Multiple-Choice Questions to Assess Higher-Order Thinking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most graduate entrance exams (including the GRE, MCAT, and DAT) are based on multiple-choice questions. Many later exams, such as the medical board exams, are also multiple choice. Therefore, it is important to make sure that students are prepared for higher-order multiple choice exams and the reasoning that is required to answer the questions in a proficient manner. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Preface, and Index. As a special bonus, Chapter 24, entitled Eleven Assessment Lessons Learned at the Gate is also included.

Kerry L. Cheesman, Capital University, Columbus, Ohio

2009-02-01

7

Analysis of Student Performance on Multiple-Choice Questions in General Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The percentage of students choosing the correct answer (PSCA) on 17 multiple-choice algorithmic questions taken from general chemistry exams is analyzed. PSCAs for these questions varied from 47 to 93%, and a decrease of 4.5% in PSCA was observed with each additional step in the algorithm required for solving the problem (R[superscript 2] = 0.80).…

Hartman, JudithAnn R.; Lin, Shirley

2011-01-01

8

Assessing Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) Tests--A Mathematical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reasoning behind popular methods for analysing the raw data generated by multiple choice question (MCQ) tests is not always appreciated, occasionally with disastrous results. This article discusses and analyses three options for processing the raw data produced by MCQ tests. The article shows that one extreme option is not to penalize a…

Scharf, Eric M.; Baldwin, Lynne P.

2007-01-01

9

Comparison of oral examination and electronic examination using paired multiple-choice questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present research was to compare the use of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) as an examination method against the oral examination (OE) method. MCQs are widely used and their importance seems likely to grow, due to their inherent suitability for electronic assessment. However, MCQs are influenced by the tendency of examinees to guess answers, warranting research concerning scoring

Errikos Ventouras; Dimos Triantis; Panagiotis Tsiakas; Charalampos Stergiopoulos

2011-01-01

10

What about the Chemistry test on Tuesday June 3? This will consist of mostly of short answer or multiple choice questions similar to  

E-print Network

and what is reduced? · Balance a given redox reaction · Given a reaction and a table of reduction of anticipated question types: · Is a given reaction an oxidation-reduction reaction? If so, what is oxidized potentials, what is the spontaneous direction of a reaction and what is its total voltage? · What are Gibbs

11

Multiple-Choice and Short-Answer Exam Performance in a College Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors experimentally investigated the effects of multiple-choice and short-answer format exam items on exam performance in a college classroom. They randomly assigned 50 students to take a 10-item short-answer pretest or posttest on two 50-item multiple-choice exams in an introduction to personality course. Students performed significantly…

Funk, Steven C.; Dickson, K. Laurie

2011-01-01

12

A practical discussion to avoid common pitfalls when constructing multiple choice questions items.  

PubMed

This paper is an attempt to produce a guide for improving the quality of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) used in undergraduate and postgraduate assessment. Multiple Choice Questions type is the most frequently used type of assessment worldwide. Well constructed, context rich MCQs have a high reliability per hour of testing. Avoidance of technical items flaws is essential to improve the validity evidence of MCQs. Technical item flaws are essentially of two types (i) related to testwiseness, (ii) related to irrelevant difficulty. A list of such flaws is presented together with discussion of each flaw and examples to facilitate learning of this paper and to make it learner friendly. This paper was designed to be interactive with self-assessment exercises followed by the key answer with explanations. PMID:21359033

Al-Faris, Eiad A; Alorainy, Ibrahim A; Abdel-Hameed, Ahmad A; Al-Rukban, Mohammed O

2010-05-01

13

Benefiting from Multiple-Choice Exams: The Positive Impact of Answer Switching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent and benefit of answer switching when completing multiple-choice exams was investigated in an undergraduate course (n = 1,152) and a postgraduate course (n = 1,624). Answer switching was identified in 1.7% and 2.4% of cases, respectively. In both samples, more than half the participants changed at least one answer and, of these,…

Milia, Lee Di

2007-01-01

14

Approaches to data analysis of multiple-choice questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics education research. We minimize mathematics, instead placing emphasis on data interpretation using these approaches.

Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

2010-06-29

15

Application Research on the Computer Technology in Multiple Choice Questions in Sports Questionnaire Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer Technology has been widely applied to the sports research. However, with researches going on, more and more questions come into being. This paper provides an insight to the processing of multiple choice data and the specific ways of applying computer technology in the light of what is multiple choice questions. The author undergoes a few case studies so as

Fu Yu-kun

2010-01-01

16

Assessment of medical knowledge: the pros and cons of using true/false multiple choice questions.  

PubMed

True/false multiple choice items, commonly referred to as true/ false multiple choice questions (MCQs), were previously a widely used selected response examination format. They can be written relatively easily and cover a wide range of content. Educational researchers have however highlighted several adverse features of this format that make it inappropriate for many assessment settings. These include: (i) there is a high chance of guessing the correct answer; (ii) some marks are not awarded for knowing the correct answer, but for knowing that an answer is incorrect; (iii) they are weak in discriminating between high and low performers; (iv) identifying items which are absolutely true or false may lead to assessment of trivial knowledge; (v) there are difficulties with constructing flawless items; (vi) they may not encourage learning around the items; and (vii) they may not assess what they purport to assess. Many assessment agencies abandoned the use of this format decades ago due to these shortcomings. The use of single best answer (SBA) and extended matching item (EMI) formats helps overcome or minimize the above weaknesses. Assessors who plan to change to SBA or EMI formats from true/false MCQs may, however, need to increase the number of questions to include a representative sample of the curriculum (lengthening the question paper). However, they may not need to increase the examination time, as in general students can answer more SBAs or EMIs than true/false MCQs per unit time. It is time that we reflect upon the disadvantages of true/false MCQs and review their place in our assessment toolkit, as their use in summative examinations may not be fair to students, especially 'good' students. PMID:22208143

Chandratilake, Madawa; Davis, Margery; Ponnamperuma, Gominda

2011-01-01

17

Short and long multiple-choice question stems in a primary care oriented undergraduate medical curriculum.  

PubMed

In this study Year 1 students in a new, primary care-oriented undergraduate course were offered a practice multiple-choice question (MCQ) examination with two question item formats--with and without brief primary care-based clinical scenarios--with the same correct answers. Data collected included: completion time; number correct; and responses to a questionnaire seeking student perception on the time required, clarity, ease of choice, and curriculum relevance. The mean scores for both groups of students were no different, although about 20% more time was required to complete clinical scenario stem question sets. Students perceived that the clinical scenarios had little effect on choosing the correct answer, improved question clarity and increased relevance to the curriculum. This study suggests that it is possible to assess junior medical students studying integrated undergraduate medical curricula by using MCQs containing brief clinical scenario stems, so long as either item numbers or timing are adjusted. This item format better reflects the learning process and may better prepare students for later professional practice assessment. GPs have an important role in developing assessment items that reflect early clinical integration. PMID:19583903

Hays, Richard B; Coventry, Peter; Wilcock, David; Hartley, Kirsty

2009-05-01

18

An Online National Archive of Multiple-Choice Questions for Astro 101 and the Development of the Question Complexity Rubric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astronomy 101 classroom. These questions are intended to supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or for their assessment purposes (i.e., exams and homework). We are also developing the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR) to guide members of the Astro 101 teaching and learning community in assisting us with hierarchically ranking questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge. The highest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway that requires multiple connected cognitive steps. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) use the QCR to score questions 2) search for and download questions based on topic and/or QCR score, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. Stop by our poster to test your skills at determining question complexity by trying out the QCR with our sample questions.

Cormier, S.; Prather, E.; Brissenden, G.

2011-09-01

19

Measuring University students' understanding of the greenhouse effect - a comparison of multiple-choice, short answer and concept sketch assessment tools with respect to students' mental models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greenhouse effect comes up in most discussions about climate and is a key concept related to climate change. Existing studies have shown that students and adults alike lack a detailed understanding of this important concept or might hold misconceptions. We studied the effectiveness of different interventions on University-level students' understanding of the greenhouse effect. Introductory level science students were tested for their pre-knowledge of the greenhouse effect using validated multiple-choice questions, short answers and concept sketches. All students participated in a common lesson about the greenhouse effect and were then randomly assigned to one of two lab groups. One group explored an existing simulation about the greenhouse effect (PhET-lesson) and the other group worked with absorption spectra of different greenhouse gases (Data-lesson) to deepen the understanding of the greenhouse effect. All students completed the same assessment including multiple choice, short answers and concept sketches after participation in their lab lesson. 164 students completed all the assessments, 76 completed the PhET lesson and 77 completed the data lesson. 11 students missed the contrasting lesson. In this presentation we show the comparison between the multiple-choice questions, short answer questions and the concept sketches of students. We explore how well each of these assessment types represents student's knowledge. We also identify items that are indicators of the level of understanding of the greenhouse effect as measured in correspondence of student answers to an expert mental model and expert responses. Preliminary data analysis shows that student who produce concept sketch drawings that come close to expert drawings also choose correct multiple-choice answers. However, correct multiple-choice answers are not necessarily an indicator that a student produces an expert-like correlating concept sketch items. Multiple-choice questions that require detailed knowledge of the greenhouse effect (e.g. direction of re-emission of infrared energy from greenhouse gas) are significantly more likely to be answered correctly by students who also produce expert-like concept sketch items than by students who don't include this aspect in their sketch and don't answer the multiple choice questions correctly. This difference is not as apparent for less technical multiple-choice questions (e.g. type of radiation emitted by Sun). Our findings explore the formation of student's mental models throughout different interventions and how well the different assessment techniques used in this study represent the student understanding of the overall concept.

Gold, A. U.; Harris, S. E.

2013-12-01

20

A participatory learning approach to biochemistry using student authored and evaluated multiple-choice questions.  

PubMed

A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs written by their peers. The technology used to support this activity was PeerWise--a freely available, innovative web-based system that supports students in the creation of an annotated question repository. In this case study, we describe students' contributions to, and perceptions of, the PeerWise system for a cohort of 107 second-year biomedical science students from three degree streams studying a core biochemistry subject. Our study suggests that the students are eager participants and produce a large repository of relevant, good quality MCQs. In addition, they rate the PeerWise system highly and use higher order thinking skills while taking an active role in their learning. We also discuss potential issues and future work using PeerWise for biomedical students. PMID:21948507

Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

2011-01-01

21

The Question Complexity Rubric: Development and Application for a National Archive of Astro 101 Multiple-Choice Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last two years we have been developing an online national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astro 101 classroom. These questions are intended to either supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or be used for assessment purposes (i.e. exams and homework). In this talk we will describe the development, testing and implementation of the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR), which is designed to guide the ranking of questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge whereas the highest QCR score is given to questions that require multiple pathways of multi-step reasoning. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) search for and download questions based on subject and average QCR score, 2) use the QCR to score questions, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. We will also discuss other potential applications of the QCR, such as how it informs our work in developing and testing of survey instruments by allowing us to calibrate the range of question complexity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

2011-01-01

22

Comparison of Oral Examination and Electronic Examination Using Paired Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present research was to compare the use of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) as an examination method against the oral examination (OE) method. MCQs are widely used and their importance seems likely to grow, due to their inherent suitability for electronic assessment. However, MCQs are influenced by the tendency of examinees to guess…

Ventouras, Errikos; Triantis, Dimos; Tsiakas, Panagiotis; Stergiopoulos, Charalampos

2011-01-01

23

Multiple Choice Questions Can Be Designed or Revised to Challenge Learners' Critical Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple choice (MC) questions from a graduate physiology course were evaluated by cognitive-psychology (but not physiology) experts, and analyzed statistically, in order to test the independence of content expertise and cognitive complexity ratings of MC items. Integration of higher order thinking into MC exams is important, but widely known to…

Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Gushta, Matthew M.; Mulroney, Susan E.; Weissinger, Peggy A.

2013-01-01

24

Student-Generated Content: Enhancing Learning through Sharing Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between students' use of PeerWise, an online tool that facilitates peer learning through student-generated content in the form of multiple-choice questions (MCQs), and achievement, as measured by their performance in the end-of-module examinations, was investigated in 5 large early-years science modules (in physics, chemistry…

Hardy, Judy; Bates, Simon P.; Casey, Morag M.; Galloway, Kyle W.; Galloway, Ross K.; Kay, Alison E.; Kirsop, Peter; McQueen, Heather A.

2014-01-01

25

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Gray, Kara E.; Rebello, N. S.; Zollman, Dean A.

2006-12-06

26

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Gray, Kara; Rebello, Sanjay; Zollman, Dean

2010-12-02

27

Set of Criteria for Efficiency of the Process Forming the Answers to Multiple-Choice Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is offered the set of criteria for assessing efficiency of the process forming the answers to multiple-choice test items. To increase accuracy of computer-assisted testing results, it is suggested to assess dynamics of the process of forming the final answer using the following factors: loss of time factor and correct choice factor. The model…

Rybanov, Alexander Aleksandrovich

2013-01-01

28

Comparison of Examination Methods Based on Multiple-Choice Questions and Constructed-Response Questions Using Personal Computers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present research was to compare the use of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) as an examination method, to the examination based on constructed-response questions (CRQs). Despite that MCQs have an advantage concerning objectivity in the grading process and speed in production of results, they also introduce an error in the final…

Ventouras, Errikos; Triantis, Dimos; Tsiakas, Panagiotis; Stergiopoulos, Charalampos

2010-01-01

29

Comparative assessment of multiple choice questions versus short essay questions in pharmacology examinations.  

PubMed

This retrospective study compared the performance of medical students in multiple choice questions (MCQs) and short essay questions (SEQs). During the 3 year analysis, 533 students had an average score of 51.34% (SD 9.9) in the SEQ and 64.71%(SD 9.9)in the MCQs. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation(r=0.64, P<0.01) between MCQs and SEQs. When student performance was grouped by final course grade, a statistically significant correlation between MCQs and SEQs scores existed only for the 405 students who received a passing grade (r=0.21, P<0.01). The MCQ and SEQ scores were not correlated for the 128 students who failed (r=0.11, P=0.08) or for 70 students who achieved distinctions (r=-0.27, P=0.13). MCQ scores were significantly higher (P<0.01) than SEQ for each of the groups when analyzed by the two-way ANOVA test. The result of this study suggests that for most students, the strong correlation between MCQ and SEQ indicates that student performance was independent of testing format. For students at either end of the performance spectrum, the lack of correlation suggests that the performance in one of the testing format had a strong influence on the final course grade. In addition, those students who failed the course were likely to be weak in both testing modalities, whereas students in all grade groups were more likely to perform better in the MCQs than SEQs. PMID:22569324

Mujeeb, A Momin; Pardeshi, M L; Ghongane, B B

2010-03-01

30

Question answering for Biology.  

PubMed

Biologists often pose queries to search engines and biological databases to obtain answers related to ongoing experiments. This is known to be a time consuming, and sometimes frustrating, task in which more than one query is posed and many databases are consulted to come to possible answers for a single fact. Question answering comes as an alternative to this process by allowing queries to be posed as questions, by integrating various resources of different nature and by returning an exact answer to the user. We have surveyed the current solutions on question answering for Biology, present an overview on the methods which are usually employed and give insights on how to boost performance of systems in this domain. PMID:25448292

Neves, Mariana; Leser, Ulf

2014-10-28

31

Hints for Students (and Examiners) on Answering MCQ Questions of the Multiple True/False Type.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some difficulties that medical students experience in taking exams containing multiple choice questions. Differentiates between multiple true/false type questions, in which several answers may be true, and one-out-of-four type, in which only one answer is correct. Provides tips for taking and making multiple choice tests. (TW)

Biran, Leonard A.

1986-01-01

32

CAT questions and answers  

SciTech Connect

This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions.

Not Available

1993-02-01

33

Question Their Answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by "questioning their answers."

Royce, Brenda

2004-10-01

34

Estimating the Effect on Grades of Using Multiple-Choice versus Constructive-Response Questions: Data from the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the degree to which grades based solely on constructed-response (CR) questions differ from grades based solely on multiple-choice (MC) questions. If CR questions are to justify their higher costs, they should produce different grade outcomes than MC questions. We use a data set composed of thousands of observations on…

Hickson, Stephen; Reed, W. Robert; Sander, Nicholas

2012-01-01

35

Web-based application to eliminate five contraindicated multiple-choice question practices.  

PubMed

Multiple-choice questions (MCQs) evaluate factual knowledge in medical education and have a high reliability, if performed appropriately. However, many MCQs contain formal errors leading to reduced validity. The authors developed a Web application capable of recognizing and eliminating five frequent contraindicated practices in MCQs: negative stem, unfocused stem, cueing words, longest item = right item flaw, and stem/item similarities. The authors used simple string algorithms and dynamic comparisons with keywords. The system was successfully validated with a sample of approximately 800 continuous medical education (CME) questions, showing that our system automatically detects 60% of all formal didactic errors. Flaws not detected by the software can easily be avoided using quick manuals on item wording or clear instruction to the authors. The authors conclude that it is feasible to improve the quality of MCQs by designing a Web application that is capable of detecting common flaws by simple string operations. PMID:20483716

Brunnquell, Andreas; Degirmenci, Umüt; Kreil, Sebastian; Kornhuber, Johannes; Weih, Markus

2011-06-01

36

Poultry Processing: Questions & Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... A / Poultry Processing: Questions and Answers Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

37

Knowledge based question answering  

SciTech Connect

The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

1983-01-01

38

Comparison of Collegial Individual and Group Reviews of General Practice Multiple Choice Questions  

PubMed Central

Aims: In most German medical faculties, credits in general practice can be earned via exams using multiple-choice questions (MCQ). Measures such as peer-reviews may help assure the quality of these exams. In order to use time and personnel intensive peer reviews effectively and efficiently, the procedures used are key. Therefore, we wanted to find out whether there are differences between group and individual reviews regarding defined parameters. Methods: We conducted a controlled cross-over study with three GP reviewers from four different German universities. Each reviewed 80 MCQs, 40 individually and 40 within a group, including external assessments by a panel of experts. Furthermore all reviewers were asked to evaluate the review process and the time spent carrying out these reviews. Outcomes: We found no significant differences between the reliability and the validity of individual reviews versus group reviews. On average slightly more time was spent on group reviews compared with the individual reviews. The subjective assessments of the study participants regarding their satisfaction with the process and the efficiency and effectiveness of the reviews suggest a preference for group reviews. Conclusions: Based on this study, there are no definite recommendations for or against either approach. When choosing between the two, the specific work structures and organisation at the local faculty should be taken into account. PMID:22916083

Böhme, Klaus; Schelling, Jörg; Streitlein-Böhme, Irmgard; Glassen, Katharina; Schübel, Jeannine; Jünger, Jana

2012-01-01

39

Evaluation of Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences by determining item writing flaws (IWFs) of MCQs along with cognitive level of each item in both methods. Methods: This analytical study evaluated the quality of the assessment tools used for the first batch in a newly established medical college in Karachi, Pakistan. First and sixth module assessment tools in Biochemistry during 2009-2010 were analyzed. Cognitive level of MCQs and SEQs, were noted and MCQ item writing flaws were also evaluated. Results: A total of 36 SEQs and 150 MCQs of four items were analyzed. The cognitive level of 83.33% of SEQs was at recall level while remaining 16.67% were assessing interpretation of data. Seventy six percent of the MCQs were at recall level while remaining 24% were at the interpretation. Regarding IWFs, 69 IWFs were found in 150 MCQs. The commonest among them were implausible distracters (30.43%), unfocused stem (27.54%) and unnecessary information in the stem (24.64%). Conclusion: There is a need to review the quality including the content of assessment tools. A structured faculty development program is recommended for developing improved assessment tools that align with learning outcomes and measure competency of medical students. PMID:24639820

Baig, Mukhtiar; Ali, Syeda Kauser; Ali, Sobia; Huda, Nighat

2014-01-01

40

Multiple choice questions are superior to extended matching questions to identify medicine and biomedical sciences students who perform poorly.  

PubMed

In recent years, medical faculties at Dutch universities have implemented a legally binding study advice to students of medicine and biomedical sciences during their propaedeutic phase. Appropriate examination is essential to discriminate between poor (grade <6), moderate (grade 6-8) and excellent (grade ?8) students. Therefore, we compared the discriminatory properties of extended matching questions (EMQs) versus multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and identified the role of sex, age and examination preference on this score. Data were collected for 452 first-year medical and biomedical science students during three distinct course examinations: one examination with EMQ only, one with MCQ only and one mixed examination (including EMQ and MCQ). Logistic regression analysis revealed that MCQ examination was 3 times better in identifying poor students compared with EMQ (RR 3.0, CI 2.0-4.5), whereas EMQ better detected excellent students (average grade ?8) (RR 1.93, CI 1.47-2.53). Mixed examination had comparable characteristics to MCQ. Sex and examination preference did not impact the score of the student. Students ?20 years had a 4-fold higher risk ratio of obtaining a poor grade (<6) compared with students ?18 years old (RR 4.1, CI 2.1-8.0). Given the strong discriminative capacity of MCQ examinations to identify poor students, we recommend the use of this type of examination during the propaedeutic phase of medicine and biomedical science study programmes, in the light of the binding study advice. PMID:24203858

Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; van den Brand, Tessa L; Hopman, Maria T E

2013-11-01

41

Improving the Output from Software that Generates Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) Test Items Automatically using Controlled Rhetorical Structure Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of established theories (1).(2).(3).(4) are applied in an attempt to improve the output from a system (5),(6) which automatically generates MCQ (Multiple Choice Question) test items from source documents. The literature observes that NLG (Natural Language Generation) system evaluation is non-trivial (7) and so the method is evaluated using a process suited to the featured domain (8). The

Robert Michael Foster

42

Campylobacter Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... and Disease / Campylobacter Q and Answers Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

43

ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

44

Answering Your Questions about AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

Kalichman, Seth C.

45

Photo-based question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo-based question answering is a useful way of finding information about physical objects. Current question an- swering (QA) systems are text-based and can be difficult to use when a question involves an object with distinct vi- sual features. A photo-based QA system allows direct use of a photo to refer to the object. We develop a three-layer system architecture for

Tom Yeh; John J. Lee; Trevor Darrell

2008-01-01

46

Questions and Answers about Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

Questions and Answers About Stroke What is a stroke? A stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted. When a stroke occurs, brain ... need to function. What are the types of strokes? A stroke can occur in two ways. In ...

47

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER  

E-print Network

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER Q: What are the early signs of lung cancer? How would I know I have it? A: Some of the early warning signs of lung cancer are: · A cough that doesn't go away what may be causing these symptoms. Q: How is lung cancer diagnosed? A: Your doctor may do one or more

48

Descriptive Question Answering with Answer Type Independent Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a supervised learning method to seek out answers to the most frequently asked descriptive questions: reason, method, and definition questions. Most of the previous systems for question answering focus on factoids, lists or definitional questions. However, descriptive questions such as reason questions and method questions are also frequently asked by users. We propose a system for these types of questions. The system conducts an answer search as follows. First, we analyze the user's question and extract search keywords and the expected answer type. Second, information retrieval results are obtained from an existing search engine such as Yahoo or Google. Finally, we rank the results to find snippets containing answers to the questions based on a ranking SVM algorithm. We also propose features to identify snippets containing answers for descriptive questions. The features are adaptable and thus are not dependent on answer type. Experimental results show that the proposed method and features are clearly effective for the task.

Yoon, Yeo-Chan; Lee, Chang-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Ki; Jang, Myung-Gil; Ryu, Pum Mo; Park, So-Young

49

A Diagnostic Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Competency in Multiple-Choice Item Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Large class size is an issue in testing at all levels of Education. As a panacea to this, multiple choice test formats has become very popular. This case study was designed to diagnose pre-service teachers' competency in constructing questions (IQT); direct questions (DQT); and best answer (BAT) varieties of multiple choice items. Subjects were 88…

Asim, Alice E.; Ekuri, Emmanuel E.; Eni, Eni I.

2013-01-01

50

Multilingual Question\\/Answering: the DIOGENE System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the DIOGENE question\\/answering system developed at ITC- Irst. The system is based on a rather standard architecture which includes three components for question processing, search and answer extraction. Linguistic processing strongly relies on MULTIWORDNET, an extended version of the English WORDNET. The system has been designed to address two promising directions: multilingual question\\/answering and question\\/answering on the

Bernardo Magnini; Matteo Negri; Roberto Prevete; Hristo Tanev

2001-01-01

51

Domain Ontology Based Automatic Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, we introduce a music knowledge question answering system based on ontology knowledge base. Users can propose a question about music knowledge in natural language, the system automatically extract relative knowledge to form answer based on FAQ (frequently asked questions) and ontology knowledge base, and return the answer to users in natural language. The important modules in the

Jibin Fu; Jinzhong Xu; Keliang Jia

2009-01-01

52

Identification of technical item flaws leads to improvement of the quality of single best Multiple Choice Questions  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of the study was to identify technical item flaws in the multiple choice questions submitted for the final exams for the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in Islamic International Medical College (IIMC). The Data was collected from the MCQ’s submitted by the faculty for the final exams for the year 2009, 2010 and 2011. The data was compiled and evaluated by a three member assessment committee. The data was analyzed for frequency and percentages the categorical data was analyzed by chi-square test. Results: Overall percentage of flawed item was 67% for the year 2009 of which 21% were for testwiseness and 40% were for irrelevant difficulty. In year 2010 the total item flaws were 36% and 11% testwiseness and 22% were for irrelevant difficulty. The year 2011 data showed decreased overall flaws of 21%. The flaws of testwisness were 7%, irrelevant difficulty were 11%. Conclusion: Technical item flaws are frequently encountered during MCQ construction, and the identification of flaws leads to improved quality of the single best MCQ’s. PMID:24353614

Fayyaz Khan, Humaira; Farooq Danish, Khalid; Saeed Awan, Azra; Anwar, Masood

2013-01-01

53

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

SciTech Connect

Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

2004-10-03

54

Probabilistic question answering on the web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web-based search engines such as Google and NorthernLight return documents that are relevant to a user query, not answers to user questions. We have developed an architecture that augments existing search engines so that they support natural language question answering. The process entails five steps: query modulation, document retrieval, passage extraction, phrase extraction, and answer ranking. In this paper we

Dragomir R. Radev; Weiguo Fan; Hong Qi; Harris Wu; Amardeep Grewal

2002-01-01

55

Math 132 -Final Exam -Spring 2008 1 This exam contains 20 multiple choice questions. Each question is worth 5  

E-print Network

question is worth 5 points. 1. Find the arc length of y = x3 12 + 1 x over the interval [1, 3]. (Hint: Use - Final Exam - Spring 2008 3 3. A thin triangular plate is submerged vertically in water so that one side

Feres, Renato

56

Item and Test Analysis to Identify Quality Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) from an Assessment of Medical Students of Ahmedabad, Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Background: Multiple choice questions (MCQs) are frequently used to assess students in different educational streams for their objectivity and wide reach of coverage in less time. However, the MCQs to be used must be of quality which depends upon its difficulty index (DIF I), discrimination index (DI) and distracter efficiency (DE). Objective: To evaluate MCQs or items and develop a pool of valid items by assessing with DIF I, DI and DE and also to revise/ store or discard items based on obtained results. Settings: Study was conducted in a medical school of Ahmedabad. Materials and Methods: An internal examination in Community Medicine was conducted after 40 hours teaching during 1st MBBS which was attended by 148 out of 150 students. Total 50 MCQs or items and 150 distractors were analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Data was entered and analyzed in MS Excel 2007 and simple proportions, mean, standard deviations, coefficient of variation were calculated and unpaired t test was applied. Results: Out of 50 items, 24 had “good to excellent” DIF I (31 - 60%) and 15 had “good to excellent” DI (> 0.25). Mean DE was 88.6% considered as ideal/ acceptable and non functional distractors (NFD) were only 11.4%. Mean DI was 0.14. Poor DI (< 0.15) with negative DI in 10 items indicates poor preparedness of students and some issues with framing of at least some of the MCQs. Increased proportion of NFDs (incorrect alternatives selected by < 5% students) in an item decrease DE and makes it easier. There were 15 items with 17 NFDs, while rest items did not have any NFD with mean DE of 100%. Conclusion: Study emphasizes the selection of quality MCQs which truly assess the knowledge and are able to differentiate the students of different abilities in correct manner. PMID:24696535

Gajjar, Sanju; Sharma, Rashmi; Kumar, Pradeep; Rana, Manish

2014-01-01

57

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we plan for? · Should we separate uranium? · If we separate uranium, should we recycle it, store it or dispose of it? · Is it practical to plan to fabricate and handle “hot” fuel? · Which transuranic elements (TRU) should be separated and transmuted? · Of those TRU separated, which should be transmuted together? · Should we separate and/or transmute Cs and Sr isotopes that dominate near-term repository heating? · Should we separate and/or transmute very long-lived Tc and I isotopes? · Which separation technology? · What mix of transmutation technologies? · What fuel technology best supports the above decisions?

Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

2003-10-01

58

Applying question classification to Yahoo! Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question classification is an important part in modern Question Answering systems. Most approaches to question classification are based on handcrafted rules. Recent studies classify simple questions using machine learning techniques and recommends SVM as on of the best performing classifiers. This study applies a hierarchical classifier based on the SVM machine learning algorithm on questions posed by users, drawn from

Mohan John Blooma; Dion Hoe-Lian Goh; A. Chua; Zhiquan Ling

2008-01-01

59

Name___________________________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.  

E-print Network

and alternative hypothesis. 7) You want to see if the number of minutes cell phone users use each month has changed from its mean of 120 minutes 2 years ago. You take a random sample of 100 cell phone users. In an effort to track 50 of these children, researchers test 950 newborns for the presence of this gene. What

DeMaio, Joe

60

Name___________________________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.  

E-print Network

) 0.589 C) 0.749 D) 0.246 E) 0.995 5) 6) College students were given three choices of pizza toppings.484 D) 0.535 E) 0.363 2) 3) The table below describes the smoking habits of a group of asthma sufferers that a student responded "meat"? A) 0.203 B) 0.15 C) 0.292 D) 0.068 E) 0.288 6) 7) You are dealt a hand of three

DeMaio, Joe

61

Optimizing multiple-choice tests as tools for learning.  

PubMed

Answering multiple-choice questions with competitive alternatives can enhance performance on a later test, not only on questions about the information previously tested, but also on questions about related information not previously tested-in particular, on questions about information pertaining to the previously incorrect alternatives. In the present research, we assessed a possible explanation for this pattern: When multiple-choice questions contain competitive incorrect alternatives, test-takers are led to retrieve previously studied information pertaining to all of the alternatives in order to discriminate among them and select an answer, with such processing strengthening later access to information associated with both the correct and incorrect alternatives. Supporting this hypothesis, we found enhanced performance on a later cued-recall test for previously nontested questions when their answers had previously appeared as competitive incorrect alternatives in the initial multiple-choice test, but not when they had previously appeared as noncompetitive alternatives. Importantly, however, competitive alternatives were not more likely than noncompetitive alternatives to be intruded as incorrect responses, indicating that a general increased accessibility for previously presented incorrect alternatives could not be the explanation for these results. The present findings, replicated across two experiments (one in which corrective feedback was provided during the initial multiple-choice testing, and one in which it was not), thus strongly suggest that competitive multiple-choice questions can trigger beneficial retrieval processes for both tested and related information, and the results have implications for the effective use of multiple-choice tests as tools for learning. PMID:25123774

Little, Jeri L; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

2015-01-01

62

Answering definitional questions before they are asked  

E-print Network

Most question answering systems narrow down their search space by issuing a boolean IR query on a keyword indexed corpus. This technique often proves futile for definitional questions, because they only contain one keyword ...

Fernandes, Aaron D. (Aaron David)

2004-01-01

63

A comparison of the psychometric properties of three- and four-option multiple-choice questions in nursing assessments.  

PubMed

In multiple-choice tests, four-option items are the standard in nursing education. There are few evidence-based reasons, however, for MCQs to have four or more options as studies have shown that three-option items perform equally as well and the additional options most often do not improve test reliability and validity. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the psychometric properties of four-option items with the same items rewritten as three-option items. Using item-analysis data to eliminate the distractor with the lowest response rate, we compared three- and four-option versions of 41 multiple-choice items administered to two student cohorts over two subsequent academic years. Removing the non-functioning distractor resulted in minimal changes in item difficulty and discrimination. Three-option items contained more functioning distractors despite having fewer distractors overall. Existing distractors became more discriminating when infrequently selected distractors were removed from items. Overall, three-option items perform equally as well as four-option items. Since three-option items require less time to develop and administer and additional options provide no psychometric advantage, teachers are encouraged to adopt three-option items as the standard on multiple-choice tests. PMID:20053488

Tarrant, Marie; Ware, James

2010-08-01

64

Microorganism Interactions and Microbial Ecology: Multiple Choice Quiz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online multiple-choice quiz accompanies McGraw Hill's Microbiology (5th edition) textbook chapter covering Microorganism Interactions and Microbial Ecology. It is comprised of 32 questions for which the answers can be submitted and checked online with the click of a button.

Prescott, Lansing M.; Klein, Donald; Harley, John P.; Microbiology; McGraw Hill Online Learning Center

65

Extracting Exact Answers using a Meta Question Answering System  

E-print Network

that uses multiple Web search engines and Web question answering systems to retrieve snippets of text an answer, we used an approach that combines the results of several Web search engines and Web QA systems Web information re- trieval system in a unique manner in order to ex- tract the best results they can

Aliod, Diego Mollá

66

Question answering system based on Ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background and system frame of the question answering system are presented. A new approach is explored in which questions are analyzed based on the detection of question focus chunk, semantic chunk and question template. Then vectors are used for the whole semantic representation. With the elicitation of ontology and semantic Web, a domain ontology is built up. Ontology and

Qinglin Guo

2008-01-01

67

Donating Blood Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Back to top Questions about Individuals Diagnosed with Hemochromatosis and Blood Donations Is it true that individuals diagnosed with hemochromatosis can now donate? FDA has always allowed individuals ...

68

From Question Answering to Visual Exploration  

SciTech Connect

Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

2006-08-11

69

Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services  

PubMed Central

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

70

Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.  

PubMed

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

71

Automatic Question Pattern Generation for Ontology-based Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an automatic question pattern generation method for ontology-based question answering with the use of textual entailment. In this method, a set of question pat- terns, called predictive questions, which are predicted to be asked by users in a domain, were generated on the basis of a domain ontology. Their corresponding query templates, which can be used to

Shiyan Ou; Constantin Orasan; Dalila Mekhaldi; Laura Hasler

2008-01-01

72

Question & Answers Natural Gas Fueling Infrastructure Solicitation  

E-print Network

to be renewable to get the 60% award? (Answer) A minimum of 30% of compressed natural gas or liquefied naturalQuestion & Answers Natural Gas Fueling Infrastructure Solicitation PON12605 1. If you of the Solicitation which defines renewable natural gas. 3. Do the projects have to be for new stations

73

Answering Your Child's Tough Questions About Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... feedback today. Answering Your Child's Tough Questions About Alcohol As your child becomes curious about alcohol, he ... dad) that I wouldn’t drink.” “You drink alcohol, so why can’t I?” Remind your child ...

74

Questions and Answers: Smallpox Vaccine and Monkeypox  

MedlinePLUS

Monkeypox Clinicians Public Health Lawyers Pet Owners & Animal Handlers Veterinarians Case Definition Infection Control & Exposure Management Lab & ... Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333 USA (404) 639-3311 Monkeypox Home > QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Smallpox Vaccine and Monkeypox ...

75

Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood Pressure Questions and Answers About High Blood Pressure What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood against ... doctor. Am I at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure. But there ...

76

Get Answers to Common Questions About...  

Cancer.gov

Get Answers to Common Questions About... Biological Specimens Drug Availability, Labeling and Distribution Ethics Indemnity Insurance Planning Clinical Trials and Navigating Regulatory Requirements Protocols Quality Assurance and Monitoring Software

77

Ten questions and answers about superconductivity  

E-print Network

This work answers the basic questions of superconductivity in a question-and-answer format. We extend a basic hypothesis to various superconductors. This hypothesis is that superconductivity requires that the pairing gap locates around the Fermi level. On the basis of this hypothesis our calculations give the so-called three factor theory with which some key problems of the high temperature superconductivity are explained.

Tian De Cao

2010-06-29

78

Scaling question answering to the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wealth of information on the web makes it an attractive resource for seeking quick answers to simple, factual questions such as "e;who was the first American in space?"e; or "e;what is the second tallest mountain in the world?"e; Yet today's most advanced web search services (e.g., Google and AskJeeves) make it surprisingly tedious to locate answers to such questions.

Cody C. T. Kwok; Oren Etzioni; Daniel S. Weld

2001-01-01

79

Beyond Information Retrieval—Medical Question Answering  

PubMed Central

Physicians have many questions when caring for patients, and frequently need to seek answers for their questions. Information retrieval systems (e.g., PubMed) typically return a list of documents in response to a user’s query. Frequently the number of returned documents is large and makes physicians’ information seeking “practical only ‘after hours’ and not in the clinical settings”. Question answering techniques are based on automatically analyzing thousands of electronic documents to generate short-text answers in response to clinical questions that are posed by physicians. The authors address physicians’ information needs and described the design, implementation, and evaluation of the medical question answering system (MedQA). Although our long term goal is to enable MedQA to answer all types of medical questions, currently, we currently implement MedQA to integrate information retrieval, extraction, and summarization techniques to automatically generate paragraph-level text for definitional questions (i.e., “What is X?”). MedQA can be accessed at http://www.dbmi.columbia.edu/~yuh9001/research/MedQA.html. PMID:17238385

Lee, Minsuk; Cimino, James; Zhu, Hai Ran; Sable, Carl; Shanker, Vijay; Ely, John; Yu, Hong

2006-01-01

80

From Asking to Answering: Making Questions Explicit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"From Asking To Answering: Making Questions Explicit" describes a pedagogical procedure the author has used in writing classes (expository, technical and creative) to help students better understand the purpose, and effect, of text-questions. It accomplishes this by means of thirteen discrete categories (e.g., CLAIMS, COMMITMENT, ANAPHORA, or…

Washington, Gene

2006-01-01

81

Sea Level : Frequently Asked Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can find answers to frequently asked questions regarding sea level and sea level changes. Topics addressed include how mean sea level is defined, how much sea level would rise if all the worlds ice were to melt, differences in sea level between oceans and at different latitudes, the meaning of altitude above sea level, and others.

2007-12-12

82

Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

83

American Indians Today: Answers to Your Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet attempts to answer briefly the most common questions about American Indians asked by students, people who believe they have Indian ancestors, individuals who want to visit or volunteer to work on a reservation, or those who want to know the current Indian policy. Separate sections outline President Reagan's American Indian policy;…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

84

Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

2000-01-01

85

Online Transcript Request Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

. This will update you on the status. Q. I am a Tufts Alumnus. Can I order my transcript online? A. This new system log out of SIS Online or lose my connection before entering my payment information? A. If your paymentOnline Transcript Request Questions and Answers Q. How can I order an official transcript online? A

Tufts University

86

National Wetland Plant List Question and Answers  

E-print Network

for the names included within the proposed list, National List of Vascular Plant Species that Occur in WetlandsNational Wetland Plant List Question and Answers May 2012 Q1: How will the updated list affect as a result of the changes to the updated plant list. Approximately 12% of the wetland plant indicator

US Army Corps of Engineers

87

Question and Answers Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans  

E-print Network

Question and Answers Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans PON-13-603 September 3, 2013 Eligibility Q1 to readiness plans? A1 This solicitation is limited to readiness planning only for alternative fuels. Q2 In regards to PON-13-603 - Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans, is electricity used for transportation

88

A Comparison of Student Performance in Multiple-Choice and Long Essay Questions in the MBBS Stage I Physiology Examination at the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This retrospective study compared the performance of preclinical medical students in the multiple-choice question (MCQ) and long essay question components of a comprehensive physiology final examination. During the 3 yr analyzed, 307 students had an average score of 47% (SD 9.9) in the long essay questions and 64% (SD 9.9) in the MCQs. Regression…

Pepple, Dagogo J.; Young, Lauriann E.; Carroll, Robert G.

2010-01-01

89

Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers  

SciTech Connect

This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

NONE

1995-11-01

90

Research on Chinese restricted domain question answering system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge representing method, question semantic analysis and answer extraction algorithm are very important parts of QA (question answering system). This paper puts forward a framework which can well serve not only the simple question, but also the complex conditional question; can construct and apply ontology to drive Chinese restricted domain QA; and can conveniently extract answer by QSR (question

Jie Liu; Ji-Bin Fu; Xiao-Yu Jiang; Kang Chen

2008-01-01

91

Formulation of multiple choice questions as a revision exercise at the end of a teaching module in biochemistry.  

PubMed

The graduate medical students often get less opportunity for clarifying their doubts and to reinforce their concepts after lecture classes. Assessment of the effect of MCQ preparation by graduate medical students as a revision exercise on the topic "Mineral metabolism." At the end of regular teaching module on the topic "Mineral metabolism," graduate medical students were asked to prepare the stems of 15 MCQs based on the four discriminators given for each. They were told that one of the discriminators could be the answer for the MCQ and the remaining three could be the distracters. They were further guided in their task by providing few key word(s) in the stem of the expected MCQ. In the first phase of the exercise, the students attempted the MCQ preparation individually without peer consultation. In the second phase, the students participated in small group discussion to formulate the best MCQs of the group. The effects on low, medium, and high achievers were evaluated by pre and post-tests with the same set of MCQs. Both the individual endeavor in Phase 1 and small group discussion in Phase 2 for the formulation of MCQs significantly contributed to the gain from the exercise. The gains from the individual task and from small group discussion were equal among the different categories of students. Both phases of the exercise were equally beneficial for the low, medium, and high achievers. The high and medium achievers retained the gain from the exercise even after 1 week of the exercise whereas the low achievers could not retain the gain completely. Formulation of MCQs is an effective and useful unconventional revision exercise in Biochemistry for graduate medical students. PMID:22615224

Bobby, Zachariah; Radhika, M R; Nandeesha, H; Balasubramanian, A; Prerna, Singh; Archana, Nimesh; Thippeswamy, D N

2012-01-01

92

Learning How to Answer Questions Using Trivia Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine a sentence comprehension task: given a question, and an extended sentence known to answer that question, the goal is to extract the short answer to the question. As an initial solution, a novel robust statistical model is presented which combines the semantics of the expected answer with the expected context within which the answer will

Gideon S. Mann

2002-01-01

93

Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions  

SciTech Connect

contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

Hinchliffe, Ian

2012-01-01

94

Overview of the TREC 2005 Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC 2005 Question Answering (QA) track contained three tasks: the main question answering task, the document ranking task, and the relationship task. In the main task, question series were used to dene a set of targets. Each series was about a single target and contained factoid and list questions. The nal question in the series was an ěOtherî question

Ellen M. Voorhees; Hoa Trang Dang

2005-01-01

95

The Artful Dodger: Answering the Wrong Question the Right Way  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What happens when speakers try to "dodge" a question they would rather not answer by answering a different question? In 4 studies, we show that listeners can fail to detect dodges when speakers answer similar--but objectively incorrect--questions (the "artful dodge"), a detection failure that goes hand-in-hand with a failure to rate dodgers more…

Rogers, Todd; Norton, Michael I.

2011-01-01

96

Tie Strength in Question & Answer on Social Network Sites  

E-print Network

Tie Strength in Question & Answer on Social Network Sites Katrina Panovich, Robert C. Miller, David with opportunities to better observe this process. In this paper, we relate question answering to tie strength of tie strength in question answers. We used previous research on tie strength in social media

97

Towards Interactive Question Answering: An Ontology-Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to provide both rich and natural answers with respect to a given question, and clear explanations for failures, is a crucial aspect for a future generation of question answering systems able to interact with a user. We argue that such abilities are necessarily based on a deep analysis of the content of both the question and the answer,

Bernardo Magnini; Manuela Speranza; Vikash Kumar

2009-01-01

98

Question Answering Techniques for the World Wide Web  

E-print Network

Question Answering Techniques for the World Wide Web Jimmy Lin and Boris Katz MIT Artificial of irrelevant documents. The vast amount of information readily available on the World Wide Web presents new of the World Wide Web distinguish Web-based question answering from question answering on closed corpora

Lin, Jimmy

99

Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part I. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief analyses are provided of presentations at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues, and application. Papers…

Miller, C. C.; And Others

1982-01-01

100

Automated Multiple-Choice Testing for Summative Assessment: What Do Students Think?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports undergraduate student feedback contrasting conventional "Long-answer" examinations with automated multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment. Feedback was gathered after students had undertaken formative MCQ assessments as a revision aid. Feedback was generally supportive of MCQ summative tests, with 74% expressing a preference…

Bridge, Pete; Appleyard, Rob; Wilson, Rob

2007-01-01

101

The "None of the Above" Option in Multiple-Choice Testing: An Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors assessed the effects of using "none of the above" as an option in a 40-item, general-knowledge multiple-choice test administered to undergraduate students. Examinees who selected "none of the above" were given an incentive to write the correct answer to the question posed. Using "none of the above" as the…

DiBattista, David; Sinnige-Egger, Jo-Anne; Fortuna, Glenda

2014-01-01

102

Not Read, but Nevertheless Solved? Three Experiments on PIRLS Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice (MC) reading comprehension test items comprise three components: text passage, questions about the text, and MC answers. The construct validity of this format has been repeatedly criticized. In three between-subjects experiments, fourth graders (N[subscript 1] = 230, N[subscript 2] = 340, N[subscript 3] = 194) worked on three…

Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Kimmel, Rumena; Lowenkamp, Lena; Steingraber, Antje; Rost, Detlef H.

2012-01-01

103

Why Users of Yahoo! Answers Do Not Answer Questions David Dearman and Khai N. Truong  

E-print Network

Why Users of Yahoo! Answers Do Not Answer Questions David Dearman and Khai N. Truong Department of collective action (e.g., Yahoo! Answers); in contrast it is not well understood why members choose to not answer a question they have already read. To explore this issue, we surveyed 135 active members of Yahoo

Toronto, University of

104

Robust Question Answering for Speech Transcripts Using Minimal Syntactic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the participation of the Technical University of Catalonia in the CLEF 2007 Question Answering on Speech Transcripts track. For the processing of manual transcripts we have deployed a robust factual Question Answering that uses minimal syntactic information. For the handling of automatic transcripts we combine the QA system with a novel Passage Retrieval and Answer Extraction engine,

Pere R. Comas; Jordi Turmo; Mihai Surdeanu

2007-01-01

105

NUFACT11 Round Table Discussion — Questions & Answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model; it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large ?13 makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses; it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R&D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and associated detectors, with a variety of (mostly) complementary baselines, proceeding in an incremental way. The ultimate precision and verification of the neutrino mixing picture requires new types of neutrino beams based on storage rings. For low energy neutrinos, the beta-beam is a possible (but substantial) intermediate step. The Neutrino Factory offers the best precision and best sensitivity to deviations from the standard picture. Coordinated international R&D is pursued. International collaboration at the top level would be beneficial in acknowledging the process, so as make sure that intermediate steps are effectively building up in complementary fashion towards the ultimate goals.

Blondel, A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; participants, NUFACT11

2013-02-01

106

Impact of Question Decomposition on the Quality of Answer Summaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generating answers to complex questions in the form of multi-document summaries requires access to question decomposition methods. In this paper we present three methods for decomposing complex questions and we evaluate their impact on the responsiveness of the answers they enable.

Finley Lacatusu; Andrew Hickl; Sanda Harabagiu; Japanese Yakuza; Pablo Escobar; Manuel Noriega; Juan Sanchez-Perez; Leopoldo Piloto

107

Learning search engine specific query transformations for question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a method for learning query transformations that im- proves the ability to retrieve answers to questions from an informa- tion retrieval system. During the training stage the method involves automatically learning phrase features for classifying questions into different types, automatically generating candidate query transfor- mations from a training set of question\\/answer pairs, and automat- ically evaluating the candidate

Eugene Agichtein; Steve Lawrence; Luis Gravano

2001-01-01

108

Analysis of short-answer question styles versus gender in pre-clinical veterinary education.  

PubMed

One large study in medical education has reported that the choice of question format (or question content) could introduce a gender bias, with men outperforming women on questions with a true-false component or that required knowledge of anatomy or physiology. The purpose of our study was to ascertain whether this finding is also true in veterinary medical education. Two veterinary student cohorts were analyzed across four different modules over a three-year period (804 questions in total). The results of the study show that the women's and men's performance did not differ in any of the question types analyzed across any module or year. When students' (both women and men) overall average performance on different question types was compared with their performance on standard multiple-choice questions (MCQs), performance levels increased when students were asked to answer MCQs that contained an image-based prop (IMCQ) such as a photograph, X-ray image, or diagram. In contrast, students' performance was consistently lower when answering assertion-reason questions (ARQs), and this performance could not be explained by the demographic makeup of the two cohorts analyzed. When comparing standard MCQs with MCQs that contained a true-false question stem, no specific trend in the data could be determined. In conclusion, this study suggests that the short-answer question style does not bias against one gender in veterinary medical education, but that overall students do perform differently according to question type and, in particular, less well when ARQs are used in examinations. PMID:21805937

Foster, Neil

2011-01-01

109

Extended Matching Sets Questions for Online Numeracy Assessments: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extended matching sets questions (EMSQs) are a form of multiple-choice question (MCQ) consisting of a stem (the question or scenario) with an extended number of possible answers. Although there is no consensus on their absolute format, for the purpose of this paper a multiple-choice question with ten or more alternative answers is considered to be…

Cann, Alan J.

2005-01-01

110

Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions Past Issues / ... Drug Abuse during their first Drug Facts Chat Day. Photo courtesy of NIDA The questions poured in… ...

111

Strategies for the Meaningful Evaluation of Multiple-Choice Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too many multiple-choice tests are administered without an evaluative component. Teachers often return student assessments or Scantron cards--computerized bubble forms--without review, assuming that the printing of the correct answer will suffice. However, a more constructivist approach to follow up multiple-choice tests can make for more…

Chesbro, Robert

2010-01-01

112

ASKING AND ANSWERING QUESTIONS Guidelines for Asking Good Questions  

E-print Network

involves critical thinking, and focuses on the substance or content of what a person has said. A question question because it involves no critical thinking on the questioner's part (however, these questions could) The critical thinking required in asking a good, substantive question involves making a careful analysis

Wagner, Diane

113

Classifying German Questions According to Ontology-Based Answer Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. In this paper we describe the evaluation of three machine learning algo- rithms that assign ontology based answer types to questions in a question-answering task. We used shallow and syntactical features to classify about 1400 German ques- tions with a Decision Tree, a k-nearest Neighbor, and a Na¨ive Bayes algorithm.

Adriana Davidescu; Andrea Heyl; Stefan Kazalski; Irene M. Cramer; Dietrich Klakow

2006-01-01

114

The Indeterminacy of the Question and Answer Format.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reader, writers, and teachers of expository prose should pay closer attention to the question and answer (Q&A) format's theoretical and practical implications. The Q&A format contributes to the seemingly endless succession of questions and answers and is part of that flight from one signifier to another characteristic of postmodern culture. The…

Hall, Dennis

115

Question Answering using Integrated Information Retrieval and Information Extraction  

E-print Network

in the DARPA GALE distillation evaluation. 1 Introduction As question-answering systems advance from han- dling approach has been evaluated in the frame- work of the DARPA GALE1 program. One of the GALE evaluations The language of the question immediately raises the question of what is meant by prosecution. Unlike a question

Schiffman, Barry

116

Overview of the TREC 2004 Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC 2004 Question Answering track contained a single task in which question series were used to define a set of targets. Each series contained factoid and list questions and related to a single target. The final question in the series was an \\

Ellen M. Voorhees

2004-01-01

117

Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

Frana, Ilaria

2010-01-01

118

Genetic algorithms for data-driven web question answering.  

PubMed

We present an evolutionary approach for the computation of exact answers to natural languages (NL) questions. Answers are extracted directly from the N-best snippets, which have been identified by a standard Web search engine using NL questions. The core idea of our evolutionary approach to Web question answering is to search for those substrings in the snippets whose contexts are most similar to contexts of already known answers. This context model together with the words mentioned in the NL question are used to evaluate the fitness of answer candidates, which are actually randomly selected substrings from randomly selected sentences of the snippets. New answer candidates are then created by applying specialized operators for crossover and mutation, which either stretch and shrink the substring of an answer candidate or transpose the span to new sentences. Since we have no predefined notion of patterns, our context alignment methods are very dynamic and strictly data-driven. We assessed our system with seven different datasets of question/answer pairs. The results show that this approach is promising, especially when it deals with specific questions. PMID:18386997

Figueroa, Alejandro G; Neumann, Günter

2008-01-01

119

Analysis of multiple-choice items.  

PubMed

This paper deals with scoring and analysis of multiple-choice exam questions. Data may be read by an optical mark reader scanner or from a file created by a system editor and stored in a format convenient to be analysed by a specially designed program 'MCQ'. In addition the data file created can be linked with the package SPSSx for pertinent statistical methods or SPSS Graphics for illustration of score and item distributions. The MCQ program comprises: (1) scoring; (2) item analysis: difficulty and discrimination indices; (3) testing the goodness of alternatives attached to each question. The method is applicable to multiple-choice questions with 4.5 greater than 5; true/false and combined exam questions. The method should prove useful for instructors to build up a balanced discriminant questions bank. PMID:1873997

Moussa, M A; Ouda, B A; Nemeth, A

1991-04-01

120

Negative answers to some positivity questions  

E-print Network

We construct counterexamples to a number of questions related to positivity properties of line bundles on algebraic varieties. The examples are based on studying the geometry of varieties that admit pseudo automorphisms ...

Lesieutre, John

2014-01-01

121

Children answered 24 questions in 3 sections  

E-print Network

· The length of time it took to make each item Sixty nine children from a primary school in South Yorkshire were tested from Year 2 (mean = 6y 7m), Year 4 (mean = 8y 11m) and Year 6 (mean = 10y 7m). The CTK Question Type Percentage of Questions Correct Year 2 Year 4 Year 6 Short-Term Tasks 0 2 4 6 Year Seconds

Haase, Markus

122

A topic clustering approach to finding similar questions from large question and answer archives.  

PubMed

With the blooming of Web 2.0, Community Question Answering (CQA) services such as Yahoo! Answers (http://answers.yahoo.com), WikiAnswer (http://wiki.answers.com), and Baidu Zhidao (http://zhidao.baidu.com), etc., have emerged as alternatives for knowledge and information acquisition. Over time, a large number of question and answer (Q&A) pairs with high quality devoted by human intelligence have been accumulated as a comprehensive knowledge base. Unlike the search engines, which return long lists of results, searching in the CQA services can obtain the correct answers to the question queries by automatically finding similar questions that have already been answered by other users. Hence, it greatly improves the efficiency of the online information retrieval. However, given a question query, finding the similar and well-answered questions is a non-trivial task. The main challenge is the word mismatch between question query (query) and candidate question for retrieval (question). To investigate this problem, in this study, we capture the word semantic similarity between query and question by introducing the topic modeling approach. We then propose an unsupervised machine-learning approach to finding similar questions on CQA Q&A archives. The experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24595052

Zhang, Wei-Nan; Liu, Ting; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Rongrong

2014-01-01

123

A Question Answering System based on Conceptual Graph Formalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new text-based question answering system. It models knowledge in documents and questions with conceptual graph formalism (CGF). To prepare knowledge to be modeled, natural language processing is applied to the text using OpenNLP, and then syntactic and semantic information is realized using VerbNet and WordNet. We handle different types of questions, especially questions constructed with wh- pronouns, and questions constructed with "how", and we propose a model to represent them in CGF so that their target is realized and marked. Each question's type has different conceptual graph (CG) representations; thus, for each question, many CGs are generated using formulas. Some of these formulas are introduced here. The projection operator is used to compare a question's CG to a sentence's CG, and then the exact answer is extracted from the part of the sentence's CG that has been projected under the question target's concept.

Salloum, Wael

2009-11-01

124

Artificial consciousness: Hazardous questions (and answers)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary If human consciousness is the result of complex neural electro-chemical interactions occurring in the brain, the question of whether a machine can ever become self-aware could be a matter of time: the time necessary to fully understand the functional behavior of the brain structure, develop a mathematical model of it, and implement an artificial system capable of working according

Giorgio Buttazzo

2008-01-01

125

Asking Essay Questions: Answering Contemporary Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essay questions have been a stable fixture of teacher assessment activity for decades. Assessment reforms of the early 90's encouraged the development and use of "newer" forms of assessment including portfolios, performance tasks, and authentic assessments. As of late, however, there appears to be a regressive emphasis toward the use of objective…

Criswell, John R.; Criswell, Susan J.

2004-01-01

126

Quick Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides an introduction to data analysis. The instructor poses a simple multiple choice question for the children to answer. Students are then prompted to answer questions about the data such as which answer is most common, which least common. Variations for presenting the data as a bar graph and using the data to make predictions are included. Students should have basic reading and writing skills.

2010-01-01

127

CLVQ: cross-language video question\\/answering system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilanguage information retrieval promotes users to browse documents in the form of their mother language, and more and more peoples interested in retrieves short answers rather than a full document. In this paper, we present a cross-language video QA system i.e. CLVQ, which could process the English questions, and find answers in Chinese videos. The main contribution of this research

Yu-Chyeh Wu; Chia-Hui Chang; Yue-Shi Lee

2004-01-01

128

Tie strength in question answer on social network sites  

E-print Network

Asking friends, colleagues, or other trusted people to help answer a question or find information is a familiar and tried-and-true concept. Widespread use of online social networks has made social information seeking easier, ...

Panovich, Katrina Marie

129

Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions  

ScienceCinema

In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

Walker, Iain

2013-11-14

130

Overview of the CLEF 2005 Multilingual Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general aim of the third CLEF Multilingual Question Answering Track was to set up a common and replicable evaluation framework to test both monolingual and cross-language Question Answering (QA) systems that process queries and documents in several European languages. Nine target languages and ten source languages were exploited to enact 8 monolingual and 73 cross-language tasks. Twenty-four groups participated

Alessandro Vallin; Bernardo Magnini; Danilo Giampiccolo; Lili Aunimo; Christelle Ayache; Petya Osenova; Anselmo Peńas; Maarten De Rijke; Bogdan Sacaleanu; Diana Santos; Richard F. E. Sutcliffe

2005-01-01

131

Questions about how plants die leads to climate change answers  

E-print Network

- 1 - Questions about how plants die leads to climate change answers March 12, 2012 How trees die in drought key to plant, climate change questions How plants die during drought is one of the largest uncertainties in determining how plants will succumb to changing climate. 3:01 Tree Death Study's Climate Change

132

EBPT: Asking the right question and finding the answer  

E-print Network

EBPT: Asking the right question and finding the answer #12;Objectives · Formulate clinical want to know? #12;Types of Questions · Background ­ Normal physiology or behavior ­ Pathophysiology exercise more effective than exercise alone in restoring functional use of the UE in a 65 year old male

Weber, David J.

133

Asking and Answering Questions about Unfamiliar APIs: An Exploratory Study  

E-print Network

Asking and Answering Questions about Unfamiliar APIs: An Exploratory Study Ekwa Duala}@cs.mcgill.ca Abstract--The increasing size of APIs and the increase in the number of APIs available imply developers must fre- quently learn how to use unfamiliar APIs. To identify the types of questions developers want

Robillard, Martin

134

Update on motherisk updates. Seven years of questions and answers.  

PubMed Central

QUESTION: Every month I read the Motherisk Updates in your journal and find them very helpful in counseling my patients on exposures during pregnancy and breastfeeding. I was wondering: what are the most common questions you receive from family physicians? ANSWER: Since the Motherisk Update began, we have received an increasing number of inquiries from family physicians across Canada. Most questions are about drug exposures. The three classes of drugs asked about most often are antidepressants, antiepileptics, and antihistamines. PMID:12228958

Einarson, Adrienne; Portnoi, Galina; Koren, Gideon

2002-01-01

135

BioGrapher: Biography Questions as a Restricted Domain Question Answering Task  

E-print Network

BioGrapher: Biography Questions as a Restricted Domain Question Answering Task Oren Tsur Text and Data Mining Group Bar Ilan University tsuror@cs.biu.ac.il Maarten de Rijke Informatics Institute questions, i.e., questions asking for biographi- cal facts about persons. The domain of biographical

de Rijke, Maarten

136

25 CFR 162.026 - Who can answer questions about leasing?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Who can answer questions about leasing? 162.026 Section 162.026 Indians...026 Who can answer questions about leasing? An Indian landowner or prospective...land for answers to questions about the leasing...

2014-04-01

137

25 CFR 162.026 - Who can answer questions about leasing?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Who can answer questions about leasing? 162.026 Section 162.026 Indians...026 Who can answer questions about leasing? An Indian landowner or prospective...land for answers to questions about the leasing...

2013-04-01

138

2011 Scholarship Awards Questions and Answers about Scholarships and Awards  

E-print Network

2011 Scholarship Awards Questions and Answers about Scholarships and Awards What is the difference between scholarships and awards? The difference between scholarships and awards is that students apply for scholarships and are nominated for awards. At Cal State Fullerton, both scholarships and awards are a means

de Lijser, Peter

139

Important Questions Answers Why This Matters: What is the overall  

E-print Network

services? In Network: $0 person/ $0 family. Out of Network: Not Covered No You don't have to meet you pay these expenses, they don't count toward the out-of-pocket limit. Is there an overall annualImportant Questions Answers Why This Matters: What is the overall deductible? See the chart

140

The Process of Question Answering. Research Report No. 88.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The computational model of question answering proposed by a computer program, QUALM, is a theory of conceptual information processing based on models of human memory organization. It has been developed from the perspective of natural language processing in conjunction with story understanding systems. The processes in QUALM are divided into four…

Lehnert, Wendy

141

Question answering based on pervasive agent ontology and Semantic Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic Web technologies bring new benefits to knowledge-based question answering system. Especially, ontology is becoming the pivotal methodology to represent domain-specific conceptual knowledge in order to promote the semantic capability of a QA system. In this paper we present a QA system in which the domain knowledge is represented by means of ontology. In addition, personalized services are enabled through

Qinglin Guo; Ming Zhang

2009-01-01

142

Personalized Question Answering System Based on Ontology and Semantic Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic Web technologies bring new benefits to knowledge-based question answering system. Especially, ontology is becoming the pivotal methodology to represent domain-specific conceptual knowledge in order to promote the semantic capability of a QA system. In this paper we present a QA system in which the domain knowledge is represented by means of ontology. In addition, personalized services are enabled through

Pengfei Zhang; Chunhua Wu; Cong Wang; Xiaohong Huang

2006-01-01

143

Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Questions, Answers, and Presuppositions  

E-print Network

Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Questions, Answers, and Presuppositions Author(s): Nuel D. Belnap, Jr. Source: The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 63, No. 20, American Philosophical Association Eastern Division Sixty-Third Annual Meeting (Oct. 27, 1966), pp. 609-611 Published by: Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Stable

Belnap, Nuel

144

Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

145

Priberam's question answering system in a cross-language environment  

E-print Network

system relies on previous work done for a multilingual semantic search engine developed in the framework semantic search engine capable of processing and answering natural language questions in English, French, the University of Economics, Prague (UEP) and TiP, are also using this framework to develop Czech and Polish

Xing, Eric P.

146

Overview of the CLEF 2004 Multilingual Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the pilot Question Answering Track at CLEF 2003, a new evaluation exercise for multilingual QA systems took place in 2004. This paper reports on the novelties introduced in the new campaign and on participants' results. Almost all the cross-language combinations between nine source languages and seven target languages were exploited to set up more than fifty different tasks, both

Bernardo Magnini; Alessandro Vallin; Christelle Ayache; Gregor Erbach; Anselmo Peńas; Maarten De Rijke; Paulo Rocha; Kiril Ivanov Simov; Richard F. E. Sutcliffe

2004-01-01

147

What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,…

Laird, Valerie

2001-01-01

148

Responses to Questions and Answers Advanced Vehicle Technology Manufacturing Solicitation  

E-print Network

1 Responses to Questions and Answers Advanced Vehicle Technology Manufacturing Solicitation PON successful applicants after the Notice of Proposed Awards to confirm this role and obtain any additional definition of "manufacturing equipment?" For example, would purchases of tooling or assembly line equipment

149

"Legal Problem Question Answer Genre" across Jurisdictions and Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to analyse discourse patterns of legal opinions in two languages and cultures--namely, Legal Problem Question Answers (LPQs) in the UK academic writing context and Pareri (Ps) in the Italian professional writing context. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of discourse in this paper, based on the tenets of genre analysis,…

Tessuto, Girolamo

2011-01-01

150

Answering Questions after Initial Study Guides Attention during Restudy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though the testing-effect can be boosted by including a restudy phase after answering test questions, we do not know precisely why it does so. One possible explanation is being tested here. The present study measured attention allocation during initial reading and rereading with a remote eye tracker to gain information on the cognitive processes…

Dirkx, Kim J.; Thoma, Gun-Brit; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul. A.

2015-01-01

151

Questions and Answers In this chapter, I address a number of commonly raised questions about  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Questions and Answers Ron Sun In this chapter, I address a number of commonly raised and similarity among various concrete situations, and therefore may lose sight of some critical information

Sun, Ron

152

Fundamental Studies on Generation of Questions to Users in an Interactive Question Answering System  

E-print Network

matching of user query with natural language knowledge base. In Proceedings of the 1st ACL SIGdial Workshop. HITIQA: Towards analytical question answering. In Proceedings of the COL- ING, pp. 1291­1297, 2004. #12;

Shirai, Kiyoaki

153

CERCLA Site Assessment questions and answers (Qs&As)  

SciTech Connect

This documents contains commonly asked questions and corresponding answers (Qs&As) on the CERCLA Site Assessment process. These questions were derived from DOE element responses to a solicitation calling for the identification of (unresolved) issues associated with the conduct of CERCLA site assessments, and from inquiries received during a series of Site Assessment Workshops provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231). Answers to these questions were prepared by EH-231 in cooperation with the EPA Federal Facilities Team in Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Site Assessment Branch, and in coordination with the Office of Environmental Compliance, Facilities Compliance Division (EH-222).

Traceski, T.T.

1993-11-09

154

Semantic information integration and question answering based on pervasive agent ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional search engines return a large number of relative web pages rather than accurate answers. However, in a question answering system, users could use sentences in daily life to raise questions. The question answering system will analyze and comprehend these questions and return answers to users directly. Aiming at the problems in current network environment, such as low precision

Qing-lin Guo; Ming Zhang

2009-01-01

155

Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.

Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

2010-01-01

156

Venus Express: Answered and unanswered questions on Venus (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After having orbited our sister planet for more than seven Earth years Venus Express has collected a very large data set allowing a great number of fundamental scientific questions to be addressed and answered. Most of the questions included in the mission's science requirement, as formulated in the mission proposal, have been answered. These include topics in atmospheric dynamics, structure and chemistry, clouds and hazes, surface and interior, radiation balance and greenhouse, induced magnetosphere and plasma environment, and planetary evolution. Solid results have been achieved in all these fields but with some weakness in the radiation balance measurements, mostly due to the early loss of the planetary Fourier spectrometer providing data at the mid infrared wavelengths. Naturally, due to the limited scope and budget of the Venus Express mission a number of important questions had to be left unaddressed and to be taken up by future missions. This talk will summarise the major results of Venus Express and discuss a number of questions where additional data will be needed in order to provide answers. A wish list for future missions will be provided.

Svedhem, H.; Titov, D.

2013-12-01

157

A comparison of student performance in multiple-choice and long essay questions in the MBBS stage I physiology examination at the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus).  

PubMed

This retrospective study compared the performance of preclinical medical students in the multiple-choice question (MCQ) and long essay question components of a comprehensive physiology final examination. During the 3 yr analyzed, 307 students had an average score of 47% (SD 9.9) in the long essay questions and 64% (SD 9.9) in the MCQs. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation (r = 0.62, P < 0.01) between MCQs and long essay questions. When student performance was grouped by final course grade, a statistically significant correlation between MCQ and long essay scores existed only for the 210 students who received a passing grade (r = 0.20, P < 0.01). The MCQ and long essay question scores were not correlated for the 57 students who failed (r = 0.25, P = 0.06) or for the 40 students who achieved honors and distinctions (r = -0.27, P = 0.11). MCQ scores were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than essay scores for each of the groups when analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The results of this study suggest that for most students, the strong correlation between scores on MCQs and essay questions indicates that student performance was independent of testing format. For students at either end on the performance spectrum, the lack of correlation suggests that the performance in one of the testing formats had a strong influence on the final course grade. In addition, those students who failed the course were likely to be weak in both testing modalities, whereas students in all grade groups were more likely to perform better in the MCQs than in the long essay questions. PMID:20522902

Pepple, Dagogo J; Young, Lauriann E; Carroll, Robert G

2010-06-01

158

CNM2 SOP Question Sheet New users only answer the questions on this page.  

E-print Network

CNM2 SOP Question Sheet New users only answer the questions-------------------------------------- Breadth of Hazards 1. What are the 3 major possibilities for explosions at CNM2 any two common sharps at CNM2. 2. Where can you find gauze and bandages

Yoo, S. J. Ben

159

A Domain-Specific Question Answering System Based on Ontology and Question Templates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth in the development of Internet-based information systems increases the demand for natural language interfaces that are easy to set up and maintain. Unfortunately, the problem of deep understanding natural language queries is far from being solved. In this paper, an automated question answering system based on domain ontology and question template is proposed, which does not need

D. S. Wang

2010-01-01

160

Question Answering System Based on Ontology and Semantic Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic web and ontology are the key technologies of Question Answering system. Ontology is becoming the pivotal methodology\\u000a to represent domain-specific conceptual knowledge in order to promote the semantic capability of a QA system. In this paper\\u000a we present a QA system in which the domain knowledge is represented by means of Ontology. In addition, a Chinese Natural Language\\u000a human-machine

Qinglin Guo; Ming Zhang

2008-01-01

161

QUASAR: The Question Answering System of the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia  

E-print Network

QUASAR: The Question Answering System of the Universidad Polit´ecnica de Valencia Jos´e Manuel G, ebisbal, prosso, esanchis}@dsic.upv.es Abstract. This paper describes the QUASAR Question Answering In by the previous modules in order to extract the correct answer. QUASAR (QUestion AnSwering And information

Rosso, Paolo

162

Ontology-Based Multiple Choice Question Generation  

PubMed Central

With recent advancements in Semantic Web technologies, a new trend in MCQ item generation has emerged through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are knowledge representation structures that formally describe entities in a domain and their relationships, thus enabling automated inference and reasoning. Ontology-based MCQ item generation is still in its infancy, but substantial research efforts are being made in the field. However, the applicability of these models for use in an educational setting has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this paper, we present an experimental evaluation of an ontology-based MCQ item generation system known as OntoQue. The evaluation was conducted using two different domain ontologies. The findings of this study show that ontology-based MCQ generation systems produce satisfactory MCQ items to a certain extent. However, the evaluation also revealed a number of shortcomings with current ontology-based MCQ item generation systems with regard to the educational significance of an automatically constructed MCQ item, the knowledge level it addresses, and its language structure. Furthermore, for the task to be successful in producing high-quality MCQ items for learning assessments, this study suggests a novel, holistic view that incorporates learning content, learning objectives, lexical knowledge, and scenarios into a single cohesive framework. PMID:24982937

Al-Yahya, Maha

2014-01-01

163

Ontology-based multiple choice question generation.  

PubMed

With recent advancements in Semantic Web technologies, a new trend in MCQ item generation has emerged through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are knowledge representation structures that formally describe entities in a domain and their relationships, thus enabling automated inference and reasoning. Ontology-based MCQ item generation is still in its infancy, but substantial research efforts are being made in the field. However, the applicability of these models for use in an educational setting has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this paper, we present an experimental evaluation of an ontology-based MCQ item generation system known as OntoQue. The evaluation was conducted using two different domain ontologies. The findings of this study show that ontology-based MCQ generation systems produce satisfactory MCQ items to a certain extent. However, the evaluation also revealed a number of shortcomings with current ontology-based MCQ item generation systems with regard to the educational significance of an automatically constructed MCQ item, the knowledge level it addresses, and its language structure. Furthermore, for the task to be successful in producing high-quality MCQ items for learning assessments, this study suggests a novel, holistic view that incorporates learning content, learning objectives, lexical knowledge, and scenarios into a single cohesive framework. PMID:24982937

Al-Yahya, Maha

2014-01-01

164

RECONS Answers Fundamental Questions in the Solar Neighborhood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehensive surveys are often the best way to answer fundamental questions about the Universe, but it is typically difficult to get reliable results unless great care is taken to develop and understand the sample. By observing a complete sample of red and brown dwarfs (spectral types mid-M to mid-L) in the southern sky within 15 pc --- defined by trigonometric parallax --- the RECONS (www.recons.org, REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars) team is searching for answers to three basic questions: (1) where are the breaks in the luminosity and mass functions at the stellar/substellar border? (2) what are the populations of stellar, brown dwarf, and Jovian planets orbiting the red dwarfs that account for 75% of all stars? and (3) do the smallest stars exhibit long-term activity cycles like our Sun? We identify a sample of more than 300 of the nearest red and brown dwarfs using a combination of astrometry (parallaxes, proper motions, orbits), and photometry (plate BRI from SuperCOSMOS, VRI from our CCD observations, JHK from 2MASS, and new WISE data). Our observing program, now in its 14th year, is carried out at the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9m telescope. This is the largest long-term study of members of the solar neighborhood in the southern hemisphere, so it provides unparalleled astrometric and photometric time coverage for the nearest red and brown dwarfs. By focusing on a carefully vetted sample of the Sun's neighbors, we can hope to reveal the real answers to the three questions posed above. This effort is supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402 and AST-1109445, and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

Henry, Todd J.; Dieterich, S.; Ianna, P. A.; Jao, W.; Koerner, D. W.; Riedel, A. R.; Slatten, K. J.; Subasavage, J. P.; Winters, J. G.; RECONS

2013-06-01

165

PrimeAnswers: A practical interface for answering primary care questions.  

PubMed

This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. RESULTS of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem. PMID:15905488

Ketchell, Debra S; St Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

2005-01-01

166

Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

2012-01-01

167

26 CFR 1.402(f)-1 - Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 1.402...Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The...Internal Revenue Code of 1986 relating to distributions eligible for rollover...

2011-04-01

168

26 CFR 1.402(f)-1 - Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 1.402...Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The...Internal Revenue Code of 1986 relating to distributions eligible for rollover...

2013-04-01

169

26 CFR 1.402(f)-1 - Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 1.402...Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The...Internal Revenue Code of 1986 relating to distributions eligible for rollover...

2014-04-01

170

26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 31.3405... Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The following...to withholding on eligible rollover distributions under section 3405(c) of...

2011-04-01

171

26 CFR 1.402(f)-1 - Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 1.402...Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The...Internal Revenue Code of 1986 relating to distributions eligible for rollover...

2012-04-01

172

26 CFR 1.402(f)-1 - Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 1.402...Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The...Internal Revenue Code of 1986 relating to distributions eligible for rollover...

2010-04-01

173

26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 31.3405... Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The following...to withholding on eligible rollover distributions under section 3405(c) of...

2013-04-01

174

26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 31.3405... Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The following...to withholding on eligible rollover distributions under section 3405(c) of...

2012-04-01

175

26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. 31.3405... Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The following...to withholding on eligible rollover distributions under section 3405(c) of...

2010-04-01

176

MURAX: a robust linguistic approach for question answering using an on-line encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust linguistic methods are applied to the task of answering closed-class questions using a corpus of natural language. The methods are illustrated in a broad domain: answering general-knowledge questions using an on-line encyclopedia.A closed-class question is a question stated in natural language, which assumes some definite answer typified by a noun phrase rather than a procedural answer. The methods hypothesize

Julian Kupiec

1993-01-01

177

CAA of Short Non-MCQ Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach for the computer-assisted assessment (CAA) of non- multiple choice questions (Non-MCQ) type and short answers given by students. The technique is developed for the assessment of text contents of free text answers to questions of factual disciplines. The Automated Text Marker (ATM) prototype automatically breaks down an expertly written model answer, to a closed-ended

David Callear; Jenny Jerrams-Smith; Victor Soh

2001-01-01

178

Unwieldy questions? Circuitous answers? Journalists as panelists in presidential election debates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated journalist?panelists’ questions and candidates’ corresponding answers in the televised presidential and vice presidential debates from 1976 to 1992. There were no trends for longer or more complex questions. Question length and complexity, however, were both positively associated with longer responses. Question complexity was also positively associated with the failure of candidates to answer all or component parts

Frances R. Matera; Michael B. Salwen

1996-01-01

179

Performance on multiple-choice diagnostics and complementary exam problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper compares the responses of university physics students on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and on open-ended examination questions. The Mechanics Baseline Test (MBT) is another multiple choice test. It contains a greater range of topics than the FCI and is intended for use after instruction.

Steinberg, Richard N.; Sabella, Mel

2005-10-17

180

Evaluating multiple-choice exams in large introductory physics courses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The reliability and validity of professionally written multiple-choice exams have been extensively studied for exams such as the SAT, graduate record examination, and the force concept inventory. Much of the success of these multiple-choice exams is attributed to the careful construction of each question, as well as each response. In this study, the reliability and validity of scores from multiple-choice exams written for and administered in the large introductory physics courses at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign were investigated. The reliability of exam scores over the course of a semester results in approximately a 3% uncertainty in studentsâ total semester exam score. This semester test score uncertainty yields an uncertainty in the studentsâ assigned letter grade that is less than 1/3 of a letter grade. To study the validity of exam scores, a subset of students were ranked independently based on their multiple-choice score, graded explanations, and student interviews. The ranking of these students based on their multiple-choice score was found to be consistent with the ranking assigned by physics instructors based on the studentsâ written explanations ( r>0.94 at the 95% confidence level) and oral interviews (r=0.94?â.âââşâ°.â°â¶).

Scott, Michael; Stelzer, Timothy; Gladding, Gary

2007-11-19

181

78 FR 29140 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About 517A...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Radiological Health Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About...Radiological Health (CDRH) Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About...added by the FDA Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA), as those...Radiological Health Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers...

2013-05-17

182

Some questions and answers about the Satellite Power System (SPS)  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Energy Research, US DOE is evaluating the concept of obtaining significant amounts of electrical energy from space through the Satellite Power System Project Office (SPS PO) formed for that purpose. The SPS PO prepared and is implementing a Concept Development and Evaluation Program plan. The CDEP runs roughly three years (from July 1977 through July 1980) and consists of four primary elements: (1) Systems Definition, (2) Environmental Assessment, (3) Societal Assessment, and (4) Comparative Assessment. One facet of the Societal Assessment is an investigation of public concerns. To further this investigation, a public outreach experiment was initiated to determine the initial response of three selected interest groups to the SPS, both qualitatively and quantititavely, and to gain some experience for use in future public participation activities. Three groups were contacted and agreed to participate in the experiment. They were: the Citizens Energy Project (CEP), the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), and the L-5 Society (L-5). They each agreed to condense twenty final SPS reports into approximately four pages each, have them typeset, printed and distributed to 3,000 of their constituents for their review, together with a request that they respond to the parent organization regarding the information presented. All responses were summarized and provided to Planning Research Corporation who then solicited the answers from the SPS PO investigator most directly concerned.The questions and answers are presented and will be distributed by the three groups to the individual respondents. Each of the three groups is also preparing a report to the Project Office detailing their work and results. These, together with other responses and studies will be used to more effectively involve the public in the SPS Participatory Technology Process.

Not Available

1980-01-01

183

Design of a Low-Cost Adaptive Question Answering System for Closed Domain Factoid Queries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Closed domain question answering (QA) systems achieve precision and recall at the cost of complex language processing techniques to parse the answer corpus. We propose a "query-based" model for indexing answers in a closed domain factoid QA system. Further, we use a phrase term inference method for improving the ranking order of related questions.…

Toh, Huey Ling

2010-01-01

184

29 CFR 2509.75-5 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...answers relating to fiduciary responsibility. On June 25, 1975, the Department of Labor issued an interpretive bulletin, ERISA IB 75-5, containing questions and answers relating to certain aspects of the recently enacted Employee Retirement Income...

2014-07-01

185

Design and realization of intelligent question answering system based on ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an intelligent question answering system based on ontology, which adopts Chinese natural language processing technology to generate concise and appropriate answers to the studentpsilas questions. The accuracy and intelligence of the system are guaranteed through ontology based knowledge description, word segmentation, and question pattern recognition.

Xiaobo Wang; Wei Cui; Weicun Zhang

2008-01-01

186

An Analysis of Lyrics Questions on Yahoo! Answers: Implications for Lyric \\/ Music Retrieval Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes 237 questions posted to Yahoo! Answers, a popular community-driven question and answer service. The questions are all natural language and are self-categorized by their poster as being related to music lyrics, and as such they provide a rich context for understanding lyrics- related information behavior outside the constraints imposed by specific lyrics retrieval systems. We categorize the

Sally Jo Cunningham; Simon Laing

187

Questions and Answers about Bilingual Education = Preguntas y Respuestas Acerca de la Educacion Bilingue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource booklet, in both English and Spanish, was developed to answer commonly asked questions about bilingual education. The booklet is intended to clarify the benefits to be derived from quality bilingual education. Questions and answers are divided under the following headers: (1) program questions (e.g., what is bilingual education and…

Sosa, Alicia Salinas

188

Crowdsourcing Control: Moving Beyond Multiple Choice Christopher H. Lin Mausam Daniel S. Weld  

E-print Network

Crowdsourcing Control: Moving Beyond Multiple Choice Christopher H. Lin Mausam Daniel S. Weld Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195 {chrislin,mausam,weld, and Weld 2010; 2011) to quality control is the restriction to multiple choice questions, i.e., jobs where

Mausam

189

Reducing Our Ignorance: Finding Answers to Certain Epistemic Questions for Software Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In previous papers, we asserted that software system safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. We also enumerated a set of 21 foundational epistemic questions, discussed some of the difficulties that exist in answering these questions adequately today, and speculated briefly on possible research that may provide improved confidence in the sufficiency of answers in the future. This paper focuses on three of the foundational questions. For each of these questions, current answers are discussed and potential research is proposed to help increase the justifiable level of confidence.

Holloway, C. Michael; Johnson, Christopher W.

2011-01-01

190

Use of social network sites for question and answer behavior  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we look at the behavior of posting questions as status updates on popular social network sites like Twitter and Facebook. This question asking behavior is similar to the use of search engines, question and ...

Panovich, Katrina (Katrina Marie)

2011-01-01

191

Interactions between Electromagnetic Fields and Biological Tissues: Questions, Some Answers and Future Trends.  

E-print Network

The daily exposure to an electromagnetic environment raises the question of the effects of electromagneticInteractions between Electromagnetic Fields and Biological Tissues: Questions, Some Answers and Future Trends. Abstract This paper deals with the electromagnetic field computation in biological

Poignard, Clair

192

Study and Implementation of Chinese Intelligent Question Answering System Based on Restricted Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of Chinese question answering system (QA) was introduced in the paper firstly. QA is the study on the methodology that returns exact answers to natural language questions. This paper attempts to increase the speed of the system responding to the users and accuracy of QA systems. To achieve this objective, the processing includes: Firstly, it introduces the

Wei Tian; Wenjie Liu; Tinghuai Ma

2009-01-01

193

Information Extraction and Knowledge Acquisition from Texts Using Bilingual Question-Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach is introduced in this paper for the implementation of a question–answering based tool for the extraction of information and knowledge from texts. This effort resulted in the computer implementation of a system answering bilingual questions directly from a text using Natural Language Processing. The system uses domain knowledge concerning categories of actions and implicit semantic relations. The

John Kontos; Ioanna Malagardi

1999-01-01

194

Analyzing Electronic Question/Answer Services: Framework and Evaluations of Selected Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report develops an analytical framework based on systems analysis for evaluating electronic question/answer or AskA services operated by a wide range of types of organizations, including libraries. Version 1.0 of this framework was applied in June 1999 to a selective sample of 11 electronic question/answer services, which cover a range of…

White, Marilyn Domas, Ed.

195

Questions and Answers about Child Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Child Care, and answers the following questions about child care: (1) How many children are in child care?; (2) How many hours per week do…

Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2008

2008-01-01

196

Design and implementation of intelligent question answering system based on ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional question answering systems have shortcoming that they are not satisfactorily intelligent. To overcome the defect, the paper proposes a new system which applies ontology and search engine to the intelligent question answering system. By making use of clear semantic relation in ontology, the new system is able to expand users' problems in semantic term, enhance its understanding of

Jin Xu; Yunqing Li

2010-01-01

197

The Integration of Lexical Knowledge and External Resources for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the short, factoid questions in TREC, the query terms we get from the original questions are either too brief or often do not contain most relevant information in the corpus. It will be very difficult to find the answer (especially exact answer) in a large text document collection because of the gap between the query space and the document

Hui Yang; Tat-seng Chua

2002-01-01

198

Web-based Anaphora Resolution for the QUASAR Question Answering System  

E-print Network

Web-based Anaphora Resolution for the QUASAR Question Answering System Davide Buscaldi and Yassine resolution module. 1 Introduction QUASAR (QUestion AnSwering And Retrieval) is the name we gave to our the results of QUASAR in the 2007 CLEF QA task. 2 System Architecture In Fig.1 we show the architecture

Rosso, Paolo

199

Answer to a Question of Wayne Richter Sy D. Friedman  

E-print Network

a n elementary submodel of L? The answer is Yes. We give the proof here for the case n = 2. Say that x} is a 2 elementary submodel of L. Given this claim, we prove the desired result as follows: L 1 does

200

Getting Answers to Natural Language Questions on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that investigated the use of natural language questions on Web search engines. Highlights include query languages; differences in search engine syntax; and results of logistic regression and analysis of variance that showed aspects of questions that predicted significantly different performances, including the number of words,…

Radev, Dragomir R.; Libner, Kelsey; Fan, Weiguo

2002-01-01

201

Can Consortial Reference Partners Answer Your Local Users' Library Questions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to explore location-based questions as a weakness of virtual reference consortia and discuss how to mitigate related issues. Content analysis of how both local and non-local academic librarians responded to location-based questions provides insight into considerations academic libraries must make when participating…

Bishop, Bradley Wade

2012-01-01

202

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial: Questions and Answers  

Cancer.gov

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large, randomized study to determine whether the use of certain screening tests will reduce the risk of dying of those four cancers. In addition to answering questions about the screening tests, the PLCO asked questions about many aspects of the study participants’ health and collected biospecimens (blood and some tissues) to answer many other questions about cancer.

203

Parents Ask...C.D.A. Answers: A Handbook with Some Answers to Questions about the CDA Assessment Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook for parents describes the Child Development Associate (CDA) assessment process. Eighteen basic questions are answered in order to provide an introduction to the process of CDA accreditation. Regional Offices of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare Administration for Children, Youth and Families are listed. The 14 CDA…

Child Development Associate Consortium, Inc., Washington, DC.

204

Discourse Processing for Context Question Answering Based on Linguistic Knowledge  

E-print Network

is Hawaii located? Q2: What is the state fish? Q3: Is it endangered? Q4: Any other endangered species? We endangered species in Hawaii. This example in- dicates that each of these questions needs to be interpreted

205

Astronaut Jeff Williams Answers Your Questions - Duration: 6:50.  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams, aboard the International Space Station 220 miles above Earth, responds to questions posted on YouTube concerning the station's orientation, life in space and ...

206

Student Evaluations That Generate More Questions Than Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a chemical educator, one of the author's primary goals is to provide students with tools for effective learning, hopefully doing so in an engaging, motivating, and incrementally challenging experience. In her quest to figure out how to do a better job, student evaluations seemed a logical place to start looking for answers. Even though others have contested the meaningfulness of student evaluations as tools for teaching improvements (Kelter 2004), her experience, which is described in this article, provides valuable insights into how these evaluations could help improve her teaching.

Oliver-Hoyo, Maria

2008-09-01

207

Identifying authoritative actors in question-answering forums: the case of Yahoo! answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of identifying authoritative users in Yahoo! Answers. A common approach is to use link analysis techniques in order to provide a ranked list of users based on their degree of authority. A major problem for such an approach is determining how many users should be chosen as authoritative from a ranked list. To address this problem,

Mohamed Bouguessa; Benoît Dumoulin; Shengrui Wang

2008-01-01

208

Debugging Reinvented: Asking and Answering Why and Why Not Questions about Program Behavior  

E-print Network

Debugging Reinvented: Asking and Answering Why and Why Not Questions about Program Behavior Andrew a question about program output from a set of why did and why didn't questions derived from the program for determining potential sources of values and explanations for why a line of code was not reached. Evaluations

Anderson, Richard

209

ES2A7 -Fluid Mechanics Example Classes Model Answers to Example Questions (Set III)  

E-print Network

ES2A7 - Fluid Mechanics Example Classes Model Answers to Example Questions (Set III) Question 1 10610 40031.8 -- Ă?=Ă?= Ă? Ă? == APN RT d Question 2: Type of Fluid #12;Consider 2 identical vertical tubes are filled with the same height of fluid: A Newtonian fluid is used with tube X whereas a non-Newtonian fluid

Thomas, Peter J.

210

Martin_Answers 211.pdf Student questions: Crystal Martin colloquium on "The adventures of cosmic baryons"  

E-print Network

Martin_Answers 211.pdf 1 Student questions: Crystal Martin colloquium on "The adventures of cosmic, and inability to look at the universe as a whole (from the "outside" of the universe)? Great question. Question 2: Wouldn't the quasars, which represent the early formation of the universe, be devoid of metals

Rhoads, James

211

Naptime Tips: Answers to Caregivers Most Frequent Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that children vary in the amount of sleep they need but that rest is important. Gives advice in response to caregiver questions concerning child naptime, including determining length of nap, getting children settled, providing a conducive classroom environment, dealing with resistance, and addressing parental concerns. (BGC)

Texas Child Care, 1996

1996-01-01

212

Environmental Problems, Causes, and Solutions: An Open Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a national evaluation of environmental literacy in Israel, (Negev, Sagy, Garb, Salzberg, & Tal, 2008), the authors included both multiple choice questions and open questions. In this article the authors describe the qualitative analysis of the answers to an open question regarding a local environmental problem. Most participants specified solid…

Negev, Maya; Garb, Yaakov; Biller, Roni; Sagy, Gonen; Tal, Alon

2010-01-01

213

A Question Answering System Developed as a Project in a Natural Language Processing Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Question Answering Sys- tem constructed during a one semester graduate- level course on Natural Language Processing (NLP). We hypothesized that by using a combination of syn- tactic and semantic features and machine learning techniques, we could improve the accuracy of ques- tion answering on the test set of the Remedia corpus over the reported levels. The

W. Wang; J. Auer; R. Parasuraman; I. Zubarev; D. Brandyberry; M. P. Harpm

2000-01-01

214

Learning to Find Answers to Questions on the Web EUGENE AGICHTEIN  

E-print Network

Learning to Find Answers to Questions on the Web EUGENE AGICHTEIN Columbia University STEVE (answers.- google.com) facilitate interaction with human experts. Authors' addresses: Eugene Agichtein (eugene@cs.columbia.edu), Steve Lawrence (lawrence@necmail.com), Luis Gravano (gravano

Agichtein, Eugene

215

Questions and Answers about the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes (DPPOS) Study  

MedlinePLUS

... For Reporters Media Contacts Questions & Answers about the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes (DPPOS) Study Page Content October 2009 What is the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)? The DPP was a randomized, ...

216

76 FR 64175 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Flood...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. OP-1431] FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION [RIN 3064-ZA00] FARM...Questions and Answers Regarding Flood Insurance AGENCIES: Office of the Comptroller...Reserve System (Board); Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC); Farm Credit...

2011-10-17

217

Retirement and Health Care Coverage: Questions and Answers for Dislocated Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... Assets In Summary For More Information Retirement and Health Care Coverage... Questions and Answers for Dislocated Workers en ... help you in making critical decisions about your health care coverage and your retirement benefits. Protecting Your Health ...

218

Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Campaign About our Partner Spread the Word Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers Share Compartir On this ... Overview Transmission Symptoms Testing Treatment Overview What is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It ...

219

The E-Learning Question and Answer Book: A Survival Guide for Trainers and Business Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book answers more than 70 key questions that business managers and trainers ask about using e-learning in their company as a business tool. Chapters 1 and 3-11 are comprised of questions and answers related to these topics: what e-learning is all about; what e-learning costs; applying e-learning to the business; what today's e-learning…

Henderson, Allan J.

220

Answering Fundamental Questions about Cataclysmic Variables and Classical Novae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cataclysmic variables (CVs) are interacting binaries consisting of a white dwarf primary, and a non-degenerate secondary star. There are numerous subclasses of CVs (any of which could become a Classical Nova), but broadly, these classifications are believed to arise from either differing values of the mass accretion rate, or whether the white dwarf primary is magnetic. There continue to be numerous questions about the origin, and evolution of these systems. We will review some of the outstanding issues, and address how advances in interferometry might be used to resolve them.

Harrison, T. E.

2014-09-01

221

Natural Language Based Reformulation Resource and Web Exploitation For Question Answering  

E-print Network

We describe and evaluate how a generalized natural language based reformulation resource in our TextMap question answering system improves web exploitation and answer pinpointing. The reformulation resource, which can be viewed as a clausal extension of WordNet, supports high-precision syntactic and semantic reformulations of questions and other sentences, as well as inferencing and answer generation. The paper shows in some detail how these reformulations can be used to overcome challenges and benefit from the advantages of using the Web.

Ulf Hermjakob; Abdessamad Echihabi; Daniel Marcu

2002-01-01

222

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR No...Part 734—Questions and Answers—Technology and Software Subject to the EAR ...explanatory questions and answers relating to technology and software that is...

2010-01-01

223

Gender Differences in Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Back Substitution in Multiple-Choice Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative observational study exploring the relationship of gender to mathematics self-efficacy and the frequency of back substitution in multiple-choice assessment sampled undergraduates at a western United States parochial uni- versity. Research questions addressed: to what extent are there gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy, as demonstrated on multiple-choice test items; and to what extent are there gender differences in the

K. Shane Goodwin; Lee Ostrom; Karen Wilson Scott

224

Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2  

SciTech Connect

This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

Not Available

1984-03-01

225

Pathogenesis of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: some answers, more questions  

PubMed Central

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) has long been recognized as unique among childhood arthritides, because of its distinctive clinical and epidemiological features, including an association with macrophage activation syndrome. Here, we summarize research into sJIA pathogenesis. The triggers of disease are unknown, although infections are suspects. Once initiated, sJIA seems to be driven by innate proinflammatory cytokines. Endogenous Toll-like receptor ligands, including S100 proteins, probably synergize with cytokines to perpetuate inflammation. These and other findings support the hypothesis that sJIA is an autoinflammatory condition. Indeed, IL-1 is implicated as a pivotal cytokine, but the source of excess IL-1 activity remains obscure and the role of IL-1 in chronic arthritis is less clear. Another hypothesis is that a form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis underlies sJIA, with varying degrees of its expression across the spectrum of disease. Alternatively, sJIA with MAS might be a genetically distinct subtype. Yet another hypothesis proposes that inadequate downregulation of immune activation is central to sJIA, supporting evidence for which includes ‘alternative activation’ of monocyte and macrophages and possible deficiencies in IL-10 and T regulatory cells. Some altered immune phenotypes persist during clinically inactive disease, which suggests that this stage might represent compensated inflammation. Despite much progress being made, many questions remain, providing fertile ground for future research. PMID:21647204

Mellins, Elizabeth D.; Macaubas, Claudia; Grom, Alexei A.

2014-01-01

226

Researching the Quest: Are Community College Students Motivated by Question-and-Answer Reviews?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any effort to assess the motivational techniques employed by community college faculty is complicated by the inter-connectedness of motivational techniques and teaching techniques, as improved teaching results in improved motivation. Nonetheless, this research poses a motivation-related question: Does the use of daily question-and-answer reviews…

Cavendish, Don F., Jr.

2010-01-01

227

Answers to the 50 Most Important Questions about Private Mental Health Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for anyone contemplating or presently established in private mental health practice, this book provides the answers to 50 pertinent questions concerning private practice. Questions were culled from a survey of graduate students in psychology, as well as experienced psychotherapists, psychiatrists, social workers, mental health counselors,…

Forman, Bruce D.; Silverman, Wade H.

228

Records--The Achilles' Heel of School Nursing: Answers to Bothersome Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation. Because the issues have been posed by practicing school nurses, the article is in Question and Answer (Q&A) format. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: ownership and storage location of student health records when the…

Schwab, Nadine C.; Pohlman, Katherine J.

2004-01-01

229

A Rule-based Question Answering System for Reading Comprehension Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a rule-based system, Quarc, that can reada short story and find the sentence in the story that best answers a given question. Quarc uses heuristic rules that look for lexical and semantic clues in the question and the story. We have tested Quarc on reading comprehen- sion tests typically given to children in grades 3-6. Overall, Quarc

Ellen Riloff; Michael Thelen

2000-01-01

230

Application of Item Analysis to Assess Multiple-Choice Examinations in the Mississippi Master Cattle Producer Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Item analysis can serve as a useful tool in improving multiple-choice questions used in Extension programming. It can identify gaps between instruction and assessment. An item analysis of Mississippi Master Cattle Producer program multiple-choice examination responses was performed to determine the difficulty of individual examinations, assess the…

Parish, Jane A.; Karisch, Brandi B.

2013-01-01

231

Classroom Assessment Techniques: Multiple Choice Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes how to use a multiple choice test to assess student understanding. The assessment tool is one of a series of Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) provided by the Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) website. The CATs of FLAG were constructed as a resource for science, technology, engineering and mathematics instructors to emphasize deeper levels of learning and to give instructors valuable feedback during a course. The multiple-choice test is a flexible assessment format that can be used to measure knowledge, skills, abilities, values and thinking skills. This site provides an overview of this assessment technique, including information about how, when and why to use it. The site is also linked to a set of discipline-specific "tools" that can be downloaded for immediate use, as well as supplementary links and sources to further explore this assessment tool.

Parkes, Jay; The National Institute for Science Education; College Level One Team

232

Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

2011-01-01

233

The Siren Song of the Absurd Answer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional wisdom states that students rarely choose absurd multiple choice distractors, which therefore simply add noise. In contrast, it is observed that introductory astronomy students are sometimes inexorably drawn to multiple choice answers that are clearly absurd to an expert. I demonstrate this phenomenon using data from the University of Alabama's introductory astronomy for non-majors course and investigate possible explanations, with an eye towards improving multiple choice as an assessment method. I finish with a plea for other instructors to include the same questions in their exams in order to dramatically increase the sample size and uncover correlations with other student behavior that can help understand what leads them to make such obvious mistakes.

Bailin, Jeremy

2015-01-01

234

Using the Weighted Keyword Model to Improve Information Retrieval for Answering Biomedical Questions  

PubMed Central

Physicians ask many complex questions during the patient encounter. Information retrieval systems that can provide immediate and relevant answers to these questions can be invaluable aids to the practice of evidence-based medicine. In this study, we first automatically identify topic keywords from ad hoc clinical questions with a Condition Random Field model that is trained over thousands of manually annotated clinical questions. We then report on a linear model that assigns query weights based on their automatically identified semantic roles: topic keywords, domain specific terms, and their synonyms. Our evaluation shows that this weighted keyword model improves information retrieval from the Text Retrieval Conference Genomics track data. PMID:21347188

Yu, Hong; Cao, Yong-gang

2009-01-01

235

Do Online Information Retrieval Systems Help Experienced Clinicians Answer Clinical Questions?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the impact of clinicians' use of an online information retrieval system on their performance in answering clinical questions. Design: Pre-/post-intervention experimental design. Measurements: In a computer laboratory, 75 clinicians (26 hospital-based doctors, 18 family practitioners, and 31 clinical nurse consultants) provided 600 answers to eight clinical scenarios before and after the use of an online information retrieval system. We examined the proportion of correct answers pre- and post-intervention, direction of change in answers, and differences between professional groups. Results: System use resulted in a 21% improvement in clinicians' answers, from 29% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.4–32.6) correct pre- to 50% (95% CI 46.0–54.0) post-system use. In 33% (95% CI 29.1–36.9) answers were changed from incorrect to correct. In 21% (95% CI 17.1–23.9) correct pre-test answers were supported by evidence found using the system, and in 7% (95% CI 4.9–9.1) correct pre-test answers were changed incorrectly. For 40% (35.4–43.6) of scenarios, incorrect pre-test answers were not rectified following system use. Despite significant differences in professional groups' pre-test scores [family practitioners: 41% (95% CI 33.0–49.0), hospital doctors: 35% (95% CI 28.5–41.2), and clinical nurse consultants: 17% (95% CI 12.3–21.7; ?2 = 29.0, df = 2, p < 0.01)], there was no difference in post-test scores. (?2 = 2.6, df = 2, p = 0.73). Conclusions: The use of an online information retrieval system was associated with a significant improvement in the quality of answers provided by clinicians to typical clinical problems. In a small proportion of cases, use of the system produced errors. While there was variation in the performance of clinical groups when answering questions unaided, performance did not differ significantly following system use. Online information retrieval systems can be an effective tool in improving the accuracy of clinicians' answers to clinical questions. PMID:15684126

Westbrook, Johanna I.; Coiera, Enrico W.; Gosling, A. Sophie

2005-01-01

236

Assertion-Reason Multiple-Choice Testing as a Tool for Deep Learning: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reflects on the ongoing debate surrounding the usefulness (or otherwise) of multiple-choice questions (MCQ) as an assessment instrument. The context is a graduate school of business in Australia where an experiment was conducted to investigate the use of assertion-reason questions (ARQ), a sophisticated form of MCQ that aims to…

Williams, Jeremy B.

2006-01-01

237

Comparing Assessments of Students' Knowledge by Computerized Open-Ended and Multiple-Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interactive computerized tests accepting unrestricted natural-language input were used to assess knowledge of clinical biophysics at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Comparison of responses to open-ended sequential questions and multiple-choice questions on the same material found the two formats test different aspects of competence.…

Anbar, Michael

1991-01-01

238

Improving comprehension of science content: Generating self-explanation questions and creating explanatory answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emphasis on learning in content area classrooms is heavily dependent on remembering facts and memorizing definitions. Because of this, students often achieve shallow levels of comprehension and are deficient in the skills necessary to achieve deeper comprehension. Teaching students to generate self-explanation questions and answers related to teacher lectures and from reading text can improve comprehension. Students who attempt to explain what the content means understand it better and at a deeper level. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of teaching students to ask self-explanation questions as a means for improving comprehension. Eighth-grade students from three heterogeneous science classrooms participated in one of the treatment or comparison groups. The first treatment group was taught to generate self-explanation questions while the second treatment group was taught to generate self-explanation questions and to create explanatory answers using a rubric. The comparison group received their regular science instruction. Self-explanation question/answer participants scored significantly higher than the regular instruction group more often than the self-explanation question only group, on memory and essay measures. Analyses were performed with MANCOVA on all three groups' scores as a set. ANCOVA was used to determine if differences existed between groups on each of the dependent variables, and Bonferonni's post-hoc contrasts were used to determine where differences existed among treatment and comparison groups. Results revealed that students who were taught to generate self-explanation questions and/or to create explanatory answers outperformed the regular instruction students on some of the memory and essay measures. Additionally, teaching students a self-explanation strategy resulted in improved ability to respond to essay questions two weeks following the conclusion of the study compared to students who received regular instruction.

Clelland, Peggie L.

239

Multiple Choice: From Sample to Product  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This archived version of the exhibit: "Multiple Choice: From Sample to Product" provides a PDF of a press release along with information about the content and context of the exhibit.The exhibition traced the process that takes samples to final products in a variety of contexts, ranging from home furnishings to architectural ornament to textile design. Highlights of the exhibition included an earthenware sample plate with transfer-printed decorations, made in England in 1899, associated with a finished plate made using the same technique.

240

A Medical Consultation Service on Facebook: Descriptive Analysis of Questions Answered  

PubMed Central

Background Social media is used increasingly by the general public to access health information. However, a lack of models for health information distribution limits the presence of publicly funded services on social media sites. Objective The goal of the study was to present a model for delivering child health information to parents through a social media site. Methods A Facebook site was launched for 11 months based on a question-and-answer service produced by a pediatrician and open to Facebook users over 18 years old. If the answer did not include a further referral to a health care service provider, the question was considered comprehensively answered. The site was funded by a pharmaceutical company, and it included an advertisement of a pharmaceutical product for children’s fever and pain. Results During the study, 768 questions were submitted: an average of 69.8 (SD 31.7) per month. There were 245,533 independent Facebook users on the site, with an average of 727.0 (SD 2280.6) per day. Infections were the most common theme in questions (355/768, 46.2%). Questions were more likely to be comprehensively answered if they were related to infections (279/355, 78.6%) than questions related to non-infectious symptoms (265/423, 64.2%, P=.003). Conclusions On this site aimed at parents of small children, personalized answers were an effective way of delivering information. The service is likely to have reduced the need for further contacts with a health care service provider in more than half of the cases. The site could serve as a model for publicly funded health information distribution. PMID:25189182

2014-01-01

241

Welcome to Business Ethics! This course will help you answer the question,  

E-print Network

Welcome to Business Ethics! BETH 351 This course will help you answer the question, "What kind stewardship/sustainability. 11. We will learn and discuss issues regarding international business ethics. 12. We will learn and discuss how ethical commitments may shape business in the future. 13. We will learn

Carter, John

242

PARAMEDICAL AND HEALTH RELATED PROGRAMS IN THE JUNIOR COLLEGE--SOME QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AT THE ALABAMA STATE CONFERENCE ON PARAMEDICAL EDUCATION IN JUNE 1966, PARTICIPANTS IDENTIFIED 37 PROBLEMS FOR DISCUSSION. THIS REPORT STATES THE QUESTIONS AND THE ANSWERS OFFERED BY CONSULTANTS AT THE CONFERENCE. TOPICS ARE (1) ASSOCIATE DEGREE NURSING PROGRAMS, WITH EMPHASIS ON ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION, THE ROLE OF ADMINISTRATORS, PERSONNEL…

SKAGGS, K.G.

243

Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

US Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

244

Questions and Answers About LeukemiaCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION  

E-print Network

Questions and Answers About LeukemiaCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION What is leukemia the disease develops (acute vs. chronic leukemia) and by the type of blood cell involved (lymphocytic. About 20% of adult acute myeloid leukemias are attributed to cigarette smoking. Also, avoiding chemicals

245

Questions and Answers About Kidney CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION  

E-print Network

Questions and Answers About Kidney CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION What is kidney carcinoma of the renal pelvis) is cigarette smoking. Experts estimate that the majority of transitional cell phone: 1-800-4-CANCER web site: www.rex.nci.nih.gov National Kidney and Urologic Disease Information

246

Why Not, WINE?: Towards Answering Why-Not Questions in Social Image Search  

E-print Network

Image Retrieval (TagIR) for finding relevant high-quality images using keyword queries have recently this goal, it is often challenging to generate high quality search results for a search query which canWhy Not, WINE?: Towards Answering Why-Not Questions in Social Image Search Sourav S Bhowmick Aixin

Aixin, Sun

247

Questions, Answers and Clarifications Used MediumDuty Electric Vehicle Repower Demonstration  

E-print Network

Questions, Answers and Clarifications Used MediumDuty Electric Vehicle Repower Demonstration PON). Q5. A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle repower could provide some electric drive with an engine for extended range. Would a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with an internal combustion engine be considered

248

The New Senior High School French as a Second Language Program: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information is offered, in question-and-answer format, on the design, objectives, standards, and procedures for the revised French second language program to be offered in Alberta's (Canada) high schools. The new program consists of 3 well-defined levels of competency: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. Learner expectations exist at each level…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

249

Student Name: ______________________________ Birthdate (MM/DD/YY): ____________ PART I SCREENING: Please answer the following questions  

E-print Network

Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Japan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People greater than 2 weeks, night sweats, fever, weight loss) Yes No 5. Do you have a history of a positive. Are you an entering Geisel School of Medicine student? Yes No If you have answered YES to any question

250

Data-Intensive Question Answering Eric Brill, Jimmy Lin, Michele Banko, Susan Dumais and Andrew Ng  

E-print Network

redundancy than the Web ­ the TREC QA database consists of fewer than 1 million documents, whereas Web search on the Microsoft Research Cambridge submissions for the filtering and Web tracks (Robertson et al., 2002). We have been exploring data-driven techniques for Web question answering, and modified our system somewhat

Lin, Jimmy

251

Data-Intensive Question Answering Eric Brill, Jimmy Lin, Michele Banko, Susan Dumais and Andrew Ng  

E-print Network

than the Web ­ the TREC QA database consists of fewer than 1 million documents, whereas Web search on the Microsoft Research Cambridge submissions for the filtering and Web tracks (Robertson et al., 2002). We have been exploring data-driven techniques for Web question answering, and modified our system somewhat

Ng, Andrew Y.

252

Gathering Knowledge for a Question Answering System from Heterogeneous Information Sources  

E-print Network

their own knowl- edge is for humans to tell the computers what the knowledge means in a language that the comput- ers can understand--but still in a language that humans can produce. A good way to accomplish Transformations) Natural Language Sys- tem (Katz, 1990; Katz, 1997) is an example of a question answering system

Lin, Jimmy

253

Gathering Knowledge for a Question Answering System from Heterogeneous Information Sources  

E-print Network

is for humans to tell the computers what the knowledge means in a language that the comput­ ers can understand---but still in a language that humans can produce. A good way to accomplish this is with the use of natural) Natural Language Sys­ tem (Katz, 1990; Katz, 1997) is an example of a question answering system that uses

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, InfoLab

254

Home Education Reason and Research: Common Questions and Research-Based Answers about Homeschooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a brief review of research on a variety of topics related to home education and answers the most common questions asked regarding Homeschooling. Examples of the topics addressed are: the teaching parent's education level, academic achievement of students, population growth, philosophy, government (state) regulation and homeschool…

Ray, Brian D.

2009-01-01

255

Let's Talk About Food. Answers to your Questions About Foods and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book on the subject of nutrition is written in the form of often-asked questions and detailed, informative answers. In ten chapters the following range of nutrition topics is covered: (1) meaning of RDA, nutrition labeling, calorie tables, nutrient density; (2) adequate diet, pregnancy, physical fitness, vitamins, diet for athletes, baby…

White, Philip L., Ed.; Selvey, Nancy, Ed.

256

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Cost Share PIER Questions and Answers from the Geothermal Workshop  

E-print Network

the Geothermal Workshop NOTE: It is suggested that interested persons also read the Questions and Answers from. No, but it would be helpful. 5. The scoring criteria appear not to favor geothermal analysis solicitation package. 9. If an applicant plans to use proprietary software in a geothermal project, does

257

Lisse_Answers 313.pdf Student questions: Carey Lisse colloquium on "Prospects for Life & Human Habitability  

E-print Network

Lisse_Answers 313.pdf 1 Student questions: Carey Lisse colloquium on "Prospects for Life & Human/or bacterial species that have similar "human-like" genetic traits that are on planet Earth today? If you mean ancestors had). It's important to remember, though, that the smartest chimp or gorilla or orangutan known

Shumway, John

258

An Open-Ended, Short Answer, Text Question Tool: Improving Interactivity on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of a study of the development of an innovative learning element designed to be implemented in a computer-facilitated learning (CFL) module. The learning element is an open-ended, short answer, text question tool (TQT) designed to be used in World Wide Web-based courses or incorporated into hybrid Web/CD-ROM systems.…

Kennedy, David M.; Eizenberg, Norm

259

Olympian Parents Answer the Question of How Parents Contribute towards Their Child's Academic Productivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do parents contribute toward their child's academic productivity? This article analyzes studies conducted over the last 30 years on this topic. During these three decades a number of theories and theoretical frameworks have been developed to answer this fundamental question. There have been nine national studies published and six reviews of…

Campbell, James Reed

2011-01-01

260

Young Children's Sensitivity to New and Given Information when Answering Predicate-Focus Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two studies we investigated 2-year-old children's answers to predicate-focus questions depending on the preceding context. Children were presented with a successive series of short video clips showing transitive actions (e.g., frog washing duck) in which either the action (action-new) or the patient (patient-new) was the changing, and therefore…

Salomo, Dorothe; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

2010-01-01

261

A Question Answer Approach to Building Semantic , Janusz A. Starzyk1,2  

E-print Network

database [1]. Similarly, PLANES was another QA system that could answer questions posed in English using a relational database consisting of aircraft maintenance and flight information data [2]. QA systems have come a long way since then. Modern QA systems, using information retrieval (IR) and information extraction (IE

Starzyk, Janusz A.

262

How do you Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers like Beagle 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beagle 2 lander is a flight qualified scientific payload and it offers a unique suite of instruments which can offer answers to the life on Mars question. Using multiple Beagle 2 landers on Mars offers a low-cost and outstanding scientific option.

Gibson, E. K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

2012-06-01

263

Supplementary Materials for "Why Question Answering using Sentiment Analysis and Word Classes"  

E-print Network

Supplementary Materials for "Why Question Answering using Sentiment Analysis and Word Classes" Jong-Hoon Oh Kentaro Torisawa Chikara Hashimoto Takuya Kawada§ Stijn De Saeger¶ Jun'ichi Kazama Yiou Wang and Communications Technology (NICT) { rovellia, torisawa, ch,§ tkawada,¶ stijn, kazama, wangyiou}@nict.go.jp 1

264

Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities Solicitation  

E-print Network

Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities biofuels production facility? A.1 An existing biofuels facility is an existing facility that, as of the application due date of PON-13-601, produces (or did produce) biofuels in California. Q.2 Must an eligible

265

Out of State Employee Report Complete this document if you answer no to both questions below.  

E-print Network

Out of State Employee Report Complete this document if you answer no to both questions below. Is this employee a Student or Graduate Student of MSU? Is this employee a Resident of Montana? This document their work outside of Montana. (This could be their state or another state or a foreign country.) This form

Dyer, Bill

266

Answering questions with an electroencephalogram-based brain-computer interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To demonstrate that humans can learn to control selected electroencephalographic components and use that control to answer simple questions.Methods: Four adults (one with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) learned to use electroencephalogram (EEG) mu rhythm (8 to 12Hz) or beta rhythm (18 to 25Hz) activity over sensorimotor cortex to control vertical cursor movement to targets at the top or bottom edge

Laurie A. Miner; Dennis J. McFarland; Jonathan R. Wolpaw

1998-01-01

267

Geography 128 Analytical and Computer Cartography Sample Mid-Term Short answer essay questions  

E-print Network

Geography 128 Analytical and Computer Cartography Sample Mid-Term Short answer essay questions 1. What is Analytical Cartography? Analytical cartography was described by Waldo Tobler, who first defined of cartography that remain when technology changes. These include geometric, topological, algebraic and other

Clarke, Keith

268

What Can Standardized Reading Tests Tell Us? Question-Answer Relationships and Students' Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the comprehension subsection of Nelson-Denny Reading Test Form G (Brown, Fishco, & Hanna, 1993a) and some urban developmental students' performance on it. Three types of question-answer relations were identified using Pearson and Johnson's taxonomy. Students' performance was expressed in their scores on the three types of…

Wang, Danhua

2006-01-01

269

Hope for Tomorrow: A Booklet of Questions and Answers. The United Nations for Young People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suitable for junior and senior high school students and presented in a synthesized, easy-to-read format, this booklet includes more than 80 questions and answers relating to the United Nations. With the U.N. proclamation of 1985 as International Youth Year serving as an underlying theme, the booklet begins by outlining U.N. activities during…

United Nations, New York, NY.

270

WebLinks OLFS Reporting Vendors, Payments, and Liens Section Frequently Asked Questions Answers  

E-print Network

WebLinks OLFS Reporting ­ Vendors, Payments, and Liens 1 of 12 Section Frequently Asked Questions Answers Vendors, Payments, and Liens using: Accounts Payable Report GL Transaction Detail Reference: Web look up an invoice by either the vendor's Invoice ID or the Voucher ID. Why do I see a charge in Web

Yamamoto, Keith

271

Cancer Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T) in front of the answer.  

E-print Network

EAT SMART Cancer Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T the information from this program. # I have or have had cancer. YES NO As you answer each question, think about

272

Genetic Algorithms for Multiple-Choice Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates the use of problem-specific knowledge to enhance a genetic algorithm approach to multiple-choice optimisation problems.It shows that such information can significantly enhance performance, but that the choice of information and the way it is included are important factors for success.Two multiple-choice problems are considered.The first is constructing a feasible nurse roster that considers as many requests as possible.In the second problem, shops are allocated to locations in a mall subject to constraints and maximising the overall income.Genetic algorithms are chosen for their well-known robustness and ability to solve large and complex discrete optimisation problems.However, a survey of the literature reveals room for further research into generic ways to include constraints into a genetic algorithm framework.Hence, the main theme of this work is to balance feasibility and cost of solutions.In particular, co-operative co-evolution with hierarchical sub-populations, problem structure exploiting repair schemes and indirect genetic algorithms with self-adjusting decoder functions are identified as promising approaches.The research starts by applying standard genetic algorithms to the problems and explaining the failure of such approaches due to epistasis.To overcome this, problem-specific information is added in a variety of ways, some of which are designed to increase the number of feasible solutions found whilst others are intended to improve the quality of such solutions.As well as a theoretical discussion as to the underlying reasons for using each operator,extensive computational experiments are carried out on a variety of data.These show that the indirect approach relies less on problem structure and hence is easier to implement and superior in solution quality.

Aickelin, Uwe

2010-04-01

273

CSShark Answers Frequently Asked Questions: The CSS Know-How Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is an Internet tool that separates the presentation from the structural markup of a Web site. CSS keeps the structure of a document lean and fast while controlling the appearance of its content. This product is not an adapted tool from print or programming; rather, it is a means of enhancing HTML. For users interested in learning more about this tool, this informative and well-constructed site answers some of those frequently asked questions regarding CSS. In addition, the site explains some of the basics of CSS, provides tips and tricks for tackling the problems with Netscape 4, offers a tutorial concerning positioning with CSS (CSS-P, Web design without tables), and gives various resource links to other related sites. In short, for those with questions concerning CSS and its functions, the CSShark is ready to provide answers.

Mako.

2007-07-05

274

The Communication Skills Used by Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers in a Question-and-Answer Game Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in…

Toe, Dianne M.; Paatsch, Louise E.

2010-01-01

275

An on-line question-answering systems with natural language and pictorial input  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various approaches have been employed in the design of question-answering systems with natural language input. An excellent survey of such systems can be found in Simmons.1 A more recent and critical survey of data-retrieval systems prepared by Kasher points out what he considers to be some of the major weaknesses of previous work. One of the problems cited by Kasher

L. Stephen Coles

1968-01-01

276

Model structure adequacy analysis: selecting models on the basis of their ability to answer scientific questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models carry the meaning of science. This puts a tremendous burden on the process of model selection. In general practice,\\u000a models are selected on the basis of their relative goodness of fit to data penalized by model complexity. However, this may\\u000a not be the most effective approach for selecting models to answer a specific scientific question because model fit is

Mark L. Taper; David F. Staples; Bradley B. Shepard

2008-01-01

277

Comparing the Use of an Online Expert Health Network against Common Information Sources to Answer Health Questions  

PubMed Central

Background Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). It is unknown whether workers are able to find correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions when they use common information sources, such as websites, or whether they would benefit from using an easily accessible, free-of-charge online network of OSH experts providing advice. Objective To assess the rate of correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions in a group of workers who used an online network of OSH experts (intervention group) compared with a group of workers who used common information sources (control group). Methods In a quasi-experimental study, workers in the intervention and control groups were randomly offered 2 questions from a pool of 16 standardized OSH questions. Both questions were sent by mail to all participants, who had 3 weeks to answer them. The intervention group was instructed to use only the online network ArboAntwoord, a network of about 80 OSH experts, to solve the questions. The control group was instructed that they could use all information sources available to them. To assess answer correctness as the main study outcome, 16 standardized correct model answers were constructed with the help of reviewers who performed literature searches. Subsequently, the answers provided by all participants in the intervention (n = 94 answers) and control groups (n = 124 answers) were blinded and compared with the correct model answers on the degree of correctness. Results Of the 94 answers given by participants in the intervention group, 58 were correct (62%), compared with 24 of the 124 answers (19%) in the control group, who mainly used informational websites found via Google. The difference between the 2 groups was significant (rate difference = 43%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 30%–54%). Additional analysis showed that the rate of correct main conclusions of the answers was 85 of 94 answers (90%) in the intervention group and 75 of 124 answers (61%) in the control group (rate difference = 29%, 95% CI 19%–40%). Remarkably, we could not identify differences between workers who provided correct answers and workers who did not on how they experienced the credibility, completeness, and applicability of the information found (P > .05). Conclusions Workers are often unable to find correct answers to OSH questions when using common information sources, generally informational websites. Because workers frequently misjudge the quality of the information they find, other strategies are required to assist workers in finding correct answers. Expert advice provided through an online expert network can be effective for this purpose. As many people experience difficulties in finding correct answers to their health questions, expert networks may be an attractive new source of information for health fields in general. PMID:22356848

Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank JH; Hulshof, Carel TJ

2012-01-01

278

E-Assessment by Design: Using Multiple-Choice Tests to Good Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last decade, larger student numbers, reduced resources and increasing use of new technologies have led to the increased use of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) as a method of assessment in higher education courses. This paper identifies some limitations associated with MCQs from a pedagogical standpoint. It then provides an assessment…

Nicol, David

2007-01-01

279

Gender Differences in Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Back Substitution in Multiple-Choice Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quantitative observational study exploring the relationship of gender to mathematics self-efficacy and the frequency of back substitution in multiple-choice assessment sampled undergraduates at a western United States parochial university. Research questions addressed: to what extent are there gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy, as…

Goodwin, K. Shane; Ostrom, Lee; Scott, Karen Wilson

2009-01-01

280

Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not…

Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

2012-01-01

281

Peer interaction through student-made questions: does it facilitate reading comprehension?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to compare the effect of text simplification versus peer interaction generated by student-made questions on the reading comprehension of 83 Iranian adult English as a foreign language students. Three groups of participants were involved in the study. The first experimental group read two unmodified reading passages and answered 15 multiple-choice comprehension questions. They were

Sasan Baleghizadeh

2011-01-01

282

INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY  

SciTech Connect

Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

2011-07-01

283

Attempting to answer a meaningful question enhances subsequent learning even when feedback is delayed.  

PubMed

Attempting to retrieve information from memory enhances subsequent learning even if the retrieval attempt is unsuccessful. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit materializes only if subsequent study occurs immediately after the retrieval attempt. Previous studies have prompted retrieval using a cue (e.g., whale-???) that has no intrinsic answer. Experiment 1 replicated prior word pair studies, but in Experiment 2, when participants learned meaningful trivia questions, testing enhanced learning even when subsequent study was delayed. Even in Experiment 3, when subsequent study was delayed by up to 24 hr, tests enhanced learning on a final test another 24 hr later. These findings may give comfort to educators who worry that asking a question or giving a test, on which students inevitably make mistakes, impairs learning if feedback is not immediate. They also suggest that there is a consensus in the literature thus far: Questions with rich semantic content enhance subsequent learning even when feedback is delayed, but less meaningful questions without an intrinsic answer enhance learning only when feedback is immediate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23855547

Kornell, Nate

2014-01-01

284

STATISTICS 7 CHAPTERS 1 TO 6, SAMPLE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS  

E-print Network

with high blood pressure were more likely to read a book than to walk. d. It can be concluded. This is a randomized experiment rather than an observational study because: a. Blood pressure was measured three times a week and reading a book for half an hour three times a week. b. Having blood pressure

Utts, Jessica

285

STATISTICS 8 CHAPTERS 1 TO 6, SAMPLE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS  

E-print Network

with high blood pressure were more likely to read a book than to walk. d. It can be concluded. This is a randomized experiment rather than an observational study because: a. Blood pressure was measured three times a week and reading a book for half an hour three times a week. b. Having blood pressure

Utts, Jessica

286

Practical question-and-answer guide on VDTS (video display terminals) for BEES (base bioenvironmental engineer). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The USAF OEHL conducted an extensive literature review of Video Display Terminals (VDTs) and the health problems commonly associated with them. The report is presented in a question-and-answer format in an attempt to paraphrase the most commonly asked questions about VDTs that are forwarded to USAF OEHL/RZN. The questions and answers have been divided into several topic areas: Ionizing Radiation; Nonionizing Radiation; Optical Radiation; Ultrasound; Static Electricity; Health Complaints/Ergonomics; Pregnancy.

Olson, B.M.

1985-01-01

287

Standardised nomenclature for glucocorticoid dosages and glucocorticoid treatment regimens: current questions and tentative answers in rheumatology  

PubMed Central

In rheumatology and other medical specialties there is a discrepancy between the widespread use and the imprecise designation of glucocorticoid treatment regimens. Verbal descriptions of glucocorticoid treatment regimens used in various phases of diseases vary between countries and institutions. Given this background, a workshop under the auspices of the EULAR Standing Committee on International Clinical Studies including Therapeutic Trials was held to discuss this issue and to seek a consensus on nomenclature for glucocorticoid treatment. This report summarises the panel's discussion and recognises that answers derived from consensus conferences are not definitive. Nevertheless, recommendations on glucocorticoid treatment are presented that (1) reflect current and best knowledge available and (2) take into account current clinical practice. A question-answer rationale presentation style has been chosen to convey the messages, to summarise the meeting in a readable format, and to avoid dogmatism. PMID:12117678

Buttgereit, F; Da Silva, J A P; Boers, M; Burmester, G; Cutolo, M; Jacobs, J; Kirwan, J; Kohler, L; van Riel, P; Vischer, T; Bijlsma, J

2002-01-01

288

The potential for automated question answering in the context of genomic medicine: an assessment of existing resources and properties of answers.  

PubMed

Knowledge gained in studies of genetic disorders is reported in a growing body of biomedical literature containing reports of genetic variation in individuals that map to medical conditions and/or response to therapy. These scientific discoveries need to be translated into practical applications to optimize patient care. Translating research into practice can be facilitated by supplying clinicians with research evidence. We assessed the role of existing tools in extracting answers to translational research questions in the area of genomic medicine. We: evaluate the coverage of translational research terms in the Unified Medical Language Systems (UMLS) Metathesaurus; determine where answers are most often found in full-text articles; and determine common answer patterns. Findings suggest that we will be able to leverage the UMLS in development of natural language processing algorithms for automated extraction of answers to translational research questions from biomedical text in the area of genomic medicine. PMID:19761578

Overby, Casey Lynnette; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Demner-Fushman, Dina

2009-01-01

289

Reducing the Need for Guesswork in Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The humble multiple-choice test is very widely used within education at all levels, but its susceptibility to guesswork makes it a suboptimal assessment tool. The reliability of a multiple-choice test is partly governed by the number of items it contains; however, longer tests are more time consuming to take, and for some subject areas, it can be…

Bush, Martin

2015-01-01

290

Getting Ready for the "School of the Future": Key Questions and Tentative Answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores some key aspects of "today's school", as opposed to those that have characterized "yesterday's school", with the final aim of shedding light on "tomorrow's school". In this direction, the paper puts forward tentative answers to some key questions related to the new characteristics and roles of teachers and students (main actors of the learning process) and the new features/ potentialities of contemporary educational tools which, in turn, require the enactment of innovative pedagogical approaches and educational methods. The emerging picture of the present learning landscape helps in figuring out a future situation where learning possibilities are substantially increased.

Ott, Michela; Pozzi, Francesca

291

'Big data' reporting guidelines: how to answer big questions, yet avoid big problems.  

PubMed

The extent and depth of routine health care data are growing at an ever-increasing rate, forming huge repositories of information. These repositories can answer a vast array of questions. However, an understanding of the purpose of the dataset used and the quality of the data collected are paramount to determine the reliability of the result obtained. This Editorial describes the importance of adherence to sound methodological principles in the reporting and publication of research using 'big' data, with a suggested reporting framework for future Bone & Joint Journal submissions. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1575-7. PMID:25452357

Perry, D C; Parsons, N

2014-12-01

292

HITS on Question Answer Portals: Exploration of Link Analysis for Author Ranking  

E-print Network

-Answer portals such as Naver and Yahoo! Answers are growing in popularity. However, despite the increased from Yahoo! Answers are promising, and warrant further exploration along the lines outlined Naver (http://www.naver.com) and Yahoo! Answers (http://answers.yahoo.com). Yahoo! Answers already

Agichtein, Eugene

293

The development and validation of a two-tiered multiple-choice instrument to identify alternative conceptions in earth science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and understanding of earth science concepts, and to describe relationships between content knowledge and alternative conceptions and planning instruction in the science classroom. Eighty-seven preservice teachers enrolled in the MAT program participated in this study. Sixty-eight participants were female, twelve were male, and seven chose not to answer. Forty-seven participants were in the elementary certification program, five were in the middle school certification program, and twenty-nine were pursuing secondary certification. Results indicate that the two-tiered, multiple-choice format can be a reliable and valid method for identifying alternative conceptions. Preservice teachers in all certification areas who participated in this study may possess common alternative conceptions previously identified in the literature. Alternative conceptions included: all rivers flow north to south, the shadow of the Earth covers the Moon causing lunar phases, the Sun is always directly overhead at noon, weather can be predicted by animal coverings, and seasons are caused by the Earth's proximity to the Sun. Statistical analyses indicated differences, however not all of them significant, among all subgroups according to gender and certification area. Generally males outperformed females and preservice teachers pursuing middle school certification had higher scores on the questionnaire followed by those obtaining secondary certification. Elementary preservice teachers scored the lowest. Additionally, self-reported scores of confidence in one's answers and understanding of the earth science concept in question were analyzed. There was a slight positive correlation between overall score and both confidence and understanding. Responses on the questionnaire were investigated with respect to pedagogical choices. Evidence suggests that content knowledge and having alternative conceptions or science fragments may impact a teacher's pedagogical choices. Through careful development of instruments like ACES-Q II-R and other two- tiered, multiple-choice instruments, educators and researchers car not only identify possible alternative conceptions, they can raise an awareness of alternative conceptions held by children and adults.

Mangione, Katherine Anna

294

Measuring the Consistency in Change in Hepatitis B Knowledge among Three Different Types of Tests: True/False, Multiple Choice, and Fill in the Blanks Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recall of information about Hepatitis B demonstrated by 180 seventh graders was tested with three test types: (1) short-answer; (2) true/false; and (3) multiple-choice. Short answer testing was the most reliable. Suggestions are made for the use of short-answer tests in evaluating student knowledge. (SLD)

Sahai, Vic; Demeyere, Petra; Poirier, Sheila; Piro, Felice

1998-01-01

295

How Do You Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers Like Beagle 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To address one of the most important questions in planetary science Is there life on Mars? The scientific community must turn to less costly means of exploring the surface of the Red Planet. The United Kingdom's Beagle 2 Mars lander concept was a small meter-size lander with a scientific payload constituting a large proportion of the flown mass designed to supply answers to the question about life on Mars. A possible reason why Beagle 2 did not send any data was that it was a one-off attempt to land. As Steve Squyres said at the time: "It's difficult to land on Mars - if you want to succeed you have to send two of everything".

Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

2012-01-01

296

The JAVELIN Question-Answering System at TREC 2003: A Multi-Strategh Approach with Dynamic Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The JAVELIN system evaluated at TREC 2003 is an integrated architecture for open-domain question answering. JAVELIN employs a mod- ular approach that addresses individual aspects of the QA task in an abstract manner. The Sys- tem implements a planner that controls the ex- ecution and information flow, as well as a mul- tiple answer seeking strategies used differently depending on

Eric Nyberg; Teruko Mitamura; James P. Callan; Jaime G. Carbonell; Robert E. Frederking; Kevyn Collins-thompson; Laurie Hiyakumoto; Yifen Huang; Curtis Huttenhower; Scott Judy; Jeongwoo Ko; Anna Kupsc; Lucian Vlad Lita; Vasco Pedro; David Svoboda; Benjamin Van Durme

2003-01-01

297

The Answering System to Yes-No Truth-Functional Questions in Korean-English Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in "Br J Psychol" 52:133-142,…

Choi, Hansook

2014-01-01

298

Towards Answering Opinion Questions: {S}eparating Facts from Opinions and Identifying the Polarity of Opinion Sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion question answering is a challenging task for natural language processing. In this paper, we discuss a necessary component for an opinion ques- tion answering system: separating opinions from fact, at both the document and sentence level. We present a Bayesian classifier for discriminating be- tween documents with a preponderance of opinions such as editorials from regular news stories, and

Hong Yu; Vasileios Hatzivassiloglou

2003-01-01

299

1.Answer the following questions: (a)& you have learned in your physical metallurgy class, diffusion rate in solid may be  

E-print Network

1.Answer the following questions: (a)& you have learned in your physical metallurgy class on the physical metallurgy principles, the student suggested two possibilities for the stress drop: 1) The stress

Huang, Haimei

300

Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.  

SciTech Connect

Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1995-06-01

301

Polytomous versus Dichotomous Scoring on Multiple-Choice Examinations: Development of a Rubric for Rating Partial Credit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of assigning partial credit on multiple-choice test items is considered for items from ACS Exams. Because the items on these exams, particularly the quantitative items, use common student errors to define incorrect answers, it is possible to assign partial credits to some of these incorrect responses. To do so, however, it becomes…

Grunert, Megan L.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

302

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS: EPA'S GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT AND SUPPLEMENTAL GUIDANCE FROM ASSESSING SUSCEPTIBILITY FROM EARLY-LIFE EXPOSURE TO CARCINOGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

March 29, 2005 EPA's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment And Supplemental Guidance from Assessing Susceptibility from Early-life Exposure to Carcinogens Questions and Answers The following questions ...

303

26 CFR 5f.168(f)(8)-1 - Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Questions and answers concerning...168(f)(8)-1 Questions and answers concerning...leases. The following questions and answers concern...manufacturing, production, or extraction process, none of which...the Safe Harbor Lease Information Return, no...

2010-04-01

304

Effect of Tuned Parameters on a LSA MCQ Answering Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the current state of a work in progress, whose objective\\u000ais to better understand the effects of factors that significantly influence the\\u000aperformance of Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). A difficult task, which consists\\u000ain answering (French) biology Multiple Choice Questions, is used to test the\\u000asemantic properties of the truncated singular space and to study the relative

Alain Lifchitz; Sandra Jhean-Larose; Guy Denhičre

2008-01-01

305

Test Equating under the Multiple-Choice Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a characteristic curve procedure for comparing transformations of the item response theory ability scale assuming the multiple-choice model. Illustrates the use of the method with an example equating American College Testing mathematics tests. (SLD)

Kim, Jee-Seon; Hanson, Bradley A.

2002-01-01

306

A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

Brown, John S.; And Others

307

Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers  

PubMed Central

Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics. PMID:18522725

Kurz, Matthias

2008-01-01

308

The ContactFinder agent: Answering bulletin board questions with referrals  

SciTech Connect

ContactFinder is an intelligent agent whose approach to assisting users is valuable and innovative in the following four ways. First, ContactFinder operates proactively in reading and responding to messages on electronic bulletin boards rather than acting in response to user queries. Second, ContactFinder assists users by referring them to other people who can help them, rather than attempting to find information that directly answers the user`s specific question. Third, ContactFinder categorizes messages and extracts their topic areas using a set of heuristics that are very efficient and demonstrably highly effective. Fourth, ContactFinder posts its referrals back to the bulletin boards rather than simply communicating with specific users, to increase the information density and connectivity of the system. This paper discusses these aspects of the system and demonstrates their effectiveness in over six months of use on a large-scale internal bulletin board.

Krulwich, B.; Burkey, C. [Center for Strategic Technology Research, Northbrook, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

309

STS-80 CREW ANSWERS PRESS QUESTIONS AT PAD 39B DURING TERMINAL COUNTDOWN DEMONSTRATION TEST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-80 crew members participating in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch, talk to press representatives (off camera) and answer their questions at Launch Pad 39B. From left, are Mission Specialists Thomas D. Jones and Tamara E. Jernigan, Commander Kenneth D. Cockrell (with microphone), Pilot Kent V. Rominger and Mission Specialist Story Musgrave. The STS-80 mission, the seventh and final Shuttle flight of 1996, will feature two spacewalks and the deployment, operation and retrieval of two scientific satellites, the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer- Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 (ORFEUS-SPAS-2) and the Wake Shield Facility-3 (WSF-3). The mission will be conducted aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia.

1996-01-01

310

Answering orientation questions and following single-step verbal commands: effect on aspiration status.  

PubMed

In the acute-care setting patients with altered mental status as a result of such diverse etiologies as stroke, traumatic brain injury, degenerative neurologic impairments, dementia, or alcohol/drug abuse are routinely referred for dysphagia testing. A protocol for dysphagia testing was developed that began with verbal stimuli to determine patient orientation status and ability to follow single-step verbal commands. Although unknown, it would be beneficial to ascertain if this information on mental status was predictive of aspiration risk. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if there was a difference in odds for aspiration based upon correctly answering specific orientation questions, i.e., 1. What is your name? 2. Where are you right now? and 3. What year is it?, and following specific single-step verbal commands, i.e., 1. Open your mouth. 2. Stick out your tongue. and 3. Smile. In a consecutive retrospective manner data from 4070 referred patients accrued between 1 December 1999 and 1 January 2007 were analyzed. The odds of liquid aspiration were 31% greater for patients not oriented to person, place, and time (odds ratio [OR] = 1.305, 95% CI = 1.134-1.501). The odds of liquid aspiration (OR = 1.566, 95% CI = 1.307-1.876), puree aspiration (OR = 1.484, 95% CI = 1.202-1.831), and being deemed unsafe for any oral intake (OR = 1.688, 95% CI = 1.387-2.054) were, respectively, 57, 48, and 69% greater for patients unable to follow single-step verbal commands. Being able to answer orientation questions and follow single-step verbal commands provides information on odds of aspiration for liquid and puree food consistencies as well as overall eating status prior to dysphagia testing. Knowledge of potential increased odds of aspiration allows for individualization of dysphagia testing thereby optimizing swallowing success. PMID:19263106

Leder, Steven B; Suiter, Debra M; Lisitano Warner, Heather

2009-09-01

311

Evolutionary explanations in medical and health profession courses: are you answering your students' "why" questions?  

PubMed Central

Background Medical and pre-professional health students ask questions about human health that can be answered in two ways, by giving proximate and evolutionary explanations. Proximate explanations, most common in textbooks and classes, describe the immediate scientifically known biological mechanisms of anatomical characteristics or physiological processes. These explanations are necessary but insufficient. They can be complemented with evolutionary explanations that describe the evolutionary processes and principles that have resulted in human biology we study today. The main goal of the science of Darwinian Medicine is to investigate human disease, disorders, and medical complications from an evolutionary perspective. Discussion This paper contrasts the differences between these two types of explanations by describing principles of natural selection that underlie medical questions. Thus, why is human birth complicated? Why does sickle cell anemia exist? Why do we show symptoms like fever, diarrhea, and coughing when we have infection? Why do we suffer from ubiquitous age-related diseases like arteriosclerosis, Alzheimer's and others? Why are chronic diseases like type II diabetes and obesity so prevalent in modern society? Why hasn't natural selection eliminated the genes that cause common genetic diseases like hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, Tay sachs, PKU and others? Summary In giving students evolutionary explanations professors should underscore principles of natural selection, since these can be generalized for the analysis of many medical questions. From a research perspective, natural selection seems central to leading hypotheses of obesity and type II diabetes and might very well explain the occurrence of certain common genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis, hemochromatosis, Tay sachs, Fragile X syndrome, G6PD and others because of their compensating advantages. Furthermore, armed with evolutionary explanations, health care professionals can bring practical benefits to patients by treating their symptoms of infection more specifically and judiciously. They might also help curtail the evolutionary arms race between pathogens and antibiotic defenses. PMID:15885137

Harris, Eugene E; Malyango, Avelin A

2005-01-01

312

Biology 253 Human Anatomy Exam I Spring 2010 page 1 of 8 IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS: ANSWER ONLY 50 QUESTIONS. Do not answer more than 50 questions. If  

E-print Network

Biology 253 Human Anatomy Exam I Spring 2010 page 1 of 8 IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS: ANSWER ONLY 50 of the orbit? A) lacrimal B) ethmoid C) maxilla D) frontal E) sphenoid #12;Biology 253 Human Anatomy Exam I is the superior margin of the heart? A) jugular notch B) costal margin C) 8 th thoracic intervertebral disc D

Houde, Peter

313

Should essays and other żopen-endedż-type questions retain a place in written summative assessment in clinical medicine?  

PubMed

BackgroundWritten assessments fall into two classes: constructed-response or open-ended questions, such as the essay and number of variants of the short-answer question, and selected-response or closed-ended questions; typically in the form of multiple-choice. It is widely believed that constructed response written questions test higher order cognitive processes in a manner that multiple-choice questions cannot, and consequently have higher validity.DiscussionAn extensive review of the literature suggests that in summative assessment neither premise is evidence-based. Well-structured open-ended and multiple-choice questions appear equivalent in their ability to assess higher cognitive functions, and performance in multiple-choice assessments may correlate more highly than the open-ended format with competence demonstrated in clinical practice following graduation. Studies of construct validity suggest that both formats measure essentially the same dimension, at least in mathematics, the physical sciences, biology and medicine. The persistence of the open-ended format in summative assessment may be due to the intuitive appeal of the belief that synthesising an answer to an open-ended question must be both more cognitively taxing and similar to actual experience than is selecting a correct response. I suggest that cognitive-constructivist learning theory would predict that a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item represents a complex problem-solving exercise which activates a sequence of cognitive processes which closely parallel those required in clinical practice, hence explaining the high validity of the multiple-choice format.SummaryThe evidence does not support the proposition that the open-ended assessment format is superior to the multiple-choice format, at least in exit-level summative assessment, in terms of either its ability to test higher-order cognitive functioning or its validity. This is explicable using a theory of mental models to the quality of learning, which might predict that the multiple-choice format might have higher validity, a statement for which some empiric support exists. Given the superior reliability and cost-effectiveness of the multiple-choice format consideration should be given to phasing out open-ended format questions in summative assessment. Whether the same applies to non-exit-level assessment and formative assessment is a question which remains to be answered; particularly in terms of the educational effect of testing, an area which deserves intensive study. PMID:25431359

Hift, Richard J

2014-11-28

314

An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on Internet Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on  

E-print Network

Page on Internet Ethics, Computer Ethics, Cyber Ethics, E-Commerce Ethics, Web Ethics, Business Ethics Information in the Twenty-First Century Jewish Business Ethics From Amazon.com httpAn Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on Internet Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web

Redmiles, David F.

315

A study of advanced training technology: Emerging answers to tough questions  

SciTech Connect

This study reports the result of an extensive nationwide review of military, private sector, and other federal agencies and organizations that are implementing a wide variety of advanced training technologies. This report classifies the general categories of advanced training technologies found and provides an overview of each, including specific types and examples. In addition, the research findings present an organizational model for training development linking overall organizational maturity to readiness to implement specific kinds of advanced training technologies. It also presents proposed methods for selecting media, describes the organizations and the data gathered, and provides a summary of implementation success at each organization. This study is organized as a set of five topics. Each topic raises a number of important questions and provides complete or emerging answers. For organizations who have made advanced training selections, this study is a resource to benchmark their success with other organizations who have made similar selections. For new or developing training organizations, this study will help plan their future technology selections by comparing their level of organizational maturity to the documented experiences of similar organizations.

NONE

1995-03-01

316

Ten Common Questions (and Their Answers) About Off-label Drug Use  

PubMed Central

The term off-label drug use (OLDU) is used extensively in the medical literature, continuing medical education exercises, and the media. Yet, we propose that many health care professionals have an underappreciation of its definition, prevalence, and implications. This article introduces and answers 10 questions regarding OLDU in an effort to clarify the practice's meaning, breadth of application, acceptance, and liabilities. Off-label drug use involves prescribing medications for indications, or using a dosage or dosage form, that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Since the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate the practice of medicine, OLDU has become common. It occurs in every specialty of medicine, but it may be more common in areas of medicine in which the patient population is less likely to be included in clinical trials (eg, pediatric, pregnant, or psychiatric patients). Pharmaceutical companies are not allowed to promote their medications for an off-label use, which has lead to several large settlements for illegal marketing. To limit liability, physicians should prescribe medications only for indications that they believe are in the best interest of the patient. In addition, health care professionals should educate themselves about OLDU to weigh the risks and benefits and provide the best possible care for their patients. PMID:22877654

Wittich, Christopher M.; Burkle, Christopher M.; Lanier, William L.

2012-01-01

317

What Are Students Thinking When They Pick Their Answer? A Content Analysis of Students' Explanations of Gas Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sample of 330 students was asked to answer a multiple-choice question concerning gas properties at the microscopic level and explain the reasoning they used to make their choice. These comments were analyzed, paying particular attention to students' beliefs about particle velocity, particle distribution (gas volume), the number of particle collisions (gas pressure), and the state of matter of the sample. The results showed that 33% of the students chose the correct answer for the multiple-choice question. Of the students who picked the correct answer, 80% provided explanations that were consistent with the scientifically accepted answer, while 90% of the students who picked an incorrect choice provided explanations with at least one misconception. Although these results support the validity of the multiple-choice question, we identified three threats to the validity of this question: The static question does not depict the critical attribute of change (particle motion); Students do not see a distinction between two of the distractors in the question; Students may be choosing an incorrect option based on an incorrect guess of the melting or boiling point of the gas and not based on a misconception.

Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J.

2007-05-01

318

Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits.  

PubMed

Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students) were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex) and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective. PMID:24478680

Potvin, Patrice; Turmel, Elaine; Masson, Steve

2014-01-01

319

Constructed-Response Test Questions: Why We Use Them; How We Score Them. R&D Connections. Number 11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To many people, standardized testing means multiple-choice testing. However, some tests contain questions that require the test taker to produce the answer, rather than simply choosing it from a list. The required response can be as simple as the writing of a single word as complex as the design of a laboratory experiment to test a scientific…

Livingston, Samuel A.

2009-01-01

320

Question Answering with QED and Wee at TREC-2004 Kisuh Ahn, Johan Bos, Stephen Clark, James R. Curran  

E-print Network

, 1997). The result was indexed with the Managing Gigabytes (MG 1.3g) search engine (Witten et al., 1999 at the TREC-2004 question answering evaluation exercise. Our system combines two approaches: one with deep the web. The results of our exper- iments support the following claims: (1) Web- based IR is a good

Curran, James R.

321

Nevada Education Law: Federal and State Law Governing Nevada K-12 Education in Question/Answer Format.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides answers to the most common legal questions of Nevada's school board members, administrators, and educators. Chapter 1, "The Nevada School System: Governance, Programs, and Standards," explores the constitutional, legal, and statutory basis of school system governance. Chapter 2, "The Nevada Plan: Finance of Public Education,"…

Daugherty, Richard F.; Cockerill, Charles P.

322

Paytan_Answers 113.pdf Student questions: Adina Paytan colloquium on "Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral  

E-print Network

Paytan_Answers 113.pdf 1 Student questions: Adina Paytan colloquium on "Impacts of Ocean of diseases? And how will the scientist community control that not to affect marine live in ocean community that needs to ensure that the oceans' pH remains at a range where organisms can survive

Shumway, John

323

Using Question Answer Relationships in Science Instruction to Increase the Reading Achievement of Struggling Readers and Students with Reading Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Question Answer Relationship (QAR) literacy strategy was integrated into science instruction in a fourth grade classroom. Ten students who struggled with reading, including some who were diagnosed with a reading disability, participated in this study. Significant gains were made in reading by the 10 student participants in comprehending…

Kinniburgh, Leah H.; Baxter, Abigail

2012-01-01

324

Multiple-choice Assessment for Upper-division Electricity and Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Colorado Upper-division Electrostatics (CUE) diagnostic was designed as an open-ended assessment in order to capture elements of student reasoning in upper-division electrostatics. The diagnostic has been given for many semesters at several universities resulting in an extensive database of CUE responses. To increase the utility and scalability of the assessment, we used this database along with research on studentsâ difficulties to create a multiple-choice version. The new version explores the viability of a novel test format where students select multiple responses and can receive partial credit based on the accuracy and consistency of their selections. This format was selected with the goal of preserving insights afforded by the open-ended format while exploiting the logistical advantages of a multiple-choice assessment. Here, we present examples of the questions and scoring of the multiple-choice CUE as well as initial analysis of the testâs validity, item difficulty, discrimination, and overall consistency with the open-ended version.

Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

2014-01-31

325

An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability  

PubMed Central

Background Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A) network tools, which link questioners directly to experts can overcome some of these barriers. When designing and testing online tools, assessing the usability and applicability is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the usability and applicability of a new online Q&A network tool for answers on OSH questions. Methods We applied a cross-sectional usability test design. Eight occupational health experts and twelve potential questioners from the working population (workers) were purposively selected to include a variety of computer- and internet-experiences. During the test, participants were first observed while executing eight tasks that entailed important features of the tool. In addition, they were interviewed. Through task observations and interviews we assessed applicability, usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction) and facilitators and barriers in use. Results Most features were usable, though several could be improved. Most tasks were executed effectively. Some tasks, for example searching stored questions in categories, were not executed efficiently and participants were less satisfied with the corresponding features. Participants' recommendations led to improvements. The tool was found mostly applicable for additional information, to observe new OSH trends and to improve contact between OSH experts and workers. Hosting and support by a trustworthy professional organization, effective implementation campaigns, timely answering and anonymity were seen as important use requirements. Conclusions This network tool is a promising new strategy for offering company workers high quality information to answer OSH questions. Q&A network tools can be an addition to existing information facilities in the field of OSH, but also to other healthcare fields struggling with how to answer questions from people in practice with high quality information. In the near future, we will focus on the use of the tool and its effects on information and knowledge dissemination. PMID:20969777

2010-01-01

326

Geophysical Summer Field Camp: Answering questions about the subsurface for the local community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer Geophysics Field Camp is part of the core requirement for undergraduate Geophysics majors at Boise State University (CSM), as well as at Colorado School of Mines (CSM). We have found it to be most effectively taught when the target of the camp involves answering questions, which impact society. For example, currently the CSM/BSU geophysics summer camp focuses on ground water resources and geothermal potential in the Upper Arkansas River Basin, a part of the Rio Grande Rift system in Chaffee County, Colorado. A prime goal is to train students how to combine diverse sources of information into a unified interpretation: Students examine lithologies and structures on the periphery of the basin. Cross sections are constructed to predict the geophysical signature. Geophysical tools then are used to ascertain the gross structure and examine subsurface conditions in greater detail. These tools include surveying, regional gravity, deep and shallow seismic surveys, magnetics, DC resistivity, Ground Penetrating Radar, electromagnetics, hydrochemistry, and karaoke. While BSU and CSM own a considerable amount of geophysical hardware, our field camps are only possible because of extensive support by corporations and governmental agencies. In addition, the Society of Exploration Geohysics (SEG) Foundation provides financial support, Chaffee County assists with housing costs, and local land owners provide open access. In turn, the field camp results aid the community of Chaffee County in assessing their water resources for long term growth planning, as well as understanding the geothermal potential for hydroelectric power generation. BSU is currently exploring with the SEG Foundation under the Geophysicists Without Borders program to apply this model of combined education and social outreach in the form a geophysics camp for Southeast Asia, where we propose to study geohazards,geoarcheology and groundwater issues.

van Wijk, K.; Batzle, M.; Liberty, L.; Raynolds, R.

2008-12-01

327

Multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We investigate student understanding of energy and momentum concepts at the level of introductory physics by designing and administering a 25-item multiple choice test and conducting individual interviews. We find that most students have difficulty in qualitatively interpreting basic principles related to energy and momentum and in applying them in physical situations.

Singh, Chandralekha; Rosengrant, David

2012-04-27

328

Appropriateness of Advice: DCT and Multiple Choice Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates what can be learned about second language (L2) speech acts using English language multiple choice (MC) instruments and discourse completion tests (DCTs). The study focuses on the primary language (L1) responses of native speakers and the L2 responses given by speakers of Chinese to MC questionnaires and DCTs dealing with the…

Hinkel, Eli

1997-01-01

329

The communication skills used by deaf children and their hearing peers in a question-and-answer game context.  

PubMed

Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in a "trivia" game with their hearing peers. Thirty-four children with normal hearing and 34 children with a hearing loss ranging from mild to profound (>90 dB HL) participated in this study. Each of the 34 dyads included 1 child with normal hearing and 1 child with hearing loss, matched by gender and grade level at school. Dyads were videotaped and analyzed. Pairs were compared in terms of their capacity to repeat the question, strategies used to seek information, and accuracy of responses. Results showed that the group of hearing children was able to repeat more questions verbatim compared to the deaf/HH children. The deaf/HH group required a significantly greater number of repetitions, sought a greater number of general clarifications, and correctly answered more questions compared with the group of hearing children. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of peer communication and pragmatic skill development. PMID:20299450

Toe, Dianne M; Paatsch, Louise E

2010-01-01

330

The Place of Health Information and Socio-Emotional Support in Social Questioning and Answering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Little is known about the quality of health information in social contexts or how socio-emotional factors impact users' evaluations of quality. We explored how librarians, nurses and users assessed the quality of health answers posted on Yahoo! Answers, focusing on socio-emotional reactions displayed, advice given to users and…

Worrall, Adam; Oh, Sanghee

2013-01-01

331

The Process of Answering Reference Questions. A Test of a Descriptive Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to determine how librarians answer reference queries, and to develop instructional materials for teaching the answering process. Twenty-three science and technology reference librarians used and commented on a six-step model of the search strategy process. The model was then revised to include the following steps: (1)…

Jahoda, Gerald

332

PeerWise: Students Sharing their Multiple Choice Paul Denny, John Hamer and  

E-print Network

questions (MCQs) and answer those created by their peers. The tool supports student learn- ing in a varietyWise to engage in elements of self-assessment by answering MCQs in a drill-and-practice fashion, and peer

Williamson, John

333

Edgar_Answers to student questions 414.pdf Student questions: Lauren Edgar colloquium on "Martian Sedimentology as Revealed by the  

E-print Network

Sedimentology as Revealed by the Curiosity Rover" 3/26/14 Question 1: How are the studies that you've done of the same kinds of instruments to investigate the sedimentology and stratigraphy at each landing site

Rhoads, James

334

Blakey_Answers to student questions 314.pdf Student questions: Ronald Blakey colloquium on "Using Paleogeographic Maps to Portray  

E-print Network

period witnessed the most profound geological evolution of modern-day North America? Probably the Archean, and it's the area I know best. Question 2: You mentioned in a slide of Old Jurassic, that rivers drained

Rhoads, James

335

Analysis of Student Responses to Peer-Instruction Conceptual Questions Answered Using an Electronic Response System: Trends by Gender and Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study investigated students' answers to geoscience conceptual questions answered using electronic personal response systems. Answer patterns were examined to evaluate the peer-instruction pedagogical approach in a large general education classroom setting. (Contains 3 figures and 2 tables.)

Steer, David; McConnell, David; Gray, Kyle; Kortz, Karen; Liang, Xin

2009-01-01

336

The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple" compatibility. 100% protection against the 100 year event shows to be the optimal degree of protection. Consequently, impacts statistically less frequent than once in 100 year are accepted as the remaining risk. Such floods and debris flows respectively cause a fan of propagation which is substantially reduced due to the protection measures against the 100 year event. III) The "triple loss distribution" shows the monetized triple damage, dependent on its probability. The monetization is performed by the social process of participation of the impacted interests, if not, by official experts in representation. The triple loss distribution rises in time mainly due to the rise in density and value of precious goods. A comparison of the distributions of the triple loss and the triple risk, behaving in opposite direction, is shown and explained within the project. IV) The recommended yearly reserves to be stocked for restoration and compensation of losses, caused by debris flows, amount to € 70'000.- according to the approach of the "technical risk premium". The discrepancy in comparison with the much higher amounts according to the common approaches of natural hazards engineering are discussed. V) The sustainable mix of hydraulic and forestry measures with the highest return on investment at lowest risk is performed according to the portfolio theory (Markowitz), based on the triple value curves, generated by the method of TripelBudgetierung®. Accordingly, the optimum mix of measures to protect the community of Inzing against the natural hazard of debris flow, thus, the most efficient allocation of resources equals to 2/3 for hydraulic, 1/3 for forestry measures. In detail, the results of the research pilot project "Nachhaltiges Risikomanagement - Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria" may be consulted under www.ibu.hsr.ch/inzing.

Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

2009-04-01

337

How many faces does a cube have?the answer is 6. Okay, I'm going to restate the question: how many 2-dimensional faces does  

E-print Network

1 Cube face How many faces does a cube have?­­the answer is 6. Okay, I'm going to restate the question: how many 2-dimensional faces does a 3-dimensional cube have? The answer hasn't changed--it's still 6. But now we are aware of more gen- eral questions. There are different dimensions of cubes

McCann, Robert J.

338

Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

2009-01-01

339

Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…

Heiner, Cecily

2009-01-01

340

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS MOST FREQUENTLY ASKED BY VISITORS TO FLINT'S COMMUNITY SCHOOLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

QUESTIONS ARE RAISED CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MOTT FOUNDATION PROGRAM, THE FLINT BOARD OF EDUCATION, THE COST OF THE PROGRAM, AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL PROGRAM. QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL DIRECTOR RANGE FROM HIS ROLE TO HIS ON-THE-JOB TRAINING. QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO ADULT EDUCATION AND THE…

Flint Board of Education, MI.

341

The answering system to yes-no truth-functional questions in Korean-English bilingual children.  

PubMed

This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961) were provided as questions such as true affirmative (TA), true negative (TN), false affirmative (FA), and false negative (FN). The bilingual children's answers were observed in separate language settings, English and Korean. The results by the bilingual in the Korean setting were compared with those by the monolinguals. The results show that bilingual children can process two systems rather successfully by providing correct responses to the given questions. But difficulty patterns, measured from error rates in each setting, are found different in two languages. The bilinguals' difficulty patterns in English and Korean, however, show deviation from monolinguals' difficulty patterns suggested in previous studies (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961, Akiyama in Dev Psychol 20:219-228, 1984, Kim in Dev Psychol 21(3):462-472, 1985, Choi in Dev Psychol 29(3):407-420, 1991). The present work also shows that negatives are not uniformly reported with more errors than affirmatives when the truth condition and the answering system are further involved. All in all, the current study suggests that bilingual children have two separate processing systems for yes-no truth-functional questions. However, the two systems cannot be understood as a simple coexistence of two monolingual systems. Interaction of the two competing linguistic systems is discussed further. PMID:23639994

Choi, Hansook

2014-06-01

342

Towards a virtual teaching assistant to answer questions asked by students in introductory computer science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural language of the questions to a vector space, and then utilizing cosine similarity to identify similar previous questions. I report classification accuracies between 23% and 56%, obtaining substantial improvements by exploiting domain knowledge (compiler error messages) and educational context (assignment name). My results are especially timely and relevant for online courses where students are completing the same set of assignments asynchronously and access to staff is limited.

Heiner, Cecily

343

Single best answer MCQs: a new format for the FRCR part 2a exam.  

PubMed

The single best answer multiple-choice question (MCQ) format has many advantages over traditional true/false format MCQs. From 2009, the Royal College of Radiologists will be adopting this format for written examinations. This article describes the background of this decision and the evidence behind it. There are numerous benefits to examiners and candidates alike from adopting this format. Using examples, the usual structure of the format of this type of questions is explained, how they are written, and tips provided on how to prepare for and answer them. PMID:18374712

McCoubrie, P; McKnight, L

2008-05-01

344

Grading Multiple Choice Exams with Low-Cost and Portable Computer-Vision Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although technology for automatic grading of multiple choice exams has existed for several decades, it is not yet as widely available or affordable as it should be. The main reasons preventing this adoption are the cost and the complexity of the setup procedures. In this paper, Eyegrade, a system for automatic grading of multiple choice exams is presented. While most current solutions are based on expensive scanners, Eyegrade offers a truly low-cost solution requiring only a regular off-the-shelf webcam. Additionally, Eyegrade performs both mark recognition as well as optical character recognition of handwritten student identification numbers, which avoids the use of bubbles in the answer sheet. When compared with similar webcam-based systems, the user interface in Eyegrade has been designed to provide a more efficient and error-free data collection procedure. The tool has been validated with a set of experiments that show the ease of use (both setup and operation), the reduction in grading time, and an increase in the reliability of the results when compared with conventional, more expensive systems.

Fisteus, Jesus Arias; Pardo, Abelardo; García, Norberto Fernández

2013-08-01

345

Feedback-related brain activity predicts learning from feedback in multiple-choice testing.  

PubMed

Different event-related potentials (ERPs) have been shown to correlate with learning from feedback in decision-making tasks and with learning in explicit memory tasks. In the present study, we investigated which ERPs predict learning from corrective feedback in a multiple-choice test, which combines elements from both paradigms. Participants worked through sets of multiple-choice items of a Swahili-German vocabulary task. Whereas the initial presentation of an item required the participants to guess the answer, corrective feedback could be used to learn the correct response. Initial analyses revealed that corrective feedback elicited components related to reinforcement learning (FRN), as well as to explicit memory processing (P300) and attention (early frontal positivity). However, only the P300 and early frontal positivity were positively correlated with successful learning from corrective feedback, whereas the FRN was even larger when learning failed. These results suggest that learning from corrective feedback crucially relies on explicit memory processing and attentional orienting to corrective feedback, rather than on reinforcement learning. PMID:22411103

Ernst, Benjamin; Steinhauser, Marco

2012-06-01

346

An Investigation of Explanation Multiple-Choice Items in Science Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both multiple-choice and constructed-response items have known advantages and disadvantages in measuring scientific inquiry. In this article we explore the function of explanation multiple-choice (EMC) items and examine how EMC items differ from traditional multiple-choice and constructed-response items in measuring scientific reasoning. A group…

Liu, Ou Lydia; Lee, Hee-Sun; Linn, Marcia C.

2011-01-01

347

A Neural Network for Factoid Question Answering over Mohit Iyyer1  

E-print Network

textual composition- ality. We apply our model, qanta, to a dataset of questions from a trivia competition and college students play a game where they map raw text to well-known entities. This is a trivia competition

Daume III, Hal

348

Sensitivity and Predictive Value of 15 PubMed Search Strategies to Answer Clinical Questions Rated Against Full Systematic Reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Clinicians perform searches in PubMed daily, but retrieving relevant studies is challenging due to the rapid expansion of medical knowledge. Little is known about the performance of search strategies when they are applied to answer specific clinical questions. Objective To compare the performance of 15 PubMed search strategies in retrieving relevant clinical trials on therapeutic interventions. Methods We used Cochrane systematic reviews to identify relevant trials for 30 clinical questions. Search terms were extracted from the abstract using a predefined procedure based on the population, interventions, comparison, outcomes (PICO) framework and combined into queries. We tested 15 search strategies that varied in their query (PIC or PICO), use of PubMed’s Clinical Queries therapeutic filters (broad or narrow), search limits, and PubMed links to related articles. We assessed sensitivity (recall) and positive predictive value (precision) of each strategy on the first 2 PubMed pages (40 articles) and on the complete search output. Results The performance of the search strategies varied widely according to the clinical question. Unfiltered searches and those using the broad filter of Clinical Queries produced large outputs and retrieved few relevant articles within the first 2 pages, resulting in a median sensitivity of only 10%–25%. In contrast, all searches using the narrow filter performed significantly better, with a median sensitivity of about 50% (all P < .001 compared with unfiltered queries) and positive predictive values of 20%–30% (P < .001 compared with unfiltered queries). This benefit was consistent for most clinical questions. Searches based on related articles retrieved about a third of the relevant studies. Conclusions The Clinical Queries narrow filter, along with well-formulated queries based on the PICO framework, provided the greatest aid in retrieving relevant clinical trials within the 2 first PubMed pages. These results can help clinicians apply effective strategies to answer their questions at the point of care. PMID:22693047

Merglen, Arnaud; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Combescure, Christophe; Garin, Nicolas; Perrier, Arnaud; Perneger, Thomas V

2012-01-01

349

A Whole Language Program in the Intermediate Grades: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on a whole language program for the middle grades in Canada's Northwest Territories, this interview transcript consists of responses by Anne Davies, a teacher from Yellow Knife, in the Northwest Territories, and currently a doctoral student, to questions posed by Norma Mickelson, a professor at the University of Victoria in British…

Mickelson, Norma; Davies, Anne

350

The Answer Depends on the Question: A Reply to Eric Jensen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question that Eric Jensen addresses in his article is whether brain research can provide a basis for educational practice. He debates John Bruer, president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, and argues that brain research can, in fact, provide a basis for what educators do. Most of Jensen's article is devoted to showing ways in which brain…

Sternberg, Robert J.

2008-01-01

351

The Uses of Local Norms: A Question & Answer Overview. Research Brief. Volume 0406  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to promote local norms as a new way of reporting Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) results for Miami-Dade County district. The norms would: (1) show a student's relative standing in the district, and (2) show the student's growth compared to similar students. This paper presents questions about local norms,…

Froman, Terry

2005-01-01

352

Arabic QA4MRE at CLEF 2012: Arabic Question Answering for Machine Reading Evaluation  

E-print Network

and complex inference. Keywords: Machine Reading, Reading Comprehension, Knowledge Reasoning, Arabic Language of questions about it. This evaluation manner is similar to reading comprehension tests designed to evaluate on `Reading comprehension tests as evaluation for computer-based language understanding systems' workshop

Rosso, Paolo

353

FLEXIBLE MEDICAL CARE AND DEPENDENT CARE REIMBURSMENT ACCOUNTS Frequently Asked Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

FLEXIBLE MEDICAL CARE AND DEPENDENT CARE REIMBURSMENT ACCOUNTS Frequently Asked Questions a portion of your salary for non-reimbursed medical expenses or dependent care expenses on a pre-tax basis is placed into a medical care and/or dependent care reimbursement account and reimbursed to you as you incur

Snider, Barry B.

354

Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

Boyle, Philip

1989-01-01

355

Technical Assistance For Eligible Solar Equipment Lists Pre-Bid Conference Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

only required to be completed by the prime bidder? Response: Only the bidder completes Attachments 2 and 4. Question #3: The RFP states that bidders should provide a current resume for all team members of the solicitation, on the same page, the definition of "team members" specifies "all Bidder staff and subcontractors

356

Preformed dietary DHA: The answer to a scientific question may in practice become translated to its opposite.  

PubMed

In a previous issue of AJHB, Carlson and Kingston ([2007]: Am J Hum Biol 19:132-141) raised the question whether modern humans need preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from the aquatic food chain in their diet. The authors concluded that at the moment, there is not sufficient hard evidence to answer this scientific question in a positive way. In our comment on their review, we argue that because results from various studies and trials strongly indicate a positive correlation between preformed dietary DHA and human health and development, it may be a risky strategy to await the ultimate evidence before recommending the inclusion of sufficient seafood or fish oil supplements in the modern human diet. PMID:17546621

Joordens, Josephine C A; Kuipers, Remko S; Muskiet, Frits A J

2007-01-01

357

CS21 Lab 10 Worksheet, Swarthmore College, Fall 2011 Print this out and write your answers on the printout. There are questions on both sides. This  

E-print Network

CS21 Lab 10 Worksheet, Swarthmore College, Fall 2011 Name: Print this out and write your answers on the printout. There are questions on both sides. This worksheet is due Wednesday, November 16 in class. 1

Newhall, Tia

358

Common Questions & Answers for International Applicants Problem/Issue Resource/Contact  

E-print Network

& issues 4. Grants.gov registration questions 5. eRA Commons registration 6. EIN 1. Contact the System for Award Management 2. Contact NCAGE 3. Contact Dun & Bradstreet 4. Contact the Grants.gov Contact Center 5://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/index.html) and in Grants.gov Find (http://www.grants.gov/applicants/find_grant_opportunities.jsp) Application Submission I

Baker, Chris I.

359

A text of two titles: Kant's 'A renewed attempt to answer the question: "is the human race continually improving"?  

PubMed

The essay, 'A renewed attempt to answer the question: "Is the human race continually improving?"' appeared as Part II of Kant's 1798 publication, The conflict of the faculties, where it was subordinated under a second title: 'The conflict of the philosophy faculty with the faculty of law'. How did this new situation (and title) affects the meaning of the essay? My argument considers first, the conflict of the faculty of philosophy with the faculty of law; second, the earlier philosophy of history Kant had developed; and, finally, the revision of this position in 'A renewed attempt'. The situation of his argument in the contest between the philosophical and the legal faculties points to other veins of argumentation in Kant's political theory, particularly his appeal to a principle of publicity, but they hardly achieve the theoretical clarity or the systematic centrality they should command. They are displaced in the quest for prediction of the future history of mankind. The question of human progress exceeds the frame of the coordination of the university, and the main question must remain: what was new in Kant's approach to the question of human progress, and was it in fact an enhancement of his philosophy of history? In those terms, 'A renewed attempt' must be regarded a distinct failure. Its innovations prove problematic. Its retreats and equivocations, moreover, threaten to undermine the grander vision of Kant's philosophical history and his political theory, entangling them in an unacceptably theological recourse. PMID:19391372

Zammito, John H

2008-12-01

360

The plant Golgi apparatus: last 10 years of answered and open questions.  

PubMed

Plant Golgi bodies possess unique morphological and functional characteristics that are key to several biological and biotechnological processes, such as transport of the cell's building blocks to energy-rich compartments, including chloroplasts, storage vacuoles and a cellulosic cell wall. During the last decade it has become apparent that the plant Golgi apparatus has features that are remarkably different from other systems. Here we summarize the most recent findings on this organelle and we highlight pressing questions that are likely to drive the next 10 years of research on the plant Golgi apparatus. PMID:19800330

Faso, Carmen; Boulaflous, Aurelia; Brandizzi, Federica

2009-12-01

361

Do calendrical savants use calculation to answer date questions? A functional magnetic resonance imaging study  

PubMed Central

Calendrical savants can name the weekdays for dates from different years with remarkable speed and accuracy. Whether calculation rather than just memory is involved is disputed. Grounds for doubting whether they can calculate are reviewed and criteria for attributing date calculation skills to them are discussed. At least some calendrical savants possess date calculation skills. A behavioural characteristic observed in many calendrical savants is increased response time for questions about more remote years. This may be because more remote years require more calculation or because closer years are more practised. An experiment is reported that used functional magnetic resonance imaging to attempt to discriminate between these explanations. Only two savants could be scanned and excessive head movement corrupted one savant's mental arithmetic data. Nevertheless, there was increased parietal activation during both mental arithmetic and date questions and this region showed increased activity with more remote dates. These results suggest that the calendrical skills observed in savants result from intensive practice with calculations used in solving mental arithmetic problems. The mystery is not how they solve these problems, but why. PMID:19528025

Cowan, Richard; Frith, Chris

2009-01-01

362

Answering the ultimate question “What is the Proximal Cause of Aging?”  

PubMed Central

Recent discoveries suggest that aging is neither driven by accumulation of molecular damage of any cause, nor by random damage of any kind. Some predictions of a new theory, quasi-programmed hyperfunction, have already been confirmed and a clinically-available drug slows aging and delays diseases in animals. The relationship between diseases and aging becomes easily apparent. Yet, the essence of aging turns out to be so startling that the theory cannot be instantly accepted and any possible arguments are raised for its disposal. I discuss that these arguments actually support a new theory. Are any questions remaining? And might accumulation of molecular damage still play a peculiar role in aging? PMID:23425777

Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

2012-01-01

363

Entropy state of a multiple choice examination and the evaluation of understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Considering a student's examination as one state of a system which consists of the set of all possible examinations, a new method for evaluating multiple choice examinations is developed by measuring the entropy state of a student's exam above the "thermal background level" (the most probable state). The entropy grade is shown to contain standard scoring as a special case when both the number of questions given and the number of possible selections become large. The entropy grade is also shown to be related to the information it takes a student to go from one state of understanding to another state of understanding. The student's state of understanding is characterized either by his personal probability that his selections will be correct or by experimentally measured probability that the students's selections were correct.

Vawter, Richard

2005-10-17

364

Overwintering of herbaceous plants in a changing climate. Still more questions than answers.  

PubMed

The increase in surface temperature of the Earth indicates a lower risk of exposure for temperate grassland and crop to extremely low temperatures. However, the risk of low winter survival rate, especially in higher latitudes may not be smaller, due to complex interactions among different environmental factors. For example, the frequency, degree and length of extreme winter warming events, leading to snowmelt during winter increased, affecting the risks of anoxia, ice encasement and freezing of plants not covered with snow. Future climate projections suggest that cold acclimation will occur later in autumn, under shorter photoperiod and lower light intensity, which may affect the energy partitioning between the elongation growth, accumulation of organic reserves and cold acclimation. Rising CO2 levels may also disturb the cold acclimation process. Predicting problems with winter pathogens is also very complex, because climate change may greatly influence the pathogen population and because the plant resistance to these pathogens is increased by cold acclimation. All these factors, often with contradictory effects on winter survival, make plant overwintering viability under future climates an open question. Close cooperation between climatologists, ecologists, plant physiologists, geneticists and plant breeders is strongly required to predict and prevent possible problems. PMID:25017157

Rapacz, Marcin; Ergon, Ashild; Höglind, Mats; Jřrgensen, Marit; Jurczyk, Barbara; Ostrem, Liv; Rognli, Odd Arne; Tronsmo, Anne Marte

2014-08-01

365

The nucleation of vortices in superfluid [sup 4]He: Answers and questions  

SciTech Connect

The velocity threshold for phase slips, v[sub c], has been measured in ultra-pure [sup 4]He and ultra-dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He mixtures, down to a temperature of 15 mK. These experiments have revealed a crossover from a temperature-dependent regime above [approximately]150 mK to a plateau of v[sub c] below in ultra-pure [sup 4]He. Concentrations of [sup 3]He impurities as low as a few parts in 10[sup [minus]9] greatly affect the plateau regime, causing v[sub c] to decrease markedly at low temperature. These observations are interpreted in the framework of the nucleation, either thermally activated or by quantum tunnelling, of vortices in the appropriate shape of half-rings. These vortices form on wall asperities at local velocities u[sub s] estimated to be [approximately]22 m/s in these experiments. The half-ring model is shown to yield a critical velocity of the same magnitude but leaves many basic questions unanswered.

Avenel, O.; Ihas G.G. (Centre d'Etudes de Saclay (France)); Varoquaux, E. (Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France))

1993-12-01

366

Eye tracking research to answer questions about augmentative and alternative communication assessment and intervention.  

PubMed

Recently, eye tracking technologies (i.e., technologies that automatically track the point of an individual's gaze while that person views or interacts with a visual image) have become available for research purposes. Based on the sampling of the orientation of the individual's eyes, researchers can quantify which locations within the visual image were fixated (viewed), for how long, and how many times. These automated eye tracking research technologies open up a wealth of avenues for investigating how individuals with developmental or acquired communication disabilities may respond to aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems. In this paper, we introduce basic terminology and explore some of the special challenges of conducting eye tracking research with populations with disabilities who might use AAC, including challenges of inferring attention from the presence of fixation and challenges related to calibration that may result from participant characteristics, behavioral idiosyncracies, and/or the number of calibration points. We also examine how the technology can be applied to ask well-structured experimental questions that have direct clinical relevance, with a focus on the unique contributions that eye tracking research can provide by (a) allowing evaluation of skills in individuals who are difficult to assess via traditional methods, and (b) facilitating access to information on underlying visual cognitive processes that is not accessible via traditional behavioral measures. PMID:24758526

Wilkinson, Krista M; Mitchell, Teresa

2014-06-01

367

"Laying Bare of Questions Which Have Been Hidden by Answers": The English Language Arts Standards of the Common Core, K-5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors question the answer the national Common Core State Standards (CCSS, 2010) claims. The questions center on the validity of the new standardized tests based on the CCSS and teachers' evaluations being tied to student test scores on flawed tests. The proposed tests on the CCSS will position children as deficient, and will not recognize…

Gangi, Jane M.; Reilly, Mary Ann

2013-01-01

368

A collectionwise normal, hereditarily weakly -refinable Dowker space This paper answers a question the author posed over three decades ago in an  

E-print Network

A collectionwise normal, hereditarily weakly -refinable Dowker space This paper answers a question Proceedings [1]. Question 1. Is every collectionwise normal, weakly -refinable space paracompact? The best, collectionwise normal space that is not countably metacompact (hence not paracompact). This appeared in the same

Nyikos, Peter J.

369

Prism : an answer projection system  

E-print Network

Prism is an answer projection system that combines the best attributes of traditional and Web-based question answering systems. Traditional question answering systems retrieve answers with pinpoint accuracy but limited ...

Wu, Lynn, 1981-

2003-01-01

370

Seasonal Influenza Questions & Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... stomach or intestinal disease. Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

371

Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... percent of) individuals with TSC develop malignant (cancerous) kidney tumors. What is the normal life expectancy of an individual with tuberous sclerosis? Most people with TSC will live a ... organs such as the kidneys and brain that can lead to severe difficulties ...

372

Salmonella Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... and Disease / Salmonella Q and A Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

373

Answering the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a mother of a daughter with special needs, as well as to a son without, the author can say having had both experiences, all mothers, regardless of her children, struggle in one form or another. That may actually be a part of the job description: Mother: must be able to function well with minimal sleep; is capable of multi-tasking; be clever…

Wolfe, Julie Leavitt

2011-01-01

374

Rubella: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... measles, mumps, and rubella become available? The first measles vaccines (an inactivated and a live virus product) became ... measles and mumps) • people who received inactivated (killed) measles vaccine or measles vaccine of unknown type during 1963- ...

375

XMRV: Questions and Answers  

Cancer.gov

Retroviruses are found in a wide range of mammals, and may contribute to the development of cancers, such as leukemia or lymphoma, and neurological diseases. The first of two human retroviruses identified, HTLV-1 has been found to cause adult T cell leukemia and HTLV-II is not associated with any disease. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, is a different type of retrovirus.

376

[Radiotherapy combined with hormonal therapy as treatment method in patients with prostate cancer: still more questions than answers].  

PubMed

Treatment of prostate cancer is a challenge for both urologists and radiation oncologists. Currently two radical methods of treatment are recommended i.e. radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy. Hormonal therapy is mainly indicated for treatment of patients with metastases, but lately has become popular in combination with radical radiotherapy. Outcome of radiotherapy in more advanced stage of disease due to high risk of distant metastases and local failure is unsatisfactory. In the last years the introduction of combined treatment consisted of radiotherapy and hormonal therapy may lead to improvement of results of treatment. The general rationales for combining radiotherapy and hormonal therapy are fourfold: decreasing prostate volume, diminishing of amount of cancer cells, improving tumor oxygenation, and elimination of micro metastasis. One of the first trials, which indicated that combined treatment might improve results of treatment, was RTOG 8307. In this trial two strategies of hormonal therapy were compared: megestrol acetate versus diethylostilbestrol. The comparison of results from this trial to historical study control group indicated that combined treatment gave benefit. Another trial, which indicated that combined treatment might produce better results, was RTOG 8531. Results from this trial indicated that better local control is achieved by combined treatment. Another trial, which indicated benefit due to implementation of hormonal therapy to radiotherapy, was trial RTOG 8610 The EORTC 22863 reported an improvement in the estimated 5-year overall survival (79% vs. 63%). In investigational trial hormonal therapy after radiotherapy ending was continued for three years. The RTOG 9202 was the latest study, which indicated benefits obtained by long lasting adjuvant hormonal treatment. This study showed that 2 years of adjuvant hormonal therapy produced significant prolongation of the 5-year overall survival by 80% in comparison to 69% for patients treated without adjuvant hormonal therapy. Despite these few trials, lacking is still data and the following crucial questions are waiting for answers in the near future: What is the optimal timing of hormonal therapy? Which patients will obtain the greatest benefits due to combined strategy? How does long lasting hormonal therapy influence on patient's quality of life? Future trials (RTOG 9413 and RTOG 9901) will give some answers to the mentioned above questions. Currently we can conclude that in the group of patients with high risk of relapse, hormonal therapy with radiotherapy improve results of treatment. PMID:16786772

Milecki, Piotr

2005-01-01

377

Sample Selection Effect on AP Multiple-Choice Score to Composite Score Scaling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scores on the multiple-choice sections of alternate forms are equated through anchor-test equating for the Advanced Placement Program (AP) examinations. There is no linkage of free-response sections since different free-response items are given yearly. However, the free-response and multiple-choice sections are combined to produce a composite.…

Yang, Wen-Ling; Dorans, Neil J.; Tateneni, Krishna

378

Measures of Partial Knowledge and Unexpected Responses in Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates differences in the partial scoring performance of examinees in elimination testing and conventional dichotomous scoring of multiple-choice tests implemented on a computer-based system. Elimination testing that uses the same set of multiple-choice items rewards examinees with partial knowledge over those who are simply…

Chang, Shao-Hua; Lin, Pei-Chun; Lin, Zih-Chuan

2007-01-01

379

Multiple Choice Testing and the Retrieval Hypothesis of the Testing Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking a test often leads to enhanced later memory for the tested information, a phenomenon known as the "testing effect". This memory advantage has been reliably demonstrated with recall tests but not multiple choice tests. One potential explanation for this finding is that multiple choice tests do not rely on retrieval processes to the same…

Sensenig, Amanda E.

2010-01-01

380

Multiple Choice Examination System 1. Database Design and Implementation for General Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the main aspects and implementation of the classification system, database design and software, implementation of a multiple choice examination system for general chemistry in order to generate tests for student evaluation. The testing system was used to generate items for multiple choice examinations for first year undergraduate students in Material Engineering and Environmental Engineering from Technical University

Horea Iustin; Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

2004-01-01

381

Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers  

SciTech Connect

George Orwell`s {open_quotes}doublethink{close_quotes} should be generalized to {open_quotes}polythink{close_quotes} to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics.

Strom, D.J.; Stansbury, P.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Porter, S.W. Jr. [Porter Consultants, Inc., Ardmore, PA (United States)

1995-01-01

382

Answering the big questions about differential response in Colorado: Safety and cost outcomes from a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Over the past 20 years, jurisdictions across the United States have implemented differential response (DR), which provides child protective services with the flexibility to tailor their response to reports of child abuse or neglect based on the level of risk. Given the widespread adoption of DR, there has been an increasing demand from policymakers, practitioners, and community stakeholders to build the evidence base for this innovative child welfare approach. This study was designed to answer the big questions regarding the effect of differential response on child welfare outcomes and costs using a randomized controlled trial in five Colorado counties. Specifically, the study examined the safety outcomes and costs of families who were randomly assigned to either a family assessment response (FAR) or an investigation response (IR). According to the regression results, there were no differences between the tracks on measures of system re-involvement. However, survival analysis findings indicate that FAR families were 18% less likely, over time, to have a high risk assessment after their initial accepted referral than were IR families. The cost study revealed no differences between the tracks on initial costs for caseworker contacts, services, and out-of-home placements. However, the results suggest that follow-up costs for IR cases were significantly higher (p<0.001) than for FAR cases. The authors discuss policy and practice implications for jurisdictions considering DR. PMID:24997071

Winokur, Marc; Ellis, Raquel; Drury, Ida; Rogers, John

2015-01-01

383

Selection, Generalization, and Theories of Cause in Qualitative Physics Education Research: Answers to the Hard-Hitting Questions Asked by Skeptical Quantitative Researchers  

E-print Network

Qualitative research incorporates distinct methods for selecting data for analysis, generalizing results, and making causal claims. Unanswered questions about these methods may constrain researchers more familiar with quantitative methods from participating in or critically engaging with qualitative research. We use results from interviews with physics education researchers, a synthesis of the literature on research methodologies, and published examples of qualitative and quantitative research to answer hard-hitting questions that quantitative researchers may pose.

Robertson, Amy D; Scherr, Rachel E

2013-01-01

384

Rarely selected distractors in high stakes medical multiple-choice examinations and their recognition by item authors: a simulation and survey  

PubMed Central

Background Many medical exams use 5 options for multiple choice questions (MCQs), although the literature suggests that 3 options are optimal. Previous studies on this topic have often been based on non-medical examinations, so we sought to analyse rarely selected, 'non-functional' distractors (NF-D) in high stakes medical examinations, and their detection by item authors as well as psychometric changes resulting from a reduction in the number of options. Methods Based on Swiss Federal MCQ examinations from 2005-2007, the frequency of NF-D (selected by <1% or <5% of the candidates) was calculated. Distractors that were chosen the least or second least were identified and candidates who chose them were allocated to the remaining options using two extreme assumptions about their hypothetical behaviour: In case rarely selected distractors were eliminated, candidates could randomly choose another option - or purposively choose the correct answer, from which they had originally been distracted. In a second step, 37 experts were asked to mark the least plausible options. The consequences of a reduction from 4 to 3 or 2 distractors - based on item statistics or on the experts' ratings - with respect to difficulty, discrimination and reliability were modelled. Results About 70% of the 5-option-items had at least 1 NF-D selected by <1% of the candidates (97% for NF-Ds selected by <5%). Only a reduction to 2 distractors and assuming that candidates would switch to the correct answer in the absence of a 'non-functional' distractor led to relevant differences in reliability and difficulty (and to a lesser degree discrimination). The experts' ratings resulted in slightly greater changes compared to the statistical approach. Conclusions Based on item statistics and/or an expert panel's recommendation, the choice of a varying number of 3-4 (or partly 2) plausible distractors could be performed without marked deteriorations in psychometric characteristics. PMID:21106066

2010-01-01

385

Report to the New Jersey State Board of Agriculture Rutgers NJAES sponsored a forum, "GMOs: Questions and Answers for New Jersey Farmers," on May 9  

E-print Network

, "GMOs: Questions and Answers for New Jersey Farmers," on May 9 at the Rutgers EcoComplex in Bordentown. The economic injury is due to the larvae, which feed and develop inside the flower buds and prevent of the cranberry weevil aggregation pheromone. The results will help in the development of a lure for monitoring

Goodman, Robert M.

386

Summer Financial Aid Information and Application Read through the following information to help answer questions regarding your application for summer financial aid.  

E-print Network

Summer Financial Aid Information and Application Read through the following information to help answer questions regarding your application for summer financial aid. What steps do I need to complete in order to apply for Summer Financial Aid? Results of a FAFSA (Free Application for Federal Student Aid

Gering, Jon C.

387

I Didn't Know Oxygen Could Boil! What Preservice and Inservice Elementary Teachers' Answers to "Simple" Science Questions Reveals about Their Subject Matter Knowledge. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this descriptive study, the science subject matter knowledge of preservice and inservice elementary teachers was examined and compared. Over an eight-year period, answers to 13 science questions, including 10 from the US National Science Foundation's Survey of Public Attitudes Toward and Understanding of Science and Technology, were collected…

Rice, Diana C.

2005-01-01

388

What are propositions and why does a realist believe in them? To answer this, consider the question: What is asserted when you say (or think)  

E-print Network

What are propositions and why does a realist believe in them? To answer this, consider the question: What is asserted when you say (or think) "a is F"? Let's take as an example "This ink is black + context" is not what is asserted. It doesn't make sense to assert a "sentence + a context". Although

Fitelson, Branden

389

26 CFR 1.1(i)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income certain minor children (Temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income certain...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Normal Taxes...attributable to interest on principal created by earned income and...to 1987, will not affect the tax treatment of this income...

2011-04-01

390

26 CFR 1.1(i)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income certain minor children (Temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income certain...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Normal Taxes...attributable to interest on principal created by earned income and...to 1987, will not affect the tax treatment of this income...

2010-04-01

391

*Adapted, with permission, from Pavela, G. (2001). LPR 26: Questions and answers on classroom disruption. ASJA Law and Policy Report, July 18, 2001.  

E-print Network

have broad authority to manage the classroom environment. One court compared teachers to judges on classroom disruption. ASJA Law and Policy Report, July 18, 2001. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON CLASSROOM should disruptive behavior in the classroom be defined? A. Classroom disruption is generally regarded

392

26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary). 31.3306(b)-1T Section 31.3306(b)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

2011-04-01

393

26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary). 31.3306(b)-1T Section 31.3306(b)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

2010-04-01

394

Answers to Questions Commonly Asked by Families, Professionals, and Members of the Community. Information Pages for People Involved in the Lives of Individuals with Deaf-Blindness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains six information pages providing basic answers to questions commonly asked by people involved with individuals who are deaf blind. The first one is on understanding deaf-blindness and addresses what the condition is, its impact on the ability to receive information, how the condition affects caregiver strategies, and what it is…

Wiley, David

395

Multiple Choice Versus True-False: A Comparison of Reliabilities and Concurrent Validities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to gather empirical evidence to compare the reliabilities and concurrent validities of multiple choice and true-false tests that were written to measure understandings and relationships in the same content areas. (Author)

Frisbee, David A.

1973-01-01

396

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...service? Answer: Electronic and print services for the distribution of information may be relatively expensive in the marketplace because of the value vendors add in retrieving and organizing information in a useful way. If such information is also...

2014-01-01

397

January 15, 2003 page 1 of 7 Multiple Choice Randomization  

E-print Network

-choice randomized (MCR) examinations in which the order of the items or questions as well as the order of such MCR randomization on student performance and conclude that no adverse effect was detected even the randomization as well as the marking of these exams. MCR could also be implemented on various other platforms

McLeod, Ian

398

Instructor Perspectives of Multiple-Choice Questions in Summative Assessment for Novice Programmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning to program is known to be difficult for novices. High attrition and high failure rates in foundation-level programming courses undertaken at tertiary level in Computer Science programs, are commonly reported. A common approach to evaluating novice programming ability is through a combination of formative and summative assessments, with…

Shuhidan, Shuhaida; Hamilton, Margaret; D'Souza, Daryl

2010-01-01

399

Engaging academics with a simplified analysis of their multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appropriate analysis of students’ responses to an assessment is an essential step in improving the quality of the assessment itself as well as staff teaching and student learning. Many academics are unfamiliar with the formal processes used to analyze assessment results; the standard statistical methods associated with analyzing the validity and reliability of an assessment are perceived as being

Geoffrey T. Crisp; Edward J. Palmer

2007-01-01

400

Koerner_Answers 912.pdf Student questions: David Koerner colloquium on "NAU studies of Asteroids & Comets around  

E-print Network

determine what type of planets will form in the newborn solar system? Can you tell what disks will likely form gas giants? only small rocky planets, many many planets or very few? The short answer is no ­ we don't have many planet detections in start with disks. There are a few with debris disks, however

Shumway, John

401

Is obesity a risk factor for low back pain? An example of using the evidence to answer a clinical question  

E-print Network

Background: Obesity as a causal factor for low back pain has been controversial with no definitive answer to this date. The objective of this study was to determine whether obesity is associated with low back pain. In addition this paper aims...

Mirtz, Timothy A.; Greene, Leon

2005-04-11

402

Multiple choice set 1 This set of questions covers material from Section 2. Multiple choice is the same format as for the midterm.  

E-print Network

. If I buy the drug, what is the probability that it meets specifications? (a) 0.89 (b) 0.95 (c) 0.75 (d(Ac F) P(F) = 60/1000 490/1000 = 0.12. Q6. A company which produces a particular drug has two factories, A and B. 30% of the drug are made in factory A, 70% in factory B. Suppose that 95% of the drugs produced

Kulik, Rafal

403

Answering six questions in extracting children’s mismatch negativity through combining wavelet decomposition and independent component analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study combines wavelet decomposition and independent component analysis (ICA) to extract mismatch negativity (MMN) from\\u000a electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. As MMN is a small event-related potential (ERP), a systematic ICA based approach\\u000a is designed, exploiting MMN’s temporal, frequency and spatial information. Moreover, this study answers which type of EEG\\u000a recordings is more appropriate for ICA to extract MMN, what kind

Fengyu Cong; Igor Kalyakin; Hong Li; Tiina Huttunen-Scott; Yixiang Huang; Heikki Lyytinen; Tapani Ristaniemi

404

Quality assessment of expert answers to lay questions about cystic fibrosis from various language zones in Europe: the ECORN-CF project  

PubMed Central

Background The European Centres of Reference Network for Cystic Fibrosis (ECORN-CF) established an Internet forum which provides the opportunity for CF patients and other interested people to ask experts questions about CF in their mother language. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a detailed quality assessment tool to analyze quality of expert answers, 2) evaluate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this tool, and 3) explore changes in the quality of expert answers over the time frame of the project. Methods The quality assessment tool was developed by an expert panel. Five experts within the ECORN-CF project used the quality assessment tool to analyze the quality of 108 expert answers published on ECORN-CF from six language zones. 25 expert answers were scored at two time points, one year apart. Quality of answers was also assessed at an early and later period of the project. Individual rater scores and group mean scores were analyzed for each expert answer. Results A scoring system and training manual were developed analyzing two quality categories of answers: content and formal quality. For content quality, the grades based on group mean scores for all raters showed substantial agreement between two time points, however this was not the case for the grades based on individual rater scores. For formal quality the grades based on group mean scores showed only slight agreement between two time points and there was also poor agreement between time points for the individual grades. The inter-rater agreement for content quality was fair (mean kappa value 0.232 ± 0.036, p < 0.001) while only slight agreement was observed for the grades of the formal quality (mean kappa value 0.105 ± 0.024, p < 0.001). The quality of expert answers was rated high (four language zones) or satisfactory (two language zones) and did not change over time. Conclusions The quality assessment tool described in this study was feasible and reliable when content quality was assessed by a group of raters. Within ECORN-CF, the tool will help ensure that CF patients all over Europe have equal possibility of access to high quality expert advice on their illness. PMID:22309508

2012-01-01

405

Presenter Responses to Questions Not Answered During the Webinar Note: Some of the responses to questions below refer to USGS Circular 1376, Streamflow Depletion by  

E-print Network

electronically at http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1376/ . For paper copies of that publication, and further questions. Analytical models cannot address these types of complexity. How was ET calculated for the model? ET is available online at: http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2010/5149/ #12;2 Were pumping rates used in the models based

406

Heart Health Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T) in front of the answer.  

E-print Network

EAT SMART Heart Health Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check not planning to use the information in this program. # I have heart disease or high blood pressure. YES

407

An Introduction to Classical Test Theory as Applied to Conceptual Multiple-choice Tests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of conceptual multiple-choice tests have been developed addressing many different areas of physics. These tests are typically used to determine what difficulties students have with specific content and to evaluate teaching practices and curriculum. The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with a general overview of the key aspects of the development process from the perspective of classical test theory and critical issues that distinguish high-quality conceptual multiple-choice tests from those that are not.

Engelhardt, Paula V.

2009-04-11

408

Exploring the Validity of Assessment in Anatomy: Do Images Influence Cognitive Processes Used in Answering Extended Matching Questions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment is an important aspect of medical education because it tests students' competence and motivates them to study. Various assessment methods, with and without images, are used in the study of anatomy. In this study, we investigated the use of extended matching questions (EMQs). To gain insight into the influence of images on the…

Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Bouter, Shifra T.; van den Hurk, Marianne M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

2014-01-01

409

Answering Gauguin?s Questions: Where Are We Coming From, Where Are We Going, and What Are We?  

ScienceCinema

Ellis discusses how the knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, known as the Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions, for example: What is the origin of the matter in the Universe, how does its mass originate, what is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe, and are there additional dimensions of space?

John Ellis

2010-09-01

410

Answering Gauguin’s Questions: Where Are We Coming From, Where Are We Going, and What Are We?  

SciTech Connect

Ellis discusses how the knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, known as the Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions, for example: What is the origin of the matter in the Universe, how does its mass originate, what is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe, and are there additional dimensions of space?

John Ellis

2010-05-26

411

question_1296786512 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

An exciting development in this area that would be encouraged by attempting to answer this important question, is the connection between the observations of cancer risk modulation by epidemiologists and immune mechanisms that appear to be involved, described by immunologists.

412

Screening, assessment, and treatment of osteoporosis for the nurse practitioner: Key questions and answers for clinical practice—A Canadian perspective  

PubMed Central

Purpose Using a case-based approach, we review key clinical questions relevant to nurse practitioners (NPs) regarding the screening, assessment, and treatment of patients at risk for osteoporosis and fractures in a Canadian general practice setting. Data sources A case presentation with relevant questions and answers to guide management of a patient. Conclusions Osteoporosis is a common condition in both the aging male and female populations. Screening, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis is lagging behind relative to other chronic disease states. NPs have a unique opportunity to help reduce this care gap by playing an integral role in the identification, risk stratification, and treatment of patients at risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Implications for practice This case highlights the important role an NP can have in screening a patient previously not diagnosed or managed for osteoporosis. Performing a focused history and physical exam of the patient to determine appropriate screening tests and fracture risk will help in guiding treatment decisions. PMID:24911524

Rice, Peggy; Mehan, Upender; Hamilton, Celeste; Kim, Sandra

2014-01-01

413

Finding Relationships between Multiple-Choice Math Tests and Their Stem-Equivalent Constructed Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study takes a close look at relationships between scores on a Mathematics standardized test in two different testing formats--Multiple-Choice (MC) and Constructed Response (CR). Many studies have been dedicated to finding correlations between item format characteristics with regards to race and gender. Few studies, however, have attempted to…

Chaoui, Nayla Aad

2011-01-01

414

Grading Multiple Choice Exams with Low-Cost and Portable Computer-Vision Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although technology for automatic grading of multiple choice exams has existed for several decades, it is not yet as widely available or affordable as it should be. The main reasons preventing this adoption are the cost and the complexity of the setup procedures. In this paper, "Eyegrade," a system for automatic grading of multiple…

Fisteus, Jesus Arias; Pardo, Abelardo; García, Norberto Fernández

2013-01-01

415

A Better Benchmark Assessment: Multiple-Choice versus Project-Based  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this literature review and Ex Post Facto descriptive study was to determine which type of benchmark assessment, multiple-choice or project-based, provides the best indication of general success on the history portion of the CST (California Standards Tests). The result of the study indicates that although the project-based benchmark…

Peariso, Jamon F.

2006-01-01

416

A Comparison of Parametric and Nonparametric Approaches to Item Analysis for Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the parametric multiple-choice model and the nonparametric kernel smoothing approach to estimating option characteristic functions (OCCs) using an empirical criterion, the stability of curve estimates over occasions that represents random error. The potential utility of graphical OCCs in item analysis was illustrated with…

Lei, Pui-Wa; Dunbar, Stephen B.; Kolen, Michael J.

2004-01-01

417

A Method for Imputing Response Options for Missing Data on Multiple-Choice Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When missing values are present in item response data, there are a number of ways one might impute a correct or incorrect response to a multiple-choice item. There are significantly fewer methods for imputing the actual response option an examinee may have provided if he or she had not omitted the item either purposely or accidentally. This…

Wolkowitz, Amanda A.; Skorupski, William P.

2013-01-01

418

Gender Differences in Performance on Multiple-Choice and Constructed Response Mathematics Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in performance on multiple-choice and constructed-response items in mathematics were studied with 3592 11th graders taking a high school graduation examination. Results suggest that gender differences in mathematics may be linked to content and item format, thus supporting the usefulness of a many-faceted Rasch model for…

Garner, Mary; Engelhard, George, Jr.

1999-01-01

419

Visual Attention for Solving Multiple-Choice Science Problem: An Eye-Tracking Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employed an eye-tracking technique to examine students' visual attention when solving a multiple-choice science problem. Six university students participated in a problem-solving task to predict occurrences of landslide hazards from four images representing four combinations of four factors. Participants' responses and visual attention…

Tsai, Meng-Jung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Lai, Meng-Lung; Liu, Wan-Yi; Yang, Fang-Ying

2012-01-01

420

Further Issues in Effect Size Estimation for One-Sample Multiple-Choice-Type Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses models underlying the use of 1-sample effect size indicators that permit the comparison of effect sizes obtained from different multiple-choice studies by indexing all studies to the results that would have been obtained if there had been only 2 choices. The effect size indicator, the proportion index, (II), is based on a model implying that the probability

Robert Rosenthal; Donald B. Rubin

1991-01-01

421

A Self-Correcting Approach to Multiple-Choice Exams Improves Students' Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Montepare suggested the use of a self-correcting approach to multiple-choice tests: Students first take the exam as usual, but are allowed to hand in a self-corrected version afterwards. The idea of this approach is that the additional interaction with the material may foster further learning. To examine whether such an approach actually improves…

Grühn, Daniel; Cheng, Yanhua

2014-01-01

422

A best first search exact algorithm for the Multiple-choice Multidimensional Knapsack Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an optimal algorithm for the Multiple-choice Multidimensional Knapsack Problem MMKP. The main principle of the approach is twofold: (i) to generate an initial feasible solution as a starting lower bound, and (ii) at different levels of the search tree to determine an intermediate upper bound obtained by solving an auxiliary problem called MMKPaux and perform

Abdelkader Sbihi

2007-01-01

423

Using the Distractor Categories of Multiple-Choice Items to Improve IRT Linking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simulation and real data studies are used to investigate the value of modeling multiple-choice distractors on item response theory linking. Using the characteristic curve linking procedure for Bock's (1972) nominal response model presented by Kim and Hanson (2002), all-category linking (i.e., a linking based on all category characteristic curves…

Kim, Jee-Seon

2006-01-01

424

A Latent-Change Scaling Model for Longitudinal Multiple Choice Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A latent-change scaling model for the analysis of repeated-measures multiple-choice data is presented. The model extends previous work by combining latent class analysis and low dimensional scaling techniques in a longitudinal framework where subjects may change their preferences for the response categories over time. The latent structural…

Kim, Jee-Seon

2005-01-01

425

Using Automated Questions to Assess Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary, and  

E-print Network

Using Automated Questions to Assess Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary, and Effects of Tutorial, reading comprehension, vocabulary, multiple-choice cloze tests, embedded experiment, within on automatically generating questions to estimate children's reading comprehension and vocabulary for two purposes

Mostow, Jack

426

Treatment of burns in the first 24 hours: simple and practical guide by answering 10 questions in a step-by-step form  

PubMed Central

Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose. PMID:22583548

2012-01-01

427

The art and science of searching MEDLINE to answer clinical questions. Finding the right number of articles.  

PubMed

The current medical environment makes information retrieval a matter of practical importance for clinicians. Many avenues present themselves to the clinician, but here we focus on MEDLINE by summarizing the current state of the art and providing an innovative approach for skill enhancement. Because new search engines appear rapidly, we focus on generic principles that can be easily adapted to various systems, even those not yet available. We propose an idealized classification system for the results of a MEDLINE search. Type A searches produce a few articles of high quality that are directly focused on the immediate question. Type B searches yield a large number of articles, some more relevant than others. Type C searches produce few or no articles, and those that are located are not germane. Providing that relevant, high-quality articles do exist, type B and C searches may often be improved with attention to search technique. Problems stem from poor recall and poor precision. The most daunting task lies in achieving the balance between too few and too many articles. By providing a theoretical framework and several practical examples, we prepare the searcher to overcome the following barriers: a) failure to begin with a well-built question; b) failure to use the Medical Subject Headings; c) failure to leverage the relationship between recall and precision; and d) failure to apply proper limits to the search. Thought and practice will increase the utility and enjoyment of searching MEDLINE. PMID:10507188

Allison, J J; Kiefe, C I; Weissman, N W; Carter, J; Centor, R M

1999-01-01

428

The Relationships of Attitudes toward Multiple-Choice Tests and Convergent Production, Divergent Production, and Risk-Taking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research investigated the claim that certain intellectual characteristics predict attitudes toward multiple-choice tests, particularly the claim that creative persons hold negative attitudes toward these tests. The study examined the relationships between attitudes toward multiple-choice tests and convergent production, divergent…

Horber, Dorothy T.; Geisinger, Kurt F.

429

Meta-Evaluation in Clinical Anatomy: A Practical Application of Item Response Theory in Multiple Choice Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of anatomy education has changed substantially in recent decades, though the traditional multiple-choice written examination remains the cornerstone of assessing students' knowledge. This study sought to measure the quality of a clinical anatomy multiple-choice final examination using item response theory (IRT) models. One hundred…

Severo, Milton; Tavares, Maria A. Ferreira

2010-01-01

430

The Effects of Clinically Relevant Multiple-Choice Items on the Statistical Discrimination of Physician Clinical Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test the effect of clinically relevant multiple-choice item content on the validity of statistical discriminations of physicians' clinical competence, data were collected from a field test of the Emergency Medicine Examination, test items for the certification of specialists in emergency medicine. Two 91-item multiple-choice subscales were…

Downing, Steven M.; Maatsch, Jack L.

431

Meta-Evaluation in Clinical Anatomy: A Practical Application of Item Response Theory in Multiple Choice Examinations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study measuring the quality of a clinical anatomy multiple-choice final examination using item response theory (IRT) models. The purpose for this study was to evaluate how well a traditional multiple choice exam from an older curriculum discriminated undergraduate medical students taking an updated clinical based anatomy course. Outcomes are discussed.

Milton Severo (University of Porto Medical Education)

2009-11-18

432

End-of-Grade Multiple-Choice Test Results, 2001-2002. Measuring Up. E&R Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) students in grades 3 through 8 took the North Carolina End-of-Grade (EOG) multiple-choice tests during the months of May and June of 2002. These tests are the basis of the accountability program referred to as ABCs, Accountability, Basics, and Control. WCPSS EOG multiple-choice results for 2001-2002 show…

Dulaney, Chuck; Regan, Roger

433

Sex Differences in the Relationship of Advanced Placement Essay and Multiple-Choice Scores to Grades in College Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essay and multiple-choice scores from Advanced Placement (AP) examinations in American History, European History, English Language and Composition, and Biology were matched with freshman grades in a sample of 32 colleges. Multiple-choice scores from the American History and Biology examinations were superior to essays for predicting overall grade…

Bridgeman, Brent; Lewis, Charles

434

Answering the big questions in neuroscience: DoD's experimental research wing takes on massive, high-risk projects.  

PubMed

When the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) asks research questions, it goes big. This is, after all, the same agency that put together teams of scientists and engineers to find a way to connect the worlds computers and, in doing so, developed the precursor to the Internet. DARPA, the experimental research wing of the U.S. Department of Defense, funds the types of research queries that scientists and engineers dream of tackling. Unlike a traditional granting agency that conservatively metes out its funding and only to projects with a good chance of success, DARPA puts its money on massive, multi-institutional projects that have no guarantees, but have enormous potential. In the 1990s, DARPA began its biological and medical science research to improve the safety, health, and well being of military personnel, according to DARPA program manager and Army Colonel Geoffrey Ling, Ph.D., M.D. More recently, DARPA has entered the realm of neuroscience and neurotechnology. Its focus with these projects is on its prime customer, the U.S. Department of Defense, but Ling acknowledged that technologies developed in its programs "certainly have potential to cascade into civilian uses." PMID:22344946

Mertz, Leslie

2012-01-01

435

Can Item Format (Multiple Choice vs. Open-Ended) Account for Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate differential performance of boys and girls on open-ended (OE) and multiple-choice (MC) items on the 1988 and 1991 International Assessment of Educational Progress (IAEP) mathematics test. In the 1988 mathematics assessment, a representative sample of approximately 1,000 13-year-olds in each of the six participating countries was assessed. In the 1991 mathematics assessment,

Michal Beller; Naomi Gafni

2000-01-01

436

On the Construct Validity of Multiple Choice Items for Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study 590 third-grade students took one of four reading comprehension tests with either multiple- choice items or open-ended items. Each also took 32 tests indicating 16 semantic Structure-of-Intellect (si) abilities. Four conditions or groups were distinguished on the basis of the reading comprehension tests. The four 33 x 33 correlation matrices were analyzed si multaneously with a four-group

Huub van den Bergh

1990-01-01

437

An Exact Algorithm for the Multiple-Choice Multidimensional Knapsack Based on the Core  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a branch and bound algorithm to solve the multiple-choice multidimensional knapsack problem. The\\u000a branch and bound tree is arranged based on the orderings in the core and navigated in a depth first manner, which while consuming\\u000a low memory effectively causes the core to be expanded by need. We use Osorio’s mixed constraint and the linear

Mohammad Reza Razzazi; Taha Ghasemi

438

[Nursing] Test Pool Questions. Area II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual consists of area 2 test pool questions which are designed to assist instructors in selecting appropriate questions to help prepare practical nursing students for the Oklahoma state board exam. Multiple choice questions are utilized to facilitate testing of nursing 2 curriculum objectives. Each test contains questions covering each…

Watkins, Nettie; Patton, Bob

439

The validity of multiple choice practical examinations as an alternative to traditional free response examination formats in gross anatomy.  

PubMed

Traditionally, an anatomy practical examination is conducted using a free response format (FRF). However, this format is resource-intensive, as it requires a relatively large time investment from anatomy course faculty in preparation and grading. Thus, several interventions have been reported where the response format was changed to a selected response format (SRF). However, validity evidence from those interventions has not proved entirely adequate for the practical anatomy examination, and thus, further investigation was required. In this study, the validity evidence of SRF was examined using multiple choice questions (MCQs) constructed according to different levels of Bloom's taxonomy in comparison with the traditional free response format. A group of 100 medical students registered in a gross anatomy course volunteered to be enrolled in this study. The experimental MCQ examinations were part of graded midterm and final steeplechase practical examination. Volunteer students were instructed to complete the practical examinations twice, once in each of two separate examination rooms. The two separate examinations consisted of a traditional free response format and MCQ format. Scores from the two examinations (FRF and MCQ) displayed a strong correlation, even with higher level Bloom's taxonomy questions. In conclusion, the results of this study provide empirical evidence that the SRF (MCQ) response format is a valid method and can be used as an alternative to the traditional FRF steeplechase examination. PMID:23109285

Shaibah, Hassan Sami; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

2013-01-01

440

GoodQuestions Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GoodQuestions is a pedagogical strategy designed to improve calculus instruction for higher-level students by adapting two methods developed in physics instruction: ConcepTests (conceptual multiple-choice questions) and Just-in-Time Teaching (a pedagogical strategy that blends web technology with active learning in classroom situations). The project web site includes class materials, links to math classes where the strategy is being employed, news articles, and information on the project team.

2004-04-03

441

Ebola virus: questions, answers, and more questions.  

PubMed

Ebola virus causes a hemorrhagic fever with a high case-fatality rate. Treatment remains supportive although a variety of specific treatments are still in the early stages of investigation. This report reviews the clinical virology of Ebola virus, the reported proposed treatments, and the current outbreak. PMID:25452350

Brizendine, Kyle D

2014-12-01

442

Field-Based Teacher Research: How Teachers and Scientists Working Together Answers Questions about Turtle Nesting Ecology while Enhancing Teachers' Inquiry Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing rigorous academic supplement to a professional development program for teachers, QUEST is a fusion of Drexel University's environmental science research department with Princeton University's Program in Teacher Preparation. Completed in the summers of 2012 (in partnership with Earthwatch) and 2013 in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, QUEST's terrapin field research program enhances K-12 teachers' ecological knowledge, develops inquiry-based thinking in the classroom, and builds citizen science engagement. With a focus on quality question development and data analysis to answer questions, teachers are coached in developing, implementing, and presenting independent research projects on diamondback terrapin nesting ecology. As a result, teachers participating in QUEST's week long program bring a realistic example of science in action into their classrooms, helping to develop their own students' critical thinking skills. For teachers, this program provides training towards educating students on how to do real and imaginative science - subsequently sending students to university better prepared to engage in their own independent research. An essential component of the collaboration through QUEST, in addition to the teacher's experience during and after the summer institute, is the research data collected which supplements that of the Principal Investigator. In 2012, by documenting terrapin nest site predators, teachers gained valuable scientific experience, while Drexel acquired important ecological data which would have not been able to be collected otherwise. In 2013, teachers helped answer important questions about terrapin nesting success post Superstorm Sandy. In fact, the 2013 QUEST teachers are the first to visualize the frighteningly increased erosion of a primary terrapin nesting site due to Sandy; showing how most terrapin nests now lie in the bay, instead of safe on shore. Teachers comment that interacting with scientists in the field, and contributing to the research was 'an invaluable experience.' Conceptual models of QUEST's philosophy will be distributed at our presentation to encourage audience members interested in starting their own field-based educator professional development project. Through our presentation of this unique program, we will share how we have successfully incorporated real scientific research into classrooms through teachers' experiences, and discuss the lessons learned regarding replication and sustainability of educator-scientist collaborations.

Winters, J. M.; Jungblut, D.; Catena, A. N.; Rubenstein, D. I.

2013-12-01

443

Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... down the road. A related "all or nothing" misconception is that all heavy drinkers are automatically alcoholics. ... year. This helps to counter a commonly held misconception that “everybody” drinks a lot. The second purpose ...

444

Get Your Medicare Questions Answered  

MedlinePLUS

... and through your State Health Insurance Assistance Program (SHIP). SHIPs are state programs that get money from the ... local health insurance counseling to people with Medicare. SHIPs are independent and not connected to any insurance ...

445

Questions and Answers about Monkeypox  

MedlinePLUS

... the CDC case count page . Check the CDC Web site for the monkeypox case definition and other ... officers. Additional information will be posted on CDC’s Web site as it becomes available. Pets and Monkeypox ...

446

Answers to Questions: Nuclear Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electricity is an increasingly important part of our everyday lives. Its versatility allows one to heat, cool, and light homes; cook meals; watch television; listen to music; power computers; make medical diagnosis and treatment; explore the vastness of space; and study the tiniest molecules. Nuclear energy, second to coal, surpasses natural gas,…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

447

Answering Questions About Underage Drinking  

MedlinePLUS

... in Europe is younger than it is in the U.S. Why don't European kids have alcohol-related ... teen drinking and accidents. However, after careful study, the U.S. Department of Transportation concluded that the minimum drinking ...

448

HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... the HPV vaccine was introduced. Q: How long will the HPV vaccine last? A: Protection provided by ... the ability to provide protection over time. Q: Will the vaccine require a booster? A: Currently in ...

449

Internet firewalls: questions and answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As organizations consider connecting to the Internet, the issue of internetwork security becomes more important. There are many tools and components that can be used to secure a network, one of which is a firewall. Modern firewalls offer highly flexible private network security by controlling and monitoring all communications passing into or out of the private network. Specifically designed for security, firewalls become the private network's single point of attack from Internet intruders. Application gateways (or proxies) that have been written to be secure against even the most persistent attacks ensure that only authorized users and services access the private network. One-time passwords prevent intruders from `sniffing' and replaying the usernames and passwords of authorized users to gain access to the private network. Comprehensive logging permits constant and uniform system monitoring. `Address spoofing' attacks are prevented. The private network may use registered or unregistered IP addresses behind the firewall. Firewall-to-firewall encryption establishes a `virtual private network' across the Internet, preventing intruders from eavesdropping on private communications, eliminating the need for costly dedicated lines.

Ker, Keith

1996-03-01

450

Bone Cancer: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Are there different types of primary bone cancer? Yes. Cancer can begin in any type of bone tissue. Bones are made up ... follow-up treatment necessary? What does it involve? Yes. Bone cancer ... and should report any unusual symptoms right away. Follow-up varies for ...

451

Question & Answer QQ&&AA  

E-print Network

gravitation provided a further abstraction and simplification, with Kepler's laws following as simple. Then came Johannes Kepler, who came up with simple theories (ellipti- cal heliocentric orbits; equal areas in equal times) that empirically accoun- ted for Brahe's data. Fifty years later, Newton's law of universal

452

Questions and Answers about PKU  

MedlinePLUS

... in Washington, D.C. (ulichter@cnmc.org, the web site http://www.cnmc.org ). There also is a "loading" test, but it is only 90% accurate and I ... in the Adults with PKU section of the Web site. These are practical guidelines ... of time (between blood tests) can that cause intermittent episodes of behavior problems ...

453

Question and Answer Guide for  

E-print Network

? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Are there any tips for creating business plans? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 How can I strengthen the financial health of my business? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Which numbers should I use to assess the ongoing financial health of my business

Liskiewicz, Maciej

454

Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for You Understanding Generic Drugs Drugs@FDA Electronic Orange Book First-Time Generic Drug Approvals Generic ... also search for generic equivalents by using the " Electronic Orange Book ." Search by proprietary "brand" name," then ...

455

Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... in many travel destinations, even when using luxury tourist accommodations. Technical content reviewed by the Centers for ... travelers before departure are Canada, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. How does a person know ...

456

Comparing a Script Concordance Examination to a Multiple-Choice Examination on a Core Internal Medicine Clerkship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Script concordance (SC) questions, in which a learner is given a brief clinical scenario then asked if additional information makes one hypothesis more or less likely, with answers compared to a panel of experts, are designed to reflect a learner's clinical reasoning. Purpose: The purpose is to compare reliability, validity, and learner satisfaction between a three-option modified SC examination

William Kelly; Steven Durning; Gerald Denton

2012-01-01

457

Guidelines for identifying and revising culturally biased multiple-choice nursing examination items.  

PubMed

To increase the diversity of the RN workforce, programs of nursing need to recruit, retain, and graduate a multicultural student body. One reason attributed to high attrition rates for minority students is bias in nursing examinations. Ensuring that nursing assessments are valid and reliable measures of student learning will improve outcomes for diverse students. The author explores the issue of bias in multiple-choice nursing examinations. Bias is defined, and its prevalence in nursing examinations is discussed. Guidelines are provided to assist evaluating and revising test items that are fair for students of all cultural groups. PMID:22024683

Hicks, Nikole Anderson

2011-01-01

458

question_1296796037 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

If this important question is answered we would be able to develop a highly tailored therapeutic approach for cancers. Actually, inflammatory type of the anti-tumor immune response such as IFN-g can also induce initial tumor inhibition but eventual tumor escape and progression.

459

The Gentle Art of Questioning: Writing Great Clicker Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How does a teacher use questioning effectively? This workshop will focus on writing those questions that engage students, spark their curiosity, help recap material, give you insight into their thinking, or help them learn critical ideas in physics. We will focus on ``peer instruction'' -- a research-tested method of requiring students to discuss challenging questions with one another. We will investigate the surprising power of multiple-choice questions to achieve critical thinking skills. Finally, we will look at writing questions that align with our goals for students, discuss the elements of effective questions, and practice writing questions and work on improving them.

Chasteen, Stephanie

2012-02-01

460

Checklist to Determine if the Agreement on Internal Trade Applies to a UWO Purchase If the answer to every question falls in a shaded area, then the Agreement applies.  

E-print Network

Checklist to Determine if the Agreement on Internal Trade Applies to a UWO Purchase If the answer to every question falls in a shaded area, then the Agreement applies. 1. Is this a purchase, lease time, the total value over the life of the contract (including possible extensions) must be considered

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

461

Template for NSF Data Management Plan. In general, the data management plan should answer these two questions: 1) What data is generated by your project? 2) What is your plan for  

E-print Network

questions: 1) What data is generated by your project? 2) What is your plan for managing the data? 1Template for NSF Data Management Plan. In general, the data management plan should answer these two. Expected Data Describe the types of data, samples, physical collections, software, or other material

Collar, Juan I.

462

Two New Statistics To Detect Answer Copying. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two new indices to detect answer copying on a multiple-choice test, S(1) and S(2) (subscripts), are proposed. The S(1) index is similar to the K-index (P. Holland, 1996) and the K-overscore(2), (K2) index (L. Sotaridona and R. Meijer, in press), but the distribution of the number of matching incorrect answers of the source (examinee s) and the…

Sotaridona, Leonardo S.; Meijer, Rob R.

463

Mystery #5 Answer  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... the questions are provided. 1.   There are no endemic species of cactus on any of the islands. Answer: FALSE. Endemic ... due to decimation by goats and competition with non-native vegetation. Answer: TRUE. Invasive plants such as quinine ...

2013-04-22

464

Web-MCQ: A set of methods and freely available open source code for administering online multiple choice question assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

University of Bolton, Bolton, Lancashire, England E-learning approaches have received increasing attention in recent years.\\u000a Accordingly, a number of tools have become available to assist the nonexpert computer user in constructing and managing virtual\\u000a learning environments, and implementing computer-based and\\/or online procedures to support pedagogy. Both commercial and free\\u000a packages are now available, with new developments emerging periodically. Commercial products

Claire Hewson

2007-01-01

465

Signals and systems assessment: Comparison of responses to multiple choice conceptual questions and open-ended final exam problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validity of the Signals and Systems Concept Inventory (SSCI) was evaluated by comparing students’ performance on the SSCI to open-ended final exam problems. An assessment instrument is said to be valid to the extent that it measures what it was designed to measure. The SSCI was designed to measure students’ understanding of core concepts in undergraduate signals and systems

Kathleen E. Wage; John R. Buck; Margret A. Hjalmarson; Jill K. Nelson

2011-01-01

466

Formulation of Multiple Choice Questions as a Revision Exercise at the End of a Teaching Module in Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The graduate medical students often get less opportunity for clarifying their doubts and to reinforce their concepts after lecture classes. Assessment of the effect of MCQ preparation by graduate medical students as a revision exercise on the topic "Mineral metabolism." At the end of regular teaching module on the topic "Mineral metabolism,"…

Bobby, Zachariah; Radhika, M. R.; Nandeesha, H.; Balasubramanian, A.; Prerna, Singh; Archana, Nimesh; Thippeswamy, D. N.

2012-01-01

467

10 Tips on Writing Good Multiple Choice Questions Karen A. Garman Ed.D., MAPP, President, HELP, Inc.  

E-print Network

. Is the measure of central tendency least influenced by the value of each score BETTER: The mean of a distributionth percentile c. arithmetic average d. measure of central tendency least influence by the value

Gleeson, Joseph G.

468

An Empirical Comparison of DDF Detection Methods for Understanding the Causes of DIF in Multiple-Choice Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared and illustrated four differential distractor functioning (DDF) detection methods for analyzing multiple-choice items. The log-linear approach, two item response theory-model-based approaches with likelihood ratio tests, and the odds ratio approach were compared to examine the congruence among the four DDF detection methods.…

Suh, Youngsuk; Talley, Anna E.

2015-01-01

469

So Many Choices, So Little Time: Strategies for Understanding and Taking Multiple-Choice Exams in History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning as much as possible about what to expect and how best to select among response choices enables students to improve their scores so as to reflect more fully their knowledge and abilities, whether taking the SAT, ACT, AP history exams, multiple-choice exams in college courses, the GRE, or any other standardized examinations that include…

Blackey, Robert

2009-01-01

470

The Development and Validation of a Two-Tiered Multiple-Choice Instrument to Identify Alternative Conceptions in Earth Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and…

Mangione, Katherine Anna

2010-01-01

471

Force Concept Inventory-based multiple-choice test for investigating students' representational consistency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates studentsâ ability to interpret multiple representations consistently (i.e., representational consistency) in the context of the force concept. For this purpose we developed the Representational Variant of the Force Concept Inventory (R-FCI), which makes use of nine items from the 1995 version of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). These original FCI items were redesigned using various representations (such as motion map, vectorial and graphical), yielding 27 multiple-choice items concerning four central concepts underpinning the force concept: Newtonâs first, second, and third laws, and gravitation. We provide some evidence for the validity and reliability of the R-FCI; this analysis is limited to the student population of one Finnish high school. The students took the R-FCI at the beginning and at the end of their first high school physics course. We found that studentsâ (n=168) representational consistency (whether scientifically correct or not) varied considerably depending on the concept. On average, representational consistency and scientifically correct understanding increased during the instruction, although in the post-test only a few students performed consistently both in terms of representations and scientifically correct understanding. We also compared studentsâ (n=87) results of the R-FCI and the FCI, and found that they correlated quite well. Please note the published erratum when examining this article.

Nieminen, Pasi; Savinainen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni

2012-01-20

472

Test of understanding of vectors: A reliable multiple-choice vector concept test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we discuss the findings of our research on students' understanding of vector concepts in problems without physical context. First, we develop a complete taxonomy of the most frequent errors made by university students when learning vector concepts. This study is based on the results of several test administrations of open-ended problems in which a total of 2067 students participated. Using this taxonomy, we then designed a 20-item multiple-choice test [Test of understanding of vectors (TUV)] and administered it in English to 423 students who were completing the required sequence of introductory physics courses at a large private Mexican university. We evaluated the test's content validity, reliability, and discriminatory power. The results indicate that the TUV is a reliable assessment tool. We also conducted a detailed analysis of the students' understanding of the vector concepts evaluated in the test. The TUV is included in the Supplemental Material as a resource for other researchers studying vector learning, as well as instructors teaching the material.

Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

2014-06-01

473

Preguntas Y Respuestas, Programa para Ninos Migratorios Bajo el Titulo I de ESEA. 1971. (Questions and Answers, Program for Migrant Children Under ESEA Title I. 1971).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 is specifically designed to help educationally deprived children. It was amended in 1966 to include the children of migratory agricultural workers. Today more than 235,000 migrant children receive educational and special supplementary services under Title I. Answers to some of the…

Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Office of Programs for the Disadvantaged.

474

Semaphorin-6A controls guidance of corticospinal tract axons at multiple choice points  

PubMed Central

Background The trajectory of corticospinal tract (CST) axons from cortex to spinal cord involves a succession of choice points, each of which is controlled by multiple guidance molecules. To assess the involvement of transmembrane semaphorins and their plexin receptors in the guidance of CST axons, we have examined this tract in mutants of Semaphorin-6A (Sema6A), Plexin-A2 (PlxnA2) and Plexin-A4 (PlxnA4). Results We describe defects in CST guidance in Sema6A mutants at choice points at the mid-hindbrain boundary (MHB) and in navigation through the pons that dramatically affect how many axons arrive to the hindbrain and spinal cord and result in hypoplasia of the CST. We also observe defects in guidance within the hindbrain where a proportion of axons aberrantly adopt a ventrolateral position and fail to decussate. This function in the hindbrain seems to be mediated by the known Sema6A receptor PlxnA4, which is expressed by CST axons. Guidance at the MHB, however, appears independent of this and of the other known receptor, PlxnA2, and may depend instead on Sema6A expression on CST axons themselves at embryonic stages. Conclusion These data identify Sema6A as a major contributor to the guidance of CST axons at multiple choice points. They highlight the active control of guidance at the MHB and also implicate the inferior olive as an important structure in the guidance of CST axons within the hindbrain. They also suggest that Sema6A, which is strongly expressed by oligodendrocytes, may affect CST regeneration in adults. PMID:19063725

Rünker, Annette E; Little, Graham E; Suto, Fumikazu; Fujisawa, Hajime; Mitchell, Kevin J

2008-01-01

475

1 Exam 3 Review Ch 9a: Key Question: "Are you Rational?" Ans: no (subjective,  

E-print Network

you use?" Ans: hill-climbing, means-ends, analogies; insight suffers from not thinking outside the box, version of question, etc.. Transitive: same ordering across multiple choices: Chicken ¡ Fish; Fish ¡ Tofu

O'Reilly, Randall C.

476

Comparing Delay Discounting Rates When Using the Fill-in-the-Blank and Multiple-Choice Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several methods have been devised to measure delay discounting. The present study recruited university students to complete a delay-discounting task involving five different outcomes (finding a dating partner, free cigarettes, winning $100,000, being owed $100,000, and obtaining one's ideal body image) that was administered using either the fill-in-the blank (FITB) or multiple-choice (MC) method. Results showed that the different administration

Jeffrey N. Weatherly; Adam Derenne

2011-01-01

477

Meter Damage: Many customers have questions about who is responsible for repair to the electrical service at their homes. These pages may help to answer  

E-print Network

Meter Damage: Many customers have questions about who is responsible for repair. weather head stack meter base connectors house knob weather head connectors mast clamp stack meter base meter meter #12; Let's start with definitions: Meter base: This is the metal box mounted

Rose, Annkatrin

478

Five Hundred Questions Kids Ask about Sex and Some of the Answers: Sex Education for Parents, Teachers and Young People Themselves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is based on the premise that sexual expression is a way for people to show affection and love for one another. The book is divided into six chapters that cover topics related to sexuality and growing up. The sections in each chapter contain questions that preteens and teenagers typically ask and provide clear, unambiguous, and…

Younger, Frances

479

Read the questions below, and please circle the choice that best describes your current relationship with the specified person. There are no correct answers; we only care about  

E-print Network

Read the questions below, and please circle the choice that best describes your current and opinions. 1) Circle the picture below that best describes how connected you feel with your future self (you in 10 years). Current self = you now Future self = you in 10 years 2) Circle the picture below that best

Knutson, Brian

480

Playing Forty Questions: Responding to Justice Roberts' Concerns in Caperton and Some Tentative Answers About Operationalizing Judicial Recusal and Due Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chief Justice of the United States would probably have excelled as a negative debater in high school forensics competitions. Good negative debaters are, as my high school English teacher put it, “great point-pickers” in that they frequently challenge affirmative proposals with a series of “what if?” or “how about?” or “what would you do if?” questions designed to leave

Jeffrey W. Stempel

2009-01-01

481

Do Workshops in Evidence-Based Practice Equip Participants to Identify and Answer Questions Requiring Consideration of Clinical Research? A Diagnostic Skill Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires practitioners to identify and formulate questions in response to patient encounters, and to seek, select, and appraise applicable clinical research. A standardized workshop format serves as the model for training of medical educators in these skills. We developed an evaluation exercise to assess the ability…

Wyer, Peter C,; Naqvi, Zoon; Dayan, Peter S.; Celentano, James J.; Eskin, Barnet; Graham, Mark J.

2009-01-01

482

Unexpected Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to statistical situations where the probabilities or outcomes might not be what is first expected. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities motivated by the idea of unexpected answers. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with an introduction to probability and unexpected answers in probability.

Shodor

2012-03-30

483

Use of key feature questions in summative assessment of veterinary medicine students  

PubMed Central

Purpose To prove the hypothesis that procedural knowledge might be tested using Key Feature (KF) questions in written exams, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover Foundation (TiHo) pioneered this format in summative assessment of veterinary medicine students. Exams in veterinary medicine are either tested orally, practically, in written form or digitally in written form. The only question formats which were previously used in the written e-exams were Type A Single-choice Questions, Image Analysis and Short Answer Questions. E-exams are held at the TiHo using the electronic exam system Q [kju:] by CODIPLAN GmbH. Methods In order to examine less factual knowledge and more procedural knowledge and thus the decision-making skills of the students, a new question format was integrated into the exam regulations by the TiHo and some examiner used this for the first time in the computer based assessment. Following a successful pilot phase in formative e-exams for students, KF questions were also introduced in summative exams. A number of multiple choice questions were replaced by KF questions in four computer based assessment in veterinary medicine. The subjects were internal medicine, surgery, reproductive medicine and dairy science. Results The integration and linking of KF questions into the computer based assessment system Q [kju:] went without any complications. The new question format was well received both by the students and the teaching staff who formulated the questions. Conclusion The hypothesis could be proven that Key Feature questions represent a practicable addition to the existing e-exam question formats for testing procedural knowledge. The number of KF questions will be therefore further increased in examinations in veterinary medicine at the TiHo. PMID:23497425

2013-01-01

484

The Answer Machine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

Feldman, Susan

2000-01-01

485

Can Science Education Research Give an Answer to Questions posed by History of Science and Technology? The Case of Steam Engine's Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the principle of virtual velocities, if on a simple machine in equilibrium we suppose a slight virtual movement, then the ratio of weights or forces equals the inverse ratio of velocities or displacements. The product of the weight raised or force applied multiplied by the height or displacement plays a central role there. British engineers used the same product in the eighteenth century in order to measure steam engines’ effectiveness. The question is whether this measure was obviously empirical or had its origin in theory of mechanics and particularly in the principle of virtual velocities. According to science education research, this measure is not likely to have arisen intuitively and most probably could not have been formulated without any acquaintance with theory of mechanics.

Kanderakis, Nikos E.

2009-09-01

486

Grade 12 Diploma Examination, English 30. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet. 1987 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examination in English 30 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with a questions booklet) includes the following 10 short selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama: "Parents as People (with Children)" (Ellen Goodman); "Everybody Knows about the Arctic" (Jim…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

487

Grade 12 Diploma Examination, English 30. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet. 1986 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examination in English 30 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains 10 short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama, including the following: "My Magical Metronome" (Lewis Thomas); "Queen Street Trolley" (Dale…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

488

Grade 12 Diploma Examination, English 30. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet. June 1989 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examination in English 30 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with a questions booklet) includes the following eight short selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama: "Loyalties" (Roo Borson); "Clever Animals" (Lewis Thomas); "Death of the Nation" (Ernst…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

489

Grade 12 Diploma Examination, English 30. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examination in English 30 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains 10 short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama, including the following: an excerpt from "Where Did You Go?""Out." (Robert Paul Smith); "Lines on…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

490

Grade 12 Diploma Examination, English 30. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet. 1988 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examinations in English 30 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with a questions booklet) includes the following nine short selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama: "The Biggest Liar in the World" (Harry Mark Petrakis); "Victorian Grandmother" (Margo…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

491

Grade 12 Diploma Examination, English 33. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examination in English 33 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains 8 short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama, including the following: an excerpt from "Circus Nerves" (Eric Nicol); "Follower" (Seamus Heaney); an…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

492

Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet. 1986 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for students taking the Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains eight short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, and poetry, including the following: "Thieving Raffles" (Eric Nicol); "Flight of the Roller Coaster"…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

493

FCI-based Multiple Choice Test for Investigating Students' Representational Coherence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We present the Representation Test derived from the FCI for evaluating students' representational coherence on some aspects of gravitation and Newton's third law. The test consists of 23 questions addressing verbal, graphical, bar chart, and vectorial representations. Matched high school student data (n = 54) on the pre- and post-test are analyzed in terms of representational coherence and scientific correctness.

Savinainen, Antti; Nieminen, Pasi; Viiri, Jouni; Korkea-Aho, Jukka; Talikka, Aku

2009-06-24

494

Grade 12 Diploma Examination, English 30. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examination in English 30 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains 10 short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry and drama, including the following: "At the Age at Which Mozart Was Dead Already" (Ellen Goodman); "Embassy" (W.…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

495

Rasch analysis for the evaluation of rank of student response time in multiple choice examinations.  

PubMed

The availability of computerized testing has broadened the scope of person assessment beyond the usual accuracy-ability domain to include response time analyses. Because there are contexts in which speed is important, e.g. medical practice, it is important to develop tools by which individuals can be evaluated for speed. In this paper, the ability of Rasch measurement to convert ordinal nonparametric rankings of speed to measures is examined and compared to similar measures derived from parametric analysis of response times (pace) and semi-parametric logarithmic time-scaling procedures. Assuming that similar spans of the measures were used, non-parametric methods of raw ranking or percentile-ranking of persons by questions gave statistically acceptable person estimates of speed virtually identical to the parametric or semi-parametric methods. Because no assumptions were made about the underlying time distributions with ranking, generality of conclusions was enhanced. The main drawbacks of the non-parametric ranking procedures were the lack of information on question duration and the overall assignment by the model of variance to the person by question interaction. PMID:24064578

Thompson, James J; Yang, Tong; Chauvin, Sheila W

2013-01-01

496

Increasing the quantity and quality of searching for current best evidence to answer clinical questions: protocol and intervention design of the MacPLUS FS Factorial Randomized Controlled Trials.  

PubMed

Background & aimsFinding current best evidence for clinical decisions remains challenging. With 3,000 new studies published every day, no single evidence-based resource provides all answers or is sufficiently updated. McMaster Premium LiteratUre Service ż Federated Search (MacPLUS FS) addresses this issue by looking in multiple high quality resources simultaneously and displaying results in a one-page pyramid with the most clinically useful at the top. Yet, additional logistical and educational barriers need to be addressed to enhance point-of-care evidence retrieval. This trial seeks to test three innovative interventions, among clinicians registered to MacPLUS FS, to increase the quantity and quality of searching for current best evidence to answer clinical questions.Methods & designIn a user-centered approach, we designed three interventions embedded in MacPLUS FS: (A) a web-based Clinical Question Recorder; (B) an Evidence Retrieval Coach composed of eight short educational videos; (C) an Audit, Feedback and Gamification approach to evidence retrieval, based on the allocation of `badgesż and `reputation scores.żWe will conduct a randomized factorial controlled trial among all the 904 eligible medical doctors currently registered to MacPLUS FS at the hospitals affiliated with McMaster University, Canada. Postgraduate trainees (nż=ż429) and clinical faculty/staff (nż=ż475) will be randomized to each of the three following interventions in a factorial design (A x B x C). Utilization will be continuously recorded through cliniciansż accounts that track logins and usage, down to the level of individual keystrokes. The primary outcome is the rate of searches per month per user during the six months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes, measured through the validated Impact Assessment Method questionnaire, include: utility of answers found (meeting cliniciansż information needs), use (application in practice), and perceived usefulness on patient outcomes.DiscussionBuilt on effective models for the point-of-care teaching, these interventions approach evidence retrieval as a clinical skill. If effective, they may offer the opportunity to enhance it for a large audience, at low cost, providing better access to relevant evidence across many top EBM resources in parallel.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.Gov NCT02038439. PMID:25239537

Agoritsas, Thomas; Iserman, Emma; Hobson, Nicholas; Cohen, Natasha; Cohen, Adam; Roshanov, Pavel S; Perez, Miguel; Cotoi, Chris; Parrish, Rick; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Iorio, Alfonso; Haynes, R

2014-09-20

497

Welcome to Provocative Questions: The Unanswered Questions in Cancer Research — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The provocative questions initiative has assembled a list of 20 important questions from the research community to stimulate the NCI's research communities to use laboratory, clinical and population sciences in especially effective and imaginative ways to answer the questions.

498

Unpark Those Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

Ness, Molly

2013-01-01

499

OSHA Frequently Asked Questions: HAZWOPER  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OSHA web page provides answers to many of the more common questions regarding the Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) regulation. Many of the answers provided are regarding the HAZWOPER training requirements.

2007-09-21

500

To Question or Not to Question: That Seems to Be the Question.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the effects of questioning in the classroom has explored the placement, timing, type, and social impact of questions. Principles of good questioning include the following: (1) well-stated questions should be concise, clear, and complete; (2) questions should be topical in nature, requiring a complex answer; (3) yes or no questions

Bradtmueller, Weldon G.; Egan, James B.