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1

Multiple Choice Questions for Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online quiz was written by Dr. John C. Butler at the University of Houston for 100-level geology students. There are 44 multiple choice questions and 8 fill in the blank questions, Topics include groundwater resources, the water cycle, karst features, the water table and parts of an aquifer. Answers are linked directly from the quiz page.

John C. Butler

2

How to write good multiple-choice questions.  

PubMed

Medical practitioners are frequently called upon to write multiple-choice questions for high stakes examinations, such as final year medical student assessments and specialist college accreditation examinations. The fairness and validity of these examinations depends principally on the generation of high-quality questions, which adequately sample the curriculum. The most common format for multiple-choice examinations are single best answer and extended matching type questions. This paper provides a simple guideline that will assist with the production of high-quality multiple-choice papers in these formats. PMID:21615597

Campbell, Dianne E

2011-06-01

3

Delayed, but not immediate, feedback after multiple-choice questions increases performance on a subsequent short-answer, but not multiple-choice, exam: evidence for the dual-process theory of memory.  

PubMed

Three experiments, two performed in the laboratory and one embedded in a college psychology lecture course, investigated the effects of immediate versus delayed feedback following a multiple-choice exam on subsequent short answer and multiple-choice exams. Performance on the subsequent multiple-choice exam was not affected by the timing of the feedback on the prior exam; however, performance on the subsequent short answer exam was better following delayed than following immediate feedback. This was true regardless of the order in which immediate versus delayed feedback was given. Furthermore, delayed feedback only had a greater effect than immediate feedback on subsequent short answer performance following correct, confident responses on the prior exam. These results indicate that delayed feedback cues a student's prior response and increases subsequent recollection of that response. The practical implication is that delayed feedback is better than immediate feedback during academic testing. PMID:25832741

Sinha, Neha; Glass, Arnold Lewis

2015-01-01

4

Modifying the Multiple Choice Test: A Short Answer Option.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the years many criticisms have been offered against the multiple choice test format. Ambiguous, and emphasizing isolated information, they are also the most difficult objective tests to construct. Over-interpretation is a danger of multiple choice examinations with students picking subtle answers the test makers consider incorrect. Yet, the…

Slem, Charles M.

5

Mind the Red Herrings--Deliberate Distraction of Pupil's Strategies Solving Multiple Choice Questions in Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assumes that multiple choice test items generally provide the testee with several solutions, one of which is correct and the others of which are wrong. If pupils are unable to answer a question, one would expect that the wrong choices have equal chances of being selected. In many multiple choice items on stoichiometric calculation which…

Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

6

Modifying Multiple-Choice Questions in Computer-Based Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that multiple-choice questions formed by transforming or paraphrasing a reading passage provide a measure of student comprehension. It is argued that similar transformation and paraphrasing of lesson questions is an appropriate way to form parallel multiple-choice items to be used as a posttest measure of student comprehension.…

Clariana, Roy B.

7

Writing/Using Multiple-Choice Questions to Assess Higher-Order Thinking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most graduate entrance exams (including the GRE, MCAT, and DAT) are based on multiple-choice questions. Many later exams, such as the medical board exams, are also multiple choice. Therefore, it is important to make sure that students are prepared for higher-order multiple choice exams and the reasoning that is required to answer the questions in a proficient manner. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Preface, and Index. As a special bonus, Chapter 24, entitled Eleven Assessment Lessons Learned at the Gate is also included.

Kerry L. Cheesman, Capital University, Columbus, Ohio

2009-02-01

8

A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

2011-01-01

9

Graded Multiple Choice Questions: Rewarding Understanding and Preventing Plagiarism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an easily implemented method that allows the generation and analysis of graded multiple-choice examinations. The technique, which uses standard functions in user-end software (Microsoft Excel 5+), can also produce several different versions of an examination that can be employed to prevent the reward of plagarism. The manuscript also discusses the advantages of having a graded marking system for the elimination of ambiguities, use in multi-step calculation questions, and questions that require extrapolation or reasoning. The advantages of the scrambling strategy, which maintains the same question order, is discussed with reference to student equity. The system provides a non-confrontational mechanism for dealing with cheating in large-class multiple-choice examinations, as well as providing a reward for problem solving over surface learning.

Denyer, G. S.; Hancock, D.

2002-08-01

10

Optimising Marks Obtained in Multiple Choice Question Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study designed to determine if the amount of time allocated for answering multiple true/false type questions affects the grades of the medical students taking the tests. Students who had 2-1/4 minutes to answer each question scored significantly better than those who had 1-1/2 minutes or 3 minutes. (TW)

Mitchell, G.; And Others

1986-01-01

11

A Statistical Test for Detecting Answer Copying on Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A statistical test for the detection of answer copying on multiple-choice tests is presented. The test is based on the idea that the answers of examinees to test items may be the result of three possible processes: (1) knowing, (2) guessing, and (3) copying, but that examinees who do not have access to the answers of other examinees can arrive at…

van der Linden, Wim J.; Sotaridona, Leonardo

2004-01-01

12

Answer Changing on Multiple-Choice Test Items among Eighth-Grade Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of answer-changing on a multiple-choice test were studied for 27 poor readers and 26 good readers (19 males and 34 females) in eighth grade. Overall, subjects benefited from answer-changing. Answer-changing among young examinees should be encouraged if there is reasonable doubt about their first impression. (SLD)

Casteel, Clifton A.

1991-01-01

13

Assessment of medical knowledge: the pros and cons of using true/false multiple choice questions.  

PubMed

True/false multiple choice items, commonly referred to as true/ false multiple choice questions (MCQs), were previously a widely used selected response examination format. They can be written relatively easily and cover a wide range of content. Educational researchers have however highlighted several adverse features of this format that make it inappropriate for many assessment settings. These include: (i) there is a high chance of guessing the correct answer; (ii) some marks are not awarded for knowing the correct answer, but for knowing that an answer is incorrect; (iii) they are weak in discriminating between high and low performers; (iv) identifying items which are absolutely true or false may lead to assessment of trivial knowledge; (v) there are difficulties with constructing flawless items; (vi) they may not encourage learning around the items; and (vii) they may not assess what they purport to assess. Many assessment agencies abandoned the use of this format decades ago due to these shortcomings. The use of single best answer (SBA) and extended matching item (EMI) formats helps overcome or minimize the above weaknesses. Assessors who plan to change to SBA or EMI formats from true/false MCQs may, however, need to increase the number of questions to include a representative sample of the curriculum (lengthening the question paper). However, they may not need to increase the examination time, as in general students can answer more SBAs or EMIs than true/false MCQs per unit time. It is time that we reflect upon the disadvantages of true/false MCQs and review their place in our assessment toolkit, as their use in summative examinations may not be fair to students, especially 'good' students. PMID:22208143

Chandratilake, Madawa; Davis, Margery; Ponnamperuma, Gominda

2011-01-01

14

Testing Collective Memory: Representing the Soviet Union on Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article tests the assumption that state-mandated multiple-choice history exams are a cultural tool for disseminating an "official" collective memory. Findings from a qualitative study of a collection of multiple-choice questions that relate to the history of the Soviet Union are presented. The 263 questions all come from New York State…

Reich, Gabriel A.

2011-01-01

15

Approaches to Data Analysis of Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics…

Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert

2009-01-01

16

To Show or Not to Show: The Effects of Item Stems and Answer Options on Performance on a Multiple-Choice Listening Comprehension Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine whether the choice between three multiple-choice listening comprehension test formats results in any difference in listening comprehension test performance. The three formats entail (a) allowing test takers to preview both the question stem and answer options prior to listening; (b) allowing test takers to…

Yanagawa, Kozo; Green, Anthony

2008-01-01

17

The Relationship of Headings, Questions, and Locus of Control to Multiple-Choice Test Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment examined the effects of headings and adjunct questions embedded in expository text on the delayed multiple-choice test performance of college students. Subjects in the headings-present group performed significantly better on the retention test than did the subjects in the headings-absent group. The main effect of adjunct questions

Wilhite, Stephen C.

18

A participatory learning approach to biochemistry using student authored and evaluated multiple-choice questions.  

PubMed

A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs written by their peers. The technology used to support this activity was PeerWise--a freely available, innovative web-based system that supports students in the creation of an annotated question repository. In this case study, we describe students' contributions to, and perceptions of, the PeerWise system for a cohort of 107 second-year biomedical science students from three degree streams studying a core biochemistry subject. Our study suggests that the students are eager participants and produce a large repository of relevant, good quality MCQs. In addition, they rate the PeerWise system highly and use higher order thinking skills while taking an active role in their learning. We also discuss potential issues and future work using PeerWise for biomedical students. PMID:21948507

Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

2011-01-01

19

The Question Complexity Rubric: Development and Application for a National Archive of Astro 101 Multiple-Choice Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last two years we have been developing an online national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astro 101 classroom. These questions are intended to either supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or be used for assessment purposes (i.e. exams and homework). In this talk we will describe the development, testing and implementation of the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR), which is designed to guide the ranking of questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge whereas the highest QCR score is given to questions that require multiple pathways of multi-step reasoning. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) search for and download questions based on subject and average QCR score, 2) use the QCR to score questions, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. We will also discuss other potential applications of the QCR, such as how it informs our work in developing and testing of survey instruments by allowing us to calibrate the range of question complexity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

2011-01-01

20

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Gray, Kara

21

Set of Criteria for Efficiency of the Process Forming the Answers to Multiple-Choice Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is offered the set of criteria for assessing efficiency of the process forming the answers to multiple-choice test items. To increase accuracy of computer-assisted testing results, it is suggested to assess dynamics of the process of forming the final answer using the following factors: loss of time factor and correct choice factor. The model…

Rybanov, Alexander Aleksandrovich

2013-01-01

22

The impact of two multiple-choice question formats on the problem-solving strategies used by novices and experts  

PubMed Central

Background Pencil-and-paper examination formats, and specifically the standard, five-option multiple-choice question, have often been questioned as a means for assessing higher-order clinical reasoning or problem solving. This study firstly investigated whether two paper formats with differing number of alternatives (standard five-option and extended-matching questions) can test problem-solving abilities. Secondly, the impact of the alternatives number on psychometrics and problem-solving strategies was examined. Methods Think-aloud protocols were collected to determine the problem-solving strategy used by experts and non-experts in answering Gastroenterology questions, across the two pencil-and-paper formats. Results The two formats demonstrated equal ability in testing problem-solving abilities, while the number of alternatives did not significantly impact psychometrics or problem-solving strategies utilized. Conclusions These results support the notion that well-constructed multiple-choice questions can in fact test higher order clinical reasoning. Furthermore, it can be concluded that in testing clinical reasoning, the question stem, or content, remains more important than the number of alternatives. PMID:15530166

Coderre, Sylvain P; Harasym, Peter; Mandin, Henry; Fick, Gordon

2004-01-01

23

The Relationship of Deep and Surface Study Approaches on Factual and Applied Test-Bank Multiple-Choice Question Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the advent of online test banks and large introductory classes, instructors have often turned to textbook publisher-generated multiple-choice question (MCQ) exams in their courses. Multiple-choice questions are often divided into categories of factual or applied, thereby implicating levels of cognitive processing. This investigation examined…

Yonker, Julie E.

2011-01-01

24

Both multiple-choice and short-answer quizzes enhance later exam performance in middle and high school classes.  

PubMed

Practicing retrieval of recently studied information enhances the likelihood of the learner retrieving that information in the future. We examined whether short-answer and multiple-choice classroom quizzing could enhance retention of information on classroom exams taken for a grade. In seventh-grade science and high school history classes, students took intermittent quizzes (short-answer or multiple-choice, both with correct-answer feedback) on some information, whereas other information was not initially quizzed but received equivalent coverage in all other classroom activities. On the unit exams and on an end-of-semester exam, students performed better for information that had been quizzed than that not quizzed. An unanticipated and key finding is that the format of the quiz (multiple-choice or short-answer) did not need to match the format of the criterial test (e.g., unit exam) for this benefit to emerge. Further, intermittent quizzing cannot be attributed to intermittent reexposure to the target facts: A restudy condition produced less enhancement of later test performance than did quizzing with feedback. Frequent classroom quizzing with feedback improves student learning and retention, and multiple-choice quizzing is as effective as short-answer quizzing for this purpose. PMID:24274234

McDermott, Kathleen B; Agarwal, Pooja K; D'Antonio, Laura; Roediger, Henry L; McDaniel, Mark A

2014-03-01

25

Hints for Students (and Examiners) on Answering MCQ Questions of the Multiple True/False Type.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some difficulties that medical students experience in taking exams containing multiple choice questions. Differentiates between multiple true/false type questions, in which several answers may be true, and one-out-of-four type, in which only one answer is correct. Provides tips for taking and making multiple choice tests. (TW)

Biran, Leonard A.

1986-01-01

26

Evaluating Interactive Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume is filled with a variety of innovative approaches to helping users answer questions. In much of the research,\\u000a however, one part of the solution is missing, namely the user. This chapter describes evaluation of interactive question answering\\u000a with a focus on two initiatives: the Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) Interactive Track and studies in the medical domain.\\u000a As is

William Hersh

27

Effects of Mayfield's Four Questions (M4Q) on Nursing Students' Self-Efficacy and Multiple-Choice Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of being taught the Mayfield's Four Questions multiple-choice test-taking strategy on the perceived self-efficacy and multiple-choice test scores of nursing students in a two-year associate degree program. Experimental and control groups were chosen by stratified random sampling. Subjects completed the 10-statement…

Mayfield, Linda Riggs

2010-01-01

28

CAT questions and answers  

SciTech Connect

This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions.

Not Available

1993-02-01

29

The assessment of critical thinking skills in anatomy and physiology students who practice writing higher order multiple choice questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical thinking is a complex abstraction that defies homogeneous interpretation. This means that no operational definition is universal and no critical thinking measurement tool is all encompassing. Instructors will likely find evidence based strategies to facilitate thinking skills only as numerous research efforts from multiple disciplines accumulate. This study focuses on a question writing exercise designed to help anatomy and physiology students. Students were asked to design multiple choice questions that combined course concepts in new and novel ways. Instructions and examples were provided on how to construct these questions and student attempts were sorted into levels one through three of Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy (Bloom et al. 1956). Students submitted their question designs weekly and received individual feedback as to how they might improve. Eight course examinations were created to contain questions that modeled the Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy levels that students were attempting. Students were assessed on their course examination performance as well as performance on a discipline independent critical thinking test called the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). The performance of students in this study was compared to students from two previous years that took the same course but did not have the question writing activity. Results suggest that students do not improve their ability to answer critical thinking multiple choices questions when they practice the task of creating such problems. The effect of class level on critical thinking is examined and it appears that the longer a student has attended college the better the performance on both discipline specific and discipline independent critical thinking questions. The data were also used to analyze students who improved their course examination grades in the second semester of this course. There is a pattern to suggest that students who improve their performance on course examinations did so largely in non-critical thinking problems. Although, when this subset of students is analyzed by class level it appears that sophomores reverse the pattern and improve much more in critical thinking type questions than their upper classmen. The implications of this are discussed.

Shaw, Jason

30

Knowledge based question answering  

SciTech Connect

The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

1983-01-01

31

Developing an Array Binary Code Assessment Rubric for Multiple- Choice Questions Using Item Arrays and Binary-Coded Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The multiple-choice question (MCQ) is the foundation of knowledge assessment in K-12, higher education, and standardized entrance exams (including the GRE, MCAT, and DAT). However, standard MCQ exams are limited with respect to the types of questions that can be asked when there are only five choices. MCQs offering additional choices more…

Haro, Elizabeth K.; Haro, Luis S.

2014-01-01

32

Question answering using constraint satisfaction  

E-print Network

QA-by-Dossier-with-Constraints is a new approach to Question Answering whereby candidate answers ’ confidences are adjusted by asking auxiliary questions whose answers constrain the original answers. These constraints emerge naturally from the domain of interest, and enable application of real-world knowledge to QA. We show that our approach significantly improves system performance (75 % relative improvement in F-measure on select question types) and can create a “dossier ” of information about the subject matter in the original question.

John Prager

2004-01-01

33

Faculty development programs improve the quality of Multiple Choice Questions items' writing  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the utility of long term faculty development programs (FDPs) in order to improve the quality of multiple choice questions (MCQs) items' writing. This was a quasi-experimental study, conducted with newly joined faculty members. The MCQ items were analyzed for difficulty index, discriminating index, reliability, Bloom's cognitive levels, item writing flaws (IWFs) and MCQs' nonfunctioning distractors (NFDs) based test courses of respiratory, cardiovascular and renal blocks. Significant improvement was found in the difficulty index values of pre- to post-training (p = 0.003). MCQs with moderate difficulty and higher discrimination were found to be more in the post-training tests in all three courses. Easy questions were decreased from 36.7 to 22.5%. Significant improvement was also reported in the discriminating indices from 92.1 to 95.4% after training (p = 0.132). More number of higher cognitive level of Bloom's taxonomy was reported in the post-training test items (p<0.0001). Also, NFDs and IWFs were reported less in the post-training items (p<0.02). The MCQs written by the faculties without participating in FDPs are usually of low quality. This study suggests that newly joined faculties need active participation in FDPs as these programs are supportive in improving the quality of MCQs' items writing. PMID:25828516

Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad; Ahmad, Farah; Irshad, Mohammad; Khalil, Mahmoud Salah; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer Khalid; Syed, Sadiqa; Aldrees, Abdulmajeed Abdurrahman; Alrowais, Norah; Haque, Shafiul

2015-01-01

34

Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Share Compartir Antibiotic Resistance Questions & Answers On this Page Questions about Bacteria, ... of antibiotic resistance. Top of Page Questions about Antibiotic Resistance Q: What is antibiotic resistance? A: Antibiotic resistance ...

35

Predicting Best Answerers for New Questions in Community Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Community question answering (CQA) has become a very popular web service to provide a platform for people to share knowledge.\\u000a In current CQA services, askers post their questions to the system and wait for answerers to answer them passively. This procedure\\u000a leads to several drawbacks. Since new questions are presented to all users in the system, the askers can not

Mingrong Liu; Yicen Liu; Qing Yang

2010-01-01

36

Automated question answering for clinical comparison questions   

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development and evaluation of new automated Question Answering (QA) methods tailored to clinical comparison questions that give clinicians a rank-ordered list of MEDLINE® abstracts targeted to ...

Leonhard, Annette Christa

2012-06-25

37

Idea Bank: More than Multiple-Choice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Multiple-choice questions typically dominate tests in high school chemistry classes. The modification described in this article requires students to explain their reasoning behind each multiple-choice answer. This testing format demands more grading time, but awards students partial credit and provides greater feedback to the teacher concerning how well concepts have been learned. Details of the implementation and benefits are provided here.

Fanny Ennever

2006-10-01

38

Consequences the extensive use of multiple-choice questions might have on student's reasoning structure  

E-print Network

Learning physics is a context dependent process. I consider a broader interdisciplinary problem of where differences in understanding and reasoning arise. I suggest the long run effects a multiple choice based learning system as well as society cultural habits and rules might have on student reasoning structure.

Raduta, C M

2013-01-01

39

Multiple-Choice Question Tests: A Convenient, Flexible and Effective Learning Tool? A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research presented in this paper is part of a project investigating assessment practices, funded by the Scottish Funding Council. Using established principles of good assessment and feedback, the use of online formative and summative multiple choice tests (MCT's) was piloted to support independent and self-directed learning and improve…

Douglas, Mercedes; Wilson, Juliette; Ennis, Sean

2012-01-01

40

Lexical validation of answers in Question Answering  

E-print Network

be given: Hypothesis: Yasser Arafat was Palestine Liber- ation Organization Chairman 2 Snippet: President Clinton appealed personally to Palestine Liberation Organization Chairman Yasser Arafat and angry of the question "Who was Yasser Arafat?" containing the answer given by a system "Palestine Liberation

Ligozat, Anne-Laure

41

Multiple choice questions are superior to extended matching questions to identify medicine and biomedical sciences students who perform poorly.  

PubMed

In recent years, medical faculties at Dutch universities have implemented a legally binding study advice to students of medicine and biomedical sciences during their propaedeutic phase. Appropriate examination is essential to discriminate between poor (grade <6), moderate (grade 6-8) and excellent (grade ?8) students. Therefore, we compared the discriminatory properties of extended matching questions (EMQs) versus multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and identified the role of sex, age and examination preference on this score. Data were collected for 452 first-year medical and biomedical science students during three distinct course examinations: one examination with EMQ only, one with MCQ only and one mixed examination (including EMQ and MCQ). Logistic regression analysis revealed that MCQ examination was 3 times better in identifying poor students compared with EMQ (RR 3.0, CI 2.0-4.5), whereas EMQ better detected excellent students (average grade ?8) (RR 1.93, CI 1.47-2.53). Mixed examination had comparable characteristics to MCQ. Sex and examination preference did not impact the score of the student. Students ?20 years had a 4-fold higher risk ratio of obtaining a poor grade (<6) compared with students ?18 years old (RR 4.1, CI 2.1-8.0). Given the strong discriminative capacity of MCQ examinations to identify poor students, we recommend the use of this type of examination during the propaedeutic phase of medicine and biomedical science study programmes, in the light of the binding study advice. PMID:24203858

Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; van den Brand, Tessa L; Hopman, Maria T E

2013-11-01

42

ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

43

Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... we will post answers to questions of general public interest. Please enter the characters you see in the box below, in order and separated by a space. This helps prevent automated programs from misusing this ...

44

Intermittent quizzing enhances learning in a middle school classroom 1 Both Multiple-Choice and Short-Answer Quizzes Enhance Later Exam  

E-print Network

of information on classroom exams taken for a grade. In 7th grade science and high school history classesIntermittent quizzing enhances learning in a middle school classroom 1 Both Multiple-Choice and Short-Answer Quizzes Enhance Later Exam Performance in Middle and High School Classes Kathleen B. Mc

McDermott, Kathleen

45

Answering Your Questions about AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

Kalichman, Seth C.

46

Question Answering Using Question Classification and Document Tagging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question answering (QA) is a relatively new area of research. We took the approach of designing a question answering system that is based on question classification and document tagging. Question classification extracts useful information from the question about how to answer the question. Document tagging extracts useful information from the documents, which are used to find the answer to the

Yllias Chali

2009-01-01

47

Answering Questions About Underage Drinking  

MedlinePLUS

... to Alcohol Answering Questions About Underage Drinking Alcohol Advertising Who Can Help Reduce Underage Drinking, and How? Related Items What can you say to people who think teen drinking is not a serious problem? Despite the law, the statistics, and the science, some people still think teen ...

48

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER  

E-print Network

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER Q: What are the early signs of lung cancer? How would I know I have it? A: Some of the early warning signs of lung cancer are: · A cough that doesn't go away what may be causing these symptoms. Q: How is lung cancer diagnosed? A: Your doctor may do one or more

49

Finding similar questions in large question and answer archives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has recently been a significant increase in the number of community-based question and answer services on the Web where people answer other peoples' questions. These services rapidly build up large archives of questions and answers, and these archives are a valuable linguistic resource. One of the major tasks in a question and answer service is to find questions in

Jiwoon Jeon; Joon Ho Lee

2005-01-01

50

Descriptive Question Answering with Answer Type Independent Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a supervised learning method to seek out answers to the most frequently asked descriptive questions: reason, method, and definition questions. Most of the previous systems for question answering focus on factoids, lists or definitional questions. However, descriptive questions such as reason questions and method questions are also frequently asked by users. We propose a system for these types of questions. The system conducts an answer search as follows. First, we analyze the user's question and extract search keywords and the expected answer type. Second, information retrieval results are obtained from an existing search engine such as Yahoo or Google. Finally, we rank the results to find snippets containing answers to the questions based on a ranking SVM algorithm. We also propose features to identify snippets containing answers for descriptive questions. The features are adaptable and thus are not dependent on answer type. Experimental results show that the proposed method and features are clearly effective for the task.

Yoon, Yeo-Chan; Lee, Chang-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Ki; Jang, Myung-Gil; Ryu, Pum Mo; Park, So-Young

51

A Diagnostic Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Competency in Multiple-Choice Item Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Large class size is an issue in testing at all levels of Education. As a panacea to this, multiple choice test formats has become very popular. This case study was designed to diagnose pre-service teachers' competency in constructing questions (IQT); direct questions (DQT); and best answer (BAT) varieties of multiple choice items. Subjects were 88…

Asim, Alice E.; Ekuri, Emmanuel E.; Eni, Eni I.

2013-01-01

52

A Web-based Question Answering System  

E-print Network

The Web is apparently an ideal source of answers to a large variety of questions, due to the tremendous amount of information available online. This paper describes a Web-based question answering system LAMP, which is ...

Zhang, Dell

53

Education techniques for lifelong learning: writing multiple-choice questions for continuing medical education activities and self-assessment modules.  

PubMed

The multiple-choice question (MCQ) is the most commonly used type of test item in radiologic graduate medical and continuing medical education examinations. Now that radiologists are participating in the maintenance of certification process, there is an increased need for self-assessment modules that include MCQs and persons with test item-writing skills to develop such modules. Although principles of effective test item writing have been documented, violations of these principles are common in medical education. Guidelines for test construction are related to development of educational objectives, defining levels of learning for each objective, and writing effective MCQs that test that learning. Educational objectives should be written in observable, behavioral terms that allow for an accurate assessment of whether the learner has achieved the objectives. Learning occurs at many levels, from simple recall to problem solving. The educational objectives and the MCQs that accompany them should target all levels of learning appropriate for the given content. Characteristics of effective MCQs can be described in terms of the overall item, the stem, and the options. Flawed MCQs interfere with accurate and meaningful interpretation of test scores and negatively affect student pass rates. Therefore, to develop reliable and valid tests, items must be constructed that are free of such flaws. The article provides an overview of established guidelines for writing effective MCQs, a discussion of writing appropriate educational objectives and MCQs that match those objectives, and a brief review of item analysis. PMID:16549616

Collins, Jannette

2006-01-01

54

Incorporating Multiple-Choice Questions into an AACSB Assurance of Learning Process: A Course-Embedded Assessment Application to an Introductory Finance Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors offer a classification technique to make a quantitative skills rubric more operational, with the groupings of multiple-choice questions to match the student learning levels in knowledge, calculation, quantitative reasoning, and analysis. The authors applied this classification technique to the mid-term exams of an introductory finance…

Santos, Michael R.; Hu, Aidong; Jordan, Douglas

2014-01-01

55

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

SciTech Connect

Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

2004-10-03

56

Probabilistic question answering on the web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web-based search engines such as Google and NorthernLight return documents that are relevant to a user query, not answers to user questions. We have developed an architecture that augments existing search engines so that they support natural language question answering. The process entails five steps: query modulation, document retrieval, passage extraction, phrase extraction, and answer ranking. In this paper we

Dragomir R. Radev; Weiguo Fan; Hong Qi; Harris Wu; Amardeep Grewal

2002-01-01

57

Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

58

Multiple choice answers: what to do when you have too many questions.  

PubMed

Carrying out too many statistical tests in a single study throws results into doubt, for reasons statistical and ethical. I discuss why this is the case and briefly mention ways to handle the problem. PMID:25618807

Jupiter, Daniel C

2015-01-01

59

Name___________________________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.  

E-print Network

.S. households, while the percentage of those contacted who agree to cooperate with the survey is 35%. Each household, of course, is independent of the others. What is the probability that the next household #12;10) A manufacturing process has a 77% yield, meaning that 77% of the products are acceptable

DeMaio, Joe

60

What Can Be Learned from Previously Answered Questions? A Corpus-Based Approach to Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present corpus-based approach to question answering, which en- ables our system to classify a question category, generate a query and verify answer candidates. The system uses the Internet to nd information required to provide an answer. The role of the corpus-based modules is to support the system with knowledge that provides the means to eectiv ely use previously answered

Marcin Skowron; Kenji Araki

2004-01-01

61

Microorganism Interactions and Microbial Ecology: Multiple Choice Quiz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online multiple-choice quiz accompanies McGraw Hill's Microbiology (5th edition) textbook chapter covering Microorganism Interactions and Microbial Ecology. It is comprised of 32 questions for which the answers can be submitted and checked online with the click of a button.

Lansing M Prescott

62

From Question Answering to Visual Exploration  

SciTech Connect

Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

2006-08-11

63

Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.  

PubMed

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

64

Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services  

PubMed Central

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

65

"I Don't Know" and Multiple Choice Analysis of Pre- and Post-Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation is an essential component of any Extension education program. One tool, the pre- and post-test, provides measurable evaluation data. Yet often the answer "I don't know" or all possible answers to a multiple choice question are not included in the repeated measure analysis. Because more than two answers are offered, the test of marginal…

Spears, Karen; Wilson, Mary

2010-01-01

66

Lessons about Asking, Answering Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the web-based lessons highlighted in this article, students learn how to pose questions before, during, and after reading nonfiction, fiction, and diagrams. This reading comprehension strategy is included in the literacy column of the magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, a free, online publication for K-5 teachers.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

67

Answers to Health Questions in Physical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culled from the answers of physical education teachers and coaches, this booklet attempts to indicate the scope of health problems and suggests some directions which the solutions may take. It is divided into three parts. Part 1, Health and Safety in Activity Programs, answers questions on first aid, excused absences, and desirability of…

Kaplan, Robert, Ed.

68

Get Answers to Common Questions About...  

Cancer.gov

Get Answers to Common Questions About... Biological Specimens Drug Availability, Labeling and Distribution Ethics Indemnity Insurance Planning Clinical Trials and Navigating Regulatory Requirements Protocols Quality Assurance and Monitoring Software

69

Questions and Answers: Smallpox Vaccine and Monkeypox  

MedlinePLUS

... QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Smallpox Vaccine and Monkeypox Download PDF version formatted for print (132 KB/2 pages) How effective is the smallpox vaccine in preventing monkeypox? Past data from Africa suggests that the smallpox vaccine is at least ...

70

Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

Gibbon, Alan

71

Building a question answering test collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC-8 Question Answering (QA) Track was the first large-scale evaluation of domain-independent question answering systems. In addition to fostering research on the QA task, the track was used to investigate whether the evaluation methodology used for document retrieval is appropriate for a different natural language processing task. As with document relevance judging, assessors had legitimate differences of opinions as

Ellen M. Voorhees; Dawn M. Tice

2000-01-01

72

Ten questions and answers about superconductivity  

E-print Network

This work answers the basic questions of superconductivity in a question-and-answer format. We extend a basic hypothesis to various superconductors. This hypothesis is that superconductivity requires that the pairing gap locates around the Fermi level. On the basis of this hypothesis our calculations give the so-called three factor theory with which some key problems of the high temperature superconductivity are explained.

Tian De Cao

2012-11-13

73

Scaling question answering to the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wealth of information on the web makes it an attractive resource for seeking quick answers to simple, factual questions such as "e;who was the first American in space?"e; or "e;what is the second tallest mountain in the world?"e; Yet today's most advanced web search services (e.g., Google and AskJeeves) make it surprisingly tedious to locate answers to such questions.

Cody C. T. Kwok; Oren Etzioni; Daniel S. Weld

2001-01-01

74

Scaling question answering to the web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wealth of information on the web makes it an attractive resource for seeking quick answers to simple, factual questions such as "e;who was the first American in space?"e; or "e;what is the second tallest mountain in the world?"e; Yet today's most advanced web search services (e.g., Google and AskJeeves) make it surprisingly tedious to locate answers to such questions.

Cody Kwok; Oren Etzioni; Daniel S. Weld

2001-01-01

75

Accommodations for Multiple Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with learning or learning-related disabilities frequently struggle with multiple choice assessments due to difficulty discriminating between items, filtering out distracters, and framing a mental best answer. This Practice Brief suggests accommodations and strategies that disability service providers can utilize in conjunction with…

Trammell, Jack

2011-01-01

76

The TREC8 Question Answering Track Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC-8 Question Answering track was the first large-scale evaluation of systems that returnanswers, as opposed to lists of documents, in response to a question. As a first evaluation, it is importantto examine the evaluation methodology itself to understand any limits on the conclusions that can bedrawn from the evaluation and possibly to find ways to improve subsequent evaluations. This

Ellen M. Voorhees; Dawn M. Tice

1999-01-01

77

Questions & Answers about Aeronautics and Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Answers to 27 questions about aeronautics, space, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are provided in this pamphlet. Among the topics dealt with in these questions are: costs of the space program; NASA's role in aeronautics; benefits received from the space program; why the United States hasn't developed means of rescuing…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

78

From Asking to Answering: Making Questions Explicit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"From Asking To Answering: Making Questions Explicit" describes a pedagogical procedure the author has used in writing classes (expository, technical and creative) to help students better understand the purpose, and effect, of text-questions. It accomplishes this by means of thirteen discrete categories (e.g., CLAIMS, COMMITMENT, ANAPHORA, or…

Washington, Gene

2006-01-01

79

DICK'S HOUSE Questions and answers to frequently  

E-print Network

DICK'S HOUSE FAQ Questions and answers to frequently asked questions at the Geisel School of Medicine Always identify yourself as a Geisel student when you contact Dick's House!! Updated: December 2013 #12;Dick's House FAQ Contents How do I find what I need quickly in this document? 2 Mental Health

Myers, Lawrence C.

80

Memorial Consequences of Multiple-choice Testing on Immediate and Delayed Tests  

PubMed Central

Multiple-choice testing has both positive and negative consequences for performance on later tests. Prior testing increases the number of questions answered correctly on a later test, but also increases the likelihood that questions will be answered with lures from the previous multiple-choice test (Roediger & Marsh, 2005). Prior research has shown that positive effects of testing persist over a delay, but no one has examined the durability of negative effects of testing. To address this, subjects took multiple-choice and cued recall tests (on subsets of questions) both immediately and a week after studying. Although delay reduced both the positive and negative testing effects, both still occurred after one week, especially if the multiple-choice test had also been delayed. These results are consistent with the argument that recollection underlies both the positive and negative testing effects. PMID:20516221

Fazio, Lisa K.; Agarwal, Pooja K.; Marsh, Elizabeth J.; Roediger, Henry L.

2014-01-01

81

Overview of the TREC 2006 Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC 2006 Question Answering (QA) track contained two tasks: the main question answering task, and the complex interactive question answering (ciQA) task. In the main task, question series were used to define a set of targets. Each series was about a single target and contained factoid and list questions. In contrast to previous years, factoid and list answers were

Hoa Trang Dang; Jimmy Lin; Diane Kelly

82

Using AOBP for Definitional Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents an integrated system for the task of definitional question answering. Firstly, we extract question-related\\u000a knowledge as much as possible which include 3 categories. The first is based on language model. We train our language model\\u000a on four different corpora. The second resource is the syntax dependency relations, which are extracted by Minipar. And the\\u000a third resource contains

Junkuo Cao; Weihua Wang; Yuanzhong Shu

2010-01-01

83

Sea Level : Frequently Asked Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can find answers to frequently asked questions regarding sea level and sea level changes. Topics addressed include how mean sea level is defined, how much sea level would rise if all the worlds ice were to melt, differences in sea level between oceans and at different latitudes, the meaning of altitude above sea level, and others.

2007-12-12

84

American Indians Today: Answers to Your Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet attempts to answer briefly the most common questions about American Indians asked by students, people who believe they have Indian ancestors, individuals who want to visit or volunteer to work on a reservation, or those who want to know the current Indian policy. Separate sections outline President Reagan's American Indian policy;…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

85

Question and Answers Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans  

E-print Network

Question and Answers Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans PON-13-603 September 3, 2013 Eligibility Q1 to readiness plans? A1 This solicitation is limited to readiness planning only for alternative fuels. Q2 In regards to PON-13-603 - Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans, is electricity used for transportation

86

Children's School Research Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

and run their own small scale studies at the Children's School. · In all cases involving direct in the Children's School, a parent must sign a consent form allowing the child to participate in approved researchChildren's School Research Questions and Answers 2012-2013 Who conducts the research? · The primary

87

Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

88

Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

2000-01-01

89

Student Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty  

E-print Network

Student Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty What is the SFU Student Learning Commons? The Student Learning Commons (SLC), is an academic learning centre which provides peer-based assistance with library reference, computer assistance, and other student academic support services. SLC programs

90

National Wetland Plant List Question and Answers  

E-print Network

for the names included within the proposed list, National List of Vascular Plant Species that Occur in WetlandsNational Wetland Plant List Question and Answers May 2012 Q1: How will the updated list affect as a result of the changes to the updated plant list. Approximately 12% of the wetland plant indicator

US Army Corps of Engineers

91

Questions and Answers Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans  

E-print Network

Questions and Answers Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans PON-13-603 November 1, 2013 Eligibility Q1 The City of Davis is considering a partnership proposal with UC Davis in response to PON-13-603. Are campus and designating an authorized representative to sign (page 22 of PON-13-603). Application Q1 In the Scope of Work

92

Question Answering in Biomedicine Pierre Zweigenbaum  

E-print Network

: French "Internat" questions: learn answers by heart, no use for QA PZweigenbaum,APHĂ´pParis&ERM202 knowledge is about 7 years (2 years for biomedical knowledge) Continuous medical education Bibliographic in which order; which articles to read thoroughly; how thoroughly Failure of a seemingly appropriate

Zweigenbaum, Pierre

93

Question Answering in Biomedicine Pierre Zweigenbaum  

E-print Network

material online at medical schools Note: French ``Internat'' questions: learn answers by heart, no use knowledge) â Continuous medical education â Bibliographic databases (Medline, etc.) â Direct Web search P thoroughly; how thoroughly â Failure of a seemingly appropriate resource to cover the topic â Uncertainty

Zweigenbaum, Pierre

94

Children answered 24 questions in 3 sections  

E-print Network

Children answered 24 questions in 3 sections: · General knowledge ­ e.g. how many minutes month comes after August? Short-Term Tasks Children completed two computer tasks designed using Kinelab: · Sequencing: Children saw six shapes in succession, before having to indicate the order they were presented

Haase, Markus

95

A Comparison of Student Performance in Multiple-Choice and Long Essay Questions in the MBBS Stage I Physiology Examination at the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This retrospective study compared the performance of preclinical medical students in the multiple-choice question (MCQ) and long essay question components of a comprehensive physiology final examination. During the 3 yr analyzed, 307 students had an average score of 47% (SD 9.9) in the long essay questions and 64% (SD 9.9) in the MCQs. Regression…

Pepple, Dagogo J.; Young, Lauriann E.; Carroll, Robert G.

2010-01-01

96

Question Answering Using a Large NLP System  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThere is a separate report in this volume on the Microsoft Research Cambridge participation in the Filtering and Query tracks(Robertson and Walker 2001).The Microsoft Research question-answering system for TREC-9 was based on a combination of the Okapi retrieval engine,Microsoft's natural language processing system (NLPWin), and a module for matching logical forms. There is no recentpublished account of NLPWin, although a

David Elworthy

2000-01-01

97

Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers  

SciTech Connect

This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

NONE

1995-11-01

98

Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions  

ScienceCinema

contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

Hinchliffe, Ian

2013-05-29

99

Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions  

SciTech Connect

contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

Hinchliffe, Ian

2012-01-01

100

Overview of the TREC 2005 Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC 2005 Question Answering (QA) track contained three tasks: the main question answering task, the document ranking task, and the relationship task. In the main task, question series were used to dene a set of targets. Each series was about a single target and contained factoid and list questions. The nal question in the series was an ěOtherî question

Ellen M. Voorhees; Hoa Trang Dang

2005-01-01

101

Trustworthiness and relevance in web-based clinical question answering.  

PubMed

Question answering systems try to give precise answers to a user's question posed in natural language. It is of utmost importance that the answers returned are relevant to the user's question. For clinical QA, the trustworthiness of answers is another important issue. Limiting the document collection to certified websites helps to improve the trustworthiness of answers. On the other hand, limited document collections are known to harm the relevancy of answers. We show, however, in a comparative evaluation, that promoting trustworthiness has no negative effect on the relevance of the retrieved answers in our clinical QA system. On the contrary, the answers found are in general more relevant. PMID:22874315

Cruchet, Sarah; Boyer, Célia; van der Plas, Lonneke

2012-01-01

102

Model Answers to Lipid Membrane Questions  

PubMed Central

Ever since it was discovered that biological membranes have a core of a bimolecular sheet of lipid molecules, lipid bilayers have been a model laboratory for investigating physicochemical and functional properties of biological membranes. Experimental and theoretical models help the experimental scientist to plan experiments and interpret data. Theoretical models are the theoretical scientist’s preferred toys to make contact between membrane theory and experiments. Most importantly, models serve to shape our intuition about which membrane questions are the more fundamental and relevant ones to pursue. Here we review some membrane models for lipid self-assembly, monolayers, bilayers, liposomes, and lipid–protein interactions and illustrate how such models can help answering questions in modern lipid cell biology. PMID:21610116

Mouritsen, Ole G.

2011-01-01

103

Model answers to lipid membrane questions.  

PubMed

Ever since it was discovered that biological membranes have a core of a bimolecular sheet of lipid molecules, lipid bilayers have been a model laboratory for investigating physicochemical and functional properties of biological membranes. Experimental and theoretical models help the experimental scientist to plan experiments and interpret data. Theoretical models are the theoretical scientist's preferred toys to make contact between membrane theory and experiments. Most importantly, models serve to shape our intuition about which membrane questions are the more fundamental and relevant ones to pursue. Here we review some membrane models for lipid self-assembly, monolayers, bilayers, liposomes, and lipid-protein interactions and illustrate how such models can help answering questions in modern lipid cell biology. PMID:21610116

Mouritsen, Ole G

2011-09-01

104

Named Entity Recognition in Question Answering of Speech Data  

E-print Network

. This way we aim at high recall by al- lowing multiple interpretations of problematic strings that could and how it impacts on the accuracy of the final ques- tion answering system. AnswerFinder was adapted in the QAst track. AnswerFinder AnswerFinder is a question answering system that focuses on shal- low semantic

Aliod, Diego Mollá

105

Quantitative evaluation of passage retrieval algorithms for question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passage retrieval is an important component common to many question answering systems. Because most evaluations of question answering systems focus on end-to-end performance, comparison of common components becomes difficult. To address this shortcoming, we present a quantitative evaluation of various passage retrieval algorithms for question answering, implemented in a framework called Pauchok. We present three important findings: Boolean querying schemes

Stefanie Tellex; Boris Katz; Jimmy J. Lin; Aaron Fernandes; Gregory Marton

2003-01-01

106

Question/Answer Adjacency Pairs in a Performance Appraisal Interview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the conversational structure of questions and answers in a performance appraisal interview between a manager and an employee. Results demonstrated that both the manager and employee used question-and-answer pairs to demonstrate their understanding of the expectancy to ask and answer questions and to provide sequential implicativeness and…

Adams, Katherine L.

1981-01-01

107

Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part I. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief analyses are provided of presentations at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues, and application. Papers…

Miller, C. C.; And Others

1982-01-01

108

Multiple Choice Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a guide to developing and deploying effective multiple choice tests. The site also discusses the costs and benefits of this method, as well as the philosophy of this commonly used assessment method. Links to more detailed information are included as well.

Jay Parkes

109

VideoQA: question answering on news video  

Microsoft Academic Search

When querying a news video archive, the users are interested in retrieving precise answers in the form of a summary that best answers the query. However, current video retrieval systems, including the search engines on the web, are designed to retrieve documents instead of precise answers. This research explores the use of question answering (QA) techniques to support personalized news

Hui Yang; Lekha Chaisorn; Yunlong Zhao; Shi-Yong Neo; Tat-Seng Chua

2003-01-01

110

NUFACT11 Round Table Discussion — Questions & Answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model; it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large ?13 makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses; it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R&D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and associated detectors, with a variety of (mostly) complementary baselines, proceeding in an incremental way. The ultimate precision and verification of the neutrino mixing picture requires new types of neutrino beams based on storage rings. For low energy neutrinos, the beta-beam is a possible (but substantial) intermediate step. The Neutrino Factory offers the best precision and best sensitivity to deviations from the standard picture. Coordinated international R&D is pursued. International collaboration at the top level would be beneficial in acknowledging the process, so as make sure that intermediate steps are effectively building up in complementary fashion towards the ultimate goals.

Blondel, A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; participants, NUFACT11

2013-02-01

111

Answering Clinical Questions with Knowledge-Based and Statistical Techniques  

E-print Network

Answering Clinical Questions with Knowledge-Based and Statistical Techniques Dina Demner physicians. Experiments on a collection of real-world clinical questions show that our approach significantly to explore complex question answering in the domain of clinical medicine. This article presents a system

Lin, Jimmy

112

Learning search engine specific query transformations for question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a method for learning query transformations that im- proves the ability to retrieve answers to questions from an informa- tion retrieval system. During the training stage the method involves automatically learning phrase features for classifying questions into different types, automatically generating candidate query transfor- mations from a training set of question\\/answer pairs, and automat- ically evaluating the candidate

Eugene Agichtein; Steve Lawrence; Luis Gravano

2001-01-01

113

Extended Matching Sets Questions for Online Numeracy Assessments: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extended matching sets questions (EMSQs) are a form of multiple-choice question (MCQ) consisting of a stem (the question or scenario) with an extended number of possible answers. Although there is no consensus on their absolute format, for the purpose of this paper a multiple-choice question with ten or more alternative answers is considered to be…

Cann, Alan J.

2005-01-01

114

Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions Past Issues / ... Drug Abuse during their first Drug Facts Chat Day. Photo courtesy of NIDA The questions poured in… ...

115

QuestionHolic: Hot topic discovery and trend analysis in community question answering systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community question answering (CQA) has recently become a popular social media where users can post questions on any topic of interest and get answers from enthusiasts. The variation of topics in questions and answers indicate the change of users’ interests over time. It can help users focus on the most popular products or events and track their changes by exploiting

Zhongfeng Zhang; Qiudan Li

2011-01-01

116

Quality Circles: Answers to 100 Frequently Asked Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains frequently asked questions--and their answers--about "quality circles," a factory program first introduced in Japan in which workers participate voluntarily in quality control and management decisions through various means of communication. Following an introductory chapter, the remainder of the booklet answers questions

Dewar, Donald L.

117

OSU Domestic Student Health Insurance Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

OSU Domestic Student Health Insurance Questions and Answers OSU's Student Health Services Welcomes You! Here are some common questions and answers regarding OSU's Student Health Services as well as what you can expect with your OSU health insurance coverage. Does Aetna Student Health Insurance cover

Tullos, Desiree

118

Relation of Questions and Answers in Kennedy's Press Conferences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the questions posed by reporters and the answers given by President John F. Kennedy in his formal press conferences. Concludes that questions that followed the rules for interviewing set forth by experts produced better answers than those that did not follow rules. (FL)

Ostman, Ronald E.; And Others

1981-01-01

119

ASKING AND ANSWERING QUESTIONS Guidelines for Asking Good Questions  

E-print Network

involves critical thinking, and focuses on the substance or content of what a person has said. A question question because it involves no critical thinking on the questioner's part (however, these questions could) The critical thinking required in asking a good, substantive question involves making a careful analysis

Wagner, Diane

120

Question Answering in Biomedicine Pierre Zweigenbaum  

E-print Network

: learn answers by heart, no use for QA PZweigenbaum,APHĂ´pParis&ERM202INSERMEACL2003NLP4QA The Task: Which for biomedical knowledge) Continuous medical education Bibliographic databases (Medline, etc.) Direct Web thoroughly; how thoroughly Failure of a seemingly appropriate resource to cover the topic Uncertainty about

Zweigenbaum, Pierre

121

RACAI's Question Answering System at QA@CLEF2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a pattern-based question answering system for Romanian that participated in the Romanian monolingual task of the\\u000a QA@CLEF 2007 track. We aim to prove that working with a good Boolean searching engine and using question type driven answer\\u000a extraction heuristics and structural matching between the linkage representations of the question and candidate sentences,\\u000a one can achieve acceptable results (30%

Dan Tufis; Dan Stefanescu; Radu Ion; Alexandru Ceausu

2007-01-01

122

Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

Frana, Ilaria

2010-01-01

123

Negative answers to some positivity questions  

E-print Network

We construct counterexamples to a number of questions related to positivity properties of line bundles on algebraic varieties. The examples are based on studying the geometry of varieties that admit pseudo automorphisms ...

Lesieutre, John

2014-01-01

124

Asking and Answering Questions during a Programming Change Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the specific kinds of questions programmers ask when evolving a code base and how well existing tools support those questions. To better support the activity of programming, answers are needed to three broad research questions: 1) What does a programmer need to know about a code base when evolving a software system? 2) How does a

Jonathan Sillito; Gail C. Murphy; Kris De Volder

2008-01-01

125

Semantic Decomposition for Question Answering Sven Hartrumpf1  

E-print Network

Semantic Decomposition for Question Answering Sven Hartrumpf1 Abstract. Appeared in In Proceedings to a simpler, revised question. We present six decomposition classes, which are employed for an- notating the 996 different German QA@CLEF questions from 2004 till 2008 and trigger different decomposition methods

Helbig, Hermann

126

A topic clustering approach to finding similar questions from large question and answer archives.  

PubMed

With the blooming of Web 2.0, Community Question Answering (CQA) services such as Yahoo! Answers (http://answers.yahoo.com), WikiAnswer (http://wiki.answers.com), and Baidu Zhidao (http://zhidao.baidu.com), etc., have emerged as alternatives for knowledge and information acquisition. Over time, a large number of question and answer (Q&A) pairs with high quality devoted by human intelligence have been accumulated as a comprehensive knowledge base. Unlike the search engines, which return long lists of results, searching in the CQA services can obtain the correct answers to the question queries by automatically finding similar questions that have already been answered by other users. Hence, it greatly improves the efficiency of the online information retrieval. However, given a question query, finding the similar and well-answered questions is a non-trivial task. The main challenge is the word mismatch between question query (query) and candidate question for retrieval (question). To investigate this problem, in this study, we capture the word semantic similarity between query and question by introducing the topic modeling approach. We then propose an unsupervised machine-learning approach to finding similar questions on CQA Q&A archives. The experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24595052

Zhang, Wei-Nan; Liu, Ting; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Rongrong

2014-01-01

127

WRONG QUESTIONS, NO ANSWERS JASON ROSENHOUSE  

E-print Network

questions are three in number: Is it wrong to mix science and religion, or is such mixing inescapable in this light, what could it possibly mean to mix science and religion? If the world's religious traditions science and religion: As with the supposed "scientific finding" that humans have no unique moral

Rosenhouse, Jason D.

128

Answering Lord Perry's question: dissecting regulatory overfishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, in response to the distressed condition of the British fishing industry, the House of Lords held a series of hearings on “Fish Stock Conservation and Management.” Lord Perry of Walton posed the straightforward question of why regulation was not succeeding: If one takes all the management systems into account—TACs [total allowable catches, or annual quotas], number of days

Josh Eagle; Barton H Thompson

2003-01-01

129

Questions and Answers For PON-10-604  

E-print Network

Questions and Answers For PON-10-604 Buy Down Incentives for Natural Gas and Propane Vehicles: For purposes of this Program Opportunity Notice (PON-10-604), the OEM is defined as the entity a dealer outside of California? ANSWER: No. For purposes of this PON, an OEM must designate a dealer

130

Comparing Improved Language Models for Sentence Retrieval in Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrieval system is a very important part in a question answering framework. It reduces the number of documents to be considered for finding an answer . For further refinement, the documents are split up into smaller chunks to deal with topic variability in larger documents. In our case, we divided the documents into single sentences. Then a language model

Andreas Merkel; Dietrich Klakow

131

Priberam's question answering system for Carlos Amaral, Helena Figueira,  

E-print Network

Priberam's question answering system for Portuguese Carlos Amaral, Helena Figueira, Andr´e Martins, Afonso Mendes, Pedro Mendes, Cl´audia Pinto Priberam Inform´atica Av. Defensores de Chaves, 32 - 3o Esq

Xing, Eric P.

132

Questions and answers based on revised 10 CFR Part 20  

SciTech Connect

NUREG/CR-6204 is a collection of questions and answers that were originally issued in seven sets and which pertain to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions came from both outside and within the NRC. The answers were compiled and provided by NRC staff within the offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Nuclear Regulatory Research, the Office of State Programs, and the five regional offices. Although all of the questions and answers have been reviewed by attorneys in the NRC Office of the General Counsel, they do not constitute official legal interpretations relevant to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions and answers do, however, reflect NRC staff decisions and technical options on aspects of the revised 10 CFR Part 20 regulatory requirements. This NUREG is being made available to encourage communication among the public, industry, and NRC staff concerning the major revisions of the NRC`s standards for protection against radiation.

Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carter, D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-05-01

133

Tie strength in question answer on social network sites  

E-print Network

Asking friends, colleagues, or other trusted people to help answer a question or find information is a familiar and tried-and-true concept. Widespread use of online social networks has made social information seeking easier, ...

Panovich, Katrina Marie

134

Information Extraction for Question Answering: Improving Recall Through Syntactic Patterns  

E-print Network

, for questions like When was Gandhi born?, typical phrases containing the answer are Gandhi was born in 1869 and Gandhi (1869--1948). These examples suggest that text patterns such as ``name was born in birth date

Jijkoun, Valentin

135

Information Extraction for Question Answering: Improving Recall Through Syntactic Patterns  

E-print Network

, for questions like When was Gandhi born?, typical phrases containing the answer are Gandhi was born in 1869 and Gandhi (1869­1948). These examples suggest that text patterns such as "name was born in birth date

de Rijke, Maarten

136

Cervical Caps or Diaphragms: Answering Your Patients' Questions  

PubMed Central

Cervical caps and diaphragms offer a plausible contraceptive alternative for some women. Selection of patients, advantages, disadvantages, and fitting techniques are discussed in order to help answer those difficult patient questions. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:21263962

Donlevy, Mary J.

1987-01-01

137

NOAA Climate Service -Questions and Answers Updated: April 20, 2010  

E-print Network

NOAA Climate Service - Questions and Answers Updated: April 20, 2010 Contents Big Picture.............................................................................................................................................2 Q: What is the NOAA Climate Service?..................................................................................................................2 Q: What will a climate service do

138

Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions  

ScienceCinema

In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

Walker, Iain

2013-11-14

139

Automatic Acquisition of Semantic-Based Question Reformulations for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we present a method for the automatic acquisition of semantic-based reformulations from natural language questions.\\u000a Our goal is to find useful and generic reformulation patterns, which can be used in our question answering system to find\\u000a better candidate answers. We used 1343 examples of different types of questions and their corresponding answers from the TREC-8,\\u000a TREC-9 and

Jamileh Yousefi; Leila Kosseim

2006-01-01

140

Questions about how plants die leads to climate change answers  

E-print Network

- 1 - Questions about how plants die leads to climate change answers March 12, 2012 How trees die in drought key to plant, climate change questions How plants die during drought is one of the largest uncertainties in determining how plants will succumb to changing climate. 3:01 Tree Death Study's Climate Change

141

Reading Comprehension Student Template: Question-Answer Relationship  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This template is an instructional tool that can be used to guide elementary students (grades 2-5) through the reading strategy of questioning. The template is based on the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) approach in which students classify questions according to type and then provide answers from text. The template was designed to be used with the Feature Story, The Dance of Life, by students in grades 2-5. It is a PDF document that can be copied and distributed to students.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

142

Medical marijuana: more questions than answers.  

PubMed

With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

Hill, Kevin P

2014-09-01

143

Developing Good Clinical Questions and Finding the Best Evidence to Answer Those Questions  

PubMed Central

Evidence based medicine (EBM) involves the integration of the best scientific evidence available with physician experience and patient preferences. One of the first steps in EBM involves developing a question based on issues encountered with patients or a disease and finding evidence to answer the question. This paper is a guide to plastic surgeons in how to begin the practice of EBM by developing clinical questions and finding evidence to answer these questions. PMID:20679843

Burns, Patricia B.; Chung, Kevin C.

2015-01-01

144

A comparison of study strategies for passages: rereading, answering questions, and generating questions.  

PubMed

Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a practice phase. They then read three passages and did one of three tasks on each passage: reread the passage, answered questions set by the experimenter, or generated and answered their own questions. Passages were 575-word (Experiments 1 and 2) or 350-word (Experiment 3) texts on topics such as Venice, the Taj Mahal, and the singer Cesaria Evora. After each task, participants predicted their performance on a later test, which followed the same format as the practice phase test (a short-answer test in Experiments 1 and 2, and a free recall test in Experiment 3). In all experiments, best performance was predicted after generating and answering questions. We show, however, that generating questions led to no improvement over answering comprehension questions, but that both of these tasks were more beneficial than rereading. This was the case on an immediate short-answer test (Experiment 1), a short-answer test taken 2 days after study (Experiment 2), and an immediate free recall test (Experiment 3). Generating questions took at least twice as long as answering questions in all three experiments, so although it is a viable alternative to answering questions in the absence of materials, it is less time-efficient. PMID:20853989

Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B; Roediger, Henry L

2010-09-01

145

A Comparison of Study Strategies for Passages: Rereading, Answering Questions, and Generating Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a…

Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B.; Roediger, Henry L., III

2010-01-01

146

78 FR 69671 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment; Notice AGENCY: Office...Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment that were proposed...

2013-11-20

147

78 FR 16765 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment; Notice AGENCY: Office...Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment to address several...

2013-03-18

148

Coping With Alternate Formulations Of Questions And Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present in this chapter the QALC system which has participated in the four TREC QA evaluations. We focus here on the problem\\u000a of linguistic variation in order to be able to relate questions and answers. We present first, variation at the term level\\u000a which consists in retrieving questions terms in document sentences even if morphologic, syntactic or semantic variations

Brigitte Grau; Olivier Ferret; Martine Hurault-Plantet; Christian Jacquemin; Laura Monceaux; Isabelle Robba; Anne Vilnat

149

MRCPsych examination technique: the short answer question paper.  

PubMed

Many candidates expect to pass the short answer question paper of the MRCPsych Part II examination using a straightforward regurgitation of facts. They are surprised by the need for good technique in order to do well in this paper. PMID:8907879

Trigwell, P; Williams, C; Yeomans, D

150

2011 Scholarship Awards Questions and Answers about Scholarships and Awards  

E-print Network

2011 Scholarship Awards Questions and Answers about Scholarships and Awards What is the difference between scholarships and awards? The difference between scholarships and awards is that students apply for scholarships and are nominated for awards. At Cal State Fullerton, both scholarships and awards are a means

de Lijser, Peter

151

Questions and Answers from the University Librarian April 30, 2012  

E-print Network

Questions and Answers from the University Librarian April 30, 2012 Why re-envision the Library is the role of the librarian in a re-envisioned library? Professionally-trained library staff, such as librarians and archivists, build library collections, make those resources discoverable, and teach

California at Berkeley, University of

152

A Multitude of Answers: Embedded Questions in Typed Inquisitive Semantics  

E-print Network

A Multitude of Answers: Embedded Questions in Typed Inquisitive Semantics MSc Thesis is formulated is based on inquisitive semantics: it is shown how the inquisitive conception of sentence meaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 T Y P E D I N Q U I S I T I V E S E M A N T I C S 9 2.1 Basic inquisitive semantics

Amsterdam, University of

153

The Effects of Daycare: Persistent Questions, Elusive Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite nearly half a century of research on the effects of daycare on children, the fundamental question of whether non-parental daycare adversely affects young children has not been answered conclusively. This article explores the conceptual and methodological difficulties associated with daycare research and how the unique socio-historical…

Shpancer, Noam

2006-01-01

154

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS FROM WPS Regarding Health Coverage Under the  

E-print Network

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS FROM WPS Regarding Health Coverage Under the Medical College of Wisconsin of Claim language and file your claim with WPS Health Insurance, P.O. Box 8190, Madison, WI 53708 for processing. Contact WPS at 1-800-221-5632. Most medical providers outside of the U.S. will require payment

155

Questions and Answers For PON-10-604  

E-print Network

Questions and Answers For PON-10-604 Buy Down Incentives for Natural Gas and Propane Vehicles May a dealer/distributor for purposes of this PON and may reserve buy-down incentives if the following, as specified on pages 5-6 of the PON. · The actual sale must be made at a California dealership

156

Soft pattern matching models for definitional question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore probabilistic lexico-syntactic pattern matching, also known as soft pattern matching, in a definitional question answering system. Most current systems use regular expression-based hard matching patterns to identify definition sentences. Such rigid surface matching often fares poorly when faced with language variations. We propose two soft matching models to address this problem: one based on bigrams and the other

Hang Cui; Min-yen Kan; Tat-seng Chua

2007-01-01

157

Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

158

What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,…

Laird, Valerie

2001-01-01

159

Multiple-choice tests stabilize access to marginal knowledge.  

PubMed

Marginal knowledge refers to knowledge that is stored in memory, but is not accessible at a given moment. For example, one might struggle to remember who wrote The Call of the Wild, even if that knowledge is stored in memory. Knowing how best to stabilize access to marginal knowledge is important, given that new learning often requires accessing and building on prior knowledge. While even a single opportunity to restudy marginal knowledge boosts its later accessibility (Berger, Hall, & Bahrick, 1999), in many situations explicit relearning opportunities are not available. Our question is whether multiple-choice tests (which by definition expose the learner to the correct answers) can also serve this function and, if so, how testing compares to restudying given that tests can be particularly powerful learning devices (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006). In four experiments, we found that multiple-choice testing had the power to stabilize access to marginal knowledge, and to do so for at least up to a week. Importantly, such tests did not need to be paired with feedback, although testing was no more powerful than studying. Overall, the results support the idea that one's knowledge base is unstable, with individual pieces of information coming in and out of reach. The present findings have implications for a key educational challenge: ensuring that students have continuing access to information they have learned. PMID:25201690

Cantor, Allison D; Eslick, Andrea N; Marsh, Elizabeth J; Bjork, Robert A; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

2015-02-01

160

Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.

Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

2010-01-01

161

Solutions to Review Multiple Choice No hamsters were harmed in any way as a result of Math 317. Please don't tell the dean  

E-print Network

Solutions to Review Multiple Choice No hamsters were harmed in any way as a result of Math 317. Please don't tell the dean about the hamsters. Question 1 - Answer B You can find pictures of such things theorem states that the total outward flux through the hamster cage must be equal to the divergence within

Stange, Katherine E.

162

9 questions: the underlined 6 questions shall be discussed, for the other 3 questions the answer is enclosed here.  

E-print Network

transfer & separation technology Räkneövningar / Classroom exercises 2014-2 25.3.2014 10.15-12.00 (Ri) kurs9 questions: the underlined 6 questions shall be discussed, for the other 3 questions the answer) and Reynolds number Re: 2 53 nd D h D d f dn P Remed/with),(Re, med ömrörarens varvfrekvens n (1/s

Zevenhoven, Ron

163

(Circle your answer to each of these questions) Time Management  

E-print Network

? NUMBER OF A's and B's circled _____ Your Study Environment 1. Do you regularly study at the same time? 2 D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D (Circle your answer to each of these questions) Time Management 1. Do you make a Master Schedule for each semester? 2. Do you

164

A Constraint Grammar Based Question Answering System for Portuguese  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper describes a linguistic, NLP based Information Extraction (IE) system for Portuguese text. The system focuses on\\u000a the natural language Question Answering task (QA) and relies on full syntactic tree parses, exploiting both lexico-semantic\\u000a information, syntactic pattern matching and named entity subtyping. Context driven Constraint Grammar rules (CG) are used\\u000a not only for PoS disambiguation, but also to assign

Eckhard Bick

2003-01-01

165

A comparison of student performance in multiple-choice and long essay questions in the MBBS stage I physiology examination at the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This retrospective study compared the performance of preclinical medical students in the multiple-choice question (MCQ) and long essay question components of a comprehensive physiology final examination. During the 3 yr analyzed, 307 students had an average score of 47% (SD 9.9) in the long essay questions and 64% (SD 9.9) in the MCQs. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation (r = 0.62, P < 0.01) between MCQs and long essay questions. When student performance was grouped by final course grade, a statistically significant correlation between MCQ and long essay scores existed only for the 210 students who received a passing grade (r = 0.20, P < 0.01). The MCQ and long essay question scores were not correlated for the 57 students who failed (r = 0.25, P = 0.06) or for the 40 students who achieved honors and distinctions (r = Â?0.27, P = 0.11). MCQ scores were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than essay scores for each of the groups when analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The results of this study suggest that for most students, the strong correlation between scores on MCQs and essay questions indicates that student performance was independent of testing format. For students at either end on the performance spectrum, the lack of correlation suggests that the performance in one of the testing formats had a strong influence on the final course grade. In addition, those students who failed the course were likely to be weak in both testing modalities, whereas students in all grade groups were more likely to perform better in the MCQs than in the long essay questions.

Dagogo J. Pepple (University of the West Indies)

2010-06-01

166

Public library patrons' use of collaborative chat reference service: The effectiveness of question answering by question type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effectiveness of question answering by question types in the inter-institutional collaborative chat reference service at a public library system. In particular, this study examined whether subject-based research type questions are answered as effectively as simple factual type questions, and whether local-specific questions are answered as effectively as non-local questions in the inter-institutional chat reference service. Effectiveness

Nahyun Kwon

2007-01-01

167

AskHERMES: An online question answering system for complex clinical questions  

PubMed Central

Objective Clinical questions are often long and complex and take many forms. We have built a clinical question answering system named AskHERMES to perform robust semantic analysis on complex clinical questions and output question-focused extractive summaries as answers. Design This paper describes the system architecture and a preliminary evaluation of AskHERMES, which implements innovative approaches in question analysis, summarization, and answer presentation. Five types of resources were indexed in this system: MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central full-text articles, eMedicine documents, clinical guidelines and Wikipedia articles. Measurement We compared the AskHERMES system with Google (Google and Google Scholar) and UpToDate and asked physicians to score the three systems by ease of use, quality of answer, time spent, and overall performance. Results AskHERMES allows physicians to enter a question in a natural way with minimal query formulation and allows physicians to efficiently navigate among all the answer sentences to quickly meet their information needs. In contrast, physicians need to formulate queries to search for information in Google and UpToDate. The development of the AskHERMES system is still at an early stage, and the knowledge resource is limited compared with Google or UpToDate. Nevertheless, the evaluation results show that AskHERMES’ performance is comparable to the other systems. In particular, when answering complex clinical questions, it demonstrates the potential to outperform both Google and UpToDate systems. Conclusions AskHERMES, available at http://www.AskHERMES.org, has the potential to help physicians practice evidence-based medicine and improve the quality of patient care. PMID:21256977

Cao, YongGang; Liu, Feifan; Simpson, Pippa; Antieau, Lamont; Bennett, Andrew; Cimino, James J.; Ely, John; Yu, Hong

2012-01-01

168

Post-conditioning: Promising answers and more questions  

PubMed Central

Volatile anesthetic agents have been used for decades in the peri-operative setting. Data from the past 15 years have shown that pre-injury administration of volatile anesthetic can decrease the impact of ischemia-reperfusion injury on the heart, brain, and kidney. Recent data demonstrated that volatile agents administered shortly after injury can decrease the ischemia-reperfusion injury. Several questions need to be answered to optimize this therapeutic target, but this is a promising era of secondary injury mitigation. PMID:23176148

2012-01-01

169

Global parallel unification for large question-answering systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An efficient means of storing data in a first-order predicate calculus theorem-proving system is described. The data structure is oriented for large scale question-answering (QA) systems. An algorithm is outlined which uses the data structure to unify a given literal in parallel against all literals in all clauses in the data base. The data structure permits a compact representation of data within a QA system. Some suggestions are made for heuristics which can be used to speed-up the unification algorithm in systems.

Auguston, J. G.; Minker, J.

1974-01-01

170

Ontology-Based Multiple Choice Question Generation  

PubMed Central

With recent advancements in Semantic Web technologies, a new trend in MCQ item generation has emerged through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are knowledge representation structures that formally describe entities in a domain and their relationships, thus enabling automated inference and reasoning. Ontology-based MCQ item generation is still in its infancy, but substantial research efforts are being made in the field. However, the applicability of these models for use in an educational setting has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this paper, we present an experimental evaluation of an ontology-based MCQ item generation system known as OntoQue. The evaluation was conducted using two different domain ontologies. The findings of this study show that ontology-based MCQ generation systems produce satisfactory MCQ items to a certain extent. However, the evaluation also revealed a number of shortcomings with current ontology-based MCQ item generation systems with regard to the educational significance of an automatically constructed MCQ item, the knowledge level it addresses, and its language structure. Furthermore, for the task to be successful in producing high-quality MCQ items for learning assessments, this study suggests a novel, holistic view that incorporates learning content, learning objectives, lexical knowledge, and scenarios into a single cohesive framework. PMID:24982937

Al-Yahya, Maha

2014-01-01

171

PrimeAnswers: A Practical Interface for Answering Primary Care Questions  

PubMed Central

This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. Results of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem. PMID:15905488

Ketchell, Debra S.; St. Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

2005-01-01

172

Rats answer an unexpected question after incidental encoding  

PubMed Central

Summary A fundamental aspect of episodic memory is that retrieval of information can occur when encoding is incidental and memory assessment is unexpected [1–4]. These features are difficult to model in animals because behavioral training likely gives rise to well-learned expectations about the sequence of events. Thus, the possibility remains that animals may solve an episodic-memory test by using well-learned semantic rules without remembering the episode at memory assessment. Here we show that rats can answer an unexpected question after incidental encoding in a hippocampal-dependent manner, consistent with the use of episodic memory. Rats were initially trained to report about a recent event (food vs. no-food) and separately searched for food where there was no expectation of being asked about the presence of food. To test episodic memory, rats were given the opportunity to incidentally encode the presence or absence of food and were unexpectedly asked to report about the recent event. Temporary inactivation of the CA3 region of the hippocampus with bilateral infusions of lidocaine selectively eliminated the ability of rats to answer the unexpected, but not the expected, question. Our studies suggest that rats remember an earlier episode after incidental encoding based upon hippocampal-dependent episodic memory. PMID:22633809

Zhou, Wenyi; Hohmann, Andrea G.; Crysta, Jonathon D.

2012-01-01

173

Decision Support Systems Multiple Choice Structure  

E-print Network

Decision Support Systems With Multiple Choice Structure Ingo Alth¨ofer Friedrich the machines. ``Triple Brain'' is a ``Decision Support System with Multiple Choice Structure'': Com­ puter of Decision Support Systems with Multiple Choice Structure. Key Words and Phrases: Triple Brain, 3­Hirn

174

Immediate Feedback and Opportunity to Revise Answers to Open-Ended Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examine the psychometric effects of providing immediate feedback on the correctness of answers to open-ended questions, and allowing participants to revise their answers following feedback. Participants answering verbal and math questions are able to correct many of their initial incorrect answers, resulting in higher revised…

Attali, Yigal; Powers, Don

2010-01-01

175

MURAX: a robust linguistic approach for question answering using an on-line encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust linguistic methods are applied to the task of answering closed-class questions using a corpus of natural language. The methods are illustrated in a broad domain: answering general-knowledge questions using an on-line encyclopedia.A closed-class question is a question stated in natural language, which assumes some definite answer typified by a noun phrase rather than a procedural answer. The methods hypothesize

Julian Kupiec

1993-01-01

176

Extraction of Correspondences between Questions and Answers from Web Message Boards  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a method to extract a lot of correspondences between questions and answers from a Web message board automatically. We use Web message boards as information sources because Web messasge boards have a lot of articles posted by general users. We extract correspondences between questions and answers that can be used in question answering systems to support natural language

Yusuke Suzuki; Hayato Yokota; Hiroyuki Sakai; Shigeru Masuyama

2010-01-01

177

Optical imaging and automated melanoma detection: questions and answers.  

PubMed

Early detection and prompt excision of cutaneous melanoma is of paramount importance to improve patient survival, and the clinician should be aware of the clinical features that suggest the presence of a malignant lesion. The clinical diagnosis is mainly based on observation of the colour and shape of a given skin lesion. Unfortunately, evaluation of a pigmented lesion is to a large extent subjective and is closely related to the experience of the clinician. To overcome this problem, optical imaging techniques using different instrumentation (i.e. colour video camera, epiluminescence microscopy, reflectance spectrophotometry) and computer image analysis have been proposed in an attempt to provide quantitative measurements in an objective and reproducible fashion. The different procedures employed to perform the diagnosis automatically all have a common denominator: mimicking the eye and the brain of the clinician by image processing and computerized analysis programs, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity data reported in the literature suggest that the computer-based diagnosis of melanoma does not greatly differ from the diagnostic capability of an expert clinician, and is independent of the optical acquisition method employed to analyse the lesions. Most of the computer-processed morphometric variables useful in automated diagnosis are not recognizable nor can be objectively evaluated by the human eye, except that of lesion dimension. However, several questions should be answered before assessing the actual usefulness, including the potential and limitations, of computer-based diagnostic procedures. The purpose of this study was to briefly review the different kinds of instrumentation being used to diagnose melanoma, and to raise questions and whenever possible provide answers in an attempt to establish whether there will be a future for these computerized systems. PMID:12140385

Marchesini, R; Bono, A; Bartoli, C; Lualdi, M; Tomatis, S; Cascinelli, N

2002-06-01

178

If bone is the answer, then what is the question?  

PubMed Central

In the 19th century, several scientists attempted to relate bone trabecular morphology to its mechanical, load-bearing function. It was suggested that bone architecture was an answer to requirements of optimal stress transfer, pairing maximal strength to minimal weight, according to particular mathematical design rules. Using contemporary methods of analysis, stress transfer in bones was studied and compared with anatomical specimens, from which it was hypothesised that trabecular architecture is associated with stress trajectories. Others focused on the biological processes by which trabecular architectures are formed and on the question of how bone could maintain the relationship between external load and architecture in a variable functional environment. Wilhelm Roux introduced the principle of functional adaptation as a self-organising process based in the tissues. Julius Wolff, anatomist and orthopaedic surgeon, entwined these 3 issues in his book The Law of Bone Remodeling (translation), which set the stage for biomechanical research goals in our day. ‘Wolff's Law’ is a question rather than a law, asking for the requirements of structural optimisation. In this article, based on finite element analysis (FEA) results of stress transfer in bones, it is argued that it was the wrong question, putting us on the wrong foot. The maximal strength/minimal weight principle does not provide a rationale for architectural formation or adaptation; the similarity between trabecular orientation and stress trajectories is circumstantial, not causal. Based on computer simulations of bone remodelling as a regulatory process, governed by mechanical usage and orchestrated by osteocyte mechanosensitivity, it is shown that Roux's paradigm, conversely, is a realistic proposition. Put in a quantitative regulatory context, it can predict both trabecular formation and adaptation. Hence, trabecular architecture is not an answer to Wolff's question, in the sense of this article's title. There are no mathematical optimisation rules for bone architecture; there is just a biological regulatory process, producing a structure adapted to mechanical demands by the nature of its characteristics, adequate for evolutionary endurance. It is predicted that computer simulation of this process can help us to unravel its secrets. PMID:11005707

HUISKES, R.

2000-01-01

179

29 CFR 2509.75-5 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...questions and answers, relating them...Index key to question prefixes D...d) of this question, such persons...in response to question FR-1. The...employees of a corporation designate the...qualified under the laws of more...stated in the answer to FR-6...

2010-07-01

180

Physics 4C Practice Mid-Term Exam #2 Instructions: Read the problems carefully and give the best answer. The multiple-choice questions on  

E-print Network

camera has a circular aperture (which is a diameter, not a radius) of D = 2.5 meters. (i) (10 points, diffraction imposes an absolute limit on the camera's image resolution, or in other words, the smallest detail

Ringwald, Frederick A.

181

DIATEST, A System for Programme Control of Multiple Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The DIATEST responder system is a control system for fully programed running of diagnostic tests of multiple-choice type. The system makes use of the control unit earlier developed at the Institute of Technology for programed four-screen slide projection and the electronic response analyser (ESAU). Presentation of a question is done audiovisually,…

Eriksson, Christer

182

Structural answers and persistent questions about how nicotinic receptors work  

PubMed Central

The electron diffraction structure of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo marmorata and the X-ray crystallographic structure of acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) are providing new answers to persistent questions about how nAChRs function as biophysical machines and as participants in cellular and systems physiology. New high-resolution information about nAChR structures might come from advances in crystallography and NMR, from extracellular domain nAChRs as high fidelity models, and from prokaryotic nicotinoid proteins. At the level of biophysics, structures of different nAChRs with different pharmacological profiles and kinetics will help describe how agonists and antagonists bind to orthosteric binding sites, how allosteric modulators affect function by binding outside these sites, how nAChRs control ion flow, and how large cytoplasmic domains affect function. At the level of cellular and systems physiology, structures of nAChRs will help characterize interactions with other cellular components, including lipids and trafficking and signaling proteins, and contribute to understanding the roles of nAChRs in addiction, neurodegeneration, and mental illness. Understanding nAChRs at an atomic level will be important for designing interventions for these pathologies. PMID:18508600

Wells, Gregg B.

2008-01-01

183

An Analysis of Lyrics Questions on Yahoo! Answers: Implications for Lyric \\/ Music Retrieval Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes 237 questions posted to Yahoo! Answers, a popular community-driven question and answer service. The questions are all natural language and are self-categorized by their poster as being related to music lyrics, and as such they provide a rich context for understanding lyrics- related information behavior outside the constraints imposed by specific lyrics retrieval systems. We categorize the

Sally Jo Cunningham; Simon Laing

184

26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following questions and answers relate to withholding...Amendments of 1992 (Public Law 102- 318, 106 Stat...respectively. List of Questions Q-1: What are...rollover? Questions and Answers Q-1: What are...securities of the employer corporation within the meaning...

2010-04-01

185

Selective Benefits of Question Self-Generation and Answering for Remembering Expository Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined possible memory and metacomprehension benefits of using a combined question self-generation and answering technique, relative to rereading, as a study strategy for expository passages. In the 2 question self-generation and answering conditions (detail or conceptual questions), participants were prompted on how to…

Bugg, Julie M.; McDaniel, Mark A.

2012-01-01

186

A weighted string pattern matching-based passage ranking algorithm for video question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video question answering aims to pinpoint answers in response to user's specified questions. However, most question answering tech- nologies involve in integrating rich specific external knowledge such as syntactic parsers, which are often unavailable for many languages. In this paper, we present a new string pattern matching-based passage ranking algorithm for extending traditional text Q\\/A toward videoQ\\/A. Users interact with

Yu-chieh Wu; Jie-chi Yang; Yue-shi Lee

2008-01-01

187

Reducing Our Ignorance: Finding Answers to Certain Epistemic Questions for Software Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In previous papers, we asserted that software system safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. We also enumerated a set of 21 foundational epistemic questions, discussed some of the difficulties that exist in answering these questions adequately today, and speculated briefly on possible research that may provide improved confidence in the sufficiency of answers in the future. This paper focuses on three of the foundational questions. For each of these questions, current answers are discussed and potential research is proposed to help increase the justifiable level of confidence.

Holloway, C. Michael; Johnson, Christopher W.

2011-01-01

188

Using a Classroom Response System to Improve Multiple-Choice Performance in AP[R] Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation in rigorous high school courses such as Advanced Placement (AP[R]) Physics increases the likelihood of college success, especially for students who are traditionally underserved. Tackling difficult multiple-choice exams should be part of any AP program because well-constructed multiple-choice questions, such as those on AP exams and…

Bertrand, Peggy

2009-01-01

189

WHAT CAN YOU LEARN FROM A (GOOD) MULTIPLE-CHOICE EXAM? Lei Baoa, Edward F. Redishb  

E-print Network

" of knowledge, we create methods of extracting measures of the state of confusion of the class. By this we mean a tool to extract information from a research-based multiple-choice test and a tool to be used on research-based multiple-choice questions can yield information on the students' state: for a particular

Maryland at College Park, University of

190

The Use of a Comprehensive Multiple Choice Final Exam in the Macroeconomics Principles Course: An Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the results of a pilot study at Glendale Community College (Arizona) to assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive multiple choice final exam in the macroeconomic principles course. The "pilot project" involved the administration of a 50-question multiple choice exam to 71 students in three macroeconomics sections. The…

Petrowsky, Michael C.

191

Use of social network sites for question and answer behavior  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we look at the behavior of posting questions as status updates on popular social network sites like Twitter and Facebook. This question asking behavior is similar to the use of search engines, question and ...

Panovich, Katrina (Katrina Marie)

2011-01-01

192

Extraction of Correspondences between Questions and Answers from Web Message Boards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method to extract a lot of correspondences between questions and answers from a Web message board automatically. We use Web message boards as information sources because Web messasge boards have a lot of articles posted by general users. We extract correspondences between questions and answers that can be used in question answering systems to support natural language sentence input. At first, our proposed method classifies messages of a Web message board into either questions or others. Next, our method extracts a set of root-node pairs from the thread tree of a Web message board, where we define the thread tree when the root is an article classified as a question, and nodes are articles classified as answer candidates. Our method finds correspondences between questions and answers using two clues, (1)similarity between their articles, (2)link count between their articles. We experimented the proposed method, discussed results, and analyzed errors.

Suzuki, Yusuke; Yokota, Hayato; Sakai, Hiroyuki; Masuyama, Shigeru

193

Analyzing Electronic Question/Answer Services: Framework and Evaluations of Selected Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report develops an analytical framework based on systems analysis for evaluating electronic question/answer or AskA services operated by a wide range of types of organizations, including libraries. Version 1.0 of this framework was applied in June 1999 to a selective sample of 11 electronic question/answer services, which cover a range of…

White, Marilyn Domas, Ed.

194

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FOR THE "AT-RISK" EMPLOYEE  

E-print Network

1 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FOR THE "AT-RISK" EMPLOYEE The following are 21 questions and answers specifically for employees who have been placed "at risk" by their State Of Wisconsin employer of the information regarding at risk situations. What does it mean to be at risk? Employees may be designated

Sheridan, Jennifer

195

Data-Intensive Question Answering Eric Brill, Jimmy Lin, Michele Banko, Susan Dumais and Andrew Ng  

E-print Network

. For instance, it is not difficult to match the question "Who killed Abraham Lincoln" with the text "John Wilkes Booth killed Abraham Lincoln," but it is more challenging to find the answer to this question the bullet that ended Abraham Lincoln's life." #12;The TREC corpus has considerably less answer redundancy

Ng, Andrew Y.

196

Acquisition of Intraverbal Behavior: Teaching Children with Autism to Mand for Answers to Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four boys with autism were taught via echoic prompting and constant prompt delay to mand for answers to questions by saying "I don't know please tell me" (IDKPTM). This intervention resulted in acquisition of the IDKPTM response for all 4 participants and in acquisition of correct answers to most of the previously unknown questions for 2…

Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Hollobaugh, Tatia

2010-01-01

197

ASQA: Academia Sinica Question Answering System for NTCIR-5 CLQA Cheng-Wei Lee12  

E-print Network

ASQA: Academia Sinica Question Answering System for NTCIR-5 CLQA Cheng-Wei Lee12 , Cheng-Wei Shih1 , Shih-Hung Wu3 , Wen-Lian Hsu1§ 1 Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, R.O.C 2 C-C (Cross Language Question Answering from Chinese to Chinese) Task. Our system, the Academia

Day, Min-Yuh

198

Questions and Answers about AFTERSCHOOL CARE: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Afterschool Care, and answers the following questions about afterschool programs: (1) How does afterschool care help children?; (2) How…

Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2008

2008-01-01

199

Web Question Answering by Exploiting Wide-Coverage Lexical Resources  

E-print Network

are parsed, e.g.: "By 1832 Samuel FB Morse had invented the telegraph." Because the system knows where- ceding "had", thus: "Samuel FB Morse" For the given example, the system was able to find the correct, exact answer and the open proposition from above can now be completed: invent_272(Cognizer = "Samuel FB

Narasayya, Vivek

200

SPECIMEN ANSWERS TO INSURANCE/INDEMNITY QUESTIONS ON IRAS APPLICATION  

E-print Network

on 01225 385129 Only use these answers if University of Bath is the research sponsor and it is not a drugs (Other insurance or indemnity arrangements will apply) and add: The University of Bath has arranged staff (including the Trust's responsibility for University of BATH employees acting in connection

Burton, Geoffrey R.

201

Answering the Complex Question of "How Good Is Good Enough?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Imagine that a student--let's call him Michael--has earned a score of 55 on an examination. How well did he do? Was his score good enough for him to pass the examination, or pass the course, or be deemed at least minimally competent in whatever the exam was assessing? Michael's score alone, in the absence of any other information, cannot answer

Suskie, Linda

2007-01-01

202

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial: Questions and Answers  

Cancer.gov

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large, randomized study to determine whether the use of certain screening tests will reduce the risk of dying of those four cancers. In addition to answering questions about the screening tests, the PLCO asked questions about many aspects of the study participants’ health and collected biospecimens (blood and some tissues) to answer many other questions about cancer.

203

S.K. Worm - Answers to Questions on Soil & Stuff  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains the basic process of soil formation and describes some of the characteristics of soils for elementary school children. The information is provided in the form of 13 questions about soil, with the final questions addressing the issue of soil conservation. Once the student has read all 13 informational sections they are awarded a Soil Diploma.

204

Answering definitional question by dependency-based knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current systems apply flat pattern and flat centroid words, which are extracted only by relative position to question target, to identify definition sentences. In contrast to the flat knowledge, we propose dependency-based knowledge, including dependency pattern and dependency centroid word, which are extracted by dependency relation to question target. Specifically, we use the improved ultraconservative online algorithm, binary margin

Junkuo Cao; Xuanjing Huang

2008-01-01

205

Agree or Disagree? Cognitive Processes in Answering Contrastive Survey Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey designers have long assumed that respondents who disagree with a negative question ("This policy is bad.": "Yes" or "No"; 2-point scale) will agree with an equivalent positive question ("This policy is good.": "Yes" or "No"; 2-point scale). However, experimental evidence has proven otherwise: Respondents are more likely to disagree with…

Kamoen, Naomi; Holleman, Bregje; Mak, Pim; Sanders, Ted; Van Den Bergh, Huub

2011-01-01

206

Answers to Sample Questions for the Chemistry Placement Exam  

E-print Network

acid, is a strong acid. NH3, ammonia, is a weak base. In a solution of NaHCO3, sodium hydrogenF3H according to the following reaction? GeH4 + GeF4 4 GeF3H Answer a) 2.00 b) 4.00 c) 8.00 d) 16 the elements in the fluorine column are nonmetals. 5. Which of the following species is neither acidic nor

Walker, Lawrence R.

207

Are faculty predictions or item taxonomies useful for estimating the outcome of multiple-choice examinations?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study evaluating whether multiple-choice item difficulty could be predicted either by a subjective judgment by the question author or by applying a learning taxonomy to the items.

Jonathan D. Kibble (University of Central Florida College of Medicine)

2011-12-01

208

Discourse Processing for Context Question Answering Based on Linguistic Knowledge  

E-print Network

is Hawaii located? Q2: What is the state fish? Q3: Is it endangered? Q4: Any other endangered species? We endangered species in Hawaii. This example in- dicates that each of these questions needs to be interpreted

209

Astronaut Jeff Williams Answers Your Questions - Duration: 6:50.  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams, aboard the International Space Station 220 miles above Earth, responds to questions posted on YouTube concerning the station's orientation, life in space and ...

210

More questions and Answers I've continued to be flooded with questions. Here are a few more responses  

E-print Network

23.4.14 More questions and Answers I've continued to be flooded, in the question we are given changes in a local temperatures. Using the three) Finally there is a specific problem with the Greenland cores in the last 10000

Lovejoy, Shaun

211

A combined IR\\/NLP approach to question answering against large text collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an approach to finding literal answer strings to natural language questions in large text collections. The approach involves linking an IR system with an NLP system that performs reasonably thorough linguistic analysis. The IR system treats the question as a query and returns a set of t op ranked documents or passages. The NLP system parses the question

Robert Gaisauskas; Kevin Humphreys

2000-01-01

212

ES2A7 -Fluid Mechanics Example Classes Model Answers to Example Questions (Set III)  

E-print Network

ES2A7 - Fluid Mechanics Example Classes Model Answers to Example Questions (Set III) Question 1 10610 40031.8 -- Ă?=Ă?= Ă? Ă? == APN RT d Question 2: Type of Fluid #12;Consider 2 identical vertical tubes are filled with the same height of fluid: A Newtonian fluid is used with tube X whereas a non-Newtonian fluid

Thomas, Peter J.

213

Answerers' Motivations and Strategies for Providing Information and Social Support in Social Q&A an Investigation of Health Question Answering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social Q&A allows people to ask and answer questions for each other and to solve problems in everyday life collaboratively. The purpose of the current study is to understand the motivations and strategies of answerers in social Q&A. Thus, three research questions were investigated: (1) Why do answerers participate and contribute in social Q&A? (2)…

Oh, Sanghee

2010-01-01

214

The Answers to Questions That Teachers Most Frequently Ask.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a teacher's responses to various real questions asked by student teachers and beginning teachers. The nine chapters are: (1) "It Don't Mean a Thing if It Ain't Got That Swing: Teacher Attitude"; (2) "Who, What, When, Where, and Why, Oh Why, Me?: Organization"; (3) "A Little Song, A Little Dance, A Little Quiz Tomorrow: Delivery…

Anderson, Julie Wofford

215

Theorizing the Entrepreneurial University: Open Questions and Possible Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article attempts to address theoretical questions regarding the transition towards an entrepreneurial university and the changes associated with this process, namely the increased commodification, the competitive quest for private funding and the introduction of business management practices. The important theoretical advances made in the…

Sotiris, Panagiotis

2012-01-01

216

Question Answering Techniques for the World Wide Web  

E-print Network

? QA Techniques for the WWW: Introduction Different Types of Questions Gone with the Wind (1939) was directed by George Cukor, Victor Fleming, and Sam Wood. What does Cog look like? Who directed Gone with the Wind? How many cars left the garage yesterday between noon and 1pm? What were the causes of the French

Lin, Jimmy

217

Organizer Influence on Children's Answers to Questions of Physical Causality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There were no differences in the types of responses given by children in response to the question What makes clouds move?'' whether they were interviewed by telephone, by a person in normal dress, or by someone wearing clerical dress. The responses were similar to those reported by Piaget. (AL)

Harding, James; Jones, Howard

1972-01-01

218

Answering Hard Questions: "Wh"-Movement across Dialects and Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large-scale study of complex "wh"-questions with 1,000 subjects aged 4-9 years is reported. The subjects' dialects were Mainstream American English or African American English, and approximately one-third were language impaired. The study examined when children permit long distance "wh"-movement, and when they respect a variety of syntactic…

De Villiers, Jill; Roeper, Thomas; Bland-Stewart, Linda; Pearson, Barbara

2008-01-01

219

Learning to Find Answers to Questions on the Web EUGENE AGICHTEIN  

E-print Network

Learning to Find Answers to Questions on the Web EUGENE AGICHTEIN Columbia University STEVE (answers.- google.com) facilitate interaction with human experts. Authors' addresses: Eugene Agichtein (eugene@cs.columbia.edu), Steve Lawrence (lawrence@necmail.com), Luis Gravano (gravano

Agichtein, Eugene

220

An automatic question answering and knowledge summarization approach for Q&A services  

Microsoft Academic Search

With regard to the drastic development of information technologies, the communication channels between enterprises and customers have become more and more complicated. Many enterprises have realized that electronic CRM mechanisms can provide efficient and cost?effective customer services. In order to automatically answer customer queries via contact centers, this paper proposes an integrated model with automatic question answering and knowledge summarization

2009-01-01

221

76 FR 64175 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Flood...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. OP-1431] FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION [RIN 3064-ZA00] FARM...Questions and Answers Regarding Flood Insurance AGENCIES: Office of the Comptroller...Reserve System (Board); Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC); Farm Credit...

2011-10-17

222

Questions and Answers about the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes (DPPOS) Study  

MedlinePLUS

... For Reporters Media Contacts Questions & Answers about the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes (DPPOS) Study Page Content October 2009 What is the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)? The DPP was a randomized, ...

223

78 FR 44483 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...production systems that provide laying hens with access to the outdoors, including questions and answers...www.regulations.gov. IV. Electronic Access Persons with access to the Internet may obtain the draft guidance at...

2013-07-24

224

Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Campaign About our Partner Spread the Word Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Overview Transmission Symptoms Testing Treatment Overview What is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It ...

225

Brig. Gen. Richard F. Abel and Col. Natan J. Lindsay answering questions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brigadier General Richard F. Abel, right, director of public affairs for the Air Force, and Colonel Nathan J. Lindsay of the USAF's space division, answer questions concerning STS-4 during a press conference at JSC on May 20, 1982.

1982-01-01

226

75 FR 29350 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2009-D-0260...Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as Established by the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of...

2010-05-25

227

Environmental Problems, Causes, and Solutions: An Open Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a national evaluation of environmental literacy in Israel, (Negev, Sagy, Garb, Salzberg, & Tal, 2008), the authors included both multiple choice questions and open questions. In this article the authors describe the qualitative analysis of the answers to an open question regarding a local environmental problem. Most participants specified solid…

Negev, Maya; Garb, Yaakov; Biller, Roni; Sagy, Gonen; Tal, Alon

2010-01-01

228

The E-Learning Question and Answer Book: A Survival Guide for Trainers and Business Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book answers more than 70 key questions that business managers and trainers ask about using e-learning in their company as a business tool. Chapters 1 and 3-11 are comprised of questions and answers related to these topics: what e-learning is all about; what e-learning costs; applying e-learning to the business; what today's e-learning…

Henderson, Allan J.

229

26 CFR 301.6621-2T - Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION...6621-2T Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on...

2014-04-01

230

26 CFR 301.6621-2T - Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION...6621-2T Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on...

2013-04-01

231

26 CFR 301.6621-2T - Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Underpayments § 301.6621-2T Questions and answers relating to the increased...temporary). The following questions and answers relate to the increased...that was incurred by an S corporation, any deduction...

2010-04-01

232

26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the treatment...Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.165-13T Questions and answers relating to the treatment...the Act restates existing law applicable to...

2010-04-01

233

Actions, Answers, and Uncertainty: A Decision-Making Perspective on Web-Based Question Answering  

E-print Network

David Azari Computer Science & Engineering University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195-2350 azari is an extended version of the conference article, D. Azari, E. Horvitz, S. Dumais, E. Brill. Web-based question

Horvitz, Eric

234

Ethanol-BDNF interactions: Still More Questions than Answers  

PubMed Central

Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) has emerged as a regulator of development, plasticity and, recently, addiction. Decreased neurotrophic activity may be involved in ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the adult brain and in the etiology of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders. This can occur through decreased expression of BDNF or through inability of the receptor to transduce signals in the presence of ethanol. In contrast, recent studies implicate region-specific up-regulation of BDNF and associated signaling pathways in anxiety, addiction and homeostasis after ethanol exposure. Anxiety and depression are precipitating factors for substance abuse and these disorders also involve region-specific changes in BDNF in both pathogenesis and response to pharmacotherapy. Polymorphisms in the genes coding for BDNF and its receptor TrkB are linked to affective, substance abuse and appetitive disorders and therefore may play a role in the development of alcoholism. This review summarizes historical and pre-clinical data on BDNF and TrkB as it relates to ethanol toxicity and addiction. Many unresolved questions about region-specific changes in BDNF expression and the precise role of BDNF in neuropsychiatric disorders and addiction remain to be elucidated. Resolution of these questions will require significant integration of the literature on addiction and comorbid psychiatric disorders that contribute to the development of alcoholism. PMID:18394710

Davis, Margaret I.

2008-01-01

235

Heterologous embryo transfer: Magisterial answers and metaphysical questions  

PubMed Central

The debate regarding the morality of heterologous embryo transfer (HET) as a solution for the fate of cryopreserved embryos remains active. This paper endeavors to show that the magisterial instructions on bioethical issues can only lead to the conclusion that HET is always morally illicit. I begin by showing that the text of Dignitas personae recognizes HET as a procedure accomplishing a procreative function, and I indicate that it is through gestation that this procreative function occurs. I further show that the previous Instruction, Donum vitae, implicitly points to an ontological or spiritual consideration at play during gestation. This consideration is likely related to the procreative function identified in Dignitas personae. Finally, I place these two textual arguments in the context of the debate concerning HET and conclude that metaphysical questions must be clarified in order for the immorality of HET to be understood from a suitable anthropological perspective and gain more widespread acceptance. PMID:24899737

Accad, Michel

2014-01-01

236

Demand Characteristics of Multiple-Choice Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen graduate students were asked to indicate for each of 24 multiple-choice items whether the item tested "recall of specific information," a "higher order skill," or "don't know." The students were also asked to state their general basis for judging the items. The 24 items had been previously classified according to Bloom's cognitive-skills…

Diamond, James J.; Williams, David V.

237

Acquisition of intraverbal behavior: teaching children with autism to mand for answers to questions.  

PubMed

Four boys with autism were taught via echoic prompting and constant prompt delay to mand for answers to questions by saying "I don't know please tell me" (IDKPTM). This intervention resulted in acquisition of the IDKPTM response for all 4 participants and in acquisition of correct answers to most of the previously unknown questions for 2 participants. For 1 participant, tangible reinforcement resulted in increased frequency of correct answers, and direct prompting of correct answers was eventually conducted for the final participant. The IDKPTM response generalized to untargeted unknown questions with 3 participants. Results of person and setting generalization probes varied, but some generalization eventually occurred for all participants following additional training or interspersal of probe trials with training trials. PMID:20808492

Ingvarsson, Einar T; Hollobaugh, Tatia

2010-03-01

238

Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2  

SciTech Connect

This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

Not Available

1984-03-01

239

EB 2009 - Writing the Test Question isn't Enough!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Symposium: Writing the Test Question IsnÂ?t Enough! Presented at Experimental Biology, New Orleans LA Monday, April 20, 2009, 8:00-10:00 AM Chairs: Vikki McCleary and Kathy sukalski, Univ. of North Dakota Well constructed multiple choice items can provide a valid, reliable, and unbiased means to assess student learning. Machine scoring and analysis allows for a rapid turnaround of results and provides information about the patterns of responses to individual items. This symposium focused on the construction of valid, reliable multiple choice questions with an emphasis on those that evaluate the studentsÂ? critical thinking ability in the context of specific learning objectives. The session was introduced by Ellis Bell who considered the process of evaluating student achievement in both content knowledge and critical thinking. Decisions must be made about the types of questions to use (essay, short answer, multiple choice) and timing of the examinations, (midterm and final, block exams). Vikki McCleary focused on multiple choice examinations and reviewed the optimization of stems, answers, and distracters and the evaluation of items according to BloomÂ?s taxonomy. Charles Hosford outlined the use of standard item analyses to improve test questions. The assessment of student understanding during class lectures using multiple choice questions was addressed by Jeannine Matz. Kenneth Ruit presented lessons learned from constructing and administering multiple choice examinations in an integrated medical curriculum. Effective testing of knowledge and critical thinking skills. Ellis Bell, U Richmond. Anatomy of a multiple choice question. Vikki McCleary, UND Using item analysis to improve test questions. Charles Hosford, UND Use of multiple choice questions during lecture. Jeannine Matz, Health Care Mercy Col. of Hlth. Sci., Des Moines. Applying principles and lessons learned in medical education. Kenneth Ruit, UND

Dr. Vikki L. McCleary (University of North Dakota School of Medicine Dept. of Pharmacology/Physiology and Therapeutics)

2009-04-20

240

Accessing heterogeneous sources of evidence to answer clinical questions.  

PubMed

The large and rapidly growing number of information sources relevant to health care, and the increasing amounts of new evidence produced by researchers, are improving the access of professionals and students to valuable information. However, seeking and filtering useful, valid information can be still very difficult. An online information system that conducts searches based on individual patient data can have a beneficial influence on the particular patient's outcome and educate the healthcare worker. In this paper, we describe the underlying model for a system that aims to facilitate the search for evidence based on clinicians' needs. This paper reviews studies of information needs of clinicians, describes principles of information retrieval, and examines the role that standardized terminologies can play in the integration between a clinical system and literature resources, as well as in the information retrieval process. The paper also describes a model for a digital library system that supports the integration of clinical systems with online information sources, making use of information available in the electronic medical record to enhance searches and information retrieval. The model builds on several different, previously developed techniques to identify information themes that are relevant to specific clinical data. Using a framework of evidence-based practice, the system generates well-structured questions with the intent of enhancing information retrieval. We believe that by helping clinicians to pose well-structured clinical queries and including in them relevant information from individual patients' medical records, we can enhance information retrieval and thus can improve patient-care. PMID:11515415

Mendonça, E A; Cimino, J J; Johnson, S B; Seol, Y H

2001-04-01

241

Where To Go For Answers Question Who to See Where to Go Contact  

E-print Network

Where To Go For Answers Question Who to See Where to Go Contact Jeannie Steigler Sage 2106 x 6269 Archway x 6636 #12;Question Who to See Where to Go Contact Registrar Academy Hall 2000 level x 6231 Grades level x 6231 Undergraduate Admissions Admissions Staff Admissions Office x 6216 Undergraduate Research

Julius, Anak Agung

242

Records--The Achilles' Heel of School Nursing: Answers to Bothersome Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation. Because the issues have been posed by practicing school nurses, the article is in Question and Answer (Q&A) format. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: ownership and storage location of student health records when the…

Schwab, Nadine C.; Pohlman, Katherine J.

2004-01-01

243

The Varieties of Student Experience--An Open Research Question and Some Ways to Answer It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on meetings of the Society for Research into Higher Education's Student Experience Network over the past three years, the genuinely open research question is posed whether there is one or more undergraduate student experience within English higher education. Answering this question depends on whether what is taught or what is learnt is…

Ainley, Patrick

2008-01-01

244

Data-Intensive Question Answering Eric Brill, Jimmy Lin, Michele Banko, Susan Dumais and Andrew Ng  

E-print Network

. For instance, it is not difficult to match the question "Who killed Abraham Lincoln" with the text "John Wilkes Booth killed Abraham Lincoln," but it is more challenging to find the answer to this question the bullet that ended Abraham Lincoln's life." In Proceedings of the Tenth Text REtrieval Conference (TREC

Lin, Jimmy

245

Researching the Quest: Are Community College Students Motivated by Question-and-Answer Reviews?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any effort to assess the motivational techniques employed by community college faculty is complicated by the inter-connectedness of motivational techniques and teaching techniques, as improved teaching results in improved motivation. Nonetheless, this research poses a motivation-related question: Does the use of daily question-and-answer reviews…

Cavendish, Don F., Jr.

2010-01-01

246

Selecting Information to Answer Questions: Strategic Individual Differences when Searching Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to explore students' selection of information strategies in a task-oriented reading situation. 72 secondary school students read two texts and answered six questions per text, three of which were manipulated to induce a misleading matching between the wording of the question and distracting pieces of information in the…

Cerdan, Raquel; Gilabert, Ramiro; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo

2011-01-01

247

The Big Story: Ten Questions and Answers about the Booming Career Field of Journalism and Communications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten questions about careers in journalism and communications are asked and answered in this booklet. The questions are: Is journalism mainly newspaper work? What opportunities are there today? How is the pay in journalism? Are there incentives besides pay? What about working conditions? What about opportunities for women? What about advancement in…

Sigma Delta Chi, Chicago, IL.

248

Question-Answering-Technique to Support Freshman and Senior Engineers in Processes of Engineering Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experimental studies, the influence of question-based reflection on the quality of design solutions was investigated. Students and experts with different know-how and professional experience had to design an artefact that should meet a list of requirements. Subsequently, they were asked to answer a system of interrogative questions

Winkelmann, Constance; Hacker, Winfried

2010-01-01

249

Gender Differences in Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Back Substitution in Multiple-Choice Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative observational study exploring the relationship of gender to mathematics self-efficacy and the frequency of back substitution in multiple-choice assessment sampled undergraduates at a western United States parochial uni- versity. Research questions addressed: to what extent are there gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy, as demonstrated on multiple-choice test items; and to what extent are there gender differences in the

K. Shane Goodwin; Lee Ostrom; Karen Wilson Scott

250

Langerhans cell histiocytosis in adults: more questions than answers?  

PubMed

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) may affect patients of any age but in adults the features of this disease are still poorly defined. Most reports are based on single-specialty experience and there are only a few describing relatively large series of patients. Although child and adult patients share several features of the disease, and may either have localised or disseminated disease, the proportion of cases with lung involvement is much higher in adults and is partly explained by cigarette smoking. Persisting uncertainty about the pathogenesis of LCH has certainly limited current treatment alternatives. In particular, no clinical trial has been conducted in adults so far and most information derives from description of one or a few cases, often reported retrospectively. On the basis of the background provided by the data collected in its International Registry, the Histiocyte Society is about to start the first prospective, cooperative adult LCH study, aimed at: (a) establishing a common platform for clinical evaluation; (b) testing in adult patients the efficacy of the best standard chemotherapy regimen for children-a combination of prednisone and vinblastine-developed by the Society's trials; (c) describing the natural history of the disease, the impact of cigarette smoking withdrawal and the efficacy of steroid monotherapy in pulmonary LCH. Research studies, ancillary to this trial, offer unique opportunities of addressing some of the open questions in LCH including: the genetic component of the disease as supported by evidence of familial clustering and chromosomal instability, the issue of 'LCH cells' clonality, the relation between pulmonary disease, cigarette smoking, and immune system polymorphisms that might increase individual susceptibility to LCH. A concerted joint effort between paediatricians and adult specialists could be the key to the development of insights into LCH in all age groups affected by this distressing and often debilitating condition. PMID:15196529

Aricň, M

2004-07-01

251

Cerebrovascular disease associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: more questions than answers  

PubMed Central

Neurological syndromes occur in a significant number of patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. The optimal management for these patients however remains uncertain. Our study is a descriptive analysis looking retrospectively at 45 patients who presented to the principal tertiary referral centre in the Australian Capital Territory, with either cerebral arterial or venous thrombosis for which there was no obvious cause for their presentation when initially reviewed. The diagnosis was based on the clinical findings made by one of three neurologists attached to our centre. Radiological findings and the presence of either IgM or IgG anticardiolipin antibodies, IgG anti-beta-2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies or a lupus anticoagulant were then documented. In this group of patients three subgroups were identified: 1. Individuals that fulfilled the Sapporo Classification Criteria 2. Individuals with transiently positive antiphospholipid antibodies and 3. Individuals with persistently low positive antiphospholipid antibodies. The most interesting of these three groups are those individuals with transiently positive antiphospholipid antibodies. A potential cause for presentation was identified in only one patient of this group with documented infective endocarditis and bacteraemia. Comparison with the other two groups suggested that there was little in terms of clinical presentation, radiological findings or intercurrent risk factors for thrombotic disease to distinguish between them. With disappearance of antiphospholipid antibodies, the individuals within this group have not had further thrombotic events. Our observations emphasise the problems that continue to exist in relation to the occurrence of cerebrovascular disease in the context of antiphospholipid antibodies and the optimal management of these stratified groups. Our findings also raise an as yet unanswered question as to the signficance of these transiently positive antiphospholipid antibodies. In the absence of significant intercurrent risk factors our findings would suggest that in the group we describe that they are likely to be of clinical significance. PMID:16573816

Hawkins, Carolyn; Gatenby, Paul; Tuck, Roger; Danta, Gytis; Andrews, Colin

2006-01-01

252

Automatically Acquiring Causal Expression Patterns from Relation-annotated Corpora to Improve Question Answering for why-Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our approach for answering why-questions that we initially introduced at NTCIR-6 QAC-4. The approach automatically acquires causal expression patterns from relation- annotated corpora by abstracting text spans annotated with a causal relation and by mining syntactic patterns that are useful for distinguishing sentences annotated with a causal relation from those annotated with other relations. We use these

Ryuichiro Higashinaka; Hideki Isozaki

2008-01-01

253

Benford's Law: Textbook Exercises and Multiple-Choice Testbanks.  

PubMed

Benford's Law describes the finding that the distribution of leading (or leftmost) digits of innumerable datasets follows a well-defined logarithmic trend, rather than an intuitive uniformity. In practice this means that the most common leading digit is 1, with an expected frequency of 30.1%, and the least common is 9, with an expected frequency of 4.6%. Currently, the most common application of Benford's Law is in detecting number invention and tampering such as found in accounting-, tax-, and voter-fraud. We demonstrate that answers to end-of-chapter exercises in physics and chemistry textbooks conform to Benford's Law. Subsequently, we investigate whether this fact can be used to gain advantage over random guessing in multiple-choice tests, and find that while testbank answers in introductory physics closely conform to Benford's Law, the testbank is nonetheless secure against such a Benford's attack for banal reasons. PMID:25689468

Slepkov, Aaron D; Ironside, Kevin B; DiBattista, David

2015-01-01

254

Part II: Short Answer Questions. Write a brief, but complete answer to each question, confining your answer to the space provided.  

E-print Network

cans) improve the efficiency of your fuel consumption (better gas mileage or hybrid car, better home your answer to the space provided. (8) 1. Coal is the major fuel used to produce electricity in the U. mechanical energy (energy provided by steam to turn the turbine) 4. electrical energy (energy produced

Viola, Ronald

255

Chinese Automatic Question Answering System of Specific-domain Based on Vector Space Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to meet the demand to acquire necessary information efficiently from large electronic text, the Question and Answering (QA) technology to show a clear reply automatically to a question asked in the user's natural language has widely attracted attention in recent years. Although the research of QA system in China is later than that in western countries and Japan, it has attracted more and more attention recently. In this paper, we propose a Question-Answering construction, which synthesizes the answer retrieval to the questions asked most frequently based on common knowledge, and the document retrieval concerning sightseeing information. In order to improve reply accuracy, one must consider the synthetic model based on statistic VSM and the shallow semantic analysis, and the domain is limited to sightseeing information. A Chinese QA system about sightseeing based on the proposed method has been built. The result is obtained by evaluation experiments, where high accuracy can be achieved when the results of retrieval were regarded as correct, if the correct answer appeared among those of the top three resemblance degree. The experiments proved the efficiency of our method and it is feasible to develop Question-Answering technology based on this method.

Hu, Haiqing; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

256

Application of Item Analysis to Assess Multiple-Choice Examinations in the Mississippi Master Cattle Producer Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Item analysis can serve as a useful tool in improving multiple-choice questions used in Extension programming. It can identify gaps between instruction and assessment. An item analysis of Mississippi Master Cattle Producer program multiple-choice examination responses was performed to determine the difficulty of individual examinations, assess the…

Parish, Jane A.; Karisch, Brandi B.

2013-01-01

257

Classroom Assessment Techniques: Multiple Choice Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes how to use a multiple choice test to assess student understanding. The assessment tool is one of a series of Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) provided by the Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) website. The CATs of FLAG were constructed as a resource for science, technology, engineering and mathematics instructors to emphasize deeper levels of learning and to give instructors valuable feedback during a course. The multiple-choice test is a flexible assessment format that can be used to measure knowledge, skills, abilities, values and thinking skills. This site provides an overview of this assessment technique, including information about how, when and why to use it. The site is also linked to a set of discipline-specific "tools" that can be downloaded for immediate use, as well as supplementary links and sources to further explore this assessment tool.

Jay Parkes

258

The Siren Song of the Absurd Answer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional wisdom states that students rarely choose absurd multiple choice distractors, which therefore simply add noise. In contrast, it is observed that introductory astronomy students are sometimes inexorably drawn to multiple choice answers that are clearly absurd to an expert. I demonstrate this phenomenon using data from the University of Alabama's introductory astronomy for non-majors course and investigate possible explanations, with an eye towards improving multiple choice as an assessment method. I finish with a plea for other instructors to include the same questions in their exams in order to dramatically increase the sample size and uncover correlations with other student behavior that can help understand what leads them to make such obvious mistakes.

Bailin, Jeremy

2015-01-01

259

Questioning Chemistry: The Role of Level, Familiarity, Language and Taxonomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on data collected via an audience response system, where a convenience sample of 300 adults aged 17-50 pressed a button to register their answers for twenty multiple choice questions. The responses were then discussed with the respondents at the time. The original dataset includes physics, biology and chemistry questions. The…

Rodrigues, Susan; Taylor, Neil; Cameron, Margaret; Syme-Smith, Lorraine; Fortuna, Colette

2010-01-01

260

The five underlined questions shall be discussed, for the two other questions the answer is enclosed.  

E-print Network

and air can be expressed as yA = 2,53 xA, with acetone mole fraction in air yA and in water xA. a) What component. Svar/answer: 1.38 bar; yT = 0.387; yB = 0.436; yX = 0.177 Värme- och strömningsteknik / Thermal benzen (B), 40 %- mol toluen (T) och 40 %-mol xylen (X). Beräkna totaltrycket av gasen som är i jämvikt

Zevenhoven, Ron

261

Illusion of Linearity in Geometry: Effect in Multiple-Choice Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine if there is a difference in the performance on non-linear problems regarding age, gender, and solving situation, and whether the multiple-choice answer format influences students' thinking. A total of 112 students, aged 15-16 and 18-19, were asked to solve problems for which solutions based on proportionality…

Vlahovic-Stetic, Vesna; Pavlin-Bernardic, Nina; Rajter, Miroslav

2010-01-01

262

Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

2011-01-01

263

Analysis of the question–answer service of the Emma Children’s Hospital information centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information centre of the Emma Children’s Hospital AMC (EKZ AMC) is a specialised information centre where paediatric\\u000a patients and persons involved with the patient can ask questions about all aspects of disease and its social implications.\\u000a The aim of the study was to evaluate the question–answer service of this information centre in order to determine the role\\u000a of a

Frea H. Kruisinga; Richard C. Heinen; Hugo S. A. Heymans

2010-01-01

264

Improving comprehension of science content: Generating self-explanation questions and creating explanatory answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emphasis on learning in content area classrooms is heavily dependent on remembering facts and memorizing definitions. Because of this, students often achieve shallow levels of comprehension and are deficient in the skills necessary to achieve deeper comprehension. Teaching students to generate self-explanation questions and answers related to teacher lectures and from reading text can improve comprehension. Students who attempt to explain what the content means understand it better and at a deeper level. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of teaching students to ask self-explanation questions as a means for improving comprehension. Eighth-grade students from three heterogeneous science classrooms participated in one of the treatment or comparison groups. The first treatment group was taught to generate self-explanation questions while the second treatment group was taught to generate self-explanation questions and to create explanatory answers using a rubric. The comparison group received their regular science instruction. Self-explanation question/answer participants scored significantly higher than the regular instruction group more often than the self-explanation question only group, on memory and essay measures. Analyses were performed with MANCOVA on all three groups' scores as a set. ANCOVA was used to determine if differences existed between groups on each of the dependent variables, and Bonferonni's post-hoc contrasts were used to determine where differences existed among treatment and comparison groups. Results revealed that students who were taught to generate self-explanation questions and/or to create explanatory answers outperformed the regular instruction students on some of the memory and essay measures. Additionally, teaching students a self-explanation strategy resulted in improved ability to respond to essay questions two weeks following the conclusion of the study compared to students who received regular instruction.

Clelland, Peggie L.

265

Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes  

PubMed Central

Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities. PMID:22949426

Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

2012-01-01

266

Let's Talk About Food. Answers to your Questions About Foods and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book on the subject of nutrition is written in the form of often-asked questions and detailed, informative answers. In ten chapters the following range of nutrition topics is covered: (1) meaning of RDA, nutrition labeling, calorie tables, nutrient density; (2) adequate diet, pregnancy, physical fitness, vitamins, diet for athletes, baby…

White, Philip L., Ed.; Selvey, Nancy, Ed.

267

Questions and Answers About Kidney CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION  

E-print Network

Questions and Answers About Kidney CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION What is kidney cancer? Kidney cancer is a malignant tumor that develops from the cells of the kidney It accounts for only about 2% of all cancers in the U.S. There are three main types of kidney cancer: renal cell

268

The Use of Electronic Question and Answer Forums in Mathematics Teacher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many mathematics educators share a view of mathematics as a social and cultural phenomenon and believe that the learning of mathematics concepts is developed and enhanced through the use of learning communities. Electronic discussion boards provide one avenue for supporting such social learning. This paper discusses the use of a Question and Answer section of a discussion board in a

Sandra Schuck

269

Olympian Parents Answer the Question of How Parents Contribute towards Their Child's Academic Productivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do parents contribute toward their child's academic productivity? This article analyzes studies conducted over the last 30 years on this topic. During these three decades a number of theories and theoretical frameworks have been developed to answer this fundamental question. There have been nine national studies published and six reviews of…

Campbell, James Reed

2011-01-01

270

The CSD–450,000 answers?…?but what are the questions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief survey about the development of knowledge of crystal and molecular structure based on the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is given. The CSD may be considered as a database of answers to the question as to which polymorph will form under given crystallization conditions. The emphasis of research over the years has moved from molecular structural geometry, to intermolecular

W. D. Samuel Motherwell

2008-01-01

271

Answers to Commonly-Asked Questions Regarding the UF Cardiothoracic Patient Breach  

E-print Network

a UF Cardiothoracic surgeon who sent patient social security numbers to a national database sponsored by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS). Disclosures of patient social security numbers have been madeAnswers to Commonly-Asked Questions Regarding the UF Cardiothoracic Patient Breach Q: What happened

Florida, University of

272

Who Wants to Know? Question-asking and Answering Practices among Facebook Users  

E-print Network

Who Wants to Know? Question-asking and Answering Practices among Facebook Users Rebecca Gray1@umd.edu ABSTRACT Research has identified a link between Facebook use and bridging social capital, which speaks through which Facebook may help individuals mobilize these embedded informational and support resources

Michigan, University of

273

Public Records Brief: Questions and Answers on Access to Public Records in Maryland  

E-print Network

records o hospital records o student records (public schools) o medical, psychological or sociologicalPublic Records Brief: Questions and Answers on Access to Public Records in Maryland As an entity provide public access to its records unless certain exceptions apply. The following is a brief summary

Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

274

Factors associated with successful answering of clinical questions using an information retrieval system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Despite the growing use of on-line databases by clinicians, there is very little research documenting how effectively they are used. This study assessed the ability of medical and nurse practitioner students to answer clinical questions and attempted to identify factors associated with that ability. Objective: Identify the demographic, experience, cognitive, personality, search mechanics, and user satisfaction factors associated with

William R. Hersh; Lynetta Sacherek; David Hickam; Linda Rose; Charles Friedman

275

Exploring the Learning Mechanism of Web-Based Question-Answering Systems and Their Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, a number of models concerning question-answering (QA) systems have been put forward. But many of them stress technology and neglect the research of QA itself. In this paper, we analyse the essence of QA and discuss the relationship between technology and QA. On that basis, we propose that when designing web-based QA systems, more…

Zhang, Yin

2010-01-01

276

Low-Level Annotations and Summary Representations of Opinions for Multi-Perspective Question Answering  

E-print Network

Department of Computer Science Cornell University Intelligent Systems Program Ithaca, NY 14850, USA of import to the Intelligence Community which includes but is not limited to the CIA, DIA, NSA, NIMA, and NRO. #12;techniques to support the answering of opinion-based questions of the following sort: · What

Cardie, Claire

277

Questions and Answers About Female Breast CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION  

E-print Network

Questions and Answers About Female Breast CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION What. What are the early signs of breast cancer? Some of the warning signs of breast cancer include: · A lump provides the best means of reducing the risk of dying from breast cancer. What is a mammogram? A screening

278

A 3D Audio-Visual Animated Agent for Expressive Conversational Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the ACQA (Animated agent for Conversational Question Answering) project conducted at LIMSI. The aim is to design an expressive animated conversational agent (ACA) for conducting research along two main lines: 1\\/ perceptual experiments (eg perception of expressivity and 3D movements in both audio and visual channels): 2\\/ design of human-computer interfaces requiring head models at different

J.-C. Martin; C. Jacquemin; L. Pointal; B. Katz; C. d'Alessandro; A. Max; M. Courgeon

279

A Questioning-Answering Program for Simple Kernel Sentences (QUE2).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

QUE2 is a recently devised, natural language, questioning-answering program written in LISP1-5. It deals in simple, kernel sentences and employs the theory that the semantic content of a sentence is the set of relationships between conceptual objects (represented by the words in it), which the sentence and its structure imply. The data base of the…

Alexander, Bill

280

Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

US Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

281

Questions and Answers for March 8, 2012 PON11609: Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure  

E-print Network

1 Questions and Answers for March 8, 2012 PON11609: Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure Renewable Hydrogen 1. What if a proposal meets (or exceeds) the renewable hydrogen content requirement through for renewable hydrogen, does there have to be a physical pathway, or can there be credits that can be traded

282

Out of State Employee Report Complete this document if you answer no to both questions below.  

E-print Network

Out of State Employee Report Complete this document if you answer no to both questions below their work outside of Montana. (This could be their state or another state or a foreign country.) This form must also be completed if a current employee changes residency status from Montana to another state

Dyer, Bill

283

Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention Answers the Most Frequently Asked Questions About Drug Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet attempts to provide clear answers to many of the questions currently being raised about the abuse of drugs, and to assist Americans of all ages to inform themselves about this critical problem. Issued by the Federal Government, it contains statements by President Nixon and Jerome H. Jaffe, M.D., Director of the Special Office for Drug…

Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention, Washington, DC.

284

A Rule-Based Semiautomated Approach to Building Natural Language Question Answering (NLQA) Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a rule-based approach to natural language question answering that can be easily implemented for any domain. We discuss the framework in the context of a National Science Foundation funded project - Universal Virtual Laboratory (UVL). UVL is a virtual electrical engineering (EE) laboratory for able and disabled individuals to construct, simulate and understand the characteristics of basic

Kaushik Krishnasamy; Brian P. Butz; Michael Duarte

2004-01-01

285

Robust Question Answering over the Web of Linked Data Mohamed Yahya, Klaus Berberich,  

E-print Network

are a user-friendly mode of tap- ping this wealth of knowledge and data. However, question answering SPARQL queries, with text predicates attached to triple pat- terns. Our solution is based on a novel growing wealth of structured data on the Web: large knowledge bases like dbpedia.org, free- base

286

MAS329 TOPOLOGY MID-TERM TEST 2005 ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS.  

E-print Network

MAS329 TOPOLOGY MID-TERM TEST 2005 ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS. The use of calculators is NOT permitted axioms that T must satisfy in order to be a topology on X. [3] (b) Suppose that T is a topology on X and Z X. Define the subspace topology TZ induced on Z by T and prove that TZ is, indeed, a topology

Jackson, Bill

287

Part 1(50%) Instructions: Read the following passage and answer the questions as directed.  

E-print Network

Part 1(50%) Instructions: Read the following passage and answer the questions as directed. Q zi; its students party animals), higher education is a major societal player. The borders between%*fAO*3 1 f % N ~ f t a i443?-# 3 W% 2 2 *%B [%%%+I m#B 1. Summarizethe main ideas of the entire passage

Huang, Haimei

288

Answers to Your Questions For a Better Understanding oF sexUal  

E-print Network

A Q Answers to Your Questions For a Better Understanding oF sexUal orientation & Homosex is designed to provide accurate information for those who want to better understand sexual orientation and the impact of prejudice and discrimination on those who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. What is sexual

Farritor, Shane

289

2/25/2014 Page 1 of 4 PON-13-610 Questions, Answers, and Clarifications  

E-print Network

2/25/2014 Page 1 of 4 PON-13-610 Q&A Questions, Answers, and Clarifications Natural Gas Vehicle Incentives PON-13-610 Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program California Energy Statistics on the remaining amount of funding available through PON-13-610 can be found at: http

290

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Cost Share PIER Questions and Answers from the Geothermal Workshop  

E-print Network

PON08011 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Cost Share PIER Questions and Answers from in nature and likely to be of value to all applicants for PON 08011. 1. What are the dates and requirements carefully in both the FOA topic area that you are responding to and the PON08011 solicitation

291

Microsoft Word - App 2-4 Answers to Participant Questions.doc  

Cancer.gov

1 Lung Screening Study Version 3.0 Manual of Operations and Procedures 11/15/00 Appendix 2–4 Lung Screening Study Answers to Potential Participant Questions Participation: 1. Why should I participate? The study is designed to determine

292

Retirement Plan Questions and Answers What changes are being made to my retirement plan?  

E-print Network

a retirement plan as well as measures of sustained investment capability which were applied to the very largeRetirement Plan Questions and Answers What changes are being made to my retirement plan? Fidelity Investments has been selected as the recordkeeper for the University's retirement plan effective June 1, 2012

Carter, John

293

Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities Solicitation  

E-print Network

Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities biofuels production facility? A.1 An existing biofuels facility is an existing facility that, as of the application due date of PON-13-601, produces (or did produce) biofuels in California. Q.2 Must an eligible

294

ProteinTomographyTM--answering prevailing scientific questions in therapeutic-antibody research and  

E-print Network

ProteinTomographyTM--answering prevailing scientific questions in therapeutic-antibody research the antibody-antigen complex and possible associated proteins look like. ProteinTomographyTM makes it possible assays. The resulting three-dimensional (3D) tomograms can be compared to visualize target conformation

Cai, Long

295

How to Evaluate Your Question Answering System Every Day ... and Still Get Real Work Done  

E-print Network

. Breck, John D. Burger, Lisa Ferro, Lynette Hirschman, David House, Marc Light, Inderjeet Mani The MITRE, light, imani}@mitre.org Abstract In this paper, we report on Qaviar, an experimental automated evaluation system for question answering applications. The goal of our research was to find an automatically

Breck, Eric

296

Questions and Answers related to a Potential Child Care Center Closure Due to Government Shutdown  

E-print Network

Questions and Answers related to a Potential Child Care Center Closure Due to Government Shutdown September 25, 2013 1. In the event of a Government shutdown will the NIST Child Care Center be open? No to a government-wide shutdown. 2. Will families have to pay tuition during a shutdown? Yes and No. The Parent

297

Questions & Answers on Senate Bill 2. An Invitation to School Improvement in North Carolina, 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions and answers on North Carolina's Senate Bill 2, the School Improvement and Accountability Act, are presented in this booklet. General information about governance, assessment, and funding is provided in the first section. The next section explains setting specific student performance targets in the form of performance indicators. The…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

298

Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers  

SciTech Connect

Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

None

1980-08-01

299

Performance Improvement in Automatic Question Answering System Based on Dependency Term  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic Question Answering (QA) system has become quite popular in recent years, especially since the QA tracks appeared at Text REtrieval Conference (TREC). However, using only lexical information, the keyword-based information retrieval cannot fully describe the characteristics of natural language, thus the system performance cannot make people satisfied. It is proposed in this paper a definition of dependency term, based on the dependency grammar, employing the natural language dependency structure, as the improvement of the term, to support the typical information retrieval models. It is in fact a solution for a special application in XML information retrieval (XML IR) field. Experiments show that: dependency-term-based information retrieval model effectively describes the characteristics of natural language questions, and improves the performance of automatic question answering system.

Shi, Jianxing; Yuan, Xiaojie; Yu, Shitao; Ning, Hua; Wang, Chenying

300

Biz/ed Question Bank - Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Biz/ed Question Bank - Economics is a interactive collection of multiple choice questions on a series of 39 topics. Subjects include National Income - Keynes and the Classics, Wages - Labour supply, and Markets - Demands. Each topic offers ten to twenty-five questions, complete with hints, explanatory answers, and information sources. Because Biz/ed is a British Website, all monetary amounts will be in British currency.

301

78 FR 55261 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions...guidance for industry entitled ``Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions...Answers (Revision 1).'' The Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012...

2013-09-10

302

77 FR 51814 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions...guidance for industry entitled ``Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers.'' The Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012...

2012-08-27

303

Cancer Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T) in front of the answer.  

E-print Network

EAT SMART Cancer Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T the information from this program. # I have or have had cancer. YES NO As you answer each question, think about

304

CSShark Answers Frequently Asked Questions: The CSS Know-How Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is an Internet tool that separates the presentation from the structural markup of a Web site. CSS keeps the structure of a document lean and fast while controlling the appearance of its content. This product is not an adapted tool from print or programming; rather, it is a means of enhancing HTML. For users interested in learning more about this tool, this informative and well-constructed site answers some of those frequently asked questions regarding CSS. In addition, the site explains some of the basics of CSS, provides tips and tricks for tackling the problems with Netscape 4, offers a tutorial concerning positioning with CSS (CSS-P, Web design without tables), and gives various resource links to other related sites. In short, for those with questions concerning CSS and its functions, the CSShark is ready to provide answers.

MaKo.

305

Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.  

SciTech Connect

Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1993-11-01

306

Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.  

SciTech Connect

Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1994-05-01

307

Social Question and Answer Services versus Library Virtual Reference: Evaluation and Comparison from the Users' Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: In recent years, the introduction of social question and answer services and other Internet tools have expanded the ways in which people have their questions answered. There has been speculation and debate over whether such services and other Internet tools are replacing library virtual reference services. Method: Most previous…

Zhang, Yin; Deng, Shengli

2014-01-01

308

Verbal Paradata and Survey Error: Respondent Speech, Voice, and Question-Answering Behavior Can Predict Income Item Nonresponse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Income nonresponse is a significant problem in survey data, with rates as high as 50%, yet we know little about why it occurs. It is plausible that the way respondents answer survey questions (e.g., their voice and speech characteristics, and their question- answering behavior) can predict whether they will provide income data, and will reflect…

Jans, Matthew E.

2010-01-01

309

Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report  

SciTech Connect

The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2,' NUREG-0683.

Not Available

1980-09-01

310

The Communication Skills Used by Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers in a Question-and-Answer Game Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in…

Toe, Dianne M.; Paatsch, Louise E.

2010-01-01

311

Genetic Algorithms for Multiple-Choice Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates the use of problem-specific knowledge to enhance a genetic algorithm approach to multiple-choice optimisation problems.It shows that such information can significantly enhance performance, but that the choice of information and the way it is included are important factors for success.Two multiple-choice problems are considered.The first is constructing a feasible nurse roster that considers as many requests as possible.In the second problem, shops are allocated to locations in a mall subject to constraints and maximising the overall income.Genetic algorithms are chosen for their well-known robustness and ability to solve large and complex discrete optimisation problems.However, a survey of the literature reveals room for further research into generic ways to include constraints into a genetic algorithm framework.Hence, the main theme of this work is to balance feasibility and cost of solutions.In particular, co-operative co-evolution with hierarchical sub-populations, problem structure exploiting repair schemes and indirect genetic algorithms with self-adjusting decoder functions are identified as promising approaches.The research starts by applying standard genetic algorithms to the problems and explaining the failure of such approaches due to epistasis.To overcome this, problem-specific information is added in a variety of ways, some of which are designed to increase the number of feasible solutions found whilst others are intended to improve the quality of such solutions.As well as a theoretical discussion as to the underlying reasons for using each operator,extensive computational experiments are carried out on a variety of data.These show that the indirect approach relies less on problem structure and hence is easier to implement and superior in solution quality.

Aickelin, Uwe

2010-04-01

312

26 CFR 1.401(a)(31)-1 - Requirement to offer direct rollover of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... The following questions and answers relate to...of 1992, Public Law 102-318, 106...respectively. List of Questions Q-1: What... Questions and Answers Q-1: What...Trustee of XYZ Corporation Savings Plan...

2010-04-01

313

INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY  

SciTech Connect

Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

2011-07-01

314

Are Faculty Predictions or Item Taxonomies Useful for Estimating the Outcome of Multiple-Choice Examinations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether multiple-choice item difficulty could be predicted either by a subjective judgment by the question author or by applying a learning taxonomy to the items. Eight physiology faculty members teaching an upper-level undergraduate human physiology course consented to participate in the study. The…

Kibble, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Teresa

2011-01-01

315

Differences between multiple choice items and constructed response items in the IEA timss surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In international large-scale surveys, constructed response (CR) items are increasingly being used and multiple-choice (MC) items are being used less frequently. In this article the two item types will be compared in terms of any differences they have on national mean scores. TIMSS 1995 and TIMSS 1999 data have been used. Are there different effects of the question types for

Dirk Hastedt; Heiko Sibberns

2005-01-01

316

Fast Mesh Decimation by Multiple-Choice Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new mesh decimation framework which is based on the probabilistic optimization technique of Multiple-Choice algorithms. While producing the same expected quality of the out- put meshes, the Multiple-Choice approach leads to a significant speed-up compared to the well- established standard framework for mesh decima- tion as a greedy optimization scheme. More- over, Multiple-Choice decimation does not require

Jianhua Wu; Leif Kobbelt

2002-01-01

317

Multiple-choice Assessment for Upper-division Electricity and Magnetism  

E-print Network

The Colorado Upper-division Electrostatics (CUE) diagnostic was designed as an open-ended assessment in order to capture elements of student reasoning in upper-division electrostatics. The diagnostic has been given for many semesters at several universities resulting in an extensive database of CUE responses. To increase the utility and scalability of the assessment, we used this database along with research on students' difficulties to create a multiple-choice version. The new version explores the viability of a novel test format where students select multiple responses and can receive partial credit based on the accuracy and consistency of their selections. This format was selected with the goal of preserving insights afforded by the open-ended format while exploiting the logistical advantages of a multiple-choice assessment. Here, we present examples of the questions and scoring of the multiple-choice CUE as well as initial analysis of the test's validity, item difficulty, discrimination, and overall consi...

Wilcox, Bethany R

2013-01-01

318

Practical question-and-answer guide on VDTS (video display terminals) for BEES (base bioenvironmental engineer). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The USAF OEHL conducted an extensive literature review of Video Display Terminals (VDTs) and the health problems commonly associated with them. The report is presented in a question-and-answer format in an attempt to paraphrase the most commonly asked questions about VDTs that are forwarded to USAF OEHL/RZN. The questions and answers have been divided into several topic areas: Ionizing Radiation; Nonionizing Radiation; Optical Radiation; Ultrasound; Static Electricity; Health Complaints/Ergonomics; Pregnancy.

Olson, B.M.

1985-01-01

319

Explorative search of distributed bio-data to answer complex biomedical questions  

PubMed Central

Background The huge amount of biomedical-molecular data increasingly produced is providing scientists with potentially valuable information. Yet, such data quantity makes difficult to find and extract those data that are most reliable and most related to the biomedical questions to be answered, which are increasingly complex and often involve many different biomedical-molecular aspects. Such questions can be addressed only by comprehensively searching and exploring different types of data, which frequently are ordered and provided by different data sources. Search Computing has been proposed for the management and integration of ranked results from heterogeneous search services. Here, we present its novel application to the explorative search of distributed biomedical-molecular data and the integration of the search results to answer complex biomedical questions. Results A set of available bioinformatics search services has been modelled and registered in the Search Computing framework, and a Bioinformatics Search Computing application (Bio-SeCo) using such services has been created and made publicly available at http://www.bioinformatics.deib.polimi.it/bio-seco/seco/. It offers an integrated environment which eases search, exploration and ranking-aware combination of heterogeneous data provided by the available registered services, and supplies global results that can support answering complex multi-topic biomedical questions. Conclusions By using Bio-SeCo, scientists can explore the very large and very heterogeneous biomedical-molecular data available. They can easily make different explorative search attempts, inspect obtained results, select the most appropriate, expand or refine them and move forward and backward in the construction of a global complex biomedical query on multiple distributed sources that could eventually find the most relevant results. Thus, it provides an extremely useful automated support for exploratory integrated bio search, which is fundamental for Life Science data driven knowledge discovery. PMID:24564278

2014-01-01

320

Eternity's Sunrise and Other Multiple Choice Questions (Reading Professional).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that William Blake's phrase, "eternity's sunrise," captures the essence of the teaching and learning enterprise. Discusses new horizons in education and teachers who are daily reinventing their teaching. Warns against adopting educational change to be fashionable. (PRA)

Neilsen, Lorri

1992-01-01

321

[Veno-venous extracorporeal oxygenation and veno-arterial extracorporeal oxygenation. Questions, answers].  

PubMed

A round table, organized by the French Society of Perfusion (Sofraperf) at the French national congress on extracorporeal circulations (Perfusion 2013), was attended by perfusionists, anaesthesiologists, intensivists and surgeons around the theme of respiratory veno-venous support and veno-arterial circulatory support with extracorporeal oxygenation in intensive care units. The debate was conducted in a participatory manner by bi-directional questions-answers session between moderators and assistance. The authors report management of this type of therapy that is not perfectly homogeneous, supported on literature data. Cannulae, cannulation, circuit, oxygenator, anticoagulation, control, surveillance, weaning are subject to paragraphs with defined entry whose contents are mutually enriching. PMID:24630169

Isetta, C; Lebreton, G; Janot, N; Prommenschenkel, M; Rilos, Z; Roques, F; Longrois, D

2014-04-01

322

Getting Ready for the "School of the Future": Key Questions and Tentative Answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores some key aspects of "today's school", as opposed to those that have characterized "yesterday's school", with the final aim of shedding light on "tomorrow's school". In this direction, the paper puts forward tentative answers to some key questions related to the new characteristics and roles of teachers and students (main actors of the learning process) and the new features/ potentialities of contemporary educational tools which, in turn, require the enactment of innovative pedagogical approaches and educational methods. The emerging picture of the present learning landscape helps in figuring out a future situation where learning possibilities are substantially increased.

Ott, Michela; Pozzi, Francesca

323

Reducing the Need for Guesswork in Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The humble multiple-choice test is very widely used within education at all levels, but its susceptibility to guesswork makes it a suboptimal assessment tool. The reliability of a multiple-choice test is partly governed by the number of items it contains; however, longer tests are more time consuming to take, and for some subject areas, it can be…

Bush, Martin

2015-01-01

324

Nested Logit Models for Multiple-Choice Item Response Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nested logit item response models for multiple-choice data are presented. Relative to previous models, the new models are suggested to provide a better approximation to multiple-choice items where the application of a solution strategy precedes consideration of response options. In practice, the models also accommodate collapsibility across all…

Suh, Youngsuk; Bolt, Daniel M.

2010-01-01

325

How Do You Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers Like Beagle 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To address one of the most important questions in planetary science Is there life on Mars? The scientific community must turn to less costly means of exploring the surface of the Red Planet. The United Kingdom's Beagle 2 Mars lander concept was a small meter-size lander with a scientific payload constituting a large proportion of the flown mass designed to supply answers to the question about life on Mars. A possible reason why Beagle 2 did not send any data was that it was a one-off attempt to land. As Steve Squyres said at the time: "It's difficult to land on Mars - if you want to succeed you have to send two of everything".

Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

2012-01-01

326

Efficient Validation of Teaching and Learning Using Multiple-Choice Exams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One purpose of this study was to quantify, by means of single-format, multiple-choice questions at the beginning and end of the course, the extent to which first-year medical students learn neuroscience material from an introductory course in their curriculum. A second goal was to evaluate a two-dimensional, computer-generated matrix as a way to assess test question validity and value.

PhD Mark DeSantis (University of Idaho Department of Biological Sciences/WWAMI Medical Education Program)

2003-03-01

327

The Answering System to Yes-No Truth-Functional Questions in Korean-English Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in "Br J Psychol" 52:133-142,…

Choi, Hansook

2014-01-01

328

E-Assessment for Learning? The Potential of Short-Answer Free-Text Questions with Tailored Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A natural language based system has been used to author and mark short-answer free-text assessment tasks. Students attempt the questions online and are given tailored and relatively detailed feedback on incorrect and incomplete responses, and have the opportunity to repeat the task immediately so as to learn from the feedback provided. The answer

Jordan, Sally; Mitchell, Tom

2009-01-01

329

Is obesity a risk factor for low back pain? An example of using the evidence to answer a clinical question  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Obesity as a causal factor for low back pain has been controversial with no definitive answer to this date. The objective of this study was to determine whether obesity is associated with low back pain. In addition this paper aims to provide a step-by-step guide for chiropractors and osteopaths on how to ask and answer a clinical question using

Timothy A Mirtz; Leon Greene

2005-01-01

330

Web-Based Question Answering: A Decision-Making Perspective David Azari Eric Horvitz Susan Dumais Eric Brill  

E-print Network

Web-Based Question Answering: A Decision-Making Perspective David Azari Eric Horvitz Susan Dumais, Washington Redmond, Washington Redmond, Washington Redmond, Washington azari@cs.washington.edu horvitz

Horvitz, Eric

331

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...Publication of technology and exports and reexports of technology...Publication Question A(1): I plan to publish in a foreign...abroad? Answer: No. This export transaction is not...

2012-01-01

332

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...Publication of technology and exports and reexports of technology...Publication Question A(1): I plan to publish in a foreign...abroad? Answer: No. This export transaction is not...

2013-01-01

333

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...Publication of technology and exports and reexports of technology...Publication Question A(1): I plan to publish in a foreign...abroad? Answer: No. This export transaction is not...

2014-01-01

334

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...Publication of technology and exports and reexports of technology...Publication Question A(1): I plan to publish in a foreign...abroad? Answer: No. This export transaction is not...

2011-01-01

335

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...Publication of technology and exports and reexports of technology...Publication Question A(1): I plan to publish in a foreign...abroad? Answer: No. This export transaction is not...

2010-01-01

336

Reference Question Answered: Bibliographic Sources for the Ukrainian Periodical Press in the 1840’s: Encyclopedias, Bibliographies, Guides, and Library Catalogs  

E-print Network

The author answers a reference question on the bibliographic sources for the Ukrainian periodical press from 1840-1850. Helpful publications include bibliographies, guides, and library catalogs that can be used to identify ...

Giullian, Jon C.

2008-01-01

337

Measuring the Consistency in Change in Hepatitis B Knowledge among Three Different Types of Tests: True/False, Multiple Choice, and Fill in the Blanks Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recall of information about Hepatitis B demonstrated by 180 seventh graders was tested with three test types: (1) short-answer; (2) true/false; and (3) multiple-choice. Short answer testing was the most reliable. Suggestions are made for the use of short-answer tests in evaluating student knowledge. (SLD)

Sahai, Vic; Demeyere, Petra; Poirier, Sheila; Piro, Felice

1998-01-01

338

The development and validation of a two-tiered multiple-choice instrument to identify alternative conceptions in earth science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and understanding of earth science concepts, and to describe relationships between content knowledge and alternative conceptions and planning instruction in the science classroom. Eighty-seven preservice teachers enrolled in the MAT program participated in this study. Sixty-eight participants were female, twelve were male, and seven chose not to answer. Forty-seven participants were in the elementary certification program, five were in the middle school certification program, and twenty-nine were pursuing secondary certification. Results indicate that the two-tiered, multiple-choice format can be a reliable and valid method for identifying alternative conceptions. Preservice teachers in all certification areas who participated in this study may possess common alternative conceptions previously identified in the literature. Alternative conceptions included: all rivers flow north to south, the shadow of the Earth covers the Moon causing lunar phases, the Sun is always directly overhead at noon, weather can be predicted by animal coverings, and seasons are caused by the Earth's proximity to the Sun. Statistical analyses indicated differences, however not all of them significant, among all subgroups according to gender and certification area. Generally males outperformed females and preservice teachers pursuing middle school certification had higher scores on the questionnaire followed by those obtaining secondary certification. Elementary preservice teachers scored the lowest. Additionally, self-reported scores of confidence in one's answers and understanding of the earth science concept in question were analyzed. There was a slight positive correlation between overall score and both confidence and understanding. Responses on the questionnaire were investigated with respect to pedagogical choices. Evidence suggests that content knowledge and having alternative conceptions or science fragments may impact a teacher's pedagogical choices. Through careful development of instruments like ACES-Q II-R and other two- tiered, multiple-choice instruments, educators and researchers car not only identify possible alternative conceptions, they can raise an awareness of alternative conceptions held by children and adults.

Mangione, Katherine Anna

339

Concept Learning versus Problem Solving: Evaluating a Threat to the Validity of a Particulate Gas Law Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three different samples of students were asked to answer five multiple-choice questions concerning the properties of a sample of helium gas (particle speed, state of matter, sample volume, sample pressure, and particle distribution), including a particulate question first used by Nurrenbern and Pickering (particle distribution). In the first…

Sanger, Michael J.; Vaughn, C. Kevin; Binkley, David A.

2013-01-01

340

Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.  

SciTech Connect

Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1995-06-01

341

Generating Exact- and Ranked Partially-Matched Answers to Questions in Advertisements  

E-print Network

Taking advantage of the Web, many advertisements (ads for short) websites, which aspire to increase client's transactions and thus profits, offer searching tools which allow users to (i) post keyword queries to capture their information needs or (ii) invoke form-based interfaces to create queries by selecting search options, such as a price range, filled-in entries, check boxes, or drop-down menus. These search mechanisms, however, are inadequate, since they cannot be used to specify a natural-language query with rich syntactic and semantic content, which can only be handled by a question answering (QA) system. Furthermore, existing ads websites are incapable of evaluating arbitrary Boolean queries or retrieving partiallymatched answers that might be of interest to the user whenever a user's search yields only a few or no results at all. In solving these problems, we present a QA system for ads, called CQAds, which (i) allows users to post a natural-language question Q for retrieving relevant ads, if they exi...

Qumsiyeh, Rani; Ng, Yiu-Kai

2011-01-01

342

Answering the right question - integration of InSAR with other datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capabilities of satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are well known, and utilized across a wide range of academic and commercial applications. However there is a tendency, particularly in commercial applications, for users to ask 'What can we study with InSAR?'. When establishing a new technique this approach is important, but InSAR has been possible for 20 years now and, even accounting for new and innovative algorithms, this ground has been thoroughly explored. Too many studies conclude 'We show the ground is moving here, by this much', and mention the wider context as an afterthought. The focus needs to shift towards first asking the right questions - in fields as diverse as hazard awareness, resource optimization, financial considerations and pure scientific enquiry - and then working out how to achieve the best possible answers. Depending on the question, InSAR (and ground deformation more generally) may provide a large or small contribution to the overall solution, and there are usually benefits to integrating a number of techniques to capitalize on the complementary capabilities and provide the most useful measurements. However, there is still a gap between measurements and answers, and unlocking the value of the data relies heavily on appropriate visualization, integrated analysis, communication between technique and application experts, and appropriate use of modelling. We present a number of application examples, and demonstrate how their usefulness can be transformed by moving from a focus on data to answers - integrating complementary geodetic, geophysical and geological datasets and geophysical modeling with appropriate visualization, to enable comprehensive solution-focused interpretation. It will also discuss how forthcoming developments are likely to further advance realisation of the full potential satellite InSAR holds.

Holley, Rachel; McCormack, Harry; Burren, Richard

2014-05-01

343

29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

2014-07-01

344

29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

2013-07-01

345

29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

2011-07-01

346

29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

2012-07-01

347

29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

2010-07-01

348

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS: EPA'S GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT AND SUPPLEMENTAL GUIDANCE FROM ASSESSING SUSCEPTIBILITY FROM EARLY-LIFE EXPOSURE TO CARCINOGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

March 29, 2005 EPA's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment And Supplemental Guidance from Assessing Susceptibility from Early-life Exposure to Carcinogens Questions and Answers The following questions ...

349

Polytomous versus Dichotomous Scoring on Multiple-Choice Examinations: Development of a Rubric for Rating Partial Credit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of assigning partial credit on multiple-choice test items is considered for items from ACS Exams. Because the items on these exams, particularly the quantitative items, use common student errors to define incorrect answers, it is possible to assign partial credits to some of these incorrect responses. To do so, however, it becomes…

Grunert, Megan L.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

350

Tips for giving a memorable presentation, part VI: the effective use of questions by a speaker, and answering questions from listeners.  

PubMed

Previous articles in this series have focused on tips for educators and leaders in giving a presentation, followed by articles on composing the talk and PowerPoint slides. This article focuses on how a speaker can effectively use questions to engage the audience and answer questions from the listeners, including members of the media. Additional comments will be given on how to give a clear presentation so that many questions will not be necessary. PMID:23154476

Harolds, Jay A

2012-12-01

351

Long-term follow-up of echolalia and question answering.  

PubMed Central

A long-term follow-up of echolalia and correct question answering was conducted for 6 subjects from three previously published studies. The follow-up periods ranged from 26 to 57 months. In a training site follow-up, subjects were exposed to baseline/posttraining conditions in which the original trainer and/or a novel person(s) presented trained and untrained questions. Four subjects displayed echolalia below baseline levels, and another did so in some assessments. Overall, echolalia was lower than in baseline in 80.6% of the follow-ups. Five subjects displayed correct responding above baseline levels. No clear differences were noted in correct responding or echolalia between the trainer and novel-person presentations or between trained and untrained questions. In a follow-up in a natural environment conducted by a novel person, lower than baseline levels of echolalia were displayed by 3 subjects; 2 subjects displayed lower than baseline levels in some assessments. Two subjects consistently displayed correct responding above baseline, and 3 did so occasionally. Issues related to the study of maintenance are discussed. PMID:2249974

Foxx, R M; Faw, G D

1990-01-01

352

A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

Brown, John S.; And Others

353

The ContactFinder agent: Answering bulletin board questions with referrals  

SciTech Connect

ContactFinder is an intelligent agent whose approach to assisting users is valuable and innovative in the following four ways. First, ContactFinder operates proactively in reading and responding to messages on electronic bulletin boards rather than acting in response to user queries. Second, ContactFinder assists users by referring them to other people who can help them, rather than attempting to find information that directly answers the user`s specific question. Third, ContactFinder categorizes messages and extracts their topic areas using a set of heuristics that are very efficient and demonstrably highly effective. Fourth, ContactFinder posts its referrals back to the bulletin boards rather than simply communicating with specific users, to increase the information density and connectivity of the system. This paper discusses these aspects of the system and demonstrates their effectiveness in over six months of use on a large-scale internal bulletin board.

Krulwich, B.; Burkey, C. [Center for Strategic Technology Research, Northbrook, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

354

Recognizing Questions and Answers in EMR Templates Using Natural Language Processing.  

PubMed

Templated boilerplate structures pose challenges to natural language processing (NLP) tools used for information extraction (IE). Routine error analyses while performing an IE task using Veterans Affairs (VA) medical records identified templates as an important cause of false positives. The baseline NLP pipeline (V3NLP) was adapted to recognize negation, questions and answers (QA) in various template types by adding a negation and slot:value identification annotator. The system was trained using a corpus of 975 documents developed as a reference standard for extracting psychosocial concepts. Iterative processing using the baseline tool and baseline+negation+QA revealed loss of numbers of concepts with a modest increase in true positives in several concept categories. Similar improvement was noted when the adapted V3NLP was used to process a random sample of 318,000 notes. We demonstrate the feasibility of adapting an NLP pipeline to recognize templates. PMID:25000038

Divita, Guy; Shen, Shuying; Carter, Marjorie E; Redd, Andrew; Forbush, Tyler; Palmer, Miland; Samore, Matthew H; Gundlapalli, Adi V

2014-01-01

355

Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers  

PubMed Central

Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics. PMID:18522725

Kurz, Matthias

2008-01-01

356

Answering orientation questions and following single-step verbal commands: effect on aspiration status.  

PubMed

In the acute-care setting patients with altered mental status as a result of such diverse etiologies as stroke, traumatic brain injury, degenerative neurologic impairments, dementia, or alcohol/drug abuse are routinely referred for dysphagia testing. A protocol for dysphagia testing was developed that began with verbal stimuli to determine patient orientation status and ability to follow single-step verbal commands. Although unknown, it would be beneficial to ascertain if this information on mental status was predictive of aspiration risk. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if there was a difference in odds for aspiration based upon correctly answering specific orientation questions, i.e., 1. What is your name? 2. Where are you right now? and 3. What year is it?, and following specific single-step verbal commands, i.e., 1. Open your mouth. 2. Stick out your tongue. and 3. Smile. In a consecutive retrospective manner data from 4070 referred patients accrued between 1 December 1999 and 1 January 2007 were analyzed. The odds of liquid aspiration were 31% greater for patients not oriented to person, place, and time (odds ratio [OR] = 1.305, 95% CI = 1.134-1.501). The odds of liquid aspiration (OR = 1.566, 95% CI = 1.307-1.876), puree aspiration (OR = 1.484, 95% CI = 1.202-1.831), and being deemed unsafe for any oral intake (OR = 1.688, 95% CI = 1.387-2.054) were, respectively, 57, 48, and 69% greater for patients unable to follow single-step verbal commands. Being able to answer orientation questions and follow single-step verbal commands provides information on odds of aspiration for liquid and puree food consistencies as well as overall eating status prior to dysphagia testing. Knowledge of potential increased odds of aspiration allows for individualization of dysphagia testing thereby optimizing swallowing success. PMID:19263106

Leder, Steven B; Suiter, Debra M; Lisitano Warner, Heather

2009-09-01

357

Dense Plasma Focus: A question in search of answers, a technology in search of applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnostic information accumulated over four decades of research suggests a directionality of toroidal motion for energetic ions responsible for fusion neutron production in the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) and existence of an axial component of magnetic field even under conditions of azimuthal symmetry. This is at variance with the traditional view of Dense Plasma Focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow. The difficulty in understanding the experimental situation from a theoretical standpoint arises from polarity of the observed solenoidal state: three independent experiments confirm existence of a fixed polarity of the axial magnetic field or related azimuthal current. Since the equations governing plasma dynamics do not have a built-in direction, the fixed polarity must be related with initial conditions: the plasma dynamics must interact with an external physical vector in order to generate a solenoidal state of fixed polarity. Only four such external physical vectors can be identified: the earth's magnetic field, earth's angular momentum, direction of current flow and the direction of the plasma accelerator. How interaction of plasma dynamics with these fields can generate observed solenoidal state is a question still in search of answers; this paper outlines one possible answer. The importance of this question goes beyond scientific curiosity into technological uses of the energetic ions and the high-power-density plasma environment. However, commercial utilization of such technologies faces reliability concerns, which can be met only by first-principles integrated design of globally-optimized industrial-quality DPF hardware. Issues involved in the emergence of the Dense Plasma Focus as a technology platform for commercial applications in the not-too-distant future are discussed.

Auluck, S. K. H.

2014-08-01

358

Quick Questions: Learn About Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will collect and analyze data to learn about the people around them. How many letters in everyone’s first name? What’s the most common number of letters? What’s most or least? Start out by posing a multiple choice question. Everyone records answers on a large chart. Then, explore the data. This works well as a family activity or in a public area—museum, library, school building. Post the chart and review answers after at least 100 people have responded. Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

TERC

2010-01-01

359

Dietary polyphenols as antioxidants and anticancer agents: more questions than answers.  

PubMed

High intake of fruit and vegetables is believed to be beneficial to human health. Fruit, vegetables and some beverages, such as tea and coffee, are particularly rich in dietary polyphenols. Various studies have suggested (but not proven) that dietary polyphenols may protect against cardiovasucalar diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and some forms of cancer. Dietary polyphenols may exert their anticancer effects through several possible mechanisms, such as removal of carcinogenic agents, modulation of cancer cell signaling and antioxidant enzymatic activities, and induction of apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest. Some of these effects may be related, at least partly, to their antioxidant activities. In recent years, a new concept of the antioxidant effects of dietary polyphenols has emerged, i.e., direct scavenging activity toward reactive species and indirect antioxidant activity; the latter activity is thought to arise primarily via the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 which stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase, catalase, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), and/or phase II enzymes. The direct antioxidant activity of dietary polyphenols in vivo is probably limited because of their low concentrations in vivo, except in the gastrointestinal tract where they are present in high concentrations. Paradoxically, the pro-oxidant effect of dietary polyphenols may contribute to the activation of antioxidant enzymes and protective proteins in cultured cells and animal models because of the adaptation of cells and tissues to mild/moderate oxidative stress. Despite a plethora of in vitro studies on dietary polyphenols, many questions remain to be answered, such as: (1) How relevant are the direct and indirect antioxidant activities of dietary polyphenols in vivo? (2) How important are these activities in the anticancer effects of dietary polyphenols? (3) Do the pro-oxidant effects of dietary polyphenols observed in vitro have any relevance in vivo, especially in the potential anticancer effect of dietary polyphenols? Apparently, more carefully-designed in vivo studies are needed to answer these questions. PMID:22035889

Hu, Miao-Lin

2011-01-01

360

To appear in: Jess Aguilar & Andrei A. Buckareff (eds.), Philosophy of Action: 5 Questions, Automatic My answers to five questions on agency  

E-print Network

, Automatic Press/VIP My answers to five questions on agency Joëlle Proust (Institut Jean-Nicod) EHESS & ENS, CNRS, Paris 1. Why were you initially drawn to theorizing about action and agency? I had been perturbations of agency awareness. At the beginning of the nineties, I was conducting research on such general

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

361

An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on Internet Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on  

E-print Network

Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues Poynter Center Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues http

Redmiles, David F.

362

Using LQCD to answer questions about hadronic interactions: a perspective from a traditional nuclear theorist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As computational resources increase and better algorithms are implemented, LQCD calculations of hadronic interaction observables become less of a pipe dream, and more of a reality, and will eventually become the status quo. One of the greatest strengths of LQCD calculations in the realm of low-energy nuclear physics comes from its predictive capability, as many hadronic systems not accessible by experiments can be calculated on the lattice. These calculations in turn have direct implications to nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, and nuclear astrophysics, as well as the broader nuclear physics community. Thus the import of LQCD on low-energy nuclear physics cannot be overlooked, nor understated. In this talk I discuss current and ongoing efforts to extract hadronic interaction parameters from LQCD, enumerating current difficulties placed by available computer resources and algorithm limitations. I will also talk about future possibilities coming from increased computer resources and algorithm development, giving examples of how such calculations can answer longstanding questions in traditional nuclear physics. Finally, I will discuss the role that national labs can and should play in the area of LQCD as applied to low-energy nuclear physics.

Luu, Thomas

2009-05-01

363

Ten Common Questions (and Their Answers) About Off-label Drug Use  

PubMed Central

The term off-label drug use (OLDU) is used extensively in the medical literature, continuing medical education exercises, and the media. Yet, we propose that many health care professionals have an underappreciation of its definition, prevalence, and implications. This article introduces and answers 10 questions regarding OLDU in an effort to clarify the practice's meaning, breadth of application, acceptance, and liabilities. Off-label drug use involves prescribing medications for indications, or using a dosage or dosage form, that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Since the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate the practice of medicine, OLDU has become common. It occurs in every specialty of medicine, but it may be more common in areas of medicine in which the patient population is less likely to be included in clinical trials (eg, pediatric, pregnant, or psychiatric patients). Pharmaceutical companies are not allowed to promote their medications for an off-label use, which has lead to several large settlements for illegal marketing. To limit liability, physicians should prescribe medications only for indications that they believe are in the best interest of the patient. In addition, health care professionals should educate themselves about OLDU to weigh the risks and benefits and provide the best possible care for their patients. PMID:22877654

Wittich, Christopher M.; Burkle, Christopher M.; Lanier, William L.

2012-01-01

364

A study of advanced training technology: Emerging answers to tough questions  

SciTech Connect

This study reports the result of an extensive nationwide review of military, private sector, and other federal agencies and organizations that are implementing a wide variety of advanced training technologies. This report classifies the general categories of advanced training technologies found and provides an overview of each, including specific types and examples. In addition, the research findings present an organizational model for training development linking overall organizational maturity to readiness to implement specific kinds of advanced training technologies. It also presents proposed methods for selecting media, describes the organizations and the data gathered, and provides a summary of implementation success at each organization. This study is organized as a set of five topics. Each topic raises a number of important questions and provides complete or emerging answers. For organizations who have made advanced training selections, this study is a resource to benchmark their success with other organizations who have made similar selections. For new or developing training organizations, this study will help plan their future technology selections by comparing their level of organizational maturity to the documented experiences of similar organizations.

NONE

1995-03-01

365

Nevada Education Law: Federal and State Law Governing Nevada K-12 Education in Question/Answer Format.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides answers to the most common legal questions of Nevada's school board members, administrators, and educators. Chapter 1, "The Nevada School System: Governance, Programs, and Standards," explores the constitutional, legal, and statutory basis of school system governance. Chapter 2, "The Nevada Plan: Finance of Public Education,"…

Daugherty, Richard F.; Cockerill, Charles P.

366

Gehrels_Answers 311.pdf Student questions: Neil Gehrels colloquium on "Gamma Ray Bursts and the Birth of Black  

E-print Network

Gehrels_Answers 311.pdf 1 Student questions: Neil Gehrels colloquium on "Gamma Ray Bursts a Gamma Ray Burst? Answ 1: The progenitor star that explodes to make the GRB is thought to be spinning habitable planet that might be near by the gamma ray burst? Answ 1: Yes, typical distance are ~10 billion

Rhoads, James

367

Questions and Answers about Ten Formal Methods Pieter Hartel, Michael Butler, Andrew Currie, Peter Henderson, Michael Leuschel,  

E-print Network

Questions and Answers about Ten Formal Methods Pieter Hartel, Michael Butler, Andrew Currie, Peter Henderson, Michael Leuschel, Andrew Martin, Adrian Smith, Ulrich Ultes­Nitsche, and Bob Walters Declarative methods as follows: 1. One of us presented the rational reconstruction (sam­ ple specification

Walters, Robert

368

NATURE CHEMISTRY | VOL 3 | NOVEMBER 2011 | www.nature.com/naturechemistry 831 There is no simple answer to this question,  

E-print Network

There is no simple answer to this question, and it may depend on one's role in the peer- review process. An author probably hopes for a report that is returned quickly and is positive, or at least constructively critical the review, clearly stating how the work is viewed by the referee and highlighting any problematic

Cai, Long

369

26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the...

2013-04-01

370

26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the...

2014-04-01

371

26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the...

2012-04-01

372

Template for NSF Data Management Plan In general, the data management plan should answer these two questions  

E-print Network

Template for NSF Data Management Plan In general, the data management plan should answer these two questions: 1) What data is generated by your project? 2) What is your plan for managing the data? 1 those posted on a website or made available to a public database. Describe your plans, if any

He, Chuan

373

Constructed-Response Test Questions: Why We Use Them; How We Score Them. R&D Connections. Number 11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To many people, standardized testing means multiple-choice testing. However, some tests contain questions that require the test taker to produce the answer, rather than simply choosing it from a list. The required response can be as simple as the writing of a single word as complex as the design of a laboratory experiment to test a scientific…

Livingston, Samuel A.

2009-01-01

374

U.S. Court Rules that Requiring Multiple-Choice Tests May Violate the Rights of Learning-Disabled Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A suit filed by Steven E. Wynne, who has dyslexia, against the Tufts School of Medicine charged that the school discriminated against him when it refused to provide a test that did not use multiple-choice questions. Tufts filed an appeal saying the decision is an encroachment on academic freedom. (MLW)

Jaschik, Scott

1990-01-01

375

The Development of Multiple-Choice Items Consistent with the AP Chemistry Curriculum Framework to More Accurately Assess Deeper Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice questions are an important part of large-scale summative assessments, such as the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam. However, past AP chemistry exam items often lacked the ability to test conceptual understanding and higher-order cognitive skills. The redesigned AP chemistry exam shows a distinctive shift in item types toward…

Domyancich, John M.

2014-01-01

376

An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability  

PubMed Central

Background Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A) network tools, which link questioners directly to experts can overcome some of these barriers. When designing and testing online tools, assessing the usability and applicability is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the usability and applicability of a new online Q&A network tool for answers on OSH questions. Methods We applied a cross-sectional usability test design. Eight occupational health experts and twelve potential questioners from the working population (workers) were purposively selected to include a variety of computer- and internet-experiences. During the test, participants were first observed while executing eight tasks that entailed important features of the tool. In addition, they were interviewed. Through task observations and interviews we assessed applicability, usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction) and facilitators and barriers in use. Results Most features were usable, though several could be improved. Most tasks were executed effectively. Some tasks, for example searching stored questions in categories, were not executed efficiently and participants were less satisfied with the corresponding features. Participants' recommendations led to improvements. The tool was found mostly applicable for additional information, to observe new OSH trends and to improve contact between OSH experts and workers. Hosting and support by a trustworthy professional organization, effective implementation campaigns, timely answering and anonymity were seen as important use requirements. Conclusions This network tool is a promising new strategy for offering company workers high quality information to answer OSH questions. Q&A network tools can be an addition to existing information facilities in the field of OSH, but also to other healthcare fields struggling with how to answer questions from people in practice with high quality information. In the near future, we will focus on the use of the tool and its effects on information and knowledge dissemination. PMID:20969777

2010-01-01

377

Geophysical Summer Field Camp: Answering questions about the subsurface for the local community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer Geophysics Field Camp is part of the core requirement for undergraduate Geophysics majors at Boise State University (CSM), as well as at Colorado School of Mines (CSM). We have found it to be most effectively taught when the target of the camp involves answering questions, which impact society. For example, currently the CSM/BSU geophysics summer camp focuses on ground water resources and geothermal potential in the Upper Arkansas River Basin, a part of the Rio Grande Rift system in Chaffee County, Colorado. A prime goal is to train students how to combine diverse sources of information into a unified interpretation: Students examine lithologies and structures on the periphery of the basin. Cross sections are constructed to predict the geophysical signature. Geophysical tools then are used to ascertain the gross structure and examine subsurface conditions in greater detail. These tools include surveying, regional gravity, deep and shallow seismic surveys, magnetics, DC resistivity, Ground Penetrating Radar, electromagnetics, hydrochemistry, and karaoke. While BSU and CSM own a considerable amount of geophysical hardware, our field camps are only possible because of extensive support by corporations and governmental agencies. In addition, the Society of Exploration Geohysics (SEG) Foundation provides financial support, Chaffee County assists with housing costs, and local land owners provide open access. In turn, the field camp results aid the community of Chaffee County in assessing their water resources for long term growth planning, as well as understanding the geothermal potential for hydroelectric power generation. BSU is currently exploring with the SEG Foundation under the Geophysicists Without Borders program to apply this model of combined education and social outreach in the form a geophysics camp for Southeast Asia, where we propose to study geohazards,geoarcheology and groundwater issues.

van Wijk, K.; Batzle, M.; Liberty, L.; Raynolds, R.

2008-12-01

378

The Place of Health Information and Socio-Emotional Support in Social Questioning and Answering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Little is known about the quality of health information in social contexts or how socio-emotional factors impact users' evaluations of quality. We explored how librarians, nurses and users assessed the quality of health answers posted on Yahoo! Answers, focusing on socio-emotional reactions displayed, advice given to users and…

Worrall, Adam; Oh, Sanghee

2013-01-01

379

Nittler_Answers to student questions 414.pdf Student questions: Larry Nittler colloquium on "Exploring Mercury: Scientific Results from  

E-print Network

on "Exploring Mercury: Scientific Results from the MESSENGER Mission" 4/16/14 Question 1: Since the heavier is unknown but it is not particularly higher than the other terrestrial planets. In fact, all the terrestrial surface samples? Yes!!! Question 2: What are the implications of having the higher level of Na in Mercury

Rhoads, James

380

Blakey_Answers to student questions 314.pdf Student questions: Ronald Blakey colloquium on "Using Paleogeographic Maps to Portray  

E-print Network

that are missing information are just far too great? No, this is not a problem. Question 1: Which geological time, and it's the area I know best. Question 2: You mentioned in a slide of Old Jurassic, that rivers drained: What discovery can be found by the study of the Colorado Plataeu that may influence not only your

Rhoads, James

381

Using the Multiple Choice Procedure to Measure College Student Gambling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that gambling is similar to addictive behaviors such as substance use. In the current study, gambling was investigated from a behavioral economics perspective. The Multiple Choice Procedure (MCP) with gambling as the target behavior was used to assess for relative reinforcing value, the effect of alternative reinforcers, and…

Butler, Leon Harvey

2010-01-01

382

A Mixture Item Response Model for Multiple-Choice Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a mixture item response model for investigating individual differences in the selection of response categories in multiple choice items. A real data example illustrates how the model can be used to distinguish examinees disproportionately attracted to different types of distractors, and a simulation study evaluates item parameter recovery…

Bolt, Daniel M.; Cohen, Allan S.; Wollack, James A.

2001-01-01

383

Valuing Assessment in Teacher Education - Multiple-Choice Competency Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When our focus is on assessment educators should work to value the nature of assessment. This paper presents a new approach to multiple-choice competency testing in mathematics education. The instrument discussed here reflects student competence, encourages self-regulatory learning behaviours and links content with current curriculum documents and…

Martin, Dona L.; Itter, Diane

2014-01-01

384

Analysis of Student Responses to Peer-Instruction Conceptual Questions Answered Using an Electronic Response System: Trends by Gender and Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study investigated students' answers to geoscience conceptual questions answered using electronic personal response systems. Answer patterns were examined to evaluate the peer-instruction pedagogical approach in a large general education classroom setting. (Contains 3 figures and 2 tables.)

Steer, David; McConnell, David; Gray, Kyle; Kortz, Karen; Liang, Xin

2009-01-01

385

Probing decisive answers to dark energy questions from cosmic complementarity and lensing tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study future constraints on dark energy parameters determined from several combinations of cosmic microwave background experiments, supernova data, and cosmic-shear surveys with and without tomography. In this analysis, we look in particular for combinations of experiments that will bring the uncertainties to a level of precision tight enough (a few per cent) to answer decisively some of the questions regarding dark energy. In view of the parametrization dependence problems, we probe the dark energy using two variants of its equation of state w(z), and its energy density ?de(z). For the latter, we model ?de(z) as a continuous function interpolated using dimensionless parameters . We consider a large set of 13 cosmological and systematic parameters, and assume reasonable priors on the lensing and supernova systematics. For the CMB, we consider future constraints from eight years of data from WMAP, one year of data from Planck, and one year of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). We use two sets of 2000 supernovae with zmax= 0.8 and 1.5 respectively, and consider various cosmic-shear reference surveys: a wide ground-based-like survey, covering 70 per cent of the sky, and with successively two and five tomographic bins; and a deep-space-based-like survey with 10 tomographic bins and various sky coverages. The 1? constraints found are {?(w0) = 0.086, ?(w1) = 0.069}, {?(w0) = 0.088, ?(wa) = 0.11}, and from Planck, supernovae and the ground-based-like lensing survey with two bins. When five bins are used within the same combination the constraints reduce to {?(w0) = 0.04, ?(w1) = 0.034}, {?(w0) = 0.041, ?(wa) = 0.056}, and . Finally, when the deep lensing survey with 10 per cent coverage of the sky and 10 tomographic bins is used along with Planck and the deep supernova survey, the constraints reduce to {?(w0) = 0.032, ?(w1) = 0.027}, {?(w0) = 0.033, ?(wa) = 0.04}, and . Other coverages of the sky and other combinations of experiments are explored as well. Although some worries remain about other systematics, our study shows that, after the combination of the three probes, lensing tomography with many redshift bins and large coverages of the sky has the potential to add key improvements to the dark energy parameter constraints. However, the fact that very ambitious and sophisticated surveys are required in order to achieve some of these constraints or to improve them suggests the need for new tests to probe the nature of dark energy in addition to constraining its equation of state.

Ishak, Mustapha

2005-10-01

386

Using Chat and Text Technologies to Answer Sexual and Reproductive Health Questions: Planned Parenthood Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background Teens and young adults in the United States are in need of sexual and reproductive health information, as evidenced by elevated rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), pregnancy, and births among this population. In-person sexuality education programs are helpful, but they are unlikely to rapidly accommodate teens and young adults in a moment of crisis. Evidence suggests that technologies such as instant messaging (IM) and text messaging may be effective ways to provide teens and young adults with sexual and reproductive health information. In September 2010, Planned Parenthood Federation of America launched a text and IM program designed to provide immediate answers to urgent sexual and reproductive health questions from a reliable and confidential source and to link young people to sexual and reproductive health services if needed. Objective To assess whether this program is successful in reaching the target population, whether user characteristics vary by mode (IM vs text), and whether mode is associated with reaching individuals with high levels of worry or reducing worry postchat. Methods Data were collected from prechat and postchat surveys for all IM and text message conversations between September 2010 and August 2011. A bivariate analysis was conducted using chi-square tests for differences in the main covariates by mode of conversation. In the multivariable analysis, logistic regression was used to identify factors that were independently associated with prechat levels of worry and changes in worry postchat. Results A total of 32,589 conversations occurred during the program’s first year. The odds of feeling very worried prechat were highest for IM users (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.43, 95% CI 1.20-1.72), users 17 years and younger (AOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.50-1.74), Latino/Hispanic users (AOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.27-1.46), and black users (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.30-1.50). After controlling for the study covariates, there was no significant difference in the odds of feeling better (less worried) postchat between IM and text message users. Feeling better postchat was associated with being younger (?17 years: AOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.17-1.72; 18-24 years: AOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.02-1.42), being Latino/Hispanic (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.55), reporting that the service was very helpful (AOR 3.47, 95% CI 3.24-4.32), and asking about emergency contraception (AOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.61). The odds of feeling better were lowest for users with questions about STIs (AOR 0.61, 95% CI 0.47-0.78). Conclusions The results from the process evaluation suggest that the program was able to provide informational support to vulnerable groups, such as teens and racial minorities, in moments of particular worry. Differences between the IM and text message users reveal that each mode appeals to a different population and that both are necessary to reach a diverse audience. PMID:24055754

Kantor, Leslie M; Levine, Deborah S; Arons, Whitney

2013-01-01

387

The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple" compatibility. 100% protection against the 100 year event shows to be the optimal degree of protection. Consequently, impacts statistically less frequent than once in 100 year are accepted as the remaining risk. Such floods and debris flows respectively cause a fan of propagation which is substantially reduced due to the protection measures against the 100 year event. III) The "triple loss distribution" shows the monetized triple damage, dependent on its probability. The monetization is performed by the social process of participation of the impacted interests, if not, by official experts in representation. The triple loss distribution rises in time mainly due to the rise in density and value of precious goods. A comparison of the distributions of the triple loss and the triple risk, behaving in opposite direction, is shown and explained within the project. IV) The recommended yearly reserves to be stocked for restoration and compensation of losses, caused by debris flows, amount to € 70'000.- according to the approach of the "technical risk premium". The discrepancy in comparison with the much higher amounts according to the common approaches of natural hazards engineering are discussed. V) The sustainable mix of hydraulic and forestry measures with the highest return on investment at lowest risk is performed according to the portfolio theory (Markowitz), based on the triple value curves, generated by the method of TripelBudgetierung®. Accordingly, the optimum mix of measures to protect the community of Inzing against the natural hazard of debris flow, thus, the most efficient allocation of resources equals to 2/3 for hydraulic, 1/3 for forestry measures. In detail, the results of the research pilot project "Nachhaltiges Risikomanagement - Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria" may be consulted under www.ibu.hsr.ch/inzing.

Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

2009-04-01

388

The Use of Selected Sediment Analyses to Answer Lake Management Questions: A Case Study for Lake Panasoffkee, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected analyses were performed on Lake Panasoffkee sediment to answer critical cause\\/effect lake management questions, and the collected data indicate their usefulness for similar assessments. Sediment depths in Lake Panasoffkee are very deep (>6.1 m) in most places, but Pb-210 dating indicates sedimentation rates have historically been low (0.04 ? 0.6 g-dry wt\\/cm?yr). Increasing lake shallowness is more likely related

T. V. Belanger; H. H. Heck; M. Sohn; P. R. Sweets; M. A. Morris; N. Julien

1995-01-01

389

Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…

Heiner, Cecily

2009-01-01

390

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS MOST FREQUENTLY ASKED BY VISITORS TO FLINT'S COMMUNITY SCHOOLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

QUESTIONS ARE RAISED CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MOTT FOUNDATION PROGRAM, THE FLINT BOARD OF EDUCATION, THE COST OF THE PROGRAM, AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL PROGRAM. QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL DIRECTOR RANGE FROM HIS ROLE TO HIS ON-THE-JOB TRAINING. QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO ADULT EDUCATION AND THE…

Flint Board of Education, MI.

391

Debugging reinvented: asking and answering why and why not questions about program behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

When software developers want to understand the reason for a program's behavior, they must translate their questions about the behavior into a series of questions about code, speculating about the causes in the process. The Whyline is a new kind of debugging tool that avoids such speculation by instead enabling developers to select a question about program output from a

Andrew Jensen Ko; Brad A. Myers

2008-01-01

392

An English language question answering system for a large relational database  

Microsoft Academic Search

By typing requests in English, casual users will be able to obtain explicit answers from a large relational database of aircraft flight and maintenance data using a system called PLANES. The design and implementation of this system is described and illustrated with detailed examples of the operation of system components and examples of overall system operation. The language processing portion

David L. Waltz

1978-01-01

393

Vermont Public Library Almanac: A Compendium of Often-Answered Questions. 2nd Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains brief answers to some of the most frequently raised issues related to running a small Vermont public library. Areas covered include accessibility, the American Library Association, automation, awards, binding, services for the blind and physically handicapped, the Board of Libraries, the Board of Trustees, book dealers, book…

Kotch, Marianne

394

Two New Statistics To Detect Answer Copying.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposed two new indices to detect answer copying on a multiple choice test and conducted a simulation study to investigate the usefulness of both indexes. Discusses conditions under which the proposed indexes can be useful. (SLD)

Sotaridona, Leonardo S.; Meijer, Rob R.

2003-01-01

395

The Role of Perceptual Availability and Discourse Context in Young Children's Question Answering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three- and four-year-old children were asked predicate-focus questions ("What's X doing?") about a scene in which an agent performed an action on a patient. We varied: (i) whether (or not) the preceding discourse context, which established the patient as given information, was available for the questioner; and (ii) whether (or not) the patient was…

Salomo, Dorothe; Graf, Eileen; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

2011-01-01

396

Discussing the diagnosis of HPV-OSCC: common questions and answers  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a rising proportion of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers (OSCC). HPV-positive OSCCs (HPV-OSCC) are associated with oral HPV infection and sexual behavior. Patient questions regarding risk factors, prognosis and implications for past, present and future relationships often arise. This manuscript addresses frequently asked questions by patients with HPV-OSCC and their families. A framework for clinicians to address these conversations and the limitations of our present knowledge base is also presented. PMID:23876627

Fakhry, Carole; D’Souza, Gypsyamber

2014-01-01

397

Effective Use of Multiple-Choice Items in the Mathematics Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice items are commonly viewed as a summative check for skill attainment, but they can be used to assess other dimensions of student learning. The purpose of this article is to offer an expanded view of the use of multiple-choice items in the middle level mathematics classroom. It presents three alternative uses of multiple-choice items…

Barlow, Angela T.; Marolt, Amy M.

2012-01-01

398

Primary sleep disorders in people with epilepsy: clinical questions and answers.  

PubMed

The questions facing clinicians with patients with sleep disorder and epilepsy are addressed in this article. Both adult and child epilepsy are discussed in the context of the most typical questions a clinician would have, such as "Are parasomnias more common in people with epilepsy?", "Is sleep architecture abnormal in children with epilepsy", along with outcomes of numerous questionnaire-based, case-based, and double-blind placebo studies on such aspects as sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, anxiety and fears, limb movement, nocturnal seizures, agitation, behavioral disorders, and learning disorders. PMID:25455580

Grigg-Damberger, Madeleine M; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

2015-01-01

399

Technical Assistance For Eligible Solar Equipment Lists Pre-Bid Conference Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

, or subsidiary thereof who has been awarded a consulting services Agreement may submit a bid for, nor be awarded and unfettered review, assessment and certification processing? We would agree to contract language specifying One and Two. #12;Question #5: Who is currently providing these services for the CEC? Why is the CEC

400

Macalady_Answers 411.pdf Student questions: Jenn Macalady colloquium on "Proterozoic Underground: Searching for  

E-print Network

sometimes find DNA sequences related to magnetotactic bacteria in some of our clone libraries, although have been tested other than the bacteria and hopanoids? Tested for what? Question 2: Are there any: Have you found types of bacteria that are anaerobic that existed in the Precambrian, if so what story

Rhoads, James

401

Is Crossbreeding the Answer to Questions of Dairy Breed Utilization?1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current interest in crossbreeding in the commer- cial dairy industry, even though it is quite limited, raises questions of breed utilization. Fewer than 5% of US dairy cattle are other than purebred or grade Holsteins.ThelargeadvantageofHolsteinsforadditive genetic merit for lactation milk yield is apparently re- sponsible for this trend. Why, then, this interest in crossbreeding? The economic importance of traits

A. J. McAllister

2002-01-01

402

[The answers to the questions. The difficult academic and professional equilibrium in pre-European Spain].  

PubMed

After the sweep of the three preceding articles, the author responds to the questions posed in the first article, concluding that a turn towards a practical-reflexive position can, over the medium term, solve the tensions which the positivist conceptions have created between knowledge and professional action. A bibliography for all four articles is included. PMID:16304828

Medina Moya, José Luis

2005-10-01

403

Answering the Question that Matters Most: Has Student Achievement Increased since No Child Left Behind?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2002, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) has spurred far-reaching changes in elementary and secondary education, all aimed at accomplishing the same fundamental goal--to improve students' academic achievement. As the Congress prepares to reauthorize the Act, two related questions matter most: (1) Has student achievement in reading and…

Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

2007-01-01

404

Meta-Knowledge Annotation for Efficient Natural-Language Question-Answering  

E-print Network

a tight integration of natural language processing (NLP), information retrieval (IR) and information question Q, generate a natural-language representation nlp(Q) 2. From nlp(Q), generate an information-retrieval query ir(nlp(Q)) #12;3. Use ir(nlp(Q)) to retrieve D documents from an authoritative text archive 4

Veale, Tony

405

Multiple-Engine Question Answering in TextMap Abdessamad Echihabi, Ulf Hermjakob, Eduard Hovy,  

E-print Network

the following reformulations: Question: How did Mahatma Gandhi die? Reformulation patterns: · Mahatma Gandhi died ? · Mahatma Gandhi died of ? · Mahatma Gandhi lost his life in ? · Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated? · Mahatma Gandhi committed suicide? · ... plus 40 other reformulations ... #12;The fourth

Marcu, Daniel

406

Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

Foubert, John D.

2011-01-01

407

A Whole Language Program in the Intermediate Grades: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on a whole language program for the middle grades in Canada's Northwest Territories, this interview transcript consists of responses by Anne Davies, a teacher from Yellow Knife, in the Northwest Territories, and currently a doctoral student, to questions posed by Norma Mickelson, a professor at the University of Victoria in British…

Mickelson, Norma; Davies, Anne

408

Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

Boyle, Philip

1989-01-01

409

Answers to questions at public meetings regarding implementation of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 on operators' licenses  

SciTech Connect

This document presents questions and answers based on the transcripts of four public meetings (and from written questions submitted after the meetings) conducted from April 9 to April 20, 1987 by the staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The meetings discussed implementation of the Commission's final rule governing Operators' Licenses and Conforming Amendments (10 CFR Parts 55 and 50). The rule became effective May 26, 1987 and is intended to clarify the regulations for issuing licenses to operators and senior operators; revise the requirements and scope of written examinations and operating tests for operators and senior operators, require a simulation facility; clarify procedures for administering requalification examinations; and describe the form and content for operator license applications.

Not Available

1987-11-01

410

Reference Question Answered: Discussion of Russian funeral rites as depicted in V posikakh schast’ia (In Search of Happiness), Film, 2006  

E-print Network

The author answers a reference question on the depictionof a funeral in the 2006 Russian documentary film V poiskakh schast’ia (In Search of Happiness), which takes place in the Jewish Autonomous Region in Siberia. ...

Giullian, Jon C.

2008-01-01

411

Questions of importance to the conservation of biological diversity: answers from the past  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoecological records are replete with examples of biotic responses to past climate change and human impact, but how can we use these records in the conservation of current and future biodiversity? A recently published list of (One Hundred Questions of Importance to the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity) (Sutherland et al., 2009) highlights a number of key research questions that need a temporal perspective. Many of these questions are related to the determination of ecological processes in order to assess ecosystem function and services, climate change-integrated conservation strategies, and ecosystem management and restoration. However, it is noticeable that not a single contributor to this list was from the paleo-research community and that extremely few paleo-records are ever used in the development of terrestrial conservation management plans. This lack of dialogue between conservationists and the paleo-community is partially driven by a perception that the data provided by paleoecological records are purely descriptive and not of relevance to the day-to-day management and conservation of biological diversity. This paper illustrates, through a series of case-studies, how long-term ecological records (>50 years) can provide a test of predictions and assumptions of ecological processes that are directly relevant to management strategies necessary to retain biological diversity in a changing climate. This discussion paper includes information on diversity baselines, thresholds, resilience, and restoration of ecological processes.

Willis, K. J.; Bhagwat, S. A.

2010-11-01

412

Questions of importance to the conservation of global biological diversity: answers from the past  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoecological records are replete with examples of biotic responses to past climate change and human impact but how can we use these records in the conservation of current and future biodiversity? A recently published list of One Hundred Questions of Importance to the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity (Sutherland et al., 2009) highlights a number of key research questions that need a temporal perspective. Many of these questions are related to the determination of ecological processes in order to assess ecosystem function and services, climate change-integrated conservation strategies, and ecosystem management and restoration. However, it is noticeable that not a single contributor to this list was from the paleo-research community and that extremely few paleo-records are ever used in the development of terrestrial conservation management plans. This lack of dialogue between conservationists and the paleo-community is partially driven by a perception that the data provided by paleoecological records are purely descriptive and not of relevance to the day-to-day management and conservation of biological diversity. This paper illustrates, through a series of case-studies, how long-term ecological records (>50 years) can provide a test of predictions and assumptions of ecological processes that are directly relevant to management strategies necessary in order to retain biological diversity in a changing climate. This includes information on diversity baselines, thresholds, resilience, and restoration of ecological processes.

Willis, K. J.; Bhagwat, S. A.

2010-06-01

413

Metacognitive effects of initial question difficulty on subsequent memory performance.  

PubMed

In two experiments, we examined whether relative retrieval fluency (the relative ease or difficulty of answering questions from memory) would be translated, via metacognitive monitoring and control processes, into an overt effect on the controlled behavior-that is, the decision whether to answer a question or abstain. Before answering a target set of multiple-choice general-knowledge questions (intermediate-difficulty questions in Exp. 1, deceptive questions in Exp. 2), the participants first answered either a set of difficult questions or a set of easy questions. For each question, they provided a forced-report answer, followed by a subjective assessment of the likelihood that their answer was correct (confidence) and by a free-report control decision-whether or not to report the answer for a potential monetary bonus (or penalty). The participants' ability to answer the target questions (forced-report proportion correct) was unaffected by the initial question difficulty. However, a predicted metacognitive contrast effect was observed: When the target questions were preceded by a set of difficult rather than easy questions, the participants were more confident in their answers to the target questions, and hence were more likely to report them, thus increasing the quantity of freely reported correct information. The option of free report was more beneficial after initial question difficulty than after initial question ease, in terms of both the gain in accuracy (Exp. 2) and a smaller cost in quantity (Exps. 1 and 2). These results demonstrate that changes in subjective experience can influence metacognitive monitoring and control, thereby affecting free-report memory performance independently of forced-report performance. PMID:24557603

Pansky, Ainat; Goldsmith, Morris

2014-10-01

414

Questions and Answers General Questions  

E-print Network

have to pay for this? All but one Hoo's Well@ program is currently available at no cost to you. Weight Watchers® participation does require payment from you. Will retirees be eligible to participate blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference, BMI, total cholesterol, high and low density

Acton, Scott

415

Thalamic relay or cortico-thalamic processing? Old question, new answers.  

PubMed

What are the functions implemented by neurons in the sensory nuclei of the thalamus? It seems that this question has accompanied cortical and thalamic studies since their onset some 6 decades ago. Over the years, the simplistic, traditional view of thalamic neurons as mere relays of sensory information has given way to more sophisticated views, of which several alternative hypotheses have been proposed. This commentary briefly reviews the 2 current major hypotheses and shows how a new, pioneering experiment, published in Cerebral Cortex by Groh, Acsady and colleagues, discriminates between them. The commentary further elaborates on the thalamo-cortical processing suggested by the new findings, the general sensory-motor scheme to which these findings may be relevant, and the possible roles such thalamo-cortical processing may have in sensory-motor control. PMID:24214242

Ahissar, Ehud; Oram, Tess

2015-04-01

416

Health care reform, 2014: no matter what the question, mission is the answer.  

PubMed

In this column, the president of the Collaborative Family Healthcare Association (CFHA) addresses the lack of understanding and agreement to the question What is health care reform? It is a daunting task to understand, let alone redesign, the most expensive (but not most effective or most efficient) health care system in the world. In this critical window of opportunity, influencing positive movement through leadership, communication, and teamwork is a strategic priority of the CFHA and its journal, Family Systems & Health. The emphases on comprehensive, coordinated, and cost-effective care, although novel concepts for many, have been core features of CFHA's philosophy for almost two decades (see CFHA's mission statement). As we mark the halfway point in this pivotal year in health care reform, we continue to struggle. CFHA can help illuminate the path of what health care reform can be and what it can do for each citizen in our communities. PMID:24955698

Khatri, Parinda

2014-06-01

417

``Aristotelian'' was given as the answer, but what was the question?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students come to physics instruction, in Newtonian mechanics, with naive ideas about how and why things move; for example, many believe that force causes motion and, conversely, that in the absence of a force things are necessarily at rest. Moreover, such preconceived ideas interfere with the ability of students to learn, and function within, the Newtonian paradigm. These student ideas have been labeled ``Aristotelian,'' a catchy label that has rapidly become widely accepted. This paper shows that these student beliefs are not like those of Aristotle, questions the hypothesis that generated the label, and describes a danger, to the sound growth of knowledge, inherent in the use of theory-ladened nomenclature. The purpose of the paper is to suggest that the label be abandoned so that this important line of research, with its profound implications for teachers, may develop unhindered by the weight of incorrect, theory-driven nomenclature.

Lythcott, Jean

1985-05-01

418

Answering the ultimate question “What is the Proximal Cause of Aging?”  

PubMed Central

Recent discoveries suggest that aging is neither driven by accumulation of molecular damage of any cause, nor by random damage of any kind. Some predictions of a new theory, quasi-programmed hyperfunction, have already been confirmed and a clinically-available drug slows aging and delays diseases in animals. The relationship between diseases and aging becomes easily apparent. Yet, the essence of aging turns out to be so startling that the theory cannot be instantly accepted and any possible arguments are raised for its disposal. I discuss that these arguments actually support a new theory. Are any questions remaining? And might accumulation of molecular damage still play a peculiar role in aging? PMID:23425777

Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

2012-01-01

419

Use of a multiple choice questionnaire to stimulate TB officers to read the TB manual in Malawi.  

PubMed

Forty-four tuberculosis (TB) officers who attended the National TB Seminar were given a multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ), based on information in the TB manual. They were asked to complete the MCQ in their hospitals, using the manual, and return it within 6 weeks to the Central Unit. Thirty-one (70%) officers returned completed MCQs. There was negative marking for incorrect answers. The mean mark was 69%. Twelve (39%) officers scored 80% or higher and four (13%) scored below 50%. MCQ assessments may be a useful way of stimulating TB officers to read TB manuals and other guidelines. PMID:15137541

Salaniponi, F M; Kwanjana, J H; Gondwe, M K; Harries, A D

2004-05-01

420

Overwintering of herbaceous plants in a changing climate. Still more questions than answers.  

PubMed

The increase in surface temperature of the Earth indicates a lower risk of exposure for temperate grassland and crop to extremely low temperatures. However, the risk of low winter survival rate, especially in higher latitudes may not be smaller, due to complex interactions among different environmental factors. For example, the frequency, degree and length of extreme winter warming events, leading to snowmelt during winter increased, affecting the risks of anoxia, ice encasement and freezing of plants not covered with snow. Future climate projections suggest that cold acclimation will occur later in autumn, under shorter photoperiod and lower light intensity, which may affect the energy partitioning between the elongation growth, accumulation of organic reserves and cold acclimation. Rising CO2 levels may also disturb the cold acclimation process. Predicting problems with winter pathogens is also very complex, because climate change may greatly influence the pathogen population and because the plant resistance to these pathogens is increased by cold acclimation. All these factors, often with contradictory effects on winter survival, make plant overwintering viability under future climates an open question. Close cooperation between climatologists, ecologists, plant physiologists, geneticists and plant breeders is strongly required to predict and prevent possible problems. PMID:25017157

Rapacz, Marcin; Ergon, Ashild; Höglind, Mats; Jřrgensen, Marit; Jurczyk, Barbara; Ostrem, Liv; Rognli, Odd Arne; Tronsmo, Anne Marte

2014-08-01

421

"Laying Bare of Questions Which Have Been Hidden by Answers": The English Language Arts Standards of the Common Core, K-5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors question the answer the national Common Core State Standards (CCSS, 2010) claims. The questions center on the validity of the new standardized tests based on the CCSS and teachers' evaluations being tied to student test scores on flawed tests. The proposed tests on the CCSS will position children as deficient, and will not recognize…

Gangi, Jane M.; Reilly, Mary Ann

2013-01-01

422

26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...corporation to another corporation, 11 percent of the...owned by the first corporation, will not constitute...hands of the second corporation by reason of section...and (D). (c) Questions applying section 267...following questions and answers deal with the...

2010-04-01

423

Answering the question, "what is a clinical nurse leader?": transition experience of four direct-entry master's students.  

PubMed

Understanding the experience of students learning the clinical nurse leader (CNL) role can be useful for faculty, preceptors, staff nurses, and interdisciplinary team members who guide them. This article analyzes the experience of four direct-entry master's students in the first cohort to complete the CNL curriculum and to sit for the pilot CNL certification examination. Using action research methodology, the students worked with the clinical immersion practicum faculty and a writing consultant to develop the study purpose, collect and analyze data, and prepare a manuscript. The main theme that emerged was, answering the question, "what is a CNL?" Subthemes supporting the main theme involved coming to the edge, trusting the process, rounding the corner, and valuing becoming. The analysis confirmed the value the CNL offers as a new vision to nursing education and practice. The students offered suggestions for the CNL curriculum and practicum. PMID:21078501

Bombard, Emily; Chapman, Kimberly; Doyle, Marcy; Wright, Danielle K; Shippee-Rice, Raelene V; Kasik, Dot Radius

2010-01-01

424

Wisconsin statutes regarding HIV testing in primary care: frequent questions and answers.  

PubMed

The authors review Wisconsin statutes related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in primary care, including the areas of written informed consent, documentation of consent, testing without consent, testing of minors, disclosure of test results without the consent of the test subject, reporting requirements, discrimination, access by insurance companies and third-party payors to HIV test results, and civil liabilities and criminal penalties associated with violation of HIV-related state statutes. During the course of the HIV epidemic in Wisconsin, many individuals (service providers, legislators, consumers and advocates) supported the enactment of HIV-related legislation. Today, Wisconsin has some of the nation's most comprehensive HIV legislation. These laws have set a legal framework that balances the rights of individuals with protection of public's health. The relatively low seroprevalence of HIV infection in Wisconsin can be attributed, in part, to the state's HIV-related legislation. While Wisconsin HIV legislation is broadly focused, much of it is concerned with HIV testing. This article examines common questions as they pertain to HIV testing in primary care and to the following areas addressed by state statutes: counseling and referral for health and support services [Wisconsin statute s. 252 14(3)] informed consent for testing or disclosure [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(2)] written consent to disclose [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(3) & (4)] testing without consent of the test subject [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(2)] confidentiality of an HIV test [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(5)] reporting of positive test results [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(7)] discrimination [Wisconsin statute s. 252.14(2)] civil and criminal liabilities [Wisconsin statute s. 252.14(4); 252.15(8) & (9)]. PMID:9894441

Vergeront, J M; Reiser, W J; Druckenmiller, J K; Krchnavek, K A; Davis, J P

1998-12-01

425

STS-103 Pilot Kelly answers questions during interview at Pad 39B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During an interview at Launch Pad 39B, STS-103 Pilot Scott J. Kelly responds to a question from the media about the mission. Standing with him are the remainder of the crew: (left to right) Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who is also with ESA. As a preparation for launch, they have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

1999-01-01

426

STS-103 M.S. Mike Foale answers question during interview at Pad 39B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-103 Mission Specialist C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.) (at right) responds to a question from the media about the mission during an interview at Launch Pad 39B. Next to him is Mission Specialist John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.). As a preparation for launch, the crew have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

1999-01-01

427

Benford’s Law: Textbook Exercises and Multiple-Choice Testbanks  

PubMed Central

Benford’s Law describes the finding that the distribution of leading (or leftmost) digits of innumerable datasets follows a well-defined logarithmic trend, rather than an intuitive uniformity. In practice this means that the most common leading digit is 1, with an expected frequency of 30.1%, and the least common is 9, with an expected frequency of 4.6%. Currently, the most common application of Benford’s Law is in detecting number invention and tampering such as found in accounting-, tax-, and voter-fraud. We demonstrate that answers to end-of-chapter exercises in physics and chemistry textbooks conform to Benford’s Law. Subsequently, we investigate whether this fact can be used to gain advantage over random guessing in multiple-choice tests, and find that while testbank answers in introductory physics closely conform to Benford’s Law, the testbank is nonetheless secure against such a Benford’s attack for banal reasons. PMID:25689468

Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ironside, Kevin B.; DiBattista, David

2015-01-01

428

Prism : an answer projection system  

E-print Network

Prism is an answer projection system that combines the best attributes of traditional and Web-based question answering systems. Traditional question answering systems retrieve answers with pinpoint accuracy but limited ...

Wu, Lynn, 1981-

2003-01-01

429

Answering the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a mother of a daughter with special needs, as well as to a son without, the author can say having had both experiences, all mothers, regardless of her children, struggle in one form or another. That may actually be a part of the job description: Mother: must be able to function well with minimal sleep; is capable of multi-tasking; be clever…

Wolfe, Julie Leavitt

2011-01-01

430

Seasonal Influenza Questions & Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... stomach or intestinal disease. Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

431

Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... major conditions caused by pneumococci: pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. They are all caused by infection with the ... Pneumococci cause 50% of all cases of bacterial meningitis (infection of the covering of the brain or ...

432

Perchlorate Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... a rapid, sensitive, and specific ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS) method for determining perchlorate in ... Perchlorate Anion in Foods by Ion Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry ," describing FDA's method has been published in the ...

433

Sepsis Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... 22(14):895-906. Â Top of Page File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

434

XMRV: Questions and Answers  

Cancer.gov

Retroviruses are found in a wide range of mammals, and may contribute to the development of cancers, such as leukemia or lymphoma, and neurological diseases. The first of two human retroviruses identified, HTLV-1 has been found to cause adult T cell leukemia and HTLV-II is not associated with any disease. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, is a different type of retrovirus.

435

Campylobacter Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ... Site Map A-Z Index Help Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ...

436

Poultry Processing: Questions & Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ... Site Map A-Z Index Help Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ...

437

Salmonella Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ... Site Map A-Z Index Help Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ...

438

Rubella: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... may cause thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) at the rate of about 1 case per 30,000 to 40,000 vaccinated people. Cases are almost always temporary and not life-threatening. More severe reactions, including allergic reactions, are rare. Other severe problems ( ...

439

Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Cure TSC. Online registration now open. The 2015 International Research Conference on TSC will be held September 10-12 in Windsor, UK. Learn about clinical trials and see a list of current trials/studies related to TSC. Enroll now in ...

440

Tetanus: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... difficult to kill as they are resistant to heat and many chemical agents. How does tetanus spread? ... the children who received the vaccine developed local reactions such as redness, swelling, and pain at the ...

441

Rabies: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... antibodies to rabies virus) and a series of rabies vaccinations. More detailed information about the vaccine can be ... They should also be given a series of rabies vaccinations. The first dose should be given as soon ...

442

Comparing the Job Choice Exercise and the Multiple Choice Version of the Miner Sentence Completion Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data were collected from 113 undergraduate management students, 31 campus leaders, and 28 campus nonleaders on the Job Choice Exercise (JCE) and the multiple choice version of the Miner Sentence Completion Scale (MSCS). The JCE and the multiple choice MSCS were not significantly correlated and therefore appear to measure different attributes, both of which have been labeled managerial motivation.

Michael J. Stahl; David W. Grigsby; Anil Gulati

1985-01-01

443

Empirical Estimates of the Comparative Reliability of Matching Tests and Multiple-Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three types of test were compared: a completion test, a matching test, and a multiple-choice test. The completion test was more reliable than the matching test, and the matching test was more reliable than the multiple-choice test. (Author/BW)

Zimmerman, Donald W.; And Others

1984-01-01

444

Effects of Multiple-Choice and Matching Tests on Delayed Retention Learning in Postsecondary Metals Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate metals technology students (n=52) took a multiple-choice test, 49 a matching test, and 47 no test. All took an unannounced delayed retention test 3 weeks later. Initial testing aided retention, with no differences between matching and multiple-choice groups. The matching group had a small but significant score increase on new…

Haynie, W. J., III

2003-01-01

445

Validating Measurement of Knowledge Integration in Science Using Multiple-Choice and Explanation Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores measurement of a construct called knowledge integration in science using multiple-choice and explanation items. We use construct and instructional validity evidence to examine the role multiple-choice and explanation items plays in measuring students' knowledge integration ability. For construct validity, we analyze item…

Lee, Hee-Sun; Liu, Ou Lydia; Linn, Marcia C.

2011-01-01

446

Validation of a Multiple-Choice Cloze Test of Literal Comprehension: Summary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the development and validation of a test of literal comprehension based on a modified cloze technique. This modification of the cloze offers an objective and partially computerized procedure for constructing items in the multiple-choice format. A field test of the multiple-choice cloze (MCC) involved the administration of 36…

O'Reilly, Robert P.; And Others

447

Are Multiple Choice Tests Fair to Medical Students with Specific Learning Disabilities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of multiple choice tests of medical knowledge is to estimate as accurately as possible a candidate's level of knowledge. However, concern is sometimes expressed that multiple choice tests may also discriminate in undesirable and irrelevant ways, such as between minority ethnic groups or by sex of candidates. There is little literature…

Ricketts, Chris; Brice, Julie; Coombes, Lee

2010-01-01

448

Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers  

SciTech Connect

George Orwell`s {open_quotes}doublethink{close_quotes} should be generalized to {open_quotes}polythink{close_quotes} to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics.

Strom, D.J.; Stansbury, P.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Porter, S.W. Jr. [Porter Consultants, Inc., Ardmore, PA (United States)

1995-01-01

449

Answering the big questions about differential response in Colorado: safety and cost outcomes from a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Over the past 20 years, jurisdictions across the United States have implemented differential response (DR), which provides child protective services with the flexibility to tailor their response to reports of child abuse or neglect based on the level of risk. Given the widespread adoption of DR, there has been an increasing demand from policymakers, practitioners, and community stakeholders to build the evidence base for this innovative child welfare approach. This study was designed to answer the big questions regarding the effect of differential response on child welfare outcomes and costs using a randomized controlled trial in five Colorado counties. Specifically, the study examined the safety outcomes and costs of families who were randomly assigned to either a family assessment response (FAR) or an investigation response (IR). According to the regression results, there were no differences between the tracks on measures of system re-involvement. However, survival analysis findings indicate that FAR families were 18% less likely, over time, to have a high risk assessment after their initial accepted referral than were IR families. The cost study revealed no differences between the tracks on initial costs for caseworker contacts, services, and out-of-home placements. However, the results suggest that follow-up costs for IR cases were significantly higher (p<0.001) than for FAR cases. The authors discuss policy and practice implications for jurisdictions considering DR. PMID:24997071

Winokur, Marc; Ellis, Raquel; Drury, Ida; Rogers, John

2015-01-01

450

26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary). 31.3306(b)-1T Section 31.3306(b)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

2010-04-01

451

Effective intraverbal training of children with autism to mand for questions to answers via the “I don’t know please tell me” response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review provides a summary and appraisal commentary on the treatment review by Ingvarsson, E. T., & Hollobaugh, T. (2010). Acquisition of intraverbal behavior: Teaching children with autism to mand for answers to questions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43, 1–17.Source of funding and disclosure of interest: No source of funding reported, and the original authors of this research report

Susan D. Johnson

2011-01-01

452

Guidance for Implementation of the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) Amendments of 1992; Questions and Answers. Field Memorandum No. 34-93, Change 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides additional guidance to states in the form of supplemental questions and answers to facilitate the development of policy for service delivery areas (SDAs) and other subrecipients of funding under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) Amendments, which took effect on July 1, 1993. Topics covered are the following: definitions,…

Farmer, Barbara Ann

453

Answers to Questions Commonly Asked by Families, Professionals, and Members of the Community. Information Pages for People Involved in the Lives of Individuals with Deaf-Blindness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains six information pages providing basic answers to questions commonly asked by people involved with individuals who are deaf blind. The first one is on understanding deaf-blindness and addresses what the condition is, its impact on the ability to receive information, how the condition affects caregiver strategies, and what it is…

Wiley, David

454

Physics 201, Exam 2 Name_______________________________________________________ The multiple-choice problems carry no partial credit. Circle the correct answer or answers.  

E-print Network

with a velocity v and an effective mass m . So the problem is equivalent to a spring with force constant k being compressed by a distance xmax as it brings a mass m with velocity v to a halt. What is xmax ? (a) v m / k (b of mass m revolves around the Earth in a circular orbit, at a distance of 20 000 km above the Earth

Allen, Roland E.

455

26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations...answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...for determining the unrelated business income tax of voluntary employees...benefit trusts (SUBs) and group legal service...

2010-04-01

456

78 FR 70953 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012:...

2013-11-27

457

Hazen_Answers 213.pdf Student questions: Bob Hazen colloquium on "The Mineralogical Co-Evolution of the  

E-print Network

-Evolution of the Geosphere and Biosphere" 2/6/13 Thanks to all of you for some outstanding questions. Every one. Question 2: Could humans possibly "jump-start" a distant planet's biosphere to then influence mineral

Shumway, John

458

AskMSR: Question Answering Using the Worldwide Web Michele Banko, Eric Brill, Susan Dumais, Jimmy Lin  

E-print Network

Abraham Lincoln?" from a source which contains only the text "John Wilkes Booth altered history with a bullet. He will forever be known as the man who ended Abraham Lincoln's life," versus one that also contains the transparent answer string, "John Wilkes Booth killed Abraham Lincoln." Even when no obvious

Lin, Jimmy

459

Viewing the Web as a Virtual Database for Question Answering Boris Katz, Sue Felshin, Jimmy Lin, and Gregory Marton  

E-print Network

like "Who was Abraham Lincoln married to?". He or she might locate a resource with the answer say an object (Abraham Lincoln), which contains values for many properties. #12;Katz, Felshin, Lin, and Marton 3 Web site about presidents find the section for Abraham Lincoln (Figure 1), and look up information

Lin, Jimmy

460

Heart Health Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T) in front of the answer.  

E-print Network

EAT SMART Heart Health Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check not planning to use the information in this program. # I have heart disease or high blood pressure. YES

461

29 CFR 2509.75-8 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility under the Employee Retirement Income...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...members of the board of directors of the employer fiduciaries with respect to the...In addition, if the directors are made named fiduciaries of the plan, their...to carry out certain fiduciary duties, see question...

2010-07-01

462

Using Test-Taking Strategies to Maximize Multiple-Choice Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was designed to answer two questions: (1) Can cognitive strategies to increase testwiseness be taught? (2) Can the testwiseness strategies be generalized by students so they can improve their scores on examinations other than those measuring testwiseness? Fifty-four undergraduate education students served as subjects. The treatment consisted of a one-hour lecture\\/discussion presentation covering four cognitive strategies identified as

John P. Dolly; Kathy S. Williams

1986-01-01

463

Is obesity a risk factor for low back pain? An example of using the evidence to answer a clinical question  

E-print Network

studies. The references of papers retrieved were also reviewed, as were key texts and references. This section is devoted to presenting the concepts of evi- dence-based practice (EBP) to demonstrate to the reader the discovery process for finding a... possible link between obesity and low back pain. The EBP method used is shown in Table 1. The first step in this process is "asking an answerable ques- tion." In this paper we assume a patient has asked whether being overweight can cause low back pain...

Mirtz, Timothy A.; Greene, Leon

2005-04-11

464

26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.165-13T Section...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). The following questions...Act of 1981, under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 494). Q-1 What is...

2012-04-01

465

26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.165-13T Section...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). The following questions...Act of 1981, under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 494). Q-1 What is...

2014-04-01

466

26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.165-13T Section...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). The following questions...Act of 1981, under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 494). Q-1 What is...

2013-04-01

467

26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.165-13T Section...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). The following questions...Act of 1981, under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 494). Q-1 What is...

2011-04-01

468

Answering Gauguin’s Questions: Where Are We Coming From, Where Are We Going, and What Are We?  

SciTech Connect

Ellis discusses how the knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, known as the Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions, for example: What is the origin of the matter in the Universe, how does its mass originate, what is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe, and are there additional dimensions of space?

John Ellis

2010-05-26

469

Potter, Wielandt, and Drazin on the matrix equation $AB=\\\\omega BA$, with some new answers to old questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this partly historical and partly research oriented note, we display a page of an unpublished mathematical diary of Helmut Wielandt's for 1951. There he gives a new proof of a theorem due to H. S. A. Potter on the matrix equation $AB = \\\\omega BA$, which is related to the $q$-binomial theorem, and asks some further questions, which we

Olga Holtz; Volker Mehrmann; Hans Schneider

2005-01-01

470

Answering Gauguin?s Questions: Where Are We Coming From, Where Are We Going, and What Are We?  

ScienceCinema

Ellis discusses how the knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, known as the Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions, for example: What is the origin of the matter in the Universe, how does its mass originate, what is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe, and are there additional dimensions of space?

John Ellis

2010-09-01

471

Screening, assessment, and treatment of osteoporosis for the nurse practitioner: Key questions and answers for clinical practice—A Canadian perspective  

PubMed Central

Purpose Using a case-based approach, we review key clinical questions relevant to nurse practitioners (NPs) regarding the screening, assessment, and treatment of patients at risk for osteoporosis and fractures in a Canadian general practice setting. Data sources A case presentation with relevant questions and answers to guide management of a patient. Conclusions Osteoporosis is a common condition in both the aging male and female populations. Screening, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis is lagging behind relative to other chronic disease states. NPs have a unique opportunity to help reduce this care gap by playing an integral role in the identification, risk stratification, and treatment of patients at risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Implications for practice This case highlights the important role an NP can have in screening a patient previously not diagnosed or managed for osteoporosis. Performing a focused history and physical exam of the patient to determine appropriate screening tests and fracture risk will help in guiding treatment decisions. PMID:24911524

Rice, Peggy; Mehan, Upender; Hamilton, Celeste; Kim, Sandra

2014-01-01

472

Fermi Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fermi questions emphasize estimation, numerical reasoning, communicating in mathematics, and questioning skills. Students often believe that word problems have one exact answer and that the answer is derived in a unique manner. Fermi questions encourage multiple approaches, emphasize process rather than the answer, and promote non-traditional problem solving strategies. The a href= /workshops/sum96/interdisc/sheila3.html Fermi Questions Library/a features classic Fermi questions with annotated solutions, a list of Fermi questions for use with students, Fermi questions with a Louisiana twist, and Fermi activities for the K-12 classroom. A Louisiana Lessons Web Activity.

Math Forum

2001-01-01

473

Do Sequentially-Presented Answer Options Prevent the Use of Testwiseness Cues on Continuing Medical Education Tests?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Testwiseness--that is, the ability to find subtle cues towards the solution by the simultaneous comparison of the available answer options--threatens the validity of multiple-choice (MC) tests. Discrete-option multiple-choice (DOMC) has recently been proposed as a computerized alternative testing format for MC tests, and presumably allows for a…

Willing, Sonja; Ostapczuk, Martin; Musch, Jochen

2015-01-01

474

question_1296786512 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

An exciting development in this area that would be encouraged by attempting to answer this important question, is the connection between the observations of cancer risk modulation by epidemiologists and immune mechanisms that appear to be involved, described by immunologists.

475

Read-Aloud Accommodation: Effects on Multiple-Choice Reading and Math Items. Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most prevalent and controversial accommodations for students with disabilities is an audio presentation of written test material, the "read-aloud" accommodation. This study used test administration data from the Missouri Assessment Program to examine effects of using the read-aloud accommodation on the characteristics of multiple-choice

Bielinski, John; Thurlow, Martha; Ysseldyke, James; Freidebach, Jim; Freidebach, Melodie

476

Gender Differences in Performance on Multiple-Choice and Constructed Response Mathematics Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in performance on multiple-choice and constructed-response items in mathematics were studied with 3592 11th graders taking a high school graduation examination. Results suggest that gender differences in mathematics may be linked to content and item format, thus supporting the usefulness of a many-faceted Rasch model for…

Garner, Mary; Engelhard, George, Jr.

1999-01-01

477

Grading Multiple Choice Exams with Low-Cost and Portable Computer-Vision Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although technology for automatic grading of multiple choice exams has existed for several decades, it is not yet as widely available or affordable as it should be. The main reasons preventing this adoption are the cost and the complexity of the setup procedures. In this paper, "Eyegrade," a system for automatic grading of multiple…

Fisteus, Jesus Arias; Pardo, Abelardo; García, Norberto Fernández

2013-01-01

478

How to Assess Student Performance in Science: Going beyond Multiple-Choice Tests. Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational systems promote student growth in a variety of dimensions. Basic content knowledge can be effectively assessed with multiple-choice and completion tests. However educational reforms have become more concerned with higher-order cognitive dimensions (problem-solving, creativity), social dimensions (communication skills, ability to work…

Butler, Susan M.; McColskey, Wendy; O'Sullivan, Rita

2005-01-01

479

Examining the Prediction of Reading Comprehension on Different Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, 180 Norwegian fifth-grade students with a mean age of 10.5 years were administered measures of word recognition skills, strategic text processing, reading motivation and working memory. Six months later, the same students were given three different multiple-choice reading comprehension measures. Based on three forced-order…

Andreassen, Rune; Braten, Ivar

2010-01-01

480

A Self-Correcting Approach to Multiple-Choice Exams Improves Students' Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Montepare suggested the use of a self-correcting approach to multiple-choice tests: Students first take the exam as usual, but are allowed to hand in a self-corrected version afterwards. The idea of this approach is that the additional interaction with the material may foster further learning. To examine whether such an approach actually improves…

Grühn, Daniel; Cheng, Yanhua

2014-01-01

481

A Better Benchmark Assessment: Multiple-Choice versus Project-Based  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this literature review and Ex Post Facto descriptive study was to determine which type of benchmark assessment, multiple-choice or project-based, provides the best indication of general success on the history portion of the CST (California Standards Tests). The result of the study indicates that although the project-based benchmark…

Peariso, Jamon F.

2006-01-01

482

Finding Relationships between Multiple-Choice Math Tests and Their Stem-Equivalent Constructed Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study takes a close look at relationships between scores on a Mathematics standardized test in two different testing formats--Multiple-Choice (MC) and Constructed Response (CR). Many studies have been dedicated to finding correlations between item format characteristics with regards to race and gender. Few studies, however, have attempted to…

Chaoui, Nayla Aad

2011-01-01

483

Multiple-Choice versus Constructed-Response Tests in the Assessment of Mathematics Computation Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The equivalence of multiple-choice (MC) and constructed response (discrete) (CR-D) response formats as applied to mathematics computation at grade levels two to six was tested. The difference between total scores from the two response formats was tested for statistical significance, and the factor structure of items in both response formats was…

Gadalla, Tahany M.

484

The Accuracy of Absolute Minimal Acceptable Performance Levels for Multiple-Choice Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study investigating the accuracy of absolute minimal performance levels for multiple choice examinations enhanced confidence in the validity of predetermined passing standards for the criterion referenced tests used by the schools of basic medical sciences at the University of Illinois. (JT)

Guerin, Robert O.; Smilansky, Jonathan

1976-01-01

485

Visual Attention for Solving Multiple-Choice Science Problem: An Eye-Tracking Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employed an eye-tracking technique to examine students' visual attention when solving a multiple-choice science problem. Six university students participated in a problem-solving task to predict occurrences of landslide hazards from four images representing four combinations of four factors. Participants' responses and visual attention…

Tsai, Meng-Jung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Lai, Meng-Lung; Liu, Wan-Yi; Yang, Fang-Ying

2012-01-01

486

A Case Study on Multiple-Choice Testing in Anatomical Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study investigating whether the distribution of different versions of an examination affects student performance in a lower division anatomical science course. In particular this study focuses on objective testing techniques (multiple choice test). Methods and outcomes are discussed.

Stephanie Golda (University of Missouri Anthropology, Pathology and Anatomy)

2011-01-02

487

Evaluation of Questions in General Chemistry Textbooks According to the Form of the Questions and the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR): The Case of Intra-and Intermolecular Chemical Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way of checking to what extent instructional textbooks achieve their aim is to evaluate the questions they contain. In this work, we analyze the questions that are included in the chapters on chemical bonding of ten general chemistry textbooks. We study separately the questions on intra- and on intermolecular bonding, with the former…

Pappa, Eleni T.; Tsaparlis, Georgios

2011-01-01

488

Question Vetting: The Process to Ensure Quality in Assessment of Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, medical schools have made new efforts to provide accurate, reliable, and timely assessments of the competence of trainees. All methods of assessment have strengths and intrinsic flaws. Written examination questions forms an important item in knowledge assessment and are typically classified according to whether they are open-ended or multiple choices. At present questions are prepared casually just before the examination and are not put through any quality check to correct any possible mistakes or ambiguity in the questions. This may lead to confusion or wrong understanding of the questions by the students which will be reflected in their answers as well. Question Vetting is the process when an expert person examines or evaluates and edits questions to make it free of any mistakes. The importance of vetting and re-vetting of examination questions cannot be overstated in the present scenario of medical education. There is a prescribed structure and protocol of question setting and vetting for examinations in medical education programmes. The areas that need to be examined during question vetting are for technical accuracy, content level and language aspects. The use of the prescribed structure and protocol of question vetting ensures a consistently high standard of question presentation during examinations which will help the students to understand the questions better and to answer them correctly. This article is intended to highlight the importance of introducing question vetting in our medical education scenario in order to improve the quality of assessment of medical students. PMID:25386509

Udayshankar, P.M.

2014-01-01

489

Question vetting: the process to ensure quality in assessment of medical students.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, medical schools have made new efforts to provide accurate, reliable, and timely assessments of the competence of trainees. All methods of assessment have strengths and intrinsic flaws. Written examination questions forms an important item in knowledge assessment and are typically classified according to whether they are open-ended or multiple choices. At present questions are prepared casually just before the examination and are not put through any quality check to correct any possible mistakes or ambiguity in the questions. This may lead to confusion or wrong understanding of the questions by the students which will be reflected in their answers as well. Question Vetting is the process when an expert person examines or evaluates and edits questions to make it free of any mistakes. The importance of vetting and re-vetting of examination questions cannot be overstated in the present scenario of medical education. There is a prescribed structure and protocol of question setting and vetting for examinations in medical education programmes. The areas that need to be examined during question vetting are for technical accuracy, content level and language aspects. The use of the prescribed structure and protocol of question vetting ensures a consistently high standard of question presentation during examinations which will help the students to understand the questions better and to answer them correctly. This article is intended to highlight the importance of introducing question vetting in our medical education scenario in order to improve the quality of assessment of medical students. PMID:25386509

Gopalakrishnan, S; Udayshankar, P M

2014-09-01

490

Parity of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Women in Brazil: Does the Reported Number of Children Born Depend upon Who Answers National Census Questions?  

PubMed Central

Taking parity as the main analytic variable, the objective of this study is to investigate whether the patterns of response to national census questions in Brazil differ when Indigenous and non-Indigenous women are compared, taking into consideration whether the information was provided by the women directly or by a proxy respondent (another household member or a non-resident). We use data on children ever born to Indigenous and non-Indigenous women from two Brazilian regions, the Northeast and the North. Data on the number of household members, total household rooms, interviewee’s color/race, educational attainment, age, parity, and type of respondent were obtained from the 2010 Brazilian census. The relation between color/race and reported parity, as well as the impact of the type of respondent on this association were assessed with the Zero-inflated Negative Binomial regression, stratified by region (North and Northeast) and urban/rural status. Just over half of census interviewees answered directly the census questions (51.2% in the North and 54.4% in the Northeast). Indigenous women in the North region had the highest percentage of interviews carried out with a non-resident (12.7% total; 15.0% and 3.0% in rural and urban areas, respectively). Regardless of color/race, parity means were considerably higher when the question was answered by the woman directly (93.5%-101.4% and 15.6%-21.7% higher, compared co-resident and non-resident based answers, respectively). Parity underreporting was particularly strong in Indigenous women living in the rural North (16.0% less in comparison to White women). Proxy respondents tend to underestimate the count of children, particularly among Indigenous women from the North. The implementation of certain methodological alternatives in the Brazilian national censuses, such as the selection and training of census takers to work specifically in Indigenous territories, might be a productive means to improve data collection. PMID:25874712

Ventura Santos, Ricardo; Luiz Bastos, Joăo; Gonçalves Cruz, Oswaldo; de Barros Longo, Luciene Aparecida Ferreira; Flowers, Nancy May; de Oliveira Martins Pereira, Nilza

2015-01-01

491

End-of-Grade Multiple-Choice Test Results, 2001-2002. Measuring Up. E&R Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) students in grades 3 through 8 took the North Carolina End-of-Grade (EOG) multiple-choice tests during the months of May and June of 2002. These tests are the basis of the accountability program referred to as ABCs, Accountability, Basics, and Control. WCPSS EOG multiple-choice results for 2001-2002 show…

Dulaney, Chuck; Regan, Roger

492

Sustainable Assessment for Large Science Classes: Non-Multiple Choice, Randomised Assignments through a Learning Management System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the development of a tool that generates randomised, non-multiple choice assessment within the BlackBoard Learning Management System interface. An accepted weakness of multiple-choice assessment is that it cannot elicit learning outcomes from upper levels of Biggs' SOLO taxonomy. However, written assessment items require…

Schultz, Madeleine

2011-01-01

493

Meta-Evaluation in Clinical Anatomy: A Practical Application of Item Response Theory in Multiple Choice Examinations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study measuring the quality of a clinical anatomy multiple-choice final examination using item response theory (IRT) models. The purpose for this study was to evaluate how well a traditional multiple choice exam from an older curriculum discriminated undergraduate medical students taking an updated clinical based anatomy course. Outcomes are discussed.

Milton Severo (University of Porto Medical Education)

2009-11-18

494

Sex Differences in the Relationship of Advanced Placement Essay and Multiple-Choice Scores to Grades in College Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essay and multiple-choice scores from Advanced Placement (AP) examinations in American History, European History, English Language and Composition, and Biology were matched with freshman grades in a sample of 32 colleges. Multiple-choice scores from the American History and Biology examinations were superior to essays for predicting overall grade…

Bridgeman, Brent; Lewis, Charles

495

The Effects of Clinically Relevant Multiple-Choice Items on the Statistical Discrimination of Physician Clinical Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test the effect of clinically relevant multiple-choice item content on the validity of statistical discriminations of physicians' clinical competence, data were collected from a field test of the Emergency Medicine Examination, test items for the certification of specialists in emergency medicine. Two 91-item multiple-choice subscales were…

Downing, Steven M.; Maatsch, Jack L.

496

Answering the big questions in neuroscience: DoD's experimental research wing takes on massive, high-risk projects.  

PubMed

When the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) asks research questions, it goes big. This is, after all, the same agency that put together teams of scientists and engineers to find a way to connect the worlds computers and, in doing so, developed the precursor to the Internet. DARPA, the experimental research wing of the U.S. Department of Defense, funds the types of research queries that scientists and engineers dream of tackling. Unlike a traditional granting agency that conservatively metes out its funding and only to projects with a good chance of success, DARPA puts its money on massive, multi-institutional projects that have no guarantees, but have enormous potential. In the 1990s, DARPA began its biological and medical science research to improve the safety, health, and well being of military personnel, according to DARPA program manager and Army Colonel Geoffrey Ling, Ph.D., M.D. More recently, DARPA has entered the realm of neuroscience and neurotechnology. Its focus with these projects is on its prime customer, the U.S. Department of Defense, but Ling acknowledged that technologies developed in its programs "certainly have potential to cascade into civilian uses." PMID:22344946

Mertz, Leslie

2012-01-01

497

Chiropractic care and public health: answering difficult questions about safety, care through the lifespan, and community action.  

PubMed

The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues through the lifespan, and effective participation in community health issues. The questions that are addressed include: Is spinal manipulative therapy for neck and low-back pain a public health problem? What is the role of chiropractic care in prevention or reduction of musculoskeletal injuries in children? What ways can doctors of chiropractic stay updated on evidence-based information about vaccines and immunization throughout the lifespan? Can smoking cessation be a prevention strategy for back pain? Does chiropractic have relevance within the VA Health Care System for chronic pain and comorbid disorders? How can chiropractic use cognitive behavioral therapy to address chronic low back pain as a public health problem? What opportunities exist for doctors of chiropractic to more effectively serve the aging population? What is the role of ethics and the contribution of the chiropractic profession to public health? What public health roles can chiropractic interns perform for underserved communities in a collaborative environment? Can the chiropractic profession contribute to community health? What opportunities do doctors of chiropractic have to be involved in health care reform in the areas of prevention and public health? What role do citizen-doctors of chiropractic have in organizing community action on health-related matters? How can our future chiropractic graduates become socially responsible agents of change? PMID:23069244

Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre; Hestbaek, Lise; Injeyan, H Stephen; Puhl, Aaron; Green, Bart; Napuli, Jason G; Dunn, Andrew S; Dougherty, Paul; Killinger, Lisa Zaynab; Page, Stacey A; Stites, John S; Ramcharan, Michael; Leach, Robert A; Byrd, Lori D; Redwood, Daniel; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah R

2012-09-01

498

Do cortical gamma oscillations promote or suppress perception? An under-asked question with an over-assumed answer  

PubMed Central

Cortical gamma oscillations occur alongside perceptual processes, and in proportion to perceptual salience. They have a number of properties that make them ideal candidates to explain perception, including incorporating synchronized discharges of neural assemblies, and their emergence over a fast timescale consistent with that of perception. These observations have led to widespread assumptions that gamma oscillations' role is to cause or facilitate conscious perception (i.e., a “positive” role). While the majority of the human literature on gamma oscillations is consistent with this interpretation, many or most of these studies could equally be interpreted as showing a suppressive or inhibitory (i.e., “negative”) role. For example, presenting a stimulus and recording a response of increased gamma oscillations would only suggest a role for gamma oscillations in the representation of that stimulus, and would not specify what that role were; if gamma oscillations were inhibitory, then they would become selectively activated in response to the stimulus they acted to inhibit. In this review, we consider two classes of gamma oscillations: “broadband” and “narrowband,” which have very different properties (and likely roles). We first discuss studies on gamma oscillations that are non-discriminatory, with respect to the role of gamma oscillations, followed by studies that specifically support specifically a positive or negative role. These include work on perception in healthy individuals, and in the pathological contexts of phantom perception and epilepsy. Reference is based as much as possible on magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) studies, but we also consider evidence from invasive recordings in humans and other animals. Attempts are made to reconcile findings within a common framework. We conclude with a summary of the pertinent questions that remain unanswered, and suggest how future studies might address these. PMID:24065913

Sedley, William; Cunningham, Mark O.

2013-01-01

499

Ebola virus: questions, answers, and more questions.  

PubMed

Ebola virus causes a hemorrhagic fever with a high case-fatality rate. Treatment remains supportive although a variety of specific treatments are still in the early stages of investigation. This report reviews the clinical virology of Ebola virus, the reported proposed treatments, and the current outbreak. PMID:25452350

Brizendine, Kyle D

2014-12-01

500

FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question "What is life?" is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schrödinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter.

Reutov, Valentin P.; Schechter, A. N.

2010-07-01