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1

Antarctic Food Web Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive game adapted from the Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, build a food web that illustrates the flow of energy in an Antarctic ecosystem and the relationships between predators and prey.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

2

14C as a tracer of labile organic matter in Antarctic benthic food webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

14C measurements were made on surface plankton, particle-trap material, surface sediment, benthic invertebrate gut contents, and body tissue samples to assess the effectiveness of this radioisotope as a tracer of labile organic carbon in Antarctic benthic food webs. Samples were collected on five cruises to the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) shelf between November 1999 and March 2001 as part of

Brett L. Purinton; David J. DeMaster; Carrie J. Thomas; Craig R. Smith

2008-01-01

3

Winter and spring controls on the summer food web of the coastal West Antarctic Peninsula.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms by which climate variability affects multiple trophic levels in food webs is essential for determining ecosystem responses to climate change. Here we use over two decades of data collected by the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research program (PAL-LTER) to determine how large-scale climate and local physical forcing affect phytoplankton, zooplankton and an apex predator along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). We show that positive anomalies in chlorophyll-a (chl-a) at Palmer Station, occurring every 4-6 years, are constrained by physical processes in the preceding winter/spring and a negative phase of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Favorable conditions for phytoplankton included increased winter ice extent and duration, reduced spring/summer winds, and increased water column stability via enhanced salinity-driven density gradients. Years of positive chl-a anomalies are associated with the initiation of a robust krill cohort the following summer, which is evident in Adélie penguin diets, thus demonstrating tight trophic coupling. Projected climate change in this region may have a significant, negative impact on phytoplankton biomass, krill recruitment and upper trophic level predators in this coastal Antarctic ecosystem. PMID:25000452

Saba, Grace K; Fraser, William R; Saba, Vincent S; Iannuzzi, Richard A; Coleman, Kaycee E; Doney, Scott C; Ducklow, Hugh W; Martinson, Douglas G; Miles, Travis N; Patterson-Fraser, Donna L; Stammerjohn, Sharon E; Steinberg, Deborah K; Schofield, Oscar M

2014-01-01

4

Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Food web reading. Build a food web and design a creature. Requires downloaded program. Download your assignment Food Web Assignment Sheet. Use the following sites and activities to answer the questions. Do not start the creature creator until Mr. Wood has seen your food web and completed assignment and allowed you to move on. Type your answers on the sheet and edit it to fit one page. When ...

Wood, Mr.

2010-10-06

5

Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts 4 different food webs: Antarctica, the African Grasslands, the Australia Grasslands and a Marine environment. A separate food web for scavengers and decomposers is present in the African Grasslands section. Viewers must first build the web by moving boxes with the organism's picture and name to the appropriate spot on a grid. Clues describing food requirements are given as the boxes are moved. When the boxes are correctly placed a complete food web (with arrows) is displayed.

6

Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners construct possible food webs for six different ecosystems as they learn about the roles of different kinds of living organisms. Learners will also discuss and classify producers vs. consumers and different kinds of consumers (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, decomposers and scavengers). This lesson guide includes background information, variations and bilingual (English/Spanish) cards.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.

2011-01-01

7

Forest Food Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Food webs are an interconnection of producers, consumers, and decomposers. It is important to understand that a change to any level of the food web directly and indirectly affects other organisms within the food web.

Katie Hale (CSUF;Biological Sciences)

2007-07-14

8

Shifts in Ross Sea food web structure as indicated by ?15N and ?13C values of fossil Antarctic seals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As climate change continues to mount, there is a growing need for understanding its effects on biological-physical interactions of marine ecosystems. Assessing the effects of anthropogenic activities on the coastal marine ecosystem involves understanding the underlying mechanisms driving these changes as well as establishing baselines of the natural system. Preliminary findings have indicated shifts in bulk carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopic values of southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) samples, collected in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica in the Ross Sea region, over approximately the last 7,000 years. These shifts could result from 1) seals changing their foraging location and/or diet over this time, 2) climate change-induced shifts in the biogeochemistry at the base of the food web, or 3) some combination of both processes. We explored the patterns of long-term change in Ross Sea food web structure by examining the stable isotope values of three top predators in this system, Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii), leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx), and crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophagus). Fossil seal samples were collected in the Dry Valleys during the austral summer of 2012/13 and then analyzed for bulk C and N isotopes via an elemental analyzer/isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (EA/IRMS). Our initial findings indicate that C isotopic values of fossil seal samples from Weddell, leopard, and crabeater seals were more enriched than isotopic values of modern seals of the same species (e.g., ?13C = -22.79 × 0.92 ‰ and -26.71 × 0.50 ‰ for fossil and modern crabeater seals, respectively). Given the relatively consistent diet of crabeater seals, these findings suggest a shift in baseline food web structure occurred over the last 10,000 years, either through changes in foraging location or local shifts in biogeochemistry. For all species, N isotopic values are widely variable (e.g., 7.28 to 16.0 ?15N ‰ for the Weddell seal), which may be a result of greatly changing diets in the last ~10,000 years, or a changing baseline N value for the Ross Sea. Seal bones will be radiocarbon-dated to isolate the key shifts in C and N isotopic values. Once those major shifts are temporally constrained, compound-specific isotopic analysis of the bone samples will be used to tease apart the diet vs. baseline effects on the bulk isotopic signatures of the seals. Our results suggests that during the last ~10,000 years, there was a fundamental shift in Ross Sea food web structure likely related to long term climatic variability.

Leopold, A.; Brault, E.; McMahon, K.

2013-12-01

9

Food Chains and Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explains how energy travels through an ecosystem. This flow can be diagrammed in food chains and food webs as shown in the lesson's illustrations. Key terms are hyperlinked so students can easily view definitions of new concepts.

2012-06-14

10

Food Chains and Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate feeding relationships. Learners complete a food web and then make a mobile to represent a food chain. Use this activity to talk about predator/prey relationships and ecosystems.

Council, Biotechnology A.

2012-06-26

11

Forest food web Illustration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lowest level of a food web includes producers, which are plants that make their own energy from the sun. Animals that eat these producers are called primary consumers, and consumers that eat other consumers are called secondary consumers. Decomposers break down dead plants and animals to release nutrients into the soil.

Katie Hale (CSUF;Biological Sciences)

2007-07-14

12

Forest Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the seasonal changes that affect life in a temperate forest ecosystem and how organisms in a temperate forest are dependent on one another for proper nutrition. Students describe the three major types of organisms that live in an ecosystem, three types of consumers, food webs, and food chains. They then create a food web diagram for display in their classrooms. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

13

Top-down control on plankton components in an Antarctic pond: experimental approach to the study of low-complexity food webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to address the top-down effect on the different phytoplankton size-fractions and ciliates, a survey at microcosm scale was conducted in a hypertrophic Antarctic pond, testing the hypotheses that (1) the picophytoplankton is regulated by a top-down control exerted by organisms of the bigger size-fractions, and (2) the nanoplankton fraction (algae and ciliates) is not regulated by a top-down

Luz Allende; Haydée Pizarro

2006-01-01

14

The Great Lakes Food Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a play for students in grades four to nine that incorporates the scientific names, physical characteristics, feeding habits, interactions, and interdependence of the plants and animals that make up the Great Lakes food web to facilitate the learning of this complex system. Includes a Great Lakes food web chart. (AIM)

Baker, Marjane L.

1997-01-01

15

Dispersal dynamics in food webs.  

PubMed

Abstract Studies of food webs suggest that limited nonrandom dispersal can play an important role in structuring food webs. It is not clear, however, whether density-dependent dispersal fits empirical patterns of food webs better than density-independent dispersal. Here, we study a spatially distributed food web, using a series of population-dispersal models that contrast density-independent and density-dependent dispersal in landscapes where sampled sites are either homogeneously or heterogeneously distributed. These models are fitted to empirical data, allowing us to infer mechanisms that are consistent with the data. Our results show that models with density-dependent dispersal fit the ?, ?, and ? tritrophic richness observed in empirical data best. Our results also show that density-dependent dispersal leads to a critical distance threshold beyond which site similarity (i.e., ? tritrophic richness) starts to decrease much faster. Such a threshold can also be detected in the empirical data. In contrast, models with density-independent dispersal do not predict such a threshold. Moreover, preferential dispersal from more centrally located sites to peripheral sites does not provide a better fit to empirical data when compared with symmetric dispersal between sites. Our results suggest that nonrandom dispersal in heterogeneous landscapes is an important driver that shapes local and regional richness (i.e., ? and ? tritrophic richness, respectively) as well as the distance-decay relationship (i.e., ? tritrophic richness) in food webs. PMID:25616136

Melián, Carlos J; K?ivan, Vlastimil; Altermatt, Florian; Starý, Petr; Pellissier, Loïc; De Laender, Frederik

2015-02-01

16

Food Web and Energy Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter discusses the concept of a food web and energy flow. Its activities will assist students in defining and constructing an energy pyramid. These activities can be incorporated into lessons which teach students how to create a food web and and identify the interdependencies within that habitat. Students will learn how to identify and illustrate parts of the water cycle, the carbon-oxygen cycle, and the nitrogen cycle. This section also offers students the tools to demonstrate active knowledge of conservation measures.

Galle, Janet R.; Warren, Patricia A.

2005-01-01

17

Research on the Web: Antarctic Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web research activity helps students see the link between wind speeds and geographical features. All directions are included in a printable handout. Students begin by gathering wind-speed measurements for 10 weather stations in Antarctica, converting the data, as needed, to allow comparisons. Next, they record wind data for five consecutive days and calculate the average wind speed for each station. They then examine elevation data for the 10 weather stations. They end by developing a hypothesis for the different patterns they've observed.

18

Food Chains and Food Webs - Balance within Natural Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a continued focus on the Sonoran Desert, students are introduced to the concepts of food chains and food webs through a PowerPoint® presentation. They learn the difference between producers and consumers and study how these organisms function within their communities as participants in various food chains. They further understand ecosystem differences by learning how multiple food chains link together to form intricate and balanced food webs. At lesson end, students construct food webs using endemic desert species.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

19

INTRODUCTION Aquatic food-webs' ecology  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Aquatic food-webs' ecology: old and new challenges Andrea Belgrano Looking up ``aquatic food web'' on Google provides a dizzying array of eclectic sites and information (and disinformation!) to choose from. However, even within this morass it is clear that aquatic food-web research has

20

Persistence of complex food webs in metacommunities  

E-print Network

Persistence of complex food webs in metacommunities Gesa A. B¨ohme 1 and Thilo Gross 2 1 Max of Engineering Mathematics, Bristol, UK Keywords: metacommunities, food webs, predator-prey interactions, geo diversity and food web complexity. Recently Pillai et al. proposed a simple modeling framework

21

Food webs for parasitologists: a review.  

PubMed

This review examines the historical origins of food web theory and explores the reasons why parasites have traditionally been left out of food web studies. Current paradigms may still be an impediment because, despite several attempts, it remains virtually impossible to retrofit parasites into food web theory in any satisfactory manner. It seems clear that parasitologists must return to first principles to solve how best to incorporate parasites into ecological food webs, and a first step in changing paradigms will be to include parasites in the classic ecological patterns that inform food web theory. The limitations of current food web models are discussed with respect to their logistic exclusion of parasites, and the traditional matrix approach in food web studies is critically examined. The well-known energetic perspective on ecosystem organization is presented as a viable alternative to the matrix approach because it provides an intellectually powerful theoretical paradigm for generating testable hypotheses on true food web structure. This review proposes that to make significant contributions to the food web debate, parasitologists must work from the standpoint of natural history to elucidate patterns of biomass, species abundance, and interaction strengths in real food webs, and these will provide the basis for more realistic models that incorporate parasite dynamics into the overall functional dynamics of the whole web. A general conclusion is that only by quantifying the effects of parasites in terms of energy flows (or biomass) will we be able to correctly place parasites into food webs. PMID:19891512

Sukhdeo, Michael V K

2010-04-01

22

Modeling the microbial food web.  

PubMed

Models of the microbial food web have their origin in the debate over the importance of bacteria as an energetic subsidy for higher trophic levels leading to harvestable fisheries. Conceptualization of the microbial food web preceded numerical models by 10-15 years. Pomeroy's work was central to both efforts. Elements necessary for informative and comprehensive models of microbial loops in plankton communities include coupled carbon and nitrogen flows utilizing a size-based approach to structuring and parameterizing the food web. Realistic formulation of nitrogen flows requires recognition that both nitrogenous and nonnitrogenous organic matter are important substrates for bacteria. Nitrogen regeneration driven by simple mass-specific excretion constants seems to overestimate the role of bacteria in the regeneration process. Quantitative assessment of the link-sink question, in which the original loop models are grounded, requires sophisticated analysis of size-based trophic structures. The effects of recycling complicate calculation of the link between bacteria or dissolved organic matter and mesozooplankton, and indirect effects show that the link might be much stronger than simple analyses have suggested. Examples drawn from a series of oceanic mixed layer plankton models are used to illustrate some of these points. Single-size class models related to traditional P-Z-N approaches are incapable of simulating bacterial biomass cycles in some locations (e.g., Bermuda) but appear to be adequate for more strongly seasonal regimes at higher latitudes. PMID:24186459

Ducklow, H W

1994-09-01

23

Where are the parasites in food webs?  

PubMed Central

This review explores some of the reasons why food webs seem to contain relatively few parasite species when compared to the full diversity of free living species in the system. At present, there are few coherent food web theories to guide scientific studies on parasites, and this review posits that the methods, directions and questions in the field of food web ecology are not always congruent with parasitological inquiry. For example, topological analysis (the primary tool in food web studies) focuses on only one of six important steps in trematode life cycles, each of which requires a stable community dynamic to evolve. In addition, these transmission strategies may also utilize pathways within the food web that are not considered in traditional food web investigations. It is asserted that more effort must be focused on parasite-centric models, and a central theme is that many different approaches will be required. One promising approach is the old energetic perspective, which considers energy as the critical resource for all organisms, and the currency of all food web interactions. From the parasitological point of view, energy can be used to characterize the roles of parasites at all levels in the food web, from individuals to populations to community. The literature on parasite energetics in food webs is very sparse, but the evidence suggests that parasite species richness is low in food webs because parasites are limited by the quantity of energy available to their unique lifestyles. PMID:23092160

2012-01-01

24

Live from Antarctica 2: The Food Web Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will help students understand that increases in the ozone hole will result in damaging ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays penetrating deep into the ocean, and harming young marine life, such as floating fish eggs, fish larvae, juvenile fish, and shrimp larvae, and affecting phytoplankton movement. Students will discover how others in the Antarctic food web will be affected if phytoplankton are harmed by depletion of the ozone layer. They will also find out what will survive UV-B radiation in Antarctica.

25

UNSTRUCTURED MARINE FOOD WEBS AND "POLLUTANT ANALOGUES"  

E-print Network

envi- ronments. The concentration factor found in the known and describable food chain of the Salton in the simple linear food chain ex- isting in that isolated marine environment and that the cesium/potassium (CsUNSTRUCTURED MARINE FOOD WEBS AND "POLLUTANT ANALOGUES" JOHN D. ISAACS' ABSTRACT The several

26

Trophic levels in community food webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Four concepts are considered for the trophic level of a species in a community food web. The long-way-up-level (or LU-level) of species A is the length of the longest simple food chain from a basal species (one with no prey in the web) to A. (A simple chain is a chain that does not pass through any given species more

Joel E. Cohen; Tomasz ?uczak

1992-01-01

27

Compartments revealed in food-web structure.  

PubMed

Compartments in food webs are subgroups of taxa in which many strong interactions occur within the subgroups and few weak interactions occur between the subgroups. Theoretically, compartments increase the stability in networks, such as food webs. Compartments have been difficult to detect in empirical food webs because of incompatible approaches or insufficient methodological rigour. Here we show that a method for detecting compartments from the social networking science identified significant compartments in three of five complex, empirical food webs. Detection of compartments was influenced by food web resolution, such as interactions with weights. Because the method identifies compartmental boundaries in which interactions are concentrated, it is compatible with the definition of compartments. The method is rigorous because it maximizes an explicit function, identifies the number of non-overlapping compartments, assigns membership to compartments, and tests the statistical significance of the results. A graphical presentation reveals systemic relationships and taxa-specific positions as structured by compartments. From this graphic, we explore two scenarios of disturbance to develop a hypothesis for testing how compartmentalized interactions increase stability in food webs. PMID:14628050

Krause, Ann E; Frank, Kenneth A; Mason, Doran M; Ulanowicz, Robert E; Taylor, William W

2003-11-20

28

Lesson Summary Students participate in a food web "string game"  

E-print Network

the connection between Antarctic animals. Prior Knowledge & Skills -Basic knowledge about the food chain -Basic Food Chain" found at http://drake.marin.k12.ca.us/stuwork/ROCKwate r/PLANKTON/Food%20Chain.htm NASA element eats what. Pass the free end of the string along, up the food chain to the larger predators. 3

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

29

NOAA Education Resources: Aquatic Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This nice site from NOAA starts with a bold statement: "Big fish eat little fish; that's how the food cycle works." It's a fitting introduction to this exploration of aquatic food webs. Offered as part of NOAA's main Education Resources site, this site offers a dozen well-produced videos, lesson plans, and data sets divided into areas that include Background Information and Multimedia. These items include "Tagging of Pacific Pelagics," "Census of Marine Life Biodiversity," and "Components of a Food Web." Visitors can also look over the Features area near the bottom of the site, whose offerings range from a profile of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary to a longitudinal study of sea trout in the food web. Finally, visitors can use the social media tabs to share resources from the site with colleagues and others.

2011-06-15

30

Antarctic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become an expert on the Antarctic habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. To find out about the habitat you can visit The Arctic: Earth s North Polar Region, Polar Region, and Arctic Tundra. Read the websites carefully to find important facts. Antarctica Animals and Animals in Antarctica will tell you about animals that live in the antarctic. Maya! Emperor Penguin will tell you lots of facts about penguins. To find more facts visit Penguin Facts. At this website ...

Ryan, Ms.

2013-02-12

31

Constructing Sonoran Desert Food Chains and Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is the food chain shown above accurate? Does the first link depict a producer, the second link a herbivore, and the third link an omnivore / carnivore? Students must correctly determine whether a species is a producer or consumer, and what type of consumer; herbivore, omnivore, or carnivore. Students are provided with a list of Sonoran Desert species and asked to construct, within their groups, several food chains. These food chains are then be used to construct a food web. In order to complete this activity, students must first research the individual species to understand their feeding habits.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

32

Stability of a model food web.  

PubMed

We investigate numerically the stability of a model food web, introduced by Nunes Amaral and Meyer [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 652 (1999)]. The model describes a system of species located in niches at several levels. Upper level species are predating on those from a lower level. We show that the model web is more stable when it is larger, although the number of niches is more important than the number of levels. The food web is self-organizing itself, trying to reach a certain degree of complexity, i.e., number of species and links among them. If the system cannot achieve this state, it will go extinct. We demonstrate that the average number of links per species and the reduced number of species depend in the same way on the number of niches. We also determine how the stability of the food web depends on another parameter of the model, the killing probability. Despite keeping the ratio of the creation and killing probabilities constant, increasing the latter reduces significantly the stability of the model food web. We show that connectance dependence on the number of niches has a power-type character, which agrees with the field data, and that it decreases with the number of species also as a power-type function. PMID:19391786

Szwabi?ski, Janusz; Pekalski, Andrzej

2009-02-01

33

Food Webs in an Estuary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Maryland Marine Science Education Project has produced a series of mini-units in marine science education for the junior high/middle school classroom. This unit focuses on food chains in an estuary. Although the unit specifically treats the Chesapeake Bay, it may be adapted for use with similar estuarine systems. In addition, the unit may be…

Dunne, Barbara B.

34

KELP FOREST FOOD WEBS IN GWAII HAANAS  

E-print Network

KELP FOREST FOOD WEBS IN GWAII HAANAS: Ecosystem-Level Effects of Predator Depletion and Recovery-based management in restoring kelp forest resilience and productivity within and adjacent to Gwaii Haanas. We share of Research & Preliminary Results | 7 Benthic Invertebrate Communities in Kelp Forests | 7 Field Methods

35

Structural Degradation in Mediterranean Sea Food Webs  

E-print Network

Structural Degradation in Mediterranean Sea Food Webs: Testing Ecological Hypotheses Using-Central Adriatic and South Catalan Sea) and two time periods (mid-late 1970s and 1990s) in the Mediterranean Sea to species removal; Niche model; Ecopath model; Mediterranean Sea. INTRODUCTION Degradation of marine

Myers, Ransom A.

36

Toward an integration of landscape and food web ecology: The dynamics of spatially subsidized food webs  

E-print Network

We focus on the implications of movement, landscape variables, and spatial heterogeneity for food web dynamics. Movements of nutrients, detritus, prey, and consumers among habitats are ubiquitous in diverse biomes and can ...

Polis, Gary A.; Anderson, Wendy B.; Holt, Robert D.

1997-01-01

37

Warmer Oceans Affect Food Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, students learn that the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska in 1989 was not the sole cause of the decline of species in the local ecosystem. Rather, an explanation is posited for why some animal populations were already in decline when the spill occurred. Many of these animals share a common food: the sand lance, a fish whose populations have shrunk with the steady rise in ocean temperature that began in the late 1970s.

Ktoo; Foundation, Wgbh E.; Domain, Teachers'

38

Models of food web evolution Alan J. McKane  

E-print Network

. If there are similarities between food webs in such diverse communities (for instance, marine, desert or lake communitiesModels of food web evolution Alan J. McKane Barbara Drossel While it is often possible to model of possible networks. Here we argue, in the context of food webs, that it is necessary to go beyond simply

McKane, Alan

39

Mycoloop: chytrids in aquatic food webs  

PubMed Central

Parasites are ecologically significant in various ecosystems through their role in shaping food web structure, facilitating energy transfer, and controlling disease. Here in this review, we mainly focus on parasitic chytrids, the dominant parasites in aquatic ecosystems, and explain their roles in aquatic food webs, particularly as prey for zooplankton. Chytrids have a free-living zoosporic stage, during which they actively search for new hosts. Zoospores are excellent food for zooplankton in terms of size, shape, and nutritional quality. In the field, densities of chytrids can be high, ranging from 101 to 109 spores L?1. When large inedible phytoplankton species are infected by chytrids, nutrients within host cells are transferred to zooplankton via the zoospores of parasitic chytrids. This new pathway, the “mycoloop,” may play an important role in shaping aquatic ecosystems, by altering sinking fluxes or determining system stability. The grazing of zoospores by zooplankton may also suppress outbreaks of parasitic chytrids. A food web model demonstrated that the contribution of the mycoloop to zooplankton production increased with nutrient availability and was also dependent on the stability of the system. Further studies with advanced molecular tools are likely to discover greater chytrid diversity and evidence of additional mycoloops in lakes and oceans. PMID:24795703

Kagami, Maiko; Miki, Takeshi; Takimoto, Gaku

2014-01-01

40

Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing links  

PubMed Central

Parasitism is the most common consumer strategy among organisms, yet only recently has there been a call for the inclusion of infectious disease agents in food webs. The value of this effort hinges on whether parasites affect food-web properties. Increasing evidence suggests that parasites have the potential to uniquely alter food-web topology in terms of chain length, connectance and robustness. In addition, parasites might affect food-web stability, interaction strength and energy flow. Food-web structure also affects infectious disease dynamics because parasites depend on the ecological networks in which they live. Empirically, incorporating parasites into food webs is straightforward. We may start with existing food webs and add parasites as nodes, or we may try to build food webs around systems for which we already have a good understanding of infectious processes. In the future, perhaps researchers will add parasites while they construct food webs. Less clear is how food-web theory can accommodate parasites. This is a deep and central problem in theoretical biology and applied mathematics. For instance, is representing parasites with complex life cycles as a single node equivalent to representing other species with ontogenetic niche shifts as a single node? Can parasitism fit into fundamental frameworks such as the niche model? Can we integrate infectious disease models into the emerging field of dynamic food-web modelling? Future progress will benefit from interdisciplinary collaborations between ecologists and infectious disease biologists. PMID:18462196

Lafferty, Kevin D; Allesina, Stefano; Arim, Matias; Briggs, Cherie J; De Leo, Giulio; Dobson, Andrew P; Dunne, Jennifer A; Johnson, Pieter T J; Kuris, Armand M; Marcogliese, David J; Martinez, Neo D; Memmott, Jane; Marquet, Pablo A; McLaughlin, John P; Mordecai, Erin A; Pascual, Mercedes; Poulin, Robert; Thieltges, David W

2008-01-01

41

Trophic coherence determines food-web stability.  

PubMed

Why are large, complex ecosystems stable? Both theory and simulations of current models predict the onset of instability with growing size and complexity, so for decades it has been conjectured that ecosystems must have some unidentified structural property exempting them from this outcome. We show that trophic coherence-a hitherto ignored feature of food webs that current structural models fail to reproduce-is a better statistical predictor of linear stability than size or complexity. Furthermore, we prove that a maximally coherent network with constant interaction strengths will always be linearly stable. We also propose a simple model that, by correctly capturing the trophic coherence of food webs, accurately reproduces their stability and other basic structural features. Most remarkably, our model shows that stability can increase with size and complexity. This suggests a key to May's paradox, and a range of opportunities and concerns for biodiversity conservation. PMID:25468963

Johnson, Samuel; Domínguez-García, Virginia; Donetti, Luca; Muñoz, Miguel A

2014-12-16

42

The Disruption of Coastal Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In The News addresses recent findings (published in the October 16, 1998 issue of Science) that killer whale predation on sea otters in the North Pacific has "created an ecological chain reaction in nearshore ecosystems." Such ecological chain reactions refer to the disruption of the complex balance between predator and prey species. Killer whales, which traditionally fed on the (now scarce) Steller sea lions and harbor seals, have recently shifted their diet to sea otters. The resulting decline in sea otters has, in turn, led to an increase in sea urchins (sea otter prey), which in turn have deforested many kelp (seaweed) beds in the nearshore marine community. Although killer whales are playing a critical role in the current disruption, this chain of interactions "was probably initiated by anthropogenic changes in the offshore oceanic ecosystem" -- namely, the region's burgeoning fisheries, higher ocean temperatures, and the depletion of baleen whales. Similar "trophic cascades" have been well documented for lakes and in other systems (e.g. Snow Geese in the Arctic), but this research provides a new example of a disrupted food web that may reach a wider audience -- as it involves several highly charismatic vertebrates. The nine resources discussed describe the recent scientific findings, provide background information on food webs, and offer several resources for understanding ecological (trophic) chain reactions.

Payne, Laura X.

1998-01-01

43

Adaptive foraging and flexible food web topology Vlastimil Krivan  

E-print Network

modelling shows that single systems of predators, adaptive herbivores and resources can display food chain, adaptive omnivory causes the exploitative competition, linear food chain and multi-trophic level omnivory be confounded by topological shifts in the system itself. Keywords: adaptive foraging, food chain, food web

Krivan, Vlastimil

44

Consequences of symbiosis for food web dynamics.  

PubMed

Basic Lotka-Volterra type models in which mutualism (a type of symbiosis where the two populations benefit both) is taken into account, may give unbounded solutions. We exclude such behaviour using explicit mass balances and study the consequences of symbiosis for the long-term dynamic behaviour of a three species system, two prey and one predator species in the chemostat. We compose a theoretical food web where a predator feeds on two prey species that have a symbiotic relationships. In addition to a species-specific resource, the two prey populations consume the products of the partner population as well. In turn, a common predator forages on these prey populations. The temporal change in the biomass and the nutrient densities in the reactor is described by ordinary differential equations (ODE). Since products are recycled, the dynamics of these abiotic materials must be taken into account as well, and they are described by odes in a similar way as the abiotic nutrients. We use numerical bifurcation analysis to assess the long-term dynamic behaviour for varying degrees of symbiosis. Attractors can be equilibria, limit cycles and chaotic attractors depending on the control parameters of the chemostat reactor. These control parameters that can be experimentally manipulated are the nutrient density of the inflow medium and the dilution rate. Bifurcation diagrams for the three species web with a facultative symbiotic association between the two prey populations, are similar to that of a bi-trophic food chain; nutrient enrichment leads to oscillatory behaviour. Predation combined with obligatory symbiotic prey-interactions has a stabilizing effect, that is, there is stable coexistence in a larger part of the parameter space than for a bi-trophic food chain. However, combined with a large growth rate of the predator, the food web can persist only in a relatively small region of the parameter space. Then, two zero-pair bifurcation points are the organizing centers. In each of these points, in addition to a tangent, transcritical and Hopf bifurcation a global heteroclinic bifurcation is emanating. This heteroclinic cycle connects two saddle equilibria where the predator is absent. Under parameter variation the period of the stable limit cycle goes to infinity and the cycle tends to the heteroclinic cycle. At this global bifurcation point this cycle breaks and the boundary of the basin of attraction disappears abruptly because the separatrix disappears together with the cycle. As a result, it becomes possible that a stable two-nutrient-two-prey population system becomes unstable by invasion of a predator and eventually the predator goes extinct together with the two prey populations, that is, the complete food web is destroyed. This is a form of over-exploitation by the predator population of the two symbiotic prey populations. When obligatory symbiotic prey-interactions are modelled with Liebig's minimum law, where growth is limited by the most limiting resource, more complicated types of bifurcations are found. This results from the fact that the Jacobian matrix changes discontinuously with respect to a varying parameter when another resource becomes most limiting. PMID:15293013

Kooi, B W; Kuijper, L D J; Kooijman, S A L M

2004-09-01

45

Complex interactions in microbial food webs: Stoichiometric and functional approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food web structure in some high mountain lakes deviates from the established tendency of high heterotrophic bacteria: phyto- plankton biomass ratios in oligotrophic ecosystems. Thus, the microbial food web in La Caldera Lake is weakly developed, and bacteria constitute a minor component of the plankton community in terms of abundance, biomass and production. Autotrophic picoplankton is absent, and heterotrophic

Presentación Carrillo; Juan Manuel Medina-Sánchez; Manuel Villar-Argaiz; José Antonio Delgado-Molina; Francisco José Bullejos

46

Competition Graphs and Food Webs: Some of My Favorite  

E-print Network

1 Competition Graphs and Food Webs: Some of My Favorite Conjectures Fred Roberts, Rutgers University #12;2 Competition Graphs & Food Webs ·Ecology is sometimes the source of interesting graph-theoretical problems. ·Competition between species is a case in point. ·Starting from predator-prey concepts

47

Dynamics of the Lake Michigan food web, 1970?2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herein, we document changes in the Lake Michigan food web between 1970 and 2000 and identify the fac- tors responsible for these changes. Control of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) populations in Lake Michigan, beginning in the 1950s and 1960s, had profound effects on the food web. Recoveries of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and burbot (Lota lota)

Charles P. Madenjian; Gary L. Fahnenstiel; Thomas H. Johengen; Thomas F. Nalepa; Henry A. Vanderploeg; Guy W. Fleischer; Philip J. Schneeberger; Darren M. Benjamin; Emily B. Smith; James R. Bence; Edward S. Rutherford; Dennis S. Lavis; Dale M. Robertson; David J. Jude; Mark P. Ebener

2002-01-01

48

Investigation a food web: producers, consumers, and decomposers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation where students list plants and animals they observe. Students will organize their data as producers, consumers, or decomposers and create a food web showing how they affect each other. They will predict what will happen if the food web becomes imbalanced by extinction or over population.

49

A "Bottom-Up" Approach to Food Web Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to comprehend trophic (nutritional) relationships and food web dynamics is an essential part of environmental literacy. However, students face severe difficulties in grasping the variety of causal patterns in food webs. We propose a curriculum for comprehending trophic relations in elementary school. The curriculum allows students to…

Demetriou, Dorita; Korfiatis, Konstantinos; Constantinou, Constantinos

2009-01-01

50

Amphipod-supported food web: Themisto gaudichaudii, a key food resource for fishes in the southern Patagonian Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trophic role of the hyperiid amphipod Themisto gaudichaudii in the southern Patagonian shelf food web was assessed from the analysis of stomach contents of the local fish assemblage. A total of 461 trawl samples were collected during seven seasonal cruises. A total of 17 out of 38 fish species were found to ingest T. gaudichaudii. This amphipod was a main prey item in five of these species, showing high values of alimentary index: Seriolella porosa (99.9%), Macruronus magellanicus (68.8%), Micromesistius australis (59.1%), Patagonotothen ramsayi (48.6%), and Merluccius hubbsi (10.9%). The contribution of T. gaudichaudii, in weight, to their summer diet was 60%, on average. This contribution was minimal in winter and maximal in summer. Fisheries studies have indicated that these five species, mainly M. magellanicus, account for almost 85% of the fish biomass in the area. Although the remaining 15% did not feed heavily on T. gaudichaudii, they are known to prey on the main hyperiid predators. Our study shows that T. gaudichaudii contributes greatly, both directly and indirectly, to supporting the fish community. We thus proposed that T. gaudichaudii plays a key role as a "wasp-waist" species in the sub-Antarctic region, similar to that of krill in Antarctic waters, channeling the energy flow and enabling a short and efficient food chain.

Padovani, Luciano N.; Viñas, María Delia; Sánchez, Felisa; Mianzan, Hermes

2012-01-01

51

Food webs and the dimensionality of trophic niche space  

PubMed Central

If the trophic niche of a kind of organism is a connected region in niche space, then it is possible for trophic niche overlaps to be described in a one-dimensional niche space if and only if the trophic niche overlap graph is an interval graph. An analysis of 30 food webs, using the combinatorial theory of interval graphs, suggests that a niche space of dimension 1 suffices, with unexpectedly high frequency and perhaps always, to describe the trophic niche overlaps implied by real food webs in single habitats. Consequently, real food webs fall in a small subset of the set of mathematically possible food webs. That real food webs are compatible with one-dimensional trophic niche spaces, more often than can be explained by chance alone, has not been noticed previously. PMID:16592451

Cohen, Joel E.

1977-01-01

52

Characteristics of Food Industry Web Sites and "Advergames" Targeting Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the content of food industry Web sites targeting children by describing strategies used to prolong their visits and foster brand loyalty; and to document health-promoting messages on these Web sites. Design: A content analysis was conducted of Web sites advertised on 2 children's networks, Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. A…

Culp, Jennifer; Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana

2010-01-01

53

Food-web dynamics in a large river discontinuum  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly all ecosystems have been altered by human activities, and most communities are now composed of interacting species that have not co-evolved. These changes may modify species interactions, energy and material flows, and food-web stability. Although structural changes to ecosystems have been widely reported, few studies have linked such changes to dynamic food-web attributes and patterns of energy flow. Moreover, there have been few tests of food-web stability theory in highly disturbed and intensely managed freshwater ecosystems. Such synthetic approaches are needed for predicting the future trajectory of ecosystems, including how they may respond to natural or anthropogenic perturbations. We constructed flow food webs at six locations along a 386-km segment of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon (Arizona, USA) for three years. We characterized food-web structure and production, trophic basis of production, energy efficiencies, and interaction-strength distributions across a spatial gradient of perturbation (i.e., distance from Glen Canyon Dam), as well as before and after an experimental flood. We found strong longitudinal patterns in food-web characteristics that strongly correlated with the spatial position of large tributaries. Above tributaries, food webs were dominated by nonnative New Zealand mudsnails (62% of production) and nonnative rainbow trout (100% of fish production). The simple structure of these food webs led to few dominant energy pathways (diatoms to few invertebrate taxa to rainbow trout), large energy inefficiencies (i.e., Below large tributaries, invertebrate production declined ?18-fold, while fish production remained similar to upstream sites and comprised predominately native taxa (80–100% of production). Sites below large tributaries had increasingly reticulate and detritus-based food webs with a higher prevalence of omnivory, as well as interaction strength distributions more typical of theoretically stable food webs (i.e., nearly twofold higher proportion of weak interactions). Consistent with theory, downstream food webs were less responsive to the experimental flood than sites closest to the dam. We show how human-induced shifts to food-web structure can affect energy flow and interaction strengths, and we show that these changes have consequences for food-web function and response to perturbations.

Cross, Wyatt F.; Baxter, Colden V.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Hall, Robert O., Jr.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Donner, Kevin C.; Kelly, Holly A. Wellard; Seegert, Sarah E.Z.; Behn, Kathrine E.; Yard, Michael D.

2013-01-01

54

Food Web Structure in a Harsh Glacier-Fed River  

PubMed Central

Glacier retreat is occurring across the world, and associated river ecosystems are expected to respond more rapidly than those in flowing waters in other regions. The river environment directly downstream of a glacier snout is characterised by extreme low water temperature and unstable channel sediments but these habitats may become rarer with widespread glacier retreat. In these extreme environments food web dynamics have been little studied, yet they could offer opportunities to test food web theories using highly resolved food webs owing to their low taxonomic richness. This study examined the interactions of macroinvertebrate and diatom taxa in the Ödenwinkelkees river, Austrian central Alps between 2006 and 2011. The webs were characterised by low taxon richness (13–22), highly connected individuals (directed connectance up to 0.19) and short mean food chain length (2.00–2.36). The dominant macroinvertebrates were members of the Chironomidae genus Diamesa and had an omnivorous diet rich in detritus and diatoms as well as other Chironomidae. Simuliidae (typically detritivorous filterers) had a diet rich in diatoms but also showed evidence of predation on Chironomidae larvae. Food webs showed strong species-averaged and individual size structuring but mass-abundance scaling coefficients were larger than those predicted by metabolic theory, perhaps due to a combination of spatial averaging effects of patchily distributed consumers and resources, and/or consumers deriving unquantified resources from microorganisms attached to the large amounts of ingested rock fragments. Comparison of food web structural metrics with those from 62 published river webs suggest these glacier-fed river food web properties were extreme but in line with general food web scaling predictions, a finding which could prove useful to forecast the effects of anticipated future glacier retreat on the structure of aquatic food webs. PMID:23613751

Clitherow, Leonie R.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Brown, Lee E.

2013-01-01

55

Hydrogeomorphology and river impoundment affect food-chain length of diverse Neotropical food webs  

E-print Network

Hydrogeomorphology and river impoundment affect food-chain length of diverse Neotropical food webs-900 Parana´, Brasil. Food-chain length is a central characteristic of ecological communities that affects community structure and ecosystem function. What determines the length of food chains is not well resolved

Hoeinghaus, David J.

56

Adaptations in a hierarchical food web of southeastern Lake Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two issues in ecological network theory are: (1) how to construct an ecological network model and (2) how do entire networks (as opposed to individual species) adapt to changing conditions? We present a novel method for constructing an ecological network model for the food web of southeastern Lake Michigan (USA) and we identify changes in key system properties that are large relative to their uncertainty as this ecological network adapts from one time point to a second time point in response to multiple perturbations. To construct our food web for southeastern Lake Michigan, we followed the list of seven recommendations outlined in Cohen et al. [Cohen, J.E., et al., 1993. Improving food webs. Ecology 74, 252–258] for improving food webs. We explored two inter-related extensions of hierarchical system theory with our food web; the first one was that subsystems react to perturbations independently in the short-term and the second one was that a system's properties change at a slower rate than its subsystems’ properties. We used Shannon's equations to provide quantitative versions of the basic food web properties: number of prey, number of predators, number of feeding links, and connectance (or density). We then compared these properties between the two time-periods by developing distributions of each property for each time period that took uncertainty about the property into account. We compared these distributions, and concluded that non-overlapping distributions indicated changes in these properties that were large relative to their uncertainty. Two subsystems were identified within our food web system structure (p < 0.001). One subsystem had more non-overlapping distributions in food web properties between Time 1 and Time 2 than the other subsystem. The overall system had all overlapping distributions in food web properties between Time 1 and Time 2. These results supported both extensions of hierarchical systems theory. Interestingly, the subsystem with more non-overlapping distributions in food web properties was the subsystem that contained primarily benthic taxa, contrary to expectations that the identified major perturbations (lower phosphorous inputs and invasive species) would more greatly affect the subsystem containing primarily pelagic taxa. Future food-web research should employ rigorous statistical analysis and incorporate uncertainty in food web properties for a better understanding of how ecological networks adapt.

Krause, Ann E.; Frank, Ken A.; Jones, Michael L.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Barbiero, Richard P.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Agy, Megan; Evans, Marlene S.; Taylor, William W.; Mason, Doran M.; Leonard, Nancy J.

2009-01-01

57

Isotopic Diversity Indices: How Sensitive to Food Web Structure?  

PubMed Central

Recently revisited, the concept of niche ecology has lead to the formalisation of functional and trophic niches using stable isotope ratios. Isotopic diversity indices (IDI) derived from a set of measures assessing the dispersion/distribution of points in the ?-space were recently suggested and increasingly used in the literature. However, three main critics emerge from the use of these IDI: 1) they fail to account for the isotopic sources overlap, 2) some indices are highly sensitive to the number of species and/or the presence of rare species, and 3) the lack of standardization prevents any spatial and temporal comparisons. Using simulations we investigated the ability of six commonly used IDI to discriminate among different trophic food web structures, with a focus on the first two critics. We tested the sensitivity of the IDI to five food web structures along a gradient of sources overlap, varying from two distinct food chains with differentiated sources to two superimposed food chains sharing two sources. For each of the food web structure we varied the number of species (from 10 to 100 species) and the type of species feeding behaviour (i.e. random or selective feeding). Values of IDI were generally larger in food webs with distinct basal sources and tended to decrease as the superimposition of the food chains increased. This was more pronounced when species displayed food preferences in comparison to food webs where species fed randomly on any prey. The number of species composing the food web also had strong effects on the metrics, including those that were supposedly less sensitive to small sample size. In all cases, computing IDI on food webs with low numbers of species always increases the uncertainty of the metrics. A threshold of ?20 species was detected above which several metrics can be safely used. PMID:24391910

Brind'Amour, Anik; Dubois, Stanislas F.

2013-01-01

58

Food web complexity and stability across habitat connectivity gradients.  

PubMed

The effects of habitat connectivity on food webs have been studied both empirically and theoretically, yet the question of whether empirical results support theoretical predictions for any food web metric other than species richness has received little attention. Our synthesis brings together theory and empirical evidence for how habitat connectivity affects both food web stability and complexity. Food web stability is often predicted to be greatest at intermediate levels of connectivity, representing a compromise between the stabilizing effects of dispersal via rescue effects and prey switching, and the destabilizing effects of dispersal via regional synchronization of population dynamics. Empirical studies of food web stability generally support both this pattern and underlying mechanisms. Food chain length has been predicted to have both increasing and unimodal relationships with connectivity as a result of predators being constrained by the patch occupancy of their prey. Although both patterns have been documented empirically, the underlying mechanisms may differ from those predicted by models. In terms of other measures of food web complexity, habitat connectivity has been empirically found to generally increase link density but either reduce or have no effect on connectance, whereas a unimodal relationship is expected. In general, there is growing concordance between empirical patterns and theoretical predictions for some effects of habitat connectivity on food webs, but many predictions remain to be tested over a full connectivity gradient, and empirical metrics of complexity are rarely modeled. Closing these gaps will allow a deeper understanding of how natural and anthropogenic changes in connectivity can affect real food webs. PMID:25227679

LeCraw, Robin M; Kratina, Pavel; Srivastava, Diane S

2014-12-01

59

Consumers indirectly increase infection risk in grassland food webs  

E-print Network

Consumers indirectly increase infection risk in grassland food webs Elizabeth T. Borera,1 , Charles by increasing the relative abundance of highly-competent hosts in the grassland community. This large

Crews, Stephen

60

RAPID COMMUNICATION / COMMUNICATION RAPIDE Simplified food webs lead to energetic  

E-print Network

diet and community analysis indicated that the food web leading to yellow perch (Perca flavescens nourriture disponible aux perchaudes (Perca flavescens) provenant de lacs pollués par les métaux lourds a été

Hontela, Alice

61

Compilation and network analyses of cambrian food webs.  

PubMed

A rich body of empirically grounded theory has developed about food webs--the networks of feeding relationships among species within habitats. However, detailed food-web data and analyses are lacking for ancient ecosystems, largely because of the low resolution of taxa coupled with uncertain and incomplete information about feeding interactions. These impediments appear insurmountable for most fossil assemblages; however, a few assemblages with excellent soft-body preservation across trophic levels are candidates for food-web data compilation and topological analysis. Here we present plausible, detailed food webs for the Chengjiang and Burgess Shale assemblages from the Cambrian Period. Analyses of degree distributions and other structural network properties, including sensitivity analyses of the effects of uncertainty associated with Cambrian diet designations, suggest that these early Paleozoic communities share remarkably similar topology with modern food webs. Observed regularities reflect a systematic dependence of structure on the numbers of taxa and links in a web. Most aspects of Cambrian food-web structure are well-characterized by a simple "niche model," which was developed for modern food webs and takes into account this scale dependence. However, a few aspects of topology differ between the ancient and recent webs: longer path lengths between species and more species in feeding loops in the earlier Chengjiang web, and higher variability in the number of links per species for both Cambrian webs. Our results are relatively insensitive to the exclusion of low-certainty or random links. The many similarities between Cambrian and recent food webs point toward surprisingly strong and enduring constraints on the organization of complex feeding interactions among metazoan species. The few differences could reflect a transition to more strongly integrated and constrained trophic organization within ecosystems following the rapid diversification of species, body plans, and trophic roles during the Cambrian radiation. More research is needed to explore the generality of food-web structure through deep time and across habitats, especially to investigate potential mechanisms that could give rise to similar structure, as well as any differences. PMID:18447582

Dunne, Jennifer A; Williams, Richard J; Martinez, Neo D; Wood, Rachel A; Erwin, Douglas H

2008-04-29

62

Quantification and Resolution of a Complex, Size-Structured Food Web  

E-print Network

Quantification and Resolution of a Complex, Size-Structured Food Web GUY WOODWARD, DOUGIE C. SPEIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 A. Connectance Food Webs: Early Patterns and Recent Advances . . 87 B. Quantified Food Webs: From Pattern to Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 C. The Broadstone Stream Food Web

Mottram, Nigel

63

The inverse niche model for food webs with parasites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although parasites represent an important component of ecosystems, few field and theoretical studies have addressed the structure of parasites in food webs. We evaluate the structure of parasitic links in an extensive salt marsh food web, with a new model distinguishing parasitic links from non-parasitic links among free-living species. The proposed model is an extension of the niche model for food web structure, motivated by the potential role of size (and related metabolic rates) in structuring food webs. The proposed extension captures several properties observed in the data, including patterns of clustering and nestedness, better than does a random model. By relaxing specific assumptions, we demonstrate that two essential elements of the proposed model are the similarity of a parasite's hosts and the increasing degree of parasite specialization, along a one-dimensional niche axis. Thus, inverting one of the basic rules of the original model, the one determining consumers' generality appears critical. Our results support the role of size as one of the organizing principles underlying niche space and food web topology. They also strengthen the evidence for the non-random structure of parasitic links in food webs and open the door to addressing questions concerning the consequences and origins of this structure.

Warren, Christopher P.; Pascual, Mercedes; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

2010-01-01

64

Web-based colorimetric sensing for food quality monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented in this paper outlines a novel technique for remote food quality control over the Internet by using web based image processing. The colour change of a colorimetric sensor was captured with a wireless camera and the data was transmitted to a PC, which uploaded the information to the web. A software system for colour analysis was developed

J. Hayes; A. Pacquit; K. Crowley; Kim Lau; D. Diamond

2006-01-01

65

Food web structure of a subtropical headwater stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food web structure of a headwater stream (Hapen Creek) in subtropical northern Taiwan, which is subject to regular typhoon disturbances, was characterised using stable isotope techniques. ?13C and ?15N signatures were used to examine (i) the relative contributions of allochthonous versus. autochthonous sources to the web, and (ii) the trophic organisation of the community including the predominant feeding guilds

I-Yu HuangA; Yao-Sung Lin; Chang-Po Chen; Hwey-Lian Hsieh

2007-01-01

66

OIKOS 94: 118129. Copenhagen 2001 Field biology, food web models, and management: challenges of  

E-print Network

trajectories of specific populations or ecosystem variables. Food chain and simple food web models, used either of dynamic food chain or food web models can organize our thinking about a range of applied problems properties. In other applications, a food chain or web may be incorporated as one element in models

Power, Mary Eleanor

67

Stable Isotope Tracers of Process in Great Lakes Food Webs  

EPA Science Inventory

Stable isotope analyses of biota are now commonly used to discern trophic pathways between consumers and their foods. However, those same isotope data also hold information about processes that influence the physicochemical setting of food webs as well as biological processes ope...

68

Cascading extinctions and community collapse in model food webs  

PubMed Central

Species loss in ecosystems can lead to secondary extinctions as a result of consumer–resource relationships and other species interactions. We compare levels of secondary extinctions in communities generated by four structural food-web models and a fifth null model in response to sequential primary species removals. We focus on various aspects of food-web structural integrity including robustness, community collapse and threshold periods, and how these features relate to assumptions underlying different models, different species loss sequences and simple measures of diversity and complexity. Hierarchical feeding, a fundamental characteristic of food-web structure, appears to impose a cost in terms of robustness and other aspects of structural integrity. However, exponential-type link distributions, also characteristic of more realistic models, generally confer greater structural robustness than the less skewed link distributions of less realistic models. In most cases for the more realistic models, increased robustness and decreased levels of web collapse are associated with increased diversity, measured as species richness S, and increased complexity, measured as connectance C. These and other results, including a surprising sensitivity of more realistic model food webs to loss of species with few links to other species, are compared with prior work based on empirical food-web data. PMID:19451122

Dunne, Jennifer A.; Williams, Richard J.

2009-01-01

69

Effects of whaling on the structure of the southern ocean food web: insights on the "krill surplus" from ecosystem modelling.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the ecological plausibility of the "krill surplus" hypothesis and the effects of whaling on the Southern Ocean food web using mass-balance ecosystem modelling. The depletion trajectory and unexploited biomass of each rorqual population in the Antarctic was reconstructed using yearly catch records and a set of species-specific surplus production models. The resulting estimates of the unexploited biomass of Antarctic rorquals were used to construct an Ecopath model of the Southern Ocean food web existing in 1900. The rorqual depletion trajectory was then used in an Ecosim scenario to drive rorqual biomasses and examine the "krill surplus" phenomenon and whaling effects on the food web in the years 1900-2008. An additional suite of Ecosim scenarios reflecting several hypothetical trends in Southern Ocean primary productivity were employed to examine the effect of bottom-up forcing on the documented krill biomass trend. The output of the Ecosim scenarios indicated that while the "krill surplus" hypothesis is a plausible explanation of the biomass trends observed in some penguin and pinniped species in the mid-20th century, the excess krill biomass was most likely eliminated by a rapid decline in primary productivity in the years 1975-1995. Our findings suggest that changes in physical conditions in the Southern Ocean during this time period could have eliminated the ecological effects of rorqual depletion, although the mechanism responsible is currently unknown. Furthermore, a decline in iron bioavailability due to rorqual depletion may have contributed to the rapid decline in overall Southern Ocean productivity during the last quarter of the 20th century. The results of this study underscore the need for further research on historical changes in the roles of top-down and bottom-up forcing in structuring the Southern Ocean food web. PMID:25517505

Surma, Szymon; Pakhomov, Evgeny A; Pitcher, Tony J

2014-01-01

70

Effects of Whaling on the Structure of the Southern Ocean Food Web: Insights on the “Krill Surplus” from Ecosystem Modelling  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the ecological plausibility of the “krill surplus” hypothesis and the effects of whaling on the Southern Ocean food web using mass-balance ecosystem modelling. The depletion trajectory and unexploited biomass of each rorqual population in the Antarctic was reconstructed using yearly catch records and a set of species-specific surplus production models. The resulting estimates of the unexploited biomass of Antarctic rorquals were used to construct an Ecopath model of the Southern Ocean food web existing in 1900. The rorqual depletion trajectory was then used in an Ecosim scenario to drive rorqual biomasses and examine the “krill surplus” phenomenon and whaling effects on the food web in the years 1900–2008. An additional suite of Ecosim scenarios reflecting several hypothetical trends in Southern Ocean primary productivity were employed to examine the effect of bottom-up forcing on the documented krill biomass trend. The output of the Ecosim scenarios indicated that while the “krill surplus” hypothesis is a plausible explanation of the biomass trends observed in some penguin and pinniped species in the mid-20th century, the excess krill biomass was most likely eliminated by a rapid decline in primary productivity in the years 1975–1995. Our findings suggest that changes in physical conditions in the Southern Ocean during this time period could have eliminated the ecological effects of rorqual depletion, although the mechanism responsible is currently unknown. Furthermore, a decline in iron bioavailability due to rorqual depletion may have contributed to the rapid decline in overall Southern Ocean productivity during the last quarter of the 20th century. The results of this study underscore the need for further research on historical changes in the roles of top-down and bottom-up forcing in structuring the Southern Ocean food web. PMID:25517505

Surma, Szymon; Pakhomov, Evgeny A.; Pitcher, Tony J.

2014-01-01

71

Mercury biomagnification in marine zooplankton food webs in Hudson Bay.  

PubMed

While much research has been carried out on mercury in large marine mammals and associated food webs in northern regions, comparatively less has been conducted on lower trophic levels including zooplankton and the subsequent transfer to predators, which marks the entry of mercury into northern marine food webs. We present here the first database for mercury uptake and transfer exclusively within zooplankton food webs in northern marine waters. We have investigated both total (THg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations, and isotopic signatures (?(15)N and ?(13)C) in individual zooplankton taxa collected over a period of eight years (2003-2010) from across Hudson Bay (including Hudson Strait and Foxe Basin) as part of research icebreaker cruises. ?(15)N values ranged from 3.4 to 14.0‰, implying trophic levels ranging from 1 to 4, and THg concentrations ranged from 5 to 242 ng g(-1) dw. Food web linkages were identified within the data set, and mercury biomagnification was evident both with THg and MMHg concentrations increasing from prey to predator, and with trophic magnification factors (TMFs). Total mercury and MMHg transfer in a unique prey-predator linkage (Limacina helicina-Clione limacina) are investigated and discussed with regard to known physiological and biochemical characteristics. The results suggest that exposure to mercury at higher trophic levels including humans can be affected by processes at the bottom of Arctic marine food webs. PMID:23157666

Foster, Karen L; Stern, Gary A; Pazerniuk, Monica A; Hickie, Brendan; Walkusz, Wojciech; Wang, Feiyue; Macdonald, Robie W

2012-12-01

72

THE ROLE OF SPIDERS IN THE DETRITAL FOOD WEB OF AN EASTERN DECIDUOUS FOREST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, terrestrial food web research has focused on describing the structure of aboveground grazing webs, and determining how interactions among plants, herbivores and higher trophic levels influence primary productivity. Detrital food webs however, play a significant role in regulation of ecosystem dynamics through direct impacts on decomposition. Unraveling the complex nature of detrital food web structure is critical to developing

Erin Elizabeth Hladilek

2008-01-01

73

8 Food Webs in the Ocean: Who Eats Whom and How Much?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 100 food webs have been published for marine ecosystems to describe the transfer of food energy from its source in plants, through herbivores, to carnivores and higher order predators. The webs suggest that the lengths of the chains that form food webs are typically short (3-4 links), and that ecosystems with long food chains may be less stable than

Andrew W. Trites

74

Food web dynamics in a seasonally varying wetland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A spatially explicit model is developed to simulate the small fish community and its underlying food web, in the freshwater marshes of the Everglades. The community is simplified to a few small fish species feeding on periphyton and invertebrates. Other compartments are detritus, crayfish, and a piscivorous fish species. This unit food web model is applied to each of the 10,000 spatial cells on a 100 x 100 pixel landscape. Seasonal variation in water level is assumed and rules are assigned for fish movement in response to rising and falling water levels, which can cause many spatial cells to alternate between flooded and dry conditions. It is shown that temporal variations of water level on a spatially heterogeneous landscape can maintain at least three competing fish species. In addition, these environmental factors can strongly affect the temporal variation of the food web caused by top-down control from the piscivorous fish.

DeAngelis, D.L.; Trexler, J.C.; Donalson, D.D.

2008-01-01

75

Infectious disease agents mediate interaction in food webs and ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Infectious agents are part of food webs and ecosystems via the relationship with their host species that, in turn, interact with both hosts and non-hosts. Through these interactions, infectious agents influence food webs in terms of structure, functioning and stability. The present literature shows a broad range of impacts of infectious agents on food webs, and by cataloguing that range, we worked towards defining the various mechanisms and their specific effects. To explore the impact, a direct approach is to study changes in food-web properties with infectious agents as separate species in the web, acting as additional nodes, with links to their host species. An indirect approach concentrates not on adding new nodes and links, but on the ways that infectious agents affect the existing links across host and non-host nodes, by influencing the ‘quality’ of consumer–resource interaction as it depends on the epidemiological state host involved. Both approaches are natural from an ecological point of view, but the indirect approach may connect more straightforwardly to commonly used tools in infectious disease dynamics. PMID:24403336

Selakovic, Sanja; de Ruiter, Peter C.; Heesterbeek, Hans

2014-01-01

76

Ecological tracers can quantify food web structure and change.  

PubMed

Disruption of natural food webs is becoming a commonplace occurrence as a result of human activities. Considering this, there is a need to improve our ability to define food web structure as well as to detect and understand the implications of trophodynamic change. This requires the development, validation, and application of ecologicaltracers that can provide insights into the movement of energy, nutrients, and contaminants through food webs. In this study, we examine the utility of two groups of naturally occurring intrinsic tracers (stable nitrogen isotopes and fatty acids) to provide such information in a predatory seabird, the herring gull (Larus argentatus). Spatial and temporal patterns in gull trophic position (inferred from egg stable nitrogen isotope values) were related to gull diet composition (inferred from egg fatty acid concentrations). These two independent groups of ecological tracers provided corroborating evidence that gull trophic position was related to the degree to which aquatic foods, namely fish, were consumed. The use of these tracers in concert led to a better understanding of routes of energy flow and contaminant transfer in food webs and how these pathways may be affected by ecosystem change. PMID:17007117

Hebert, Craig E; Arts, Michael T; Weseloh, D V Chip

2006-09-15

77

Unravelling the Food Web: Dietary Analysis in Modern Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information that gives a methodological background to the concept of food webs. Stresses the importance of calibrated techniques in ecological research and explains direct methods for studying animal diets. Exercises for gathering first-hand data on bird diets and analyzing secondary data on mammal diets are suggested. (ML)

Calver, M. C.; Porter, B. D.

1986-01-01

78

Biodiversity, productivity and stability in real food webs  

E-print Network

Biodiversity, productivity and stability in real food webs Boris Worm1 and J. Emmett Duffy2 1, The College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062­1346, USA The global biodiversity crisis has motivated new theory and experiments that explore relationships between biodiversity (species richness

Duffy, J. Emmett

79

MODEL OF CARBON CYCLING IN PLANKTONIC FOOD WEBS  

EPA Science Inventory

A mathematical model of carbon fluxes through the heterotrophic microbial food web is developed from a synthesis of laboratory and field research,The basis of the model is the segregation of organic carbon into lability classes that are defined by bioassay experiments. acteria, p...

80

MODEL OF CARBON CYCLING IN THE PLANKTONIC FOOD WEB  

EPA Science Inventory

A mathematical model of carbon fluxes through the heterotrophic microbial food web is developed from a synthesis of laboratory and field research. he basis of the model is the segregation of organic carbon into lability classes that are defined by bioassay experiments. acteria, p...

81

BENTHOS AS THE BASIS FOR ARCTIC FOOD WEBS  

EPA Science Inventory

Plankton have traditionally been viewed as the basis for limnetic food webs, with zooplankton acting as a gateway for energy passing between phytoplanktonic primary producers and fish. Often, benthic production is considered to be important primarily in shallow systems or as a su...

82

Predator foraging behaviour drives food-web topological structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The structure and dynamics of prey populations are shaped by the foraging behaviours of their predators. Yet, there is still little documentation on how distinct predator foraging types control biodiversity, food-web architecture and ecosystem functioning. 2. We experimentally compared the effects of model fish species of two major foraging types of lake planktivores: a size-selective visual feeder (bluegill),

Xavier Lazzaro; Gérard Lacroix; Benoît Gauzens; Jacques Gignoux; Stéphane Legendre

2009-01-01

83

DEVELOPMENT OF A STREAM FOOD WEB MODEL CONSTRAINED BY STABLE ISOTOPE DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Traditional stream food web studies provide static models of trophic structures. These models provide information about interspecific relationships, but not about material flows through food webs. Traditional ecosystem models developed from budgets or tracers provide quantitative...

84

Computer simulations of sympatric speciation in a simple food web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galapagos finches, have motivated much theoretical research aimed at understanding the processes associated with the formation of the species. Inspired by them, in this paper we investigate the process of sympatric speciation in a simple food web model. For that we modify the individual-based Penna model that has been widely used to study aging as well as other evolutionary processes. Initially, our web consists of a primary food source and a single herbivore species that feeds on this resource. Subsequently we introduce a predator that feeds on the herbivore. In both instances we manipulate directly a basal resource distribution and monitor the changes in the populations. Sympatric speciation is obtained for the top species in both cases, and our results suggest that the speciation velocity depends on how far up, in the food chain, the focus population is feeding. Simulations are done with three different sexual imprintinglike mechanisms, in order to discuss adaptation by natural selection.

Luz-Burgoa, K.; Dell, Tony; de Oliveira, S. Moss

2005-07-01

85

Molecular evidence for genetic subdivision of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana) populations.  

PubMed Central

Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana) is a key species in the Antarctic food web and occurs on a circumcontinental scale. Population genetic structure of this species was investigated by sequence analysis of the ND1 mitochondrial gene in four population samples collected at different geographical localities around the Antarctic continent. Results indicate the existence of significant genetic differences between samples, and we suggest that oceanographic barriers could be sufficiently strong and temporally stable to restrict gene flow between distinct areas. Moreover, our data indicate that Antarctic krill is not at mutation-drift equilibrium and that the species possibly has a low effective population size as compared to the census size. PMID:9921678

Zane, L; Ostellari, L; Maccatrozzo, L; Bargelloni, L; Battaglia, B; Patarnello, T

1998-01-01

86

Comparing energetic and dynamic descriptions of a single food web linkage  

E-print Network

194 Comparing energetic and dynamic descriptions of a single food web linkage Christopher T upon another, and energetic-based food webs, which have their roots in ecosystem ecology that explicitly defines food web link- age strength in terms of two key factors: the type of data (energetic vs

Vander Zanden, Jake

87

Humans in the urban food web: Emerging insights from Phoenix and  

E-print Network

of trophic dynamics in urban vs. desert settings (see Urban Food Web diagram, below). However, the natureHumans in the urban food web: Emerging insights from Phoenix and Baltimore P. S. Warren, E. Adley intense human activity, urbanization, alters food webs and trophic structure in biological communities

Hall, Sharon J.

88

Visualizing the Food-Web Effects of Fishing for Tunas in the Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use food-web models to develop visualizations to compare and evaluate the interactions of tuna fisheries with their supporting food webs in the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) and the central north Pacific (CNP) Oceans. In the ETP and CNP models, individual fisheries use slightly different food webs that are defined by the assemblage of targeted tuna species. Distinct energy pathways

Jefferson T. Hinke; Isaac C. Kaplan; Kerim Aydin; George M. Watters; Robert J. Olson; James F. Kitchell

2004-01-01

89

Learning from visualizing and Interacting with the Semantic Web Dog Food  

E-print Network

Learning from visualizing and Interacting with the Semantic Web Dog Food Christophe Gravier://portail.univ-st-etienne.fr Abstract. Semantic Web conferences such as WWW and ISWC fos- tered a collaborative effort to the Semantic Web Conference Corpus, a.k.a. the Semantic Web Dog Food Corpus. Many other conferences

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

90

Food preferences of larvae of Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum Boulenger, 1902 from Terre Adélie coastal waters during summer 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ichthyoplankton samples were collected from 19 to 31 January 2004 in the Dumont d’Urville Sea (East Antarctic shelf). The Nototheniidae Pleuragramma antarcticum comprised more than 90% of the sampled larvae. Gut contents of 95 P antarcticum larvae were examined. Most larvae fed on phytoplankton, especially diatoms, whereas some other specimens had a mixed diet with phyto- and zooplankton prey. A single specimen fed exclusively on copepods. The stomach contents was dominated by three diatoms taxa, such as Thalassiothrix antarctica, Fragilariopsis spp. and Chaetoceros spp. Prey selection was apparently food density dependent, with an inverse relationship between food abundance and selection feeding. Larvae selected positively some diatoms, such as Coscinodiscus spp. and T. antarctica, presenting a low concentration in the water column compared to Fragilariopsis spp., which were strongly negatively selected. During summer, larvae were opportunistic feeders with a broad trophic niche, which allowed them to switch between different food types.

Vallet, Carole; Beans, Cristina; Koubbi, Philippe; Courcot, Lucie; Hecq, Jean-Henri; Goffart, Anne

2011-08-01

91

Moving Up the Information Food Chain: Deploying Softbots on the World Wide Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

I view the World Wide Web as an information food chain (figure 1). The maze of pages and hyperlinks that comprise the Web are at the very bottom of the chain. The WebCrawlers and Alta Vistas of the world are information herbivores; they graze on Web pages and regurgitate them as searchable indices. Today, most Web users feed near the

Oren Etzioni

1996-01-01

92

The assembly, collapse and restoration of food webs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Darwin chose the metaphor of a 'tangled bank' to conclude the 'Origin of species'. Two centuries after Darwin's birth, we are still untangling the complex ecological networks he has pondered. In particular, studies of food webs provide important insights into how natural ecosystems function (Pascual & Dunne 2005). Although the nonlinear interactions between many species creates challenges of scale, resolution of data and significant computational constraints, the last 10 years have seen significant advances built on the earlier classic studies of Cohen, May, Pimm, Polis, Lawton and Yodzis (May 1974; Cohen 1978; Pimm 1982; Briand & Cohen 1984, 1987; Yodzis 1989; Cohen et al. 1990; Pimm et al. 1991; Yodzis & Innes 1992; Yodzis 1998). These gains stem from advances in computing power and the collation of more comprehensive data from a broader array of empirical food webs.

Dobson, Andy; Allesina, Stefano; Lafferty, Kevin; Pascual, Mercedes

2009-01-01

93

Road Salt Stress Induces Novel Food Web Structure and Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater salinization is an emerging global concern, and in northern latitudes can be largely attributed to road deicer\\u000a applications during winter and spring. To investigate the effects of road salt contamination on pond food webs, we manipulated\\u000a trophic structure and salt in experimental pond communities. In May 2008, we inoculated forty 600-L pond mesocosms with algae\\u000a and zooplankton. Using a

Robin J. Van Meter; Christopher M. Swan; Jeff Leips; Joel W. Snodgrass

94

Fishing Down Coastal Food Webs in the Gulf of California  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used information from interviews with fishers, fisheries statistics, and field surveys to document changes in fisheries and fish assemblages in shallow coastal habitats in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Coastal food webs in the Gulf of California have been “fished down” during the last 30 years–fisheries shifted from large, long-lived species belonging to high trophic levels to small short-lived

Enric Sala; Octavio Aburto-Oropeza; Miriam Reza; Gustavo Paredes; Luis G. López-Lemus

2004-01-01

95

Tracking the autochthonous carbon transfer in stream biofilm food webs.  

PubMed

Food webs in the rhithral zone rely mainly on allochthonous carbon from the riparian vegetation. However, autochthonous carbon might be more important in open canopy streams. In streams, most of the microbial activity occurs in biofilms, associated with the streambed. We followed the autochthonous carbon transfer toward bacteria and grazing protozoa within a stream biofilm food web. Biofilms that developed in a second-order stream (Thuringia, Germany) were incubated in flow channels under climate-controlled conditions. Six-week-old biofilms received either ¹³C- or ¹²C-labeled CO?, and uptake into phospholipid fatty acids was followed. The dissolved inorganic carbon of the flow channel water became immediately labeled. In biofilms grown under 8-h light/16-h dark conditions, more than 50% of the labeled carbon was incorporated in biofilm algae, mainly filamentous cyanobacteria, pennate diatoms, and nonfilamentous green algae. A mean of 29% of the labeled carbon reached protozoan grazer. The testate amoeba Pseudodifflugia horrida was highly abundant in biofilms and seemed to be the most important grazer on biofilm bacteria and algae. Hence, stream biofilms dominated by cyanobacteria and algae seem to play an important role in the uptake of CO? and transfer of autochthonous carbon through the microbial food web. PMID:22067054

Risse-Buhl, Ute; Trefzger, Nicolai; Seifert, Anne-Gret; Schönborn, Wilfried; Gleixner, Gerd; Küsel, Kirsten

2012-01-01

96

Does cadmium pollution change trophic interactions in rockpool food webs?  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied the regulation of phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass in rockpool food webs under chronic cadmium pollution. Experimental food webs with two and three trophic levels were composed of phytoplankton, small-bodied zooplankton (Chydorus sphaericus, Cyclops sp., and rotifers), Daphnia magna, and Notonecta sp., a zooplanktivorous predator. Every food web received a control and cadmium treatment allowing a separate study of cadmium and predation effects. After a 3-week stabilization period, cadmium and Notonecta were added and changes in primary productivity, chlorophyll, zooplankton species composition, and biomass were followed during 8 weeks. The results showed that phytoplankton and Daphnia were consumer regulated in both control and cadmium treatments, although resource availability ultimately determined the biomass at each trophic level. Daphnia was the only zooplankton species that reduced phytoplankton and also the only species that was eliminated by Notonecta predation. Notonecta had an indirect positive impact on phytoplankton biomass that increased after the extinction of Daphnia. Cadmium significantly reduced phytoplankton and Daphnia but did not change the trophic interactions between them, i.e., Daphnia and chlorophyll were significantly negatively correlated both in the control and cadmium treatments. Cadmium did not affect the relationship between Daphnia and Notonecta.

Koivisto, S.; Arner, M.; Kautsky, N. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

1997-06-01

97

Food web structure and bioregions in the Scotia Sea: A seasonal synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioregionalisation, the partitioning of large ecosystems into functionally distinct sub-units, facilitates ecosystem modelling, management and conservation. A variety of schemes have been used to partition the Southern Ocean, based variously on frontal positions, sea ice, productivity, water depth and nutrient concentrations. We have tested the utility and robustness of ecosystem bioregionalisation for the Scotia Sea, by classifying spring, summer and autumn stations on the basis of nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton taxa, meso- and macrozooplankton, fish catches and acoustic data. Despite sampling across different seasons and years, at different spatial scales and taxonomic resolutions, cluster analysis indicated basically consistent spatial divisions across this wide range of trophic levels. Stations could be classified into two main groups, lying broadly to the north and south of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF). In some aspects the 2 station groups were similar, with both having variable but often high phytoplankton biomass as well as similar biomass of fish. However, the colder water southern group, most of which was covered by seasonal sea ice, had a fundamentally different food web structure to that in the northern Scotia Sea. The cold water community had a depleted, cold-adapted fauna characterised by low zooplankton biomass, Euphausia superba and the fish Electrona antarctica and Gymnoscopelus braueri. In contrast the northern group was richer with higher mesozooplankton biomass and a fauna of warmer or more cosmopolitan species such as Themisto gaudichaudii, Euphausia triacantha and the fish Protomyctophum bolini, Kreffticthys anderssoni and Gymnoscopelus fraseri. The position of the food web transition, broadly consistent with the position of the SACCF, supports a recent circumpolar-scale bioregionalisation. However, there is little evidence that this relatively weak frontal transition represents a significant barrier either here or elsewhere in the Southern Ocean. We suggest that broader-scale factors, namely temperature and possibly the extent of the seasonal ice-zone, within which most of the southern stations lay, were more likely to influence biological zonation.

Ward, Peter; Atkinson, Angus; Venables, Hugh J.; Tarling, Geraint A.; Whitehouse, Mick J.; Fielding, Sophie; Collins, Martin A.; Korb, Rebecca; Black, Andrew; Stowasser, Gabriele; Schmidt, Katrin; Thorpe, Sally E.; Enderlein, Peter

2012-01-01

98

Complementary molecular information changes our perception of food web structure  

PubMed Central

How networks of ecological interactions are structured has a major impact on their functioning. However, accurately resolving both the nodes of the webs and the links between them is fraught with difficulties. We ask whether the new resolution conferred by molecular information changes perceptions of network structure. To probe a network of antagonistic interactions in the High Arctic, we use two complementary sources of molecular data: parasitoid DNA sequenced from the tissues of their hosts and host DNA sequenced from the gut of adult parasitoids. The information added by molecular analysis radically changes the properties of interaction structure. Overall, three times as many interaction types were revealed by combining molecular information from parasitoids and hosts with rearing data, versus rearing data alone. At the species level, our results alter the perceived host specificity of parasitoids, the parasitoid load of host species, and the web-wide role of predators with a cryptic lifestyle. As the northernmost network of host–parasitoid interactions quantified, our data point exerts high leverage on global comparisons of food web structure. However, how we view its structure will depend on what information we use: compared with variation among networks quantified at other sites, the properties of our web vary as much or much more depending on the techniques used to reconstruct it. We thus urge ecologists to combine multiple pieces of evidence in assessing the structure of interaction webs, and suggest that current perceptions of interaction structure may be strongly affected by the methods used to construct them. PMID:24449902

Wirta, Helena K.; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Kaartinen, Riikka; Prosser, Sean W.; Várkonyi, Gergely; Roslin, Tomas

2014-01-01

99

Food-web Implications for Pelagic Top Predators: from Guts and Isotopes to Models  

E-print Network

. · Communities interact via the food web. NOAA. 2005. New priorities for the 21st century: NOAA's strategic plan-web connections. ·Keystone species ·Dietary specialists ·Models can help The tools for food-web research: ·Diet Billfishes Dorado, Wahoo, R. Runner 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Diet data for eastern Pacific predators ('92

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

100

Ecological Stoichiometry, Biogeochemical Cycling, Invasive Species, and Aquatic Food Webs: San Francisco Estuary and Comparative Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutrophication has altered food webs across aquatic systems, but effects of nutrient stoichiometry (varying nutrient ratios) on ecosystem structure and function have received less attention. A prevailing assumption has been that nutrients are not ecologically relevant unless concentrations are limiting to phytoplankton. However, changes in nutrient stoichiometry fundamentally affect food quality at all levels of the food web. Here, 30-year

Patricia M. Glibert; David Fullerton; Joann M. Burkholder; Jeffrey C. Cornwell; Todd M. Kana

2011-01-01

101

Bioaccumulation of toxaphene congeners in the lake superior food web  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of toxaphene was examined in the food webs of Lake Superior and Siskiwit Lake (Isle Royale) using congener specific analysis as well as stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to characterize food webs. Toxaphene concentrations (calculated using technical toxaphene) in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the western basin of Lake Superior (N = 95) averaged (±SD) 889 ± 896 ng/g wet wt and 60 ± 34 ng/g wet wt in Siskiwit Lake. Major congeners in lake trout were B8-789 (P38), B8-2226 (P44), B9-1679 (P50), and B9-1025 (P62). Toxaphene concentrations were found to vary seasonally, especially in lower food web organisms in Lake Superior and to a lesser extent in Siskiwit Lake. Toxaphene concentrations declined significantly in lake herring (Coregonus artedii), rainbow smelt (Omerus mordax), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) as well as in zooplankton (> 102 &mn;m) and Mysis (Mysis relicta) between May and October. The seasonal variation may reflect seasonal shifts in the species abundance within the zooplankton community. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) derived from regressions of toxaphene congener concentrations versus ?15N were > 1 for most octa- and nonachlorobornanes in Lake Superior except B8-1413 (P26) and B9-715. Log bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for toxaphene congeners in lake trout (ng/g lipid/ng/L dissolved) ranged from 4.54 to 9.7 and were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficients. TMFs observed for total toxaphene and congener B9-1679 in Lake Superior were similar to those in Arctic lakes, as well as to previous studies in the Great Lakes, which suggests that the bioaccumulation behavior of toxaphene is similar in pelagic food webs of large, cold water systems. However, toxaphene concentrations were lower in lake trout from Siskiwit Lake and lakes in northwestern Ontario than in Lake Superior possibly because of shorter food chains and greater reliance on zooplankton or other pelagic invertebrates.

Muir, D.C.G.; Whittle, D.M.; De Vault, D. S.; Bronte, C.R.; Karlsson, H.; Backus, S.; Teixeira, C.

2004-01-01

102

Native and nonnative fish populations of the Colorado River are food limited--evidence from new food web analyses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fish populations in the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam appear to be limited by the availability of high-quality invertebrate prey. Midge and blackfly production is low and nonnative rainbow trout in Glen Canyon and native fishes in Grand Canyon consume virtually all of the midge and blackfly biomass that is produced annually. In Glen Canyon, the invertebrate assemblage is dominated by nonnative New Zealand mudsnails, the food web has a simple structure, and transfers of energy from the base of the web (algae) to the top of the web (rainbow trout) are inefficient. The food webs in Grand Canyon are more complex relative to Glen Canyon, because, on average, each species in the web is involved in more interactions and feeding connections. Based on theory and on studies from other ecosystems, the structure and organization of Grand Canyon food webs should make them more stable and less susceptible to large changes following perturbations of the flow regime relative to food webs in Glen Canyon. In support of this hypothesis, Grand Canyon food webs were much less affected by a 2008 controlled flood relative to the food web in Glen Canyon.

Kennedy, Theodore A.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Hall, Robert O., Jr.; Baxter, Colden V.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.

2013-01-01

103

Land use alters the resistance and resilience of soil food webs to drought  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils deliver several ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling, which are of central importance to climate mitigation and sustainable food production. Soil biota play an important role in carbon and nitrogen cycling, and, although the effects of land use on soil food webs are well documented the consequences for their resistance and resilience to climate change are not known. We compared the resistance and resilience to drought--which is predicted to increase under climate change of soil food webs of two common land-use systems: intensively managed wheat with a bacterial-based soil food web and extensively managed grassland with a fungal-based soil food web. We found that the fungal-based food web, and the processes of C and N loss it governs, of grassland soil was more resistant, although not resilient, and better able to adapt to drought than the bacterial-based food web of wheat soil. Structural equation modelling revealed that fungal-based soil food webs and greater microbial evenness mitigated C and N loss. Our findings show that land use strongly affects the resistance and resilience of soil food webs to climate change, and that extensively managed grassland promotes more resistant, and adaptable, fungal-based soil food webs.

de Vries, Franciska T.; Liiri, Mira E.; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Bowker, Matthew A.; Christensen, Søren; Setälä, Heikki; Bardgett, Richard D.

2012-01-01

104

Land use alters the resistance and resilience of soil food webs to drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils deliver several ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling, which are of central importance to climate mitigation and sustainable food production. Soil biota play an important role in carbon and nitrogen cycling, and, although the effects of land use on soil food webs are well documented, the consequences for their resistance and resilience to climate change are not known. We compared the resistance and resilience to drought--which is predicted to increase under climate change--of soil food webs of two common land-use systems: intensively managed wheat with a bacterial-based soil food web and extensively managed grassland with a fungal-based soil food web. We found that the fungal-based food web, and the processes of C and N loss it governs, of grassland soil was more resistant, although not resilient, and better able to adapt to drought than the bacterial-based food web of wheat soil. Structural equation modelling revealed that fungal-based soil food webs and greater microbial evenness mitigated C and N loss. Our findings show that land use strongly affects the resistance and resilience of soil food webs to climate change, and that extensively managed grassland promotes more resistant, and adaptable, fungal-based soil food webs.

de Vries, Franciska T.; Liiri, Mira E.; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Bowker, Matthew A.; Christensen, Søren; Setälä, Heikki M.; Bardgett, Richard D.

2012-04-01

105

Perfluoroalkyl contaminants in a food web from Lake Ontario.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorinated acid detectable in humans and wildlife worldwide that has alerted scientists to examine the environmental fate of other fluorinated organic contaminants. Recently a homologous series of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) was detected in the Arctic, yet little is known about their sources, breadth of contamination, or environmental distribution. In this study we analyzed for PFOS, the homologous series of PFCAs ranging from 8 to 15 carbons in chain length, and the PFOS-precursor heptadecafluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in various organisms from a food web of Lake Ontario. The sampled organisms included a top predator fish, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), three forage fish species including rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), and two invertebrates Diporeia (Diporeia hoyi) and Mysis (Mysis relicta). A striking finding was that the highest mean concentration for each fluorinated contaminantwas detected in the benthic macroinvertebrate Diporeia, which occupies the lowest trophic level of all organisms analyzed. Perfluorinated acid concentrations in Diporeia were often 10-fold higher than in Mysis, a predominantly pelagic feeder, suggesting that a major source of perfluoroalkyl contaminants to this food web was the sediment, not the water. PFOS was the dominant acid in all samples, but long-chain PFCAs, ranging in length from 8 to 15 carbons, were also detected in most samples between <0.5 and 90 ng/ g. Among Mysis and the more pelagic fish species (e.g. excluding Diporeia and sculpin) there was evidence for biomagnification, but the influence of foraging on highly contaminated Diporeia and sculpin by these fish may have overestimated trophic magnification factors (TMFs), which ranged from 0.51 for FOSA to 5.88 for PFOS. By accounting for the known diet composition of lake trout, it was shown that bioaccumulation was indeed occurring at the top of the food web for all perfluoroalkyl compounds except PFOA. Future monitoring at other locations in Lake Ontario, and in other aquatic environments, is necessary to determine if these food web dynamics are widespread. Archived lake trout samples collected between 1980 and 2001 showed that mean whole body PFOS concentrations increased from 43 to 180 ng/g over this period, but not linearly, and may have been indirectly influenced by the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) through effects on the population and ecology of forage fishes. PMID:15543740

Martin, Jonathan W; Whittle, D Michael; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

2004-10-15

106

Rigorous conditions for food-web intervality in high-dimensional trophic niche spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food webs represent trophic (feeding) interactions in ecosystems. Since the late 1970s, it has been recognized that food-webs\\u000a have a surprisingly close relationship to interval graphs. One interpretation of food-web intervality is that trophic niche\\u000a space is low-dimensional, meaning that the trophic character of a species can be expressed by a single or at most a few quantitative\\u000a traits. In

Åke Brännström; Linus Carlsson; Axel G. Rossberg

107

Modelling size structured food webs using a modified niche model with two predator traits.  

PubMed

The structure of food webs is frequently described using phenomenological stochastic models. A prominent example, the niche model, was found to produce artificial food webs resembling real food webs according to a range of summary statistics. However, the size structure of food webs generated by the niche model and real food webs has not yet been rigorously compared. To fill this void, I use a body mass based version of the niche model and compare prey-predator body mass allometry and predator-prey body mass ratios predicted by the model to empirical data. The results show that the model predicts weaker size structure than observed in many real food webs. I introduce a modified version of the niche model which allows to control the strength of size-dependence of predator-prey links. In this model, optimal prey body mass depends allometrically on predator body mass and on a second trait, such as foraging mode. These empirically motivated extensions of the model allow to represent size structure of real food webs realistically and can be used to generate artificial food webs varying in several aspects of size structure in a controlled way. Hence, by explicitly including the role of species traits, this model provides new opportunities for simulating the consequences of size structure for food web dynamics and stability. PMID:25119999

Klecka, Jan

2014-01-01

108

Food-web models predict species abundances in response to habitat change.  

PubMed

Plant and animal population sizes inevitably change following habitat loss, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. We experimentally altered habitat volume and eliminated top trophic levels of the food web of invertebrates that inhabit rain-filled leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea. Path models that incorporated food-web structure better predicted population sizes of food-web constituents than did simple keystone species models, models that included only autecological responses to habitat volume, or models including both food-web structure and habitat volume. These results provide the first experimental confirmation that trophic structure can determine species abundances in the face of habitat loss. PMID:17002518

Gotelli, Nicholas J; Ellison, Aaron M

2006-10-01

109

Food-Web Models Predict Species Abundances in Response to Habitat Change  

PubMed Central

Plant and animal population sizes inevitably change following habitat loss, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. We experimentally altered habitat volume and eliminated top trophic levels of the food web of invertebrates that inhabit rain-filled leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea. Path models that incorporated food-web structure better predicted population sizes of food-web constituents than did simple keystone species models, models that included only autecological responses to habitat volume, or models including both food-web structure and habitat volume. These results provide the first experimental confirmation that trophic structure can determine species abundances in the face of habitat loss. PMID:17002518

Gotelli, Nicholas J; Ellison, Aaron M

2006-01-01

110

Moving up the information food chain: Deploying softbots on the World Wide Web  

SciTech Connect

I view the World Wide Web as an information food chain. The maze of pages and hyperlinks that comprise the Web are at the very bottom of the chain. The WebCrawlers and Alta Vistas of the world are information herbivores; they graze on Web pages and regurgitate them as searchable indices. Today, most Web users feed near the bottom of the information food chain, but the time is ripe to move up. Since 1991, we have been building information carnivores, which intelligently hunt and feast on herbivores in Unix, on the Internet, and on the Web.

Etzioni, O. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1996-12-31

111

The ecological potentials of Phytomyxea (“plasmodiophorids”) in aquatic food webs  

PubMed Central

The Phytomyxea (“plasmodiophorids”) including both Plasmodiophorida and Phagomyxida is a monophyletic group of Eukaryotes composed of obligate biotrophic parasites of green plants, brown algae, diatoms and stramenopiles commonly found in many freshwater, soil and marine environments. However, most research on Phytomyxea has been restricted to plant pathogenic species with agricultural importance, thereby missing the huge ecological potential of this enigmatic group of parasites. Members of the Phytomyxea can induce changes in biomass in their hosts (e.g. hypertrophies of the host tissue) under suitable environmental conditions. Upon infection they alter the metabolism of their hosts, consequently changing the metabolic status of their host. This results in an altered chemical composition of the host tissue, which impacts the diversity of species which feed on the tissues of the infected host and on the zoospores produced by the parasites. Furthermore, significant amounts of nutrients derived from the hosts, both primary producers (plants and algae) and primary consumers (litter decomposers and plant parasites [Oomycetes]), can enter the food web at different trophic levels in form of zoospores and resting spores. Large numbers of zoospores and resting spores are produced which can be eaten by secondary and tertiary consumers, such as grazing zooplankton and metazoan filter-feeders. Therefore, these microbes can act as energy-rich nutrient resources which may significantly alter the trophic relationships in fresh water, soil and marine habitats. Based on the presented data, Phytomyxea can significantly contribute to the complexity and energy transfer within food webs. PMID:21339888

2011-01-01

112

Mesoscale symmetries explain dynamical equivalence of food webs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A goal of complex system research is to identify the dynamical implications of network structure. While early results focused mainly on local or global structural properties, there is now growing interest in mesoscale structures that comprise more than one node but not the whole network. A central challenge is to discover under what conditions the occurrence of a specific mesoscale motif already allows conclusions on the dynamics of a network as a whole. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of ecological food webs, complex heterogeneous networks of interacting populations. Generalizing the results of MacArthur and Sánchez-García (2009 Phys. Rev. E 80 26117), we show that certain mesoscale symmetries imply the existence of localized dynamical modes. If these modes are unstable the occurrence of the corresponding mesoscale motif implies dynamical instability regardless of the structure of the embedding network. In contrast, if the mode is stable it means that the symmetry can be exploited to reduce the number of nodes in the model, without changing the dynamics of the system. This result explains a previously observed dynamical equivalence between food webs containing a different number of species.

Aufderheide, Helge; Rudolf, Lars; Gross, Thilo

2012-10-01

113

Application of information theory methods to food web reconstruction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this paper we use information theory techniques on time series of abundances to determine the topology of a food web. At the outset, the food web participants (two consumers, two resources) are known; in addition we know that each consumer prefers one of the resources over the other. However, we do not know which consumer prefers which resource, and if this preference is absolute (i.e., whether or not the consumer will consume the non-preferred resource). Although the consumers and resources are identified at the beginning of the experiment, we also provide evidence that the consumers are not resources for each other, and the resources do not consume each other. We do show that there is significant mutual information between resources; the model is seasonally forced and some shared information between resources is expected. Similarly, because the model is seasonally forced, we expect shared information between consumers as they respond to the forcing of the resources. The model that we consider does include noise, and in an effort to demonstrate that these methods may be of some use in other than model data, we show the efficacy of our methods with decreasing time series size; in this particular case we obtain reasonably clear results with a time series length of 400 points. This approaches ecological time series lengths from real systems.

Moniz, L.J.; Cooch, E.G.; Ellner, S.P.; Nichols, J.D.; Nichols, J.M.

2007-01-01

114

Dynamics of the Lake Michigan food web, 1970-2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Herein, we document changes in the Lake Michigan food web between 1970 and 2000 and identify the factors responsible for these changes. Control of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) populations in Lake Michigan, beginning in the 1950s and 1960s, had profound effects on the food web. Recoveries of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and burbot (Lota lota) populations, as well as the buildup of salmonine populations, were attributable, at least in part, to sea lamprey control. Based on our analyses, predation by salmonines was primarily responsible for the reduction in alewife abundance during the 1970s and early 1980s. In turn, the decrease in alewife abundance likely contributed to recoveries of deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and burbot populations during the 1970s and 1980s. Decrease in the abundance of all three dominant benthic macroinvertebrate groups, including Diporeia, oligochaetes, and sphaeriids, during the 1980s in nearshore waters (50 m deep) of Lake Michigan, was attributable to a decrease in primary production linked to a decline in phosphorus loadings. Continued decrease in Diporeia abundance during the 1990s was associated with the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion, but specific mechanisms for zebra mussels affecting Diporeia abundance remain unidentified.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Fahnenstiel, Gary L.; Johengen, Thomas H.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Fleischer, Guy W.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Benjamin, Darren M.; Smith, Emily B.; Bence, James R.; Rutherford, Edward S.; Lavis, Dennis S.; Robertson, Dale M.; Jude, David J.; Ebener, Mark P.

2002-01-01

115

Non-Deterministic Modelling of Food-Web Dynamics  

PubMed Central

A novel approach to model food-web dynamics, based on a combination of chance (randomness) and necessity (system constraints), was presented by Mullon et al. in 2009. Based on simulations for the Benguela ecosystem, they concluded that observed patterns of ecosystem variability may simply result from basic structural constraints within which the ecosystem functions. To date, and despite the importance of these conclusions, this work has received little attention. The objective of the present paper is to replicate this original model and evaluate the conclusions that were derived from its simulations. For this purpose, we revisit the equations and input parameters that form the structure of the original model and implement a comparable simulation model. We restate the model principles and provide a detailed account of the model structure, equations, and parameters. Our model can reproduce several ecosystem dynamic patterns: pseudo-cycles, variation and volatility, diet, stock-recruitment relationships, and correlations between species biomass series. The original conclusions are supported to a large extent by the current replication of the model. Model parameterisation and computational aspects remain difficult and these need to be investigated further. Hopefully, the present contribution will make this approach available to a larger research community and will promote the use of non-deterministic-network-dynamics models as ‘null models of food-webs’ as originally advocated. PMID:25299245

Planque, Benjamin; Lindstrøm, Ulf; Subbey, Sam

2014-01-01

116

Food and Beverage Brands that Market to Children and Adolescents on the Internet: A Content Analysis of Branded Web Sites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To identify food and beverage brand Web sites featuring designated children's areas, assess marketing techniques present on those industry Web sites, and determine nutritional quality of branded food items marketed to children. Design: Systematic content analysis of food and beverage brand Web sites and nutrient analysis of food and…

Henry, Anna E.; Story, Mary

2009-01-01

117

High-resolution food webs based on stable nitrogen composition of amino acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food webs are known to have myriad trophic links between resource and consumer species. However, since the difficulties associated with characterizing the trophic position of organisms—particularly omnivores and higher-order consumers—have remained a major problem in food web ecology, our knowledge ...

118

Benthic versus Planktonic Foundations of Three Lake Superior Coastal Food Webs  

EPA Science Inventory

The structure of aquatic food webs can provide information on system function, trophic dynamics and, potentially, responses to anthropogenic stressors. Stable isotope analyses in a Lake Superior coastal wetland (Allouez Bay, WI, USA) revealed that the food web was based upon carb...

119

Estuarine Microbial Food Web Patterns in a Lake Erie Coastal P.J. Lavrentyev1  

E-print Network

Estuarine Microbial Food Web Patterns in a Lake Erie Coastal Wetland P.J. Lavrentyev1 , M.J. Mc protists were examined relative to microbial food web dynamics (growth, grazing, and nitrogen cycling rates pattern. Large light/dark NH4 + uptake differences were observed in the hypereutrophic OWC interior

Jochem, Frank J.

120

Comparative food web structure of larval macrolepidoptera and their parasitoids on two riparian tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single species or groups of species can be subjected to differing levels of parasitism on different plants. Previous studies\\u000a have reported that parasitism of larval macrolepidoptera in an assemblage on box elder (Acer negundo L.) was significantly greater than on black willow [Salix nigra (Marsh)]. In this study, quantitative food webs, parasitoid overlap diagrams and other food web attributes were

Pedro Barbosa; Astrid Caldas; H. Charles J. Godfray

2007-01-01

121

Influence of food web structure on the growth and bioenergetics of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)  

E-print Network

Influence of food web structure on the growth and bioenergetics of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush energy budgets of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations in contrasting food webs. Nonpiscivorous des populations de touladis (Salvelinus namaycush) dans divers réseaux trophiques. Les populations de

Rasmussen, Joseph

122

Developing a broader scientific foundation for river restoration: Columbia River food webs  

PubMed Central

Well-functioning food webs are fundamental for sustaining rivers as ecosystems and maintaining associated aquatic and terrestrial communities. The current emphasis on restoring habitat structure—without explicitly considering food webs—has been less successful than hoped in terms of enhancing the status of targeted species and often overlooks important constraints on ecologically effective restoration. We identify three priority food web-related issues that potentially impede successful river restoration: uncertainty about habitat carrying capacity, proliferation of chemicals and contaminants, and emergence of hybrid food webs containing a mixture of native and invasive species. Additionally, there is the need to place these food web considerations in a broad temporal and spatial framework by understanding the consequences of altered nutrient, organic matter (energy), water, and thermal sources and flows, reconnecting critical habitats and their food webs, and restoring for changing environments. As an illustration, we discuss how the Columbia River Basin, site of one of the largest aquatic/riparian restoration programs in the United States, would benefit from implementing a food web perspective. A food web perspective for the Columbia River would complement ongoing approaches and enhance the ability to meet the vision and legal obligations of the US Endangered Species Act, the Northwest Power Act (Fish and Wildlife Program), and federal treaties with Northwest Indian Tribes while meeting fundamental needs for improved river management. PMID:23197837

Naiman, Robert J.; Alldredge, J. Richard; Beauchamp, David A.; Bisson, Peter A.; Congleton, James; Henny, Charles J.; Huntly, Nancy; Lamberson, Roland; Levings, Colin; Merrill, Erik N.; Pearcy, William G.; Rieman, Bruce E.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Scarnecchia, Dennis; Smouse, Peter E.; Wood, Chris C.

2012-01-01

123

Simplification of seagrass food webs across a gradient of nutrient enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment has resulted in significant changes in food web structure. Although such changes have been associated with the loss of diversity and ecosystem services, little empirical work has been done to study food webs of similar systems across a nutrient enrichment gradient. We examined 11 seagrass beds along a gra- dient of increasing ?15N of primary consumers, where

Alexander Tewfik; Joseph B. Rasmussen; Kevin S. McCann

2007-01-01

124

PREDATOR DIVERSITY AND IDENTITY DRIVE INTERACTION STRENGTH AND TROPHIC CASCADES IN A FOOD WEB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declining predator diversity may drastically affect the biomass and productivity of herbivores and plants. Understanding how changes in predator diversity can propagate through food webs to alter ecosystem function is one of the most challenging ecological research topics today. We studied the effects of predator removal in a simple natural food web in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California (USA).

Sonja B. Otto; Eric L. Berlow; Nathan E. Rank; John Smiley; Ulrich Brose

2008-01-01

125

Exploring Fish Diversity as a Determinant of Ecosystem Properties in Aquatic Food Webs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dramatic biodiversity changes occurring globally from species loss and invasion have altered native food webs and ecosystem processes. My research objectives are to understand the consequences of fish diversity to freshwater systems by (1) examining the food web consequences of multiple top predators, (2) determining how biodiversity influences…

Carey, Michael P.

2009-01-01

126

Neighborhood Effects on Arthropod Diversity and Food Webs Laura Taylor-Taft and Stan Faeth  

E-print Network

biodiversity and food web structure and function of arthropod communities. North Desert Village (NDV) has fourNeighborhood Effects on Arthropod Diversity and Food Webs Laura Taylor-Taft and Stan Faeth School the native Sonoran desert plant, brittlebush (Encelia farinosa) have indicated that desert remnants behave

Hall, Sharon J.

127

Developing a broader scientific foundation for river restoration: Columbia River food webs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Well-functioning food webs are fundamental for sustaining rivers as ecosystems and maintaining associated aquatic and terrestrial communities. The current emphasis on restoring habitat structure—without explicitly considering food webs—has been less successful than hoped in terms of enhancing the status of targeted species and often overlooks important constraints on ecologically effective restoration. We identify three priority food web-related issues that potentially impede successful river restoration: uncertainty about habitat carrying capacity, proliferation of chemicals and contaminants, and emergence of hybrid food webs containing a mixture of native and invasive species. Additionally, there is the need to place these food web considerations in a broad temporal and spatial framework by understanding the consequences of altered nutrient, organic matter (energy), water, and thermal sources and flows, reconnecting critical habitats and their food webs, and restoring for changing environments. As an illustration, we discuss how the Columbia River Basin, site of one of the largest aquatic/riparian restoration programs in the United States, would benefit from implementing a food web perspective. A food web perspective for the Columbia River would complement ongoing approaches and enhance the ability to meet the vision and legal obligations of the US Endangered Species Act, the Northwest Power Act (Fish and Wildlife Program), and federal treaties with Northwest Indian Tribes while meeting fundamental needs for improved river management.

Naiman, Robert J.; Alldredge, Richard; Beauchamp, David A.; Bisson, Peter A.; Congleton, James; Henny, Charles J.; Huntly, Nancy; Lamberson, Roland; Levings, Colin; Merrill, Erik N.; Pearcy, William G.; Rieman, Bruce E.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Scarnecchia, Dennis; Smouse, Peter E.; Wood, Chris C.

2012-01-01

128

Can You Build It? Using Manipulatives to Assess Student Understanding of Food-Web Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines an exercise that assesses student knowledge of food-web and energy-flow concepts. Students work in teams and use manipulatives to build food-web models based on criteria assigned by the instructor. The models are then peer reviewed according to guidelines supplied by the instructor.

Grumbine, Richard

2012-01-01

129

Developing a broader scientific foundation for river restoration: Columbia River food webs.  

PubMed

Well-functioning food webs are fundamental for sustaining rivers as ecosystems and maintaining associated aquatic and terrestrial communities. The current emphasis on restoring habitat structure--without explicitly considering food webs--has been less successful than hoped in terms of enhancing the status of targeted species and often overlooks important constraints on ecologically effective restoration. We identify three priority food web-related issues that potentially impede successful river restoration: uncertainty about habitat carrying capacity, proliferation of chemicals and contaminants, and emergence of hybrid food webs containing a mixture of native and invasive species. Additionally, there is the need to place these food web considerations in a broad temporal and spatial framework by understanding the consequences of altered nutrient, organic matter (energy), water, and thermal sources and flows, reconnecting critical habitats and their food webs, and restoring for changing environments. As an illustration, we discuss how the Columbia River Basin, site of one of the largest aquatic/riparian restoration programs in the United States, would benefit from implementing a food web perspective. A food web perspective for the Columbia River would complement ongoing approaches and enhance the ability to meet the vision and legal obligations of the US Endangered Species Act, the Northwest Power Act (Fish and Wildlife Program), and federal treaties with Northwest Indian Tribes while meeting fundamental needs for improved river management. PMID:23197837

Naiman, Robert J; Alldredge, J Richard; Beauchamp, David A; Bisson, Peter A; Congleton, James; Henny, Charles J; Huntly, Nancy; Lamberson, Roland; Levings, Colin; Merrill, Erik N; Pearcy, William G; Rieman, Bruce E; Ruggerone, Gregory T; Scarnecchia, Dennis; Smouse, Peter E; Wood, Chris C

2012-12-26

130

Comparison of the structure of lower and upper estuary food webs for Yaquina Bay (OR)  

EPA Science Inventory

Food web models can be used to estimate effects of water quality, habitat distribution or species loss on productivity, carbon flow and ecosystem service production in Pacific NW estuaries. Here we present a comparison of floral and faunal data used to parameterize food web mode...

131

Biological vs. physical mixing effects on benthic food web dynamics.  

PubMed

Biological particle mixing (bioturbation) and solute transfer (bio-irrigation) contribute extensively to ecosystem functioning in sediments where physical mixing is low. Macrobenthos transports oxygen and organic matter deeper into the sediment, thereby likely providing favourable niches to lower trophic levels (i.e., smaller benthic animals such as meiofauna and bacteria) and thus stimulating mineralisation. Whether this biological transport facilitates fresh organic matter assimilation by the metazoan lower part of the food web through niche establishment (i.e., ecosystem engineering) or rather deprives them from food sources, is so far unclear. We investigated the effects of the ecosystem engineers Lanice conchilega (bio-irrigator) and Abra alba (bioturbator) compared to abiotic physical mixing events on survival and food uptake of nematodes after a simulated phytoplankton bloom. The (13)C labelled diatom Skeletonema costatum was added to 4 treatments: (1) microcosms containing the bioturbator, (2) microcosms containing the bio-irrigator, (3) control microcosms and (4) microcosms with abiotic manual surface mixing. Nematode survival and subsurface peaks in nematode density profiles were most pronounced in the bio-irrigator treatment. However, nematode specific uptake (??(13)C) of the added diatoms was highest in the physical mixing treatment, where macrobenthos was absent and the diatom (13)C was homogenised. Overall, nematodes fed preferentially on bulk sedimentary organic material rather than the added diatoms. The total C budget (µg C m(-2)), which included TO(13)C remaining in the sediment, respiration, nematode and macrobenthic uptake, highlighted the limited assimilation by the metazoan benthos and the major role of bacterial respiration. In summary, bioturbation and especially bio-irrigation facilitated the lower trophic levels mainly over the long-term through niche establishment. Since the freshly added diatoms represented only a limited food source for nematodes, the macrobenthic effect was more pronounced in niche establishment than the negative structuring effects such as competition. PMID:21455308

Braeckman, Ulrike; Provoost, Pieter; Moens, Tom; Soetaert, Karline; Middelburg, Jack J; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

2011-01-01

132

Food webs: a ladder for picking strawberries or a practical tool for practical problems?  

PubMed Central

While food webs have provided a rich vein of research material over the last 50 years, they have largely been the subject matter of the pure ecologist working in natural habitats. While there are some notable exceptions to this trend, there are, as I explain in this paper, many applied questions that could be answered using a food web approach. The paper is divided into two halves. The first half provides a brief review of six areas where food webs have begun to be used as an applied tool: restoration ecology, alien species, biological control, conservation ecology, habitat management and global warming. The second half outlines five areas in which a food web approach could prove very rewarding: urban ecology, agroecology, habitat fragmentation, cross-habitat food webs and ecosystem services. PMID:19451120

Memmott, Jane

2009-01-01

133

Global Multi-Level Analysis of the ‘Scientific Food Web'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a network-based index analyzing excess scientific production and consumption to perform a comprehensive global analysis of scholarly knowledge production and diffusion on the level of continents, countries, and cities. Compared to measures of scientific production and consumption such as number of publications or citation rates, our network-based citation analysis offers a more differentiated picture of the `ecosystem of science'. Quantifying knowledge flows between 2000 and 2009, we identify global sources and sinks of knowledge production. Our knowledge flow index reveals, where ideas are born and consumed, thereby defining a global `scientific food web'. While Asia is quickly catching up in terms of publications and citation rates, we find that its dependence on knowledge consumption has further increased.

Mazloumian, Amin; Helbing, Dirk; Lozano, Sergi; Light, Robert P.; Börner, Katy

2013-01-01

134

Watershed and Lake Influences on the Energetic Base of Coastal Wetland Food Webs across the Great Lakes Basin  

EPA Science Inventory

This manuscript examines the responses of Great Lakes coastal wetland food webs to nutrient enrichment and identifies three classes of systems whose food webs respond differently. Or is that differentially? Anyway, coastal wetlands with relatively long hydraulic residence times ...

135

Cranberry Bogs: The effect of cultivation and restoration on habitat distribution, benthic invertebrate communities, and food webs in stream ecosystems  

E-print Network

invertebrate communities, and food webs in stream ecosystems Kimberly Morrell Department of Biology, Carleton habitat distribution, benthic invertebrate communities, and food webs in stream ecosystems. To understand transects and analyzed benthic invertebrate samples. Stable isotope analyses clarified the relationships

Vallino, Joseph J.

136

Facilitating Scientific Collaboration and Education with Easy Access Web Maps Using the AGAP Antarctic Geophysical Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science and science education benefit from easy access to data yet often geophysical data sets are large, complex and difficult to share. The difficulty in sharing data and imagery easily inhibits both collaboration and the use of real data in educational applications. The dissemination of data products through web maps serves a very efficient and user-friendly method for students, the public and the science community to gain insights and understanding from data. Few research groups provide direct access to their data, let alone map-based visualizations. By building upon current GIS infrastructure with web mapping technologies, like ArcGIS Server, scientific groups, institutions and agencies can enhance the value of their GIS investments. The advantages of web maps to serve data products are many; existing web-mapping technology allows complex GIS analysis to be shared across the Internet, and can be easily scaled from a few users to millions. This poster highlights the features of an interactive web map developed at the Polar Geophysics Group at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University that provides a visual representation of, and access to, data products that resulted from the group's recently concluded AGAP project (http://pgg.ldeo.columbia.edu). The AGAP project collected more than 120,000 line km of new aerogeophysical data using two Twin Otter aircrafts. Data included ice penetrating radar, magnetometer, gravimeter and laser altimeter measurements. The web map is based upon ArcGIS Viewer for Flex, which is a configurable client application built on the ArcGIS API for Flex that works seamlessly with ArcGIS Server 10. The application can serve a variety of raster and vector file formats through the Data Interoperability for Server, which eliminates data sharing barriers across numerous file formats. The ability of the application to serve large datasets is only hindered by the availability of appropriate hardware. ArcGIS is a proprietary product, but there are a few data portals in the earth sciences that have a map interface using open access products such as MapServer and OpenLayers, the most notable being the NASA IceBridge Data Portal. Indeed, with the widespread availability of web mapping technology, the scientific community should advance towards this direction when disseminating their data.

Abdi, A.

2012-12-01

137

Food Web Architecture and Basal Resources Interact to Determine Biomass and Stoichiometric Cascades along a Benthic Food Web  

PubMed Central

Understanding the effects of predators and resources on primary producers has been a major focus of interest in ecology. Within this context, the trophic cascade concept especially concerning the pelagic zone of lakes has been the focus of the majority of these studies. However, littoral food webs could be especially interesting because base trophic levels may be strongly regulated by consumers and prone to be light limited. In this study, the availability of nutrients and light and the presence of an omnivorous fish (Hyphessobrycon bifasciatus) were manipulated in enclosures placed in a humic coastal lagoon (Cabiúnas Lagoon, Macaé – RJ) to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of resource availability (nutrients and light) and food web configuration on the biomass and stoichiometry of periphyton and benthic grazers. Our findings suggest that light and nutrients interact to determine periphyton biomass and stoichiometry, which propagates to the consumer level. We observed a positive effect of the availability of nutrients on periphytic biomass and grazers' biomass, as well as a reduction of periphytic C?N?P ratios and an increase of grazers' N and P content. Low light availability constrained the propagation of nutrient effects on periphyton biomass and induced higher periphytic C?N?P ratios. The effects of fish presence strongly interacted with resource availability. In general, a positive effect of fish presence was observed for the total biomass of periphyton and grazer's biomass, especially with high resource availability, but the opposite was found for periphytic autotrophic biomass. Fish also had a significant effect on periphyton stoichiometry, but no effect was observed on grazers' stoichiometric ratios. In summary, we observed that the indirect effect of fish predation on periphyton biomass might be dependent on multiple resources and periphyton nutrient stoichiometric variation can affect consumers' stoichiometry. PMID:21789234

Guariento, Rafael D.; Carneiro, Luciana S.; Caliman, Adriano; Leal, João J. F.; Bozelli, Reinaldo L.; Esteves, Francisco A.

2011-01-01

138

Deep-Sea Research I 51 (2004) 12451274 Carbon fluxes through food webs of the eastern equatorial  

E-print Network

Deep-Sea Research I 51 (2004) 1245­1274 Carbon fluxes through food webs of the eastern equatorial inverse and network analyses to examine food web interactions at 0 , 140 W during EqPac time approach allowed us to trace the pathway of fixed carbon through a representative food web

Jackson, George

139

A thermodynamic perspective on food webs: quantifying entropy production within detrital-based ecosystems.  

PubMed

Because ecosystems fit so nicely the framework of a "dissipative system", a better integration of thermodynamic and ecological perspectives could benefit the quantitative analysis of ecosystems. One obstacle is that traditional food web models are solely based upon the principles of mass and energy conservation, while the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics principally focuses on the concept of entropy. To properly cast classical food web models within a thermodynamic framework, one requires a proper quantification of the entropy production that accompanies resource processing of the food web. Here we present such a procedure, which emphasizes a rigorous definition of thermodynamic concepts (e.g. thermodynamic gradient, disequilibrium distance, entropy production, physical environment) and their correct translation into ecological terms. Our analysis provides a generic way to assess the thermodynamic operation of a food web: all information on resource processing is condensed into a single resource processing constant. By varying this constant, one can investigate the range of possible food web behavior within a given fixed physical environment. To illustrate the concepts and methods, we apply our analysis to a very simple example ecosystem: the detrital-based food web of marine sediments. We examine whether entropy production maximization has any ecological relevance in terms of food web functioning. PMID:17720204

Meysman, Filip J R; Bruers, Stijn

2007-11-01

140

Trophic transfer of contaminants in a changing arctic marine food web: Cumberland Sound, Nunavut, Canada.  

PubMed

Contaminant dynamics in arctic marine food webs may be impacted by current climate-induced food web changes including increases in transient/subarctic species. We quantified food web organochlorine transfer in the Cumberland Sound (Nunavut, Canada) arctic marine food web in the presence of transient species using species-specific biomagnification factors (BMFs), trophic magnification factors (TMFs), and a multifactor model that included ?(15)N-derived trophic position and species habitat range (transient versus resident), and also considered ?(13)C-derived carbon source, thermoregulatory group, and season. Transient/subarctic species relative to residents had higher prey-to-predator BMFs of biomagnifying contaminants (1.4 to 62 for harp seal, Greenland shark, and narwhal versus 1.1 to 20 for ringed seal, arctic skate, and beluga whale, respectively). For contaminants that biomagnified in a transient-and-resident food web and a resident-only food web scenario, TMFs were higher in the former (2.3 to 10.1) versus the latter (1.7 to 4.0). Transient/subarctic species have higher tissue contaminant levels and greater BMFs likely due to higher energetic requirements associated with long-distance movements or consumption of more contaminated prey in regions outside of Cumberland Sound. These results demonstrate that, in addition to climate change-related long-range transport/deposition/revolatilization changes, increasing numbers of transient/subarctic animals may alter food web contaminant dynamics. PMID:22957980

McKinney, Melissa A; McMeans, Bailey C; Tomy, Gregg T; Rosenberg, Bruno; Ferguson, Steven H; Morris, Adam; Muir, Derek C G; Fisk, Aaron T

2012-09-18

141

Snow Web 2.0: The Next Generation of Antarctic Meteorological Monitoring Systems?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adequate in-situ observation of the Antarctic lower atmosphere has proved problematic, due to a combination of the inhospitable nature and extent of the continent. Traditional weather stations are expensive, subject to extreme weather for long periods and are often isolated, and as such are prone to failure and logistically difficult to repair. We have developed the first generation of an extended system of atmospheric sensors, each costing a fraction of the price of a traditional weather station. The system is capable of performing all of the monitoring tasks of a traditional station, but has built-in redundancy over the traditional approach because many units can be deployed in a relatively small area for similar expenditure as one large weather station. Furthermore, each unit is equipped with wireless networking capabilities and so is able to share information with those units in its direct vicinity. This allows for the ferrying of collected information to a manned observation station and hence the ability to monitor data in real-time. The distributed nature of the data collected can then be used as a stand-alone product to investigate small-scale weather and climate phenomena or integrated into larger studies and be used to monitor wide regions. GPS hardware installed on each unit also allows for high-resolution glacier or ice-shelf tracking. As a testing and data gathering study, eighteen such weather stations were deployed in the vicinity of Scott Base, Ross Island, Antarctica over the 2011/12 summer season. This presentation reports on findings from this field study, and discusses possibilities for the future.

Coggins, J.; McDonald, A.; Plank, G.; Pannell, M.; Ward, R.; Parsons, S.

2012-04-01

142

Food webs and carbon flux in the Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of the physical forcing, we describe and quantify the key ecosystem components and basic food web structure of the Barents Sea. Emphasis is given to the energy flow through the ecosystem from an end-to-end perspective, i.e. from bacteria, through phytoplankton and zooplankton to fish, mammals and birds. Primary production in the Barents is on average 93 g C m -2 y -1, but interannually highly variable (±19%), responding to climate variability and change (e.g. variations in Atlantic Water inflow, the position of the ice edge and low-pressure pathways). The traditional focus upon large phytoplankton cells in polar regions seems less adequate in the Barents, as the cell carbon in the pelagic is most often dominated by small cells that are entangled in an efficient microbial loop that appears to be well coupled to the grazing food web. Primary production in the ice-covered waters of the Barents is clearly dominated by planktonic algae and the supply of ice biota by local production or advection is small. The pelagic-benthic coupling is strong, in particular in the marginal ice zone. In total 80% of the harvestable production is channelled through the deep-water communities and benthos. 19% of the harvestable production is grazed by the dominating copepods Calanus finmarchicus and C. glacialis in Atlantic or Arctic Water, respectively. These two species, in addition to capelin ( Mallotus villosus) and herring ( Clupea harengus), are the keystone organisms in the Barents that create the basis for the rich assemblage of higher trophic level organisms, facilitating one of the worlds largest fisheries (capelin, cod, shrimps, seals and whales). Less than 1% of the harvestable production is channelled through the most dominating higher trophic levels such as cod, harp seals, minke whales and sea birds. Atlantic cod, seals, whales, birds and man compete for harvestable energy with similar shares. Climate variability and change, differences in recruitment, variable resource availability, harvesting restrictions and management schemes will influence the resource exploitation between these competitors, that basically depend upon the efficient energy transfer from primary production to highly successful, lipid-rich zooplankton and pelagic fishes.

Wassmann, Paul; Reigstad, Marit; Haug, Tore; Rudels, Bert; Carroll, Michael L.; Hop, Haakon; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Denisenko, Stanislav G.; Arashkevich, Elena; Slagstad, Dag; Pavlova, Olga

2006-10-01

143

Mercury in the pelagic food web of Lake Champlain.  

PubMed

Lake Champlain continues to experience mercury contamination resulting in public advisories to limit human consumption of top trophic level fish such as walleye. Prior research suggested that mercury levels in biota could be modified by differences in ecosystem productivity as well as mercury loadings. We investigated relationships between mercury in different trophic levels in Lake Champlain. We measured inorganic and methyl mercury in water, seston, and two size fractions of zooplankton from 13 sites representing a range of nutrient loading conditions and productivity. Biomass varied significantly across lake segments in all measured ecosystem compartments in response to significant differences in nutrient levels. Local environmental factors such as alkalinity influenced the partitioning of mercury between water and seston. Mercury incorporation into biota was influenced by the biomass and mercury content of different ecosystem strata. Pelagic fish tissue mercury was a function of fish length and the size of the mercury pool associated with large zooplankton. We used these observations to parameterize a model of mercury transfers in the Lake Champlain food web that accounts for ecosystem productivity effects. Simulations using the mercury trophic transfer model suggest that reductions of 25-75% in summertime dissolved eplimnetic total mercury will likely allow fish tissue mercury concentrations to drop to the target level of 0.3 ?g g(-1) in a 40-cm fish in all lake segments. Changes in nutrient loading and ecosystem productivity in eutrophic segments may delay any response to reduced dissolved mercury and may result in increases in fish tissue mercury. PMID:22193540

Miller, Eric K; Chen, Celia; Kamman, Neil; Shanley, James; Chalmers, Ann; Jackson, Brian; Taylor, Vivien; Smeltzer, Eric; Stangel, Pete; Shambaugh, Angela

2012-04-01

144

Mercury in the Pelagic Food Web of Lake Champlain  

PubMed Central

Lake Champlain continues to experience mercury contamination resulting in public advisories to limit human consumption of top trophic level fish such as walleye. Prior research suggested that mercury levels in biota could be modified by differences in ecosystem productivity as well as mercury loadings. We investigated relationships between mercury in different trophic levels in Lake Champlain. We measured inorganic and methyl mercury in water, seston, and two size fractions of zooplankton from 13 sites representing a range of nutrient loading conditions and productivity. Biomass varied significantly across lake segments in all measured ecosystem compartments in response to significant differences in nutrient levels. Local environmental factors such as alkalinity influenced the partitioning of mercury between water and seston. Mercury incorporation into biota was influenced by the biomass and mercury content of different ecosystem strata. Pelagic fish tissue mercury was a function of fish length and the size of the mercury pool associated with large zooplankton. We used these observations to parameterize a model of mercury transfers in the Lake Champlain food web that accounts for ecosystem productivity effects. Simulations using the mercury trophic transfer model suggest that reductions of 25 to 75% in summertime dissolved eplimnetic total mercury will likely allow fish tissue mercury concentrations to drop to the target level of 0.3 µg g?1 in a 40-cm fish in all lake segments. Changes in nutrient loading and ecosystem productivity in eutrophic segments may delay any response to reduced dissolved mercury and may result in increases in fish tissue mercury. PMID:22193540

Chen, Celia; Kamman, Neil; Shanley, James; Chalmers, Ann; Jackson, Brian; Taylor, Vivien; Smeltzer, Eric; Stangel, Pete; Shambaugh, Angela

2013-01-01

145

Dispersed Oil Disrupts Microbial Pathways in Pelagic Food Webs  

PubMed Central

Most of the studies of microbial processes in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill focused on the deep water plume, and not on the surface communities. The effects of the crude oil and the application of dispersants on the coastal microbial food web in the northern Gulf of Mexico have not been well characterized even though these regions support much of the fisheries production in the Gulf. A mesocosm experiment was carried out to determine how the microbial community off the coast of Alabama may have responded to the influx of surface oil and dispersants. While the addition of glucose or oil alone resulted in an increase in the biomass of ciliates, suggesting transfer of carbon to higher trophic levels was likely; a different effect was seen in the presence of dispersant. The addition of dispersant or dispersed oil resulted in an increase in the biomass of heterotrophic prokaryotes, but a significant inhibition of ciliates, suggesting a reduction in grazing and decrease in transfer of carbon to higher trophic levels. Similar patterns were observed in two separate experiments with different starting nutrient regimes and microbial communities suggesting that the addition of dispersant and dispersed oil to the northern Gulf of Mexico waters in 2010 may have reduced the flow of carbon to higher trophic levels, leading to a decrease in the production of zooplankton and fish on the Alabama shelf. PMID:22860136

Ortmann, Alice C.; Anders, Jennifer; Shelton, Naomi; Gong, Limin; Moss, Anthony G.; Condon, Robert H.

2012-01-01

146

Rapid food web recovery in response to removal of an introduced apex predator  

E-print Network

a native apex predator (lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)) were used to measure food web changes following d'un prédateur du sommet du réseau alimentaire (le touladi, Salvelinus namaycush) nous servent à

Kraft, Clifford E.

147

Spatial differences in East scotia ridge hydrothermal vent food webs: influences of chemistry, microbiology and predation on trophodynamics.  

PubMed

The hydrothermal vents on the East Scotia Ridge are the first to be explored in the Antarctic and are dominated by large peltospiroid gastropods, stalked barnacles (Vulcanolepas sp.) and anomuran crabs (Kiwa sp.) but their food webs are unknown. Vent fluid and macroconsumer samples were collected at three vent sites (E2, E9N and E9S) at distances of tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres apart with contrasting vent fluid chemistries to describe trophic interactions and identify potential carbon fixation pathways using stable isotopes. ?(13)C of dissolved inorganic carbon from vent fluids ranged from -4.6‰ to 0.8‰ at E2 and from -4.4‰ to 1.5‰ at E9. The lowest macroconsumer ?(13)C was observed in peltospiroid gastropods (-30.0‰ to -31.1‰) and indicated carbon fixation via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle by endosymbiotic gamma-Proteobacteria. Highest ?(13)C occurred in Kiwa sp. (-19.0‰ to -10.5‰), similar to that of the epibionts sampled from their ventral setae. Kiwa sp. ?(13)C differed among sites, which were attributed to spatial differences in the epibiont community and the relative contribution of carbon fixed via the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) and CBB cycles assimilated by Kiwa sp. Site differences in carbon fixation pathways were traced into higher trophic levels e.g. a stichasterid asteroid that predates on Kiwa sp. Sponges and anemones at the periphery of E2 assimilated a proportion of epipelagic photosynthetic primary production but this was not observed at E9N. Differences in the ?(13)C and ?(34)S values of vent macroconsumers between E2 and E9 sites suggest the relative contributions of photosynthetic and chemoautotrophic carbon fixation (rTCA v CBB) entering the hydrothermal vent food webs vary between the sites. PMID:23762393

Reid, William D K; Sweeting, Christopher J; Wigham, Ben D; Zwirglmaier, Katrin; Hawkes, Jeffrey A; McGill, Rona A R; Linse, Katrin; Polunin, Nicholas V C

2013-01-01

148

Spatial Differences in East Scotia Ridge Hydrothermal Vent Food Webs: Influences of Chemistry, Microbiology and Predation on Trophodynamics  

PubMed Central

The hydrothermal vents on the East Scotia Ridge are the first to be explored in the Antarctic and are dominated by large peltospiroid gastropods, stalked barnacles (Vulcanolepas sp.) and anomuran crabs (Kiwa sp.) but their food webs are unknown. Vent fluid and macroconsumer samples were collected at three vent sites (E2, E9N and E9S) at distances of tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres apart with contrasting vent fluid chemistries to describe trophic interactions and identify potential carbon fixation pathways using stable isotopes. ?13C of dissolved inorganic carbon from vent fluids ranged from ?4.6‰ to 0.8‰ at E2 and from ?4.4‰ to 1.5‰ at E9. The lowest macroconsumer ?13C was observed in peltospiroid gastropods (?30.0‰ to ?31.1‰) and indicated carbon fixation via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle by endosymbiotic gamma-Proteobacteria. Highest ?13C occurred in Kiwa sp. (?19.0‰ to ?10.5‰), similar to that of the epibionts sampled from their ventral setae. Kiwa sp. ?13C differed among sites, which were attributed to spatial differences in the epibiont community and the relative contribution of carbon fixed via the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) and CBB cycles assimilated by Kiwa sp. Site differences in carbon fixation pathways were traced into higher trophic levels e.g. a stichasterid asteroid that predates on Kiwa sp. Sponges and anemones at the periphery of E2 assimilated a proportion of epipelagic photosynthetic primary production but this was not observed at E9N. Differences in the ?13C and ?34S values of vent macroconsumers between E2 and E9 sites suggest the relative contributions of photosynthetic and chemoautotrophic carbon fixation (rTCA v CBB) entering the hydrothermal vent food webs vary between the sites. PMID:23762393

Reid, William D. K.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Wigham, Ben D.; Zwirglmaier, Katrin; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; McGill, Rona A. R.; Linse, Katrin; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.

2013-01-01

149

Assessing Ecosystem Effects of Reservoir Operations Using Food Web–Energy Transfer and Water Quality Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects on the reservoir food web of a new temperature control device (TCD) on the dam at Shasta Lake,\\u000a California. We followed a linked modeling approach that used a specialized reservoir water quality model to forecast operation-induced\\u000a changes in phytoplankton production. A food web–energy transfer model was also applied to propagate predicted changes in phytoplankton\\u000a up through

Laurel Saito; Brett M. Johnson; John Bartholow; R. Blair Hanna

2001-01-01

150

13 C label identifies eelgrass ( Zostera marina ) Carbon in an Alaskan estuarine food web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food web of Izembek Lagoon, Alaska draws most of its carbon from eelgrass (Zostera marina) and phytoplankton. The13C:12C ratios of these primary producers are sufficiently different to enable their contributions to consumers to be estimated from consumer13C:12C ratios. Although the technique is conceptually simple, carbon inputs from other sources and isotope fractionations occurring in the food web limit its

T. McConnaughey; C. P. McRoy

1979-01-01

151

A trophic cascade in a macrophyte-based food web at the land–water ecotone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trophic cascades may purportedly be more common in aquatic than terrestrial food webs, but herbivory on freshwater vascular\\u000a plants has historically been considered low. Water lilies are an exception, suffering severe grazing damage by leaf beetles.\\u000a To test whether a central prediction of cascade models—that predator effects propagate downwards to plants—operates in a macrophyte-based\\u000a food web, we experimentally manipulated predation

Thomas A. Schlacher; Greg Cronin

2007-01-01

152

Nutrient Enrichment and Food Web Composition Affect Ecosystem Metabolism in an Experimental Seagrass Habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFood web composition and resource levels can influence ecosystem properties such as productivity and elemental cycles. In particular, herbivores occupy a central place in food webs as the species richness and composition of this trophic level may simultaneously influence the transmission of resource and predator effects to higher and lower trophic levels, respectively. Yet, these interactions are poorly understood.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsUsing

Amanda C. Spivak; Elizabeth A. Canuel; J. Emmett Duffy; J. Paul Richardson; John F. Bruno

2009-01-01

153

Isotopic analysis of three food web theories in constricted and floodplain regions of a large river  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of stable isotope (?13C and ?15N) and C:N ratios of food webs within a floodplain and a constricted-channel region of the Ohio River during October 1993\\u000a and July 1994 indicate that the increasingly influential flood pulse concept (FPC) does not, for either location, adequately\\u000a address food web structure for this very large river. Furthermore, results of this study suggest

James H. Thorp; Michael D. Delong; Kim S. Greenwood; Andrew F. Casper

1998-01-01

154

Food web topology and parasites in the pelagic zone of a subarctic lake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Parasites permeate trophic webs with their often complex life cycles, but few studies have included parasitism in food web analyses. Here we provide a highly resolved food web from the pelagic zone of a subarctic lake and explore how the incorporation of parasites alters the topology of the web. 2. Parasites used hosts at all trophic levels and increased both food-chain lengths and the total number of trophic levels. Their inclusion in the network analyses more than doubled the number of links and resulted in an increase in important food-web characteristics such as linkage density and connectance. 3. More than half of the parasite taxa were trophically transmitted, exploiting hosts at multiple trophic levels and thus increasing the degree of omnivory in the trophic web. 4. For trophically transmitted parasites, the number of parasite-host links exhibited a positive correlation with the linkage density of the host species, whereas no such relationship was seen for nontrophically transmitted parasites. Our findings suggest that the linkage density of free-living species affects their exposure to trophically transmitted parasites, which may be more likely to adopt highly connected species as hosts during the evolution of complex life cycles. 5. The study supports a prominent role for parasites in ecological networks and demonstrates that their incorporation may substantially alter considerations of food-web structure and functioning. ?? 2009 British Ecological Society.

Amundsen, P.-A.; Lafferty, K.D.; Knudsen, R.; Primicerio, R.; Klemetsen, A.; Kuris, A.M.

2009-01-01

155

Stable nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids reveals food web structure in stream ecosystems.  

PubMed

The stable N isotopic composition of individual amino acids (SIAA) has recently been used to estimate trophic positions (TPs) of animals in several simple food chain systems. However, it is unknown whether the SIAA is applicable to more complex food web analysis. In this study we measured the SIAA of stream macroinvertebrates, fishes, and their potential food sources (periphyton and leaf litter of terrestrial C3 plants) collected from upper and lower sites in two streams having contrasting riparian landscapes. The stable N isotope ratios of glutamic acid and phenylalanine confirmed that for primary producers (periphyton and C3 litter) the TP was 1, and for primary consumers (e.g., mayfly and caddisfly larvae) it was 2. We built a two-source mixing model to estimate the relative contributions of aquatic and terrestrial sources to secondary and higher consumers (e.g., stonefly larva and fishes) prior to the TP calculation. The estimated TPs (2.3-3.5) roughly corresponded to their omnivorous and carnivorous feeding habits, respectively. We found that the SIAA method offers substantial advantages over traditional bulk method for food web analysis because it defines the food web structure based on the metabolic pathway of amino groups, and can be used to estimate food web structure under conditions where the bulk method cannot be used. Our result provides evidence that the SIAA method is applicable to the analysis of complex food webs, where heterogeneous resources are mixed. PMID:24719209

Ishikawa, Naoto F; Kato, Yoshikazu; Togashi, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Mayumi; Yoshimizu, Chikage; Okuda, Noboru; Tayasu, Ichiro

2014-07-01

156

The role of microorganisms in a planktonic food web of a floodplain lake.  

PubMed

Food webs include complex ecological interactions that define the flow of matter and energy, and are fundamental in understanding the functioning of an ecosystem. Temporal variations in the densities of communities belonging to the planktonic food web (i.e., microbial: bacteria, flagellate, and ciliate; and grazing: zooplankton and phytoplankton) were investigated, aiming to clarify the interactions between these organisms and the dynamics of the planktonic food web in a floodplain lake. We hypothesized that hydrological pulse determines the path of matter and energy flow through the planktonic food web of this floodplain lake. Data were collected monthly from March 2007 to February 2008 at three different sites in Guaraná Lake (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil). The path analysis provided evidence that the dynamics of the planktonic food web was strongly influenced by the hydrological pulse. The high-water period favored interactions among the organisms of the microbial loop, rather than their relationships with zooplankton and phytoplankton. Therefore, in this period, the strong interaction among the organisms of the grazing food chain suggests that the microbial loop functions as a sink of matter and energy. In turn, in the low-water period, higher primary productivity appeared to favor different interactions between the components of the grazing food chain and microorganisms, which would function as a link to the higher trophic levels. PMID:25213653

Segovia, Bianca Trevizan; Pereira, Danielle Goeldner; Bini, Luis Mauricio; de Meira, Bianca Ramos; Nishida, Verônica Sayuri; Lansac-Tôha, Fabio Amodêo; Velho, Luiz Felipe Machado

2015-02-01

157

Methane carbon supports aquatic food webs to the fish level.  

PubMed

Large amounts of the greenhouse gas methane (CH(4)) are produced by anaerobic mineralization of organic matter in lakes. In spite of extensive freshwater CH(4) emissions, most of the CH(4) is typically oxidized by methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) before it can reach the lake surface and be emitted to the atmosphere. In turn, it has been shown that the CH(4)-derived biomass of MOB can provide the energy and carbon for zooplankton and macroinvertebrates. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of specific fatty acids synthesized by MOB in fish tissues having low carbon stable isotope ratios. Fish species, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes were collected from a shallow lake in Brazil and analyzed for fatty acids (FA) and carbon stable isotope ratios (?(13)C). The fatty acids 16:1?8c, 16:1?8t, 16:1?6c, 16:1?5t, 18:1?8c and 18:1?8t were used as signature for MOB. The ?(13)C ratios varied from -27.7‰ to -42.0‰ and the contribution of MOB FA ranged from 0.05% to 0.84% of total FA. Organisms with higher total content of MOB FAs presented lower ?(13)C values (i.e. they were more depleted in (13)C), while organisms with lower content of MOB signature FAs showed higher ?(13)C values. An UPGMA cluster analysis was carried out to distinguish grouping of organisms in relation to their MOB FA contents. This combination of stable isotope and fatty acid tracers provides new evidence that assimilation of methane-derived carbon can be an important carbon source for the whole aquatic food web, up to the fish level. PMID:22880091

Sanseverino, Angela M; Bastviken, David; Sundh, Ingvar; Pickova, Jana; Enrich-Prast, Alex

2012-01-01

158

Methane Carbon Supports Aquatic Food Webs to the Fish Level  

PubMed Central

Large amounts of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) are produced by anaerobic mineralization of organic matter in lakes. In spite of extensive freshwater CH4 emissions, most of the CH4 is typically oxidized by methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) before it can reach the lake surface and be emitted to the atmosphere. In turn, it has been shown that the CH4-derived biomass of MOB can provide the energy and carbon for zooplankton and macroinvertebrates. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of specific fatty acids synthesized by MOB in fish tissues having low carbon stable isotope ratios. Fish species, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes were collected from a shallow lake in Brazil and analyzed for fatty acids (FA) and carbon stable isotope ratios (?13C). The fatty acids 16?1?8c, 16?1?8t, 16?1?6c, 16?1?5t, 18?1?8c and 18?1?8t were used as signature for MOB. The ?13C ratios varied from ?27.7‰ to ?42.0‰ and the contribution of MOB FA ranged from 0.05% to 0.84% of total FA. Organisms with higher total content of MOB FAs presented lower ?13C values (i.e. they were more depleted in 13C), while organisms with lower content of MOB signature FAs showed higher ?13C values. An UPGMA cluster analysis was carried out to distinguish grouping of organisms in relation to their MOB FA contents. This combination of stable isotope and fatty acid tracers provides new evidence that assimilation of methane-derived carbon can be an important carbon source for the whole aquatic food web, up to the fish level. PMID:22880091

Sanseverino, Angela M.; Bastviken, David; Sundh, Ingvar; Pickova, Jana; Enrich-Prast, Alex

2012-01-01

159

Food web structure in oil sands reclaimed wetlands.  

PubMed

Boreal wetlands play an important role in global carbon balance. However, their ecosystem function is threatened by direct anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. Oil sands surface mining in the boreal regions of Western Canada denudes tracts of land of organic materials, leaves large areas in need of reclamation, and generates considerable quantities of extraction process-affected materials. Knowledge and validation of reclamation techniques that lead to self-sustaining wetlands has lagged behind development of protocols for reclaiming terrestrial systems. It is important to know whether wetlands reclaimed with oil sands process materials can be restored to levels equivalent to their original ecosystem function. We approached this question by assessing carbon flows and food web structure in naturally formed and oil sands-affected wetlands constructed in 1970-2004 in the postmining landscape. We evaluated whether a prescribed reclamation strategy, involving organic matter amendment, accelerated reclaimed wetland development, leading to wetlands that were more similar to their natural marsh counterparts than wetlands that were not supplemented with organic matter. We measured compartment standing stocks for bacterioplankton, microbial biofilm, macrophytes, detritus, and zoobenthos; concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and residual naphthenic acids; and microbial production, gas fluxes, and aquatic-terrestrial exports (i.e., aquatic insect emergence). The total biomass of several biotic compartments differed significantly between oil sands and reference wetlands. Submerged macrophyte biomass, macroinvertebrate trophic diversity, and predator biomass and richness were lower in oil sands-affected wetlands than in reference wetlands. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that wetland age and wetland amendment with peat-mineral mix mitigate effects of oil sands waste materials on the fully aquatic biota. Although high variability was observed within most compartments, our data show that 20-year-old wetlands containing oil sands material have not yet reached the same level of function as their reference counterparts. PMID:23967574

Kovalenko, K E; Ciborowski, J J H; Daly, C; Dixon, D G; Farwell, A J; Foote, A L; Frederick, K R; Costa, J M Gardner; Kennedy, K; Liber, K; Roy, M C; Slama, C A; Smits, J E G

2013-07-01

160

A framework for soil food web diagnostics: extension of the nematode faunal analysis concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nematodes, the earth’s most abundant metazoa, are ubiquitous in the soil environment. They are sufficiently large to be identifiable by light microscopy and sufficiently small to inhabit water films surrounding soil particles. They aggregate around and in food sources. They include component taxa of the soil food web at several trophic levels. They can be categorized into functional guilds whose

H. Ferris; T. Bongers; R. G. M. de Goede

2001-01-01

161

Food Chains & Webs. A Multimedia CD-ROM. [CD-ROM].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This CD-ROM is designed for classroom and individual use to teach and learn about food chains and food webs. Integrated animations, custom graphics, three-dimensional representations, photographs, and sound are featured for use in user-controlled activities. Interactive lessons are available to reinforce the subject material. Pre- and post-testing…

2001

162

A Generic QSAR for Assessing the Bioaccumulation Potential of Organic Chemicals in Aquatic Food Webs  

E-print Network

A Generic QSAR for Assessing the Bioaccumulation Potential of Organic Chemicals in Aquatic Food the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals in aquatic food webs. The QSAR is derived by parameterization quality. The QSAR provides estimates of the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals in higher

Gobas, Frank

163

The effects of mixotrophy on the stability and dynamics of a simple planktonic food web model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of the microbial loop as an important part of aquatic ecosystems disrupted the notion of simple linear food chains. However, current research suggests that even the microbial loop paradigm is a gross simplification of microbial interactions due to the presence of mixotrophs—organisms that both photosynthesize and graze. We present a simple food web model with four trophic species, three

Christian Jost; Cathryn A. Lawrence; Francesca Campolongo; Wouter van de Bund; Sheryl Hill; Don L. DeAngelis

2004-01-01

164

Nutrition Content of Food and Beverage Products on Web Sites Popular With Children  

PubMed Central

We assessed the nutritional quality of branded food and beverage products advertised on 28 Web sites popular with children. Of the 77 advertised products for which nutritional information was available, 49 met Institute of Medicine criteria for foods to avoid, 23 met criteria for foods to neither avoid nor encourage, and 5 met criteria for foods to encourage. There is a need for further research on the nature and extent of food and beverage advertising online to aid policymakers as they assess the impact of this marketing on children. PMID:19443816

Lingas, Elena O.; Bukofzer, Eliana

2009-01-01

165

What do molecular methods bring to host-parasitoid food webs?  

PubMed

Quantitative food webs are valuable tools to detect patterns in community structure and generate hypotheses for experimentation. Quantitative webs of whole communities are usually not feasible to build, and most attention focuses on assemblages of species that interact in similar ways. Hosts and parasitoids are a popular guild for study, and quantitative webs have traditionally been constructed by collecting, rearing, and identifying large samples of individuals from the field. In the past decade molecular methods have begun to be used extensively in studies of host-parasitoid webs to clarify species concepts. We review how this rapidly developing field is using molecular information to detect cryptic interactions between species and to increase our understanding of the phylogenetic and mechanistic processes which structure food webs. PMID:25467127

Hr?ek, Jan; Godfray, H Charles J

2014-11-25

166

Defining ecospace of Arctic marine food webs using a novel quantitative approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic is currently facing unprecedented change with developmental, physical and climatological changes. Food webs within the marine Arctic environment are highly susceptible to anthropogenic stressors and have thus far been understudied. Stable isotopes, in conjunction with a novel set of metrics, may provide a framework that allows us to understand which areas of the Arctic are most vulnerable to change. The objective of this study was to use linear distance metrics applied to stable isotopes to a) define and quantify four Arctic marine food webs in ecospace; b) enable quantifiable comparisons among the four food webs and with other ecosystems; and, c) evaluate vulnerability of the four food webs to anthropogenic stressors such as climate change. The areas studied were Hudson Bay, Beaufort Sea, Lancaster Sound and North Water Polynya. Each region was selected based on the abundance of previous research and published and available stable isotope data in peer-review literature. We selected species to cover trophic levels ranging from particulate matter to polar bears with consideration of pelagic, benthic and ice-associated energy pathways. We interpret higher diversity in baseline carbon energy as signifying higher stability in food web structure. Based on this, the Beaufort Sea food web had the highest stability; the Beaufort Sea food web occupied the largest isotopic niche space and was supported by multiple carbon sources. Areas with top-down control system, such as Lancaster Sound and North Water Polynya, would be the first to experience an increase in trophic redundancy and possible hardships from external stressors, as they have fewer basal carbon sources and greater numbers of mid-high level consumers. We conclude that a diverse carbon energy based ecosystem such as the Beaufort Sea and Hudson Bay regions are more resilient to change than a top down control system.

Gale, M.; Loseto, L. L.

2011-12-01

167

Mercury and other trace elements in a pelagic Arctic marine food web (Northwater Polynya, Baffin Bay).  

PubMed

Total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and 22 other trace elements were measured in ice algae, three species of zooplankton, mixed zooplankton samples, Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and eight species of seabirds to examine the trophodynamics of these metals in an Arctic marine food web. All samples were collected in 1998 in the Northwater Polynya (NOW) located between Ellesmere Island and Greenland in Baffin Bay. THg and MeHg were found to biomagnify through the NOW food web, based on significant positive relationships between log THg and log MeHg concentrations vs. delta15N muscle and liver . The slope of these relationships for muscle THg and MeHg concentrations (slope=0.197 and 0.223, respectively) were similar to those reported for other aquatic food webs. The food web behavior of THg and delta15N appears constant, regardless of trophic state (eutrophic vs. oligotrophic), latitude (Arctic vs. tropical) or salinity (marine vs. freshwater) of the ecosystem. Rb in both liver and muscle tissue and Zn in muscle tissue were also found to biomagnify through this food web, although at a rate that is approximately 25% of that of THg. A number of elements (Cd, Pb and Ni in muscle tissue and Cd and Li in seabird liver tissue) were found to decrease trophically through the food web, as indicated by significantly negative relationships with tissue-specific delta15N. A diverse group of metals (Ag, Ba, La, Li, Sb, Sr, U and V) were found to have higher concentrations in zooplankton than seabirds or marine mammals due to bioconcentration from seawater. The remaining metals (As, Co, Cu, Ga, Mn, Mo and Se in muscle tissue) showed no relationship with trophic position, as indicated by delta15N values, although As in liver tissue showed significant biomagnification in the seabird portion of the food web. PMID:16061271

Campbell, Linda M; Norstrom, Ross J; Hobson, Keith A; Muir, Derek C G; Backus, Sean; Fisk, Aaron T

2005-12-01

168

Isotopic evidence for the spatial heterogeneity of the planktonic food webs in the transition zone between river and lake ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Resources and organisms in food webs are distributed patchily. The spatial structure of food webs is important and critical to understanding their overall structure. However, there is little available information about the small-scale spatial structure of food webs. We investigated the spatial structure of food webs in a lake ecosystem at the littoral transition zone between an inflowing river and a lake. We measured the carbon isotope ratios of zooplankton and particulate organic matter (POM; predominantly phytoplankton) in the littoral zone of a saline lake. Parallel changes in the ? 13C values of zooplankton and their respective POMs indicated that there is spatial heterogeneity of the food web in this study area. Lake ecosystems are usually classified at the landscape level as either pelagic or littoral habitats. However, we showed small-scale spatial heterogeneity among planktonic food webs along an environmental gradient. Stable isotope data is useful for detecting spatial heterogeneity of habitats, populations, communities, and ecosystems. PMID:24392286

Zuykova, Elena I.; Shikano, Shuichi; Kikuchi, Eisuke; Ota, Hiroshi; Yurlova, Natalia I.; Yadrenkina, Elena

2013-01-01

169

Is benthic food web structure related to diversity of marine macrobenthic communities?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical structure and the organisation of food webs within macrozoobenthic communities has been assessed in the European waters (Svalbard, Barents Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea) to address the interactions between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Abundance and classical species diversity indices (S, H', J) of macrofaunal communities were related to principal attributes of food webs (relative trophic level and food chain length, FCL) that were determined from carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values. Structure of marine macrobenthos varies substantially at a geographical scale; total abundance ranges from 63 ind. m-2 to 34,517 ind. m-2, species richness varies from 3 to 166 and the Shannon-Weaver diversity index from 0.26 to 3.26 while Pielou's evenness index is below 0.73. The major source of energy for macrobenthic communities is suspended particulate organic matter, consisting of phytoplankton and detrital particles, sediment particulate organic matter, and microphytobenthos in varying proportions. These food sources support the presence of suspension- and deposit-feeding communities, which dominate numerically on the sea floor. Benthic food webs include usually four to five trophic levels (FCL varies from 3.08 to 4.86). Most species are assigned to the second trophic level (primary consumers), fewer species are grouped in the third trophic level (secondary consumers), and benthic top predators are the least numerous. Most species cluster primarily at the lowest trophic level that is consistent with the typical organization of pyramidal food webs. Food chain length increases with biodiversity, highlighting a positive effect of more complex community structure on food web organisation. In more diverse benthic communities, energy is transferred through more trophic levels while species-poor communities sustain a shorter food chain.

Soko?owski, A.; Wo?owicz, M.; Asmus, H.; Asmus, R.; Carlier, A.; Gasiunaité, Z.; Grémare, A.; Hummel, H.; Lesutiené, J.; Razinkovas, A.; Renaud, P. E.; Richard, P.; K?dra, M.

2012-08-01

170

Warming and nitrogen affect size structuring and density dependence in a host–parasitoid food web  

PubMed Central

Body size is a major factor constraining the trophic structure and functioning of ecological communities. Food webs are known to respond to changes in basal resource abundance, and climate change can initiate compounding bottom-up effects on food-web structure through altered resource availability and quality. However, the effects of climate and co-occurring global changes, such as nitrogen deposition, on the density and size relationships between resources and consumers are unknown, particularly in host–parasitoid food webs, where size structuring is less apparent. We use a Bayesian modelling approach to explore the role of consumer and resource density and body size on host–parasitoid food webs assembled from a field experiment with factorial warming and nitrogen treatments. We show that the treatments increased resource (host) availability and quality (size), leading to measureable changes in parasitoid feeding behaviour. Parasitoids interacted less evenly within their host range and increasingly focused on abundant and high-quality (i.e. larger) hosts. In summary, we present evidence that climate-mediated bottom-up effects can significantly alter food-web structure through both density- and trait-mediated effects. PMID:23007092

de Sassi, Claudio; Staniczenko, Phillip P. A.; Tylianakis, Jason M.

2012-01-01

171

Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems  

PubMed Central

Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and rarely are found in the field. Here, we quantified, across four countries of contrasting climatic and soil conditions in Europe, how differences in soil food web composition resulting from land use systems (intensive wheat rotation, extensive rotation, and permanent grassland) influence the functioning of soils and the ecosystem services that they deliver. Intensive wheat rotation consistently reduced the biomass of all components of the soil food web across all countries. Soil food web properties strongly and consistently predicted processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations, and they were a better predictor of these processes than land use. Processes of carbon loss increased with soil food web properties that correlated with soil C content, such as earthworm biomass and fungal/bacterial energy channel ratio, and were greatest in permanent grassland. In contrast, processes of N cycling were explained by soil food web properties independent of land use, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacterial channel biomass. Our quantification of the contribution of soil organisms to processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations shows that soil biota need to be included in C and N cycling models and highlights the need to map and conserve soil biodiversity across the world. PMID:23940339

de Vries, Franciska T.; Thébault, Elisa; Liiri, Mira; Birkhofer, Klaus; Tsiafouli, Maria A.; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Bracht Jørgensen, Helene; Brady, Mark Vincent; Christensen, Søren; de Ruiter, Peter C.; d’Hertefeldt, Tina; Frouz, Jan; Hedlund, Katarina; Hemerik, Lia; Hol, W. H. Gera; Hotes, Stefan; Mortimer, Simon R.; Setälä, Heikki; Sgardelis, Stefanos P.; Uteseny, Karoline; van der Putten, Wim H.; Wolters, Volkmar; Bardgett, Richard D.

2013-01-01

172

Species richness and trophic diversity increase decomposition in a co-evolved food web.  

PubMed

Ecological communities show great variation in species richness, composition and food web structure across similar and diverse ecosystems. Knowledge of how this biodiversity relates to ecosystem functioning is important for understanding the maintenance of diversity and the potential effects of species losses and gains on ecosystems. While research often focuses on how variation in species richness influences ecosystem processes, assessing species richness in a food web context can provide further insight into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning and elucidate potential mechanisms underpinning this relationship. Here, we assessed how species richness and trophic diversity affect decomposition rates in a complete aquatic food web: the five trophic level web that occurs within water-filled leaves of the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea. We identified a trophic cascade in which top-predators--larvae of the pitcher-plant mosquito--indirectly increased bacterial decomposition by preying on bactivorous protozoa. Our data also revealed a facultative relationship in which larvae of the pitcher-plant midge increased bacterial decomposition by shredding detritus. These important interactions occur only in food webs with high trophic diversity, which in turn only occur in food webs with high species richness. We show that species richness and trophic diversity underlie strong linkages between food web structure and dynamics that influence ecosystem functioning. The importance of trophic diversity and species interactions in determining how biodiversity relates to ecosystem functioning suggests that simply focusing on species richness does not give a complete picture as to how ecosystems may change with the loss or gain of species. PMID:21673992

Baiser, Benjamin; Ardeshiri, Roxanne S; Ellison, Aaron M

2011-01-01

173

Species Richness and Trophic Diversity Increase Decomposition in a Co-Evolved Food Web  

PubMed Central

Ecological communities show great variation in species richness, composition and food web structure across similar and diverse ecosystems. Knowledge of how this biodiversity relates to ecosystem functioning is important for understanding the maintenance of diversity and the potential effects of species losses and gains on ecosystems. While research often focuses on how variation in species richness influences ecosystem processes, assessing species richness in a food web context can provide further insight into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning and elucidate potential mechanisms underpinning this relationship. Here, we assessed how species richness and trophic diversity affect decomposition rates in a complete aquatic food web: the five trophic level web that occurs within water-filled leaves of the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea. We identified a trophic cascade in which top-predators — larvae of the pitcher-plant mosquito — indirectly increased bacterial decomposition by preying on bactivorous protozoa. Our data also revealed a facultative relationship in which larvae of the pitcher-plant midge increased bacterial decomposition by shredding detritus. These important interactions occur only in food webs with high trophic diversity, which in turn only occur in food webs with high species richness. We show that species richness and trophic diversity underlie strong linkages between food web structure and dynamics that influence ecosystem functioning. The importance of trophic diversity and species interactions in determining how biodiversity relates to ecosystem functioning suggests that simply focusing on species richness does not give a complete picture as to how ecosystems may change with the loss or gain of species. PMID:21673992

Baiser, Benjamin; Ardeshiri, Roxanne S.; Ellison, Aaron M.

2011-01-01

174

More than a meal… integrating non-feeding interactions into food webs.  

PubMed

Ecology Letters (2012) ABSTRACT: Organisms eating each other are only one of many types of well documented and important interactions among species. Other such types include habitat modification, predator interference and facilitation. However, ecological network research has been typically limited to either pure food webs or to networks of only a few (<3) interaction types. The great diversity of non-trophic interactions observed in nature has been poorly addressed by ecologists and largely excluded from network theory. Herein, we propose a conceptual framework that organises this diversity into three main functional classes defined by how they modify specific parameters in a dynamic food web model. This approach provides a path forward for incorporating non-trophic interactions in traditional food web models and offers a new perspective on tackling ecological complexity that should stimulate both theoretical and empirical approaches to understanding the patterns and dynamics of diverse species interactions in nature. PMID:22313549

Kéfi, Sonia; Berlow, Eric L; Wieters, Evie A; Navarrete, Sergio A; Petchey, Owen L; Wood, Spencer A; Boit, Alice; Joppa, Lucas N; Lafferty, Kevin D; Williams, Richard J; Martinez, Neo D; Menge, Bruce A; Blanchette, Carol A; Iles, Alison C; Brose, Ulrich

2012-02-01

175

More than a meal: integrating non-feeding interactions into food webs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organisms eating each other are only one of many types of well documented and important interactions among species. Other such types include habitat modification, predator interference and facilitation. However, ecological network research has been typically limited to either pure food webs or to networks of only a few (<3) interaction types. The great diversity of non-trophic interactions observed in nature has been poorly addressed by ecologists and largely excluded from network theory. Herein, we propose a conceptual framework that organises this diversity into three main functional classes defined by how they modify specific parameters in a dynamic food web model. This approach provides a path forward for incorporating non-trophic interactions in traditional food web models and offers a new perspective on tackling ecological complexity that should stimulate both theoretical and empirical approaches to understanding the patterns and dynamics of diverse species interactions in nature.

Kéfi, Sonia; Berlow, Eric L.; Wieters, Evie A.; Navarrete, Sergio A.; Petchey, Owen L.; Wood, Spencer A.; Boit, Alice; Joppa, Lucas N.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Williams, Richard J.; Martinez, Neo D.; Menge, Bruce A.; Blanchette, Carol A.; Iles, Alison C.; Brose, Ulrich

2012-01-01

176

Seasonal variation in mercury and food web biomagnification in Lake Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

Seasonal variation in mercury (Hg) concentrations and food web structure was assessed for eastern Lake Ontario. Hg concentrations, measured in 6 species of invertebrates and 8 species of fishes, tended to be highest in the spring and lowest in the summer for most biota. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) exhibited significant ontogenetic shifts in diet and Hg, although such patterns were not evident for other species. Food web structure, as indicated by stable isotope values (?(15)N, ?(13)C) was not static. Log-transformed Hg data were strongly and consistently correlated with ?(15)N values for the whole food web in each of the three seasons (slopes, 0.17-0.24) and across the entire year (slope, 0.2). While significantly different between seasons, the regression slope values are still consistent with published global Hg biomagnification rates. Our results indicate that the assessment of Hg trends in Great Lakes must take into account seasonal patterns and time of sampling. PMID:22230083

Zhang, Liang; Campbell, Linda M; Johnson, Timothy B

2012-02-01

177

Bioaccumulation of 137Cs in pelagic food webs in the Norwegian and Barents Seas.  

PubMed

Knowledge and documentation of the levels of radioactive contamination in fish stocks important to Norwegian fisheries is of major importance to Norwegian consumers and fish export industry. In the present study, the bioaccumulation of caesium-137 ((137)Cs) has been investigated in marine food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas. The contents of (137)Cs in the different organisms were generally low (<1 Bq kg(-1) wet weight), but a marked bioaccumulation was apparent: The concentration of (137)Cs was about 10-fold higher in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena, representing the upper level of the food web, than in the amphipod Themisto sp., representing the lower level of the food web. The Concentration Factors (CF=Bq kg(-1) wet weight/Bq l(-1) seawater) increased from 10+/-3 for a mixed sample of krill and amphipods to 165+/-5 for harbour porpoises. PMID:12527234

Heldal, Hilde Elise; Føyn, Lars; Varskog, Per

2003-01-01

178

The National Food Safety Database Web Site: Irradiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Food Safety Database, a cooperative project of the United States Department of Agriculture and several universities, provides a section on food irradiation that discusses the process, the history of irradiation, and its relationship to food safety, among other features. It is highlighted by a 39-part, annotated slide show that supports the process. Previously approved for use on poultry and fruits and vegetables in the US, irradiation can kill disease-causing bacteria like Salmonella and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (discussed in the Scout Report for Science and Engineering's In the News section, September 17, 1997), and molds and funguses that cause rot. With recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, irradiation can now be used to process red meat (e.g., beef, pork, lamb, and byproducts). The process involves exposing food to a source of radiation such as gamma rays from radioactive cobalt 60, cesium 137, or x-rays. No radioactive material is added to the product, and the technique is routinely used on grains and spices, as well as for sterilizing disposable medical devices. In spite of a number of tests conducted over the last 30 years substantiating its safety, irradiation has not gained widespread public acceptance in the US. This is largely due to the public's general fear of processes utilizing radiation. Supporters of the technology claim that it will virtually eliminate food-borne illness in the US, while skeptics feel that technology such as steam treatment can accomplish adequate sterilization without the purported risks and public concern associated with irradiation. (8) The National Food Safety Database, a cooperative project of the United States Department of Agriculture and several universities, provides a section on food irradiation that discusses the process, history of irradiation, and its relationship to food safety, among other features. It features a 39-part, annotated slide show that strongly supports the process.

1994-01-01

179

Parasites Affect Food Web Structure Primarily through Increased Diversity and Complexity  

PubMed Central

Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite data. Our analyses show that adding parasites usually increases link density and connectance (simple measures of complexity), particularly when including concomitant links (links from predators to parasites of their prey). However, we clarify prior claims that parasites “dominate” food web links. Although parasites can be involved in a majority of links, in most cases classic predation links outnumber classic parasitism links. Regarding network structure, observed changes in degree distributions, 14 commonly studied metrics, and link probabilities are consistent with scale-dependent changes in structure associated with changes in diversity and complexity. Parasite and free-living species thus have similar effects on these aspects of structure. However, two changes point to unique roles of parasites. First, adding parasites and concomitant links strongly alters the frequency of most motifs of interactions among three taxa, reflecting parasites' roles as resources for predators of their hosts, driven by trophic intimacy with their hosts. Second, compared to free-living consumers, many parasites' feeding niches appear broader and less contiguous, which may reflect complex life cycles and small body sizes. This study provides new insights about generic versus unique impacts of parasites on food web structure, extends the generality of food web theory, gives a more rigorous framework for assessing the impact of any species on trophic organization, identifies limitations of current food web models, and provides direction for future structural and dynamical models. PMID:23776404

Dunne, Jennifer A.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Kuris, Armand M.; Martinez, Neo D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Mouritsen, Kim N.; Poulin, Robert; Reise, Karsten; Stouffer, Daniel B.; Thieltges, David W.; Williams, Richard J.; Zander, Claus Dieter

2013-01-01

180

Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite data. Our analyses show that adding parasites usually increases link density and connectance (simple measures of complexity), particularly when including concomitant links (links from predators to parasites of their prey). However, we clarify prior claims that parasites ‘‘dominate’’ food web links. Although parasites can be involved in a majority of links, in most cases classic predation links outnumber classic parasitism links. Regarding network structure, observed changes in degree distributions, 14 commonly studied metrics, and link probabilities are consistent with scale-dependent changes in structure associated with changes in diversity and complexity. Parasite and free-living species thus have similar effects on these aspects of structure. However, two changes point to unique roles of parasites. First, adding parasites and concomitant links strongly alters the frequency of most motifs of interactions among three taxa, reflecting parasites’ roles as resources for predators of their hosts, driven by trophic intimacy with their hosts. Second, compared to free-living consumers, many parasites’ feeding niches appear broader and less contiguous, which may reflect complex life cycles and small body sizes. This study provides new insights about generic versus unique impacts of parasites on food web structure, extends the generality of food web theory, gives a more rigorous framework for assessing the impact of any species on trophic organization, identifies limitations of current food web models, and provides direction for future structural and dynamical models.

Dunne, Jennifer A.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Kuris, Armand M.; Martinez, Neo D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Mouritsen, Kim N.; Poulin, Robert; Reise, Karsten; Stouffer, Daniel B.; Thieltges, David W.; Williams, Richard J.; Zander, Claus Dieter

2013-01-01

181

Impacts of food web structure and feeding behavior on mercury exposure in Greenland Sharks (Somniosus microcephalus).  

PubMed

Benthic and pelagic food web components in Cumberland Sound, Canada were explored as sources of total mercury (THg) to Greenland Sharks (Somniosus microcephalus) via both bottom-up food web transfer and top-down shark feeding behavior. Log10THg increased significantly with ?(15)N and trophic position from invertebrates (0.01±0.01?g·g(-1) [113±1ng·g(-1)] dw in copepods) to Greenland Sharks (3.54±1.02?g·g(-1)). The slope of the log10THg vs. ?(15)N linear regression was higher for pelagic compared to benthic food web components (excluding Greenland Sharks, which could not be assigned to either food web), which resulted from THg concentrations being higher at the base of the benthic food web (i.e., in benthic than pelagic primary consumers). However, feeding habitat is unlikely to consistently influence shark THg exposure in Cumberland Sound because THg concentrations did not consistently differ between benthic and pelagic shark prey. Further, size, gender and feeding behavior (inferred from stable isotopes and fatty acids) were unable to significantly explain THg variability among individual Greenland Sharks. Possible reasons for this result include: 1) individual sharks feeding as generalists, 2) high overlap in THg among shark prey, and 3) differences in turnover time between ecological tracers and THg. This first assessment of Greenland Shark THg within an Arctic food web revealed high concentrations consistent with biomagnification, but low ability to explain intra-specific THg variability. Our findings of high THg levels and consumption of multiple prey types, however, suggest that Greenland Sharks acquire THg through a variety of trophic pathways and are a significant contributor to the total biotic THg pool in northern seas. PMID:24630590

McMeans, Bailey C; Arts, Michael T; Fisk, Aaron T

2015-03-15

182

Sardine cycles, krill declines, and locust plagues: revisiting 'wasp-waist' food webs.  

PubMed

'Wasp-waist' systems are dominated by a mid trophic-level species that is thought to exert top-down control on its food and bottom-up control on its predators. Sardines, anchovy, and Antarctic krill are suggested examples, and here we use locusts to explore whether the wasp-waist concept also applies on land. These examples also display the traits of mobile aggregations and dietary diversity, which help to reduce the foraging footprint from their large, localised biomasses. This suggests that top-down control on their food operates at local aggregation scales and not at wider scales suggested by the original definition of wasp-waist. With this modification, the wasp-waist framework can cross-fertilise marine and terrestrial approaches, revealing how seemingly disparate but economically important systems operate. PMID:24755099

Atkinson, Angus; Hill, Simeon L; Barange, Manuel; Pakhomov, Evgeny A; Raubenheimer, David; Schmidt, Katrin; Simpson, Stephen J; Reiss, Christian

2014-06-01

183

From the Top of the World...to the Bottom of the Food Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Four teaching units show how NASA satellites measure ocean productivity. Topics cover: marine food web from producers to consumers and decomposers; phytoplankton diversity, classification and adaptations; studying photosynthesis with technology, from microscopes to satellites; and biology of algal blooms. Units include: background, lesson plans using on-line data or instructions for classroom and field activities; web links for further study. Lessons are aligned to teaching standards from McREL. Order educational CD-ROM, Phytopia. DLESE and Homeschool featured site.

184

High-resolution food webs based on nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids  

PubMed Central

Food webs are known to have myriad trophic links between resource and consumer species. While herbivores have well-understood trophic tendencies, the difficulties associated with characterizing the trophic positions of higher-order consumers have remained a major problem in food web ecology. To better understand trophic linkages in food webs, analysis of the stable nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids has been introduced as a potential means of providing accurate trophic position estimates. In the present study, we employ this method to estimate the trophic positions of 200 free-roaming organisms, representing 39 species in coastal marine (a stony shore) and 38 species in terrestrial (a fruit farm) environments. Based on the trophic positions from the isotopic composition of amino acids, we are able to resolve the trophic structure of these complex food webs. Our approach reveals a high degree of trophic omnivory (i.e., noninteger trophic positions) among carnivorous species such as marine fish and terrestrial hornets.This information not only clarifies the trophic tendencies of species within their respective communities, but also suggests that trophic omnivory may be common in these webs. PMID:25360278

Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Steffan, Shawn A; Ogawa, Nanako O; Ishikawa, Naoto F; Sasaki, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Masashi; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

2014-01-01

185

High-resolution food webs based on nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids.  

PubMed

Food webs are known to have myriad trophic links between resource and consumer species. While herbivores have well-understood trophic tendencies, the difficulties associated with characterizing the trophic positions of higher-order consumers have remained a major problem in food web ecology. To better understand trophic linkages in food webs, analysis of the stable nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids has been introduced as a potential means of providing accurate trophic position estimates. In the present study, we employ this method to estimate the trophic positions of 200 free-roaming organisms, representing 39 species in coastal marine (a stony shore) and 38 species in terrestrial (a fruit farm) environments. Based on the trophic positions from the isotopic composition of amino acids, we are able to resolve the trophic structure of these complex food webs. Our approach reveals a high degree of trophic omnivory (i.e., noninteger trophic positions) among carnivorous species such as marine fish and terrestrial hornets.This information not only clarifies the trophic tendencies of species within their respective communities, but also suggests that trophic omnivory may be common in these webs. PMID:25360278

Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Steffan, Shawn A; Ogawa, Nanako O; Ishikawa, Naoto F; Sasaki, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Masashi; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

2014-06-01

186

Stabilization of chaotic and non-permanent food-web dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several decades of dynamical analyses of food-web networks[CITE] have led to important insights into the effects of complexity, omnivory and interaction strength on food-web stability[CITE]. Several recent insights[CITE] are based on nonlinear bioenergetic consumer-resource models[CITE] that display chaotic behavior in three species food chains[CITE] which can be stabilized by omnivory[CITE] and weak interaction of a fourth species[CITE]. We slightly relax feeding on low-density prey in these models by modifying standard food-web interactions known as “typeII” functional responses[CITE]. This change drastically alters the dynamics of realistic systems containing up to ten species. Our modification stabilizes chaotic dynamics in three species systems and reduces or eliminates extinctions and non-persistent chaos[CITE] in ten species systems. This increased stability allows analysis of systems with greater biodiversity than in earlier work and suggests that dynamic stability is not as severe a constraint on the structure of large food webs as previously thought. The sensitivity of dynamical models to small changes in the predator-prey functional response well within the range of what is empirically observed suggests that functional response is a crucial aspect of species interactions that must be more precisely addressed in empirical studies.

Williams, R. J.; Martinez, N. D.

2004-03-01

187

Food web pathway determines how selenium affects aquatic ecosystems: A San francisco Bay case study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical contaminants disrupt ecosystems, but specific effects may be under-appreciated when poorly known processes such as uptake mechanisms, uptake via diet, food preferences, and food web dynamics are influential. Here we show that a combination of food web structure and the physiology of trace element accumulation explain why some species in San Francisco Bay are threatened by a relatively low level of selenium contamination and some are not. Bivalves and crustacean Zooplankton form the base of two dominant food webs in estuaries. The dominant bivalve Potamocorbula amurensis has a 10-fold slower rate constant of loss for selenium than do common crustaceans such as copepods and the mysid Neomysis mercedis (rate constant of loss, ke = 0.025, 0.155, and 0.25 d-1, respectively). The result is much higher selenium concentrations in the bivalve than in the crustaceans. Stable isotope analyses show that this difference is propagated up the respective food webs in San Francisco Bay. Several predators of bivalves have tissue concentrations of selenium that exceed thresholds thought to be associated with teratogenesis or reproductive failure (liver Se > 15 ??g g-1 dry weight). Deformities typical of selenium-induced teratogenesis were observed in one of these species. Concentrations of selenium in tissues of predators of Zooplankton are less than the thresholds. Basic physiological and ecological processes can drive wide differences in exposure and effects among species, but such processes are rarely considered in traditional evaluations of contaminant impacts.

Stewart, A.R.; Luoma, S.N.; Schlekat, C.E.; Doblin, M.A.; Hieb, K.A.

2004-01-01

188

Role of detritus in a spatial food web model with diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the central themes in modern ecology is the enduring debate on whether there is a relationship between the complexity of a biological community and its stability. In this paper, we focus on the role of detritus and spatial dispersion on the stability of ecosystems. Using Monte Carlo simulations we analyze two three-level models of food webs: a grazing one with the basal species (i.e., primary producers) having unlimited food resources and a detrital one in which the basal species uses detritus as a food resource. While the vast majority of theoretical studies neglects detritus, from our results it follows that the detrital food web is more stable than its grazing counterpart, because the interactions mediated by detritus damp out fluctuations in species' densities. Since the detritus model is the more complex one in terms of interaction patterns, our results provide evidence for the advocates of the complexity as one of the factors enhancing stability of ecosystems.

Pekalski, Andrzej; Szwabi?ski, Janusz

2014-05-01

189

Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a food web of Lake Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers are hydrophobic chemicals and can biomagnify in food chains. Little is known about the biomagnification\\u000a of PBDEs in the Lake Michigan food web. Plankton, Diporeia, lake whitefish, lake trout, and Chinook salmon were collected from Lake Michigan in 2006 between April and August. Fish\\u000a liver and muscle and whole invertebrates were analyzed for six PBDEs (BDE-47, 99,

Yin-Ming Kuo; Maria S. Sepúlveda; Inez Hua; Hugo G. Ochoa-Acuña; Trent M. Sutton

2010-01-01

190

Domoic acid contamination within eight representative species from the benthic food web of Monterey Bay, California, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic food webs often derive a significant fraction of their nutrient inputs from phyto- plankton in the overlying waters. If the phytoplankton include harmful algal species like Pseudo- nitzschia australis, a diatom capable of producing the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), the benthic food web can become a depository for phycotoxins. We tested the general hypothesis that DA contami- nates benthic

Rikk G. Kvitek; Judah D. Goldberg; G. Jason Smith; Gregory J. Doucette; Mary W. Silver

2008-01-01

191

Functional Effects of Parasites on Food Web Properties during the Spring Diatom Bloom in Lake Pavin: A Linear  

E-print Network

Functional Effects of Parasites on Food Web Properties during the Spring Diatom Bloom in Lake Pavin Abstract This study is the first assessment of the quantitative impact of parasitic chytrids-derived fluxes. Model results support recent theories on the probable impact of parasites on food web function

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

192

Spatial Structure and Biophysical Coupling in Pelagic Food Webs connecting the Nearshore Shunt and Offshore Desert with the Laser  

E-print Network

Spatial Structure and Biophysical Coupling in Pelagic Food Webs­ connecting the Nearshore Shunt and Offshore Desert with the Laser Plankton Survey System (LPSS) Primary Investigator: Hank Vanderploeg - NOAA It is increasingly obvious from our projects in Lake Michigan and Erie that spatial coupling in pelagic food webs

193

From ontology selection and semantic web to an integrated information system for food-borne diseases and food safety.  

PubMed

Several factors have hindered effective use of information and resources related to food safety due to inconsistency among semantically heterogeneous data resources, lack of knowledge on profiling of food-borne pathogens, and knowledge gaps among research communities, government risk assessors/managers, and end-users of the information. This paper discusses technical aspects in the establishment of a comprehensive food safety information system consisting of the following steps: (a) computational collection and compiling publicly available information, including published pathogen genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data; (b) development of ontology libraries on food-borne pathogens and design automatic algorithms with formal inference and fuzzy and probabilistic reasoning to address the consistency and accuracy of distributed information resources (e.g., PulseNet, FoodNet, OutbreakNet, PubMed, NCBI, EMBL, and other online genetic databases and information); (c) integration of collected pathogen profiling data, Foodrisk.org ( http://www.foodrisk.org ), PMP, Combase, and other relevant information into a user-friendly, searchable, "homogeneous" information system available to scientists in academia, the food industry, and government agencies; and (d) development of a computational model in semantic web for greater adaptability and robustness. PMID:21431616

Yan, Xianghe; Peng, Yun; Meng, Jianghong; Ruzante, Juliana; Fratamico, Pina M; Huang, Lihan; Juneja, Vijay; Needleman, David S

2011-01-01

194

Advances in molecular ecology: tracking trophic links through predator-prey food-webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. It is not always possible to track trophic interactions between predators and prey by direct observation. This is especially true when observing small or elusive animals with cryptic food-web ecology. Gut and\\/or faecal analysis can sometimes allow prey remains to be identified visually but is only possible when a component of the diet is resistant to digestion. In

S. K. SHEPPARD; J. D. HARWOOD

2005-01-01

195

SHIFTS BETWEEN PERIPHYTON-AND PHYTOPLANKTON-BASED FOOD WEBS IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous studies have revealed the importance of algae as an energetic base for wetland food webs. Earlier carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses in a Lake Superior coastal wetland (Allouez Bay, WI) indicated that, despite the large amount of vascular plant biobass present, ...

196

FOOD WEB STRUCTURE AS A POTENTIAL INDICATOR OF NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Analyses of the food webs of Great Lakes coastal wetlands verify the role of algae as an energetic foundation, and also suggest that fundamental changes occur in response to both natural and anthropogenic influences. We analyzed coastal wetlands with a range of nutrient concentra...

197

NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS INFLUENCING FOOD WEB STRUCTURE IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

We are investigating factors governing the biological organization of Great Lakes coastal wetlands. Food web analyses using stable isotope techniques verify the role of algae as an energetic foundation, and also suggest that fundamental changes occur as a result of anthropogenic ...

198

Are Algae Relevant to the Detritus-Based Food Web in Tank-Bromeliads?  

E-print Network

Are Algae Relevant to the Detritus-Based Food Web in Tank-Bromeliads? Olivier Brouard1 , Anne, Universite´ Paul Sabatier, UMR CNRS 5245, Toulouse, France Abstract We assessed the occurrence of algae and with regard to the structure of other aquatic microbial communities held in the tanks. Algae were retrieved

Boyer, Edmond

199

The role of a water bug, Sigara striata, in freshwater food webs.  

PubMed

Freshwater food webs are dominated by aquatic invertebrates whose trophic relationships are often poorly known. Here, I used laboratory experiments to study the role of a water bug, Sigara striata, as a potential predator and prey in food webs of stagnant waters. Multiple-choice predation experiment revealed that Sigara, which had been considered mostly herbivorous, also consumed larvae of Chironomus midges. Because they often occur in high densities and are among the most ubiquitous aquatic insects, Sigara water bugs may be important predators in fresh waters. A second experiment tested the role of Sigara as a potential prey for 13 common invertebrate predators. Mortality of Sigara inflicted by different predators varied widely, especially depending on body mass, foraging mode (ambush/searching) and feeding mode (chewing/suctorial) of the predators. Sigara was highly vulnerable to ambush predators, while searching predators caused on average 8.1 times lower mortality of Sigara. Additionally, suctorial predators consumed on average 6.6 times more Sigara individuals than chewing predators, which supports previous results hinting on potentially different predation pressures of these two types of predators on prey populations. The importance of these two foraging-related traits demonstrates the need to move from body mass based to multiple trait based descriptions of food web structure. Overall, the results suggests that detailed experimental studies of common but insufficiently known species can significantly enhance our understanding of food web structure. PMID:24883250

Klecka, Jan

2014-01-01

200

Carbon steady-state model of the planktonic food web of Lake Biwa, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. A steady-state model of carbon flows was developed to describe the summer planktonic food web in the surface mixed-layer of the North Basin in Lake Biwa, Japan. This model synthesised results from numerous studies on the plankton of Lake Biwa. 2. An inverse analysis procedure was used to estimate missing flow values in a manner consistent with known

NATHALIE N IQUIL; G RETTA B ARTOLI; JOTARO U RABE; GEORGE A. J ACKSON

2006-01-01

201

Contribution of Allochthonous Carbon Subsidies to the Minho Estuary Lower Food Web  

EPA Science Inventory

To study the contribution of autochthonous and allochthonous organic matter (OM) sources fuelling the lower food web in Minho River estuary (N-Portugal, Europe), we characterized the carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) stable isotope ratios of zooplankton and their potential OM sou...

202

Seeking Emotional Involvement in Science Education: Food-Chains and Webs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documents a study of emotion in two grade 8 science classrooms. Describes a lesson on food-chains and webs designed with a conceptual and an emotional agenda. Discusses issues of emotion, sensation and relevance in science teaching. (Author/MM)

Alsop, Steve

2001-01-01

203

INDIRECT EFFECTS OF ROOT HERBIVORY BY INSECT LARVAE ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE SOIL FOOD WEB  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Below-ground insect herbivores have negative impacts on plant productivity, but less is understood about the indirect effects of these organisms on the detrital-based soil food web (e.g., the soil microbial biomass and microbial grazers). We used a corn (Zea mays) and corn rootworm (Diabrotica virg...

204

NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT REDUCES CONSTRAINTS ON MATERIAL FLOWS IN A DETRITUS-BASED FOOD WEB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are experiencing increased nutrient availability, which is affecting their structure and function. By altering community composition and productivity of consumers, enrichment can indirectly cause changes in the pathways and magnitude of material flows in food webs. These changes, in turn, have major consequences for material storage and cycling in the ecosystem. Understanding mechanisms and predicting

Wyatt F. Cross; J. Bruce Wallace; Amy D. Rosemond

2007-01-01

205

Linking Landscapes and Food Webs: Effects of Omnivorous Fish and Watersheds on Reservoir Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is the effects of omnivorous fish and watersheds on reservoirs. Ecologists increasingly recognize the need to understand how landscapes and food webs interact. Reservoir ecosystems are heavily subsidized by nutrients and detritus from surrounding watersheds, and often contain abundant populations of gizzard shad, an omnivorous fish that consumes plankton and detritus. Gizzard shad link terrestrial landscapes and pelagic reservoir food webs by consuming detritus, translocating nutrients from sediment detritus to the water column, and consuming zooplankton. The abundance of gizzard shad increases with watershed agriculturalization, most likely through a variety of mechanisms operating on larval and adult life stages. Gizzard shad have myriad effects on reservoirs, including impacts on nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish, and many of their effects vary with ecosystem productivity (i.e., watershed land use). Interactive feedbacks among watersheds, gizzard shad populations, and reservoir food webs operate to maintain dominance of gizzard shad in highly productive systems. Thus, effective stewardship of reservoir ecosystems must incorporate both watershed and food-web perspectives.

MICHAEL J. VANNI, KRISTIN K. AREND, MARY T. BREMIGAN, DAVID B. BUNNELL, JAMES E. GARVEY, MARÃÂA J. GONZÃÂLEZ, WILLIAM H. RENWICK, PATRICIA A. SORANNO, and ROY A. STEIN (;)

2005-02-01

206

Dams and downstream aquatic biodiversity: Potential food web consequences of hydrologic and geomorphic change  

SciTech Connect

Responses of rivers and river ecosystems to dams are complex and varied, as they depend on local sediment supplies, geomorphic constraints, climate, dam structure and operation, and key attributes of the biota. Therefore, {open_quotes}one-size-fits-all{close_quotes} prescriptions cannot substitute for local knowledge in developing prescriptions for dam structure and operation to protect local biodiversity. One general principle is self-evident: that biodiversity is best protected in rivers where physical regimes are the most natural. A sufficiently natural regime of flow variation is particularly crucial for river biota and food webs. We review our research and that of others to illustrate the ecological importance of alternating periods of low an high flow, of periodic bed scour, and of floodplain inundation and dewatering. These fluctuations regulate both the life cycles of river biota and species interactions in the food webs that sustain them. Even if the focus of biodiversity conservation efforts is on a target species rather than whole ecosystems, a food web perspective is necessary, because populations of any species depend critically on how their resources, prey, and potential predators also respond to environmental change. In regulated rivers, managers must determine how the frequency, magnitude, and timing of hydrologic events interact to constrain or support species and food webs. Simple ecological modeling, tailored to local systems, may provide a framework and some insight into explaining ecosystem response to dams and should give direction to mitigation efforts. 78 refs.

Power, M.E.; Dietrich, W.E.; Finlay, J.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1996-11-01

207

Salmon Life Histories, Habitats, and Food Webs in the Columbia River Estuary  

E-print Network

Salmon Life Histories, Habitats, and Food Webs in the Columbia River Estuary Daniel J. Bottom NOAA management efforts in the Columbia River estuary on behalf of salmon: (1) the estuary is irrelevant to conservation because fresh water conditions limit salmon production; and (2) the estuary is a threat

208

From the Top of the World...to the Bottom of the Food Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, by the Bigelow Laboratory, is designed to help teachers and students discover linkages among marine ecology, phytoplankton, the behavior of light at the ocean surface, and satellite-derived ocean color data. On-line standards, based educational activities, explore the topics of phytoplankton, food webs, and algal blooms using microscopy and remote sensing data.

Sciences, Bigelow L.

209

Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships for Predicting the Bioaccumulation of POPs in Terrestrial Food-Webs  

E-print Network

that are signatories of the UNEP Long Range Transboundary Air Pollutants Protocol [2] similar KOW based QSARs in Terrestrial Food-Webs Frank A. P. C. Gobas, Barry C. Kelly and Jon A. Arnot School of Resource & Environmental the chemicalÃ?s octanol-air and octanol-water partition and its biomagni- fication potential. Secondly, field

Gobas, Frank

210

Food web alterations that promote native species: the recovery of cisco (Coregonus artedi)  

E-print Network

Food web alterations that promote native species: the recovery of cisco (Coregonus artedi, native cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations increased. Our analysis of walleye diets illustrated that walleye fed selectively on rainbow smelt but did not feed on cisco during the summer months. When entered

211

BENTHIC PRODUCTION AS THE BASE FOR FOOD WEBS IN ALASKAN ARCTIC LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

Plankton are traditionally viewed as the basis for limnetic food webs, with zooplankton acting as an energy gateway between phytoplanktonic primary producers and fish. Often, benthic production is considered to be important primarily to the benthos and in shallow systems, such as...

212

Mercury biomagnification through food webs is affected by physical and chemical characteristics of lakes.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) contamination in aquatic systems remains a global concern because the organic form, methyl Hg (MeHg), can biomagnify to harmful concentrations in fish, fish-eating wildlife, and humans. Food web transfer of MeHg has been explored using models of log MeHg versus relative trophic position (nitrogen isotopes, ?(15)N), but regression slopes vary across systems for unknown reasons. In this study, MeHg biomagnification was determined for 11 lake food webs in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada, and compared to physical and chemical lake characteristics using principal component and multiple regression analyses. MeHg biomagnification (regression slopes of log MeHg versus baseline-adjusted ?(15)N for fishes and invertebrates) varied significantly across lakes and was higher in systems with lower aqueous nutrient/MeHg/chloride scores. This is one of the largest, consistent data sets available on MeHg biomagnification through temperate lake food webs and the first study to use a principal component and multiple regression approach to understand how lake chemical and physical characteristics interact to affect biomagnification among systems. Overall, our results show that the magnitude of MeHg biomagnification through lake food webs is related to the chemical and physical characteristics of the systems, but the underlying mechanisms warrant further investigation. PMID:24099312

Clayden, Meredith G; Kidd, Karen A; Wyn, Brianna; Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

2013-11-01

213

UV Effects on Marine Planktonic Food Webs: A Synthesis of Results from Mesocosm Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

UV irradiance has a broad range of effects on marine planktonic organisms. Direct and indirect effects on individual organisms have complex impacts on food-web structure and dynamics, with implications for carbon and nutrient cycling. Mesocosm experiments are well suited for the study of such complex interrelationships. Mesocosms offer the possibility to conduct well-controlled experiments with intact planktonic communities in physical,

Claude Belzile; Serge Demers; Gustavo A. Ferreyra; Irene Schloss; Christian Nozais; Karine Lacoste; Behzad Mostajir; Suzanne Roy; Michel Gosselin; Emilien Pelletier; Sônia M. F. Gianesella; Maria Vernet

2006-01-01

214

Influence of streamside vegetation on inputs of terrestrial invertebrates to salmonid food webs  

E-print Network

Influence of streamside vegetation on inputs of terrestrial invertebrates to salmonid food webs J, and spawning migrations. We examined the contribution of terrestrially derived invertebrates (TI) to juvenile of invertebrate mass averaged across all sites; no significant differences associated with location (plant

Wagner, Diane

215

Food web interactions between larval bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and exotic zebra mussels  

E-print Network

Food web interactions between larval bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and exotic zebra mussels (Lepomis macrochirus), exotic invasive zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), and zooplankton were examined a servi à étudier les relations trophiques entre les larves de crapets arlequins (Lepomis macrochirus

216

Quantification of Bt-endotoxin exposure pathways in carabid food webs across multiple transgenic events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the reported specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis proteins against target pests, a number of studies have indicated that the uptake of Bt-endotoxins from bioengineered crops could have negative effects on natural enemies. It is therefore essential to quantify exposure pathways in non-target arthropod food webs across multiple transgenic events. Adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were collected from transgenic corn fields

Julie A. Peterson; John J. Obrycki; James D. Harwood

2009-01-01

217

Columbia River food webs: Developing a broader scientific foundation for river restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objectives of this report are to provide a fundamental understanding of aquatic food webs in the Columbia River Basin and to illustrate and summarize their influences on native fish restoration efforts. The spatial scope addresses tributaries, impoundments, the free-flowing Columbia and Snake rivers, as well as the estuary and plume. Achieving the Council's vision for the Columbia River Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCC 2009-09) of sustaining a "productive and diverse community" that provides "abundant" harvest, is best accomplished through a time-prioritized action plan, one that complements other approaches while addressing important challenges and uncertainties related to the Basin's food webs. Note that the oceanic food webs, although of immense importance in sustaining fish populations, are not considered beyond the plume since they involve an additional set of complex and rapidly evolving issues. An analysis of oceanic food webs of relevance to the Columbia River requires a separately focused effort (e.g., Hoegh- Guldberg and Bruno 2010).

Alldredge, J. Richard; Beauchamp, David; Bisson, Peter A.; Congleton, James; Henny, Charles; Huntly, Nancy; Lamberson, Roland; Levings, Colin; Naiman, Robert J.; Pearcy, William; Rieman, Bruce; Ruggerone, Greg; Scarnecchia, Dennis; Smouse, Peter; Wood, Chris C.

2011-01-01

218

Detritus fuels ecosystem metabolism but not metazoan food webs in San Francisco estuary's freshwater delta  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detritus from terrestrial ecosystems is the major source of organic matter in many streams, rivers, and estuaries, yet the role of detritus in supporting pelagic food webs is debated. We examined the importance of detritus to secondary productivity in the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta (California, United States), a large complex of tidal freshwater habitats. The Delta ecosystem has low primary productivity but large detrital inputs, so we hypothesized that detritus is the primary energy source fueling production in pelagic food webs. We assessed the sources, quantity, composition, and bioavailability of organic matter among a diversity of habitats (e.g., marsh sloughs, floodplains, tidal lakes, and deep river channels) over two years to test this hypothesis. Our results support the emerging principle that detritus dominates riverine and estuarine organic matter supply and supports the majority of ecosystem metabolism. Yet in contrast to prevailing ideas, we found that detritus was weakly coupled to the Delta's pelagic food web. Results from independent approaches showed that phytoplankton production was the dominant source of organic matter for the Delta's pelagic food web, even though primary production accounts for a small fraction of the Delta's organic matter supply. If these results are general, they suggest that the value of organic matter to higher trophic levels, including species targeted by programs of ecosystem restoration, is a function of phytoplankton production. ?? 2005 Estuarine Research Federation.

Sobczak, W.V.; Cloern, J.E.; Jassby, A.D.; Cole, B.E.; Schraga, T.S.; Arnsberg, A.

2005-01-01

219

Organochlorine compounds in Lake Superior: Chiral polychlorinated biphenyls and biotransformation in the aquatic food web  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The enantiomeric composition of seven chiral PCB congeners was measured in the Lake Superior aquatic food web sampled in 1998, to determine the extent of enantioselective biotransformation in aquatic biota. All chiral PCB congeners studied (CBs 91, 95, 136, 149, 174, 176, and 183) biomagnified in the Lake Superior aquatic food web, based on biomagnification and food web magnification factors greater than unity. PCB atropisomers were racemic in phytoplankton and zooplankton, suggesting no biotransformation potential toward PCBs for these low trophic level organisms. However, Diporeia and mysids had significantly nonracemic residues for most chiral congeners studied. This observation suggests that these macrozooplankton can stereoselectively metabolize chiral congeners. Alternatively, macrozooplankton obtained nonracemic residues from feeding on organic-rich suspended particles and sediments, which would imply that stereoselective microbial PCB biotransformation may be occurring in Lake Superior sediments at PCB concentrations far lower than that previously associated with such activity. Widely nonracemic PCB residues in forage fish (lake herring, rainbow smelt, and slimy sculpin) and lake trout suggest a combination of both in vivo biotransformation and uptake of nonracemic residues from prey for these species. Minimum biotransformation rates, calculated from enantiomer mass balances between predators and prey, suggest metabolic half-lives on the order of 8 yr for CB 136 in lake trout and 2.6 yr for CB 95 in sculpins. This result suggests that significant biotransformation may occur for metabolizable PCB congeners over the lifespan of these biota. This study highlights the potential of chiral analysis to study biotransformation processes in food webs.

Wong, Charles S.; Mabury, Scott A.; Whittle, D. Michael; Backus, Sean M.; Teixeira, Camilla; DeVault, David S.; Bronte, Charles R.; Muir, Derek C.G.

2004-01-01

220

Experimental evidence for alternative stable equilibria in a benthic pond food web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both local and initial conditions have been implicated in causing variation in the strengths of predator effects among natural communities. In this study, I performed a controlled mesocosm experiment using two common snails, Physella gyrina and Helisoma trivolvis, and their insect predator, Belostoma flumineum, to explicitly quantify and understand the causes of previously observed variation in food web interactions in

Jonathan M. Chase

2003-01-01

221

Indirect effects of metal contamination on energetics of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) resulting from food web  

E-print Network

Indirect effects of metal contamination on energetics of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) resulting (Perca flavescens) diet, growth and activity levels from lakes along a metal-contamination gradient were, lake food web, metal contamination, Perca flavescens, stunting, Sudbury, yellow perch Introduction

Rasmussen, Joseph

222

Climate change impacts on body size and food web structure on mountain ecosystems  

PubMed Central

The current distribution of climatic conditions will be rearranged on the globe. To survive, species will have to keep pace with climates as they move. Mountains are among the most affected regions owing to both climate and land-use change. Here, we explore the effects of climate change in the vertebrate food web of the Pyrenees. We investigate elevation range expansions between two time-periods illustrative of warming conditions, to assess: (i) the taxonomic composition of range expanders; (ii) changes in food web properties such as the distribution of links per species and community size-structure; and (iii) what are the specific traits of range expanders that set them apart from the other species in the community—in particular, body mass, diet generalism, vulnerability and trophic position within the food web. We found an upward expansion of species at all elevations, which was not even for all taxonomic groups and trophic positions. At low and intermediate elevations, predator : prey mass ratios were significantly reduced. Expanders were larger, had fewer predators and were, in general, more specialists. Our study shows that elevation range expansions as climate warms have important and predictable impacts on the structure and size distribution of food webs across space. PMID:23007094

Lurgi, Miguel; López, Bernat C.; Montoya, José M.

2012-01-01

223

Mechanisms affecting recovery in an upwelling food web: The case of the southern Humboldt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although bottom-up forcing and overfishing are known to induce shifts in ecosystem states, system changes and their reversibility under each factor are still poorly understood. In this paper, dynamic food web simulations are conducted to evaluate when and why ecological thresholds may be exceeded, and whether bottom-up forcing or fishing is more likely to induce irreversible ecosystem states. Simulations are

Sergio Neira; Coleen L. Moloney; Philippe Cury; Christian Mullon; Villy Christensen

2009-01-01

224

A physiologically-based tritrophic metapopulation model of the African cassava food web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metapopulation dynamics of the African cassava food web is explored using a physiologically based tritrophic model. The interacting species are cassava, cassava mealybug and its natural enemies (two parasitoids, a coccinellid predator and a fungal pathogen), and the cassava greenmite and its natural enemies (two predators and a fungal pathogen). The metapopulation model is based on a single patch

A. P. Gutierrez; J. S. Yaninek; P. Neuenschwander; C. K. Ellis

1999-01-01

225

MEASURING TERRESTRIAL SUBSIDIES TO AQUATIC FOOD WEBS USING STABLE ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding river food webs requires distinguishing energy derived from primary production in the river itself (autochthonous) from that produced externally (allochthonous), yet there are no universally applicable and reliable techniques for doing so. We compared the natural abundance stable isotope ratios of hydrogen (dD) of allochthonous and autochthonous energy sources in four different aquatic ecosystems. We found that autochthonous organic

Richard R. Doucett; Jane C. Marks; Dean W. Blinn; Melanie Caron; Bruce A. Hungate

2007-01-01

226

Tracing organophosphorus and brominated flame retardants and plasticizers in an estuarine food web.  

PubMed

Nine organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) were detected in a pelagic and benthic food web of the Western Scheldt estuary, The Netherlands. Concentrations of several PFRs were an order of magnitude higher than those of the brominated flame retardants (BFRs). However, the detection frequency of the PFRs (6-56%) was lower than that of the BFRs (50-97%). Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), tris(isobutyl) phosphate (TIBP) and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) were the dominant PFRs in sediment with median concentrations of 7.0, 8.1 and 1.8 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. PFR levels in the suspended particular matter (SPM) were 2-12 times higher than that in sediment. TBOEP, TCIPP, TIBP, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tris(phenyl) phosphate (TPHP) were found in organisms higher in the estuarine food web. The highest PFR concentrations in the benthic food web were found in sculpin, goby and lugworm with median concentrations of 17, 7.4, 4.6 and 2.0 ng/g wet weight (ww) for TBOEP, TIBP, TCIPP and TPHP, respectively. Comparable levels were observed in the pelagic food web, BDE209 was the predominant PBDE in sediment and SPM with median concentrations up to 9.7 and 385 ng/g dw, respectively. BDE47 was predominant in the biotic compartment of the food web with highest median levels observed in sculpin and common tern eggs of 79 ng/g lipid weight (lw) (2.5 ng/g ww) and 80 ng/g lw (11 ng/g ww), respectively. Trophic magnification was observed for all PBDEs with the exception of BDE209. Indications of trophic magnification of PFRs were observed in the benthic food web for TBOEP, TCIPP and TCEP with tentative trophic magnification factors of 3.5, 2.2 and 2.6, respectively (p<0.05). Most of the other PFRs showed trophic dilution in both food webs. The relative high PFR levels in several fish species suggest high emissions and substantial exposure of organisms to PFRs in the Western Scheldt. PMID:25306092

Brandsma, Sicco H; Leonards, Pim E G; Leslie, Heather A; de Boer, Jacob

2015-02-01

227

Food-web structure in relation to environmental gradients and predator-prey ratios in tank-bromeliad ecosystems.  

PubMed

Little is known of how linkage patterns between species change along environmental gradients. The small, spatially discrete food webs inhabiting tank-bromeliads provide an excellent opportunity to analyse patterns of community diversity and food-web topology (connectance, linkage density, nestedness) in relation to key environmental variables (habitat size, detrital resource, incident radiation) and predators:prey ratios. We sampled 365 bromeliads in a wide range of understorey environments in French Guiana and used gut contents of invertebrates to draw the corresponding 365 connectance webs. At the bromeliad scale, habitat size (water volume) determined the number of species that constitute food-web nodes, the proportion of predators, and food-web topology. The number of species as well as the proportion of predators within bromeliads declined from open to forested habitats, where the volume of water collected by bromeliads was generally lower because of rainfall interception by the canopy. A core group of microorganisms and generalist detritivores remained relatively constant across environments. This suggests that (i) a highly-connected core ensures food-web stability and key ecosystem functions across environments, and (ii) larger deviations in food-web structures can be expected following disturbance if detritivores share traits that determine responses to environmental changes. While linkage density and nestedness were lower in bromeliads in the forest than in open areas, experiments are needed to confirm a trend for lower food-web stability in the understorey of primary forests. PMID:23977128

Dézerald, Olivier; Leroy, Céline; Corbara, Bruno; Carrias, Jean-François; Pélozuelo, Laurent; Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis

2013-01-01

228

Food-Web Structure in Relation to Environmental Gradients and Predator-Prey Ratios in Tank-Bromeliad Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Little is known of how linkage patterns between species change along environmental gradients. The small, spatially discrete food webs inhabiting tank-bromeliads provide an excellent opportunity to analyse patterns of community diversity and food-web topology (connectance, linkage density, nestedness) in relation to key environmental variables (habitat size, detrital resource, incident radiation) and predators:prey ratios. We sampled 365 bromeliads in a wide range of understorey environments in French Guiana and used gut contents of invertebrates to draw the corresponding 365 connectance webs. At the bromeliad scale, habitat size (water volume) determined the number of species that constitute food-web nodes, the proportion of predators, and food-web topology. The number of species as well as the proportion of predators within bromeliads declined from open to forested habitats, where the volume of water collected by bromeliads was generally lower because of rainfall interception by the canopy. A core group of microorganisms and generalist detritivores remained relatively constant across environments. This suggests that (i) a highly-connected core ensures food-web stability and key ecosystem functions across environments, and (ii) larger deviations in food-web structures can be expected following disturbance if detritivores share traits that determine responses to environmental changes. While linkage density and nestedness were lower in bromeliads in the forest than in open areas, experiments are needed to confirm a trend for lower food-web stability in the understorey of primary forests. PMID:23977128

Dézerald, Olivier; Leroy, Céline; Corbara, Bruno; Carrias, Jean-François; Pélozuelo, Laurent; Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis

2013-01-01

229

Carbon flows in the benthic food web at the deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN (Fram Strait)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HAUSGARTEN observatory is located in the eastern Fram Strait (Arctic Ocean) and used as long-term monitoring site to follow changes in the Arctic benthic ecosystem. Linear inverse modelling was applied to decipher carbon flows among the compartments of the benthic food web at the central HAUSGARTEN station (2500 m) based on an empirical data set consisting of data on biomass, prokaryote production, total carbon deposition and community respiration. The model resolved 99 carbon flows among 4 abiotic and 10 biotic compartments, ranging from prokaryotes up to megafauna. Total carbon input was 3.78±0.31 mmol C m -2 d -1, which is a comparatively small fraction of total primary production in the area. The community respiration of 3.26±0.20 mmol C m -2 d -1 is dominated by prokaryotes (93%) and has lower contributions from surface-deposit feeding macro- (1.7%) and suspension feeding megafauna (1.9%), whereas contributions from nematode and other macro- and megabenthic compartments were limited to <1%. The high prokaryotic contribution to carbon processing suggests that functioning of the benthic food web at the central HAUSGARTEN station is comparable to abyssal plain sediments that are characterised by strong energy limitation. Faunal diet compositions suggest that labile detritus is important for deposit-feeding nematodes (24% of their diet) and surface-deposit feeding macrofauna (˜44%), but that semi-labile detritus is more important in the diets of deposit-feeding macro- and megafauna. Dependency indices on these food sources were also calculated as these integrate direct (i.e. direct grazing and predator-prey interactions) and indirect (i.e. longer loops in the food web) pathways in the food web. Projected sea-ice retreats for the Arctic Ocean typically anticipate a decrease in the labile detritus flux to the already food-limited benthic food web. The dependency indices indicate that faunal compartments depend similarly on labile and semi-labile detritus, which suggests that the benthic biota may be more sensitive to changes in labile detritus inputs than when assessed from diet composition alone. Species-specific responses to different types of labile detritus inputs, e.g. pelagic algae versus sympagic algae, however, are presently unknown and are needed to assess the vulnerability of individual components of the benthic food web.

van Oevelen, Dick; Bergmann, Melanie; Soetaert, Karline; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Hasemann, Christiane; Klages, Michael; Schewe, Ingo; Soltwedel, Thomas; Budaeva, Nataliya E.

2011-11-01

230

Biochemical tracers reveal intra-specific differences in the food webs utilized by individual seabirds.  

PubMed

Food web structure regulates the pathways and flow rates of energy, nutrients, and contaminants to top predators. Ecologically and physiologically meaningful biochemical tracers provide a means to characterize and quantify these transfers within food webs. In this study, changes in the ratios of stable N isotopes (e.g., delta(15)N), fatty acids (FA), and persistent contaminants were used to trace food web pathways utilized by herring gulls (Larus argentatus) breeding along the shores of the St Lawrence River, Canada. Egg delta(15)N values varied significantly among years and were used as an indicator of gull trophic position. Temporal trends in egg delta(15)N values were related to egg FA profiles. In years when egg delta(15)N values were greater, egg FA patterns reflected the consumption of more aquatic prey. Egg delta(15)N values were also correlated with annual estimates of prey fish abundance. These results indicated that temporal changes in aquatic prey availability were reflected in the gull diet (as inferred from ecological tracer profiles in gull eggs). Analysis of individual eggs within years confirmed that birds consuming more aquatic prey occupied higher trophic positions. Furthermore, increases in trophic position were associated with increased concentrations of most persistent organic contaminants in eggs. However, levels of highly brominated polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners, e.g, 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabromoDE (BDE-209), showed a negative relationship with trophic position. These contrasting findings reflected differences among contaminant groups/homologs in terms of their predominant routes of transfer, i.e., aquatic versus terrestrial food webs. High trophic level omnivores, e.g., herring gulls, are common in food webs. By characterizing ecological tracer profiles in such species we can better understand spatial, temporal, and individual differences in pathways of contaminant, energy, and nutrient flow. PMID:19219461

Hebert, Craig E; Weseloh, D V Chip; Gauthier, Lewis T; Arts, Michael T; Letcher, Robert J

2009-05-01

231

Hydrogeomorphic features mediate the effects of land use/cover on reservoir productivity and food webs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although effects of land use/cover on nutrient concentrations in aquatic systems are well known, half or more of the variation in nutrient concentration remains unexplained by land use/cover alone. Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) landscape features can explain much remaining variation and influence food web interactions. To explore complex linkages among land use/cover, HGM features, reservoir productivity, and food webs, we sampled 11 Ohio reservoirs, ranging broadly in agricultural catchment land use/cover, for 3 years. We hypothesized that HGM features mediate the bottom-up effects of land use/cover on reservoir productivity, chlorophyll a, zooplankton, and recruitment of gizzard shad, an omnivorous fish species common throughout southeastern U.S. reservoirs and capable of exerting strong effects on food web and nutrient dynamics. We tested specific hypotheses using a model selection approach. Percent variation explained was highest for total nitrogen (R2 = 0.92), moderately high for total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, and rotifer biomass (R2 = 0.57 to 0.67), relatively low for crustacean zooplankton biomass and larval gizzard shad hatch abundance (R2 = 0.43 and 0.42), and high for larval gizzard shad survivor abundance (R2 = 0.79). The trophic status models included agricultural land use/cover and an HGM predictor, whereas the zooplankton models had few HGM predictors. The larval gizzard shad models had the highest complexity, including more than one HGM feature and food web components. We demonstrate the importance of integrating land use/cover, HGM features, and food web interactions to investigate critical interactions and feedbacks among physical, chemical, and biological components of linked land-water ecosystems.

Bremigan, M.T.; Soranno, P.A.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Bunnell, D.B.; Arend, K.K.; Renwick, W.H.; Stein, R.A.; Vanni, M.J.

2008-01-01

232

The role of ammonites in the Mesozoic marine food web revealed by jaw preservation.  

PubMed

Ammonites are prominent in macroevolutionary studies because of their abundance and diversity in the fossil record, but their paleobiology and position in the marine food web are not well understood due to the lack of preserved soft tissue. We present three-dimensional reconstructions of the buccal apparatus in the Mesozoic ammonite Baculites with the use of synchrotron x-ray microtomography. Buccal mass morphology, combined with the coexistence of food remains found in the buccal mass, suggests that these ammonites fed on plankton. This diet may have extended to all aptychophoran ammonites, which share the same buccal mass morphology. Understanding the role of these ammonites in the Mesozoic food web provides insights into their radiation in the Early Jurassic, as well as their extinction at the end of the Cretaceous/early Paleogene. PMID:21212354

Kruta, Isabelle; Landman, Neil; Rouget, Isabelle; Cecca, Fabrizio; Tafforeau, Paul

2011-01-01

233

Isotopic studies in Pacific Panama mangrove estuaries reveal lack of effect of watershed deforestation on food webs.  

PubMed

Stable isotopic N, C, and S in food webs of 8 mangrove estuaries on the Pacific coast of Panama were measured to 1) determine whether the degree of deforestation of tropical forests on the contributing watersheds was detectable within the estuarine food web, and 2) define external sources of the food webs within the mangrove estuaries. Even though terrestrial rain forest cover on the contributing watersheds differed between 23 and 92%, the effect of deforestation was not detectable on stable isotopic values in food webs present at the mouth of the receiving estuaries. We used stable isotopic measures to identify producers or organic sources that supported the estuarine food web. N isotopic values of consumers spanned a broad range, from about 2.7 to 12.3‰. Mean ?(15)N of primary producers and organic matter varied from 3.3 for macroalgae to 4.7‰ for suspended particulate matter and large particulate matter. The ?(13)C consumer data varied between -26 and -9‰, but isotopic values of the major apparent producers or organic matter sampled could not account for this range variability. The structure of the food web was clarified when we added literature isotopic values of microphytobenthos and coralline algae, suggesting that these, or other producers with similar isotopic signature, may be part of the food webs. PMID:25481652

Viana, Inés G; Valiela, Ivan; Martinetto, Paulina; Monteiro Pierce, Rita; Fox, Sophia E

2015-02-01

234

Reducing methylmercury accumulation in the food webs of San Francisco Bay and its local watersheds  

SciTech Connect

San Francisco Bay (California, USA) and its local watersheds present an interesting case study in estuarine mercury (Hg) contamination. This review focuses on the most promising avenues for attempting to reduce methylmercury (MeHg) contamination in Bay Area aquatic food webs and identifying the scientific information that is most urgently needed to support these efforts. Concern for human exposure to MeHg in the region has led to advisories for consumption of sport fish. Striped bass from the Bay have the highest average Hg concentration measured for this species in USA estuaries, and this degree of contamination has been constant for the past 40 years. Similarly, largemouth bass in some Bay Area reservoirs have some of the highest Hg concentrations observed in the entire US. Bay Area wildlife, particularly birds, face potential impacts to reproduction based on Hg concentrations in the tissues of several Bay species. Source control of Hg is one of the primary possible approaches for reducing MeHg accumulation in Bay Area aquatic food webs. Recent findings (particularly Hg isotope measurements) indicate that the decades-long residence time of particle-associated Hg in the Bay is sufficient to allow significant conversion of even the insoluble forms of Hg into MeHg. Past inputs have been thoroughly mixed throughout this shallow and dynamic estuary. The large pool of Hg already present in the ecosystem dominates the fraction converted to MeHg and accumulating in the food web. Consequently, decreasing external Hg inputs can be expected to reduce MeHg in the food web, but it will likely take many decades to centuries before those reductions are achieved. Extensive efforts to reduce loads from the largest Hg mining source (the historic New Almaden mining district) are underway. Hg is spread widely across the urban landscape, but there are a number of key sources, source areas, and pathways that provide opportunities to capture larger quantities of Hg and reduce loads from urban runoff. Atmospheric deposition is a lower priority for source control in the Bay Area due to a combination of a lack of major local sources. Internal net production of MeHg is the dominant source of MeHg that enters the food web. Controlling internal net production is the second primary management approach, and has the potential to reduce food web MeHg in some habitats more effectively and within a much shorter time-frame. Controlling net MeHg production and accumulation in the food web of upstream reservoirs and ponds is very promising due to the many features of these ecosystems that can be manipulated. The most feasible control options in tidal marshes relate to the design of flow patterns and subhabitats in restoration projects. Options for controlling MeHg production in open Bay habitat are limited due primarily to the highly dispersed distribution of Hg throughout the ecosystem. Other changes in these habitats may also have a large influence on food web MeHg, including temperature changes due to global warming, sea level rise, food web alterations due to introduced species and other causes, and changes in sediment supply. Other options for reducing or mitigating exposure and risk include controlling bioaccumulation, cleanup of contaminated sites, and reducing other factors (e.g., habitat availability) that limit at-risk wildlife populations.

Davis, J.A., E-mail: jay@sfei.org [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Looker, R.E. [San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, 1515 Clay Street, Suite 1400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)] [San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, 1515 Clay Street, Suite 1400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Yee, D. [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States)] [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Marvin-Di Pasquale, M. [U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division/MS 480, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)] [U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division/MS 480, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Grenier, J.L. [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States)] [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Austin, C.M. [San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, 1515 Clay Street, Suite 1400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)] [San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, 1515 Clay Street, Suite 1400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); McKee, L.J.; Greenfield, B.K. [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States)] [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Brodberg, R. [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1001 I Street, Sacramento, CA 95812 (United States)] [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1001 I Street, Sacramento, CA 95812 (United States); Blum, J.D. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, 1100 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)] [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, 1100 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2012-11-15

235

Spatial Guilds in the Serengeti Food Web Revealed by a Bayesian Group Model  

PubMed Central

Food webs, networks of feeding relationships in an ecosystem, provide fundamental insights into mechanisms that determine ecosystem stability and persistence. A standard approach in food-web analysis, and network analysis in general, has been to identify compartments, or modules, defined by many links within compartments and few links between them. This approach can identify large habitat boundaries in the network but may fail to identify other important structures. Empirical analyses of food webs have been further limited by low-resolution data for primary producers. In this paper, we present a Bayesian computational method for identifying group structure using a flexible definition that can describe both functional trophic roles and standard compartments. We apply this method to a newly compiled plant-mammal food web from the Serengeti ecosystem that includes high taxonomic resolution at the plant level, allowing a simultaneous examination of the signature of both habitat and trophic roles in network structure. We find that groups at the plant level reflect habitat structure, coupled at higher trophic levels by groups of herbivores, which are in turn coupled by carnivore groups. Thus the group structure of the Serengeti web represents a mixture of trophic guild structure and spatial pattern, in contrast to the standard compartments typically identified. The network topology supports recent ideas on spatial coupling and energy channels in ecosystems that have been proposed as important for persistence. Furthermore, our Bayesian approach provides a powerful, flexible framework for the study of network structure, and we believe it will prove instrumental in a variety of biological contexts. PMID:22219719

Baskerville, Edward B.; Dobson, Andy P.; Bedford, Trevor; Allesina, Stefano; Anderson, T. Michael; Pascual, Mercedes

2011-01-01

236

Density outbursts in a food web model with a closed nutrient cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spatial three level food web model with a closed nutrient cycle is presented and analyzed via Monte Carlo simulations. The food web consists of three trophic levels. The basal level species (called resources, R) corresponds to primary producers in real ecosystems. The species at an intermediate level (consumers, C) relates to herbivores. It feeds on the resources. The consumers themselves constitute food for the top level species (predators, P), which corresponds to carnivores. The remains of the consumers and predators (detritus, D) provide nutrient for the resources. The time evolution of the model reveals two asymptotic states: an absorbing one with all species being extinct, and a coexisting one, in which concentrations of all species are non-zero. There are two possible ways for the system to reach the absorbing state. In some cases the densities increase very quickly at the beginning of a simulation and then decline slowly and almost monotonically. In others, well pronounced peaks in the R, C and D densities appear regularly before the extinction. Those peaks correspond to density outbursts (waves) traveling through the system. We investigate the mechanisms leading to the waves. In particular, we show that the percolation of the detritus (i.e. the accumulation of nutrients) is necessary for the emergence of the waves. Moreover, our results corroborate the hypothesis that top-level predators play an essential role in maintaining the stability of a food web (top-down control).

Szwabi?ski, Janusz

2013-09-01

237

Methylmercury enters an aquatic food web through acidophilic microbial mats in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summary Microbial mats are a visible and abundant life form inhabiting the extreme environments in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), WY, USA. Little is known of their role in food webs that exist in the Park's geothermal habitats. Eukaryotic green algae associated with a phototrophic green/purple Zygogonium microbial mat community that inhabits low-temperature regions of acidic (pH ??? 3.0) thermal springs were found to serve as a food source for stratiomyid (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae. Mercury in spring source water was taken up and concentrated by the mat biomass. Monomethylmercury compounds (MeHg +), while undetectable or near the detection limit (0.025 ng l -1) in the source water of the springs, was present at concentrations of 4-7 ng g-1 dry weight of mat biomass. Detection of MeHg + in tracheal tissue of larvae grazing the mat suggests that MeHg+ enters this geothermal food web through the phototrophic microbial mat community. The concentration of MeHg+ was two to five times higher in larval tissue than mat biomass indicating MeHg+ biomagnification occurred between primary producer and primary consumer trophic levels. The Zygogonium mat community and stratiomyid larvae may also play a role in the transfer of MeHg+ to species in the food web whose range extends beyond a particular geothermal feature of YNP. ?? 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2008 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Boyd, E.S.; King, S.; Tomberlin, J.K.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Barkay, T.; Geesey, G.G.

2009-01-01

238

Canyon conditions impact carbon flows in food webs of three sections of the Nazaré canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine canyons transport large amounts of sediment and organic matter (OM) from the continental shelf to the abyssal plain. Three carbon-based food web models were constructed for the upper (300-750 m water depth), middle (2700-3500 m) and lower section (4000-5000 m) of the Nazaré canyon (eastern Atlantic Ocean) using linear inverse modeling to examine how the food web is influenced by the characteristics of the respective canyon section. The models were based on an empirical dataset consisting of biomass and carbon processing data, and general physiological data constraints from the literature. Environmental conditions, most notably organic matter (OM) input and hydrodynamic activity, differed between the canyon sections and strongly affected the benthic food web structure. Despite the large difference in depth, the OM inputs into the food webs of the upper and middle sections were of similar magnitude (7.98±0.84 and 9.30±0.71 mmol C m -2 d -1, respectively). OM input to the lower section was however almost 6-7 times lower (1.26±0.03 mmol C m -2 d -1). Carbon processing in the upper section was dominated by prokaryotes (70% of total respiration), though there was a significant meiofaunal (21%) and smaller macrofaunal (9%) contribution. The high total faunal contribution to carbon processing resembles that found in shallower continental shelves and upper slopes, although the meiofaunal contribution is surprisingly high and suggest that high current speeds and sediment resuspension in the upper canyon favor the role of the meiofauna. The high OM input and conditions in the accreting sediments of the middle canyon section were more beneficial for megafauna (holothurians), than for the other food web compartments. The high megafaunal biomass (516 mmol C m -2), their large contribution to respiration (56% of total respiration) and secondary production (0.08 mmol C m -2 d -1) shows that these accreting sediments in canyons are megafaunal hotspots in the deep-sea. Conversely, carbon cycling in the lower canyon section was strongly dominated by prokaryotes (86% of respiration) and the food web structure therefore resembled that of lower slope and abyssal plain sediments. This study shows that elevated OM input in canyons may favor the faunal contribution to carbon processing and create hotspots of faunal biomass and carbon processing along the continental shelf.

van Oevelen, Dick; Soetaert, Karline; Garcia, R.; de Stigter, Henko C.; Cunha, Marina R.; Pusceddu, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

2011-12-01

239

Extinction Dynamics and Evolution of a Survivability-Based Multi-Level Food-Web Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-level evolution model where forced extinctions occur throughout the system based on a species fitness value (or survivability) is developed that is essentially the fusion of the evolution model of Bak and Sneppen and the food-web model of Amaral and Meyer. This model is found to describe the fossil record and behave as a self-organized critical system with a power law exponent of approximately 2, but is also found to be remarkably similar to a model that causes the forced extinctions randomly throughout the system. To explain this result we show that fitness is nearly randomly distributed with a slight peak in forced extinction (due to fitness) in the middle levels. These findings lend strong support to the hypothesis that coextinction effects (propagated through a food-web) provide a robust explanation of the fossil record, independent of the mechanism for species competition.

Berger, B. W.; Boulter, C. J.

240

Reorganization of Southern Ocean plankton ecosystem at the onset of Antarctic glaciation.  

PubMed

The circum-Antarctic Southern Ocean is an important region for global marine food webs and carbon cycling because of sea-ice formation and its unique plankton ecosystem. However, the mechanisms underlying the installation of this distinct ecosystem and the geological timing of its development remain unknown. Here, we show, on the basis of fossil marine dinoflagellate cyst records, that a major restructuring of the Southern Ocean plankton ecosystem occurred abruptly and concomitant with the first major Antarctic glaciation in the earliest Oligocene (~33.6 million years ago). This turnover marks a regime shift in zooplankton-phytoplankton interactions and community structure, which indicates the appearance of eutrophic and seasonally productive environments on the Antarctic margin. We conclude that earliest Oligocene cooling, ice-sheet expansion, and subsequent sea-ice formation were important drivers of biotic evolution in the Southern Ocean. PMID:23599491

Houben, Alexander J P; Bijl, Peter K; Pross, Jörg; Bohaty, Steven M; Passchier, Sandra; Stickley, Catherine E; Röhl, Ursula; Sugisaki, Saiko; Tauxe, Lisa; van de Flierdt, Tina; Olney, Matthew; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Sluijs, Appy; Escutia, Carlota; Brinkhuis, Henk; Dotti, Carlota Escutia; Klaus, Adam; Fehr, Annick; Williams, Trevor; Bendle, James A P; Carr, Stephanie A; Dunbar, Robert B; Flores, José-Abel; Gonzàlez, Jhon J; Hayden, Travis G; Iwai, Masao; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J; Katsuki, Kota; Kong, Gee Soo; McKay, Robert M; Nakai, Mutsumi; Pekar, Stephen F; Riesselman, Christina; Sakai, Toyosaburo; Salzmann, Ulrich; Shrivastava, Prakash K; Tuo, Shouting; Welsh, Kevin; Yamane, Masako

2013-04-19

241

Resource-Consumer Relationships and Baseline Stable Isotopic Signatures of Food Webs in Isolated Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined isolated wetland food webs using stable C and N isotopes to understand resource-consumer relationships and controls\\u000a on baseline isotopic signatures. Marshes were usually more 13C-enriched than cypress savannas and cypress gum swamps. Analysis of coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) fractions indicated\\u000a that C3 plants contributed the majority of organic matter to isolated wetlands. Individual wetlands of the same

Stephen P. Opsahl; Stephen W. Golladay; Lora L. Smith; Stephanie E. Allums

2010-01-01

242

Linking aboveground and belowground food webs through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (?13C and ?15N) have been used for more than two decades in analyses of food web structure. The utility of isotope ratio measurements is\\u000a based on the observation that consumer ?13C values are similar (15N values are about 3‰ higher than those of their diet. The technique has been applied most often to aquatic

Fujio Hyodo; Ayato Kohzu; Ichiro Tayasu

2010-01-01

243

Interactions of multiple predators with different foraging modes in an aquatic food web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Top predators can have different foraging modes that may alter their interactions and effects on food webs. Interactions between\\u000a predators may be non-additive resulting from facilitation or interference, whereas their combined effects on a shared prey\\u000a may result in emergent effects that are risk enhanced or risk reduced. To test the importance of multiple predators with different\\u000a foraging modes, we

Michael P. Carey; David H. Wahl

2010-01-01

244

Tracing aquatic food webs using fatty acids: from qualitative indicators to quantitative determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Food web structure, predator–prey dynamics, foraging behavior, and consequences of these factors for individual growth, reproduction\\u000a and survival are central to our understanding of ecosystem structure and functioning. Moreover, in the current context of\\u000a understanding (and managing) ecosystems in the face of ongoing environmental change, important questions include: What are\\u000a the critical prey of key consumers in relation to prey

Sara J. Iverson

245

Trait-Mediated Indirect Interactions in a Simple Aquatic Food Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation examines the role of trait-mediated indirect interactions in a simple aquatic food web. We conducted the experiments in cattle watering tanks in order to establish whether competitive and predator-prey interactions between two species are affected by other species in the system; i.e., are pairwise interaction strengths affected by the background species assemblage? We examined the survival and growth

Scott D. Peacor; Earl E. Werner

1997-01-01

246

Propagation of Cascades in Complex Networks: From Supply Chains to Food Webs  

E-print Network

A general theory of top-down cascades in complex networks is described which explains two similar types of perturbation amplifications in the complex networks of business supply chains (the `bullwhip effect') and ecological food webs (trophic cascades). The dependence of the strength of the effects on the interaction strength and covariance in the dynamics as well as the graph structure allows both explanation and prediction of widely recognized effects in each type of system.

Smith, Reginald D

2011-01-01

247

Landscape-Scale Hydrologic Characteristics Differentiate Patterns of Carbon Flow in Large-River Food Webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to conserve, restore, or otherwise manage large rivers and the services they provide are hindered by limited understanding\\u000a of the functional dynamics of these systems. This shortcoming is especially evident with regard to trophic structure and energy\\u000a flow. We used natural abundances of carbon and nitrogen isotopes to examine patterns of material flow in ten large-river food\\u000a webs characterized

David J. Hoeinghaus; Kirk O. Winemiller; Angelo A. Agostinho

2007-01-01

248

Benthic and pelagic pathways of methylmercury bioaccumulation in estuarine food webs of the northeast United States.  

PubMed

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a contaminant of global concern that bioaccumulates and bioamagnifies in marine food webs. Lower trophic level fauna are important conduits of MeHg from sediment and water to estuarine and coastal fish harvested for human consumption. However, the sources and pathways of MeHg to these coastal fisheries are poorly known particularly the potential for transfer of MeHg from the sediment to biotic compartments. Across a broad gradient of human land impacts, we analyzed MeHg concentrations in food webs at ten estuarine sites in the Northeast US (from the Hackensack Meadowlands, NJ to the Gulf of Maine). MeHg concentrations in water column particulate material, but not in sediments, were predictive of MeHg concentrations in fish (killifish and Atlantic silversides). Moreover, MeHg concentrations were higher in pelagic fauna than in benthic-feeding fauna suggesting that MeHg delivery to the water column from methylation sites from within or outside of the estuary may be an important driver of MeHg bioaccumulation in estuarine pelagic food webs. In contrast, bulk sediment MeHg concentrations were only predictive of concentrations of MeHg in the infaunal worms. Our results across a broad gradient of sites demonstrate that the pathways of MeHg to lower trophic level estuarine organisms are distinctly different between benthic deposit feeders and forage fish. Thus, even in systems with contaminated sediments, transfer of MeHg into estuarine food webs maybe driven more by the efficiency of processes that determine MeHg input and bioavailability in the water column. PMID:24558491

Chen, Celia Y; Borsuk, Mark E; Bugge, Deenie M; Hollweg, Terill; Balcom, Prentiss H; Ward, Darren M; Williams, Jason; Mason, Robert P

2014-01-01

249

The relationships between mercury and selenium in plankton and fish from a tropical food web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Selenium (Se) has been shown to reduce mercury (Hg) bioavailability and trophic transfer in aquatic ecosystems. The study\\u000a of methylmercury (MeHg) and Se bioaccumulation by plankton is therefore of great significance in order to obtain a better\\u000a understanding of the estuarine processes concerning Hg and Se accumulation and biomagnification throughout the food web. In\\u000a the western South

Helena do A. Kehrig; Tércia G. Seixas; Elisabete A. Palermo; Aida P. Baêta; Christina W. Castelo-Branco; Olaf Malm; Isabel Moreira

2009-01-01

250

Longer and Less Overlapping Food Webs in Anthropogenically Disturbed Marine Ecosystems: Confirmations from the Past  

PubMed Central

The human exploitation of marine resources is characterised by the preferential removal of the largest species. Although this is expected to modify the structure of food webs, we have a relatively poor understanding of the potential consequences of such alteration. Here, we take advantage of a collection of ancient consumer tissues, using stable isotope analysis and SIBER to assess changes in the structure of coastal marine food webs in the South-western Atlantic through the second half of the Holocene as a result of the sequential exploitation of marine resources by hunter-gatherers, western sealers and modern fishermen. Samples were collected from shell middens and museums. Shells of both modern and archaeological intertidal herbivorous molluscs were used to reconstruct changes in the stable isotopic baseline, while modern and archaeological bones of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens, South American fur seal Arctocephalus australis and Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus were used to analyse changes in the structure of the community of top predators. We found that ancient food webs were shorter, more redundant and more overlapping than current ones, both in northern-central Patagonia and southern Patagonia. These surprising results may be best explained by the huge impact of western sealing on pinnipeds during the fur trade period, rather than the impact of fishing on fish populations. As a consequence, the populations of pinnipeds at the end of the sealing period were likely well below the ecosystem's carrying capacity, which resulted in a release of intraspecific competition and a shift towards larger and higher trophic level prey. This in turn led to longer and less overlapping food webs. PMID:25076042

Saporiti, Fabiana; Bearhop, Stuart; Silva, Laura; Vales, Damián G.; Zenteno, Lisette; Crespo, Enrique A.; Aguilar, Alex; Cardona, Luis

2014-01-01

251

Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification of Organochlorines in a Marine Food Web at a Pristine Site in Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine (OC) bioaccumulation and biomagnification were studied in a marine food web at a pristine site in Iceland.\\u000a The species studied were the gastropod and grazer chink shell (Lacuna vincta), the filter feeding bivalve blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), the predators butterfish (Pholis gunnellus), and the seabird black guillemot (Cepphus grylle), all sampled and analysed in 1996–1997. Individual OC levels were

Halldora Skarphedinsdottir; Karl Gunnarsson; Gudmundur A. Gudmundsson; Erick Nfon

2010-01-01

252

Current opinions: Zeros in host–parasite food webs: Are they real??  

PubMed Central

As the data have poured in, and the number of published food webs containing parasites has increased, questions have been raised as to why free-living species consistently outnumber parasites, even though most general reviews on the subject of host:parasite species richness suggest the contrary. Here, I describe this pattern as it exists in the literature, posit both real and artifactual sources of these findings, and suggest ways that we might interpret existing parasite-inclusive food webs. In large part, the reporting of free-living species devoid of any associated parasites (termed here in the coding of food web matrices as “zeros”) is a consequence of either sampling issues or the intent of the study. However, there are also several powerful explanatory features that validate real cases of this phenomenon. Some hosts appear to authentically lack parasitism in portions of their geographic ranges, and parasites are often lost from systems that are either in early phases of community re-colonization or are compromised by environmental perturbation. Additionally, multi-stage parasite life cycles and broad host spectra allow some parasite species to partially saturate systems without providing a corresponding increase in parasite species richness, leading to low parasite species richness values relative to the free-living community. On the whole, the existing published food webs are sufficient to, at least in principle, determine basic patterns and pathways associated with parasite establishment and persistence in free-living communities because (1) for the purpose of those features, species rarity is roughly analogous to absence and (2) the existing data seem to suggest that the addition of more parasite taxa would reinforce the patterns already observed. This is particularly true for helminth parasites, in which our understanding and the resolution of our work is most robust. PMID:24533341

Rossiter, Wayne

2013-01-01

253

Influence of lake characteristics on the biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in lake trout food webs.  

PubMed

The biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and major organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied using lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and other food web organisms collected from 17 lakes in Canada and the northeastern United States between 1998 and 2001. Whole lake trout (n = 357) concentrations of the sum (Sigma) of 57 PCB congeners ranged between 1.67 and 2,890 ng/g wet weight (median 61.5 ng/g wet wt). Slimy sculpin had the highest mean concentrations of SigmaPCB of all forage fish (32-73 ng/g wet wt). Positive relationships between log (lipid wt) concentrations of PCB congener 153, PCB congener 52, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, or dieldrin and trophic level (determined using stable nitrogen isotope ratios) were found for most of the 17 food webs, indicating biomagnification of these PCBs and OCPs. The p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene had the highest trophic magnification factors (TMFs) of the 14 individual compounds studied, averaging 4.0 +/- 1.8 across the 17 lakes, followed by trans-nonachlor (3.6 +/- 1.5) and PCB congener 153 (3.4 +/- 1.2). Average TMFs for 14 individual PCBs or OCPs were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficient, implying that the rate of accumulation along the food web is dependent on hydrophobicity and recalcitrance. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between TMFs of SigmaPCBs, hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, and lindane and lake area, latitude, and longitude, but not for 11 other PCBs or OCPs. Overall, the results of the present study show that biomagnification of PCBs and most OCPs, as measured by TMFs, is only weakly influenced by such factors as latitude and longitude. Exceptions are hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and hexachlorobenzene, which had generally greater TMFs in northern lakes, possibly due to lower rates of elimination and biotransformation in the food web. PMID:18444699

Houde, Magali; Muir, Derek C G; Kidd, Karen A; Guildford, Stephanie; Drouillard, Ken; Evans, Marlene S; Wang, Xiaowa; Whittle, D Michael; Haffner, Doug; Kling, Hedy

2008-10-01

254

Food web analysis of southern California coastal wetlands using multiple stable isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotopes were used to characterize the food webs (i.e., sources of carbon and trophic\\u000a status of consumers) in Tijuana Estuary and San Dieguito Lagoon. Producer groups were most clearly differentiated by carbon,\\u000a then by sulfur, and least clearly by nitrogen isotope measurements. Consumer 15N isotopic enrichment suggested that there are four trophic levels in the

Thomas J. Kwak; Joy B. Zedler

1997-01-01

255

Food Webs and Disease: Is Pathogen Diversity Limited by Vector Diversity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical predator–prey and host–parasite systems have been extensively studied in a food web context. Less attention has\\u000a been paid to communities that include pathogens and their vectors. We present a coarse-grained, pan-African analysis of the\\u000a relationships between the abiotic environment (location, precipitation, temperature), the species richness and community composition\\u000a of ixodid ticks, and the species richness and community composition of

Graeme S. Cumming; Jean-François Guégan

2006-01-01

256

Spatial and temporal operation of the Scotia Sea ecosystem: a review of large-scale links in a krill centred food web  

PubMed Central

The Scotia Sea ecosystem is a major component of the circumpolar Southern Ocean system, where productivity and predator demand for prey are high. The eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and waters from the Weddell–Scotia Confluence dominate the physics of the Scotia Sea, leading to a strong advective flow, intense eddy activity and mixing. There is also strong seasonality, manifest by the changing irradiance and sea ice cover, which leads to shorter summers in the south. Summer phytoplankton blooms, which at times can cover an area of more than 0.5 million km2, probably result from the mixing of micronutrients into surface waters through the flow of the ACC over the Scotia Arc. This production is consumed by a range of species including Antarctic krill, which are the major prey item of large seabird and marine mammal populations. The flow of the ACC is steered north by the Scotia Arc, pushing polar water to lower latitudes, carrying with it krill during spring and summer, which subsidize food webs around South Georgia and the northern Scotia Arc. There is also marked interannual variability in winter sea ice distribution and sea surface temperatures that is linked to southern hemisphere-scale climate processes such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. This variation affects regional primary and secondary production and influences biogeochemical cycles. It also affects krill population dynamics and dispersal, which in turn impacts higher trophic level predator foraging, breeding performance and population dynamics. The ecosystem has also been highly perturbed as a result of harvesting over the last two centuries and significant ecological changes have also occurred in response to rapid regional warming during the second half of the twentieth century. This combination of historical perturbation and rapid regional change highlights that the Scotia Sea ecosystem is likely to show significant change over the next two to three decades, which may result in major ecological shifts. PMID:17405210

Murphy, E.J; Watkins, J.L; Trathan, P.N; Reid, K; Meredith, M.P; Thorpe, S.E; Johnston, N.M; Clarke, A; Tarling, G.A; Collins, M.A; Forcada, J; Shreeve, R.S; Atkinson, A; Korb, R; Whitehouse, M.J; Ward, P; Rodhouse, P.G; Enderlein, P; Hirst, A.G; Martin, A.R; Hill, S.L; Staniland, I.J; Pond, D.W; Briggs, D.R; Cunningham, N.J; Fleming, A.H

2006-01-01

257

An isotopic investigation of mercury accumulation in terrestrial food webs adjacent to an Arctic seabird colony.  

PubMed

At Cape Vera (Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada), a seabird colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) congregates and releases nutrients through the deposition of guano to the coastal terrestrial environment, thus creating nutrient-fertilized habitats important to insects, birds, and mammals. Here we determined whether mercury was similarly enriched in various terrestrial food web components in this High Arctic coastal ecosystem due to seabird inputs. Stable isotopes (delta(15)N, delta(13)C) were used to identify trophic linkages and possible routes of contaminant transfer in the food web. Values of delta(15)N were significantly higher in lichens and certain plants collected closer to the bird colony, demonstrating a gradient of seabird influence, and were higher at Cape Vera than our reference site at Cape Herschel, on eastern Ellesmere Island, an area relatively unaffected by seabirds. In contrast, delta(13)C showed little variation among terrestrial species, suggesting minimal influence by seabirds. Concentrations of total mercury (THg) in primary producers and phyto/zooplankton were not significantly correlated with distance from the seabird colony or delta(15)N values, and were similar to other taxa from the High Arctic. Our results provide novel data on THg in several Arctic taxa where concentrations have not been reported previously. Moreover, the analyses indicate that delta(15)N is significantly enriched in the adjacent environment by guano fertilization, but our study was unable to show an enrichment of THg and delta(13)C in the terrestrial food web near the seabird colony. PMID:20153017

Choy, Emily S; Gauthier, Martine; Mallory, Mark L; Smol, John P; Douglas, Marianne S V; Lean, David; Blais, Jules M

2010-03-15

258

Mercury Bioavailability and Bioaccumulation in Estuarine Food Webs in the Gulf of Maine  

PubMed Central

Marine food webs are important links between Hg in the environment and human exposure via consumption of fish. Estuaries contain sediment repositories of Hg and are also critical habitat for marine fish and shellfish species consumed by humans. MeHg biotransfers from sites of production in estuarine sediments to higher trophic levels via both benthic and pelagic pathways. In this study, we investigated the potential for Hg biotransfer to estuarine food webs across a Hg contamination gradient in the Gulf of Maine. Despite the variation in sediment Hg concentrations across sites (>100 fold), Hg concentrations in biota ranged by only 2–4 fold for each species across sites. Sediment contamination alone explained some variation in Hg and MeHg concentrations in biota across sites. However, biogeochemical and ecological factors also explained significant variation in Hg bioaccumulation across species. Contaminated sites had higher total organic carbon concentrations in sediments, which related to a decrease in Hg bioaccumulation (measured as biota-sediment concentration factors, BSCF). Moreover, concentrations of MeHg were higher in pelagic-feeding than benthic-feeding fauna (determined from delta 13C) indicating the importance of pelagic pathways in transferring MeHg. Lastly, the proportion of total Hg as MeHg increased with trophic level (measured as delta 15N). These results reveal the importance of both biogeochemical and ecological factors in determining the bioavailability and trophic transfer of MeHg in estuarine food webs. PMID:19368175

Chen, Celia Y.; Dionne, Michele; Mayes, Brandon M.; Ward, Darren M.; Sturup, Stefan; Jackson, Brian P.

2009-01-01

259

Trophic transfer of dechloranes in the marine food web of Liaodong Bay, north China.  

PubMed

Dechloranes are of particular concern because of their ubiquity in environmental matrices, but little is known about their trophic transfer in aquatic food web. This study investigated the trophic transfer of seven dechloranes in a marine food web from Liaodong Bay, China. Dechloranes were determined in sediments and 15 marine species including benthic invertebrates, fish and gulls collected from Liaodong Bay. Biomagnification factors (BMFTL) of dechloranes in black-headed gulls were calculated to be 6.4, 1.7, 0.45, 0.36, 0.14, and 0.11 for mirex, Dechlorane 602 (Dec 602), Dechlorane 603 (Dec 603), antiundecachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (anti-Cl11DP), syn-dechlorane plus (syn-DP), and anti-DP. Significantly positive relationships were found between lipid equivalent concentrations of mirex, Dec 602, and anti-Cl11DP and trophic levels, and the trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were 13, 3.7, and 5.6, respectively, indicating that these compounds undergo trophic magnification in the aquatic food web. Lipid equivalent concentrations of Dec 603 and DP isomers did not exhibit a statistically significant correlation with trophic levels. The relatively low trophic magnification potentials of Dec 603 and DP isomers were possibly due to their extreme hydrophobicity (logKOW: 11.2-11.3) and subsequent low bioavailabilities compared with mirex (7.0), Dec 602 (8.1) and anti-Cl11DP. The results provided important information for understanding the ecological risk of dechloranes. PMID:24702310

Peng, Hui; Wan, Yi; Zhang, Kun; Sun, Jianxian; Hu, Jianying

2014-05-20

260

On the interplay of speciation and dispersal: an evolutionary food web model in space.  

PubMed

We introduce an evolutionary metacommunity of multitrophic food webs on several habitats coupled by migration. In contrast to previous studies that focus either on evolutionary or on spatial aspects, we include both and investigate the interplay between them. Locally, the species emerge, interact and go extinct according to the rules of the well-known evolutionary food web model proposed by Loeuille and Loreau (2005). Additionally, species are able to migrate between the habitats. With random migration, we are able to reproduce common trends in diversity-dispersal relationships: Regional diversity decreases with increasing migration rates, whereas local diversity can increase in case of a low level of dispersal. Moreover, we find that the total biomasses in the different patches become similar even when species composition remains different. With adaptive migration, we observe species compositions that differ considerably between patches and contain species that are descendant from ancestors on both patches. This result indicates that the combination of spatial aspects and evolutionary processes affects the structure of food webs in different ways than each of them alone. PMID:25446710

Allhoff, Korinna T; Weiel, Eva Marie; Rogge, Tobias; Drossel, Barbara

2015-02-01

261

Lipids of prokaryotic origin at the base of marine food webs.  

PubMed

In particular niches of the marine environment, such as abyssal trenches, icy waters and hot vents, the base of the food web is composed of bacteria and archaea that have developed strategies to survive and thrive under the most extreme conditions. Some of these organisms are considered "extremophiles" and modulate the fatty acid composition of their phospholipids to maintain the adequate fluidity of the cellular membrane under cold/hot temperatures, elevated pressure, high/low salinity and pH. Bacterial cells are even able to produce polyunsaturated fatty acids, contrarily to what was considered until the 1990s, helping the regulation of the membrane fluidity triggered by temperature and pressure and providing protection from oxidative stress. In marine ecosystems, bacteria may either act as a sink of carbon, contribute to nutrient recycling to photo-autotrophs or bacterial organic matter may be transferred to other trophic links in aquatic food webs. The present work aims to provide a comprehensive review on lipid production in bacteria and archaea and to discuss how their lipids, of both heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic origin, contribute to marine food webs. PMID:23342392

de Carvalho, Carla C C R; Caramujo, Maria José

2012-12-01

262

Evolution mediates the effects of apex predation on aquatic food webs.  

PubMed

Ecological and evolutionary mechanisms are increasingly thought to shape local community dynamics. Here, I evaluate if the local adaptation of a meso-predator to an apex predator alters local food webs. The marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) is an apex predator that consumes both the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and shared zooplankton prey. Common garden experiments reveal that spotted salamander populations which co-occur with marbled salamanders forage more intensely than those that face other predator species. These foraging differences, in turn, alter the diversity, abundance and composition of zooplankton communities in common garden experiments and natural ponds. Locally adapted spotted salamanders exacerbate prey biomass declines associated with apex predation, but dampen the top-down effects of apex predation on prey diversity. Countergradient selection on foraging explains why locally adapted spotted salamanders exacerbate prey biomass declines. The two salamander species prefer different prey species, which explains why adapted spotted salamanders buffer changes in prey composition owing to apex predation. Results suggest that local adaptation can strongly mediate effects from apex predation on local food webs. Community ecologists might often need to consider the evolutionary history of populations to understand local diversity patterns, food web dynamics, resource gradients and their responses to disturbance. PMID:23720548

Urban, Mark C

2013-07-22

263

Nitrogen Addition and Warming Independently Influence the Belowground Micro-Food Web in a Temperate Steppe  

PubMed Central

Climate warming and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are known to influence ecosystem structure and functioning. However, our understanding of the interactive effect of these global changes on ecosystem functioning is relatively limited, especially when it concerns the responses of soils and soil organisms. We conducted a field experiment to study the interactive effects of warming and N addition on soil food web. The experiment was established in 2006 in a temperate steppe in northern China. After three to four years (2009–2010), we found that N addition positively affected microbial biomass and negatively influenced trophic group and ecological indices of soil nematodes. However, the warming effects were less obvious, only fungal PLFA showed a decreasing trend under warming. Interestingly, the influence of N addition did not depend on warming. Structural equation modeling analysis suggested that the direct pathway between N addition and soil food web components were more important than the indirect connections through alterations in soil abiotic characters or plant growth. Nitrogen enrichment also affected the soil nematode community indirectly through changes in soil pH and PLFA. We conclude that experimental warming influenced soil food web components of the temperate steppe less than N addition, and there was little influence of warming on N addition effects under these experimental conditions. PMID:23544140

Li, Qi; Bai, Huahua; Liang, Wenju; Xia, Jianyang; Wan, Shiqiang; van der Putten, Wim H.

2013-01-01

264

Metamorphosis alters contaminants and chemical tracers in insects: implications for food webs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Insects are integral to most freshwater and terrestrial food webs, but due to their accumulation of environmental pollutants they are also contaminant vectors that threaten reproduction, development, and survival of consumers. Metamorphosis from larvae to adult can cause large chemical changes in insects, altering contaminant concentrations and fractionation of chemical tracers used to establish contaminant biomagnification in food webs, but no framework exists for predicting and managing these effects. We analyzed data from 39 studies of 68 analytes (stable isotopes and contaminants), and found that metamorphosis effects varied greatly. ?15N, widely used to estimate relative trophic position in biomagnification studies, was enriched by 1‰ during metamorphosis, while ?13C used to estimate diet, was similar in larvae and adults. Metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly lost during metamorphosis leading to 2 to 125-fold higher larval concentrations and higher exposure risks for predators of larvae compared to predators of adults. In contrast, manufactured organic contaminants (such as polychlorinated biphenyls) were retained and concentrated in adults, causing up to 3-fold higher adult concentrations and higher exposure risks to predators of adult insects. Both food web studies and contaminant management and mitigation strategies need to consider how metamorphosis affects the movement of materials between habitats and ecosystems, with special regard for aquatic-terrestrial linkages.

Kraus, Johanna M.; Walters, David; Wesner, Jeff S.; Stricker, Craig A.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Zuellig, Robert E.

2014-01-01

265

Function and Food Webs of Springs Near Treeline in the Swiss National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated ecosystem function and food web structure of high elevation springs in the Swiss National Park. Functional characteristics were derived from measures of ecosystem metabolism, sediment respiration, and nutrient uptake experiments in 4 springs. Food webs were assessed using stable isotope analysis (C, N) of different ecosystem compartments from 20 springs encompassing 6 different spring types. Gross primary production (GPP) ranged from 2.4 to 4.3 g O2 m-2 d-1 and ecosystem respiration (ER) from 3.6 to 6.7 g O2 m-2 d-1, suggesting springs were net-heterotrophic (P/R<0.75). One iron-oxide rich spring had GPP = 65 and ER = 96 g O2 m-2 d-1. Bacterial abundances (DAPI) ranged from 2-3×108 cells/ml, and benthic sediments were mostly anaerobic. Uptake lengths of both N and P were <50 m, with uptake rates of P at 0.3-3.1 mg m-2 h-1 and N at 57-178 mg m-2 h-1, suggesting springs were important nutrient sinks. Food webs were simple (<8 taxa) and primarily detritus based. The dominate stonefly predator relied on instream production of invertebrates. Terrestrial predators (lycosid spiders) near springs fed on a terrestrial diet. These data suggest these springs derive most of their energy from allochthonous sources and are net-heterotrophic ecosystems.

Robinson, C. T.; Schmid, D.; Svoboda, M.

2005-05-01

266

Metamorphosis alters contaminants and chemical tracers in insects: implications for food webs.  

PubMed

Insects are integral to most freshwater and terrestrial food webs, but due to their accumulation of environmental pollutants they are also contaminant vectors that threaten reproduction, development, and survival of consumers. Metamorphosis from larvae to adult can cause large chemical changes in insects, altering contaminant concentrations and fractionation of chemical tracers used to establish contaminant biomagnification in food webs, but no framework exists for predicting and managing these effects. We analyzed data from 39 studies of 68 analytes (stable isotopes and contaminants), and found that metamorphosis effects varied greatly. ?(15)N, widely used to estimate relative trophic position in biomagnification studies, was enriched by ? 1‰ during metamorphosis, while ?(13)C used to estimate diet, was similar in larvae and adults. Metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly lost during metamorphosis leading to ? 2 to 125-fold higher larval concentrations and higher exposure risks for predators of larvae compared to predators of adults. In contrast, manufactured organic contaminants (such as polychlorinated biphenyls) were retained and concentrated in adults, causing up to ? 3-fold higher adult concentrations and higher exposure risks to predators of adult insects. Both food web studies and contaminant management and mitigation strategies need to consider how metamorphosis affects the movement of materials between habitats and ecosystems, with special regard for aquatic-terrestrial linkages. PMID:25136925

Kraus, Johanna M; Walters, David M; Wesner, Jeff S; Stricker, Craig A; Schmidt, Travis S; Zuellig, Robert E

2014-09-16

267

A Test of Top-down and Bottom-up Control in a Detritus-Based Food Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

In food webs based on primary production, biomass of organisms within trophic levels can be simultaneously controlled by resources (bottom-up) and consumers (top-down). In contrast, very little is known about top-down and bottom-up control in detritus-based food webs. Here, we tested whether exclusion of macroconsumers (fishes and shrimps) and\\/or phosphorus (P) addition affected insect detritivore biomass and decay rate and

Amy D. Rosemond; Catherine M. Pringle; Alonso Ramirez; Michael J. Paul

2001-01-01

268

Food-web traits of the North Aegean Sea ecosystem (Eastern Mediterranean) and comparison with other Mediterranean ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mass-balance trophic model was built to describe the food-web traits of the North Aegean Sea (Strymonikos Gulf and Thracian Sea, Greece, Eastern Mediterranean) during the mid-2000s and to explore the impacts of fishing. This is the first food-web model representing the Aegean Sea, and results were presented and discussed in comparison to other previous ecosystems modelled from the western

K. Tsagarakis; M. Coll; M. Giannoulaki; S. Somarakis; C. Papaconstantinou; A. Machias

2010-01-01

269

Dynamics of microbial planktonic food web components during a river flash flood in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Episodic river flash floods, characteristic of Mediterranean climates, are suspected to greatly affect the functioning of\\u000a microbial food webs. For the first time, the abundance, biomass and diversities of microbial food web components were studied\\u000a before and during 4 consecutive days after a flash flood that occurred in November 2008, in the surface waters of five stations\\u000a along a salinity

David Pecqueur; Francesca Vidussi; Eric Fouilland; Emilie Le Floc’h; Sebastien Mas; Cecile Roques; Christian Salles; Marie-George Tournoud; Behzad Mostajir

2011-01-01

270

Antarctic Meteorology Online from the British Antarctic Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Antarctic Meteorology Online Web site is provided by the British Antarctic Survey and the Natural Environment Research Council. Visitors will find weather reports provided by the dozens of stations located in the Antarctic. The Web master has made these data accessible by each specific station; by a clickable map; by a list of all land, ship, or buoy stations; or by an oracle database interface. The reports are at least 10 minutes old and are normally not more than six hours old. The information provided includes a graph of pressure and temperature, as well as links to previous reports, which make the site a good and easily accessible resource. This site is also reviewed in the November 27, 2002 Scout Report.

2001-01-01

271

The effects of mixotrophy on the stability and dynamics of a simple planktonic food web model.  

PubMed

Recognition of the microbial loop as an important part of aquatic ecosystems disrupted the notion of simple linear food chains. However, current research suggests that even the microbial loop paradigm is a gross simplification of microbial interactions due to the presence of mixotrophs-organisms that both photosynthesize and graze. We present a simple food web model with four trophic species, three of them arranged in a food chain (nutrients-autotrophs-herbivores) and the fourth as a mixotroph with links to both the nutrients and the autotrophs. This model is used to study the general implications of inclusion of the mixotrophic link in microbial food webs and the specific predictions for a parameterization that describes open ocean mixed layer plankton dynamics. The analysis indicates that the system parameters reside in a region of the parameter space where the dynamics converge to a stable equilibrium rather than displaying periodic or chaotic solutions. However, convergence requires weeks to months, suggesting that the system would never reach equilibrium in the ocean due to alteration of the physical forcing regime. Most importantly, the mixotrophic grazing link seems to stabilize the system in this region of the parameter space, particularly when nutrient recycling feedback loops are included. PMID:15225574

Jost, Christian; Lawrence, Cathryn A; Campolongo, Francesca; van de Bund, Wouter; Hill, Sheryl; DeAngelis, Don L

2004-08-01

272

Analyzing trophic transfer of metals in stream food webs using nitrogen isotopes.  

PubMed

This study examines detrimental effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) on stream invertebrate communities and tests for a direct relationship between trophic position and accumulation of three metals (Fe, Cu, Zn) by stream invertebrates in situ. On two dates in each of seven stream sites, we measured food chain length, mean trophic level, taxa richness, and trophic position of stream macroinvertebrates comprising the food webs using stable nitrogen isotope ratios. Metals in tissue of representatives of 35 taxa were measured by ICP-OES. Our results are the first direct comparison of uptake of these metals in stream invertebrate taxa according to trophic position as identified by delta15N. As predicted, metal concentrations were generally greater in water and insects from sites adjacent to mining activity and invertebrate taxa richness was significantly lower. Taxa richness increased with distance away from contaminated headwaters. Despite reductions in diversity at sites nearest AMD, food chain length and mean trophic level did not differ between streams. The relationship between trophic position and metal accumulation differed considerably among metals. Specifically, Fe declined (biodilution) and Zn increased (biomagnification) with trophic level, but trophic position had no effect on Cu levels in these insects. Our results highlight fundamental differences in trophic transfer of specific metals through aquatic food webs and identify ecologically important impacts of AMD on stream invertebrates. PMID:14630413

Quinn, Margaret R; Feng, Xiahong; Folt, Carol L; Chamberlain, C Page

2003-12-30

273

Antarctic Fishes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

1986-01-01

274

Antarctic Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In contrast with its largely lifeless interior, the Antarctic coastal marine environment supports a vibrant and diverse ecosystem. Explore the region's living bounty in this interactive activity adapted from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

2008-01-17

275

Humans Strengthen Bottom-Up Effects and Weaken Trophic Cascades in a Terrestrial Food Web  

PubMed Central

Ongoing debate about whether food webs are primarily regulated by predators or by primary plant productivity, cast as top-down and bottom-up effects, respectively, may becoming superfluous. Given that most of the world's ecosystems are human dominated we broadened this dichotomy by considering human effects in a terrestrial food-web. We studied a multiple human-use landscape in southwest Alberta, Canada, as opposed to protected areas where previous terrestrial food-web studies have been conducted. We used structural equation models (SEMs) to assess the strength and direction of relationships between the density and distribution of: (1) humans, measured using a density index; (2) wolves (Canis lupus), elk (Cervus elpahus) and domestic cattle (Bos taurus), measured using resource selection functions, and; (3) forage quality, quantity and utilization (measured at vegetation sampling plots). Relationships were evaluated by taking advantage of temporal and spatial variation in human density, including day versus night, and two landscapes with the highest and lowest human density in the study area. Here we show that forage-mediated effects of humans had primacy over predator-mediated effects in the food web. In our parsimonious SEM, occurrence of humans was most correlated with occurrence of forage (??=?0.637, p<0.0001). Elk and cattle distribution were correlated with forage (elk day: ??=?0.400, p<0.0001; elk night: ??=?0.369, p<0.0001; cattle day: ??=?0.403, p<0.0001; cattle, night: ??=?0.436, p<0.0001), and the distribution of elk or cattle and wolves were positively correlated during daytime (elk: ??=?0.293, p <0.0001, cattle: ??=?0.303, p<0.0001) and nighttime (elk: ??=?0.460, p<0.0001, cattle: ??=?0.482, p<0.0001). Our results contrast with research conducted in protected areas that suggested human effects in the food web are primarily predator-mediated. Instead, human influence on vegetation may strengthen bottom-up predominance and weaken top-down trophic cascades in ecosystems. We suggest that human influences on ecosystems may usurp top-down and bottom-up effects. PMID:23667705

Muhly, Tyler B.; Hebblewhite, Mark; Paton, Dale; Pitt, Justin A.; Boyce, Mark S.; Musiani, Marco

2013-01-01

276

Humans strengthen bottom-up effects and weaken trophic cascades in a terrestrial food web.  

PubMed

Ongoing debate about whether food webs are primarily regulated by predators or by primary plant productivity, cast as top-down and bottom-up effects, respectively, may becoming superfluous. Given that most of the world's ecosystems are human dominated we broadened this dichotomy by considering human effects in a terrestrial food-web. We studied a multiple human-use landscape in southwest Alberta, Canada, as opposed to protected areas where previous terrestrial food-web studies have been conducted. We used structural equation models (SEMs) to assess the strength and direction of relationships between the density and distribution of: (1) humans, measured using a density index; (2) wolves (Canis lupus), elk (Cervus elapahus) and domestic cattle (Bos taurus), measured using resource selection functions, and; (3) forage quality, quantity and utilization (measured at vegetation sampling plots). Relationships were evaluated by taking advantage of temporal and spatial variation in human density, including day versus night, and two landscapes with the highest and lowest human density in the study area. Here we show that forage-mediated effects of humans had primacy over predator-mediated effects in the food web. In our parsimonious SEM, occurrence of humans was most correlated with occurrence of forage (??=?0.637, p<0.0001). Elk and cattle distribution were correlated with forage (elk day: ??=?0.400, p<0.0001; elk night: ??=?0.369, p<0.0001; cattle day: ??=?0.403, p<0.0001; cattle, night: ??=?0.436, p<0.0001), and the distribution of elk or cattle and wolves were positively correlated during daytime (elk: ??=?0.293, p <0.0001, cattle: ??=?0.303, p<0.0001) and nighttime (elk: ??=?0.460, p<0.0001, cattle: ??=?0.482, p<0.0001). Our results contrast with research conducted in protected areas that suggested human effects in the food web are primarily predator-mediated. Instead, human influence on vegetation may strengthen bottom-up predominance and weaken top-down trophic cascades in ecosystems. We suggest that human influences on ecosystems may usurp top-down and bottom-up effects. PMID:23667705

Muhly, Tyler B; Hebblewhite, Mark; Paton, Dale; Pitt, Justin A; Boyce, Mark S; Musiani, Marco

2013-01-01

277

Impact of proliferation strategies on food web viability in a model with closed nutrient cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A food web model with a closed nutrient cycle is presented and analyzed via Monte Carlo simulations. The model consists of three trophic levels, each of which is populated by animals of one distinct species. While the species at the intermediate level feeds on the basal species, and is eaten by the predators living at the highest level, the basal species itself uses the detritus of animals from higher levels as the food resource. The individual organisms remain localized, but the species can invade new lattice areas via proliferation. The impact of different proliferation strategies on the viability of the system is investigated. From the phase diagrams generated in the simulations it follows that in general a strategy with the intermediate level species searching for food is the best for the survival of the system. The results indicate that both the intermediate and top level species play a critical role in maintaining the structure of the system.

Szwabi?ski, Janusz

2012-11-01

278

Linking ecosystems, food webs, and fish production: Subsidies in salmonid watersheds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Physical characteristics of riverine habitats, such as large wood abundance, pool geometry and abundance, riparian vegetation cover, and surface flow conditions, have traditionally been thought to constrain fish production in these ecosystems. Conversely, the role of food resources (quantity and quality) in controlling fish production has received far less attention and consideration, though they can also be key productivity drivers. Traditional freshwater food web illustrations have typically conveyed the notion that most fish food is produced within the local aquatic habitat itself, but the concepts and model we synthesize in this article show that most fish food comes from external or very distant sources-including subsidies from marine systems borne from adult returns of anadromous fishes, from fishless headwater tributaries that transport prey to downstream fish, and from adjacent streamside vegetation and associated habitats. The model we propose further illustrates how key trophic pathways and food sources vary through time and space throughout watersheds. Insights into how food supplies affect fishes can help guide how we view riverine ecosystems, their structure and function, their interactions with marine and terrestrial systems, and how we manage natural resources, including fish, riparian habitats, and forests.

Wipfli, M.S.; Baxter, C.V.

2010-01-01

279

Antarctic Krill 454 Pyrosequencing Reveals Chaperone and Stress Transcriptome  

PubMed Central

Background The Antarctic krill Euphausia superba is a keystone species in the Antarctic food chain. Not only is it a significant grazer of phytoplankton, but it is also a major food item for charismatic megafauna such as whales and seals and an important Southern Ocean fisheries crop. Ecological data suggest that this species is being affected by climate change and this will have considerable consequences for the balance of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Hence, understanding how this organism functions is a priority area and will provide fundamental data for life history studies, energy budget calculations and food web models. Methodology/Principal Findings The assembly of the 454 transcriptome of E. superba resulted in 22,177 contigs with an average size of 492bp (ranging between 137 and 8515bp). In depth analysis of the data revealed an extensive catalogue of the cellular chaperone systems and the major antioxidant proteins. Full length sequences were characterised for the chaperones HSP70, HSP90 and the super-oxide dismutase antioxidants, with the discovery of potentially novel duplications of these genes. The sequence data contained 41,470 microsatellites and 17,776 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs/INDELS), providing a resource for population and also gene function studies. Conclusions This paper details the first 454 generated data for a pelagic Antarctic species or any pelagic crustacean globally. The classical “stress proteins”, such as HSP70, HSP90, ferritin and GST were all highly expressed. These genes were shown to be over expressed in the transcriptomes of Antarctic notothenioid fish and hypothesized as adaptations to living in the cold, with the associated problems of decreased protein folding efficiency and increased vulnerability to damage by reactive oxygen species. Hence, these data will provide a major resource for future physiological work on krill, but in particular a suite of “stress” genes for studies understanding marine ectotherms' capacities to cope with environmental change. PMID:21253607

Clark, Melody S.; Thorne, Michael A. S.; Toullec, Jean-Yves; Meng, Yan; Guan, Le Luo; Peck, Lloyd S.; Moore, Stephen

2011-01-01

280

Factors affecting biotic mercury concentrations and biomagnification through lake food webs in the Canadian high Arctic.  

PubMed

In temperate regions of Canada, mercury (Hg) concentrations in biota and the magnitude of Hg biomagnification through food webs vary between neighboring lakes and are related to water chemistry variables and physical lake features. However, few studies have examined factors affecting the variable Hg concentrations in landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) or the biomagnification of Hg through their food webs. We estimated the food web structure of six high Arctic lakes near Resolute Bay, Nunavut, Canada, using stable carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) isotopes and measured Hg (total Hg (THg) in char, the only fish species, and methylmercury (MeHg) in chironomids and zooplankton) concentrations in biota collected in 2010 and 2011. Across lakes, ?(13)C showed that benthic carbon (chironomids) was the dominant food source for char. Regression models of log Hg versus ?(15)N (of char and benthic invertebrates) showed positive and significant slopes, indicting Hg biomagnification in all lakes, and higher slopes in some lakes than others. However, no principal components (PC) generated using all water chemistry data and physical characteristics of the lakes predicted the different slopes. The PC dominated by aqueous ions was a negative predictor of MeHg concentrations in chironomids, suggesting that water chemistry affects Hg bioavailability and MeHg concentrations in these lower-trophic-level organisms. Furthermore, regression intercepts were predicted by the PCs dominated by catchment area, aqueous ions, and MeHg. Weaker relationships were also found between THg in small char or MeHg in pelagic invertebrates and the PCs dominated by catchment area, and aqueous nitrate and MeHg. Results from these high Arctic lakes suggest that Hg biomagnification differs between systems and that their physical and chemical characteristics affect Hg concentrations in lower-trophic-level biota. PMID:24909711

Lescord, Gretchen L; Kidd, Karen A; Kirk, Jane L; O'Driscoll, Nelson J; Wang, Xiaowa; Muir, Derek C G

2015-03-15

281

Nutrient Enrichment and Food Web Composition Affect Ecosystem Metabolism in an Experimental Seagrass Habitat  

PubMed Central

Background Food web composition and resource levels can influence ecosystem properties such as productivity and elemental cycles. In particular, herbivores occupy a central place in food webs as the species richness and composition of this trophic level may simultaneously influence the transmission of resource and predator effects to higher and lower trophic levels, respectively. Yet, these interactions are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an experimental seagrass mesocosm system, we factorially manipulated water column nutrient concentrations, food chain length, and diversity of crustacean grazers to address two questions: (1) Does food web composition modulate the effects of nutrient enrichment on plant and grazer biomasses and stoichiometry? (2) Do ecosystem fluxes of dissolved oxygen and nutrients more closely reflect above-ground biomass and community structure or sediment processes? Nutrient enrichment and grazer presence generally had strong effects on biomass accumulation, stoichiometry, and ecosystem fluxes, whereas predator effects were weaker or absent. Nutrient enrichment had little effect on producer biomass or net ecosystem production but strongly increased seagrass nutrient content, ecosystem flux rates, and grazer secondary production, suggesting that enhanced production was efficiently transferred from producers to herbivores. Gross ecosystem production (oxygen evolution) correlated positively with above-ground plant biomass, whereas inorganic nutrient fluxes were unrelated to plant or grazer biomasses, suggesting dominance by sediment microbial processes. Finally, grazer richness significantly stabilized ecosystem processes, as predators decreased ecosystem production and respiration only in the zero- and one- species grazer treatments. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results indicate that consumer presence and species composition strongly influence ecosystem responses to nutrient enrichment, and that increasing herbivore diversity can stabilize ecosystem flux rates in the face of perturbations. PMID:19829713

Spivak, Amanda C.; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Duffy, J. Emmett; Richardson, J. Paul

2009-01-01

282

The construction of web database server-client system for functional food factors.  

PubMed

In food, other than known nutrients, such as lipid, carbohydrate, protein, vitamins, and minerals, many substances with physiological function and medicinal action exist, and it is contributing to healthy improvement and/or prevention of illness. Although carotenoid, flavonoid and polyphenol, terpenoid, volatile substance and sulfur compounds, peptide, etc. have the function of illness prevention, and research of those non-nutrient functional food factors (FFF) became globally active, the research of this field is not yet done systematically. We evaluate function of FFF and reappraise known knowledge, and this knowledge is standardized and accumulated, aimed at building a web database server-client system which is easy to use for the people and nutritional research. We also collected related data such as chemical characters of FFF from literatures and other source, and formatted them into the database. We constructed the web database server-client system with MySQL database server and Apache web server based on Linux, and used Tomcat JSP engine for data connecting since they were reliable in stability and speed. We are opening the database at http://www.life-science.jp/FFF for test now. PMID:15630306

Zhuo, Xing-Gang; Watanabe, Shaw

2004-01-01

283

THE CONTRIBUTION OF MICROARTHROPODS TO ABOVE GROUND FOOD WEBS: A REVIEW AND MODEL OF BELOW GROUND TRANSFER IN A CONIFEROUS FOREST  

EPA Science Inventory

Although belowground food webs have received much attention, studies concerning microarthropods in nondetrital food webs are scarce. Because adult oribatid mites often number between 250,000-500,000/m(2) in coniferous forests, microarthropods are a potential food resource for mic...

284

Parasites reduce food web robustness because they are sensitive to secondary extinction as illustrated by an invasive estuarine snail  

PubMed Central

A robust food web is one in which few secondary extinctions occur after removing species. We investigated how parasites affected the robustness of the Carpinteria Salt Marsh food web by conducting random species removals and a hypothetical, but plausible, species invasion. Parasites were much more likely than free-living species to suffer secondary extinctions following the removal of a free-living species from the food web. For this reason, the food web was less robust with the inclusion of parasites. Removal of the horn snail, Cerithidea californica, resulted in a disproportionate number of secondary parasite extinctions. The exotic Japanese mud snail, Batillaria attramentaria, is the ecological analogue of the native California horn snail and can completely replace it following invasion. Owing to the similarities between the two snail species, the invasion had no effect on predator–prey interactions. However, because the native snail is host for 17 host-specific parasites, and the invader is host to only one, comparison of a food web that includes parasites showed significant effects of invasion on the native community. The hypothetical invasion also significantly reduced the connectance of the web because the loss of 17 native trematode species eliminated many links. PMID:19451117

Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

2009-01-01

285

The Antarctic Master Directory -- a resource for Antarctic Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the auspices of the Antarctic Treaty, a group of nations conducting Antarctic scientific research have created the Antarctic Master Directory (AMD), a resource for Antarctic scientists. The AMD is a Web-based, searchable directory containing data descriptions (metadata in the form of DIF entries) of Antarctic scientific data, and is a node of the International Directory Network/Global Change Master Directory (IDN/GCMD). The data descriptions in the AMD, essentially a data catalog of Antarctic scientific data, include information about what data were collected, where they were collected, when they were collected, who the scientists are, who the point of contact is, and information about the format of the data and what documentation and bibliographic information exists. As part of the AMD effort, the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs (OPP) funds the National Snow and Ice Data Center to operate the U.S. Antarctic Data Coordination Center (USADCC), the US focal point for the AMD. The USADCC assists PIs as they meet the requirements of the OPP "Guidelines and Award Conditions for Scientific Data", which identify the conditions for awards and responsibilities of PIs regarding the archival of data, and submission of metadata, resulting from their NSF OPP grants. The USADCC offers access to free, easy-to-use online tools that PIs can use to create the data descriptions that the NSF policy data requires. We provide advice to PIs on how to meet the data policy requirements, and can answer specific questions on related issues. Scientists can access data set descriptions submitted to the AMD, by thousands of scientists around the world, from the USADCC web pages.

Scharfen, G.; Bauer, R.

2002-12-01

286

Determining the trophic guilds of fishes and macroinvertebrates in a seagrass food web  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We established trophic guilds of macroinvertebrate and fish taxa using correspondence analysis and a hierarchical clustering strategy for a seagrass food web in winter in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. To create the diet matrix, we characterized the trophic linkages of macroinvertebrate and fish taxa. present in Hatodule wrightii seagrass habitat areas within the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge (Florida) using binary data, combining dietary links obtained from relevant literature for macroinvertebrates with stomach analysis of common fishes collected during January and February of 1994. Heirarchical average-linkage cluster analysis of the 73 taxa of fishes and macroinvertebrates in the diet matrix yielded 14 clusters with diet similarity greater than or equal to 0.60. We then used correspondence analysis with three factors to jointly plot the coordinates of the consumers (identified by cluster membership) and of the 33 food sources. Correspondence analysis served as a visualization tool for assigning each taxon to one of eight trophic guilds: herbivores, detritivores, suspension feeders, omnivores, molluscivores, meiobenthos consumers, macrobenthos consumers, and piscivores. These trophic groups, cross-classified with major taxonomic groups, were further used to develop consumer compartments in a network analysis model of carbon flow in this seagrass ecosystem. The method presented here should greatly improve the development of future network models of food webs by providing an objective procedure for aggregating trophic groups.

Luczkovich, J.J.; Ward, G.P.; Johnson, J.C.; Christian, R.R.; Baird, D.; Neckles, H.; Rizzo, W.M.

2002-01-01

287

Effects of zebra mussels on food webs: Interactions with juvenile bluegill and water residence time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated how water residence time mediated the impact of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus on experimental food webs established in 1100-1 outdoor mesocosms. Water residence time was manipulated as a surrogate for seston resupply - a critical variable affecting growth and survival of suspension-feeding invertebrates. We used a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experimental design with eight treatment combinations (3 replicates/treatment) including the presence or absence of Dreissena (2000 per m2), juvenile bluegill (40 per mesocosm), and short (1100 1 per d) or long (220 1 per d) water residence time. Measures of seston concentration (chlorophyll a, turbidity and suspended solids) were greater in the short- compared to long water-residence mesocosms, but intermediate in short water-residence mesocosms containing Dreissena. Abundance of rotifers (Keratella and Polyarthra) was reduced in Dreissena mesocosms and elevated in short residence time mesocosms. Cladocera abundance, in general, was unaffected by the presence of Dreissena; densities were higher in short-residence time mesocosms, and reduced in the presence of Lepomis. The growth of juvenile Lepomis were unaffected by Dreissena because of abundant benthic food. The final total mass of Dreissena was significantly greater in short- than long-residence mesocosms. Impacts of Dreissena on planktonic food webs may not only depend on the density of zebra mussels but also on the residence time of the surrounding water and the resupply of seston. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Richardson, W.B.; Bartsch, L.A.

1997-01-01

288

Determining the trophic guilds of fishes and macroinvertebrates in a seagrass food web  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We established trophic guilds of macroinvertebrate and fish taxa using correspondence analysis and a hierarchical clustering strategy for a seagrass food web in winter in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. To create the diet matrix, we characterized the trophic linkages of macroinvertebrate and fish taxa present in Halodule wrightii seagrass habitat areas within the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge (Florida) using binary data, combining dietary links obtained from relevant literature for macroinvertebrates with stomach analysis of common fishes collected during January and February of 1994. Heirarchical average-linkage cluster analysis of the 73 taxa of fishes and macroinvertebrates in the diet matrix yielded 14 clusters with diet similarity ??? 0.60. We then used correspondence analysis with three factors to jointly plot the coordinates of the consumers (identified by cluster membership) and of the 33 food sources. Correspondence analysis served as a visualization tool for assigning each taxon to one of eight trophic guilds: herbivores, detritivores, suspension feeders, omnivores, molluscivores, meiobenthos consumers, macrobenthos consumers, and piscivores. These trophic groups, cross-classified with major taxonomic groups, were further used to develop consumer compartments in a network analysis model of carbon flow in this seagrass ecosystem. The method presented here should greatly improve the development of future network models of food webs by providing an objective procedure for aggregating trophic groups.

Luczkovich, J.J.; Ward, G.P.; Johnson, J.C.; Christian, R.R.; Baird, D.; Neckles, H.; Rizzo, W.M.

2002-01-01

289

Age and trophic position dominate bioaccumulation of mercury and organochlorines in the food web of Lake Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding the mechanisms of bioaccumulation in food webs is critical to predicting which food webs are at risk for higher rates of bioaccumulation that endanger the health of upper-trophic predators, including humans. Mercury and organochlorines were measured concurrently with stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon in key fishes and invertebrates of Lake Washington to explore important pathways of bioaccumulation in this food web. Across the food web, age and trophic position together were highly significant predictors of bioaccumulation. Trophic position was more important than age for predicting accumulation of mercury, ???DDT, and ???-chlordane, whereas age was more important than trophic position for predicting ???PCB. Excluding age from the analysis inflated the apparent importance of trophic position to bioaccumulation for all contaminants. Benthic and pelagic habitats had similar potential to bioaccumulate contaminants, although higher ???-chlordane concentrations in organisms were weakly associated with more benthic carbon signals. In individual fish species, contaminant concentrations increased with age, size, and trophic position (??15N), whereas relationships with carbon source (??13C) were not consistent. Lipid concentrations were correlated with contaminant concentrations in some but not all fishes, suggesting that lipids were not involved mechanistically in bioaccumulation. Contaminant concentrations in biota did not vary among littoral sites. Collectively, these results suggest that age may be an important determinant of bioaccumulation in many food webs and could help explain a significant amount of the variability in apparent biomagnification rates among food webs. As such, effort should be made when possible to collect information on organism age in addition to stable isotopes when assessing food webs for rates of biomagnification. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

McIntyre, J.K.; Beauchamp, D.A.

2007-01-01

290

Planktonic food webs revisited: Reanalysis of results from the linear inverse approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of the trophic pathway that dominates a given planktonic assemblage is generally based on the distribution of biomasses among food-web compartments, or better, the flows of materials or energy among compartments. These flows are obtained by field observations and a posteriori analyses, including the linear inverse approach. In the present study, we re-analysed carbon flows obtained by inverse analysis at 32 stations in the global ocean and one large lake. Our results do not support two “classical” views of plankton ecology, i.e. that the herbivorous food web is dominated by mesozooplankton grazing on large phytoplankton, and the microbial food web is based on microzooplankton significantly consuming bacteria; our results suggest instead that phytoplankton are generally grazed by microzooplankton, of which they are the main food source. Furthermore, we identified the “phyto-microbial food web”, where microzooplankton largely feed on phytoplankton, in addition to the already known “poly-microbial food web”, where microzooplankton consume more or less equally various types of food. These unexpected results led to a (re)definition of the conceptual models corresponding to the four trophic pathways we found to exist in plankton, i.e. the herbivorous, multivorous, and two types of microbial food web. We illustrated the conceptual trophic pathways using carbon flows that were actually observed at representative stations. The latter can be calibrated to correspond to any field situation. Our study also provides researchers and managers with operational criteria for identifying the dominant trophic pathway in a planktonic assemblage, these criteria being based on the values of two carbon ratios that could be calculated from flow values that are relatively easy to estimate in the field. Ratio 1. Consumption rate of total phytoplankton by microzooplankton divided by total consumption rate by microzooplankton [phtTOmic/D1, where D1 = phtTOmic + bacTOmic + (doc + det)TOmic]. Ratio 2. Consumption rate of bacteria by microzooplankton divided by total consumption rate by microzooplankton [bacTOmic/D1]. Ratio 3. Consumption rate of detrital and dissolved organic carbon by microzooplankton divided by total consumption rate by microzooplankton [(detTOmic + docTOmic)/D1]. Although consumption of DOC by microzooplankton is generally assumed to be negligible in most field or experimental studies, that potential flow is often included in the food-web structure used for inverse analysis (e.g. Fig. 1). Ratio 4. Total phytoplankton net production divided by net production of potential microzooplankton food [Pnetpht/D2, where Pnetpht = (Pgropht - phtTOres) and D2 = Pnetpht + Pnetbac + Pnetdet + Pnetdoc]. Ratio 5. Net bacterial production divided by net production of potential microzooplankton food [Pnetbac/D2, where Pnetbac = (docTObac - bacTOres)]. Ratio 6. Net production of dissolved and detrital organic carbon divided by net production of potential microzooplankton food [(Pnetdet + Pnetdoc)/D2, where Pnetdet = bacTOdet + phtTOdet + micTOdet + mesTOdet] and Pnetdoc = (bacTOdoc + phtTOdoc + micTOdoc + mesTOdoc + detTOdoc). Ratio 7. Picophytoplankton net production divided by total phytoplankton net production [Pnetph1/Pnetpht, where Pnetph1 = (Pgroph1 - ph1TOres)]. Ratio 8. Consumption rate of total phytoplankton by microzooplankton divided by the consumption rate of total phytoplankton by micro- and mesozooplankton [phtTOmic/(phtTOmic + phtTOmes)]. Ratios 7 and 8 were among the six ratios proposed by Legendre and Rassoulzadegan (1995) to assess the dominance of different trophic pathways in natural planktonic communities. Their four other ratios could not be implemented in the present study because they used nitrogen whereas the currency of the linear inverse studies we reanalysed here was carbon. Our first six ratios above include in the determination of trophic pathways two effects related to microzooplankton, i.e. the differential feeding of microzooplankton on its potential food sources (ratios 1-3), and the differ

Hlaili, Asma Sakka; Niquil, Nathalie; Legendre, Louis

2014-01-01

291

Bioaccumulation syndrome: identifying factors that make some stream food webs prone to elevated mercury bioaccumulation  

PubMed Central

Mercury is a ubiquitous contaminant in aquatic ecosystems, posing a significant health risk to humans and wildlife that eat fish. Mercury accumulates in aquatic food webs as methylmercury (MeHg), a particularly toxic and persistent organic mercury compound. While mercury in the environment originates largely from anthropogenic activities, MeHg accumulation in freshwater aquatic food webs is not a simple function of local or regional mercury pollution inputs. Studies show that even sites with similar mercury inputs can produce fish with mercury concentrations ranging over an order of magnitude. While much of the foundational work to identify the drivers of variation in mercury accumulation has focused on freshwater lakes, mercury contamination in stream ecosystems is emerging as an important research area. Here, we review recent research on mercury accumulation in stream-dwelling organisms. Taking a hierarchical approach, we identify a suite of characteristics of individual consumers, food webs, streams, watersheds, and regions that are consistently associated with elevated MeHg concentrations in stream fish. We delineate a conceptual, mechanistic basis for explaining the ecological processes that underlie this vulnerability to MeHg. Key factors, including suppressed individual growth of consumers, low rates of primary and secondary production, hydrologic connection to methylation sites (e.g. wetlands), heavily forested catchments, and acidification are frequently associated with increased MeHg concentrations in fish across both streams and lakes. Hence, we propose that these interacting factors define a syndrome of characteristics that drive high MeHg production and bioaccumulation rates across these freshwater aquatic ecosystems. Finally, based on an understanding of the ecological drivers of MeHg accumulation, we identify situations when anthropogenic effects and management practices could significantly exacerbate or ameliorate MeHg accumulation in stream fish. PMID:20536817

Ward, Darren M.; Nislow, Keith H.; Folt, Carol L.

2010-01-01

292

Terrestrial Contributions to the Aquatic Food Web in the Middle Yangtze River  

PubMed Central

Understanding the carbon sources supporting aquatic consumers in large rivers is essential for the protection of ecological integrity and for wildlife management. The relative importance of terrestrial and algal carbon to the aquatic food webs is still under intensive debate. The Yangtze River is the largest river in China and the third longest river in the world. The completion of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003 has significantly altered the hydrological regime of the middle Yangtze River, but its immediate impact on carbon sources supporting the river food web is unknown. In this study, potential production sources from riparian and the main river channel, and selected aquatic consumers (invertebrates and fish) at an upstream constricted-channel site (Luoqi), a midstream estuarine site (Huanghua) and a near dam limnetic site (Maoping) of the TGD were collected for stable isotope (?13C and ?15N) and IsoSource analyses. Model estimates indicated that terrestrial plants were the dominant carbon sources supporting the consumer taxa at the three study sites. Algal production appeared to play a supplemental role in supporting consumer production. The contribution from C4 plants was more important than that of C3 plants at the upstream site while C3 plants were the more important carbon source to the consumers at the two impacted sites (Huanghua and Maoping), particularly at the midstream site. There was no trend of increase in the contribution of autochthonous production from the upstream to the downstream sites as the flow rate decreased dramatically along the main river channel due to the construction of TGD. Our findings, along with recent studies in rivers and lakes, are contradictory to studies that demonstrate the importance of algal carbon in the aquatic food web. Differences in system geomorphology, hydrology, habitat heterogeneity, and land use may account for these contradictory findings reported in various studies. PMID:25047656

Wang, Jianzhu; Gu, Binhe; Huang, Jianhui; Han, Xingguo; Lin, Guanghui; Zheng, Fawen; Li, Yuncong

2014-01-01

293

Are Algae Relevant to the Detritus-Based Food Web in Tank-Bromeliads?  

PubMed Central

We assessed the occurrence of algae in five species of tank-bromeliads found in contrasting environmental sites in a Neotropical, primary rainforest around the Nouragues Research Station, French Guiana. The distributions of both algal abundance and biomass were examined based on physical parameters, the morphological characteristics of bromeliad species and with regard to the structure of other aquatic microbial communities held in the tanks. Algae were retrieved in all of the bromeliad species with mean densities ranging from ?102 to 104 cells/mL. Their biomass was positively correlated to light exposure and bacterial biomass. Algae represented a tiny component of the detrital food web in shaded bromeliads but accounted for up to 30 percent of the living microbial carbon in the tanks of Catopsis berteroniana, located in a highly exposed area. Thus, while nutrient supplies are believed to originate from wind-borne particles and trapped insects (i.e., allochtonous organic matter), our results indicate that primary producers (i.e., autochtonous organic matter) are present in this insectivorous bromeliad. Using a 24-h incubation of size-fractionated and manipulated samples from this plant, we evaluated the impact of mosquito foraging on algae, other microorganisms and rotifers. The prey assemblages were greatly altered by the predation of mosquito larvae. Grazing losses indicated that the dominant algal taxon, Bumilleriopsis sp., like protozoa and rotifers, is a significant part of the diet of mosquito larvae. We conclude that algae are a relevant functional community of the aquatic food web in C. berteroniana and might form the basis of a complementary non-detrital food web. PMID:21625603

Brouard, Olivier; Le Jeune, Anne-Hélène; Leroy, Céline; Cereghino, Régis; Roux, Olivier; Pelozuelo, Laurent; Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Carrias, Jean-François

2011-01-01

294

Terrestrial contributions to the aquatic food web in the middle Yangtze River.  

PubMed

Understanding the carbon sources supporting aquatic consumers in large rivers is essential for the protection of ecological integrity and for wildlife management. The relative importance of terrestrial and algal carbon to the aquatic food webs is still under intensive debate. The Yangtze River is the largest river in China and the third longest river in the world. The completion of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003 has significantly altered the hydrological regime of the middle Yangtze River, but its immediate impact on carbon sources supporting the river food web is unknown. In this study, potential production sources from riparian and the main river channel, and selected aquatic consumers (invertebrates and fish) at an upstream constricted-channel site (Luoqi), a midstream estuarine site (Huanghua) and a near dam limnetic site (Maoping) of the TGD were collected for stable isotope (?13C and ?15N) and IsoSource analyses. Model estimates indicated that terrestrial plants were the dominant carbon sources supporting the consumer taxa at the three study sites. Algal production appeared to play a supplemental role in supporting consumer production. The contribution from C4 plants was more important than that of C3 plants at the upstream site while C3 plants were the more important carbon source to the consumers at the two impacted sites (Huanghua and Maoping), particularly at the midstream site. There was no trend of increase in the contribution of autochthonous production from the upstream to the downstream sites as the flow rate decreased dramatically along the main river channel due to the construction of TGD. Our findings, along with recent studies in rivers and lakes, are contradictory to studies that demonstrate the importance of algal carbon in the aquatic food web. Differences in system geomorphology, hydrology, habitat heterogeneity, and land use may account for these contradictory findings reported in various studies. PMID:25047656

Wang, Jianzhu; Gu, Binhe; Huang, Jianhui; Han, Xingguo; Lin, Guanghui; Zheng, Fawen; Li, Yuncong

2014-01-01

295

JCADM, new directions in Antarctic data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Joint Committee on Antarctic Data Management (JCADM) was established by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP), to assist in the fulfilment of the data management obligations imposed by the Antarctic Treaty (section III.1.c): "Scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available." JCADM comprises representatives of the National Antarctic Data Centres or national points of contact. Currently 31 nations around the world are represented in JCADM. So far, JCADM has been focussing on the coordination of the Antarctic Master Directory (AMD), the internationally accessible, web-based, searchable record of Antarctic and Southern Ocean data set descriptions. The AMD is directly integrated into the international Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) to help further merge Antarctic science into global science. The AMD is a resource for scientists to advertise the data they have collected and to search for data they may need. Currently, JCADM is in a transition phase, moving forward to provide data access. Existing systems and web services technology will be used as much as possible, to increase efficiency and prevent 're-inventing the wheel' This poster will give an overview of this process, the current status and the expected results.

Campbell, H.; de Bruin, T. F.

2008-12-01

296

Trophodynamics of some PFCs and BFRs in a western Canadian Arctic marine food web.  

PubMed

The trophodynamics of per- and polyfluorinated compounds and bromine-based flame retardants were examined in components of a marine food web from the western Canadian Arctic. The animals studied and their relative trophic status in the food web, established using stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta15N), were beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) > ringed seal (Phoca hispida) > Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) > Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) approximately equal to Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) > pelagic amphipod (Themisto libellula) > Arctic copepod (Calanus hyperboreus). For the brominated diphenyl ethers, the lipid adjusted concentrations of the seven congeners analyzed (Sigma7BDEs: -47, -85, -99, -100, -153, -154, and -209) ranged from 205.4 +/- 52.7 ng/g in Arctic cod to 2.6 +/- 0.4 ng/g in ringed seals. Mean Sigma7BDEs concentrations in Arctic copepods, 16.4 ng/g (n = 2, composite sample), were greater than those in the top trophic level (TL) marine mammals and suggests that (i) Arctic copepods are an important dietary component that delivers BDEs to the food web and (ii) because these compounds are bioaccumulative, metabolism and depletion of BDE congeners in top TL mammals is an important biological process. There were differences in the concentration profiles of the isomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in the food web. The most notable difference was observed for beluga, where the alpha-isomer was enriched (accounting for approximately 90% of the SigmaHBCD body burden), relative to its primary prey species, Arctic cod, where the alpha-isomer accounted for only 20% of the SigmaHBCD body burden (beta: 4% and gamma: 78%). For the C8-C11 perfluorinated carboxylic acids, the trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were all greater than unity and increased with increasing carbon chain length. PFOS and its neutral precursor, PFOSA, also had TMF values greater than one. There were also pronounced differences in the PFOSA to PFOS ratio in ringed seal (0.04) and in beluga (1.4) and suggests that, in part, there are differences in the efficacy of biotransforming PFOSA by whale and seal top predators that both preferentially feed on Arctic cod. PMID:19569333

Tomy, Gregg T; Pleskach, Kerri; Ferguson, Steve H; Hare, Jonathon; Stern, Gary; Macinnis, Gordia; Marvin, Chris H; Loseto, Lisa

2009-06-01

297

Disruption of the lower food web in Lake Ontario: Did it affect alewife growth or condition?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From the early 1980s to the late 1990s, a succession of non-native invertebrates colonized Lake Ontario and the suite of consequences caused by their colonization became known as "food web disruption". For example, the native burrowing amphipod Diporeia spp., a key link in the profundal food web, declined to near absence, exotic predaceous cladocerans with long spines proliferated, altering the zooplankton community, and depth distributions of fishes shifted. These changes had the potential to affect growth and condition of planktivorous alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, the most abundant fish in the lake. To determine if food web disruption affected alewife, we used change-point analysis to examine alewife growth and adult alewife condition during 1976-2006 and analysis-of-variance to determine if values between change points differed significantly. There were no change points in growth during the first year of life. Of three change points in growth during the second year of life, one coincided with the shift in springtime distribution of alewife to deeper water but it was not associated with a significant change in growth. After the second year of life, no change points in growth were evident, although growth in the third year of life spiked in those years when Bythotrephes, the largest of the exotic cladocerans, was abundant suggesting that it was a profitable prey item for age-2 fish. We detected two change points in condition of adult alewife in fall, but the first occurred in 1981, well before disruption began. A second change point occurred in 2003, well after disruption began. After the springtime distribution of alewife shifted deeper during 1992-1994, growth in the first two years of life became more variable, and growth in years of life two and older became correlated (P < 0.05). In conclusion, food web disruption had no negative affect on growth and condition of alewife in Lake Ontario although it appears to have resulted in growth in the first two years of life becoming more variable, growth in years of life two and older becoming correlated (P < 0.05), and growth spurts in year of life three. Copyright ?? 2008 AEHMS.

O'Gorman, R.; Prindle, S.E.; Lantry, J.R.; Lantry, B.F.

2008-01-01

298

Increasing levels and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic biota.  

PubMed

Representatives of the Antarctic food web (krill, cephalopod, fish, penguin, seal) of the area around Elephant Island and from the Weddell Sea were analysed for the most recalcitrant organochlorine compounds. Due to sorption of the compounds to sinking particles and accumulation in sediments, two benthic fish species (Gobionotothen gibberifrons, Chaenocephalus aceratus) feeding on benthos invertebrates and fish reflected significantly increasing concentrations within a decade (1987-1996), while a benthopelagic species (Champsocephalus gunnari) feeding on krill did not. In the pelagic food chain, lipid normalised concentrations of all compounds increased from Antarctic krill to fish proving that biomagnification of highly lipophilic pollutants (log octanol-water partition coefficient>5) occurs in water-breathing animals. As top predators Weddell and southern elephant seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, Mirounga leonina) biomagnified the persistent organic pollutants relative to krill 30-160 fold with the exception of hexachlorobenzene, the levels of which were lower than in fish indicating its intense specific elimination. PMID:14972581

Goerke, Helmut; Weber, Kurt; Bornemann, Horst; Ramdohr, Sven; Plötz, Joachim

2004-02-01

299

Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants: plant species and community effects.  

PubMed

Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and providers of resources to the soil food web, are of vital importance for the composition, structure, and functioning of soil communities. However, whether natural soil food webs that are completely open to immigration and emigration differ underneath individual plants remains unknown. In a biodiversity restoration experiment we first compared the soil nematode communities of 228 individual plants belonging to eight herbaceous species. We included grass, leguminous, and non-leguminous species. Each individual plant grew intermingled with other species, but all plant species had a different nematode community. Moreover, nematode communities were more similar when plant individuals were growing in the same as compared to different plant communities, and these effects were most apparent for the groups of bacterivorous, carnivorous, and omnivorous nematodes. Subsequently, we analyzed the composition, structure, and functioning of the complete soil food webs of 58 individual plants, belonging to two of the plant species, Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) and Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae). We isolated and identified more than 150 taxa/groups of soil organisms. The soil community composition and structure of the entire food webs were influenced both by the species identity of the plant individual and the surrounding plant community. Unexpectedly, plant identity had the strongest effects on decomposing soil organisms, widely believed to be generalist feeders. In contrast, quantitative food web modeling showed that the composition of the plant community influenced nitrogen mineralization under individual plants, but that plant species identity did not affect nitrogen or carbon mineralization or food web stability. Hence, the composition and structure of entire soil food webs vary at the scale of individual plants and are strongly influenced by the species identity of the plant. However, the ecosystem functions these food webs provide are determined by the identity of the entire plant community. PMID:21058562

Bezemer, T M; Fountain, M T; Barea, J M; Christensen, S; Dekker, S C; Duyts, H; van Hal, R; Harvey, J A; Hedlund, K; Maraun, M; Mikola, J; Mladenov, A G; Robin, C; de Ruiter, P C; Scheu, S; Setälä, H; Smilauer, P; van der Putten, W H

2010-10-01

300

Food-web structure and ecosystem services: insights from the Serengeti.  

PubMed

The central organizing theme of this paper is to discuss the dynamics of the Serengeti grassland ecosystem from the perspective of recent developments in food-web theory. The seasonal rainfall patterns that characterize the East African climate create an annually oscillating, large-scale, spatial mosaic of feeding opportunities for the larger ungulates in the Serengeti; this in turn creates a significant annual variation in the food available for their predators. At a smaller spatial scale, periodic fires during the dry season create patches of highly nutritious grazing that are eaten in preference to the surrounding older patches of less palatable vegetation. The species interactions between herbivores and plants, and carnivores and herbivores, are hierarchically nested in the Serengeti food web, with the largest bodied consumers on each trophic level having the broadest diets that include species from a large variety of different habitats in the ecosystem. The different major habitats of the Serengeti are also used in a nested fashion; the highly nutritious forage of the short grass plains is available only to the larger migratory species for a few months each year. The longer grass areas, the woodlands and kopjes (large partially wooded rocky islands in the surrounding mosaic of grassland) contain species that are resident throughout the year; these species often have smaller body size and more specialized diets than the migratory species. Only the larger herbivores and carnivores obtain their nutrition from all the different major habitat types in the ecosystem. The net effect of this is to create a nested hierarchy of subchains of energy flow within the larger Serengeti food web; these flows are seasonally forced by rainfall and operate at different rates in different major branches of the web. The nested structure that couples sequential trophic levels together interacts with annual seasonal variation in the fast and slow chains of nutrient flow in a way that is likely to be central to the stability of the whole web. If the Serengeti is to be successfully conserved as a fully functioning ecosystem, then it is essential that the full diversity of natural habitats be maintained within the greater Serengeti ecosystem. The best way to do this is by controlling the external forces that threaten the boundaries of the ecosystem and by balancing the economic services the park provides between local, national and international needs. I conclude by discussing how the ecosystem services provided by the Serengeti are driven by species on different trophic levels. Tourism provides the largest financial revenue to the national economy, but it could be better organized to provide more sustained revenue to the park. Ultimately, ecotourism needs to be developed in ways that take lessons from the structure of the Serengeti food webs, and in ways that provide tangible benefits to people living around the park while also improving the experience of all visitors. PMID:19451118

Dobson, Andy

2009-06-27

301

Short-term effects of different genetically modified maize varieties on arthropod food web properties: an experimental field assessment.  

PubMed

There is concern that genetically modified (GM) plants may have adverse affects on the arthropod biodiversity comprising agricultural landscapes. The present study report on a two year field experimental test of whether four different genotypic lines, some are novel with no previous field tests, of GM maize hybrids alter the structure of arthropod food webs that they harbour, relative to non-GM maize (control) that is widely used in agriculture. The different GM genotypes produced either Bt toxins, conferred glyphosate tolerance or a combination of the two traits. Quantitative food web analysis, based on short-term assessment assigning a total of 243,896 arthropod individuals collected from the treatments to their positions in food webs, revealed that complex and stable food webs persisted in each maize treatment. Moreover, food web structure remained relatively unchanged by the GM-genotype. The results suggest that at least in short-term period these particular GM maize genotypes will not have adverse effects on arthropod biota of agricultural landscapes. PMID:24937207

Szénási, Ágnes; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Zalai, Mihály; Schmitz, Oswald J; Balog, Adalbert

2014-01-01

302

Prey Vulnerability Limits Top-Down Control and Alters Reciprocal Feedbacks in a Subsidized Model Food Web  

PubMed Central

Resource subsidies increase the productivity of recipient food webs and can affect ecosystem dynamics. Subsidies of prey often support elevated predator biomass which may intensify top-down control and reduce the flow of reciprocal subsidies into adjacent ecosystems. However, top-down control in subsidized food webs may be limited if primary consumers posses morphological or behavioral traits that limit vulnerability to predation. In forested streams, terrestrial prey support high predator biomass creating the potential for strong top-down control, however armored primary consumers often dominate the invertebrate assemblage. Using empirically based simulation models, we tested the response of stream food webs to variations in subsidy magnitude, prey vulnerability, and the presence of two top predators. While terrestrial prey inputs increased predator biomass (+12%), the presence of armored primary consumers inhibited top-down control, and diverted most aquatic energy (?75%) into the riparian forest through aquatic insect emergence. Food webs without armored invertebrates experienced strong trophic cascades, resulting in higher algal (?50%) and detrital (?1600%) biomass, and reduced insect emergence (?90%). These results suggest prey vulnerability can mediate food web responses to subsidies, and that top-down control can be arrested even when predator-invulnerable consumers are uncommon (20%) regardless of the level of subsidy. PMID:24465732

Atlas, William I.; Palen, Wendy J.

2014-01-01

303

Short-term effects of different genetically modified maize varieties on arthropod food web properties: an experimental field assessment  

PubMed Central

There is concern that genetically modified (GM) plants may have adverse affects on the arthropod biodiversity comprising agricultural landscapes. The present study report on a two year field experimental test of whether four different genotypic lines, some are novel with no previous field tests, of GM maize hybrids alter the structure of arthropod food webs that they harbour, relative to non-GM maize (control) that is widely used in agriculture. The different GM genotypes produced either Bt toxins, conferred glyphosate tolerance or a combination of the two traits. Quantitative food web analysis, based on short-term assessment assigning a total of 243,896 arthropod individuals collected from the treatments to their positions in food webs, revealed that complex and stable food webs persisted in each maize treatment. Moreover, food web structure remained relatively unchanged by the GM-genotype. The results suggest that at least in short-term period these particular GM maize genotypes will not have adverse effects on arthropod biota of agricultural landscapes. PMID:24937207

Szénási, Ágnes; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Zalai, Mihály; Schmitz, Oswald J.; Balog, Adalbert

2014-01-01

304

Evaluation of web-based, self-administered, graphical food frequency questionnaire.  

PubMed

Computer-administered food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) can address limitations inherent in paper questionnaires by allowing very complex skip patterns, portion size estimation based on food pictures, and real-time error checking. We evaluated a web-based FFQ, the Graphical Food Frequency System (GraFFS). Participants completed the GraFFS, six telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls over the next 12 weeks, followed by a second GraFFS. Participants were 40 men and 34 women, aged 18 to 69 years, living in the Columbus, OH, area. Intakes of energy, macronutrients, and 17 micronutrients/food components were estimated from the GraFFS and the mean of all recalls. Bias (second GraFFS minus recalls) was -9%, -5%, +4%, and -4% for energy and percentages of energy from fat, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively. De-attenuated, energy-adjusted correlations (intermethod reliability) between the recalls and the second GraFFS for fat, carbohydrate, protein, and alcohol were 0.82, 0.79, 0.67, and 0.90, respectively; for micronutrients/food components the median was 0.61 and ranged from 0.40 for zinc to 0.92 for beta carotene. The correlations between the two administrations of the GraFFS (test-retest reliability) for fat, carbohydrate, protein, and alcohol were 0.60, 0.63, 0.73, and 0.87, respectively; among micronutrients/food components the median was 0.67 and ranged from 0.49 for vitamin B-12 to 0.82 for fiber. The measurement characteristics of the GraFFS were at least as good as those reported for most paper FFQs, and its high intermethod reliability suggests that further development of computer-administered FFQs is warranted. PMID:24462267

Kristal, Alan R; Kolar, Ann S; Fisher, James L; Plascak, Jesse J; Stumbo, Phyllis J; Weiss, Rick; Paskett, Electra D

2014-04-01

305

Entry of Oil to the Coastal Planktonic Food Web During the Deepwater Horizon Spill (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the explosion and subsequent sinking of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) on 22 April 2010, an estimated 780,000 m3 of Sweet Louisiana Crude (SLC) and 205,000 mT of methane were released into the northern Gulf of Mexico over an 85 d period. A great deal of controversy ensued regarding the application of unprecedented volumes of chemical dispersants both at the surface and at depth. One of the consequences of dispersing such large volumes of oil into the water column was the difficulty of tracking its fate over distance and through the food web. Most of the attention to date has been on large underwater plumes of oil, and scant evidence exists for subsea oil in warm (>25 °C), shallow shelf waters due to rapid weathering and utilization by prokaryotes. A large pool of isotopically depleted carbon from released oil and methane is presumably available to zooplankton and zooplankton-eating fish and invertebrates via prokaryotic consumers. Thus, carbon isotopic depletion extending into marine zooplankton grazers, a pathway mediated by the microbial food web, is a good proxy for food web modification by the spill. We employed ?13C as a tracer of oil-derived carbon incorporation into the lower marine food web across the middle and inner continental shelf. During June-August 2010, we followed two particle size classes: the nominally 1 ?m - 0.2 mm “small suspended particulate” and the >0.2-2 mm “mesozooplankton” fractions, with the former considered likely food particle size for the latter. A clear pattern of ?13C depletion occurring in each fraction at middle and inner shelf stations was consistent with two sequential northward pulses of surface oil slicks from DWH. Relative to early June, an isotopic shift of -1 to -3 ‰ (toward weathered and fresh oil, -27.23 ± 0.03 ‰ and -27.34 ± 0.34 ‰, respectively) occurred during the peak of areal coverage of oil over the sites in late June 2010. Recovery of this depletion was 2-4 wks. A third pulse of residual oil occurred in late July, and depleted ?13C was observed in mid-August at the furthest offshore stations. Depletion and recovery cycles on the order of a few weeks are consistent with published warm water petroleum hydrocarbon decay time-scales. Carbon isotopic depletion in both surface and bottom samples suggests trophic transfer of oil carbon into the planktonic food web. A similar response found in benthic communities around natural seeps suggests that carbon isotopic shifts in the plankton fractions are likely due to the duration and magnitude of depleted carbon released into the system. These data provide strong evidence that labile fractions of the oil extended throughout the shallow water column during northward slick transport and that this carbon was processed at least two trophic levels beyond prokaryotic hydrocarbon consumers.

Graham, W. M.; Condon, R. H.; Carmichael, R. H.; D'Ambra, I.; Patterson, H. K.; Hernandez, F. J., Jr.

2010-12-01

306

The Role of Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Aquatic Food Webs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) are important molecules transferred across the plant-animal interface in aquatic food webs. Defined here as carbon chains of length 18 (carbons) or more, with a double bond in the third (Omega 3) or sixth (Omega 6) bond from the methyl end, HUFAs are formed in primary producers (phytoplankton). With limited abilities to synthesize de novo, consumers and higher trophic organisms are required to obtain their HUFAs primarily from diet. Bioconversion of HUFAs from one form to another is in theory possible, as is synthesis via elongation and the transformation of a saturated to highly saturated fatty acid, but the enzymes required for these processes are absent in most species. HUFAs are hypothesized to be somatic growth limiting compounds for herbivorous zooplankton and have been shown to be critical for juvenile fish growth and wellbeing. Zooplankton tend to vary their fatty acid concentrations, collection strategies and utilization methods based on taxonomy, and various mechanisms have been suggested to account for these differences i.e., seasonal and nervous system hypotheses. Considering also the facts that copepods overwinter in an active state while daphnids overwinter as resting eggs, and that copepods tend to accumulate Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) through collection and bioconversion, while daphnids focus on Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), one can link high DHA concentrations to active overwintering; but both EPA and DHA have similar melting points, putting DHA's cold weather adaptation abilities into question. Another characteristic setting copepods apart from daphnids is nervous system complexity: copepod axons are coated in thick myelin sheaths, permitting rapid neural processing, such as rapid prey attack and intelligent predator avoidance; DHA may be required for the proper functioning of copepod neurons. Recent modeling results have suggested food webs with high quality primary producers (species high in HUFAs, i.e. diatoms), at their base can attain inverted biomass distributions with efficient energy transfer between trophic levels, making HUFA pathways in aquatic food webs of special interest to fisheries and environmental managers. Built on our previous work, which implicitly considered HUFAs through a proxy (generic food quality term, which also indexes ingestibility, digestibility and toxicity), our aim is to elucidate the underlying mechanisms controlling HUFA transport through the lower aquatic food web, with an emphasis on the hypothesized somatic growth limiting potential. A biochemical submodel coupled to a plankton model has been formulated and calibrated, accounting explicitly for the omega 3 and omega 6 families of fatty acids; specifically, Alpha Linoleic acid (ALA, a precursor to EPA), EPA and DHA. Further insights into the role of HUFAs on food web dynamics and the subsequent implications on ecosystem functioning are gained through bifurcation analysis of the model. Our research aims to elucidate the existing gaps in the literature pertaining to the role and impact of HUFAs on plankton dynamics, which have traditionally been thought to be driven by stoichiometric ratios and limiting nutrients. In this study, we challenge the notion of nutrients being the primary driving factor of aquatic ecosystem patterns by introducing a modeling framework that accounts for the interplay between nutrients and HUFAs.

Perhar, G.; Arhonditsis, G. B.

2009-05-01

307

Paradata for 'The flow of energy and mineral nutrients through food chains and food webs in a marsh/pond system. Animal of the marsh, their adaptations, habitat requirements and interactions.'  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This record contains paradata for the resource 'The flow of energy and mineral nutrients through food chains and food webs in a marsh/pond system. Animal of the marsh, their adaptations, habitat requirements and interactions.'

308

Complexity of the food web structure of the Ascophyllum nodosum zone evidenced by a ?13C and ?15N study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rocky shores dominated by canopy-forming macroalgae are characterized by complex communities making it difficult to assess whether the most abundant primary producers are at the base of the food web. This difficulty is exacerbated by the seasonal- and regional-scale variations of environmental and biotic factors that can affect the main trophic pathways. The food web structure of the Ascophyllum nodosum zone was studied during three seasons and at two sites separated by several 100s of kilometers by measuring the ?13C and ?15N of the major food sources and the dominant consumers of the zone. Despite the variability in isotopic compositions, both sites underwent similar significant seasonal variations. The main primary producers of the zone, A.nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus, were not at the base of the main trophic pathway but part of the diverse number of basal resources supporting the food web. The use of community-wide metric indices allowed further defining the food web structure of the A. nodosum zone as one characterized by trophic redundancy and numerous major trophic pathways. Indeed, grazers were dominated by generalists, filter-feeders utilized both planktonic and benthic organic matter, and predators displayed a high degree of omnivory. The range of values in ?15N showed a high spatiotemporal variability within and an important overlap between trophic groups. This prevented establishing distinctive trophic levels and further emphasized the complexity of the food web structure. The spatiotemporal stability of the relative isotopic composition of the dominant consumers within trophic groups and the low variability of the community-wide indices suggested a stability of the food web structure of the A.nodosum zone at a regional scale.

Golléty, Claire; Riera, Pascal; Davoult, Dominique

2010-10-01

309

Herbivore diet breadth mediates the cascading effects of carnivores in food webs  

PubMed Central

Predicting the impact of carnivores on plants has challenged community and food web ecologists for decades. At the same time, the role of predators in the evolution of herbivore dietary specialization has been an unresolved issue in evolutionary ecology. Here, we integrate these perspectives by testing the role of herbivore diet breadth as a predictor of top-down effects of avian predators on herbivores and plants in a forest food web. Using experimental bird exclosures to study a complex community of trees, caterpillars, and birds, we found a robust positive association between caterpillar diet breadth (phylodiversity of host plants used) and the strength of bird predation across 41 caterpillar and eight tree species. Dietary specialization was associated with increased enemy-free space for both camouflaged (n = 33) and warningly signaled (n = 8) caterpillar species. Furthermore, dietary specialization was associated with increased crypsis (camouflaged species only) and more stereotyped resting poses (camouflaged and warningly signaled species), but was unrelated to caterpillar body size. These dynamics in turn cascaded down to plants: a metaanalysis (n = 15 tree species) showed the beneficial effect of birds on trees (i.e., reduced leaf damage) decreased with the proportion of dietary specialist taxa composing a tree species’ herbivore fauna. We conclude that herbivore diet breadth is a key functional trait underlying the trophic effects of carnivores on both herbivores and plants. PMID:24979778

Singer, Michael S.; Lichter-Marck, Isaac H.; Farkas, Timothy E.; Aaron, Eric; Whitney, Kenneth D.; Mooney, Kailen A.

2014-01-01

310

Combining food web and species distribution models for improved community projections  

PubMed Central

The ability to model biodiversity patterns is of prime importance in this era of severe environmental crisis. Species assemblage along environmental gradients is subject to the interplay of biotic interactions in complement to abiotic filtering and stochastic forces. Accounting for complex biotic interactions for a wide array of species remains so far challenging. Here, we propose using food web models that can infer the potential interaction links between species as a constraint in species distribution models. Using a plant–herbivore (butterfly) interaction dataset, we demonstrate that this combined approach is able to improve species distribution and community forecasts. The trophic interaction network between butterfly larvae and host plant was phylogenetically structured and driven by host plant nitrogen content allowing forecasting the food web model to unknown interactions links. This combined approach is very useful in rendering models of more generalist species that have multiple potential interaction links, where gap in the literature may occur. Our combined approach points toward a promising direction for modeling the spatial variation in entire species interaction networks. PMID:24340196

Pellissier, Loïc; Rohr, Rudolf P; Ndiribe, Charlotte; Pradervand, Jean-Nicolas; Salamin, Nicolas; Guisan, Antoine; Wisz, Mary

2013-01-01

311

Interactions of multiple predators with different foraging modes in an aquatic food web.  

PubMed

Top predators can have different foraging modes that may alter their interactions and effects on food webs. Interactions between predators may be non-additive resulting from facilitation or interference, whereas their combined effects on a shared prey may result in emergent effects that are risk enhanced or risk reduced. To test the importance of multiple predators with different foraging modes, we examined the interaction between a cruising predator (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides) and an ambush predator (muskellunge, Esox masquinongy) foraging on a shared prey (bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus) with strong anti-predator defense behaviors. Additive and substitution designs were used to compare individual to combined predator treatments in experimental ponds. The multiple predator interaction facilitated growth of the cruising predator in the combined predator treatments, whereas predator species had substitutable effects on the growth of the ambush predator. The combined predator treatments created an emergent effect on the prey; however, the direction was dependent on the experimental design. The additive design found a risk-reducing effect, whereas the substitution design found a risk-enhancing effect for prey fish. Indirect effects from the predators weakly extended to lower trophic levels (i.e., zooplankton community). Our results highlight the need to consider differences in foraging mode of top predators, interactions between predators, and emergent effects on prey to understand food webs. PMID:19777265

Carey, Michael P; Wahl, David H

2010-02-01

312

Contrasting Food Web Factor and Body Size Relationships with Hg and Se Concentrations in Marine Biota  

PubMed Central

Marine fish and shellfish are primary sources of human exposure to mercury, a potentially toxic metal, and selenium, an essential element that may protect against mercury bioaccumulation and toxicity. Yet we lack a thorough understanding of Hg and Se patterns in common marine taxa, particularly those that are commercially important, and how food web and body size factors differ in their influence on Hg and Se patterns. We compared Hg and Se content among marine fish and invertebrate taxa collected from Long Island, NY, and examined associations between Hg, Se, body length, trophic level (measured by ?15N) and degree of pelagic feeding (measured by ?13C). Finfish, particularly shark, had high Hg content whereas bivalves generally had high Se content. Both taxonomic differences and variability were larger for Hg than Se, and Hg content explained most of the variation in Hg:Se molar ratios among taxa. Finally, Hg was more strongly associated with length and trophic level across taxa than Se, consistent with a greater degree of Hg bioaccumulation in the body over time, and biomagnification through the food web, respectively. Overall, our findings indicate distinct taxonomic and ecological Hg and Se patterns in commercially important marine biota, and these patterns have nutritional and toxicological implications for seafood-consuming wildlife and humans. PMID:24019976

Karimi, Roxanne; Frisk, Michael; Fisher, Nicholas S.

2013-01-01

313

Tracing carbon sources through aquatic and terrestrial food webs using amino acid stable isotope fingerprinting.  

PubMed

Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring ?(13)C patterns among amino acids (?(13)CAA) could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that ?(13)CAA patterns in contrast to bulk ?(13)C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their ?(13)CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk ?(13)C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer ?(13)C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs. PMID:24069196

Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Andersen, Nils; O'Brien, Diane M; Piatkowski, Uwe; McCarthy, Matthew D

2013-01-01

314

Assessing the Health of Puget Sound's Pelagic Food Web at Multiple Trophic Levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puget Sound is an estuarine fjord in the northwestern United State surrounded by variable upland uses, ranging from industrial and urban to agricultural to forested lands. The quality of Puget Sound's ecosystem is under scrutiny because of the biological resources that depend on its function. In 2011, we undertook a study of the Sound's pelagic food web that measured water quality, microbial parameters, and abundance of higher trophic levels including gelatinous zooplankton, forage fish, and salmon. More than 75 sites spanning the latitudinal expanse of Puget Sound and the range of developed and agricultural land uses were sampled monthly from April to October. Strong relationships between water quality and microbial parameters suggest that microbes may modulate water quality indicators, such as dissolved inorganic nitrogen and pH, and that land use may be an influential factor. Basins within Puget Sound exhibit distinct biological profiles at the microbial and macrobiotic levels, emphasizing that Puget Sound is not a homogenous water body and suggesting that informative food web indicators may vary across the basins.

Rhodes, L. D.; Greene, C. M.; Rice, C. A.; Hall, J. E.; Baxter, A. E.; Naman, S. M.; Chamberlin, J.

2012-12-01

315

Invasive crayfish as vectors of mercury in freshwater food webs of the Pacific Northwest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive species are important drivers of environmental change in aquatic ecosystems and can alter habitat characteristics, community composition, and ecosystem energetics. Such changes have important implications for many ecosystem processes, including the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of contaminants through food webs. Mercury concentrations were measured in 2 nonnative and 1 native crayfish species from western Oregon (USA). Nonnative red swamp crayfish had mercury concentrations similar to those in native signal crayfish (0.29?±?0.05?µg/g dry wt and 0.36?±?0.06?µg/g dry wt, respectively), whereas the nonnative ringed crayfish had lower mercury concentrations (0.10?±?0.02?µg/g dry wt) than either of the other species. The mean energy content of muscle was similar between the native signal crayfish and nonnative ringed crayfish but was significantly higher in the nonnative red swamp crayfish. Across species, mercury concentrations were negatively correlated with energy density. Such energetic differences could exacerbate changes in mercury transfer through trophic pathways of food webs, especially via alterations to the growth dynamics of consumers. Thus, it is important to consider the role of energy content in determining effective mercury exposure even when mercury concentrations on a per-unit mass basis do not differ between species.

Johnson, Branden L.; Willacker, James J.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Pearl, Christopher; Adams, Michael J.

2014-01-01

316

Dreissenid mussels are not a "dead end" in Great Lakes food webs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dreissenid mussels have been regarded as a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs because the degree of predation on dreissenid mussels, on a lakewide basis, is believed to be low. Waterfowl predation on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes has primarily been confined to bays, and therefore its effects on the dreissenid mussel population have been localized rather than operating on a lakewide level. Based on results from a previous study, annual consumption of dreissenid mussels by the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) population in central Lake Erie averaged only 6 kilotonnes (kt; 1 kt = one thousand metric tons) during 1995–2002. In contrast, our coupling of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) population models with a lake whitefish bioenergetics model revealed that lake whitefish populations in Lakes Michigan and Huron consumed 109 and 820 kt, respectively, of dreissenid mussels each year. Our results indicated that lake whitefish can be an important predator on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, and that dreissenid mussels do not represent a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs. The Lake Michigan dreissenid mussel population has been estimated to be growing more than three times faster than the Lake Huron dreissenid mussel population during the 2000s. One plausible explanation for the higher population growth rate in Lake Michigan would be the substantially higher predation rate by lake whitefish on dreissenid mussels in Lake Huron.

Madenijan, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Bence, James R.

2010-01-01

317

Urbanization in a great plains river: Effects on fishes and food webs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatial variation of habitat and food web structure of the fish community was investigated at three reaches in the Kansas River, USA to determine if ??13C variability and ??15N values differ longitudinally and are related to urbanization and instream habitat. Fish and macroinvertebrates were collected at three river reaches in the Kansas River classified as the less urbanized reach (no urban in riparian zone; 40% grass islands and sand bars, braided channel), intermediate (14% riparian zone as urban; 22% grass islands and sand bars) and urbanized (59% of riparian zone as urban; 6% grass islands and sand bars, highly channelized) reaches in June 2006. The less urbanized reach had higher variability in ??13C than the intermediate and urbanized reaches, suggesting fish from these reaches utilized a variety of carbon sources. The ??15N also indicated that omnivorous and detritivorous fish species tended to consume prey at higher trophic levels in the less urbanized reach. Channelization and reduction of habitat related to urbanization may be linked to homogenization of instream habitat, which was related to river food webs. ?? 2009.

Eitzmann, J.L.; Paukert, C.P.

2010-01-01

318

Trophic magnification of chlorinated flame retardants and their dechlorinated analogs in a fresh water food web.  

PubMed

Chlorinated flame retardants, particularly dechlorane plus (DP), were widely used in commercial applications and are ubiquitous in the environment. A total of seven species of aquatic organisms were collected concurrently from the region of a chemical production facility in Huai’an, China. DP and structurally related compounds including mirex, dechloranes 602, 603, 604, chlordene plus (CP), DP monoadduct (DPMA), and two dechlorinated breakdown products of DP, decachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (anti-Cl(10)-DP) and undecachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (anti-Cl(11)-DP), were detected in these aquatic organisms. Nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also measured to determine the trophic levels of the organisms. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for these chemicals were calculated with values ranging from 1.0 to 3.1. TMFs for CP, mirex, anti-DP, and ?DP were statistically greater than 1, showing evidence of biomagnification in the food web. Concentration ratios of anti-Cl(11)-DP to anti-DP showed a significant relationship with trophic level, implying that anti-Cl(11)-DP had a higher food-web magnification potential than its precursor. The biota-sediment accumulation factors and TMFs for DP demonstrated stereoselectivity, with syn-DP having a greater bioaccumulation potential than anti-DP in the aquatic environment. PMID:25463253

Wang, De-Gao; Guo, Ming-Xing; Pei, Wei; Byer, Jonathan D; Wang, Zhuang

2015-01-01

319

Eating up the world's food web and the human trophic level.  

PubMed

Trophic levels are critical for synthesizing species' diets, depicting energy pathways, understanding food web dynamics and ecosystem functioning, and monitoring ecosystem health. Specifically, trophic levels describe the position of species in a food web, from primary producers to apex predators (range, 1-5). Small differences in trophic level can reflect large differences in diet. Although trophic levels are among the most basic information collected for animals in ecosystems, a human trophic level (HTL) has never been defined. Here, we find a global HTL of 2.21, i.e., the trophic level of anchoveta. This value has increased with time, consistent with the global trend toward diets higher in meat. National HTLs ranging between 2.04 and 2.57 reflect a broad diversity of diet, although cluster analysis of countries with similar dietary trends reveals only five major groups. We find significant links between socio-economic and environmental indicators and global dietary trends. We demonstrate that the HTL is a synthetic index to monitor human diets and provides a baseline to compare diets between countries. PMID:24297882

Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Dubroca, Laurent; Le Pape, Olivier; Barde, Julien; Kaplan, David M; Chassot, Emmanuel; Nieblas, Anne-Elise

2013-12-17

320

Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation in Aquatic Primary Producers: Implications for Food Web Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen in the organic matter of aquatic plants has a lower relative abundance of the deuterium isotope in comparison to hydrogen in the surrounding water due to a series of fractionation processes including photosynthesis and the biosynthesis of lipids. Expected differences between the deuterium values of different types of plant tissue have been used to observe terrestrial contributions to aquatic food webs and to discriminate organic matter sources in 3-isotope studies with more precision than in 2-isotope studies, however some values used in these studies are derived from an estimated fractionation value (?) between water and plant tissue. We found significant differences in fractionation values between different groups of aquatic plants sampled from three system types: lakes, river, and coastal lagoon. Fractionation values between water and plant tissue of macrophytes and marine macroalgae were more similar to those of terrestrial plants and distinctly different than those of benthic microalgae and phytoplankton. Incorporating the variability in fractionation values between plant types will improve models and experimental designs used in isotopic food web studies for aquatic systems.

Hondula, K. L.; Pace, M. L.; Cole, J. J.; Batt, R. D.

2011-12-01

321

Tracing Carbon Sources through Aquatic and Terrestrial Food Webs Using Amino Acid Stable Isotope Fingerprinting  

PubMed Central

Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring ?13C patterns among amino acids (?13CAA) could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that ?13CAA patterns in contrast to bulk ?13C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their ?13CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk ?13C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer ?13C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs. PMID:24069196

Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Andersen, Nils; O’Brien, Diane M.; Piatkowski, Uwe; McCarthy, Matthew D.

2013-01-01

322

Millennial-aged organic carbon subsidies to a modern river food web.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that highly aged material is a major component of organic matter transported by most rivers. However, few studies have used natural 14C to trace the potential entry of this aged material into modern river food webs. Here we use natural abundance 14C, 13C, and deuterium (2H) to trace the contribution of aged and contemporary organic matter to an important group of consumers, crustacean zooplankton, in a large temperate river (the Hudson River, New York, USA). Zooplankton were highly 14C depleted (mean delta14C = -240 per thousand) compared to modern primary production in the river or its watershed (delta14C = -60 per thousand to +50 per thousand). In order to account for the observed 14C depletion, zooplankton must be subsidized by highly aged particulate organic carbon. IsoSource modeling suggests that the range of the aged dietary subsidy is between approximately 57%, if the aged organic matter source was produced 3400 years ago, and approximately 21%, if the organic carbon used is > or = 50 000 years in age, including fossil material that is millions of years in age. The magnitude of this aged carbon subsidy to river zooplankton suggests that modern river food webs may in some cases be buffered from the limitations set by present-day primary production. PMID:20836460

Caraco, Nina; Bauer, James E; Cole, Jonathan J; Petsch, Steven; Raymond, Peter

2010-08-01

323

Bioaccumulation of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in selected species from the Barents Sea food web.  

PubMed

The present study reports concentrations and biomagnification potential of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in species from the Barents Sea food web. The examined species included sea ice amphipod (Gammarus wilkitzkii), polar cod (Boreogadus saida), black guillemot (Cepphus grylle) and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus). These were analyzed for PFAS, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant of the detected PFAS. Trophic levels and food web transfer of PFAS were determined using stable nitrogen isotopes (delta(15)N). No correlation was found between PFOS concentrations and trophic level within species. However, a non-linear relationship was established when the entire food web was analyzed. Biomagnification factors displayed values >1 for perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), PFOS and SigmaPFAS(7). Multivariate analyses showed that the degree of trophic transfer of PFAS is similar to that of PCB, DDT and PBDE, despite their accumulation through different pathways. PMID:17258363

Haukås, Marianne; Berger, Urs; Hop, Haakon; Gulliksen, Bjørn; Gabrielsen, Geir W

2007-07-01

324

Food web flows through a sub-arctic deep-sea benthic community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The benthic food web of the deep Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC) was modelled by using the linear inverse modelling methodology. The reconstruction of carbon pathways by inverse analysis was based on benthic oxygen uptake rates, biomass data and transfer of labile carbon through the food web as revealed by a pulse-chase experiment. Carbon deposition was estimated at 2.2 mmol C m -2 d -1. Approximately 69% of the deposited carbon was respired by the benthic community with bacteria being responsible for 70% of the total respiration. The major fraction of the labile detritus flux was recycled within the microbial loop leaving merely 2% of the deposited labile phytodetritus available for metazoan consumption. Bacteria assimilated carbon at high efficiency (0.55) but only 24% of bacterial production was grazed by metazoans; the remaining returned to the dissolved organic matter pool due to viral lysis. Refractory detritus was the basal food resource for nematodes covering ?99% of their carbon requirements. On the contrary, macrofauna seemed to obtain the major part of their metabolic needs from bacteria (49% of macrofaunal consumption). Labile detritus transfer was well-constrained, based on the data from the pulse-chase experiment, but appeared to be of limited importance to the diet of the examined benthic organisms (<1% and 5% of carbon requirements of nematodes and macrofauna respectively). Predation on nematodes was generally low with the exception of sub-surface deposit-feeding polychaetes that obtained 35% of their energy requirements from nematode ingestion. Carnivorous polychaetes also covered 35% of their carbon demand through predation although the preferred prey, in this case, was other macrofaunal animals rather than nematodes. Bacteria and detritus contributed 53% and 12% to the total carbon ingestion of carnivorous polychaetes suggesting a high degree of omnivory among higher consumers in the FSC benthic food web. Overall, this study provided a unique insight into the functioning of a deep-sea benthic community and demonstrated how conventional data can be exploited further when combined with state-of-the-art modelling approaches.

Gontikaki, E.; van Oevelen, D.; Soetaert, K.; Witte, U.

2011-11-01

325

Antarctic macrozooplankton of the southwest Atlantic sector and Bellingshausen Sea: Baseline historical distributions ( Discovery Investigations, 1928-1935) related to temperature and food, with projections for subsequent ocean warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the Discovery Investigations of the 1920s and 1930s, seawater temperatures have increased in the Atlantic sector by ˜1 °C; greater than the global mean rise. The aims of this paper were first to rescue the Discovery macrozooplankton data, second to provide quantitative "baseline" distribution maps, relating these to indices of temperature and food. Our third aim was to use the relationships we derived between abundance and temperature to project the potential affect of a 1 °C warming on the Discovery era distribution patterns. Based on the 1 m ringnet data retrieved from 615 stations (Nov-March), four taxa comprised >90% of the Antarctic macrozooplankton abundance: Rhincalanus gigas, Thysanoessa spp., Euphausia superba, and Chaetognaths. Most of the taxa, especially the more abundant ones, were warm water species penetrating into Antarctica and thus total macrozooplankton abundance decreased about 100-fold from 50°S to 70°S. While temperature correlated best with distribution at this large scale, food availability (proxied by a present-day satellite-based Chlorophyll a climatology) had a secondary effect, with the major euphausiids Euphausia superba and Thysanoessa spp. concentrated in high chl a areas. A modelled uniform 1 °C temperature rise produced a poleward shift for all taxa, but the Antarctic continent blocked this re-adjustment for the high latitude species, constricting their predicted range. More widespread polar/sub-polar species were predicted to increase their penetration into Antarctica by 4-12° in latitude, whereas the poleward shift in potential range of sub-Antarctic taxa were limited by the steep temperature gradient across the Antarctic Polar Front (APF). However, within the Scotia Sea the relatively warm temperatures of the northern Antarctic Zone, abundant food due to iron fertilisation and intense eddy activity provide a "gateway" for northern species to penetrate south of the APF. Our model predictions, based on measured distributional ranges and observed temperature increases, provide a yardstick with which to compare modern day data compilations and assess the potential effects of future temperature increases.

Mackey, A. P.; Atkinson, A.; Hill, S. L.; Ward, P.; Cunningham, N. J.; Johnston, N. M.; Murphy, E. J.

2012-01-01

326

Assessing the trophic position and ecological role of squids in marine ecosystems by means of food-web models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We synthesized available information from ecological models at local and regional scales to obtain a global picture of the trophic position and ecological role of squids in marine ecosystems. First, static food-web models were used to analyze basic ecological parameters and indicators of squids: biomass, production, consumption, trophic level, omnivory index, predation mortality diet, and the ecological role. In addition, we developed various dynamic temporal simulations using two food-web models that included squids in their parameterization, and we investigated potential impacts of fishing pressure and environmental conditions for squid populations and, consequently, for marine food webs. Our results showed that squids occupy a large range of trophic levels in marine food webs and show a large trophic width, reflecting the versatility in their feeding behaviors and dietary habits. Models illustrated that squids are abundant organisms in marine ecosystems, and have high growth and consumption rates, but these parameters are highly variable because squids are adapted to a large variety of environmental conditions. Results also show that squids can have a large trophic impact on other elements of the food web, and top-down control from squids to their prey can be high. In addition, some squid species are important prey of apical predators and may be keystone species in marine food webs. In fact, we found strong interrelationships between neritic squids and the populations of their prey and predators in coastal and shelf areas, while the role of squids in open ocean and upwelling ecosystems appeared more constrained to a bottom-up impact on their predators. Therefore, large removals of squids will likely have large-scale effects on marine ecosystems. In addition, simulations confirm that squids are able to benefit from a general increase in fishing pressure, mainly due to predation release, and quickly respond to changes triggered by the environment. Squids may thus be very sensitive to the effects of fishing and climate change.

Coll, Marta; Navarro, Joan; Olson, Robert J.; Christensen, Villy

2013-10-01

327

Phytoplankton Chytridiomycosis: Fungal Parasites of Phytoplankton and Their Imprints on the Food Web Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Parasitism is one of the earlier and common ecological interactions in the nature, occurring in almost all environments. Microbial parasites typically are characterized by their small size, short generation time, and high rates of reproduction, with simple life cycle occurring generally within a single host. They are diverse and ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising viruses, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes. Recently, environmental 18S rDNA surveys of microbial eukaryotes have unveiled major infecting agents in pelagic systems, consisting primarily of the fungal order of Chytridiales (chytrids). Chytrids are considered the earlier branch of the Eumycetes and produce motile, flagellated zoospores, characterized by a small size (2–6??m), and a single, posterior flagellum. The existence of these dispersal propagules includes chytrids within the so-called group of zoosporic fungi, which are particularly adapted to the plankton lifestyle where they infect a wide variety of hosts, including fishes, eggs, zooplankton, algae, and other aquatic fungi but primarily freshwater phytoplankton. Related ecological implications are huge because chytrids can killed their hosts, release substrates for microbial processes, and provide nutrient-rich particles as zoospores and short fragments of filamentous inedible hosts for the grazer food chain. Furthermore, based on the observation that phytoplankton chytridiomycosis preferentially impacts the larger size species, blooms of such species (e.g., filamentous cyanobacteria) may not totally represent trophic bottlenecks. Besides, chytrid epidemics represent an important driving factor in phytoplankton seasonal successions. In this review, I summarize the knowledge on the diversity, community structure, quantitative importance, and functional roles of fungal chytrids, primarily those who are parasites of phytoplankton, and infer the ecological implications and potentials for the food web dynamics and properties. I reach the conclusion that phytoplankton chytridiomycosis represents an important but as yet overlooked ecological driving force in aquatic food web dynamics and network organization. PMID:23091469

Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

2012-01-01

328

Trophic relationships in an Arctic food web and implications for trace metal transfer.  

PubMed

Tissues of subsistence-harvested Arctic mammals were analyzed for silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), and total mercury (THg). Muscle (or total body homogenates of potential fish and invertebrate prey) was analyzed for stable carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) isotopes to establish trophic interactions within the Arctic food chain. Food web magnification factors (FWMFs) and biomagnification factors for selected predator-prey scenarios (BMFs) were calculated to describe pathways of heavy metals in the Alaskan Arctic. FWMFs in this study indicate that magnification of selected heavy metals in the Arctic food web is not significant. Biomagnification of Cd occurs mainly in kidneys; calculated BMFs are higher for hepatic THg than renal THg for all predator-prey scenarios with the exception of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). In bears, the accumulation of renal THg is approximately 6 times higher than in liver. Magnification of hepatic Ag is minimal for all selected predator-prey scenarios. Though polar bears occupy a higher trophic level than belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), based on delta15N, the metal concentrations are either not statistically different between the two species or lower for bears. Similarly, concentrations of renal and hepatic Cd are significantly lower or not statistically different in polar bears compared to ringed (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), their primary prey. THg, on the other hand, increased significantly from seal to polar bear tissues. Mean delta15N was lowest in muscle of Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and foxes also show the lowest levels of Hg, Cd and Ag in liver and kidney compared to the other species analyzed. These values are in good agreement with a diet dominated by terrestrial prey. Metal deposition in animal tissues is strongly dependent on biological factors such as diet, age, sex, body condition and health, and caution should be taken when interpreting magnification of dynamic and actively regulated trace metals. PMID:16387350

Dehn, Larissa-A; Follmann, Erich H; Thomas, Dana L; Sheffield, Gay G; Rosa, Cheryl; Duffy, Lawrence K; O'Hara, Todd M

2006-06-01

329

Networks within networks: floods, droughts, and the assembly of algal-based food webs in a Mediterranean river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riverine biota live within several networks. Organisms are embedded in food webs, whose structure and dynamics respond to environmental changes down river drainages. In sunlit rivers, food webs are fueled by attached algae. Primary producer biomass in the Eel River of Northwestern California, as in many sunlit, temperate rivers worldwide, is dominated by the macroalga Cladophora, which grows as a hierarchical, branched network. Cladophora proliferations vastly amplify the ecological surface area and the diversity microhabitats available to microbes. Environmental conditions (light, substrate age or stability, flow, redox gradients) change in partially predictable ways along both Cladophora fronds and river drainage networks, from the frond tips (or headwaters) to their base (or river mouth). We are interested in the ecological and biogeochemical consequences, at the catchment scale, of cross-scale interactions of microbial food webs on Cladophora with macro-organismal food webs, as these change down river drainages. We are beginning to explore how seasonal, hydrologic and macro-consumer control over the production and fate of Cladophora and its epiphytes could mediate ecosystem linkages of the river, its watershed, and nearshore marine ecosystems. Of the four interacting networks we consider, the web of microbial interactions is the most poorly known, and possibly the least hierarchical due to the prevalence of metabolic processing chains (waste products of some members become resources for others) and mutualisms.

Power, M. E.; Limm, M.; Finlay, J. C.; Welter, J.; Furey, P.; Lowe, R.; Hondzo, M.; Dietrich, W. E.; Bode, C. A.; National CenterEarth Surface Dynamics

2011-12-01

330

Variable food absorption by Antarctic krill: Relationships between diet, egestion rate and the composition and sinking rates of their fecal pellets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of food processing by zooplankton affects both their energy budgets and the biogeochemical fate of their fecal pellets. We sampled 40 schools of krill across the Scotia Sea during spring, summer and autumn and found that in all 3 seasons, every aspect of their absorption and defecation varied greatly. The C content of fecal pellets varied from 0.85% to 29% of their dry mass (median 9.8%) and C egestion rates varied 75-fold. C:N mass ratios of pellets ranged from 4.9 to 13.2 (median 7.8), higher than values of 3.9 in the krill and 5.4 in their food, pointing to enhanced uptake of N. Pellet sinking rates equated to 27-1218 m d -1 (median 304 m d -1), being governed mainly by pellet diameter (80-600 ?m, mean 183 ?m) and density (1.038-1.391 g cm -3, mean 1.121 g cm -3). Pellets showed little loss of C or N in filtered seawater over the first 2 days and were physically robust. When feeding rates were low, slow gut passage time and high absorption efficiency resulted in low egestion rates of pellets that were low in C and N content. These pellets were compact, dense and fast-sinking. Conversely, in good feeding conditions much food tended to pass quickly through the gut and was not efficiently absorbed, producing C and N-rich, slow-sinking pellets. Such "superfluous feeding" probably maximises the absolute rates of nutrient absorption. Food composition was also important: diatom-rich diets depressed the C content of the pellets but increased their sinking rates, likely due to silica ballasting. So depending on how krill process food, their pellets could represent both vehicles for rapid export and slow sinking, C and N-rich food sources for pelagic scavengers. C egestion rates by krill averaged 3.4% of summer primary production (and ingestion rates would be 2-10-fold higher than this) so whatever the fate of the pellets, krill are an important re-packager within the food web. While salp pellets tend to sink faster than those of krill, it is the latter that tend to prevail in sediment traps. We suggest that this is because krill schools are more compact, producing "rain showers" of pellets that exceed the capacity of pelagic scavengers to reprocess them.

Atkinson, A.; Schmidt, K.; Fielding, S.; Kawaguchi, S.; Geissler, P. A.

2012-01-01

331

Structure and interactions within the pelagic microbial food web (from viruses to microplankton) across environmental gradients in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated here the structure of the pelagic microbial food web and quantified the carbon fluxes from viruses to microplankton along trophic gradients in the Mediterranean Sea. To explore the complex trophic pathways of the pelagic food web, we conducted independent and replicated experiments to measure (i) predation on prokaryotes by microzooplankton, (ii) predation on prokaryotes by heterotrophic nanoflagellates, (iii) virus-induced prokaryotic mortality, and (iv) microzooplankton grazing on nanoplankton and microphytoplankton. Our study covered more than 5000 km, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Levantine basin, and from conditions of high primary production and nutrient availability to ultraoligotrophic and phosphate-limited waters. Microphytoplankton abundance and biomass were typically scarce across the entire Mediterranean basin, with almost negligible levels in the eastern part. Also, nanoplankton biomass was typically low. Conversely, prokaryotes, and particularly the heterotrophic components, were abundant and represented the only significant food source for both nanoplankton and microplankton grazers. Viral infections were not the primary agents of prokaryotic mortality, but in some areas, such as the Ligurian Sea, they had a key role in prokaryotic dynamics. The scenario depicted in this study in summer reveals the pivotal role of microzooplankton in the pelagic food web of the Mediterranean Sea, with a key role in the potential transfer of biomass to higher trophic levels. We also show that converse to theoretical expectations, the microbial food web was relatively complex under the mesotrophic conditions (Atlantic and western Mediterranean) and was much more simplified in the ultraoligotrophic conditions of the eastern Mediterranean.

Di Poi, E.; Blason, C.; Corinaldesi, C.; Danovaro, R.; Malisana, E.; Fonda-Umani, S.

2013-12-01

332

Parameterizations of truncated food web models from the perspective of an end-to-end model approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of marine ecosystems is broadly divided into two branches: biogeochemical processes and fish production. The biogeochemical models see the fish only implicitly by mortality rates, while fish production models see the lower food web basically through prescribed food, e.g., copepod biomass. The skill assessment of ecological models, which are usually truncated biogeochemical models, also involves the question of how the effects of the missing higher food web are parameterized. This paper contributes to the goal of bridging biogeochemical models and fish-production models by employing a recently developed coupled NPZDF-model, Fennel [Fennel, W., 2007. Towards bridging biogeochemical and fish production models. Journal of Marine Systems, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2007.06.008]. Here we study parameterizations of truncated NPZD-models from the viewpoint of a complete model. The effects of the higher food web on the cycling of the state variables in a truncated NPZD-model cannot be unambiguously imitated. For example, one can mimic effects of fishery by export fluxes of one of the state variables. It is shown that the mass fluxes between the lower and upper part of the full model food web are significantly smaller than the fluxes within the NPZD-model. However, over longer time scales, relatively small changes can accumulate and eventually become important.

Fennel, Wolfgang

2009-02-01

333

Global Patterns in Ecological Indicators of Marine Food Webs: A Modelling Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Ecological attributes estimated from food web models have the potential to be indicators of good environmental status given their capabilities to describe redundancy, food web changes, and sensitivity to fishing. They can be used as a baseline to show how they might be modified in the future with human impacts such as climate change, acidification, eutrophication, or overfishing. Methodology In this study ecological network analysis indicators of 105 marine food web models were tested for variation with traits such as ecosystem type, latitude, ocean basin, depth, size, time period, and exploitation state, whilst also considering structural properties of the models such as number of linkages, number of living functional groups or total number of functional groups as covariate factors. Principal findings Eight indicators were robust to model construction: relative ascendency; relative overhead; redundancy; total systems throughput (TST); primary production/TST; consumption/TST; export/TST; and total biomass of the community. Large-scale differences were seen in the ecosystems of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, with the Western Atlantic being more complex with an increased ability to mitigate impacts, while the Eastern Atlantic showed lower internal complexity. In addition, the Eastern Pacific was less organised than the Eastern Atlantic although both of these systems had increased primary production as eastern boundary current systems. Differences by ecosystem type highlighted coral reefs as having the largest energy flow and total biomass per unit of surface, while lagoons, estuaries, and bays had lower transfer efficiencies and higher recycling. These differences prevailed over time, although some traits changed with fishing intensity. Keystone groups were mainly higher trophic level species with mostly top-down effects, while structural/dominant groups were mainly lower trophic level groups (benthic primary producers such as seagrass and macroalgae, and invertebrates). Keystone groups were prevalent in estuarine or small/shallow systems, and in systems with reduced fishing pressure. Changes to the abundance of key functional groups might have significant implications for the functioning of ecosystems and should be avoided through management. Conclusion/significance Our results provide additional understanding of patterns of structural and functional indicators in different ecosystems. Ecosystem traits such as type, size, depth, and location need to be accounted for when setting reference levels as these affect absolute values of ecological indicators. Therefore, establishing absolute reference values for ecosystem indicators may not be suitable to the ecosystem-based, precautionary approach. Reference levels for ecosystem indicators should be developed for individual ecosystems or ecosystems with the same typologies (similar location, ecosystem type, etc.) and not benchmarked against all other ecosystems. PMID:24763610

Heymans, Johanna Jacomina; Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Morissette, Lyne; Christensen, Villy

2014-01-01

334

Assimilation of aged organic carbon in a glacial river food web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying the key sources of organic carbon supporting fish and invertebrate consumers is fundamental to our understanding of stream ecosystems. Recent laboratory bioassays highlight that aged organic carbon from glacier environments is highly bioavailable to stream bacteria relative to carbon originating from ice-free areas. However, there is little evidence suggesting that this aged, bioavailable organic carbon is also a key basal carbon source for stream metazoa. We used natural abundance of ?14C, ?13C, and ?15N to determine if fish and invertebrate consumers are subsidized by aged organic carbon in a glacial river in southeast Alaska. We collected biofilm, leaf litter, three different species of macroinvertebrates, and resident juvenile salmonids from a reference stream and two sites (one site is directly downstream of the glacial outflow and one site is upstream of the tidal estuary) on the heavily glaciated Herbert River. Key producers, fish, and invertebrate consumers in the reference stream had carbon isotope values that ranged from -26 to -30‰ for ?13C and from -12 to 53‰ for ?14C, reflecting a food web sustained mainly on contemporary primary production. In contrast, biofilm in the two glacial sites was highly ?14C depleted (-203 to -215‰) relative to the reference site. Although biofilm may consist of both bacteria and benthic algae utilizing carbon depleted in ?14C, ?13C values for biofilm (-24.1‰), dissolved inorganic carbon (-5.9‰), and dissolved organic carbon (-24.0‰) suggest that biofilm consist of bacteria sustained in part by glacier-derived, aged organic carbon. Invertebrate consumers (mean ?14C of -80.5, mean ?13C of -26.5) and fish (mean ?14C of -63.3, mean ?13C of -25.7) in the two glacial sites had carbon isotope values similar to biofilm. These results similarly show that aged organic carbon is incorporated into the metazoan food web. Overall, our findings indicate that continued watershed deglaciation and subsequent decreases in glacier runoff may shift support of stream food web structure from mainly aged organic carbon to that of one sustained by contemporary primary production. This may have previously unrecognized effects on the productivity and biodiversity of glacier stream ecosystems.

Fellman, J.; Hood, E. W.; Raymond, P. A.; Bozeman, M.; Hudson, J.; Arimitsu, M.

2013-12-01

335

The bioenergetic consequences of invasive-induced food web disruption to Lake Ontario alewives  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus are the dominant prey fish in Lake Ontario, and their response to ecological change can alter the structure and function of the Lake Ontario food web. Using stochastic population-based bioenergetic models of Lake Ontario alewives for 1987–1991 and 2001–2005, we evaluated changes to alewife production, consumption, and associated bioenergetic ratios after invasive-induced food web disruption. After the disruption, mean biomass of alewives declined from 28.0 to 14.6 g/m2, production declined from 40.8 to 13.6 g·m?2·year?1, and consumption declined from 342.1 to 137.2 g·m?2·year?1, but bootstrapping of error sources suggested that the changes were not statistically significant. Population-based bioenergetic ratios of production to biomass (P/B ratio), total consumption to biomass (Q/B ratio), and production efficiency did not change. Pathways of energy flow measured as prey-group-specific Q/B ratios changed significantly between the two time periods for invasive predatory cladocerans (from 0.6 to 1.3), Mysis diluviana (from 0.4 to 2.5), and other prey (from 0.8 to 0.1), but the observed decline in the zooplankton Q/B ratio (from 10.6 to 5.5) was not significant. Gross production efficiency did not change; values ranged from 8% to 15%. Age-group mean gross conversion efficiency (GCE) declined with age; GCE ranged from 7.5% to 11.0% for yearlings, was approximately 5% for age-2 alewives, and was less than 2% for age-3 and older alewives. The GCE increased significantly between the time periods for yearling alewives. Our analyses support the hypothesis that after 2003, alewives could not sustain their growth while feeding on zooplankton closer to shore. Modeling of observed spatial variation in diet and alternative occupied temperatures demonstrates the potential for reducing consumption by alewives. Our results suggest that Lake Ontario alewives can exploit spatial heterogeneity in resource patches and thermal habitat to partially mitigate the effects of food web disruption. Fish management implications are discussed.

Stewart, Thomas J.; O'Gorman, Robert; Sprules, W. Gary; Lantry, B.F.

2010-01-01

336

Sustainability of the Lake Superior fish community: Interactions in a food web context  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The restoration and rehabilitation of the native fish communities is a long-term goal for the Laurentian Great Lakes. In Lake Superior, the ongoing restoration of the native lake trout populations is now regarded as one of the major success stories in fisheries management. However, populations of the deepwater morphotype (siscowet lake trout) have increased much more substantially than those of the nearshore morphotype (lean lake trout), and the ecosystem now contains an assemblage of exotic species such as sea lamprey, rainbow smelt, and Pacific salmon (chinook, coho, and steelhead). Those species play an important role in defining the constraints and opportunities for ecosystem management. We combined an equilibrium mass balance model (Ecopath) with a dynamic food web model (Ecosim) to evaluate the ecological consequences of future alternative management strategies and the interaction of two different sets of life history characteristics for fishes at the top of the food web. Relatively rapid turnover rates occur among the exotic forage fish, rainbow smelt, and its primary predators, exotic Pacific salmonids. Slower turnover rates occur among the native lake trout and burbot and their primary prey - lake herring, smelt, deepwater cisco, and sculpins. The abundance of forage fish is a key constraint for all salmonids in Lake Superior. Smelt and Mysis play a prominent role in sustaining the current trophic structure. Competition between the native lake trout and the exotic salmonids is asymmetric. Reductions in the salmon population yield only a modest benefit for the stocks of lake trout, whereas increased fishing of lake trout produces substantial potential increases in the yields of Pacific salmon to recreational fisheries. The deepwater or siscowet morphotype of lake trout has become very abundant. Although it plays a major role in the structure of the food web it offers little potential for the restoration of a valuable commercial or recreational fishery. Even if a combination of strong management actions is implemented, the populations of lean (nearshore) lake trout cannot be restored to pre-fishery and pre-lamprey levels. Thus, management strategy must accept the ecological constraints due in part to the presence of exotics and choose alternatives that sustain public interest in the resources while continuing the gradual progress toward restoration.

Kitchell, James F.; Cox, Sean P.; Harvey, Chris J.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Mason, Doran M.; Schoen, Kurt K.; Aydin, Kerim; Bronte, Charles; Ebener, Mark; Hansen, Michael; Hoff, Michael; Schram, Steve; Schreiner, Don; Walters, Carl J.

2000-01-01

337

An analysis of food-web structure and function in a shortgrass prairie, a mountain meadow, and a lodgepole pine forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of the below-ground detrital food web was similar in three different semiarid vegetation types: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia), mountain meadow (Agropyron smithii), and shortgrass prairie (Bouteloua gracilis). The densities of component food-web functional groups and the response to removal of component groups, differed however. As measured by biomass, bacteria were dominant in the meadow and prairie,

E. R. Ingham; J. C. Moore

1989-01-01

338

Changes in food web structure under scenarios of overfishing in the southern Benguela: Comparison of the Ecosim and OSMOSE modelling approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem models provide a platform allowing exploration into the possible responses of marine food webs to fishing pressure and various potential management decisions. In this study we investigate the particular effects of overfishing on the structure and function of the southern Benguela food web, using two models with different underlying assumptions: the spatialized, size-based individual-based model, OSMOSE, and the trophic

M. Travers; K. Watermeyer; L. J. Shannon; Y.-J. Shin

2010-01-01

339

The SCAR Standing Committee on Antarctic Data Management - new directions in access to Antarctic research data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SCAR Standing Committee on Antarctic Data Management (SC-ADM) was established by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP), to assist in the fulfillment of the data management obligations imposed by the Antarctic Treaty (section III.1.c): "Scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available." SC-ADM comprises representatives of the National Antarctic Data Centres or national points of contact. Currently 31 nations around the world are represented in SC-ADM. So far, SC-ADM has been focussing on the coordination of the Antarctic Master Directory (AMD), the internationally accessible, web-based, searchable record of Antarctic and Southern Ocean data set descriptions. The AMD is directly integrated into the international Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) to help further merge Antarctic science into global science. The AMD is a resource for scientists to advertise the data they have collected and to search for data they may need. Currently, SC-ADM is in a transition phase, moving forward to provide data access. Existing systems and web services technology will be used as much as possible, to increase efficiency and prevent 're-inventing the wheel' This poster will give an overview of this process, the current status and the expected results.

de Bruin, T.

2009-04-01

340

Establishment of trophic continuum in the food web of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea ecosystem: insight from carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes.  

PubMed

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (delta (13)C and delta (15)N) are used to study the trophic structure of food web in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea ecosystem. The trophic continuum of pelagic food web from phytoplankton to top preyer was elementarily established, and a trophic structure diagram in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea was outlined in combination with carbon isotopic data of benthic organisms, which is basically consistent with and makes some improvements on the simplified Yellow Sea food web and the trophic structure diagram drawn based on the biomass of main resource population during 1985-1986. This result indicates that the stable isotope method is a potential useful means for further studying the complete marine food web trophic continuum from viruses to top predators and food web stability. PMID:16483132

Cai, Deling; Li, Hongyan; Tang, Qisheng; Sun, Yao

2005-12-01

341

Complex response of a food-web module to symmetric and asymmetric migration between several patches.  

PubMed

We investigate the stability of a diamond food-web module on two patches coupled by migration in terms of robustness, which is the proportion of surviving species in the system. The parameters are chosen such that the dynamics on an isolated patch have a periodic attractor with all four species present as well as an attractor where the prey that is preferred by the top predator dies out. The migration rate and the migration bias between the two patches are varied, resulting in a surprisingly complex relation between migration rate and robustness. In particular, while the degree of synchronization usually increases with increasing migration rate, robustness can increase as well as decrease. We find that the main results also hold when the number of patches is larger. Different types of connectivity patterns between patches can lead to different extent of migration bias if the migration rate out of each patch is the same. PMID:24641820

Ristl, Konstantin; Plitzko, Sebastian J; Drossel, Barbara

2014-08-01

342

Food web structure in a near-pristine mangrove area of the Australian Wet Tropics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition was used to identify the main sources of carbon and describe the main trophic pathways in Deluge Inlet, a near-pristine mangrove estuary in tropical north Queensland, Australia. Producers' ?13C varied from -28.9‰ for mangroves to -18.6‰ for seagrass. Animals were also well separated in ?13C (-25.4‰ to -16.3‰ for invertebrates and -25.2‰ to -17.2‰ for fish), suggesting considerable differences in ultimate sources of carbon, from a substantial reliance on mangrove carbon to an almost exclusive reliance on seagrass. In general, invertebrates had lower ?15N than fish, indicating lower trophic levels. Among fish, ?15N values reflected well the assumed trophic levels, as species from lower trophic levels had lower ?15N than species from higher trophic levels. Trophic levels and trophic length were estimated based on ?15N of invertebrate primary consumers (6.1‰), with results suggesting a food web with four trophic levels. There was also evidence of a high level of diet overlap between fish species, as indicated by similarities in ?13C for fish species of higher trophic levels. Stable isotope data was also useful to construct a general model for this food web, where five main trophic pathways were identified: one based on both mangrove and microphytobenthos, one on plankton, two on both microphytobenthos and seagrass, and one based mainly on seagrass. This model again suggested the presence of four trophic levels, in agreement with the value calculated based on the difference in ?15N between invertebrate primary consumers and top piscivores.

Abrantes, Kátya; Sheaves, Marcus

2009-05-01

343

Isomers of dechlorane plus in Lake Winnipeg and Lake Ontario food webs.  

PubMed

The extent of bioaccumulation of the syn- and anti-isomers of Dechlorane Plus (DP) is assessed in archived food web samples from Lake Winnipeg and Lake Ontario. Concentrations of the isomers were determined using purified analytical solutions of individual isomers as opposed to the technical mixture. The syn-isomer was consistently detected in all samples from both lakes; the anti-isomer was detected in all Lake Ontario samples, but only 45% of the samples from Lake Winnipeg. The pattern of bioaccumulation was different for the isomers in Lake Winnipeg. The anti-isomer was dominant in higher trophic level (TL) organisms like walleye [arithmetic mean +/- 1 x standard error: 730 +/- 120 pg/g, lipid weight (1w)] and goldeye (760 +/- 170 pg/g, Iw) while the syn-isomer dominated the lower TL organisms like zooplankton (550 +/- 40 pg/g, Iw) and mussels (430 +/- 140 pg/g, Iw). In Lake Ontario, the extent of bioaccumulation of the isomers and concentrations was greatest in the lower TL benthic organism, Diporeia (syn, 1307 +/- 554; and anti, 3108 +/- 898 pg/g Iw) and also high in zooplankton (syn, 719; and anti, 1332 pg/g Iw). This suggests that the isomers are bioavailable in sediment and that, despite their molecular size, diffusion from the water column into zooplankton can occur. Differences in the mean fractional abundance of the anti-isomer (mean fanti = mean concentration of the anti-isomer divided by sum of mean syn- and anti-concentrations) were pronounced in sediments between lakes (Lake Winnipeg mean fanti = 0.610, Lake Ontario mean fanti = 0.860) and the extent of enrichment (anti-) and depletion (syn-) of the isomers were more marked in Lake Winnipeg biota. There were also differences in the biomagnification potentials, as measured bythe trophic magnification factor (TMF), between the isomers in the Lake Winnipeg food web; no statistically significant TMFs for either isomer were found for the PMID:17438771

Tomy, Gregg T; Pleskach, Kerri; Ismail, Nargis; Whittle, D Michael; Helm, Paul A; Sverko, Ed; Zaruk, Donna; Marvin, Chris H

2007-04-01

344

Food web structure and vulnerability of a deep-sea ecosystem in the NW Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing fishing pressure on the continental margins of the oceans, and this raises concerns about the vulnerability of the ecosystems thriving there. The current knowledge of the biology of deep-water fish species identifies potential reduced resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. However, there are extreme difficulties in sampling the deep sea, resulting in poorly resolved and indirectly obtained food-web relationships. Here, we modelled the flows and biomasses of a Mediterranean deep-sea ecosystem, the Catalan Sea continental slope at depths of 1000-1400 m. This is the first model of a deep-water ecosystem in the Mediterranean Sea. The objectives were to (a) quantitatively describe the food web structure of the ecosystem, (b) examine the role of key species in the ecosystem, and (c) explore the vulnerability of this deep-sea ecosystem to potential future fishing exploitation. We used the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) modelling approach and software to model the ecosystem. The trophic model included 18 consumers, a marine snow group, and a sediment detritus group. Trophic network analysis identified low levels of consumer biomass cycling and low system omnivory index when compared with expected values of marine ecosystems, and higher cycling and omnivory when compared with available EwE models of shallower areas of the Mediterranean Sea. The majority of flows in the ecosystem were concentrated at the trophic level of first-order consumers (TL 2). Benthic invertebrates and demersal sharks were identified to have key ecological roles in the ecosystem. We used the dynamic temporal model Ecosim to simulate expansion of the red-shrimp benthic trawl fishery that currently operates at shallower depths, down to 800 m depth. The simulations showed reductions in fish biomass and that the state of the deep continental slope ecosystem in the western Mediterranean seems to be the result of a long-term succession process, which has reached ecological stability, and is particularly vulnerable to human impact and, specifically, to fisheries exploitation.

Tecchio, Samuele; Coll, Marta; Christensen, Villy; Company, Joan B.; Ramírez-Llodra, Eva; Sardà, Francisco

2013-05-01

345

Low concentrations of selenium in stream food webs of eastern Canada.  

PubMed

Herbivorous and predatory invertebrates and two species of fish (brook trout and blacknose dace) were collected from 49 streams in New Brunswick, Canada to determine whether concentrations of selenium (Se) in the biota were affected by a point source (a coal-fired power plant), and stream water chemistry (pH, sulphate, conductivity, and total organic carbon), and to determine the trophic transfer of Se through these food webs. Total Se concentrations in the biota were generally low (0.2 to 4.8 ?g g(-1) dry weight) across sites and there was no relationship between distance from the coal-fired power plant and Se concentrations in invertebrates or fishes. Water chemistry was an equally poor predictor of Se concentrations in invertebrates and fish. Trophic position (determined using ?(15)N) was a significant predictor of Se concentrations in only five of the stream food webs, and two of these had negative slopes, indicating little or no trophic magnification across most systems; many fishes had lower concentrations than their invertebrate prey and trophic transfer was higher at sites with low invertebrate Se concentrations. Variability in Se concentrations in fishes was explained more by site of capture than microhabitat use within the site (as measured with ?(13)C), suggesting among-site differences in geological sources of Se. Because concentrations were below known toxicity thresholds for fish and other consumers, these results suggest that Se is not an environmental issue in New Brunswick streams that do not receive direct inputs from mining activities. PMID:21146198

Jardine, Timothy D; Kidd, Karen A

2011-01-15

346

Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of organochlorines in a marine food web at a pristine site in Iceland.  

PubMed

Organochlorine (OC) bioaccumulation and biomagnification were studied in a marine food web at a pristine site in Iceland. The species studied were the gastropod and grazer chink shell (Lacuna vincta), the filter feeding bivalve blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), the predators butterfish (Pholis gunnellus), and the seabird black guillemot (Cepphus grylle), all sampled and analysed in 1996-1997. Individual OC levels were generally low in chink shell and blue mussels, somewhat elevated in the fish, and an order of a magnitude higher in the top predator black guillemot, except for Sigma HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane isomers) and Sigma chlordane levels, which were similar in all organisms, ranging from 10 to 36 ng/g lipid weight (lw). In the molluscs and fish, mean concentrations of Sigma PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) ranged from 111 to 377 ng/g lw, Sigma DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) ranged from 19 to 65 ng/g lw, and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) ranged from 21 to 30 ng/g lw. The levels of same OCs in the black guillemot were on average 2352, 361, and 283 ng/g lw, respectively. The OC tissue concentrations in blue mussel and black guillemot are comparable to levels in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions, but OC levels in blue mussel tissue were an order of magnitude lower than found in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. The relative composition of OCs were generally similar among species with the PCB congeners emerging as the most abundant compounds with levels an order of magnitude higher than the other compounds in all species. Food web magnification factors (FWMFs) were determined for the OCs by using trophic levels determined from delta(15)N. FWMFs >1, indicating biomagnification, were found for Sigma PCB, penta- or higher chlorinated PCBs (e.g., PCB 101, 118, 138, 153, 180), beta-HCH, HCB, Sigma DDT, p,p-DDE, and transnonachlor. The highest FWMF was observed for PCB 180 at FWMF = 5.8. PMID:19711125

Skarphedinsdottir, Halldora; Gunnarsson, Karl; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A; Nfon, Erick

2010-04-01

347

Reciprocal diversification in a complex plant-herbivore-parasitoid food web  

PubMed Central

Background Plants, plant-feeding insects, and insect parasitoids form some of the most complex and species-rich food webs. According to the classic escape-and-radiate (EAR) hypothesis, these hyperdiverse communities result from coevolutionary arms races consisting of successive cycles of enemy escape, radiation, and colonization by new enemy lineages. It has also been suggested that "enemy-free space" provided by novel host plants could promote host shifts by herbivores, and that parasitoids could similarly drive diversification of gall form in insects that induce galls on plants. Because these central coevolutionary hypotheses have never been tested in a phylogenetic framework, we combined phylogenetic information on willow-galling sawflies with data on their host plants, gall types, and enemy communities. Results We found that evolutionary shifts in host plant use and habitat have led to dramatic prunings of parasitoid communities, and that changes in gall phenotype can provide "enemy-free morphospace" for millions of years even in the absence of host plant shifts. Some parasites have nevertheless managed to colonize recently-evolved gall types, and this has apparently led to adaptive speciation in several enemy groups. However, having fewer enemies does not in itself increase speciation probabilities in individual sawfly lineages, partly because the high diversity of the enemy community facilitates compensatory attack by remaining parasite taxa. Conclusion Taken together, our results indicate that niche-dependent parasitism is a major force promoting ecological divergence in herbivorous insects, and that prey divergence can cause speciation in parasite lineages. However, the results also show that the EAR hypothesis is too simplistic for species-rich food webs: instead, diversification seems to be spurred by a continuous stepwise process, in which ecological and phenotypic shifts in prey lineages are followed by a lagged evolutionary response by some of the associated enemies. PMID:17976232

Nyman, Tommi; Bokma, Folmer; Kopelke, Jens-Peter

2007-01-01

348

Intermediate-consumer identity and resources alter a food web with omnivory.  

PubMed

1. Omnivory is an important interaction that has been the centre of numerous theoretical and empirical studies in recent years. Most of these studies examine the conditions necessary for coexistence between an omnivore and an intermediate consumer. Trait variation in ecological interactions (competition and predator tolerance) among intermediate consumers has not been considered in previous empirical studies despite the evidence that variation in species-specific traits can have important community-level effects. 2. I conducted a multifactorial microcosm experiment using species from the Sarracenia purpurea phytotelmata community, organisms that inhabit the water collected within its modified leaves. The basal trophic level consisted of bacterial decomposers, the second trophic level (intermediate consumers) consisted of protozoa and rotifers, and the third trophic level (omnivore) were larvae of the pitcher plant mosquito Wyeomyia smithii. Trophic level number (1, 2 and 3), resources (low and high), omnivore density (low and high) and intermediate consumer (monoculture of five protozoa and rotifers) identity were manipulated. Abundance of the basal trophic level, intermediate consumers, and growth of the omnivore were measured, as well as time to extinction (intermediate consumers) and time to pupation (mosquito larvae). 3. The presence of different intermediate consumers affected both bacteria abundance and omnivore growth. At high resource levels, Poteriochromonas, Colpidium and Habrotrocha rosa reduced bacteria densities greater than omnivore reduction of bacteria. Mosquito larvae did not pupate at low resource levels except when Poteriochromonas and Colopoda were present as intermediate consumers. Communities with H. rosa were the only ones consistent with the prediction that omnivores should exclude intermediate consumers at high resources. 4. These results had mixed support for predictions from omnivory food web theory. Intermediate consumers responded and affected this community differently under different community structures and resource levels. Consequently, variation in species-specific traits can have important population- and community-level effects and needs to be considered in food webs with omnivory. PMID:17584370

Kneitel, Jamie M

2007-07-01

349

Antagonistic selection from predators and pathogens alters food-web structure.  

PubMed

Selection can alter predator-prey interactions. However, whether and how complex food-webs respond to selection remain largely unknown. We show in the field that antagonistic selection from predators and pathogens on prey body-size can be a primary driver of food-web functioning. In Windermere, U.K., pike (Esox lucius, the predator) selected against small perch (Perca fluviatilis, the prey), while a perch-specific pathogen selected against large perch. The strongest selective force drove perch trait change and ultimately determined the structure of trophic interactions. Before 1976, the strength of pike-induced selection overrode the strength of pathogen-induced selection and drove a change to larger, faster growing perch. Predation-driven increase in the proportion of large, infection-vulnerable perch presumably favored the pathogen since a peak in the predation pressure in 1976 coincided with pathogen expansion and a massive perch kill. After 1976, the strength of pathogen-induced selection overrode the strength of predator-induced selection and drove a rapid change to smaller, slower growing perch. These changes made perch easier prey for pike and weaker competitors against juvenile pike, ultimately increasing juvenile pike survival and total pike numbers. Therefore, although predators and pathogens exploited the same prey in Windermere, they did not operate competitively but synergistically by driving rapid prey trait change in opposite directions. Our study empirically demonstrates that a consideration of the relative strengths and directions of multiple selective pressures is needed to fully understand community functioning in nature. PMID:19064927

Edeline, Eric; Ari, Tamara Ben; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn; Winfield, Ian J; Fletcher, Janice M; James, J Ben; Stenseth, Nils C

2008-12-16

350

Bioaccumulation of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in selected species from the Barents Sea food web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports concentrations and biomagnification potential of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in species from the Barents Sea food web. The examined species included sea ice amphipod (Gammarus wilkitzkii), polar cod (Boreogadus saida), black guillemot (Cepphus grylle) and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus). These were analyzed for PFAS, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

Marianne Haukås; Urs Berger; Haakon Hop; Bjørn Gulliksen; Geir W. Gabrielsen

2007-01-01

351

Contamination of an arctic terrestrial food web with marine-derived persistent organic pollutants transported by breeding seabirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Cape Vera, Devon Island (Nunavut, Canada), a colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) concentrates and releases contaminants through their guano to the environment. We determined whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from seabirds were transferred to coastal food webs. Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) were the most contaminated species, with ?PCB and ?DDT (mean: 168, 106 ng\\/g ww) concentrations surpassing environmental guidelines

Emily S. Choy; Linda E. Kimpe; Mark L. Mallory; John P. Smol; Jules M. Blais

2010-01-01

352

Carbon flows through the microbial food web of first-year ice in resolute passage (Canadian High Arctic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice algal communities are host to thriving populations of microheterotrophs whose trophic role remains poorly understood. We report here an inverse modelling analysis of the microbial food web associated with the spring bloom of ice algae at Resolute Passage in the High Arctic. Carbon flows among microbial components (ice algae, autotrophic and heterotrophic nanoflagellates, microflagellates and ciliates) and their exchanges

Alain F. Vézina; Serge Demers; Isabelle Laurion; Télesphore Sime-Ngando; S. Kim Juniper; Laure Devine

1997-01-01

353

The impact of metazooplankton on the structure of the microbial food web in a shallow, hypertrophic lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow, hypertrophic Lake Søbygård is characterized by strong fluctuations in the plankton community structure over short time scales, and cascading predation effects from higher to lower trophic levels. We examined the coupling between the classical and microbial food web for a 1 month period, during which the typical zooplankton summer succession from rotifers (mainly Brachionus spp.) to cyclopoid copepods and

Klaus Jürgens; Erik Jeppesen

2000-01-01

354

Flows of dioxins and furans in coastal food webs: inverse modeling, sensitivity analysis, and applications of linear system theory.  

PubMed

Rate constant bioaccumulation models are applied to simulate the flow of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the coastal marine food web of Frierfjorden, a contaminated fjord in southern Norway. We apply two different ways to parameterize the rate constants in the model, global sensitivity analysis of the models using Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (Extended FAST) method, as well as results from general linear system theory, in order to obtain a more thorough insight to the system's behavior and to the flow pathways of the PCDD/Fs. We calibrate our models against observed body concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the food web of Frierfjorden. Differences between the predictions from the two models (using the same forcing and parameter values) are of the same magnitude as their individual deviations from observations, and the models can be said to perform about equally well in our case. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the success or failure of the models in predicting the PCDD/F concentrations in the food web organisms highly depends on the adequate estimation of the truly dissolved concentrations in water and sediment pore water. We discuss the pros and cons of such models in understanding and estimating the present and future concentrations and bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic food webs. PMID:16494250

Saloranta, Tuomo M; Andersen, Tom; Naes, Kristoffer

2006-01-01

355

Nutrient Enrichment with Salmon Carcass Analogs in the Columbia River Basin, USA: A Stream Food Web Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anadromous fishes represent an important ecosystem linkage between marine and inland aquatic and terrestrial habitats. These fishes carry organic matter and marine-derived nutrient (MDN) subsidies across a vast landscape, often with profound influences on recipient ecosystem food web structure and function. In the Columbia River basin, century-long declines in the abundance of anadromous fish populations have focused attention on potential

Andre E. Kohler; Todd N. Pearsons; Joseph S. Zendt; Matthew G. Mesa; Christopher L. Johnson; Patrick J. Connolly

2012-01-01

356

Biodiversity and food web structure influence short-term accumulation of sediment organic matter in an experimental seagrass system  

E-print Network

Biodiversity and food web structure influence short-term accumulation of sediment organic matter in an experimental seagrass system Elizabeth A. Canuel,1 Amanda C. Spivak, Elizabeth J. Waterson, and J. Emmett Duffy organic matter (SOM) in experimental eelgrass (Zostera marina) mesocosms. By use of a factorial

Duffy, J. Emmett

357

Agricultural intensification and cereal aphid-parasitoid-hyperparasitoid food webs: network complexity, temporal variability and parasitism rates.  

PubMed

Agricultural intensification (AI) is currently a major driver of biodiversity loss and related ecosystem functioning decline. However, spatio-temporal changes in community structure induced by AI, and their relation to ecosystem functioning, remain largely unexplored. Here, we analysed 16 quantitative cereal aphid-parasitoid and parasitoid-hyperparasitoid food webs, replicated four times during the season, under contrasting AI regimes (organic farming in complex landscapes vs. conventional farming in simple landscapes). High AI increased food web complexity but also temporal variability in aphid-parasitoid food webs and in the dominant parasitoid species identity. Enhanced complexity and variability appeared to be controlled bottom-up by changes in aphid dominance structure and evenness. Contrary to the common expectations of positive biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships, community complexity (food-web complexity, species richness and evenness) was negatively related to primary parasitism rates. However, this relationship was positive for secondary parasitoids. Despite differences in community structures among different trophic levels, ecosystem services (parasitism rates) and disservices (aphid abundances and hyperparasitism rates) were always higher in fields with low AI. Hence, community structure and ecosystem functioning appear to be differently influenced by AI, and change differently over time and among trophic levels. In conclusion, intensified agriculture can support diverse albeit highly variable parasitoid-host communities, but ecosystem functioning might not be easy to predict from observed changes in community structure and composition. PMID:22644050

Gagic, Vesna; Hänke, Sebastian; Thies, Carsten; Scherber, Christoph; Tomanovi?, Zeljko; Tscharntke, Teja

2012-12-01

358

Plant diversity effects on soil food webs are stronger than those of elevated CO2 and N deposition  

E-print Network

in a long-term grassland experiment Nico Eisenhauera,b,1 , Tomasz Dobiesc , Simone Cesarza , Sarah E richness, atmospheric CO2, and N deposition--in a grassland experiment in Minnesota. Plant diversity this gap in understanding by examining the understudied responses of soil food webs and functions to a long

Minnesota, University of

359

Competitive Interactions between Invasive Nile Tilapia and Native Fish: The Potential for Altered Trophic Exchange and Modification of Food Webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have highlighted both the positive and negative impacts of species invasions. Most of these studies have been conducted on either immobile invasive plants or sessile fauna found at the base of food webs. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of vagile invasive consumers on native competitors. This is an issue of some importance given the controlling influence that

Charles W. Martin; Marla M. Valentine; John F. Valentine; Peter Roopnarine

2010-01-01

360

COASTAL WETLAND-NEARSHORE FOOD WEB LINKAGES ALONG A TROPHIC GRADIENT IN GREEN BAY: A FISH-EYE VIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

To identify ecological interactions among Green Bay coastal wetlands and lake habitats we analyzed stable isotope signatures of organismsa from wetland and adjacent nearshore food webs in Green Bay, Lake Michigan. We were interested in the influence of nutrient loading/trophic st...

361

Impacts of changing food webs in Lake Ontario: Implications of dietary fatty acids on growth of Alewives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declines in the abundance and condition of Great Lakes Alewives have been reported periodically during the last two decades, and the reasons for these declines remain unclear. To better understand how food web changes may influence Alewife growth and Wisconsin growth model predictions, we fed Alewives isocaloric diets high in omega-6 fatty acids (corn oil) or high in omega-3 fatty

Randal J. Snyder; Chad J. DeMarche; Dale C. Honeyfield

2011-01-01

362

Big Numbers for the Big Lake: A Lower Food Web Assessment of Lake Superior (2004-2006)  

EPA Science Inventory

Our collaborative binational studies focused on lower trophic levels (plankton, mysids, benthos) of Lake Superior based on comprehensive sampling (2004 to 2006). Information is integrated for a lakewide summary, but also to display patterns among lower food web components by dept...

363

No tree an island: the plant-caterpillar food web of a secondary rain forest in New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized a plant-caterpillar food web from secondary vegetation in a New Guinean rain forest that included 63 plant species (87.5% of the total basal area), 546 Lepidoptera species and 1679 trophic links between them. The strongest 14 associations involved 50% of all individual caterpillars while some links were extremely rare. A caterpillar randomly picked from the vegetation will, with

Vojtech Novotny; Scott E. Miller; Jan Leps; Yves Basset; Darren Bito; Milan Janda; Jiri Hulcr; Kipiro Damas; George D. Weiblen

2004-01-01

364

Impact of Exotic Invertebrate Invaders on Food Web Structure and Function in the Great Lakes: a Network Analysis Approach  

E-print Network

Impact of Exotic Invertebrate Invaders on Food Web Structure and Function in the Great Lakes a second wave of species invasions dominated by exotic invertebrates- Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha invasions (e.g., sea Lamprey and Alewife), these invertebrates inserted themselves in the lower trophic

365

The importance of landscape and spatial structure for hymenopteran-based food webs in an agro-ecosystem.  

PubMed

1. Understanding the environmental factors that structure biodiversity and food webs among communities is central to assess and mitigate the impact of landscape changes. 2. Wildflower strips are ecological compensation areas established in farmland to increase pollination services and biological control of crop pests and to conserve insect diversity. They are arranged in networks in order to favour high species richness and abundance of the fauna. 3. We describe results from experimental wildflower strips in a fragmented agricultural landscape, comparing the importance of landscape, of spatial arrangement and of vegetation on the diversity and abundance of trap-nesting bees, wasps and their enemies, and the structure of their food webs. 4. The proportion of forest cover close to the wildflower strips and the landscape heterogeneity stood out as the most influential landscape elements, resulting in a more complex trap-nest community with higher abundance and richness of hosts, and with more links between species in the food webs and a higher diversity of interactions. We disentangled the underlying mechanisms for variation in these quantitative food web metrics. 5. We conclude that in order to increase the diversity and abundance of pollinators and biological control agents and to favour a potentially stable community of cavity-nesting hymenoptera in wildflower strips, more investment is needed in the conservation and establishment of forest habitats within agro-ecosystems, as a reservoir of beneficial insect populations. PMID:23863136

Fabian, Yvonne; Sandau, Nadine; Bruggisser, Odile T; Aebi, Alex; Kehrli, Patrik; Rohr, Rudolf P; Naisbit, Russell E; Bersier, Louis-Félix

2013-11-01

366

Effects of Acid Mine Drainage on the Estuarine Food Web, Britannia Beach, Howe Sound, British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) from Britannia Creek, BC, Canada, a stream contaminated by an abandoned copper mine, on the estuarine food web. Near the mouth of Britannia Creek, sediments and the water contained high concentrations of dissolved copper and the waters were highly acidic. Relative to a reference location, rockweed (Fucus gardneriSilva) cover was reduced,

C. D. Levings; K. L. Barry; J. A. Grout; G. E. Piercey; A. D. Marsden; A. P. Coombs; B. Mossop

2004-01-01

367

The influence of the balance of inorganic and organic nitrogen on the trophic dynamics of microbial food webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nutrient-manipulation mesocosm study was conducted in Norwegian coastal waters to determine the effect on a nitrogen-limited microbial food web of changes in the relative concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic nitrogen (N). Four replicated treatments were studied: no N addition, inorganic N, organic N, or a 50 : 50 mix of inorganic and organic N. Comprehensive abundance, biomass, and

Keith Davidson; Linda C. Gilpin; Mark C. Hart; Eric Fouilland; Elaine Mitchell; Ignacio Alvarez Calleja; Celine Laurent; Axel E. J. Miller; Raymond J. G. Leakey

2007-01-01

368

FOOD WEB RELATIONSHIPS OF NORTHERN PUGET SOUND AND THE STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA. A SYNTHESIS OF THE AVAILABLE KNOWLEDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report resulted from the need to synthesize existing knowledge of the structure of food webs in nearshore marine habitats of northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, in order to identify the potential transfer processes of petroleum hydrocarbons through the marin...

369

Changes in food web structure affect rate of PCB decline in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs  

SciTech Connect

Biological monitors provide important information regarding temporal trends in levels of persistent organic pollutants. Correct interpretation of these trends is critical if one is to accurately assess his progress in eliminating these contaminants from the environment. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in herring gull eggs declined during the 1970s and early 1980s. By the mid-1980s, further declines were not as obvious. An exception to this trend was observed in eggs from Lake Erie. On that lake, egg PCB concentrations continued to decline rapidly during the 1980s/1990s. Evidence from stable isotope analysis indicated that temporal changes in the composition of the herring gull diet occurred on Lake Erie. In the eastern basin, declines in fish availability may have forced the gulls to incorporate a greater proportion of terrestrial food into their diets. Decreases in the proportion of fish in the gull diet would have resulted in reduced PCB exposure. This may be partially responsible for the continuing rapid rate of decline in egg PCB concentrations. This decline should be interpreted with caution. These trends may not be indicative of lake-wide declines in PCB bioavailability but only reflect changes in dietary exposure brought about by alterations in food web structure.

Hebert, C.E.; Hobson, K.A.; Shutt, J.L.

2000-05-01

370

Trophic Structure in a Seabird Host-Parasite Food Web: Insights from Stable Isotope Analyses  

PubMed Central

Ecological studies on food webs rarely include parasites, partly due to the complexity and dimensionality of host-parasite interaction networks. Multiple co-occurring parasites can show different feeding strategies and thus lead to complex and cryptic trophic relationships, which are often difficult to disentangle by traditional methods. We analyzed stable isotope ratios of C (13C/12C, ?13C) and N (15N/14N, ?15N) of host and ectoparasite tissues to investigate trophic structure in 4 co-occurring ectoparasites: three lice and one flea species, on two closely related and spatially segregated seabird hosts (Calonectris shearwaters). ?13C isotopic signatures confirmed feathers as the main food resource for the three lice species and blood for the flea species. All ectoparasite species showed a significant enrichment in ?15N relatively to the host tissue consumed (discrimination factors ranged from 2 to 5‰ depending on the species). Isotopic differences were consistent across multiple host-ectoparasite locations, despite of some geographic variability in baseline isotopic levels. Our findings illustrate the influence of both ectoparasite and host trophic ecology in the isotopic structuring of the Calonectris ectoparasite community. This study highlights the potential of stable isotope analyses in disentangling the nature and complexity of trophic relationships in symbiotic systems. PMID:20454612

Gómez-Díaz, Elena; González-Solís, Jacob

2010-01-01

371

Stable isotopes in aquatic food web of an artificial lagoon in the Hangzhou Bay, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotope values, ?13C and ?15N, were determined for four primary producers and 19 dominant consumers in a small artificial lagoon located in Hangzhou Bay. Based on these results the major pathways for energy flow and trophic structure of the artificial lagoon ecosystem were characterized. The mean ?13C values for the 19 consumers ranged from -22.99‰ to -14.24‰. Apart from so-iny mullet Liza haematocheila, the other 18 consumers had intermediate ?13C values between those of epibenthic microalgae and particulate organic matter (POM). The results of a multiple source linear mixing model (IsoSource model) indicated that 50% or more of the organic carbon in the tissues of most consumers was derived from epibenthic microalgae. This indicated that these primary producers were the main food source fueling the lagoon food web. The mean ?15N values for the 19 consumers varied between 4.93‰ and 12.97‰ and indicated four trophic levels in the lagoon. Four macroinvertebrates and zooplankton represented the primary consumers, whilst the other 14 consumers occupied the secondary and tertiary consumer levels. The 19 consumers were divided into three trophic guilds (detritivores/suspension feeders, omnivores and carnivores).

Quan, Weimin; Shi, Liyan; Chen, Yaqu

2010-05-01

372

Transformation of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a stream food web  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The enantiomeric composition of chiral PCB congeners was determined in Twelvemile Creek (Clemson, SC) to examine potential mechanisms of biotransformation in a stream food web. We measured enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of six PCB atropisomers (PCBs 84, 91, 95, 136, 149, and 174) in surface sediment, fine benthic organic matter (FBOM), coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM), periphyton, Asian clam, mayflies, yellowfin shiner, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using gas chromatography (GC-ECD). Nonracemic EFs of PCBs 91, 95, 136, and 149 were measured in almost all samples. Enantiomeric compositions of PCBs 84 and 174 were infrequently detected with racemic EFs measured in samples except for a nonracemic EF of PCB 84 in clams. Nonracemic EFs of PCBs 91, 136, and 149 in SPMDs may be due to desorption of nonracemic residues from FBOM. EFs for some atropisomers were significantly different among FBOM, CPOM, and periphyton, suggesting that their microbial communities have different biotransformation processes. Nonracemic EFs in clams and fish suggest both in vivo biotransformation and uptake of nonracemic residues from their food sources. Longitudinal variability in EFs was generally low among congeners observed in matrices. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

Dang, V.D.; Walters, D.M.; Lee, C.M.

2010-01-01

373

Isotopic evidence for methane-based chemosynthesis in the Upper Floridan aquifer food web.  

PubMed

Anecdotal observations of the Dougherty plain cave crayfish (Cambarus cryptodytes), the Georgia blind cave salamander (Haideotriton wallacei), and albinistic isopods (Caecidotea sp.) at great depths below the land surface and distant from river corridors suggest that obligate aquifer-dwelling (troglobitic) organisms are widely distributed throughout the limestone Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). One mechanism by which subterranean life can proliferate in an environment void of plant productivity is through a microbial food web that includes chemosynthesis. We examined this possibility in the UFA by measuring the isotopic composition ((13)C, (14)C, and (15)N) of tissues from troglobitic macrofauna. Organisms that were captured by cave divers entering into spring conduits had delta(13)C values that suggested plant matter as a primary food resource (cave crayfish, -24.6 +/- 2.7 per thousand, n = 9). In contrast, delta(13)C values were significantly depleted in organisms retrieved from wells drilled into areas of the UFA remote from spring and sinkhole conduits (cave crayfish -34.7 +/- 9.8 per thousand, n = 10). Depleted (13)C values in crayfish were correlated with radiocarbon (Delta(14)C) depletion relative to modern values. The results suggest that methane-based microbial chemosynthetic pathways support organisms living in the remote interior of the aquifer, at least in part. PMID:16862438

Opsahl, Stephen P; Chanton, Jeffrey P

2006-11-01

374

Impact of Non-Native Terrestrial Mammals on the Structure of the Terrestrial Mammal Food Web of Newfoundland, Canada  

PubMed Central

The island of Newfoundland is unique because it has as many non-native terrestrial mammals as native ones. The impacts of non-native species on native flora and fauna can be profound and invasive species have been identified as one of the primary drivers of species extinction. Few studies, however, have investigated the effects of a non-native species assemblage on community and ecosystem properties. We reviewed the literature to build the first terrestrial mammal food web for the island of Newfoundland and then used network analyses to investigate how the timing of introductions and trophic position of non-native species has affected the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web in Newfoundland. The first non-native mammals (house mouse and brown rat) became established in Newfoundland with human settlement in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Coyotes and southern red-backed voles are the most recent mammals to establish themselves on the island in 1985 and 1998, respectively. The fraction of intermediate species increased with the addition of non-native mammals over time whereas the fraction of basal and top species declined over time. This increase in intermediate species mediated by non-native species arrivals led to an overall increase in the terrestrial mammal food web connectance and generality (i.e. mean number of prey per predator). This diverse prey base and sources of carrion may have facilitated the natural establishment of coyotes on the island. Also, there is some evidence that the introduction of non-native prey species such as the southern red-backed vole has contributed to the recovery of the threatened American marten. Long-term monitoring of the food web is required to understand and predict the impacts of the diverse novel interactions that are developing in the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland. PMID:25170923

Strong, Justin S.; Leroux, Shawn J.

2014-01-01

375

Exposure and food web transfer of pharmaceuticals in ospreys (Pandion haliaetus): Predictive model and empirical data.  

PubMed

The osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is a well-known sentinel of environmental contamination, yet no studies have traced pharmaceuticals through the water-fish-osprey food web. A screening-level exposure assessment was used to evaluate the bioaccumulation potential of 113 pharmaceuticals and metabolites, and an artificial sweetener in this food web. Hypothetical concentrations in water reflecting "wastewater effluent dominated" or "dilution dominated" scenarios were combined with pH-specific bioconcentration factors (BCFs) to predict uptake in fish. Residues in fish and osprey food intake rate were used to calculate the daily intake (DI) of compounds by an adult female osprey. Fourteen pharmaceuticals and a drug metabolite with a BCF greater than 100 and a DI greater than 20?µg/kg were identified as being most likely to exceed the adult human therapeutic dose (HTD). These 15 compounds were also evaluated in a 40 day cumulative dose exposure scenario using first-order kinetics to account for uptake and elimination. Assuming comparable absorption to humans, the half-lives (t1/2 ) for an adult osprey to reach the HTD within 40 days were calculated. For 3 of these pharmaceuticals, the estimated t1/2 in ospreys was less than that for humans, and thus an osprey might theoretically reach or exceed the HTD in 3 to 7 days. To complement the exposure model, 24 compounds were quantified in water, fish plasma, and osprey nestling plasma from 7 potentially impaired locations in Chesapeake Bay. Of the 18 analytes detected in water, 8 were found in fish plasma, but only 1 in osprey plasma (the antihypertensive diltiazem). Compared to diltiazem detection rate and concentrations in water (10/12 detects,

Lazarus, Rebecca S; Rattner, Barnett A; Brooks, Bryan W; Du, Bowen; McGowan, Peter C; Blazer, Vicki S; Ottinger, Mary Ann

2015-01-01

376

The Antarctic Geospatial Information Center: Three Years of Supporting Antarctic Science and Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Founded in 2007, the Antarctic Geospatial Information Center (AGIC) is dedicated to supporting and promoting the United States Antarctic Program (USAP) by providing geospatial information to Antarctic science, operations, and education communities. Since its inception, AGIC contributes to Antarctic science in four significant ways: 1) by direct geospatial support of research groups to advance science, 2) by authoring maps and creating applications to facilitate better logistical support, 3) by serving as a data repository and clearinghouse for Antarctic geospatial data, 4) by providing expertise, analysis, and education to researchers, support staff, and students. This poster will showcase several products, tools, and services developed by AGIC in the past three years, including a collection of 150 ground control points in the McMurdo Dry Valleys and Ross Island, highly accurate maps in the McMurdo Sound region using satellite imagery, and an archive of historical USGS aerial photography accessed through a web-based search application.

Herried, B.; Morin, P. J.; Larue, M.; Porter, C.; Niebuhr, S.; Antarctic Geospatial Information Center

2010-12-01

377

Antarctic science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Once upon a time, dinosaurs roamed Antarctica and swam in its seas. Since then, life evolved as the climate cooled into the ice ages. Life will no doubt continue to evolve there as the globe now warms. But nowadays, humans are having a profound and direct effect on life in Antarctica, the sub-Antarctic islands, and the surrounding Southern Ocean, which are being invaded by a wide range of alien species including microbes, algae, fungi, bryophytes, land plants, invertebrates, fish, birds, and mammals.

Summerhayes, Colin

378

Antarctic Genomics  

PubMed Central

With the development of genomic science and its battery of technologies, polar biology stands on the threshold of a revolution, one that will enable the investigation of important questions of unprecedented scope and with extraordinary depth and precision. The exotic organisms of polar ecosystems are ideal candidates for genomic analysis. Through such analyses, it will be possible to learn not only the novel features that enable polar organisms to survive, and indeed thrive, in their extreme environments, but also fundamental biological principles that are common to most, if not all, organisms. This article aims to review recent developments in Antarctic genomics and to demonstrate the global context of such studies. PMID:18629155

Clarke, Andrew; Cockell, Charles S.; Convey, Peter; Detrich III, H. William; Fraser, Keiron P. P.; Johnston, Ian A.; Methe, Barbara A.; Murray, Alison E.; Peck, Lloyd S.; Römisch, Karin; Rogers, Alex D.

2004-01-01

379

Changing Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will describe how the flow of energy derived from the Sun, used by producers to create their own food, is transferred through a food chain and food web to consumers and decomposers. Observe how climate change affects marine food webs and monarch migration.

Rice University Professional Development in Science

2012-04-06

380

Benthic community responses to macroalgae invasions in seagrass beds: Diversity, isotopic niche and food web structure at community level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trophic paths between species are a useful tool for analysing the impact of species invasions of a biotic community. Species invasions produce changes at trophic level and diversity shifts by replacing native species with species of similar ecological niche. This study focused on the effects of macroalgal invasions on seagrass ecosystems. We conducted two - year bimonthly sampling of a pristine Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadow and dead matte colonized by three Caulerpa species bimonthly. The largest changes in faunal composition were found in meadows colonized by Caulerpa prolifera, where major differences in infaunal taxonomic distinctness were apparent. On the other hand, the infaunal community was quite similar between the two invasive Caulerpa species (Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa racemosa). The isotopic niche based on the main trophic guilds established using stable isotope signatures at community level resulted in a highly compacted and 15N-enriched C. prolifera food web structure, indicating high overlap of food source utilization among faunal components, which is typical of degraded systems. Conversely, the P. oceanica ecosystem presented the most complex food web, while the influence of the 2 invasive species were similar. An attempt to reconstruct the food web at each vegetated habitat revealed high trophic linkages among the different trophic levels with a continuous transition among them by the various trophic guilds suggesting an adaptation response of the different organisms to the new habitat forming species.

Deudero, S.; Box, A.; Vázquez-Luis, M.; Arroyo, N. L.

2014-04-01

381

Regulation of intertidal food webs by avian predators on New England rocky shores.  

PubMed

Although there is a large body of research on food webs in rocky intertidal communities, most of the emphasis has been on the marine benthic components. Effects of avian predation on highly mobile predators such as crabs, remains practically unstudied in rocky shore ecosystems. The crab, Cancer borealis, is an important component of the diet of gulls (Larus marinus, L. argentatus) at the Isles of Shoals, Maine, USA. C. borealis prey include the predatory gastropod Nucella lapillus L., the herbivore Littorina littorea, and mussels Mytilus edulis L. We hypothesized that gulls reduce abundance of C. borealis in the low intertidal and shallow subtidal, thereby allowing C. borealis prey to persist in high numbers. A study of crab tidal migration showed that C. borealis density nearly doubled at high tide compared to low tide; thus, crabs from a large subtidal source population migrate into the intertidal zone during high tides and either emigrate or are removed by gulls during low tides. Results from a small-scale (1 m2) predator caging experiment in the low intertidal zone indicated that enclosed crabs significantly reduced L. littorea abundance when protected from gull predation. In a much larger-scale gull exclusion experiment, densities of C. borealis increased significantly during low and high tides in exclosures relative to the controls. C. borealis density was inversely correlated with changes in the abundance of two mesopredators Carcinus maenas and Nucella lapillus, and with the space-occupier M. edulis. There was a similar negative correlation between abundance of C. borealis and the change in abundance of the herbivore L. littorea, but the trend was not significant. Mortality of tethered L. littorea was associated with C. borealis density across sites. However, preferred algae did not change in response to L. littorea density during the experiment. Thus, we found suggestive, but not conclusive, evidence for a three-level cascade involving gulls, crabs, and L. littorea. Our studies strongly suggest that gulls, as apex predators, generate three-level trophic cascades in rocky intertidal food webs by preventing the highly mobile subtidal predator, C. borealis, from establishing substantial populations in the low-mid intertidal zone thereby indirectly enhancing densities of two key mesopredators (N. lapillus, Carcinus) and blue mussels (M. edulis). PMID:17536702

Ellis, Julie C; Shulman, Myra J; Wood, Megan; Witman, Jon D; Lozyniak, Sara

2007-04-01

382

Toxaphene congeners in the Canadian Great Lakes basin: temporal and spatial food web dynamics.  

PubMed

Samples of a top predator fish species, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and predominant forage species including smelt (Osmerus mordax), alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) and lake herring (Coregonus artedii) were, collected from throughout 4 of the 5 Great Lakes (Superior, Huron, Erie and Ontario) (Fig. 1). Lake trout were also collected from three isolated lake systems (Lakes Nipigon, Simcoe and Opeongo), all located within the basin. All the samples were analysed for body burdens of total toxaphene and 22 toxaphene congeners. In addition, from each of the Great Lakes sites samples of major invertebrate dietary items, which included Mysis relicta, Diporeia hoyi and plankton, were similarly analysed. Whole lake trout samples, archived at -80 degrees C, were reanalysed to determine historical trends of toxaphene congeners plus carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures. The Lake Superior food web consistently had the highest levels of total toxaphene of all the Great Lakes monitored. The primary source of toxaphene to Lake Superior has been identified as atmospheric transport and deposition from sites in the southern US, Mexico and Central America (Hoff, R.M., Strachan, W.M.J., Sweet, C.W., Chan, C.H., Shackelton, M., Bidleman, T.F., Brice, K.A., Burnison, D.A., Cussion, S., Gatz, D.F., Harlin, K., Schroeder, W.H., 1996. Atmospheric deposition of toxic chemicals to the Great Lakes: A review of data through 1994. Atmospheric Environ. 30, 3505-3527). Of the offsystem lakes surveyed. Lake Nipigon, situated due north of Lake Superior and with a Lake Basin area of about 6% of Lake Superior (Hendendorf, C.E., 1982. J. Great Lakes Res. 8(3), 379-412) had total toxaphene levels in lake trout equivalent to about 50% of those found in lake trout from Lake Superior. Temporal trend toxaphene congener analysis was conducted on archived whole fish samples collected over the period 1980 through to the 1990's. Initially a nonachlorobornane congener (Parlar #50) was predominant, with congeners #40, #62 and #21 being the next most prominent in the 1980 samples. Samples from the 1990's showed a significant decline in the presence of lower chlorinated congeners #40 and #21. Analysis of total toxaphene in food webs, indicated elevated levels in lower trophic level species such as Diporeia and Cottus sp. which have a benthic association. The stable isotope temporal trend 13C signature identified a significant shift in the lake trout diet over the period 1993 to 1996. PMID:10739065

Whittle, D M; Kiriluk, R M; Carswell, A A; Keir, M J; MacEachen, D C

2000-01-01

383

Tracing carbon flow in an arctic marine food web using fatty acid-stable isotope analysis.  

PubMed

Global warming and the loss of sea ice threaten to alter patterns of productivity in arctic marine ecosystems because of a likely decline in primary productivity by sea ice algae. Estimates of the contribution of ice algae to total primary production range widely, from just 3 to >50%, and the importance of ice algae to higher trophic levels remains unknown. To help answer this question, we investigated a novel approach to food web studies by combining the two established methods of stable isotope analysis and fatty acid (FA) analysis--we determined the C isotopic composition of individual diatom FA and traced these biomarkers in consumers. Samples were collected near Barrow, Alaska and included ice algae, pelagic phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans. Ice algae and pelagic phytoplankton had distinctive overall FA signatures and clear differences in delta(13)C for two specific diatom FA biomarkers: 16:4n-1 (-24.0+/-2.4 and -30.7+/-0.8 per thousand, respectively) and 20:5n-3 (-18.3+/-2.0 and -26.9+/-0.7 per thousand, respectively). Nearly all delta(13)C values of these two FA in consumers fell between the two stable isotopic end members. A mass balance equation indicated that FA material derived from ice algae, compared to pelagic diatoms, averaged 71% (44-107%) in consumers based on delta(13)C values of 16:4n-1, but only 24% (0-61%) based on 20:5n-3. Our estimates derived from 16:4n-1, which is produced only by diatoms, probably best represented the contribution of ice algae relative to pelagic diatoms. However, many types of algae produce 20:5n-3, so the lower value derived from it likely represented a more realistic estimate of the proportion of ice algae material relative to all other types of phytoplankton. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential value of compound-specific isotope analysis of marine lipids to trace C flow through marine food webs and provide a foundation for future work. PMID:18481094

Budge, S M; Wooller, M J; Springer, A M; Iverson, S J; McRoy, C P; Divoky, G J

2008-08-01

384

Predator-prey size relationships in an African large-mammal food web.  

PubMed

1. Size relationships are central in structuring trophic linkages within food webs, leading to suggestions that the dietary niche of smaller carnivores is nested within that of larger species. However, past analyses have not taken into account the differing selection shown by carnivores for specific size ranges of prey, nor the extent to which the greater carcass mass of larger prey outweighs the greater numerical representation of smaller prey species in the predator diet. Furthermore, the top-down impact that predation has on prey abundance cannot be assessed simply in terms of the number of predator species involved. 2. Records of found carcasses and cause of death assembled over 46 years in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, corrected for under-recording of smaller species, enabled a definitive assessment of size relationships between large mammalian carnivores and their ungulate prey. Five carnivore species were considered, including lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), and 22 herbivore prey species larger than 10 kg in adult body mass. 3. These carnivores selectively favoured prey species approximately half to twice their mass, within a total prey size range from an order of magnitude below to an order of magnitude above the body mass of the predator. The three smallest carnivores, i.e. leopard, cheetah and wild dog, showed high similarity in prey species favoured. Despite overlap in prey size range, each carnivore showed a distinct dietary preference. 4. Almost all mortality was through the agency of a predator for ungulate species up to the size of a giraffe (800-1200 kg). Ungulates larger than twice the mass of the predator contributed substantially to the dietary intake of lions, despite the low proportional mortality inflicted by predation on these species. Only for megaherbivores substantially exceeding 1000 kg in adult body mass did predation become a negligible cause of mortality. 5. Hence, the relative size of predators and prey had a pervasive structuring influence on biomass fluxes within this large-mammal food web. Nevertheless, the large carnivore assemblage was dominated overwhelmingly by the largest predator, which contributed the major share of animals killed across a wide size range. PMID:18177336

Owen-Smith, Norman; Mills, M G L

2008-01-01

385

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate: Its Sources, Role in the Marine Food Web, and Biological Degradation to Dimethylsulfide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The massive quantities of phytoplankton in the North At- lantic and Antarctic oceans producing dimethylsulfoniopropi- onate (DMSP) as an osmoprotectant, much of which is de- graded by marine bacteria to dimethylsulfide (DMS), ensures an important role for both compounds in the global sulfur cycle. The closest to a comprehensive review on this topic is a book of symposium proceedings edited

Duane C. Yoch

2002-01-01

386

Methylmercury levels and bioaccumulation in the aquatic food web of a highly mercury-contaminated reservoir.  

PubMed

The low Ebro River basin (NE Spain) represents a particular case of chronic and long-term mercury pollution due to the presence of an industrial waste (up to 436 ?g/g of Hg) coming from a chlor-alkali plant Albeit high total mercury (THg) levels have been previously described in several aquatic species from the surveyed area, methylmercury (MeHg) values in fish individuals have never been reported. Accordingly, in order to investigate bioaccumulation patterns at different levels of the aquatic food web of such polluted area, crayfish and various fish species, were analysed for THg and MeHg content. At the hot spot, THg mean values of crayfish muscle tissue and hepatopancreas were 10 and 15 times, respectively, greater than the local background level. Higher mean THg concentrations were detected in piscivorous (THg=0.848 ± 0.476 ?g/g wet weight (ww); MeHg=0.672 ± 0.364 ?g/g ww) than in non-piscivorous fish (THg=0.305 ± 0.163 ?g/g ww; MeHg=0.278 ± 0.239 ?g/g ww). Although these results indicated that THg in fish increased significantly with increasing trophic position, the percentage of the methylated form of Hg was not strongly influenced by differences in relative trophic position. This is an important finding, since the fraction of THg as MeHg in the top fish predator was unexpectedly lower than for other species of the aquatic food chain. Moreover, mean THg concentrations in piscivorous fish exceed the maximum level recommended for human consumption. From our findings, it is clear that for this specific polluted system, speciation becomes almost mandatory when risk assessment is based on MeHg, since single measurements of THg are inadequate and could lead to an over- or under-estimation of contamination levels. PMID:21658770

Carrasco, Luis; Benejam, Lluís; Benito, Josep; Bayona, Josep M; Díez, Sergi

2011-10-01

387

Carbon storage reservoirs in watersheds support stream food webs via periphyton production.  

PubMed

We measured the natural abundances of radiocarbon (delta14C) in macroinvertebrates, fishes, and their potential food sources, collected from the upper and lower reaches of six temperate streams in Lake Biwa basin (central Japan), three of which flow on limestone bedrock. Several carbon storage reservoirs in the watersheds show distinctive delta14C signatures (e.g., ancient carbonate rocks, -1000 per thousand; modern atmospheric CO2, +50 per thousand). Our analyses showed that the delta14C values for periphytic algae range from -361 per thousand to +21 per thousand, reflecting 14C-depleted signals from watershed storage reservoirs (carbonate rocks and/or soils). In contrast, the delta14C values for coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) range from -6 per thousand to +62 per thousand, reflecting 14C-enriched signals from modern atmospheric CO2. The periphyton from streams on limestone bedrock was more 14C-depleted than that from streams in non-limestone areas, although the delta14C values for periphyton from the latter were less than modern atmospheric 14CO2 concentration. The delta14C values for most of the consumers were between those for periphyton and CPOM. Based on a delta14C two-source mixing models, the results suggested that the grazers rely on periphyton, while the carbon source for collectors and predators shifts from CPOM in the upper reaches of streams to periphyton in the lower reaches. The delta14C signature can trace carbon from watershed storage reservoirs to benthic production, which suggests that stream food webs are composed of mixtures of carbon originating from various sources of different ages. PMID:25000758

Ishikawa, Naoto F; Uchida, Masao; Shibata, Yasuyuki

2014-05-01

388

Effects of temperature on isotopic enrichment in Daphnia magna: implications for aquatic food-web studies.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments were conducted with Daphnia magna and Hyalella sp. grown on a single food source of known isotopic composition at a range of temperatures spanning the physiological optima for each species. Daphnia raised at 26.5 degrees C were enriched in delta(13)C and delta(15)N by 3.1 and 2.8 per thousand, respectively, relative to diet. Daphnia raised at 12.8 degrees C were enriched 1.7 and 5.0 per thousand in delta(13)C and delta(15)N, respectively. Results imply a significant negative relationship between the delta(13)C and delta(15)N of primary consumers when a temperature gradient exists. Similar responses were observed for Hyalella. Results indicate a general increase in delta(13)C enrichment and decrease in delta(15)N enrichment as temperature rises. Deviations from the commonly applied isotopic enrichment values used in aquatic ecology were attributed to changes in temperature-mediated physiological rates. Field data from a variety of sources also showed a general trend toward delta(13)C enrichment with increasing temperature in marine and lacustrine zooplankton. Multivariate regression models demonstrated that, in oligotrophic and mesotrophic lakes, zooplankton delta(13)C was related to lake-specific POM delta(13)C, lake surface temperature and latitude. Temperature-dependent isotopic separation (enrichment) between predator and prey should be taken into consideration when interpreting the significance of isotopic differences within and among aquatic organisms and ecosystems, and when assigning organisms to food-web positions on the basis of observed isotope values. PMID:12845588

Power, M; Guiguer, K R R A; Barton, D R

2003-01-01

389

Fatty acid composition at the base of aquatic food webs is influenced by habitat type and watershed land use  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatial variation in food resources strongly influences many aspects of aquatic consumer ecology. Although large-scale controls over spatial variation in many aspects of food resources are well known, others have received little study. Here we investigated variation in the fatty acid (FA) composition of seston and primary consumers within (i.e., among habitats) and among tributary systems of Lake Michigan, USA. FA composition of food is important because all metazoans require certain FAs for proper growth and development that cannot be produced de novo, including many polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Here we sampled three habitat types (river, rivermouth and nearshore zone) in 11 tributaries of Lake Michigan to assess the amount of FA in seston and primary consumers of seston. We hypothesize that among-system and among-habitat variation in FAs at the base of food webs would be related to algal production, which in turn is influenced by three land cover characteristics: 1) combined agriculture and urban lands (an indication of anthropogenic nutrient inputs that fuel algal production), 2) the proportion of surface waters (an indication of water residence times that allow algal producers to accumulate) and 3) the extent of riparian forested buffers (an indication of stream shading that reduces algal production). Of these three land cover characteristics, only intense land use appeared to strongly related to seston and consumer FA and this effect was only strong in rivermouth and nearshore lake sites. River seston and consumer FA composition was highly variable, but that variation does not appear to be driven by the watershed land cover characteristics investigated here. Whether the spatial variation in FA content at the base of these food webs significantly influences the production of economically important species higher in the food web should be a focus of future research.

Larson, James H.; Richardson, William B.; Knights, Brent C.; Bartsch, Lynn A.; Bartsch, Michelle R.; Nelson, John C.; Veldboom, Jason A.; Vallazza, Jon M.

2013-01-01

390

Fatty Acid Composition at the Base of Aquatic Food Webs Is Influenced by Habitat Type and Watershed Land Use  

PubMed Central

Spatial variation in food resources strongly influences many aspects of aquatic consumer ecology. Although large-scale controls over spatial variation in many aspects of food resources are well known, others have received little study. Here we investigated variation in the fatty acid (FA) composition of seston and primary consumers within (i.e., among habitats) and among tributary systems of Lake Michigan, USA. FA composition of food is important because all metazoans require certain FAs for proper growth and development that cannot be produced de novo, including many polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Here we sampled three habitat types (river, rivermouth and nearshore zone) in 11 tributaries of Lake Michigan to assess the amount of FA in seston and primary consumers of seston. We hypothesize that among-system and among-habitat variation in FAs at the base of food webs would be related to algal production, which in turn is influenced by three land cover characteristics: 1) combined agriculture and urban lands (an indication of anthropogenic nutrient inputs that fuel algal production), 2) the proportion of surface waters (an indication of water residence times that allow algal producers to accumulate) and 3) the extent of riparian forested buffers (an indication of stream shading that reduces algal production). Of these three land cover characteristics, only intense land use appeared to strongly related to seston and consumer FA and this effect was only strong in rivermouth and nearshore lake sites. River seston and consumer FA composition was highly variable, but that variation does not appear to be driven by the watershed land cover characteristics investigated here. Whether the spatial variation in FA content at the base of these food webs significantly influences the production of economically important species higher in the food web should be a focus of future research. PMID:23940619

Larson, James H.; Richardson, William B.; Knights, Brent C.; Bartsch, Lynn A.; Bartsch, Michelle R.; Nelson, John C.; Veldboom, Jason A.; Vallazza, Jon M.

2013-01-01

391

Antarctic Data Management as Part of the IPY Legacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Antarctic Treaty states that "scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available". Antarctica includes the Southern Ocean. In support of this, National Antarctic Data Centres (NADC) are being established to catalogue data sets and to provide information on data sets to scientists and others with interest in Antarctic science. The Joint Committee on Antarctic Data Management (JCADM) was established by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP). JCADM comprises representatives of the National Antarctic Data Centres. Currently 30 nations around the world are represented in JCADM. JCADM is responsible for the Antarctic Master Directory (AMD), the internationally accessible, web-based, searchable record of Antarctic and Southern Ocean data set descriptions. The AMD is directly integrated into the international Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) to help further merge Antarctic science into global science. The AMD is a resource for scientists to advertise the data they have collected and to search for data they may need. JCADM is the Antarctic component of the IPY Data Infrastructure, which is presently being developed. This presentation will give an overview of the organization of Antarctic and Southern Ocean data management with sections on the organizational structure of JCADM, contents of the Antarctic Master Directory, relationships to the SCAR Scientific Research Programmes (SRP) and IPY, international embedding and connections with discipline-based peer organizations like the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange Committee (IODE). It will focus primarily on the role that an existing infrastructure as JCADM, may play in the development of the IPY Data Infrastructure and will provide considerations for IPY data management, based on the experiences in Antarctic and oceanographic data management.

de Bruin, T.

2006-12-01

392

Pteropods and climate off the Antarctic Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shelled (thecosome) and naked (gymnosome) pteropods are regular, at times abundant, members of Southern Ocean zooplankton assemblages. Regionally, shelled species can play a major role in food webs and carbon cycling. Because of their aragonite shells thecosome pteropods may be vulnerable to the impacts of ocean acidification; without shells they cannot survive and their demise would have major implications for food webs and carbon cycling in the Southern Ocean. Additionally, pteropod species in the southwest Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean inhabit a region of rapid warming and climate change, the impacts of which are predicted to be observed as poleward distribution shifts. Here we provide baseline information on intraseasonal, interannual and longer scale variability of pteropod populations off the Antarctic Peninsula between 1994 and 2009. Concentrations of the 4 dominant taxa, Limacina helicina antarctica f. antarctica, Clio pyramidata f. sulcata, Spongiobranchaea australis and Clione limacina antarctica, are similar to those monitored during the 1928-1935 Discovery Investigations and reflect generally low values but with episodic interannual abundance peaks that, except for C. pyr. sulcata, are related to basin-scale climate forcing associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate mode. Significant abundance increases of L. helicina and S. australis after 1998 were associated with a climate regime shift that initiated a period dominated by cool La Niña conditions and increased nearshore influence of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). This background information is essential to assess potential future changes in pteropod species distribution and abundance associated with ocean warming and acidification. construct maps of pteropod spatial frequency and mean abundance to assess their oceanographic associations; quantify pteropod abundance anomalies for comparing intraseasonal and interannual variability relative to m-3 environmental variables and climate modes; investigate the presence of long-term trends and/or cycles of peak abundance of the pteropod species in this region as have been described for krill and salps (Loeb et al., 2009, 2010; Loeb and Santora, 2012). We then examine interannual and longer-term variability of pteropod species abundance with respect to possible effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Southern Annular Mode (SAM) on population size, advection into and retention within the survey area. In doing so we highlight the importance of having sufficient spatial and temporal sampling coverage, as well as appropriate net mesh size, to establish statistically significant abundance changes associated with climate modes and long-term warming.

Loeb, Valerie J.; Santora, Jarrod A.

2013-09-01

393

Microbial diversity and function in Antarctic freshwater ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater lakes occur through much of Antarctica and are characterized by short food chains dominated by microbes. Comparatively few studies have been made of continental freshwater lakes until recently, with the main emphasis being on the less extreme maritime Antarctic lakes. The wide range of trophic status seen at the northern extremes of the maritime Antarctic reduces markedly further south,

J. C. Ellis-Evans

1996-01-01

394

Multimedia modeling of human exposure to chemical substances: the roles of food web biomagnification and biotransformation.  

PubMed

The Risk Assessment IDentification And Ranking (RAIDAR) model is refined to calculate relative human exposures as expressed by total intake, intake fraction (iF), and total body burden (TBB) metrics. The RAIDAR model is applied to three persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and six petrochemicals using four mode-of-entry emission scenarios to evaluate the effect of metabolic biotransformation estimates on human exposure calculations. When biotransformation rates are assumed to be negligible, daily intake and iFs for the nine substances ranged over six orders of magnitude and TBBs ranged over 10 orders of magnitude. Including biotransformation estimates for fish, birds, and mammals reduced substance-specific daily intake and iF by up to 4.5 orders of magnitude and TBB by more than eight orders of magnitude. The RAIDAR iF calculations are compared to the European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances (EUSES) model iF calculations and differences are discussed, especially the treatment of food web bioaccumulation. Model selection and application assumptions result in different rankings of human exposure potential. These results suggest a need to critically consider model selection and to include reliable biotransformation rate estimates when assessing relative human exposure and ranking substances for priority setting. Recommendations for further model evaluations and revisions are discussed. PMID:20821418

Arnot, Jon A; Mackay, Don; Parkerton, Thomas F; Zaleski, Rosemary T; Warren, Christopher S

2010-01-01

395

Biomagnification of mercury through a subtropical coastal food web off southwest Florida.  

PubMed

Total mercury and stable isotopes of nitrogen (?(15) N) were measured in samples from 57 species of invertebrates (17 species) and finfish (40 species) from the coastal waters off southwest Florida, USA, to evaluate the biomagnification of mercury through the food web. Mercury concentrations (wet wt) and ?(15) N values were highly variable among species, ranging from 0.004?mg/kg in an unidentified species of brittlestar (class Ophiuroidea) to 2.839?±?1.39?mg/kg in king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla) and from 4.67‰ in a Florida fighting conch (Strombus alatus) to 13.68‰ in crevalle jack (Caranx hippos). In general, observed Hg levels were in the upper range of levels previously reported for other Gulf populations. Species means of log-transformed Hg concentrations were positively correlated with ?(15) N (p?

Thera, Jennifer C; Rumbold, Darren G

2014-01-01

396

Estuarine microbial food web patterns in a Lake Erie coastal wetland.  

PubMed

Composition and distribution of planktonic protists were examined relative to microbial food web dynamics (growth, grazing, and nitrogen cycling rates) at the Old Woman Creek (OWC) National Estuarine Research Reserve during an episodic storm event in July 2003. More than 150 protistan taxa were identified based on morphology. Species richness and microbial biomass measured via microscopy and flow cytometry increased along a stream-lake (Lake Erie) transect and peaked at the confluence. Water column ammonium (NH4+) uptake (0.06 to 1.82 microM N h(-1)) and regeneration (0.04 to 0.55 microM N h(-1)) rates, measured using 15NH4+ isotope dilution, followed the same pattern. Large light/dark NH4+ uptake differences were observed in the hypereutrophic OWC interior, but not at the phosphorus-limited Lake Erie site, reflecting the microbial community structural shift from net autotrophic to net heterotrophic. Despite this shift, microbial grazers (mostly choreotrich ciliates, taxon-specific growth rates up to 2.9 d(-1)) controlled nanophytoplankton and bacteria at all sites by consuming 76 to 110% and 56 to 97% of their daily production, respectively, in dilution experiments. Overall, distribution patterns and dynamics of microbial communities in OWC resemble those in marine estuaries, where plankton productivity increases along the river-sea gradient and reaches its maximum at the confluence. PMID:15696390

Lavrentyev, P J; McCarthy, M J; Klarer, D M; Jochem, F; Gardner, W S

2004-11-01

397

A screening level probabilistic risk assessment of mercury in Florida Everglades food webs.  

PubMed

A screening level probabilistic assessment of risks was performed on three species of piscivorous wildlife at the top of Everglades aquatic food webs: the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), the great egret (Egretta alba), and the raccoon (Procyon lotor varius). Ranges of dietary exposure concentrations (and probability distribution functions) were derived for two general areas of the Everglades: Shark Slough and the southcentral Everglades (highly contaminated with Hg), and the northern Everglades (a lower Hg contaminated area in and near Water Conservation Area 1). Ranges of toxicity reference values and probability distribution functions were derived from literature on the toxicity of dietary methyl Hg to birds and mammals. Probability distributions of risk estimates for each receptor were generated using Monte Carlo simulations and indicated that piscivorous wildlife feeding in the south-central region of the Everglades are at high risk from consumption of Hg-contaminated prey. Alligators had 100% exceedences of chronic risk thresholds, and great egrets had 99% exceedences. In the northern Everglades, exceedences of chronic risk thresholds were substantially lower but were still present (6-34% exceedences). Results support previous studies suggesting that top predators of the Everglades may be at risk from Hg contamination and indicate that Hg risks are location-dependent. PMID:11139184

Duvall, S E; Barron, M G

2000-11-01

398

Resource patch formation and exploitation throughout the marine microbial food web.  

PubMed

Exploitation of microscale (microm-mm) resource patches by planktonic microorganisms may influence oceanic trophodynamics and nutrient cycling. However, examinations of microbial behavior within patchy microhabitats have been precluded by methodological limitations. We developed a microfluidic device to generate microscale resource patches at environmentally realistic spatiotemporal scales, and we examined the exploitation of these patches by marine microorganisms. We studied the foraging response of three sequential levels of the microbial food web: a phytoplankton (Dunaliella tertiolecta), a heterotrophic bacterium (Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis), and a phagotrophic protist (Neobodo designis). Population-level chemotactic responses and single-cell swimming behaviors were quantified. Dunaliella tertiolecta accumulated within a patch of NH4(+), simulating a zooplankton excretion, within 1 min of its formation. Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis cells also exhibited a chemotactic response to patches of D. tertiolecta exudates within 30 s, whereas N. designis shifted swimming behavior in response to bacterial prey patches. Although they relied on different swimming strategies, all three organisms exhibited behaviors that permitted efficient and rapid exploitation of resource patches. These observations imply that microscale nutrient patchiness may subsequently trigger the sequential formation of patches of phytoplankton, heterotrophic bacteria, and protozoan predators in the ocean. Enhanced uptake and predation rates driven by patch exploitation could accelerate carbon flux through the microbial loop. PMID:19053839

Seymour, J R; Marcos; Stocker, R

2009-01-01

399

Integrating spatial and temporal variability into the analysis of fish food web linkages in Tijuana Estuary.  

SciTech Connect

Our understanding of fish feeding interactions at Tijuana Estuary was improved by incorporating estimates of spatial and temporal variability into diet analyses. We examined the stomach contents of 7 dominant species (n=579 total fish) collected between 1994 and 1999. General feeding patterns pooled over time produced a basic food web consisting of 3 major trophic levels: (1) primary consumers (Atherinops affinis, Mugil cephalus) that ingested substantial amounts of plant material and detritus; (2) benthic carnivores (Clevelandia ios, Hypsopsetta guttulata, Gillichthys mirabilis, and Fundulus parvipinnis) that ingested high numbers of calanoid copepods and exotic amphipods (Grandidierella japonica); and (3) piscivores (Paralichthys californicus and Leptocottus armatus) that often preyed on smaller gobiids. Similarity-based groupings of individual species' diets were identified using nonmetric multidimensional scaling to characterize their variability within and between species, and in s pace and time. This allowed us to identify major shifts and recognize events (i.e., modified prey abundance during 1997-98 El Nino floods) that likely caused these shifts.

West, Janelle M.; Williams, Greg D.; Madon, Sharook P.; Zedler, Joy B.

2003-05-14

400

Selecting Indicator Portfolios for Marine Species and Food Webs: A Puget Sound Case Study  

PubMed Central

Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has emerged as a promising approach for maintaining the benefits humans want and need from the ocean, yet concrete approaches for implementing EBM remain scarce. A key challenge lies in the development of indicators that can provide useful information on ecosystem status and trends, and assess progress towards management goals. In this paper, we describe a generalized framework for the methodical and transparent selection of ecosystem indicators. We apply the framework to the second largest estuary in the United States – Puget Sound, Washington – where one of the most advanced EBM processes is currently underway. Rather than introduce a new method, this paper integrates a variety of familiar approaches into one step-by-step approach that will lead to more consistent and reliable reporting on ecosystem condition. Importantly, we demonstrate how a framework linking indicators to policy goals, as well as a clearly defined indicator evaluation and scoring process, can result in a portfolio of useful and complementary indicators based on the needs of different users (e.g., policy makers and scientists). Although the set of indicators described in this paper is specific to marine species and food webs, we provide a general approach that could be applied to any set of management objectives or ecological system. PMID:21991305

Kershner, Jessi; Samhouri, Jameal F.; James, C. Andrew; Levin, Phillip S.

2011-01-01

401

Top-down Control of Stream Food Webs: Indirect Effects by Changed Behaviour and Species Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predators may directly control stream food webs by consuming invertebrates. But sub lethal effects on prey such as change of activity rhythm or feeding behaviour may lead to indirect effects of predation on other species. Thus, predators may strongly effect invertebrate community structure. The aim of a currently running paired ecosystem experiment is to detect changes of species interaction induced by benthivorous gudgeon (Gobio gobio). For this purpose we link the measurement of physiological fitness parameters to the observation of behavioural changes. Preliminary studies indicated a top-down control of the drift activity of Baetis larvae, while a bottom-up effect could not be observed. The presence of benthivorous gudgeon led to a significantly changed species composition of the invertebrate drift and reduced drift activity of Baetis larvae compared to the fish free control. The diurnal drift pattern of Baetis larvae with a nocturnal peak was observed both in the control and fish reaches. Thus benthivorous gudgeon controls the drift behaviour in a similar way as known for drift-feeding trout. The content of triglycerides and glycogen did not differ between the drifting and not-drifting individuals. Therefore their energetic status does not seem to control drift the activity of Baetis larvae.

Winkelmann, C.; Petzoldt, T.; Koop, J. H.; Benndorf, J.

2005-05-01