Science.gov

Sample records for antecedent pta factor

  1. PTA of Infrapopliteal Arteries: Long-term Clinical Follow-up and Analysis of Factors Influencing Clinical Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Peregrin, Jan H. Koznar, Boris; Kovac, Josef; Lastovickova, Jarmila; Novotny, Jiri; Vedlich, Daniel; Skibova, Jelena

    2010-08-15

    This study was a retrospective analysis of patients with CLI who underwent infrapopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). The main goal was to evaluate clinical and morphological factors that influence the clinical outcome of PTA in long-term follow-up. A total of 1,445 PTA procedures were performed in 1,268 patients. Main indications for PTA included gangrene, nonhealing ulcers, or rest pain. The mean number of treated arteries was 1.77 artery/limb, and the majority of lesions were type TASC D. The technical success rate of PTA was 89% of intended-to-treat arteries. The main criterion of clinical success was functional limb salvage (LS). One-year follow-up involved 1,069 limbs. Primary and secondary 1-year LS rates were 76.1 and 84.4%, respectively. The effect of clinical and morphological parameters on the 1-year LS was that the only associated disease with an adverse effect on LS rate was DM combined with dialysis. Regarding limb preprocedural status, gangrene was clearly a negative predictor. The most important factor affecting LS was the number of patent arteries post-PTA: patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 patent arteries had 1-year primary LS rates of 56.4, 73.1, 80.4, and 83%, respectively. Long-term follow-up of LS rates demonstrated secondary LS rates of 84.4, 78.8, and 73.3% at 1, 5, and 10 years. Every effort should be made to perform PTA for as many arteries as possible, even if TASC D type, to improve clinical outcome. Our study shows that repeat PTA is capable of keeping the long-term LS rate close to 75%.

  2. Isolation and characterization of bovine factor XI (plasma thromboplastin antecedent).

    PubMed

    Koide, T; Kato, H; Davie, E W

    1977-05-17

    Factor XI (plasma thromboplastic antecedent) has been purified approximately 28 000-fold from bovine plasma with an overall yield of about 30%. The isolation procedure involves barium sulfate adsorption of contaminants, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and chromatography on heparin-agarose, CM-Sephadex, and DEAE-Sephadex. The final product was homogeneous when examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis. A minimal mol wt of 124 000 was determined by sedimentation equilibrium. Factor XI is composed of two similar or identical polypeptide chain (mol wt of approximately 55 000), and these two chains are held together by a disulfide bond(s). Factor XI is a glycoprotein which contains approximately 11% carbohydrate including 5.4% heose, 4.7% N-acetylhexosamine, and 1.0% N-acetylneuraminic acid. Other properties of this coagulation factor including its amino acid composition and inhibition by antibodies prepared in rabbits are also reported. PMID:861211

  3. Antecedent Classroom Factors and Disruptive Behaviors of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Asmus, Jennifer M.; Boyd, Brian A.; Ladwig, Crystal N.; Sellers, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships between antecedent classroom factors and the disruptive behaviors of five elementary-aged students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the influence of four types of molar antecedent classroom factors (i.e., instructional setting, instructional activity,…

  4. Social Networks in the Classroom: Personality Factors as Antecedents of Student Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Matthew T.; Johnson, Bryan R.; Darnold, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines personality factors as antecedents of student social capital. We hypothesize relationships between two constructs taken from the five-factor model of personality (agreeableness and extraversion) and two variables that reflect a student's social capital (quantity of ties and strength of ties) in an academic setting. Analysis of…

  5. Tools for Today's PTA Volunteer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children: The National PTA Magazine, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Becoming a PTA volunteer takes more than a willingness to serve; it takes knowing how to work effectively within the PTA and school community. This article describes what National PTA offers volunteers. When one trains with PTA resources, one has a chance to: (1) Participate in workshops and seminars with family-engagement experts; (2) Network…

  6. Antecedent Factors Affecting Academic Performance of Graduate Students at the Nairobi Evangelical Graduate School of Theology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbogo, Rosemary Wahu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Master's level thesis work that was done in 1997 to assess the antecedent factors affecting the academic performance of graduate students at the Nairobi Evangelical School of Theology (N.E.G.S.T.), which is currently Africa International University (AIU). The paper reviews the effect of lack of finance on…

  7. NOT Your Mother's PTA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manno, Bruno V.

    2012-01-01

    The organization that claims to represent the voice and interests of K-12 students and their parents is the Parent Teacher Association, widely known as the PTA. The organization aims to provide "parents and families with a powerful voice to speak on behalf of every child while providing the best tools for parents to help their children be…

  8. Separation of Plasma Thromboplastin Antecedent from Kallikrein by the Plasma α2-Macroglobulin, Kallikrein Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Harpel, Peter C.

    1971-01-01

    Plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA, factor XI) is an important intermediate in the intrinsic coagulation system, and plasma kallikrein has been implicated as a mediator of the inflammatory process. Whereas their biologic activities are functionally distinct, their identity as separate entities in plasma has not been fully established, and the nature of their plasma inhibitors has not been completely characterized. A partially purified preparation containing the clotting, tosyl arginine methyl ester (TAMe) esterase and kinin-producing activities of these substances has been prepared by DEAE-cellulose chromatography of a Celite eluate obtained from acid-treated human plasma. These activities were not separable by acrylamide gel electrophoresis nor by isoelectric focusing, their pI being approximately 8.7. Human plasma α2-macroglobulin has been shown to inhibit the proteolytic activity of kallikrein and to inhibit partially its TAMe esterase activity. An α2-macroglobulin, PTA, kallikrein incubation mixture was separated by gel filtration chromatography. The α2-macroglobulin formed a high molecular weight complex with kallikrein and appeared in early chromatographic fractions. The PTA-clotting activity was not inhibited by the α2-macroglobulin; 64% of the initial PTA activity was isolated in later fractions free of kallikrein-induced kinin-like activity. In contrast, clotting, TAMe esterase, and kinin-forming activities were inhibited after gel filtration chromatography of an incubation mixture of these activities and partially purified C1̄ inactivator (C1 esterase inhibitor). Electrofocusing of an incubation mixture of an activated PTA, kallikrein preparation, and α2-macroglobulin resulted in the isolation of a PTA fraction free of kallikrein proteolytic activity, and with 4% of the original TAMe esterase activity. In this manner, activated PTA and plasma kallikrein have been shown to be distinct substances, and methods have been introduced for the further

  9. Propfan Test Assessment (PTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, B. H.; Poland, D. T.; Bartel, H. W.; Withers, C. C.; Brown, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of the Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) Program were to validate in flight the structural integrity of large-scale propfan blades and to measure noise characteristics of the propfan in both near and far fields. All program objectives were met or exceeded, on schedule and under budget. A Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation GII aircraft was modified to provide a testbed for the 2.74m (9 ft) diameter Hamilton Standard SR-7 propfan which was driven by a 4475 kw (600 shp) turboshaft engine mounted on the left-hand wing of the aircraft. Flight research tests were performed for 20 combinations of speed and altitude within a flight envelope that extended to Mach numbers of 0.85 and altitudes of 12,192m (40,000 ft). Propfan blade stress, near-field noise on aircraft surfaces, and cabin noise were recorded. Primary variables were propfan power and tip speed, and the nacelle tilt angle. Extensive low altitude far-field noise tests were made to measure flyover and sideline noise and the lateral attenuation of noise. In coopertion with the FAA, tests were also made of flyover noise for the aircraft at 6100m (20,000 ft) and 10,668m (35,000 ft). A final series of tests were flown to evaluate an advanced cabin wall noise treatment that was produced under a separate program by NASA-Langley Research Center.

  10. The PTA TV Trainer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    This updated version of a 1977 manual provides information about the television industry, communications regulations, and citizen recourse to improper broadcasting procedures for use in training Parent Teacher Association (PTA) volunteers to work for effective change within the television industry. The first section discusses the operations of the…

  11. The Four Generations of PTA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinckerhoff, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    Generation change, intergenerational conflict, whatever one calls it, the society is confronted with different generations that often have a failure to communicate. For PTAs (Parent Teacher Association), an older generation may be leading a PTA while a younger generation constitutes the majority of the parents, or newly minted teachers may be…

  12. The "PTA" of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Gerard L.

    Three developments in the field of foreign language education seem to have particularly great potential for foreign language teaching and learning in the 1990s: (1) proficiency; (2) technology; and (3) authenticity (PTA). The first of these developments involves the language proficiency movement's debate over the establishment of a common metric…

  13. How The PTA Views Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Carol

    The Parent Teachers Association (PTA) has had a long interest in physical education. At the convention at which the PTA was founded, a major address was presented on the subject of "physical culture." After 80 years, the PTA is still concerned with the physical as well as mental education of children. A major concern is with the psychological…

  14. A Model of Consumer Response to Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising: Antecedents and Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jisu; Delorme, Denise E; Reid, Leonard N

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the health care marketplace and lack of systematic research on OTC drug advertising (OTCA) effects, this study tested a theory-based, product category-specific OTCA effects model. Structural equation modeling analysis of data for 1 OTC drug category, analgesics, supported the proposed model, explaining the OTCA effect process from key consumer antecedents to ad involvement, from ad involvement to ad attention, from ad attention to cognitive responses, then to affective/evaluative responses, leading to the final behavioral outcome. Several noteworthy patterns also emerged: (a) Product involvement was directly linked to ad attention, rather than exerting an indirect influence through ad involvement; (b) ad attention was significantly related to both cognitive and affective/evaluative responses to different degrees, with stronger links to cognitive responses; and PMID:26312772

  15. Northern Parkway PTA Makes Health a Habit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdinand, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Health and fitness have been on the agenda of Northern Parkway Elementary School for quite some time, thanks to the concerted efforts of its involved and active PTA officers and members. For the past five years, the Northern Parkway PTA has held a popular and well-attended Family Fun and Fitness Night and has complemented the activities and…

  16. The Effects of Antecedent Exercise on Motor Function Recovery and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gyeyeop; Kim, Eunjung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we investigated the effect of antecedent exercise on functional recovery and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression following focal cerebral ischemia injury. [Subjects] The rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was employed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group I included untreated normal rats (n=10); Group II included untreated rats with focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); Group III included rats that performed treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training after focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); and Group IV included rats that performed antecedent treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training before focal cerebral ischemia (n=10) as well as treadmill exercise after ischemia. At different time points (1, 7, 14, and 21 days) Garcia’s score, and the hippocampal expressions level of BDNF were examined. [Results] In the antecedent exercise group, improvements in the motor behavior index (Garcia’s score) were observed and hippocampal BDNF protein expression levels increased. [Conclusion] These results indicate that antecedent treadmill exercise, before permanent brain ischemia exerts a neuroprotective effect against ischemia brain injury by improving motor performance and increasing the level of BDNF expression. Furthermore, the antecedent treadmill exercise of appropriate intensity is critical for post-stroke rehabilitation. PMID:24259800

  17. Antecedents of Charter School Success in New York State: Charter School Management Agencies and Additional Factors That Affect English/Language Arts Test Scores in Elementary Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Charter schools frequently receive public as well as federal attention, and there is a growing body of research becoming available examining charter schools. With all this research there is still a need for further studies which deal specifically with antecedents of charter school success. This study examined factors contributing toward the…

  18. Parental 'affectionless control' as an antecedent to adult depression: a risk factor refined.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, A; Henderson, A S; Andrews, G

    1993-02-01

    It has been well established that individuals with a history of depression report their parents as being less caring and more overprotective of them than do controls. 'Affectionless control' in childhood has thus been proposed as a risk factor for depression. Evidence is presented from a logistic regression analysis of data from a volunteer community sample that lack of care rather than over-protection is the primary risk factor. No evidence for an interaction effect of low care and over-protection was found. PMID:8475201

  19. Experimental and modeling study of pure terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater transport in the vadose zone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuiling; Liu, Changli; Pei, Lixin; Pang, Yajie; Zhang, Yun; Hou, Hongbing

    2015-02-01

    PTA wastewater discharged from a factory was selected as the research object in this project and CODcr was selected as the characteristic pollution factor. Static adsorption and soil column leaching experiments of silty clay and clayey soil were carried out to study the adsorption, bio-degradation and dispersion coefficient of CODcr in PTA wastewater. Hydrus-1D was used to build the convection-diffusion model to demonstrate the migration of PTA wastewater in the vadose zone. The results indicate that silty clay and clayey soil in the vadose zone can adsorb, degrade and impede the contaminants in PTA wastewater; however, the coefficient of adsorption and degradation were very low, they were down to 0.0002 L g(-1), 0.0003 L g(-1) and 0.0097 d(-1), 0.0077 d(-1) for silty clay and clayey soil, respectively. Under the virtual condition that, wastewater in the sewage pool is 5 m deep, CODcr concentration is 4000 mg L(-1), vadose zone is 21 m, PTA wastewater will reach the phreatic surface after 20.87 years. When wastewater in the sewage pool is 7 m with other conditions unchanged, after 17.18 years PTA wastewater will reach groundwater. The results show that there is a higher pollution risk for groundwater if we do not take any anti-seepage measures. PMID:25524255

  20. National PTA Gets Connected with Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Derek

    2011-01-01

    People are busy, we all know that. Getting their attention is harder and harder all the time. That's especially true for member organizations and advocacy groups. The National PTA is both and has adapted some social media practices to reach out and maintain contact with more than 5 million volunteers in 25,000 local units. James Martinez, senior…

  1. Corbell PTA's Wild Walk: Fundraiser Cultivates Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    When Corbell Elementary opened its doors in 2006 in Frisco, Texas, its newly formed PTA faced the challenge of implementing a productive fundraiser to get the school off to a great start. The new board chose to focus its efforts on a single fundraiser, rather than a series of smaller ones. They wanted to avoid having the children selling any kind…

  2. How to Share the Value of PTA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Back, Krista

    2011-01-01

    While virtually everyone agrees that it is important for parents and caregivers to get involved in their children's education--in fact, when asked, most parents will gush about how much they care about the education of their child--there is a disconnect when it comes to Parent Teacher Association (PTA). Parents, especially younger ones, have…

  3. Make Your PTA an Essential Resource to Your Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Delcenia

    2011-01-01

    In these stressful times, many Parent Teacher Association (PTA) leaders are finding membership recruitment and retention to be particularly challenging. The Black Star Community PTA in Chicago has found some unique methods of getting their community to support students and families, and join PTA. The basis for their efforts is in recognizing the…

  4. Manganese Complexes of 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA): The First Nitrogen Bound Transition Metal Complex of PTA

    SciTech Connect

    Frost,B.; Bautista, C.; Huang, R.; Shearer, J.

    2006-01-01

    The structures of two manganese(II) complexes of 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) reveal the first transition-metal complexes of PTA in which the metal preferentially coordinates to a nitrogen and not the phosphorus of PTA. The coordination environment about the manganese was probed using X-ray crystallography (solid state) and EXAFS spectroscopy (solution).

  5. PTA1 Helium Pressurization System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steadman, Todd; Majumdar, Alok; Holt, Kimberly

    1999-01-01

    A transient model of the Propulsion Test Article 1 (PTA1) Helium Pressurization System was developed using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The model included feed lines from the facility interface to the engine purge interface and Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Rocket Propellant 1 (RP-1) tanks, the propellant tanks themselves including ullage space and propellant feed lines to their respective pump interfaces. GFSSPs capability was extended to model a control valve to maintain ullage pressure within a specified limit and pressurization processes such as heat transfer between ullage gas, propellant and the tank wall. The purpose of the model is to predict the flow system characteristics in the entire pressurization system during 80 seconds of pre-pressurization operation, 420 seconds of pressurization stand-by operation and 150 seconds of engine operation. Subsequent to the work presented here, the PTA1 model has been updated to include the LOX and RP-1 pumps, while the pressurization option itself has been modified to include the effects of mass transfer. This updated model will be compared with PTA1 test data as it becomes available.

  6. Propfan Test Assessment (PTA): Flight test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, B. H.; Bartel, H. W.; Reddy, N. N.; Swift, G.; Withers, C. C.; Brown, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft was flown to obtain glade stress and noise data for a 2.74m (9 ft.) diameter single rotation propfan. Tests were performed at Mach numbers to 0.85 and altitudes to 12,192m (40,000 ft.). The propfan was well-behaved structurally over the entire flight envelope, demonstrating that the blade design technology was completely adequate. Noise data were characterized by strong signals at blade passage frequency and up to 10 harmonics. Cabin noise was not so high as to preclude attainment of comfortable levels with suitable wall treatment. Community noise was not excessive.

  7. Variant PTA Terminating in Cerebellar Artery, Associated with Multiple Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yeong Uk

    2016-01-01

    Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is one of the remnant fetal anastomoses between the carotid artery and basilar artery. PTAs are classified according to angiographic appearance and various connection. Among them, those directly terminating in the cerebellar arteries are rare subtype. In addition, aneurysms of the PTA are unusual in the literature and have not previously accompanied this subtype of PTA connecting cerebellar artery. We present the first case of an aneurysm of the PTA which is directly terminating in the cerebellar arteries and combined with multiple aneurysms. PMID:27446623

  8. Variant PTA Terminating in Cerebellar Artery, Associated with Multiple Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yeong Uk; Kim, Jin Woo

    2016-01-01

    Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is one of the remnant fetal anastomoses between the carotid artery and basilar artery. PTAs are classified according to angiographic appearance and various connection. Among them, those directly terminating in the cerebellar arteries are rare subtype. In addition, aneurysms of the PTA are unusual in the literature and have not previously accompanied this subtype of PTA connecting cerebellar artery. We present the first case of an aneurysm of the PTA which is directly terminating in the cerebellar arteries and combined with multiple aneurysms. PMID:27446623

  9. Antecedent conditions, hydrological connectivity and anthropogenic inputs: Factors affecting nitrate and phosphorus transfers to agricultural headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Outram, Faye N; Cooper, Richard J; Sünnenberg, Gisela; Hiscock, Kevin M; Lovett, Andrew A

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines relationships between rainfall-runoff, catchment connectivity, antecedent moisture conditions and fertiliser application with nitrate-N and total phosphorus (TP) fluxes in an arable headwater catchment over three hydrological years (2012-2014). Annual precipitation totals did not vary substantially between years, yet the timing of rainfall strongly influenced runoff generation and subsequent nitrate-N and TP fluxes. The greatest nitrate-N (>250 kg N day(-1)) and TP (>10 kg TP day(-1)) fluxes only occurred when shallow groundwater was within 0.6m of the ground surface and runoff coefficients were greater than 0.1. These thresholds were reached less frequently in 2012 due to drought recovery resulting in lower annual nitrate-N (7.4 kg N ha(-1)) and TP (0.12 kg P ha(-1)) fluxes in comparison with 2013 (15.1 kg N ha(-1); 0.21 kg P ha(-1)). The wet winter of 2013 with elevated shallow groundwater levels led to more frequent activation of sub-surface pathways and tile drain flow. Throughout the period, dry antecedent conditions had a temporary effect in elevating TP loads. Evidence of TP source exhaustion after consecutive storm events can be attributed to the repeated depletion of temporarily connected critical source areas to the river network via impermeable road surfaces. Fertiliser application varied considerably across three years due to differences in crop rotation between farms, with annual N and P fertiliser inputs varying by up to 21% and 41%, respectively. Proportional reductions in annual riverine nitrate-N and TP loadings were not observed at the sub-catchment outlet as loadings were largely influenced by annual runoff. Nitrate loadings were slightly higher during fertiliser application, but there was little relationship between P fertiliser application and riverine TP load. These data indicate that this intensive arable catchment may be in a state of biogeochemical stationarity, whereby legacy stores of nutrients buffer against changes

  10. Synthesis and structural characterization of copper(I) complexes bearing N-methyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (mPTA): cytotoxic activity evaluation of a series of water soluble Cu(I) derivatives containing PTA, PTAH and mPTA ligands.

    PubMed

    Porchia, Marina; Benetollo, Franco; Refosco, Fiorenzo; Tisato, Francesco; Marzano, Cristina; Gandin, Valentina

    2009-12-01

    New copper(I) complexes containing the water soluble N-methyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (mPTA) phosphine have been synthesized by ligand-exchange reactions starting from [Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)][BF(4)] or [Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)][PF(6)] precursors and (mPTA)X (X=CF(3)SO(3), I). Depending on the ligand counter ion, the hydrophilic [Cu(mPTA)(4)][(CF(3)SO(3))(4)(BF(4))] 3a and [Cu(mPTA)(4)][(CF(3)SO(3))(4)(PF(6))] 3c complexes or the iodine-coordinated [Cu(mPTA)(3)I]I(3)4 species were obtained respectively and fully characterized by spectroscopic methods. Single crystal structural characterization was undertaken for [Cu(mPTA)(3)I]I(3).H(2)O, 4.H(2)O, and [Cu(mPTA)(4)][(CF(3)SO(3))(2)(BF(4))(3)] .0.25H(2)O, 3b.0.25H(2)O, the latter obtained by crystallization of [Cu(mPTA)(4)][(CF(3)SO(3))(4)(BF(4))] 3a. The cytotoxicity of analogous tetrahedral homoleptic Cu(I) derivatives [Cu(PTA)(4)](BF(4)) 1, [Cu(PTAH)(4)][Cl(4)(BF(4))] 2, [Cu(mPTA)(4)][(CF(3)SO(3))(4)(BF(4))] 3a and [Cu(mPTA)(4)][(CF(3)SO(3))(4)(PF(6))] 3c was evaluated against a panel of several human tumor cell lines. All the complexes showed in vitro antitumor activity comparable to that of the reference metallodrug cisplatin. Tests performed on cisplatin sensitive and resistant cell lines showed that against human ovarian 2008/C13(*) cell line pair, the resistance factor of copper derivatives was roughly 7-fold lower than that of cisplatin, whereas against human cervix cancer A431/A431-Pt cell line pair it was about 2.5-fold lower. These results, confirming the circumvention of cisplatin resistance, support the hypothesis that phosphine copper(I) complexes follow different cytotoxic mechanisms than do platinum drugs. PMID:19822369

  11. The PTA Story: A Century of Commitment to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    This book recounts the historical achievements of the National PTA and its sister organization, the National Congress of Colored Parents and Teachers. The PTA is the result of the hard work of such women as Phoebe Apperson Hearst and Alice McLellan Birney, founders of the original National Congress of Mothers, and Selma Sloan Butler, who, with the…

  12. Antecedent influences on behavior disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R G; Iwata, B A

    1997-01-01

    The influence of antecedent events on behavior disorders has been relatively understudied by applied behavior analysts. This lack of research may be due to a focus on consequences as determinants of behavior and a historical disagreement on a conceptual framework for describing and interpreting antecedent variables. We suggest that antecedent influences can be described using terms derived from basic behavioral principles and that their functional properties can be adequately interpreted as discriminative and establishing operations. A set of studies on assessment and treatment of behavior disorders was selected for review based on their relevance to the topic of antecedent events. These studies were categorized as focusing on assessment of antecedent events, antecedent treatments for behavior disorders maintained by either positive or negative reinforcement, and special cases of antecedent events in behavior disorders. Some directions for future research on antecedent influences in the analysis and treatment of behavior disorders are discussed. PMID:9210312

  13. PTA proves its worth in high-volume hardfacing jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Raghu, D.; Webber, R.

    1996-02-01

    Imparting wear and corrosion resistance to metal surfaces by providing a hard surface is the basis for hardfacing. The realization of the economic advantage of increased wear by providing a metal deposit on a relatively low-cost substrate has spurred the growth of hardfacing over the last half century. Plasma transferred arc (PTA) hardfacing and laser beam hardfacing are relative newcomers to this arena. Hardfacing with PTA is ideal for high-volume hardfacing where a high degree of quality, reliability and consistency is required. Significant advances in materials and equipment have helped to spur the advancement of the technology and the wider acceptance by industry. It is believed that in the future, PTA hardfacing systems will be developed that rely a great deal on microprocessors and robotics, more so than at present. These would further enhance the product quality and consistency and would enable tailor-made PTA system designs for multiple applications. The quest for new materials for PTA hardfacing that combine wear and corrosion resistance and weldability is expected to continue. Newer applications are constantly being developed as more and more medium- and small-scale operators realize the advantages that can be derived from the use of PTA hardfacing. The basic driving force for these improvements and growth is quality, reliability, productivity and significant long-term cost reduction.

  14. Qualitative Studies: Historiographical Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rilla Dean

    This paper provides an overview of qualitative studies' antecedents among historiographers and of the positivist tide which nearly engulfed them. Humans live by interpretations. The task of social science--the basic task of qualitative studies--is to study these interpretations so that we can better understand the meanings which people use to…

  15. Antecedent Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: What Is Protecting Whom?

    PubMed Central

    Hollinger, Sabrina K.; Okosun, Ike S.; Mitchell, Cassie S.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that antecedent diseases are less prevalent in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients than the general age-matched population, which suggests possible neuroprotection. Antecedent disease could be protective against ALS or, conversely, the asymptomatic early physiological underpinnings of ALS could be protective against other antecedent disease. Elucidating the impact of antecedent disease on ALS is critical for assessing diagnostic risk factors, prognostic outcomes, and intervention timing. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between antecedent conditions and ALS onset age and disease duration (i.e. survival). Medical history surveys for 1439 Emory ALS Clinic patients (Atlanta, GA, USA) were assessed for antecedent hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, asthma, arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), thyroid, kidney, liver, and other non-ALS neurological diseases. The ALS onset age and disease duration are compared between the antecedent and non-antecedent populations using chi square, Kaplan–Meier, and ordinal logistic regression. When controlled for confounders, antecedent hypertension (high blood pressure), hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol), arthritis, COPD, thyroid disease, and non-ALS neurological disease are found to be statistically associated with a delayed ALS onset age, whereas antecedent obesity [body mass index (BMI) > 30] was correlated to earlier ALS onset age. With the potential exceptions of liver disease and diabetes (the latter without other common comorbid conditions), antecedent disease is associated with overall shorter ALS disease duration. The unique potential relationship between antecedent liver disease and longer ALS disease duration warrants further investigation, especially given liver disease was found to be a factor of 4–7 times less prevalent in ALS. Notably, most conditions associated with delayed ALS onset are also associated with shorter

  16. PTA1, an essential gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affecting pre-tRNA processing.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, J P; Peebles, C L

    1992-01-01

    We have identified an essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, PTA1, that affects pre-tRNA processing. PTA1 was initially defined by a UV-induced mutation, pta1-1, that causes the accumulation of all 10 end-trimmed, intron-containing pre-tRNAs and temperature-sensitive but osmotic-remedial growth. pta1-1 does not appear to be an allele of any other known gene affecting pre-tRNA processing. Extracts prepared from pta1-1 strains had normal pre-tRNA splicing endonuclease activity. pta1-1 was suppressed by the ochre suppressor tRNA gene SUP11, indicating that the pta1-1 mutation creates a termination codon within a protein reading frame. The PTA1 gene was isolated from a genomic library by complementation of the pta1-1 growth defect. Episome-borne PTA1 directs recombination to the pta1-1 locus. PTA1 has been mapped to the left arm of chromosome I near CDC24; the gene was sequenced and could encode a protein of 785 amino acids with a molecular weight of 88,417. No other protein sequences similar to that of the predicted PTA1 gene product have been identified within the EMBL or GenBank data base. Disruption of PTA1 near the carboxy terminus of the putative open reading frame was lethal. Possible functions of the PTA1 gene product are discussed. Images PMID:1508188

  17. L-Tryptophan Production in Escherichia coli Improved by Weakening the Pta-AckA Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lina; Duan, Xuguo; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Acetate accumulation during the fermentation process of Escherichia coli FB-04, an L-tryptophan production strain, is detrimental to L-tryptophan production. In an initial attempt to reduce acetate formation, the phosphate acetyltransferase gene (pta) from E. coli FB-04 was deleted, forming strain FB-04(Δpta). Unfortunately, FB-04(Δpta) exhibited a growth defect. Therefore, pta was replaced with a pta variant (pta1) from E. coli CCTCC M 2016009, forming strain FB-04(pta1). Pta1 exhibits lower catalytic capacity and substrate affinity than Pta because of a single amino acid substitution (Pro69Leu). FB-04(pta1) lacked the growth defect of FB-04(Δpta) and showed improved fermentation performance. Strain FB-04(pta1) showed a 91% increase in L-tryptophan yield in flask fermentation experiments, while acetate production decreased by 35%, compared with its parent FB-04. Throughout the fed-batch fermentation process, acetate accumulation by FB-04(pta1) was slower than that by FB-04. The final L-tryptophan titer of FB-04(pta1) reached 44.0 g/L, representing a 15% increase over that of FB-04. Metabolomics analysis showed that the pta1 genomic substitution slightly decreased carbon flux through glycolysis and significantly increased carbon fluxes through the pentose phosphate and common aromatic pathways. These results indicate that this strategy enhances L-tryptophan production and decreases acetate accumulation during the L-tryptophan fermentation process. PMID:27348810

  18. L-Tryptophan Production in Escherichia coli Improved by Weakening the Pta-AckA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lina; Duan, Xuguo; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Acetate accumulation during the fermentation process of Escherichia coli FB-04, an L-tryptophan production strain, is detrimental to L-tryptophan production. In an initial attempt to reduce acetate formation, the phosphate acetyltransferase gene (pta) from E. coli FB-04 was deleted, forming strain FB-04(Δpta). Unfortunately, FB-04(Δpta) exhibited a growth defect. Therefore, pta was replaced with a pta variant (pta1) from E. coli CCTCC M 2016009, forming strain FB-04(pta1). Pta1 exhibits lower catalytic capacity and substrate affinity than Pta because of a single amino acid substitution (Pro69Leu). FB-04(pta1) lacked the growth defect of FB-04(Δpta) and showed improved fermentation performance. Strain FB-04(pta1) showed a 91% increase in L-tryptophan yield in flask fermentation experiments, while acetate production decreased by 35%, compared with its parent FB-04. Throughout the fed-batch fermentation process, acetate accumulation by FB-04(pta1) was slower than that by FB-04. The final L-tryptophan titer of FB-04(pta1) reached 44.0 g/L, representing a 15% increase over that of FB-04. Metabolomics analysis showed that the pta1 genomic substitution slightly decreased carbon flux through glycolysis and significantly increased carbon fluxes through the pentose phosphate and common aromatic pathways. These results indicate that this strategy enhances L-tryptophan production and decreases acetate accumulation during the L-tryptophan fermentation process. PMID:27348810

  19. Antecedents of Norwegian Beginning Teachers' Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…

  20. Overview of NASA PTA propfan flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, Edwin J.

    1990-01-01

    The progress is covered of the NASA sponsored Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) flight test program. In PTA, a 9 ft. diameter propfan was installed on the left wing of a Gulfstream GII executive jet and is undergoing extensive flight testing to evaluate propfan structural integrity, near and far field noise, and cabin interior noise characteristics. This research testing includes variations in propeller tip speed and power loading, nacelle tilt angle, and aircraft Mach number and altitude. As a result, extensive parametric data will be obtained to verify and improve computer codes for predicting propfan aeroelastic, aerodynamic, and aeroacoustic characteristics. Over 600 measurements are being recorded for each of approx. 600 flight test conditions.

  1. Antecedent factors in teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Black, D

    1979-10-01

    41 women under 17 presenting with pregnancy at 2 Sheffield hospitals were interviewed between December 1976-77. 78% had experienced intercourse by age 15. 7 had more than 1 partner. 21 were pregnant by age 15. 50% came from large families, 4 or more children. There was a family history of illegitimacy in 1/3 of the group. 46% had experienced separation from 1 or both parents before age 7, chronic illness, death or divorce of parents. Only 8 had received contraceptive advice; 7 had received no school sex education. Most sources of information were mothers, siblings, and friends. 70% knew of at least 3 methods of contraception: withdrawal, the sheath, and the pill. The chemist and the general practitioner were most frequently named sources. 3 had gone to a clinic; most could not identify any clinics. 18 felt contraception should be their own decision; 15 felt it should be a joint decision. The high level of accepted risk taking and nonacceptability of the source of information were the most common reasons for noncontraceptive use. Adolescent pregnancies occur more frequently in lower socioeconomic classes. The majority of the women who continued with the pregnancy (15) were older and presented after 14 weeks. PMID:12336080

  2. Proximal antecedents to violent events in adolescent dating relationships.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Pamela S; Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence affects 25-60% of adolescents. This study developed a typology of proximal antecedents to violent events in adolescent dating relationships. Descriptions of 307 dating violence events were extracted from transcribed interviews with 87 young adults who experienced dating violence as adolescents. Verbatim text preceding the description of each violent event was identified as a proximal antecedent. Cross-case analysis was used to develop a typology of five antecedent categories: "pulling away,"  "demanding obedience," "discovering involvement with a rival," "defining the relationship," "demonstrating disrespect." Practitioners can use this typology to engage teens in discussions of factors that precede dating violence events. PMID:21992258

  3. Elementary Foreign Language Teacher-PTA Liaison Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Public Schools, VA. Div. of Adult Services.

    A handbook for the organization and implementation of an elementary school foreign language program presents guidelines for teachers and PTA liaisons. The program provides supplemental elementary-level instruction for children in Spanish, French, German, Italian, Chinese, and Arabic. Much of the program planning and organization is conducted by…

  4. Synthesis, catalytic properties and biological activity of new water soluble ruthenium cyclopentadienyl PTA complexes [(C5R5)RuCl(PTA)2] (R = H, Me; PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane).

    PubMed

    Akbayeva, Dina N; Gonsalvi, Luca; Oberhauser, Werner; Peruzzini, Maurizio; Vizza, Francesco; Brüggeller, Peter; Romerosa, Antonio; Sava, Gianni; Bergamo, Alberta

    2003-01-21

    The new water soluble ruthenium complexes [(C5R5)RuCl(PTA)2] (R = H, Me; PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) were synthesised and characterised. Their evaluation as regioselective catalysts for hydrogenation of unsaturated ketones in aqueous biphasic conditions and as cytotoxic agents towards the TS/A adenocarcinoma cell line is briefly presented. PMID:12585422

  5. PTA test bed aircraft engine inlet model test report, revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The inlet duct test for the Propfan Testbed Assessment (PTA) program was completed in November 1984. The basic test duct was designed using the Lockheed QUADPAN computational code. Test objectives were to experimentally evaluate, modify as required, and eventually verify satisfactory performance as well as duct/engine compatibility. Measured total pressure recovery for the basic duct was 0.993 with no swirl and 0.989 for inflow with a 30 degree simulated swirl angle. This compared to a predicted recovery of 0.979 with no swirl. Measured circumferential distortion with swirl, based on a least-square curve fit of the data, was 0.204 compared to a maximum allowable value of 0.550. Other measured distortion parameters did as well or better relative to their respective maximum allowable values. The basic duct configuration with no refinements is recommended for the PTA inlet as a minimum cost installation.

  6. Childhood antecedents of adult sense of belonging.

    PubMed

    Hagerty, Bonnie M; Williams, Reg Arthur; Oe, Hiroaki

    2002-07-01

    Sense of belonging has been proposed to be a basic human need, and deficits in sense of belonging have been linked to problems in social and psychological functioning. Yet, there is little evidence about what early life experiences contribute to sense of belonging. The purpose of this study was to examine potential childhood antecedents of adult sense of belonging. The sample consisted of 362 community college students ranging in age from 18 to 72 years, with a mean age of 26 years. Measures included the Sense of Belonging Instrument, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Childhood Adversity and Adolescent Deviance Instrument. Multiple regression analysis was used to correlate childhood antecedents with adult sense of belonging. The final reduced model included 12 variables, which accounted for 25% of the variance in sense of belonging. Significant positive antecedents with a relationship with sense of belonging were perceived caring by both mother and father while growing up, participation in high school athletic activity, and parental divorce. Significant negative variables with a relationship with sense of belonging included perceived overprotection of father, high school pregnancy, family financial problems while growing up, incest, and homosexuality. Knowledge of these factors should influence interventions with families regarding child-rearing and parenting practices, mediating the effects of crises during childhood such as divorce and teen pregnancy, and the interpersonal growth needs of teenagers. PMID:12205719

  7. Overview of NASA PTA propfan flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, Edwin J.

    1987-01-01

    During the last several years high-speed propellers have made the transition from a wind tunnel curiosity to a very likely near-term, fuel-efficient propulsion system that could revolutionize the subsonic commercial air transport industry. A key ingredient in this remarkable progress is the advanced turboprop industry. Working together, NASA and industry have developed and flight tested two propeller propulsion systems to provide answers to key technical questions and concerns. An industry team is currently developing a third propeller propulsion system for flight testing late this year. The progress of one of the NASA-industry flight test programs, called the Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) Program is reported. In PTA, a 9 foot diameter propfan was installed on the left wing of a Gulfstream GII executive jet and is undergoing extensive flight testing at Dobbins Air Force Base to evaluate propfan structural integrity, near and far field noise, and cabin interior noise characteristics. This research testing includes variations in propeller tip speed and power loading, nacelle tilt angle, and aircraft Mach number and altitude. As a result, extensive parametric data will be obtained to verify and improve computer codes for predicting propeller structural aeroelastic, aerodynamic, and acoustic characteristics. Over 600 measurements are being recorded for each of approximately 600 flight test conditions.

  8. Genetics and Physiology of Acetate Metabolism by the Pta-Ack Pathway of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Nam; Ahn, Sang-Joon

    2015-01-01

    In the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans, phosphotransacetylase (Pta) catalyzes the conversion of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetyl phosphate (AcP), which can be converted to acetate by acetate kinase (Ack), with the concomitant generation of ATP. A ΔackA mutant displayed enhanced accumulation of AcP under aerobic conditions, whereas little or no AcP was observed in the Δpta or Δpta ΔackA mutant. The Δpta and Δpta ΔackA mutants also had diminished ATP pools compared to the size of the ATP pool for the parental or ΔackA strain. Surprisingly, when exposed to oxidative stress, the Δpta ΔackA strain appeared to regain the capacity to produce AcP, with a concurrent increase in the size of the ATP pool compared to that for the parental strain. The ΔackA and Δpta ΔackA mutants exhibited enhanced (p)ppGpp accumulation, whereas the strain lacking Pta produced less (p)ppGpp than the wild-type strain. The ΔackA and Δpta ΔackA mutants displayed global changes in gene expression, as assessed by microarrays. All strains lacking Pta, which had defects in AcP production under aerobic conditions, were impaired in their abilities to form biofilms when glucose was the growth carbohydrate. Collectively, these data demonstrate the complex regulation of the Pta-Ack pathway and critical roles for these enzymes in processes that appear to be essential for the persistence and pathogenesis of S. mutans. PMID:25979891

  9. Maternal Gatekeeping: Antecedents and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaunt, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined maternal gatekeeping, its background and psychological antecedents, and its consequences for paternal and maternal involvement in child care. In sum, 209 couples with 6- to 36-month-old children completed extensive questionnaires. Analyses revealed that various dimensions of gate-keeping were differentially associated with the…

  10. Antecedents of Maternal Separation Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Greta G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined antecedents of maternal separation anxiety in 83 Italian mothers prior to their infants or toddlers entering group care. Mothers' anxiety did not vary with the child's age. Anxious mothers were younger and less educated, received less support, had temperamentally negative infants, and provided less varied stimulation in the home. (MM)

  11. Strain Mechanosensing Quantitatively Controls Diameter Growth and PtaZFP2 Gene Expression in Poplar1

    PubMed Central

    Coutand, Catherine; Martin, Ludovic; Leblanc-Fournier, Nathalie; Decourteix, Mélanie; Julien, Jean-Louis; Moulia, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical signals are important factors that control plant growth and development. External mechanical loadings lead to a decrease in elongation and a stimulation of diameter growth, a syndrome known as thigmomorphogenesis. A previous study has demonstrated that plants perceive the strains they are subjected to and not forces or stresses. On this basis, an integrative biomechanical model of mechanosensing was established (“sum-of-strains model”) and tested on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) elongation but not for local responses such as diameter growth or gene expression. The first aim of this interdisciplinary work was to provide a quantitative study of the effect of a single transitory bending on poplar (Populus tremula × alba) diameter growth and on the expression level of a primary mechanosensitive transcription factor gene, PtaZFP2. The second aim of this work was to assess the sum-of-strains model of mechanosensing on these local responses. An original bending device was built to study stem responses according to a controlled range of strains. A single bending modified plant diameter growth and increased the relative abundance of PtaZFP2 transcripts. Integrals of longitudinal strains induced by bending on the responding tissues were highly correlated to local plant responses. The sum-of-strains model of mechanosensing established for stem elongation was thus applicable for local responses at two scales: diameter growth and gene expression. These novel results open avenues for the ordering of gene expression profiles as a function of the intensity of mechanical stimulation and provide a generic biomechanical core for an integrative model of thigmomorphogenesis linking gene expression with growth responses. PMID:19571311

  12. The Antecedents and Correlates of Parental Perceptions of Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom

    Examined were antecedents and behavioral correlates of parental perceptions of efficacy, using data from a national survey of 3,000 parents and a study of 65 mother-infant dyads. Survey data were used to determine what factors are predictive of parental perceptions of efficacy. Dyadic data were used primarily to examine the relation between…

  13. Evaluation of propeller/nacelle interactions in the PTA program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aljabri, A. S.; Lyman, V.; Parker, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced highly-loaded propellers are proposed to power transport aircraft that cruise at high subsonic speeds giving significant fuel savings over the equivalent turbofan engine. In order to realize these savings, the propeller must be installed so that the aerodynamics of the propeller/nacelle combination do not lead to excessive cyclic blade stresses or installation losses. The on-going, NASA sponsored, Propfan Test Assessment Program (PTA) has provided the first high-speed wind-tunnel data on an installed propfan complete with an inlet. This paper presents computational techniques that allow: (1) optimization of inlet plane location, (2) contouring of lip and cowl, and (3) estimation of propeller cyclic loads due to a nonuniform flowfield. These computational methods, in spite of the complexity of the configuration and the slipstream effects, provide predictions of aerodynamic performance which are in excellent agreement with wind-tunnel data.

  14. Antecedents and Consequences of Envy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Geir; Glasø, Lars; Martinsen, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual attributes and envy, and to determine how envy may impact personal response variables in the workplace. To address these issues we apply Vecchio's theory on antecedents and consequences of envy (1995) as a theoretical framework. The present study relied on a cross-sectional measurement design. A total of 135 leaders and 772 followers employed in business organizations participated. SEM analysis shows that span of supervision serves as an important antecedent of envy, where span of supervision is significantly associated to envy via supportive leadership. Furthermore, envy seems to be indirectly and negatively related to self-esteem via distress and directly related to social loafing. The implications of these findings are discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined. PMID:25961743

  15. Occurrence and fate of the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA) in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Cavoski, Ivana; Costi, Roberta; Sarais, Giorgia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Miano, Teodoro M.; Lattanzio, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, one of the most common plant species on Earth, produces a wide range of secondary metabolites including the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA). This bracken constituent causes acute poisoning, blindness and cancer in animals, and can be transferred to man when bracken is utilized as food. Also milk from cows eating bracken is thought to be the vector for the transfer of PTA to humans, as well as PTA-contaminated drinking waters. Although some studies on the effect of growth conditions and soil properties on the production and mobility of PTA have been carried out (mainly in the North of Europe), results are sometimes conflicting and further investigations are needed. The aim of the present work is to study the occurrence and the fate of PTA in soils showing different physico-chemical features, collected in different pedoclimatic areas (from the South of Italy), but having the extensive ("wild") livestock farming as common denominator. The PTA content was determined in both soil and fern samples by GC-MS; both the extraction protocol and recovery were previously tested through incubation studies. Soils samples were also characterizes from the physical and chemical point of view (pH, EC, texture, total carbonates, cation exchange capacity, organic C, total N, available nutrients and heavy metal concentration) in order to correlate the possible influence of soil parameters on PTA production, occurrence and mobility. PTA concentration in soil samples was always PTA concentration in the corresponding Pteridium samples (2-780 µg/g), ii) the soil organic matter content (ranging from 3.4 to 22.8%), iii) the soil pH (ranging from 5.9 to 6.6), iv) the soil texture, v) the depth (0-10 cm; 10-20 cm), and vi) precipitations (ranging from 780 to 960 mm/a). This seems to suggest the degradation of the PTA by indigenous microbial community

  16. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  17. Transbrachial Thrombolysis, PTA and Stenting in the Lower Extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Stefan Fischbach, Roman; Brochhagen, Hans-Georg; Heindel, Walter; Landwehr, Peter

    2003-11-15

    We present an analysis of 37 interventions in the arteries of the lower limbs via a transbrachial arterial approach. Twenty-six patients (42-79 years) underwent 37 interventional procedures in the lower extremities (iliac n = 6, iliac + femoro-popliteal n = 1, femoro-popliteal n = 30) with a vascular approach via the brachial artery (33 left sided, 4 right sided, introducer sheath 4-7 F). The transbrachial approach was chosen to avoid puncture of femoral bypass graft material. Technical success could be achieved in 11/13 thrombolyses, 8/9 PTAs, 7/10 combinations of thrombolysis and percutaneous transluminar angioplasty (PTA) and in the placement of two stents. One patient suffered from periprocedural severe re-thrombosis due to insufficient anticoagulation during fibrinolysis, and twice thrombolysis was incomplete. One puncture-related false aneurysm of the brachial artery had to be corrected surgically. One transient ischemic attack (TIA) and four minor complications occurred. Transbrachial vascular approach for arterial interventions in iliac and femoro-popliteal pathologies is a reasonable alternative to the transaxillary access if transfemoral puncture has to be avoided. The technical success rate is comparable with the results of the transaxillary and transfemoral approach. To minimize, at least theoretically, the risk of cerebral complications, the left- sided approach should be preferred and intravenous heparin should be administered routinely.

  18. Water-soluble Ru(II)- and Ru(III)-halide-PTA complexes (PTA=1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane): Chemical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Battistin, F; Scaletti, F; Balducci, G; Pillozzi, S; Arcangeli, A; Messori, L; Alessio, E

    2016-07-01

    Four structurally related Ru(II)-halide-PTA complexes, of general formula trans- or cis-[Ru(PTA)4X2] (PTA=1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane, X=Cl (1, 2), Br (3, 4), were prepared and characterized. Whereas compounds 1 and 2 are known, the corresponding bromo derivatives 3 and 4 are new. The Ru(III)-PTA compound trans-[RuCl4(PTAH)2]Cl (5, PTAH=PTA protonated at one N atom), structurally similar to the well-known Ru(III) anticancer drug candidates (Na)trans-[RuCl4(ind)2] (NKP-1339, ind=indazole) and (Him)trans-[RuCl4(dmso-S)(im)] (NAMI-A, im=imidazole), was also prepared and similarly investigated. Notably, the presence of PTA confers to all complexes an appreciable solubility in aqueous solutions at physiological pH. The chemical behavior of compounds 1-5 in water and in physiological buffer, their interactions with two model proteins - cytochrome c and ribonuclease A - as well as with a single strand oligonucleotide (5'-CGCGCG-3'), and their in vitro cytotoxicity against a human colon cancer cell line (HCT-116) and a myeloid leukemia (FLG 29.1) were investigated. Upon dissolution in the buffer, sequential halide replacement by water molecules was observed for complexes 1-4, with relatively slow kinetics, whereas the Ru(III) complex 5 is more inert. All tested compounds manifested moderate antiproliferative properties, the cis compounds 2 and 4 being slightly more active than the trans ones (1 and 3). Mass spectrometry experiments evidenced that all complexes exhibit a far higher reactivity towards the reference oligonucleotide than towards model proteins. The chemical and biological profiles of compounds 1-5 are compared to those of established ruthenium drug candidates in clinical development. PMID:26920229

  19. Reported causal antecedents of discrete emotions in late life.

    PubMed

    Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P; Weiner, Bernard; Newall, Nancy E

    2009-01-01

    Valuable insights about emotional well-being can be learned from studying older adults who have wrestled with differentiating and regulating their emotions while they navigate through the many joys and traumas of a lifetime. Our objective was to document the underlying reasons for older adults' (n = 353, ages 72 -99) emotional experiences. Using a phenomenological approach, we identified participants' reported reasons (i.e., antecedents) for a broad variety of positive and negative emotions, classifying them into thematic categories through a content analysis. The array of thematic categories that emerged for some emotions was more differentiated than for others. For example, 14 antecedent categories were required to account for the emotion of happiness; whereas, only 4 categories were needed to capture all antecedents for anger. Our analysis provided a rich description of what older adults report as the causes of their emotions, showing that later life is characterized as a time when the loss of love ones elicits sadness, self-limitations elicit frustration, and others' transgressions elicit anger. Yet, our data show that old age can be portrayed even more so as a time when a variety of positive emotions are elicited by social factors (interactions and relationships), achievements, and personal attributes. Finally, in an analysis of the most common antecedents for pride (accomplishments) and anger (other's transgression), we suggest that pride over accomplishments is most likely elicited by internal attributions to skill and effort; whereas, anger over others' transgressions is most likely elicited by controllable attributions to the transgressor's inconsiderate or offensive behavior. Overall, this shows the utility of applying Weiner's attributional framework (Weiner, 1985) to an analysis of emotion antecedents in late life. PMID:19522180

  20. Carrier lifetime influence on clamped silicon wafer resonance by PTA effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapus, C.; Augereau, F.; Podlecki, J.; Lévêque, G.; Foucaran, A.; Attal, J.

    2010-06-01

    This experimental work presents reproducible measurement conditions to allow amplification of the mechanical vibration generated by photo-thermo-acoustics (PTA) effect using the resonance of circular silicon membranes clamped by nitrile o-rings on a diameter of 30 mm (Di). We use wafers with various thickness (h) between 250 and 1000 μm and with carrier lifetime between 3 and 30 μs. Under the condition to have a resolution of few picometers for the measurement, it is possible to characterize the resonance mechanism obtained without contact by conventional laser vibrometry using a modulated laser diode of only a few milliwatts of power. Compared to perfect clamped membranes, the first Eigen frequency presents a downward shift of some hundreds Hertz due to the circular clamping by o-ring as predicted by our simplified model. The resonance frequency depends linearly on the thickness as long as Di/h > 80. The quality factor (Q) does not exceed ten in agreement with our model for spring loaded membrane in air. The low value of quality factor and its variation according to thickness follow our predictions. Moreover, Q is independent of carrier lifetime whereas first resonance amplitude increases with it but less than prediction for bulks.

  1. Patient-centered care: antecedents, triggers, and mediators.

    PubMed

    Galland, Leo

    2006-01-01

    Functional medicine is essentially patient centered, rather than disease centered. A structure is presented for uniting a patient-centered approach to diagnosis and treatment with the fruits of modern clinical science (which evolved primarily to serve the prevailing model of disease-centered care). The core scientific concepts of disease pathogenesis are antecedents, triggers, and mediators. Antecedents are factors, genetic or acquired, that predispose to illness; triggers are factors that provoke the symptoms and signs of illness; and mediators are factors, biochemical or psychosocial, that contribute to pathological changes and dysfunctional responses. Understanding the antecedents, triggers, and mediators that underlie illness or dysfunction in each patient permits therapy to be targeted to the needs of the individual. The conventional diagnosis assigned to the patient may be of value in identifying plausible antecedents, triggers or mediators for each patient, but is not adequate by itself for the designing of patient-centered care. Applying the model of person-centered diagnosis to patients facilitates the recognition of disturbances that are common in people with chronic illness. Diet, nutrition, and exposure to environmental toxins play central roles in functional medicine because they may predispose to illness, provoke symptoms, and modulate the activity of biochemical mediators through a complex and diverse set of mechanisms. Explaining those mechanisms is a key objective of the Textbook of Functional Medicine (from which this article is excerpted). A patient's beliefs about health and illness are critically important for self-care and may influence both behavioral and physiological responses to illness. Perceived self-efficacy is an important mediator of health and healing. Enhancement of patients' self-efficacy through information, education, and the development of a collaborative relationship between patient and healer is a cardinal goal in all clinical

  2. Insertion of Self-Expandable Nitinol Stents Without Previous Balloon Angioplasty Reduces Restenosis Compared with PTA Prior to Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Harnek, Jan; Zoucas, Evita; Stenram, Unne; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2002-10-15

    Purpose: To compare the development of intimal hyperplasia after deployment of a self-expanding nitinol stent with and without previous percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA), with the results after PTA alone. Methods: In nine healthy pigs, the iliac arteries were divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 6 arteries) was treated with PTA; group 2 n 6)with insertion of self-expanding stents after PTA; and group 3 (n = 6) with stent insertion without previous PTA. After 8 weeks the vessels were examined with intravascular ultrasonography,histologic examination and morphometric analysis. Results: Although the injury index in group 1 (0.17{+-} 0.57) was lower (p <0.05) than in group 2 (0.26 {+-} 0.06) and group 3 (0.26 {+-} 0.08), PTA-treated arteries showed significantly (p <0.05) reduced mean luminal gain (0.53 {+-} 2.84) compared with arteries treated with PTA prior to stenting (2.58 {+-} 1.38) and compared with stenting alone (4.65 {+-}5.34). Stenting after PTA resulted in a higher (p<0.05) restenosis index (2.63 {+-} 1.06) compared with stenting without PTA (1.35 {+-} 0.59). Group 2 also had a significantly thicker intimap <0.05) and 83% and 74% higher intima/mediaratio (p <0.05) compared with groups 1 and 3, respectively. Conclusion: Insertion of a self-expandable nitinol stent without previous PTA results in less intimalhyperplasia than if PTA is performed prior to stenting, suggesting that direct stenting can be used in angioplasty sessions with a favorable outcome.

  3. Long-Term Antecedents and Outcomes of Perceived Control

    PubMed Central

    Infurna, Frank J.; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived control plays an important role in shaping development throughout adulthood and old age. Using data from the adult lifespan sample of the national German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP; N > 10,000, covering 25 years of measurement), we explored long-term antecedents, correlates, and outcomes of perceived control and examined if associations differ with age. Targeting correlates and antecedents of control, findings indicated that higher concurrent levels of social participation, life satisfaction, and self-rated health as well as more positive changes in social participation over the preceding 11 years were each predictive of between-person differences in perceived control. Targeting health outcomes of control, survival analyses revealed that perceived control predicted 14-year hazard rates for disability (n = 996 became disabled) and mortality (n = 1,382 died). The effect for mortality, but not for disability, was independent of socio-demographic and psychosocial factors. Overall, we found very limited support for age-differential associations. Our results provide further impetus to thoroughly examine processes involved in antecedent-consequent relations among perceived control, facets of social life, well-being, and health. PMID:21517184

  4. Antecedent Selection: Comparing Simplified and Typical Verbal Antecedents for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez-Brown, Mapy; Scott, Jack; Ross, Denise E.

    2005-01-01

    This study measured the differential effects of simplified and typical verbal antecedents on acquisition of picture discriminations for four preschool children with autism. During baseline probes, participants emitted no correct selection responses to pictures of common stimuli during either simplified or typical verbal antecedent conditions.…

  5. NiO-PTA supported on ZIF-8 as a highly effective catalyst for hydrocracking of Jatropha oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Li, Rong; Chen, Pan; Rao, Xin; Deng, Lihong; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2016-03-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA) supported on a ZIF-8 (NiO-PTA/ZIF-8) catalyst was first synthesized and it showed high activity and good selectivity for the hydrocracking of Jatropha oil. The catalyst was characterized by SEM, SEM-EDS, TEM, N2 adsorption, FT-IR, XRD and XPS. Compared with the NiO-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst, the selectivity of C15-C18 hydrocarbon increased over 36%, and catalytic efficiency increased 10 times over the NiO-PTA/ZIF-8 catalyst. The prepared NiO-PTA/ZIF-8 catalyst was stable for a reaction time of 104 h and the kinetic behavior was also analyzed. This catalyst was found to bypass the presulfurization process, showing promise as an alternative to sulfided catalysts for green diesel production.

  6. NiO-PTA supported on ZIF-8 as a highly effective catalyst for hydrocracking of Jatropha oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Li, Rong; Chen, Pan; Rao, Xin; Deng, Lihong; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2016-01-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA) supported on a ZIF-8 (NiO-PTA/ZIF-8) catalyst was first synthesized and it showed high activity and good selectivity for the hydrocracking of Jatropha oil. The catalyst was characterized by SEM, SEM-EDS, TEM, N2 adsorption, FT-IR, XRD and XPS. Compared with the NiO-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst, the selectivity of C15-C18 hydrocarbon increased over 36%, and catalytic efficiency increased 10 times over the NiO-PTA/ZIF-8 catalyst. The prepared NiO-PTA/ZIF-8 catalyst was stable for a reaction time of 104 h and the kinetic behavior was also analyzed. This catalyst was found to bypass the presulfurization process, showing promise as an alternative to sulfided catalysts for green diesel production. PMID:27020579

  7. NiO-PTA supported on ZIF-8 as a highly effective catalyst for hydrocracking of Jatropha oil

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Li, Rong; Chen, Pan; Rao, Xin; Deng, Lihong; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2016-01-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA) supported on a ZIF-8 (NiO-PTA/ZIF-8) catalyst was first synthesized and it showed high activity and good selectivity for the hydrocracking of Jatropha oil. The catalyst was characterized by SEM, SEM-EDS, TEM, N2 adsorption, FT-IR, XRD and XPS. Compared with the NiO-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst, the selectivity of C15-C18 hydrocarbon increased over 36%, and catalytic efficiency increased 10 times over the NiO-PTA/ZIF-8 catalyst. The prepared NiO-PTA/ZIF-8 catalyst was stable for a reaction time of 104 h and the kinetic behavior was also analyzed. This catalyst was found to bypass the presulfurization process, showing promise as an alternative to sulfided catalysts for green diesel production. PMID:27020579

  8. Gold(I) complexes with alkylated PTA (1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) phosphanes as anticancer metallodrugs.

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Elena; Gascón, Sonia; Atrián-Blasco, Elena; Rodriguez-Yoldi, M Jesus; Cerrada, Elena; Laguna, Mariano

    2014-05-22

    New stable thiolate gold(I) derivatives containing the alkylated phosphanes [PTA-CH2Ph]Br and [PTA-CH2COOMe]Br derived from 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) have been prepared by different routes of synthesis. By the use of basic media to deprotonate the corresponding thiol in the former and by transmetallation reactions from tin (IV) complexes, in the later, thus avoiding side reactions on the phosphane. Strong antiproliferative effects are observed for most of the compounds, including the chloro- and bromo precursors with the series of phosphanes derived from PTA, in human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, PD7 and TC7 clones). Apoptosis-induced cell death is found for all compounds, being the thiolate derivatives with [PTA-CH2Ph]Br the most effective, as shown by an annexin-V/propidium iodide double-staining assay. PMID:24732792

  9. The PTA in the Urban Context: Phase II; An Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    The National PTA Urban Task Force chose to focus on three issues facing urban education: inadequate financing of public education, lack of parental or broad-based community participation in schools, and youth unemployment. The Task Force identified coalition building at local and national levels as the best strategy for helping resolve the…

  10. Neointimal Hyperplasia after Silverhawk Atherectomy versus Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) in Femoropopliteal Stent Reobstructions: A Controlled, Randomized Pilot Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Brodmann, Marianne Rief, Peter; Froehlich, Harald; Dorr, Andreas; Gary, Thomas; Eller, Philipp; Hafner, Franz; Deutschmann, Hannes; Seinost, Gerald; Pilger, Ernst

    2013-02-15

    Due to intimal hyperplasia instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment is still an unsolved problem. Different techniques have been discussed in case of reintervention to guarantee longlasting patency rate. We conducted a randomized, controlled, pilot trial comparing Silverhawk atherectomy with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with a first instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment, to evaluate intima media thickness (IMT) within the treated segment, as a parameter of recurrence of intimal hyperplasia. In a total 19 patients were included: 9 patients in the atherectomy device and 10 patients in the PTA arm. IMT within the treated segment was statistically significantly elevated in all patients treated with the Silverhawk device versus the patients treated with PTA. The obvious differentiation in elevation of IMT in nonfavor for patients treated with the Silverhawk device started at month 2 (max IMT SH 0.178 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.1 mm, p = 0.001) with a spike at month 5 (max IMT SH 0.206 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.145 mm, p = 0.003) and a decline once again at month 6 (max IMT SH 0.177 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.121 mm, p = 0.02). The values for mean IMT performed the same way. Although Silverhawk atherectomy provides good results at first sight, in the midterm follow-up of treatment of first instent restenosis it did not perform better than PTA as it showed elevated reoccurrence of intimal media hyperplasia.

  11. Non-Syntactic Antecedents and Frame Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gensler, Orin

    A polemic is made for frame semantics and the linguistic phenomenon of anaphoric reference without noun phrase (NP) antecedent is examined within this frame. Non-syntactic anaphora is that which does not point out into the real world but rather points back into the discourse in a frame which has been built up between the speaker and hearer in a…

  12. Antecedents and Outcomes of Career Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryee, Samuel; Tan, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    A model of antecedents and outcomes of career commitment was tested with data from 510 of 650 Singaporean teachers and nurses surveyed. The model did not fit the data: career satisfaction did not affect career commitment directly or indirectly through organizational commitment. Career commitment was not significantly related to work quality. (SK)

  13. Early Antecedents to Students' Expected Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garger, John; Thomas, Michael; Jacques, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to confirm the predictive validity of several antecedents to students' early perceptions of future performance in collegiate courses. Design/methodology/approach: A non-experimental design was used to test a proposed model based on a review of relevant literature. Students completed surveys capturing the…

  14. SOME DEVELOPMENTAL ANTECEDENTS OF LEVEL OF ASPIRATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROWNE, DOUGLAS P.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY REPORTS CHILDREARING PRACTICES AND CHILD BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH A SUBSEQUENT LEVEL OF ASPIRATION (LOA). ANTECEDENT MEASURES WERE CHILDREARING ATTITUDES REPORTED BY 379 MOTHERS OF FIVE-YEAR OLDS IN AN EARLIER STUDY. AT THE TIME OF THIS STUDY, THE 83 SUBJECTS WERE 18 YEARS OLD. THEY WERE ADMINISTERED TWO PERSONALITY SCALES AND THE…

  15. Antecedents and Consequences of Situational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Patall, Erika A.; Messersmith, Emily E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a growing body of research on situational interest (SI). Yet, we still know relatively little about how SI is supported in the classroom and the academic benefits of SI. Aim: The current study investigated (1) contextual antecedents of SI; (2) potential benefits of SI for academic outcomes; and (3) SI as a mediator of…

  16. Should flood regimes change in a warming climate? The role of antecedent moisture conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldemeskel, Fitsum; Sharma, Ashish

    2016-07-01

    Assessing changes to flooding is important for designing new and redesigning existing infrastructure to withstand future climates. While there is speculation that floods are likely to intensify in the future, this question is often difficult to assess due to inadequate records on streamflow extremes. An alternate way of determining possible extreme flooding is through assessment of the two key factors that lead to the intensification of floods: the intensification of causative rainfall and changes in the wetness conditions prior to rainfall. This study assesses global changes in the antecedent wetness prior to extreme rainfall. Our results indicate a significant increase in the antecedent moisture in Australia and Africa over the last century; however, there was also a decrease in Eurasia and insignificant change in North America. Given the nature of changes found in this study, any future flood assessment for global warming conditions should take into account antecedent moisture conditions.

  17. Effect of Heat Treatment on Wear Resistance of Nickel Aluminide Coatings Deposited by HVOF and PTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benegra, M.; Santana, A. L. B.; Maranho, O.; Pintaude, G.

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to compare the wear resistance of nickel aluminide coatings deposited using plasma transferred arc (PTA) and high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) processes. Wear resistance was measured in rubber wheel abrasion tests. In both deposition processes, the same raw material (nickel aluminide powder) was atomized and deposited on a 316L steel plate substrate. After deposition, specimens were subjected to thermal cycling, aiming solubilization and precipitation. Coatings deposited using PTA developed different microstructures as a result of the incorporation of substrate elements. However, despite the presence of these microstructures, they performed better than coatings processed using HVOF before the heat treatment. After thermal cycling, the superficial hardness after the wear tests for both processes was similar, resulting in similar mass losses.

  18. Numerical Modeling of Helium Pressurization System of Propulsion Test Article (PTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steadman, Todd; Majumdar, Alok; Holt, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    A transient model of the Propulsion Test Article (PTA) Helium Pressurization System was developed using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The model included feed lines from the facility interface to the engine purge interface and Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Rocket Propellant 1 (RP-1) tanks, the propellant tanks themselves including ullage space and propellant feed lines to their respective pump interfaces. GFSSP's capability was extended to model a control valve to maintain ullage pressure within a specified limit and pressurization processes such as heat transfer between ullage gas, propellant and the tank wall. The purpose of the model is to predict the flow system characteristics in the entire pressurization system during 80 seconds of lower feed system priming, 420 seconds of fuel and LOX pump priming and 150 seconds of engine firing. Subsequent to the work presented here, the PTA model has been updated to include the LOX and RP-1 pumps, while the pressurization option itself has been modified to include the effects of mass transfer. This updated model will be compared with PTA test data as it becomes available.

  19. Antecedents of Employees' Involvement in Work-Related Learning: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Baert, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Involvement in work-related learning seems to be more complex than a simple supply-demand fit. An interplay of several factors can influence this involvement at different stages of the decision-making process of the employee. The aim of this systematic review is to examine which antecedents of work-related learning have been identified in previous…

  20. An insight into the role of phosphotransacetylase (pta) and the acetate/acetyl-CoA node in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Pastor, José M; Renilla, Sergio; Bernal, Vicente; Iborra, José L; Cánovas, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Background Acetate metabolism in Escherichia coli plays an important role in the control of the central metabolism and in bioprocess performance. The main problems related to the use of E. coli as cellular factory are i) the deficient utilization of carbon source due to the excretion of acetate during aerobic growth, ii) the inhibition of cellular growth and protein production by acetate and iii) the need for cofactor recycling (namely redox coenzymes and free CoASH) to sustain balanced growth and cellular homeostasis. Results This work analyzes the effect of mutations in the acetate excretion/assimilation pathways, acetyl-CoA synthethase (acs) and phosphotransacetylase (pta), in E. coli BW25113 grown on glucose or acetate minimal media. Biomass and metabolite production, redox (NADH/NAD+) and energy (ATP) state, enzyme activities and gene expression profiles related to the central metabolism were analyzed. The knock-out of pta led to a more altered phenotype than that of acs. Deletion of pta reduced the ability to grow on acetate as carbon source and strongly affected the expression of several genes related to central metabolic pathways. Conclusion Results showed that pta limits biomass yield in aerobic glucose cultures, due to acetate production (overflow metabolism) and its inefficient use during glucose starvation. Deletion of pta severely impaired growth on acetate minimal medium and under anaerobiosis due to decreased acetyl-coenzyme A synthethase, glyoxylate shunt and gluconeogenic activities, leading to lower growth rate. When acetate is used as carbon source, the joint expression of pta and acs is crucial for growth and substrate assimilation, while pta deletion severely impaired anaerobic growth. Finally, at an adaptive level, pta deficiency makes the strain more sensitive to environmental changes and de-regulates the central metabolism. PMID:19852855

  1. Psychosocial Antecedents of Chronic Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towberman, Donna B.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined associations between selected characteristics and background historical events of subjects and chronic delinquency, defined as the number of adjudicated offenses. Results indicate that family functioning had a strong association. Other factors include early age at first adjudication, out-of-home placements, having been abused,…

  2. Personality traits and developmental experiences as antecedents of childbearing motivation.

    PubMed

    Miller, W B

    1992-05-01

    Childbearing motivation may be conceptualized as based upon psychological traits and shaped by experiences during childhood, adolescence, and early adult life. This paper explores what those traits and developmental experiences are. Two measures of childbearing motivation, one positive and the other negative, are described. Using a sample of 362 married men and 354 married women, the paper systematically examines the factors associated with these measures. In addition to a set of basic personality traits, these factors include parental characteristics, teenage experiences, and a number of variables from young adult behavior domains such as marriage, education, work, religion, and parental relationships. Stepwise multiple regression analyses lead to two final constrained, simultaneous-equation regression models. These models indicate the importance of both personality traits and diverse life-cycle experiences in the development of childbearing motivation, the differential gender distribution of predictors, and the different experiential antecedents of positive and negative motivation. PMID:1607052

  3. Antecedents of Intimate Partner Violence Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Finneran, Catherine; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Examinations of gay and bisexual men’s (GBM) perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV), including their perceptions of events likely to precipitate IPV, are lacking. Focus group discussions with GBM (n = 83) yielded 24 unique antecedents, or triggers, of IPV in male–male relationships. Venue-recruited survey participants (n = 700) identified antecedents that were likely to cause partner violence in male–male relationships, including antecedents GBM-specific currently absent from the literature. Chi-square tests found significant variations in antecedent endorsement when tested against recent receipt of IPV. Linear regression confirmed that men reporting recent IPV endorsed significantly more IPV antecedents than men without recent IPV (β = 1.8155, p < .012). A better understanding of the IPV event itself in male–male couples versus heterosexual couples, including its antecedents, can inform and strengthen IPV prevention efforts. PMID:25069147

  4. Application of GPR, EMI, and Lidar to Assess the Role of Antecedent Geology in Barrier Island Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernette, P. A.; Weymer, B. A.; Houser, C.; Bishop, M. P.; Everett, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Barrier island longevity is threatened by the observed and modeled accelerating rates of sea-level rise. It has been suggested that subsurface geologic structure is also an important factor controlling barrier island morphology and long-term island evolution, yet the precise role of antecedent geology on the response and recovery of barrier islands to hurricanes and sea-level rise remains unclear. Thus, this study aims to provide more detailed insight into the role of the antecedent geology on barrier island evolution at two sites along the Texas, USA coast: Follets Island and a portion of North Padre Island. Alongshore and across-island ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic inductance (EMI) surveys are used in this study to infer subsurface geologic structure. The accuracy of the interpreted geophysical survey data was assessed using selective vibracoring. Information about island morphology is derived from airborne and terrestrial LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs). Preliminary results suggest that dune height is generally lower and washover frequency higher in areas where the antecedent geologic surface is deeper. Another important factor influencing dune breaching and washover locations is offshore bathymetry. The barrier island is generally narrower in areas where an offshore swale is present. The antecedent geologic structure is an important factor influencing barrier island morphology. Integrating EMI, GPR, and seismic subsurface geologic structure information and surficial morphology information helps improve our understanding of factors affecting barrier island evolution and the role that antecedent geology plays in island morphology.

  5. How different types of users develop trust in technology: A qualitative analysis of the antecedents of active and passive user trust in a shared technology

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Le, Kim; Deitermann, Annika; Montague, Enid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antecedents of trust in technology for active users and passive users working with a shared technology. According to the prominence-interpretation theory, to assess the trustworthiness of a technology, a person must first perceive and evaluate elements of the system that includes the technology. An experimental study was conducted with 54 participants who worked in two-person teams in a multi-task environment with a shared technology. Trust in technology was measured using a trust in technology questionnaire and antecedents of trust were elicited using an open-ended question. A list of antecedents of trust in technology was derived using qualitative analysis techniques. The following categories emerged from the antecedent: technology factors, user factors, and task factors. Similarities and differences between active users and passive user responses, in terms of trust in technology were discussed. PMID:24882059

  6. Photo-aquation of cis-[RuCl2(mPTA)4](CF3SO3)4 in water (mPTA = N-methyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane).

    PubMed

    Girotti, Rugiada; Romerosa, Antonio; Mañas, Sonia; Serrano-Ruiz, Manuel; Perutz, Robin

    2011-01-28

    On irradiating the complex cis-[RuCl(2)(mPTA)(4)](CF(3)SO(3))(4) (2) with near UV light at room temperature, (OC-6-13)-[RuCl(2)(mPTA)(3)(H(2)O)](CF(3)SO(3))(3) (3) was obtained. Complex 3 is the product of the substitution in 2 of one mPTA by a H(2)O molecule and the rearrangement from cis to trans of the two chlorides. The selective photo-reaction of 2 is produced with radiation of 300 < λ < 400 nm or with λ = 367 nm in 50 min (Φ(367 nm) (D(2)O) = 0.18 ± 0.01). The reaction is not reversible with visible light. The transformation of 2 into 3 is not dependent on the pH but only on the radiation used. Reaction of 3 with NaCl leads to (OC-6-21)-[RuCl(3)(mPTA)(3)](CF(3)SO(3))(2) (4) which could be directly obtained by irradiation of 2 with λ = 367 nm in water and 5 eq. of NaCl (Φ(367 nm) (D(2)O) = 0.17 ± 0.01). Complex 4 turns slowly to 2 in water with 1 eq. of mPTA under light of λ > 416 nm. Complete conversion of 4 into 2 was achieved after more than one day. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopy, and 2, 3 and 4 by single crystal X-ray determination. An easy synthesis for the ligand mPTA(CF(3)SO(3)) is also reported. PMID:21135936

  7. Maternal anxiety: course and antecedents during the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Britton, John R

    2008-01-01

    The early course and antecedents of postpartum anxiety are unknown. This study sought to determine the course and antecedents of maternal anxiety during the first month postpartum and to develop a model to predict 1-month anxiety using information obtainable before perinatal hospital discharge. Two hundred and ninety-six mothers were screened before discharge with the State (SS) and Trait (TS) Scales of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Demographic characteristics were assessed by questionnaire and medical record review, and psychiatric history, measures of perinatal stress, and resilient factors were determined by focused questions and formal instruments. At 1-month postpartum, the SS was repeated. Scores on the SS were significantly higher at 1 month than immediately postpartum (35.30+/-0.68 versus 33.38+/-0.60, mean+/-standard error, P=.004), but only 58.6% of mothers with high pre-discharge anxiety had high anxiety at 1 month. One-month anxiety correlated with pre-discharge SS and TS scores, a history of psychiatric problems including depressed mood, medical and negative social life events, lack of pregnancy planning and prenatal class attendance, perceived peripartum stress, and duration of postpartum hospital stay. Inverse correlations were observed with education, household income, and resiliency factors. In multivariate modeling, anxiety trait, education, history >or=2 years of depression, and perception of peripartum stress accounted for 50% of the variance in the 1-month SS score. Maternal anxiety increases during the first postpartum month. Women with high trait anxiety, low education, a history of depressed mood, and a perception of high peripartum stress are at risk for experiencing anxiety at this time. PMID:17397041

  8. Antecedents of Adolescent Initiation of Sex, Contraceptive Use, and Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the literature to identify the most important antecedents associated with adolescent initiation of sex, contraception use, and pregnancy. Results indicate that over 100 antecedents create a complex, detailed picture of the correlates of adolescent sexual behaviors. They describe characteristics of adolescents themselves, their partners,…

  9. Life Course Antecedents of Premarital Conception in Great Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Stephen T.

    1994-01-01

    Examined possible antecedents of premarital and marital conceptions early in lives of young women (n=5,167) and men (n=5,585). Found that significant antecedents of premarital conception for both sexes were low socioeconomic status; low adolescent social adjustment; and family environment characterized by parent-child arguing, parental divorce or…

  10. Antecedents of ICT Attitudes of Distance Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Rugayah; Ahmad, Hashim; Abdullah, Che Zainab

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the antecedents of ICT attitudes of distance education (e-PJJ) students at the Institute of Education Development (InED), UiTM. The antecedents studied were computer anxiety, confidence, liking, and usefulness. The findings are important to strengthen InED's policy for using ICT and other technologies to…

  11. Antecedents of Low Vocational Identity in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterowd, Carrie L.; Krieshok, Thomas S.

    This study examined antecedents related to low vocational identity in college freshmen. College students (N=360) completed the 35-item Low Vocational Identity Antecedents Scale (LVIAS) developed for this study, the Vocational Identity Scale (VIS), and other measures. Based on results from this sample, a 15-item LVIAS was developed that…

  12. Exploring the Relevant Antecedents of Superintendent Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Understanding antecedents to superintendent leadership development is crucial for the continued improvement of schools. This qualitative study seeks to identify skills superintendents consider critical to their position, antecedents that developed those skills, and provide an increased understanding of the methods needed for developing current and…

  13. Final Scientific/Technical Report for "A Novel,Highly Efficient and Economic Purification Process Revolutionizing PTA Production"

    SciTech Connect

    Wytcherley, Randi; Balderston, Kristen; Ball,George; Chou, Tai-Li

    2008-06-06

    GTC Technology, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the DOE’s Industrial Technologies Program and in collaboration with Montana State University, has completed pilot scale testing of a revolutionary new process to produce purified terephthalic acid (PTA), a crucial chemical commodity manufactured worldwide. Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) is a starting material for the formation of polyester resin. Polyester resin is used to make many valuable commercial products, including clothing, plastic containers and films. In traditional PTA production, critical reactions are carried out at high temperatures and pressures, creating physically harsh and economically costly operating conditions. The chemical halide bromine is an essential ingredient for part of the conventional process. As a result of using bromine, the highly toxic and environmentally insidious compound methyl bromide is formed. The corrosive nature of bromine also mandates the use of specialized and expensive corrosion-resistant materials for plant construction. Plants processing PTA conventionally must also use copious amounts of precious water resources and manage costly water treatment operations. GTC’s new TA purification method employs a unique two-step crystallization process capable of operating at lower temperatures and pressures than traditional methods. Utilization of a highly selective, proprietary organic solvent blend also allows for the flexibility of accepting higher levels of impurities in the initial purification feedstock. The relaxed physical operating conditions combined with the effectiveness of the blended organic solvent allow for the efficient purification of feedstock created in a bromine free manner. Along with the elimination of bromine, the new purification technology drastically reduces energy costs and expensive wastewater treatment. Industry wide implementation in the United States alone could yield energy savings of 22 trillion BTU per year. In 2007, using the

  14. Wh-filler-gap dependency formation guides reflexive antecedent search

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Michael; Ackerman, Lauren; Baumann, Peter; Potter, David; Yoshida, Masaya

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies on online sentence processing have shown that the parser can resolve non-local dependencies rapidly and accurately. This study investigates the interaction between the processing of two such non-local dependencies: wh-filler-gap dependencies (WhFGD) and reflexive-antecedent dependencies. We show that reflexive-antecedent dependency resolution is sensitive to the presence of a WhFGD, and argue that the filler-gap dependency established by WhFGD resolution is selected online as the antecedent of a reflexive dependency. We investigate the processing of constructions like (1), where two NPs might be possible antecedents for the reflexive, namely which cowgirl and Mary. Even though Mary is linearly closer to the reflexive, the only grammatically licit antecedent for the reflexive is the more distant wh-NP, which cowgirl. (1). Which cowgirl did Mary expect to have injured herself due to negligence? Four eye-tracking text-reading experiments were conducted on examples like (1), differing in whether the embedded clause was non-finite (1 and 3) or finite (2 and 4), and in whether the tail of the wh-dependency intervened between the reflexive and its closest overt antecedent (1 and 2) or the wh-dependency was associated with a position earlier in the sentence (3 and 4). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 indicate the parser accesses the result of WhFGD formation during reflexive antecedent search. The resolution of a wh-dependency alters the representation that reflexive antecedent search operates over, allowing the grammatical but linearly distant antecedent to be accessed rapidly. In the absence of a long-distance WhFGD (Experiments 3 and 4), wh-NPs were not found to impact reading times of the reflexive, indicating that the parser's ability to select distant wh-NPs as reflexive antecedents crucially involves syntactic structure. PMID:26500579

  15. Daily hassles, their antecedents and outcomes among professional first responders: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Gerry; Berglund, Anna Karin; Ohlsson, Alicia

    2016-08-01

    Occupational groups such as firefighters, military officers, paramedics and police officers are exposed to a combination of acute, severe and accumulated everyday stress. Drawing on the daily hassles perspective on stress, the aim was to synthesize existing research on daily hassles in professional first responder settings into a theoretical model. A systematic mixed studies review with an integrated design was undertaken. The selection process resulted in 40 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. The selected papers represented two literature reviews, one qualitative study, eight longitudinal studies and 29 cross-sectional studies. Five superior categories emerged in the analysis: Individual antecedent and continuously framing factors, Environmental antecedent and continuously framing factors, Appraisal and coping processes, Daily hassles and Outcome. Suggestions for future research are presented. PMID:27291300

  16. High speed wind tunnel tests of the PTA aircraft. [Propfan Test Assessment Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aljabri, A. S.; Little, B. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Propfans, advanced highly-loaded propellers, are proposed to power transport aircraft that cruise at high subsonic speeds, giving significant fuel savings over the equivalent turbofan-powered aircraft. NASA is currently sponsoring the Propfan Test Assessment Program (PTA) to provide basic data on the structural integrity and acoustic performance of the propfan. The program involves installation design, wind-tunnel tests, and flight tests of the Hamilton Standard SR-7 propfan in a wing-mount tractor installation on the Gulfstream II aircraft. This paper reports on the high-speed wind-tunnel tests and presents the computational aerodynamic methods that were employed in the analyses, design, and evaluation of the configuration. In spite of the complexity of the configuration, these methods provide aerodynamic predictions which are in excellent agreement with wind-tunnel data.

  17. Responses of soil water percolation to dynamic interactions among rainfall, antecedent moisture and season in a forest site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xiaoming; Liao, Kaihua; Feng, Huihui; Zhu, Qing

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of soil water percolation below the rooting zone and its responses to the dynamic interactions of different factors are important for the control of non-point source pollution. Based on 3600 scenarios in Hydrus-1D simulation, this study revealed the integrated effects of rainfall characteristics (rainfall amount, maximum rainfall intensity or MRI, time distribution characteristics of rainfall or TDC), antecedent moisture and the season on deep percolation (DP) at a forest site in Taihu Lake Basin, China. Results showed that Hydrus-1D model can well simulate the soil water dynamics at this site. Antecedent moisture had the greatest relative contribution to DP (85.7%), followed by rainfall amount (10.9%) and MRI (3.4%). As the antecedent moisture increased, the relative contribution of the season on DP increased from 0.0% to 16.4%. In comparison, that of MRI decreased from 58.7% to 38.5% and that of rainfall amount followed a bell shape pattern (greatest when the antecedent moisture was 0.26 m3 m-3). The relative contribution of antecedent moisture to DP in summer was the greatest (87.8%), while that of the rainfall was the least. The TDC influenced DP by affecting the responses of DP to other factors. When the rainfall amount was ⩾80 mm and the antecedent moisture content was ⩾0.34 m3 m-3, effect of TDC on DP could be observed. The DP of TDC_B (rainfall intensity linearly increased with time) was the lowest, while that of TDC_E (rainfall intensity kept constant with time) was the greatest. Findings of this study have practical significance for investigating the water and pollutant transport in vadose zone.

  18. Consideration of "g" as a Common Antecedent for Cognitive Ability Test Performance, Test Motivation, and Perceived Fairness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Lam, Holly

    2007-01-01

    Several different analyses were used to test the hypothesis that test-taking motivation, perceived test fairness, and actual test performance are correlated only because they share a common antecedent. First, hierarchical regressions reveal that initial test performance has a unique influence on non-ability factors even after controlling for…

  19. Rhythms of life: antecedents and outcomes of work-family balance in employed parents.

    PubMed

    Aryee, Samuel; Srinivas, E S; Tan, Hwee Hoon

    2005-01-01

    This study examined antecedents and outcomes of a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance in terms of the direction of influence (work-family vs. family-work) and type of effect (conflict vs. facilitation). Respondents were full-time employed parents in India. Confirmatory factor analysis results provided evidence for the discriminant validity of M. R. Frone's (2003) fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance. Results of moderated regression analysis revealed that different processes underlie the conflict and facilitation components. Furthermore, gender had only a limited moderating influence on the relationships between the antecedents and the components of work-family balance. Last, work-family facilitation was related to the work outcomes of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. PMID:15641894

  20. Antecedents of periventricular haemorrhage in infants weighing 1250 g or less at birth.

    PubMed Central

    Szymonowicz, W; Yu, V Y; Wilson, F E

    1984-01-01

    Fifty infants who weighed 1250 g or less at birth were studied with serial real time cerebral ultrasound to evaluate the temporal relation of various perinatal factors to the onset and progression of periventricular haemorrhage (PVH). The significant antecedents of PVH were severe bruising at birth, low birthweight, short gestation, ratio of arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) to fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2), and haematocrit on admission, hyaline membrane disease, assisted ventilation, pneumothorax, administration of tubocurarine, hypercapnia, hypoxaemia, and hypotension. Case control studies, in which infants with PVH at 26 weeks' and 28 weeks' gestation were compared with matched infants without PVH, confirmed that the antecedents identified were independent of gestational influences. A multivariate discriminant analysis for the antecedents of PVH showed that hyaline membrane disease, hypercapnia, and short gestation correctly classified presence or absence of PVH in 78% of the study group. A similar analysis comparing infants with germinal layer haemorrhage or intraventricular haemorrhage with those who developed intracerebral extension of haemorrhage showed that three factors found on admission (hypothermia, a low PaO2:FiO2 ratio, and severe bruising) combined to classify correctly 90% of the haemorrhages. Our data suggest that prevention of perinatal trauma and asphyxia as well as respiratory illness, especially hyaline membrane disease, and stabilisation of blood gas tensions, blood pressure, and haematocrit within the physiological range, are likely to be the most effective ways of preventing PVH in extremely preterm infants. PMID:6696488

  1. When Children Learn Programming: Antecedents, Concepts and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneiderman, Ben

    1985-01-01

    Discusses components of an educational plan which supports acquisition of computer programing skills by elementary school children, including antecedent knowledge required (sequencing, similarity, character recognition, part/whole relationships, conditional forms, repetition, and incrementation); initial programing concepts; and outcomes valuable…

  2. Active search for antecedents in cataphoric pronoun resolution

    PubMed Central

    Pablos, Leticia; Doetjes, Jenny; Ruijgrok, Bobby; Cheng, Lisa L.-S.

    2015-01-01

    Cataphoric dependencies where a pronoun precedes its antecedent appear to call on different mechanisms in language comprehension from forward dependencies where the antecedent precedes the pronoun. Previous research has shown that the resolution of cataphoric dependencies involves predictive processes such as the active search mechanism, which hypothesizes the automatic search for an antecedent immediately after encountering a cataphoric pronoun. The current study employs gender mismatch to investigate whether the active search for an antecedent of a cataphoric pronoun is restricted only to grammatically licit positions. We present results from an event-related potential experiment on the reading comprehension of cataphoric dependencies in Dutch. Results show that gender mismatch gives rise to an anterior negativity at grammatically licit antecedent positions only. We hypothesize that this negativity reflects the prediction failure for an antecedent after encountering a pronoun, rather than a gender mismatch. We discuss the timing, topography and functionality of this negativity with respect to previous studies and how this relates to the ERPs elicited in the processing of structural constraints on pronoun resolution. PMID:26579023

  3. The role of antecedent moisture conditions on flood response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yu; Westra, Seth; Lambert, Michael; Lambert, Martin

    2016-04-01

    A catchment's antecedent moisture conditions (AMC) represent the relative wetness of a catchment prior to a flood event. The catchment's moisture content prior to an extreme precipitation event can have a significant influence on overall flood response. This study derives an 'antecedent effect ratio' (AER) metric to describe the importance of a catchment's antecedent moisture content on overall runoff volume. The metric was applied to 211 catchments in Australia using hourly precipitation and streamflow data to identify the difference in flood response between dry and wet AMC. Regional calibration of the antecedent period length was used to estimate the effect ratio for all catchments. The AER was found to vary substantially, with the difference in flood response during wet and dry antecedent conditions up to three times that under median conditions for some sites. Higher AER values were found at latitudes closer to the equator and for catchments with highly seasonal precipitation regimes. Other climatic characteristics (e.g. mean annual precipitation, aridity index) and physical catchment characteristics (e.g. vegetation ratio, soil depth) had lesser influence. To improve the assessment of flood models it is important to have metrics, such as the AER, that can evaluate the contribution of antecedent moisture towards a flood response.

  4. An assessment of antecedent events influencing noncompliance in an outpatient clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Call, Nathan A; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Cooper-Brown, Linda J; Boeiter, Eric W

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown that various factors can influence noncompliance, including task novelty, rate of presentation, and task preference. This study examined the impact of selected antecedent variables on noncompliance in an outpatient clinic setting. In two experiments involving 6 typically developing children, the consequences for noncompliance remained constant. During Experiment 1, demands that included noncontingent access to adult attention were contrasted with the same demands that did not include attention within a multielement design. In Experiment 2, demands were altered by decreasing the difficulty or amount of work or providing access to attention. In both experiments, results indicated idiosyncratic responses to the manipulated variables, with decreases in noncompliance observed following introduction of one or more antecedent variables with 5 of the 6 participants. These results suggested that noncompliance can be reduced via changes in antecedent variables, including adding potential positive reinforcers to the task situation, and that it is possible to probe variables that alter noncompliance in an outpatient clinic setting. PMID:15293634

  5. Antecedents and consequences of psychological and team empowerment in organizations: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Scott E; Wang, Gang; Courtright, Stephen H

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides meta-analytic support for an integrated model specifying the antecedents and consequences of psychological and team empowerment. Results indicate that contextual antecedent constructs representing perceived high-performance managerial practices, socio-political support, leadership, and work characteristics are each strongly related to psychological empowerment. Positive self-evaluation traits are related to psychological empowerment and are as strongly related as the contextual factors. Psychological empowerment is in turn positively associated with a broad range of employee outcomes, including job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and task and contextual performance, and is negatively associated with employee strain and turnover intentions. Team empowerment is positively related to team performance. Further, the magnitude of parallel antecedent and outcome relationships at the individual and team levels is statistically indistinguishable, demonstrating the generalizability of empowerment theory across these 2 levels of analysis. A series of analyses also demonstrates the validity of psychological empowerment as a unitary second-order construct. Implications and future directions for empowerment research and theory are discussed. PMID:21443317

  6. Missing Drivers with Dementia: Antecedents and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Meredeth A.; Greenblum, Catherine A.; Boltz, Marie; Galvin, James E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the circumstance in which persons with dementia become lost while driving, how missing drivers are found, and how Silver Alert notificationsare instrumental in those discoveries. DESIGN A retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING Retrospective record review. PARTICIPANTS Conducted using 156 records from the Florida Silver Alert program for the time period October, 2008 through May 2010. These alerts were issued in Florida for a missing driver with dementia. MEASUREMENTS Information derived from the reports on characteristics of the missing driver, antecedents to missing event and discovery of a missing driver. RESULTS and CONCLUSION The majority of missing drivers were males, with ages ranging from 58’94, who were being cared for by a spouse. Most drivers became lost on routine, caregiver-sanctioned trips to usual locations. Only 15% were in the act of driving when found with most being found in or near a parked car and the large majority were found by law enforcement officers. Only 40% were found in the county they went missing and 10% were found in a different state. Silver Alert notifications were most effective for law enforcement; citizen alerts resulted in a few discoveries. There was a 5% mortality rate in the study population with those living alone more likely to be found dead than alive. An additional 15% were found in dangerous situations such as stopped on railroad tracks. Thirty-two percent had documented driving or dangerous errors such as, driving thewrong way or into secluded areas, or walking in or near roadways. PMID:23134069

  7. The Historical Antecedents of the UPR School of Tropical Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mayo-Santana, Raúl; Peña-Carro, Lucy; Rabionet, Silvia E

    2016-06-01

    This article deals with the historical antecedents of the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) School of Tropical Medicine (STM) under the auspices of Columbia University. It presents a general view of the social, institutional and conceptual factors that were correlated with the establishment of the STM. The authors start by examining the historical continuities and discontinuities present during the imperial transitions between Spanish colonial and U.S. military medicine at the turn of the 20th century. The clarification of these changes is important for the proper understanding of the emergence of tropical medicine in Puerto Rico, marked by the identification of the biological determinant of the so called "peasants' anemia." The essay focuses on two institutional precursor events: the Puerto Rico Anemia Commissions (1904-1908) and the Institute of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (1912-1914). Their nature and work paved the way for the establishment of the STM. The notions of tropical medicine and diseases are considered as historical concepts. The support of the Rockefeller Foundation to several significant public health activities in Puerto Rico is also examined. Finally, the social and health conditions which prevailed at the time of the creation of the STM have been summarized. In general, the article provides a sense of historical context deemed essential to understand the emergence and evolution of the STM. PMID:27232865

  8. Psychosocial antecedents of unwed motherhood among indigent adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, H B; Smith, P B; Pokorny, A D

    1979-06-01

    This study was undertaken to test theoretically based hypotheses regarding psychosocial antecedents of unwed motherhood among indigent adolescents. These hypotheses were derived from the theory that deviant social responses result from previously acquired negative self-attitudes. Data was obtained by survey of a 50% sample of female 7th graders from an urban school system. The experimental group was made up of 82 subjects who received perinatal care at a clinic for indigent adolescents and who gave birth out of wedlock at least 1 year after the survey and before reaching age 18. One control group consisted of 164 students matched 2:1 with each unwed mother according to race, mother's education and school. A 2nd control group included 164 randomly selected students. Analysis of the data obtained permitted identification of specific self-rejecting attitudes developed among the prospective unwed mothers in the course of normative group experiences. These attitudes, together with the social positions of these subjects and the erosion of controls exerted by family and school authorities emerged as significant factors contributing to the adoption of deviant behavior patterns. These deviant patterns, including those associated with unwed motherhood, appear to be congruent with subculturally influenced values and with adaptive/defensive patterns. On the whole, results indicate that the general theory of deviant behavior that has been applied to other behaviors can be used to explain the precursors of unwed motherhood among indigent adolescents. PMID:12335791

  9. Lactate preserves neuronal metabolism and function following antecedent recurrent hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Raimund I.; Jiang, Lihong; Herman, Peter; Zhao, Chen; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Mason, Graeme F.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Rothman, Douglas L.; Sherwin, Robert S.; Behar, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoglycemia occurs frequently during intensive insulin therapy in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and remains the single most important obstacle in achieving tight glycemic control. Using a rodent model of hypoglycemia, we demonstrated that exposure to antecedent recurrent hypoglycemia leads to adaptations of brain metabolism so that modest increments in circulating lactate allow the brain to function normally under acute hypoglycemic conditions. We characterized 3 major factors underlying this effect. First, we measured enhanced transport of lactate both into as well as out of the brain that resulted in only a small increase of its contribution to total brain oxidative capacity, suggesting that it was not the major fuel. Second, we observed a doubling of the glucose contribution to brain metabolism under hypoglycemic conditions that restored metabolic activity to levels otherwise only observed at euglycemia. Third, we determined that elevated lactate is critical for maintaining glucose metabolism under hypoglycemia, which preserves neuronal function. These unexpected findings suggest that while lactate uptake was enhanced, it is insufficient to support metabolism as an alternate substrate to replace glucose. Lactate is, however, able to modulate metabolic and neuronal activity, serving as a “metabolic regulator” instead. PMID:23543056

  10. The family antecedents and the subsequent outcomes of early puberty.

    PubMed

    Arim, Rübab G; Tramonte, Lucia; Shapka, Jennifer D; Dahinten, V Susan; Willms, J Douglas

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine both the family antecedents and the outcomes of early puberty, with a particular focus on factors related to family socioeconomic status (SES). The study employed a comprehensive measurement of pubertal development and longitudinal data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. The sample (N = 8,440; 49% girls) included four cohorts of children who were followed biennially for 10 years, starting from age 4-11 to 14-21 years. Data were drawn at different years of age from these cohorts of children. Girls whose fathers were unemployed were more likely to experience early puberty than those whose fathers were employed. For boys, those living with fathers who had not finished secondary school were more likely to experience early puberty. Early maturing girls tended to engage in smoking and drinking at an earlier age compared with their peers. These findings provide support for psychosocial acceleration theory and suggest that different aspects of low family SES may act as a psychosocial stress for early pubertal maturation in boys versus girls, which may lead to engagement in drinking and smoking at a younger age, at least for girls. PMID:21298330

  11. The antecedents of teen fatherhood: a retrospective case-control study of Great Britain youth.

    PubMed Central

    Dearden, K A; Hale, C B; Woolley, T

    1995-01-01

    Historically, researchers have focused on identifying risk factors for teen motherhood, largely ignoring teen fathers. This study uses the 1958 National Child Development Study of Great Britain to examine antecedents of teen fatherhood. Teen fathers were compared with later fathers and nonfathers by using epidemiological methods. Results indicate that boys who became fathers while in their teens were at increased risk for experiencing problems at home and at school and were more likely to demonstrate aggressive, truant, and law-breaking behaviors. Many of these risk factors were also evident among those who became fathers while in their early 20s. PMID:7702121

  12. Wind tunnel performance results of an aeroelastically scaled 2/9 model of the PTA flight test prop-fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George L.; Rose, Gayle E.; Podboy, Gary G.

    1987-01-01

    High speed wind tunnel aerodynamic performance tests of the SR-7A advanced prop-fan have been completed in support of the Prop-Fan Test Assessment (PTA) flight test program. The test showed that the SR-7A model performed aerodynamically very well. At the cruise design condition, the SR-7A prop fan had a high measured net efficiency of 79.3 percent.

  13. Deletion of poxB, pta, and ackA improves 1,3-propanediol production by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Zhang, Yongqiang; Xu, Danfeng; Xiang, Gang; Jia, Zongxiao; Fu, Shuilin; Gong, Heng

    2016-03-01

    To date, few studies have focused on reducing the toxic by-product acetate during 1,3-propanediol production by Klebsiella pneumoniae. In this study, the effects of deleting the poxB, pta, and ackA genes, which are involved in the two main acetate synthesis pathways, on cell growth and 1,3-propanediol production were investigated. Although acetate synthesis via pyruvate oxidase (PoxB, encoded by poxB) generally seems unnecessary and wasteful, PoxB was shown to play an important role in K. pneumoniae. Deletion of poxB severely inhibited cell growth, and the poxB mutant exhibited an anomalously high accumulation of acetate in aerobic cultures and failed to produce an endogenous supply of carbon dioxide (CO2) in anaerobic cultures. It is interesting that both the aerobic and anaerobic growth defects of the poxB mutant were corrected by further deleting pta and ackA, which blocked the other main acetate synthesis pathway. The poxB-pta-ackA mutant excreted less acetate and showed an excellent ability to produce 1,3-propandiol. The final 1,3-propanediol yield and concentration in a 2-L fed-batch fermentation reached 0.66 (mol/mol) and 76.8 g/L, respectively, which were 16 and 15 % greater, respectively, than those of the parent strain. PMID:26695159

  14. Hydroprocessing of Jatropha Oil for Production of Green Diesel over Non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Lei, Jiandu; He, Jing; Deng, Lihong; Wang, Luying; Fan, Kai; Rong, Long

    2015-01-01

    The non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst was developed to produce green diesel from the hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil. The Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by one-pot synthesis of Ni/Al2O3 with the co-precipitation method and then impregnanting Ni/Al2O3 with PTA solution. The catalysts were characterized with BET, SEM-EDX, TEM, XRD, XPS, TGA and NH3-TPD. The Ni and W species of the Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst were much more homogeneously distributed on the surface than that of commercial Al2O3. Catalytic performance in the hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil was evaluated by GC. The maximum conversion of Jatropha oil (98.5 wt%) and selectivity of the C15-C18 alkanes fraction (84.5 wt %) occurred at 360 °C, 3.0 MPa, 0.8 h−1. The non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst is more environmentally friendly than the conventional sulfided hydroprocessing catalyst, and it exhibited the highest catalytic activity than the Ni-PTA catalyst supported with commercial Al2O3 grain and Al2O3 powder. PMID:26162092

  15. Hydroprocessing of Jatropha Oil for Production of Green Diesel over Non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Lei, Jiandu; He, Jing; Deng, Lihong; Wang, Luying; Fan, Kai; Rong, Long

    2015-07-01

    The non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst was developed to produce green diesel from the hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil. The Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by one-pot synthesis of Ni/Al2O3 with the co-precipitation method and then impregnanting Ni/Al2O3 with PTA solution. The catalysts were characterized with BET, SEM-EDX, TEM, XRD, XPS, TGA and NH3-TPD. The Ni and W species of the Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst were much more homogeneously distributed on the surface than that of commercial Al2O3. Catalytic performance in the hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil was evaluated by GC. The maximum conversion of Jatropha oil (98.5 wt%) and selectivity of the C15-C18 alkanes fraction (84.5 wt %) occurred at 360 °C, 3.0 MPa, 0.8 h-1. The non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst is more environmentally friendly than the conventional sulfided hydroprocessing catalyst, and it exhibited the highest catalytic activity than the Ni-PTA catalyst supported with commercial Al2O3 grain and Al2O3 powder.

  16. The predictive value of the in vitro platelet toxicity assay (iPTA) for the diagnosis of hypersensitivity reactions to sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Elzagallaai, Abdelbaset A; Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) are rare but potentially fatal adverse drug reactions (ADRs). A reliable test to diagnose DHRs would be a major advance in the clinical care for patients and in the evaluation of ADRs during drug development as well as for mechanistic studies of drug hypersensitivity. Available in vitro tests including the lymphocyte toxicity assay (LTA) have been used but are time-consuming, cumbersome, and expensive. We have developed a novel diagnostic test for DHRs, the in vitro platelet toxicity assay (iPTA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of the iPTA in diagnosis of DHRs to sulfonamides. We recruited 66 individuals (36 DHS-sulfa patients and 30 healthy controls) to participate in the study. Blood samples were obtained and LTA and iPTA were performed in parallel. There was concentration-dependent toxicity in the cells of patients when incubated with the reactive hydroxylamine metabolite of sulfamethoxazole for both the LTA and iPTA (P < .05). The iPTA was more sensitive than conventional LTA test in detecting susceptibility of patient cells to in vitro toxicity (P < .05). The novel iPTA has considerable potential as an investigative tool for DHS as it is more sensitive and cheaper, requiring no special reagents. PMID:23670648

  17. Antecedent versus consequent events as predictors of problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Camp, Erin M; Iwata, Brian A; Hammond, Jennifer L; Bloom, Sarah E

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of results from descriptive and functional analyses of problem behavior generally have shown poor correspondence. Most descriptive analyses have focused on relations between consequent events and behavior, and it has been noted that attention is a common consequence for problem behavior even though it may not be a functional reinforcer. Because attention may be prescribed simply as a means of stopping serious problem behavior, it is possible that naturally occurring antecedent events (establishing operations) might be better predictors of problem behavior than consequences. We conducted descriptive and functional analyses of the problem behaviors of 7 participants. Conditional probabilities based on combined antecedent and consequent events showed correspondence with the functional analysis data for 4 of the 7 participants, but antecedent events were no better than consequent events in identifying the function of problem behavior. PMID:19949538

  18. Statistics Anxiety: Nature, Etiology, Antecedents, Effects, and Treatments--A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Wilson, Vicki A.

    2003-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive summary of the literature on statistics anxiety, focusing on its nature, etiology, and prevalence. Identifies antecedents of statistics anxiety and the effects of these antecedents on statistics achievement. (SLD)

  19. Childhood Antecedents and Maintaining Factors in Maladaptive Daydreaming.

    PubMed

    Somer, Eli; Somer, Liora; Jopp, Daniela S

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the fantasy activity of 16 individuals who were seeking online peer-support and advice for maladaptive daydreaming (MD). MD is an under-researched mental activity described as persistent vivid fantasy activity that replaces human interaction and/or interferes with important areas of functioning. We employed a grounded theory methodology that yielded seven common themes presented as a sequential descriptive narrative about the nature, precursors, and consequences of MD. The presented "storyline" included the following themes: (1) daydreaming as an innate talent for vivid fantasy; (2) daydreaming and social isolation-a two-way street; (3) the role of trauma in the development of MD; (4) the rewards of daydreaming; (5) the insatiable yearning for daydreaming; (6) shame and concealment; (7) unsuccessful treatment attempts. A main conclusion of our study is that there is an urgent need for early identification of MD and its correct diagnoses in adulthood. PMID:27002749

  20. Considering Antecedent Factors for Transplant Recipient Athletes Learning to Live

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Patient education about managing chronic illness is critical given the growing burden of health care costs on society. Transplant recipients are forced into obtaining and learning how to understand complex information. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to highlight learning barriers and effective techniques used to manage care through…

  1. Environmental Stress and Biobehavioral Antecedents of Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, David S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of research on the biobehavioral antecedents of coronary heart disease, including stressful occupational settings characterized by high demands and little control over the job, and the Type A pattern, particularly hostility and mode of anger expression (anger-in). Discusses research on physiologic responsiveness (reactivity)…

  2. Developmental Trajectories and Antecedents of Distal Parental Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Groups of adolescents were identified on the basis of developmental trajectories of their families' rules and their parents' knowledge of their activities. Characteristics of the adolescent, peer antisociality, and family context were tested as antecedents. In sum, 404 parent-adolescent dyads provided data for adolescents aged 10-16. Most…

  3. Antecedents and Consequences of Residential Choice and School Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni; Glover, Robert W.; Holcombe, W. Lee; Stokes, S. Lynne

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the antecedents and consequences of residential choice and school transfers within one of the eight largest urban school districts in Texas. This study is based on survey data from a representative sample of parents of K-12 students enrolled in this district. In addition to demographic characteristics of the family, the…

  4. Trajectories of Physical Discipline: Early Childhood Antecedents and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from ages 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from ages 5 to 15. Analyses indicated…

  5. Further Analysis of Antecedent Interventions on Preschoolers' Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, David A.; Zonneveld, Kimberly; Harris, Carelle; Marcus, Alonna; Reagan, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Functional analyses were conducted to identify reinforcers for noncompliance exhibited by 3 young children. Next, the effects of three antecedent-based interventions--noncontingent access to a preferred item, a warning, and a high-probability instructional sequence--were examined. The high-probability instructional sequence was effective for 1…

  6. Further Evaluation of Antecedent Social Events during Functional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, David E.; Hardesty, Samantha L.; Luczynski, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The value of a reinforcer may change based on antecedent events, specifically the behavior of others (Bruzek & Thompson, 2007). In the current study, we examined the effects of manipulating the behavior of the therapist on problem behavior while all dimensions of reinforcement were held constant. Both participants' levels of problem behaviors…

  7. Attendance At Activities With a Geriatric Population: Antecedents and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Dennis B.

    The effectiveness of various procedures in maintaining attendance at activities of residents at a geriatric facility was examined. A special, intermittently programmed or delayed consequence for attendance was added to regularly scheduled activities. Attendance at activities with and without the consequence was compared. Later, antecedent events…

  8. Antecedents of Medical Workplace Violence in South China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Wenzhi; Deng, Ling; Liu, Meng; Yu, Min

    2011-01-01

    It has been noted that workplace violence most frequently occurs in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to explore antecedents of workplace violence in south China. The authors conducted face-to-face, in-depth, semistructured interviews with 30 hospital staff who had experienced at least one incident of workplace violence from patients during…

  9. Childhood Antecedents to Adult Coronary Artery Diseases. Special Reference Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the childhood antecedents to atherosclerosis and hypertension. While diet is related to the development of coronary artery diseases, there is some disagreement about what dietary changes are necessary or desirable in children to prevent their development, and at what age such changes should be made. Fifty-five…

  10. Contextual Antecedents of Informal Feedback in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Rijt, Janine; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    This study brings together findings from different research angles on informal feedback in the workplace. We explore the individual and joint influences of three contextual antecedents of seeking feedback: support for learning, psychological safety, and work pressure. Based on our survey of 138 employees from various organizations, hierarchical…

  11. Antecedents and Consequences of Work Engagement Among Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Sayfouri, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Engaged nurses have high levels of energy and are enthusiastic about their work which impacts quality of health care services. However, in the context of Iran, due to observed burnout, work engagement among nurses necessitates immediate exploration. Objectives: This investigation aimed to identify a suitable work engagement model in nursing profession in hospitals according to the hypothesized model and to determine antecedents and consequences related to work engagement among nurses. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was given to 279 randomly-selected nurses working in two general teaching hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran) to measure antecedents and consequences of work engagement using the Saks’s (2005) model. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the model fitness. Results: Two paths were added using LISREL software. The resulting model showed good fitness indices (χ2 = 23.62, AGFI = 0.93, CFI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.07) and all the coefficients of the paths were significant (t ≥ 2, t ≤ -2). A significant correlation was found between work engagement and model variables. Conclusions: Paying adequate attention to the antecedents of work engagement can enhance the quality of performance among nurses. Additionally, rewards, organizational and supervisory supports, and job characteristics should be taken into consideration to establish work engagement among nurses. Further researches are required to identify other probable antecedents and consequences of nursing work engagement, which might be related to specific cultural settings. PMID:25763212

  12. Positive Antecedent and Consequent Components in Child Compliance Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dannell Speights; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe; Bellipanni, Kimberly D.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of positive antecedent (effective instruction delivery and time-in) and consequent components (contingent praise) on the compliance of 4 children in a clinic setting. Results suggest that the use of effective instruction delivery alone increased compliance above baseline levels for the 4 children and that the…

  13. Gender Specific Differences in the Perceived Antecedents of Academic Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Russell W.

    This document consists of the report of a study undertaken to establish the existence of any gender specific differences in the perceived antecedents of academic stress. The definition of stress as a negative emotion strongly associated with doubt about coping is suggested to be particularly relevant to the academic arena where students…

  14. Student Trust and Its Antecedents in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Amit K.; Whipple, Thomas W.; Bryan, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    Based on the belief that long-term marketing costs for colleges can be reduced by focusing on building trust, studied the antecedents to trust in students and alumni. Data collected from 250 students and alumni indicated that strategic plans that improve perceived sincerity, expertise, and congeniality of a college can be successfully used to…

  15. Modeling Antecedents of Student Loyalty in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perin, Marcelo Gattermann; Sampaio, Claudio Hoffmann; Simoes, Claudia; de Polvora, Rosiane Polvora

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to understand the antecedents of student loyalty in the Brazilian context. In particular we address the impact of student trust, commitment and quality perception on loyalty. A quantitative study was conducted among business management student majors from two private Brazilian Higher Education Institutions…

  16. Young Children's Social Information Processing: Family Antecedents and Behavioral Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runions, Kevin C.; Keating, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    Little research has examined whether social information processing (SIP) measures from early childhood predict externalizing problems beyond the shared association with familial risk markers. In the present study, family antecedents and first-grade externalizing behaviors were studied in relation to preschool and 1st-grade SIP using data from…

  17. Workplace Incivility: Worker and Organizational Antecedents and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, James E., II; Bartlett, Michelle E.; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Unresolved workplace conflicts represent the largest reducible costs to an organization (Keenan & Newton, 1985). As incivility increases (Buhler, 2003; Pearson, Andersson, & Wegner, 2001; Pearson & Porath, 2005) more research is being conducted (Tepper, Duffy, Henle, & Lambert, 2006; Vickers, 2006). This review examined antecedents (variables that…

  18. Pseudomonas fluorescens PTA-CT2 Triggers Local and Systemic Immune Response Against Botrytis cinerea in Grapevine.

    PubMed

    Gruau, Charlotte; Trotel-Aziz, Patricia; Villaume, Sandra; Rabenoelina, Fanja; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Aziz, Aziz

    2015-10-01

    Although induced systemic resistance (ISR) is well-documented in the context of plant-beneficial bacteria interactions, knowledge about the local and systemic molecular and biochemical defense responses before or upon pathogen infection in grapevine is very scarce. In this study, we first investigated the capacity of grapevine plants to express immune responses at both above- and below-ground levels upon interaction with a beneficial bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens PTA-CT2. We then explored whether the extent of priming state could contribute to the PTA-CT2-induced ISR in Botrytis cinerea-infected leaves. Our data provide evidence that this bacterium colonized grapevine roots but not the above-ground plant parts and altered the plant phenotype that displayed multiple defense responses both locally and systemically. The grapevine roots and leaves exhibited distinct patterns of defense-related gene expression during root colonization by PTA-CT2. Roots responded faster than leaves and some responses were more strongly upregulated in roots than in leaves and vice versa for other genes. These responses appear to be associated with some induction of cell death in roots and a transient expression of HSR, a hypersensitive response-related gene in both local (roots) and systemic (leaves) tissues. However, stilbenic phytoalexin patterns followed opposite trends in roots compared with leaves but no phytoalexin was exuded during plant-bacterium interaction, suggesting that roots could play an important role in the transfer of metabolites contributing to immune response at the systemic level. Unexpectedly, in B. cinerea-infected leaves PTA-CT2-mediated ISR was accompanied in large part by a downregulation of different defense-related genes, including HSR. Only phytoalexins and glutathion-S-transferase 1 transcripts were upregulated, while the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes was maintained at a higher level than the control. This suggests that decreased

  19. Mass spectrometry and UV-VIS spectrophotometry of ruthenium(II) [RuClCp(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 complex in solution.

    PubMed

    Peña-Méndez, Eladia María; González, Beatriz; Lorenzo, Pablo; Romerosa, Antonio; Havel, Josef

    2009-12-01

    Ruthenium(II) complexes are of great interest as a new class of cancerostatics with advantages over classical platinum compounds including lower toxicity. The stability of the [RuClCp(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 complex (I) (Cp cyclopentadienyl, mPTA N-methyl 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) in aqueous solution was studied using spectrophotometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption/ionization (LDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Spectrophotometry proves that at least three different reactions take place in water. Dissolution of I leads to fast coordination of water molecules to the Ru(II) cation and then slow hydrolysis and ligand exchange of chloride and mPTA with water, hydroxide or with trifluoromethane sulfonate itself. Via MALDI and LDI of the hydrolyzed solutions the formation of singly positively charged ions of general formula RuCl(p)(Cp)(q)(mPTA)(r)(H2O)(s)(OH)(t) (p = 0-1, q = 0-1, r = 0-2, s = 0-5, t = 0-2) and of some fragment ions was shown. The stoichiometry was determined by analyzing the isotopic envelopes and computer modelling. The [RuClCp(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 complex can be stabilized in dilute hydrochloric acid or in neutral 0.15 M isotonic sodium chloride solution. PMID:19902414

  20. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of [RuCp(PPh3)2(HdmoPTA)](OSO2CF3)2 (HdmoPTA = 3,7-H-3,7-Dimethyl-1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane).

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Zenaida; Lorenzo-Luis, Pablo; Serrano-Ruiz, Manuel; Martín-Batista, Elva; Padrón, José M; Scalambra, Franco; Romerosa, Antonio

    2016-08-15

    The complex [RuCp(PPh3)2(HdmoPTA)](OSO2CF3)2 (2; HdmoPTA = 3,7-H-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane) was synthesized and characterized. Its crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The complex showed a more potent antiproliferative activity than cisplatin against a representative panel of human cancer cells. PMID:27462992

  1. Antecedents of deviant responses: Predicting from a general theory of deviant behavior.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, H B

    1977-03-01

    A statement of a general theory of deviant behavior asserts that four factors or processes intervene between the development of self-rejecting attitudes and adoption of deviant patterns. An earlier report demonstrated a relationship between antecedent negative self-attitudes and subsequent increases in seven variables that reflected these four factors. The present paper tests hypotheses that these seven variables are in turn related to the subsequent adoption of each of 22 deviant responses. Subjects were seventh-grade students (N=4694) who responded to questionnaires at T1 and T2 (a year later). The seven independent variables were measured by scale scores based on subject responses at T1. Adoption of deviant responses was defined in terms of subject's selfreports of performing each of 22 deviant acts between T1 and T2 after having denied performance of the deviant act during a specified period prior to T1. The results were interpreted as supporting the hypotheses, although relatively few exceptions were noted. These findings together with those of the earlier analysis were thus congruent with the theoretical position that the relationship between antecedent self-rejection and subsequent deviant responses is mediated by the subjective association of membership group experiences with feelings of self-rejection, the genesis of contranormative attitudes, the inability to satisfy the self-esteem motive through normative response patterns, and awareness of deviant alternatives to these normative patterns that in the past have failed to permit development of self-accepting attitudes. PMID:24408234

  2. Antecedent rivers and early rifting: a case study from the Plio-Pleistocene Corinth rift, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemelsdaël, Romain; Ford, Mary; Malartre, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    facies distribution throughout the early rift evolution. We show that the length scale of fluvial facies transitions is greater than and therefore not related to fault spacing. First order facies variations instead occur at the scale of the full antecedent fluvial system. Strike-parallel subsidence variations in individual fault blocks represent a second order controlling factor on stratigraphic architecture. As depocentres enlarged through time, sediments progressively filled palaeorelief, and formed a continuous alluvial plain above active faults. There was limited creation of footwall relief and thus no significant consequent drainage system developed. Here, instead of being diverted toward subsiding zones, the drainage system overfilled the whole rift from the onset of faulting. Moreover, the zones of maximum subsidence on individual faults are aligned across strike parallel to the persistent fluvial axis. This implies that long-term sediment loading influenced the growth of normal faults. We conclude that a major antecedent drainage system inherited from the Hellenide mountain belt supplied high volumes of coarse sediment from the onset of faulting in the western Corinth rift (around 4 Ma). These observations demonstrate that antecedent drainage systems can be important in the tectono-sedimentary evolution of rift basins.

  3. [Individual and environmental antecedents of mobbing].

    PubMed

    Mościcka, Agnieszka; Drabek, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present the most common risk factors of bullying at the workplace. In the relevant literature one can find two main classes of bullying risk factors: environmental and individual. The most important environmental predictors of bullying are negative social climate, ineffective social communication and poor work organization. Among individual risk factors of bullying the most frequently pointed are functional features, such as low level of assertiveness, lack of social skills, ineffective coping with difficult situations and the few relatively stable individual characteristics, like neuroticism, trait anxiety, hostility and aggression. Most authors underline the crucial role of environmental factors in the development of bullying, and the individual characteristics of persons involved in this pathological relation are usually seen as the modifiers of bullying process. PMID:20865859

  4. The antecedents of identification: a rhetorical analysis of British Muslim activists' constructions of community and identity.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Nick; Kahani-Hopkins, Vered

    2004-03-01

    This paper takes as its focus the perception of community. This is analysed through reference to the literature concerning the adoption of more inclusive, superordinate social categories. Whilst most research tends to focus on the consequences of these social categories for self and other perception, we focus on their antecedents. These are typically hypothesized to include such issues as the perception of the subordinate groups' common fate and factors affecting their perceptual differentiation (e.g. their similarity and entitativity). However, rather than conceiving of such issues as pre-given antecedent variables, we explore how these issues (and others) are actively constructed in and through discourse. More specifically, we explore how such issues are sites of contestation as activists with different political projects seek to construct quite different versions of the relevant superordinate community identity. Our data are qualitative and are drawn from contemporary debates amongst British Muslims concerning their relations with non-Muslim Britons and non-British Muslims across the globe. A key issue in these deliberations concerns the nature of British Muslims' identity and the superordinate identifications that best facilitate its expression and realization. We suggest that constructions of common fate, similarity, entitativity etc., far from being 'givens', are the means through which different definitions of Muslim identity are constructed and different forms of collective action mobilized. PMID:15035697

  5. Creative Self-Efficacy: An Exploration of Its Antecedents, Consequences, and Applied Implications.

    PubMed

    Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    Creativity and innovation are at the core of important outcomes such as economic and sales growth, production of articles and students' learning. Thus, it is not surprising to find research articles on creativity and innovation across different disciplines such as business, psychology, and education. Given the importance of understanding creativity and innovation, we reviewed the empirical literature examining the antecedents and consequences of creative self-efficacy in the work domain. Our review used the theory of individual creative action and social cognitive theory as guiding frameworks to place creative self-efficacy in the creativity and innovation process, define creativity and innovation, explore how creative self-efficacy has been measured, examine the antecedents and consequences of creative self-efficacy, point out gaps in knowledge and offer suggestions for future research and provide some applied implications. One important finding was that creative self-efficacy has made a significant contribution as a process variable explaining how several organizational and personal factors influence creative outcomes via their influence on creative self-efficacy. PMID:26431487

  6. A relational framework for understanding bullying: Developmental antecedents and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rodkin, Philip C; Espelage, Dorothy L; Hanish, Laura D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research on the relational processes involved in peer bullying, considering developmental antecedents and long-term consequences. The following themes are highlighted: (a) aggression can be both adaptive and maladaptive, and this distinction has implications for bullies' functioning within peer social ecologies; (b) developmental antecedents and long-term consequences of bullying have not been well-distinguished from the extant research on aggressive behavior; (c) bullying is aggression that operates within relationships of power and abuse. Power asymmetry and repetition elements of traditional bullying definitions have been hard to operationalize, but without these specifications and more dyadic measurement approaches there may be little rationale for a distinct literature on bullying--separate from aggression. Applications of a relational approach to bullying are provided using gender as an example. Implications for future research are drawn from the study of relationships and interpersonal theories of developmental psychopathology. PMID:25961312

  7. Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work.

    PubMed

    Parker, Sharon K; Williams, Helen M; Turner, Nick

    2006-05-01

    Using a sample of U.K. wire makers (N = 282), the authors tested a model in which personality and work environment antecedents affect proactive work behavior via cognitive-motivational mechanisms. Self-reported proactive work behaviors (proactive idea implementation and proactive problem solving) were validated against rater assessments for a subsample (n = 60) of wire makers. With the exception of supportive supervision, each antecedent was important, albeit through different processes. Proactive personality was significantly associated with proactive work behavior via role breadth self-efficacy and flexible role orientation, job autonomy was also linked to proactive behavior via these processes, as well as directly; and coworker trust was associated with proactive behavior via flexible role orientation. In further support of the model, the cognitive-motivational processes for proactive work behavior differed from those for the more passive outcome of generalized compliance. PMID:16737360

  8. The antecedents of buyers' perceived justice in online markets.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shun-Po; Chou, Huey-Wen; Chiu, Chao-Min

    2013-07-01

    The success of a business largely depends upon customers' intentions to continue to purchase, but this can be a challenge for vendors in online markets. This study proposes a model which identifies an initial set of justice antecedents and evaluates their relation to perceived justice, trust, and repurchase intention in online markets. The theoretical model is tested by using structural equation modeling on a data set of 424 buyers in Yahoo! Kimo online auction market. The results demonstrate that three dimensions of justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional) are positively and significantly related to trust, which in turn affects buyers' intention to repurchase. Moreover, among the three dimensions of justice judgments, distributive justice and interactional justice are relatively more important than procedural justice in predicting buyers' trust in sellers. In terms of the antecedents of justice, this study provides evidence that product quality and delivery performance are significantly related to distributive justice, while information quality and contact channel are important antecedents of procedural justice. This study also finds that responsiveness is important in enhancing buyers' judgments of interactional justice. PMID:23465031

  9. Antecedent Frequency Effects on Anaphoric Pronoun Resolution: Evidence from Spanish.

    PubMed

    Egusquiza, Nerea; Navarrete, Eduardo; Zawiszewski, Adam

    2016-02-01

    High-frequency words are usually understood and produced faster than low-frequency words. Although the effect of word frequency is a reliable phenomenon in many domains of language processing, it remains unclear whether and how frequency affects pronominal anaphoric resolution. We evaluated this issue by means of two self-paced reading experiments. Native speakers of Spanish read sentences containing the anaphoric noun or pronoun at the subject syntactic position (Experiment 1) or at the object syntactic position (Experiment 2) while the antecedent of the anaphor was either a high-frequency or a low-frequency word. Results showed that nominal anaphors were read faster when referring to high-frequency than to low-frequency antecedents, and faster when referring to subjects than to objects. Critically, pronoun reading times were unaffected by the frequency and by the syntactic position of the antecedent. These results are congruent with theories assuming that syntactic information of the words is not frequency sensitive. PMID:25300350

  10. Family, employment, and individual resource-based antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-07-01

    This study used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,019) to examine family, employment, and individual antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood. Work-family conflict and important confounding factors were controlled. From the family domain, higher income-to-needs ratio and social support were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the employment domain, greater job rewards, benefits of employment for children, and work commitment were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the individual domain, higher maternal education and extroversion were associated with higher work-family enrichment. No family, employment, and individual characteristics were associated with work-family conflict across time except for partner intimacy. In general, the results supported antecedents of work-family enrichment that supply needed resources. The present study contributed to the literature by identifying antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment across early child developmental stages, which goes beyond examinations of particular life stages and a work-family conflict perspective. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26641483

  11. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia without evidence of antecedent viral upper respiratory infection

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Cristina Moran; Janvier, Jack; Zhang, Kunyan; Fonseca, Kevin; Gregson, Dan; Church, Deirdre; Laupland, Kevin; Rabin, Harvey; Elsayed, Sameer; Conly, John

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: USA300 community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains causing necrotizing pneumonia have been reported in association with antecedent viral upper respiratory tract infections (URI). METHODS: A case series of necrotizing pneumonia presenting as a primary or coprimary infection, secondary to CA-MRSA without evidence of antecedent viral URI, is presented. Cases were identified through the infectious diseases consultation service records. Clinical and radiographic data were collected by chart review and electronic records. MRSA strains were isolated from sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, pleural fluid or blood cultures and confirmed using standard laboratory procedures. MRSA strains were characterized by susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa typing, agr typing and multilocus sequence typing. Testing for respiratory viruses was performed by appropriate serological testing of banked sera, or nucleic acid testing of nasopharyngeal or bronchoalveloar lavage specimens. RESULTS: Ten patients who presented or copresented with CA necrotizing pneumonia secondary to CA-MRSA from April 2004 to October 2011 were identified. The median length of stay was 22.5 days. Mortality was 20.0%. Classical risk factors for CA-MRSA were identified in seven of 10 (70.0%) cases. Chest tube placement occurred in seven of 10 patients with empyema. None of the patients had historical evidence of antecedent URI. In eight of 10 patients, serological or nucleic acid testing testing revealed no evidence of acute viral coinfection. Eight strains were CMRSA-10 (USA300). The remaining two strains were a USA300 genetically related strain and a USA1100 strain. CONCLUSION: Pneumonia secondary to CA-MRSA can occur in the absence of an antecedent URI. Infections due to CA-MRSA are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Clinicians need to have an awareness of this clinical entity, particularly in patients who are in risk

  12. A Non-sulfided flower-like Ni-PTA Catalyst that Enhances the Hydrotreatment Efficiency of Plant Oil to Produce Green Diesel

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Pan; Deng, Lihong; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2015-01-01

    The development of a novel non-sulfided catalyst with high activity for the hydrotreatment processing of plant oils, is of high interest as a way to improve the efficient production of renewable diesel. To attempt to develop such a catalyst, we first synthesized a high activity flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst used in the hydrotreatment processes of plant oils. The obtained catalyst was characterized with SEM, EDX, HRTEM, BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XPS and TGA. A probable formation mechanism of flower-like Ni(OH)2 is proposed on the basis of a range of contrasting experiments. The results of GC showed that the conversion yield of Jatropha oil was 98.95%, and the selectivity of C11-C18 alkanes was 70.93% at 360 °C, 3 MPa, and 15 h−1. The activity of this flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst was more than 15 times higher than those of the conventional Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalysts. Additionally, the flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst exhibited good stability during the process of plant oil hydrotreatment. PMID:26503896

  13. A Non-sulfided flower-like Ni-PTA Catalyst that Enhances the Hydrotreatment Efficiency of Plant Oil to Produce Green Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Pan; Deng, Lihong; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2015-10-01

    The development of a novel non-sulfided catalyst with high activity for the hydrotreatment processing of plant oils, is of high interest as a way to improve the efficient production of renewable diesel. To attempt to develop such a catalyst, we first synthesized a high activity flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst used in the hydrotreatment processes of plant oils. The obtained catalyst was characterized with SEM, EDX, HRTEM, BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XPS and TGA. A probable formation mechanism of flower-like Ni(OH)2 is proposed on the basis of a range of contrasting experiments. The results of GC showed that the conversion yield of Jatropha oil was 98.95%, and the selectivity of C11-C18 alkanes was 70.93% at 360 °C, 3 MPa, and 15 h-1. The activity of this flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst was more than 15 times higher than those of the conventional Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalysts. Additionally, the flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst exhibited good stability during the process of plant oil hydrotreatment.

  14. Academic Performance Antecedent Scale: validation with native and recent immigrant children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ru-Jer; Kuo, Kung-Bin; Cheng, Chien-Ming; Hsieh, Pei-Jung; Wang, Han-Yu; Chang, Ya-Wen; Shen, Chia-Yi

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to assess the measurement invariance of the three subscales of the newly developed Academic Performance Antecedent Scale (APAS)--School Factors, Mother's Parenting Style, and Individual Factors--across native and new immigrant children in Taiwan. The study sample comprised 527 Grade 4 students (M age = 10.4 yr., SD = 0.6), 263 boys and 264 girls. The three groups were urban and rural children of Taiwanese natives (n = 343, 65.1%), and 184 children with non-Taiwanese mothers (34.9%). The four-factor structure of the School Factors Subscale, the three-factor structure of the Mother's Parenting Style Subscale, and the five-factor structure of the Individual Factors Subscale all showed at least acceptable fit for the groups. In addition, metric invariance was confirmed for the School Factors and Individual Factors Subscales. Metric invariance was partially obtained for the Mother's Parenting Style Subscale. The findings provide validity evidences for cross-cultural generalizability of the APAS. PMID:24245069

  15. Molecular classification of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (pTa low-grade, pT1 low-grade, and pT1 high-grade subgroups) using methylation of tumor-suppressor genes.

    PubMed

    Sacristan, Raquel; Gonzalez, Carolina; Fernández-Gómez, Jesus M; Fresno, Florentino; Escaf, Safwan; Sánchez-Carbayo, Marta

    2014-09-01

    The role of epigenetics in distinguishing pathological and clinical subgroups in bladder cancer is not fully characterized. We evaluated whether methylation of tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) would classify non-muscle-invasive (NMI) bladder cancer subgroups and predict outcome. A retrospective design included the following paraffin-embedded primary NMI tumor types (n = 251): pTa low grade (LG) (n = 79), pT1LG (n = 81), and pT1 high grade (HG) (n = 91). Methylation of 25 TSGs was measured using methylation-specific, multiplex, ligation-dependent probe amplification. The TSGs most frequently methylated in the overall series were STK11 (96.8%), MGMT2 (64.5%), RARB (63.0%), and GATA5 (63.0%). TSG methylation correlated to clinicopathological variables in each subgroup and in the overall NMI series. Methylation of RARB, CD44, PAX5A, GSTP1, IGSF4 (CADM1), PYCARD, CDH13, TP53, and GATA5 classified pTa versus pT1 tumors whereas RARB, CD44, GSTP1, IGSF4, CHFR, PYCARD, TP53, STK11, and GATA5 distinguished LG versus HG tumors. Multivariate analyses indicated that PAX5A, WT1, and BRCA1 methylation independently predicted recurrence in pTaLG, PAX6, ATM, CHFR, and RB1 in pT1LG disease; PYCARD, in pT1HG disease; and PAX5A and RB1, in the overall series. Methylation of TSGs provided a molecular classification of NMI disease according to clinicopathological factors. Furthermore, TSG methylation predicted recurrence in NMI subgroups. PMID:24998186

  16. Facet personality and surface-level diversity as team mental model antecedents: implications for implicit coordination.

    PubMed

    Fisher, David M; Bell, Suzanne T; Dierdorff, Erich C; Belohlav, James A

    2012-07-01

    Team mental models (TMMs) have received much attention as important drivers of effective team processes and performance. Less is known about the factors that give rise to these shared cognitive structures. We examined potential antecedents of TMMs, with a specific focus on team composition variables, including various facets of personality and surface-level diversity. Further, we examined implicit coordination as an important outcome of TMMs. Results suggest that team composition in terms of the cooperation facet of agreeableness and racial diversity were significantly related to team-focused TMM similarity. TMM similarity was also positively predictive of implicit coordination, which mediated the relationship between TMM similarity and team performance. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant interaction between the trust facet of agreeableness and racial diversity in predicting TMM similarity. Results are discussed in terms of facilitating the emergence of TMMs and corresponding implications for team-related human resource practices. PMID:22468847

  17. Early childhood antecedents of aggression and passive-withdrawal in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Renken, B; Egeland, B; Marvinney, D; Mangelsdorf, S; Sroufe, L A

    1989-06-01

    Early childhood antecedents of elementary school aggression and passive-withdrawal were evaluated in a large longitudinal study (N = 191). With teacher ratings as outcome measures, a variety of predictor variables were selected from a comprehensive data base. Predictors were selected to represent several major factors: (a) a developmental history of insecure attachment and poor adjustment; (b) inadequate or hostile parental care; and (c) stressful or chaotic life circumstances. Support was found for the prediction of these behavior problems from early childhood measures (up to one third of the variance), with results varying with sex and outcome measure. Results were stronger for boys than girls, and stronger for aggression than for passive-withdrawal. Boys' outcome was strongly related to attachment classification at 18 months. It is suggested that these findings support Bowlby's view that early acquired "working models" of self and other affect later interpersonal functioning. PMID:2769557

  18. Safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organisations: antecedents and consequences of safety behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Muñiz, Beatriz; Montes-Peón, José Manuel; Vázquez-Ordás, Camilo José

    2012-03-01

    The occupational health and safety standard OHSAS 18001 has gained considerable acceptance worldwide, and firms from diverse sectors and of varying sizes have implemented it. Despite this, very few studies have analysed safety management or the safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organisations. The current work aims to analyse the safety climate in these organisations, identify its dimensions, and propose and test a structural equation model that will help determine the antecedents and consequences of employees' safety behaviour. For this purpose, the authors carry out an empirical study using a sample of 131 OHSAS 18001-certified organisations located in Spain. The results show that management's commitment, and particularly communication, have an effect on safety behaviour and on safety performance, employee satisfaction, and firm competitiveness. These findings are particularly important for management since they provide evidence about the factors that should be encouraged to reduce risks and improve performance in this type of organisation. PMID:22269566

  19. The antecedents and belief-polarized effects of thought confidence.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsuan-Yi; Lien, Nai-Hwa; Liang, Kuan-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates 2 possible antecedents of thought confidence and explores the effects of confidence induced before or during ad exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that both consumers' dispositional optimism and spokesperson attractiveness have significant effects on consumers' confidence in thoughts that are generated after viewing the advertisement. Higher levels of thought confidence will influence the quality of the thoughts that people generate, lead to either positively or negatively polarized message processing, and therefore induce better or worse advertising effectiveness, depending on the valence of thoughts. The authors posit the belief-polarization hypothesis to explain these findings. PMID:21902013

  20. Antecedents and Consequences of the Frequency of Upward and Downward Social Comparisons at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Douglas J.; Ferris, D. Lance; Heller, Daniel; Keeping, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper examines the dispositional and situational antecedents, as well as the attitudinal and behavioral consequences, of the frequency of upward and downward social comparisons. We predicted social comparison frequency would be influenced by uncertainty-related antecedents, and that social comparisons in organizations would be…

  1. Pre-Service Teacher Beliefs on the Antecedents to Bullying: A Concept Mapping Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Joel A.; Nowicki, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, researchers gathered Canadian pre-service teachers' beliefs on the antecedents to bullying. Concept mapping (Kane & Trochim, 2007) was used to analyze the data. This study's findings identified pre-service teachers to have accurate beliefs, inaccurate beliefs, and a lack of knowledge about the antecedents to bullying. Concept…

  2. Antecedents and Consequences of Retirement Planning and Decision-Making: A Meta-Analysis and Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topa, Gabriela; Moriano, Juan Antonio; Depolo, Marco; Alcover, Carlos-Maria; Morales, J. Francisco

    2009-01-01

    In this study, meta-analytic procedures were used to examine the relationships between retirement planning, retirement decision and their antecedent and consequences. Our review of the literature generated 341 independent samples obtained from 99 primary studies with 188,222 participants. A small effect size (ES) for antecedents of retirement…

  3. Emotional Antecedents and Consequences of Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Alexander L.; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.

    2007-01-01

    Emotional experiences immediately prior to (emotional antecedents) and following (emotional consequences) deliberate self-harm and suicide attempts in female inmates (N = 63) were examined. Anger was the antecedent emotion reported by the largest proportion of individuals who had engaged in deliberate self-harm (45.16%), suicide attempts (40.9%),…

  4. Effect of a Visual Prompt on Changes in Antecedents and Consequents of Teaching Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David E.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a visual prompt placed within an actual music teaching situation to effect changes in the frequency of teacher antecedents (spoken questions and statements), the quality of those antecedents (appropriate and inappropriate questions), and the frequency of teacher consequents (spoken approvals).…

  5. Antecedents of Absorptive Capacity: A New Model for Developing Learning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei-Zadeh, Mohammad; Darwish, Tamer K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrated framework to indicate which antecedents of absorptive capacity (AC) influence its learning processes, and to propose testing of this model in future work. Design/methodology/approach Relevant literature into the antecedents of AC was critically reviewed and analysed with the objective…

  6. Antecedents and Consequences of Psychiatric Disorders in African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Run; Ge, Xiaojia; Brody, Gene H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    This study included three waves of data, collected from approximately 890 African-American children and their families. Antecedents and consequences of psychiatric disorders among this population were examined. Children's temperament, pubertal timing, and experience of stressful life events were tested as antecedents of psychiatric disorders.…

  7. Antecedent-Based Interventions for Young Children at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kristy L.; Scott, Terrance M.

    2009-01-01

    Following descriptive functional assessment procedures, a brief structural analysis was used to confirm the hypothesized antecedent conditions that preceded problem behavior across three children enrolled in Head Start classrooms. A withdrawal design investigated the effectiveness of antecedent-based interventions to reduce disruptive behaviors…

  8. Antecedents of clinical information technology sophistication in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jaana, Mirou; Ward, Marcia M; Paré, Guy; Sicotte, Claude

    2006-01-01

    Grounded in the resource-based theory and the innovation diffusion theory, this article develops and tests a research model for assessing the antecedents of hospital innovativeness with regard to clinical information technology (IT) applications. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of U.S. hospitals (n = 74) to assess three dimensions of clinical IT sophistication. Secondary data were used to measure the antecedents, namely, four groups of organizational capacity variables. Bivariate and regression analyses were conducted to identify significant associations. A significant percentage (45-61%) of the variance in clinical IT sophistication was explained, mostly by leadership and knowledge sharing capacities. In particular, IT tenure and technical knowledge resources were significantly related to clinical IT sophistication. Surprisingly, managerial tenure and hospital's belonging to a network showed significant negative associations with two dimensions of the clinical IT sophistication construct. To address the challenges they face, hospitals should consider encouraging career development for current individuals in charge of IT activities, and attracting professionals with an IT background who have the knowledge and ability to trigger new ideas and favor the adoption and use of clinical IT applications in these settings. PMID:17077703

  9. Is reasoning from counterfactual antecedents evidence for counterfactual reasoning?

    PubMed Central

    Rafetseder, Eva; Perner, Josef

    2011-01-01

    In most developmental studies the only error children could make on counterfactual tasks was to answer with the current state of affairs. It was concluded that children who did not show this error are able to reason counterfactually. However, children might have avoided this error by using basic conditional reasoning (Rafetseder, Cristi-Vargas, & Perner, 2010). Basic conditional reasoning takes an antecedent, which like in counterfactual reasoning can be counter to fact, and combines it with a conditional (or set of conditionals reflecting knowledge of how the world works) to draw a likely conclusion. A critical feature of counterfactual reasoning then is that these additional assumptions be modelled after the actual events to which the counterfactual is taken to be counterfactual. In contrast in basic conditional reasoning one enriches the given antecedent with any plausible assumptions. In our tasks basic conditional reasoning leads to different answers than counterfactual reasoning. For instance, a doctor, sitting in the park with the intention to read a paper, is called to an emergency at the swimming pool. The question, “if there had been no emergency, where would the doctor be?” should counterfactually be answered “in the park”. But ignoring the doctor’s intentions and just reasoning on plausible grounds one might answer: “in the hospital”. Only by 6 years, did children give mostly correct answers. PMID:22187537

  10. Antecedents of Neonatal Encephalopathy in the Vermont Oxford Network Encephalopathy Registry

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Peter; Edwards, Erika M.; Horbar, Jeffrey D.; Kenny, Michael J.; Inder, Terrie; Pfister, Robert H.; Raju, Tonse; Soll, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a major predictor of death and long-term neurologic disability, but there are few studies of antecedents of NE. OBJECTIVES: To identify antecedents in a large registry of infants who had NE. METHODS: This was a maternal and infant record review of 4165 singleton neonates, gestational age of ≥36 weeks, meeting criteria for inclusion in the Vermont Oxford Network Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry. RESULTS: Clinically recognized seizures were the most prevalent condition (60%); 49% had a 5-minute Apgar score of ≤3 and 18% had a reduced level of consciousness. An abnormal maternal or fetal condition predated labor in 46%; maternal hypertension (16%) or small for gestational age (16%) were the most frequent risk factors. In 8%, birth defects were identified. The most prevalent birth complication was elevated maternal temperature in labor of ≥37.5°C in 27% of mothers with documented temperatures compared with 2% to 3.2% in controls in population-based studies. Clinical chorioamnionitis, prolonged membrane rupture, and maternal hypothyroidism exceeded rates in published controls. Acute asphyxial indicators were reported in 15% (in 35% if fetal bradycardia included) and inflammatory indicators in 24%. Almost one-half had neither asphyxial nor inflammatory indicators. Although most infants with NE were observably ill since the first minutes of life, only 54% of placentas were submitted for examination. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically recognized asphyxial birth events, indicators of intrauterine exposure to inflammation, fetal growth restriction, and birth defects were each observed in term infants with NE, but much of NE in this large registry remained unexplained. PMID:23071210

  11. Evaluation of Combined-Antecedent Variables on Functional Analysis Results and Treatment of Problem Behavior in a School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolezal, Danielle N.; Kurtz, Patricia F.

    2010-01-01

    Call, Wacker, Ringdahl, and Boelter (2005) conducted an analysis in which a single-antecedent condition was compared to a multiple-antecedent condition. The present study extended Call et al. by conducting a structured descriptive assessment (SDA) to identify the antecedent variables most associated with problem behavior in a student with…

  12. In Vivo Anticancer Activity, Toxicology and Histopathological Studies of the Thiolate Gold(I) Complex [Au(Spyrimidine)(PTA-CH2Ph)]Br.

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Elena; Gascón, Sonia; García de Jalón, José A; Romanos, Eduardo; Rodriguez-Yoldi, Maria Jesus; Cerrada, Elena; Laguna, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    A physiologically stable thiolate gold(I) derivative [Au(Spyrimidine)(PTA-CH2Ph)]Br has shown inhibition in colon cancer proliferation of Caco-2/TC7, Caco-2/PD7 and HTC-116-luc2 cell lines via apoptotic pathway and S-phase arrest in the cell cycle. Intraperitoneal injection of [Au(Spyrimidine)(PTA-CH2Ph)]Br in athymic nude mice inoculated with HTC-116-luc2 cells prolonged their survival and greatly inhibited tumour growth, near to disappearance. Low concentration of gold in urine and blood were detected in mice after 48 h of administration of 5 mg/kg body weight (bw) of the gold complex and non-organ (kidney and liver) damage has been detected after gold treatment. The results obtained suggested that the thiolate gold(I) derivative shown here could be considered as a candidate for therapeutic treatment in colon cancer. PMID:25634450

  13. Robust Parameter Identification to Perform the Modeling of pta and poxB Genes Deletion Effect on Escherichia Coli.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Torres, V; Rios-Lozano, M; Badillo-Corona, J A; Chairez, I; Garibay-Orijel, C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to design a robust parameter identification algorithm to characterize the effect of gene deletion on Escherichia coli (E. coli) MG1655. Two genes (pta and poxB) in the competitive pathways were deleted from this microorganism to inhibit pyruvate consumption. This condition deviated the E. coli metabolism toward the Krebs cycle. As a consequence, the biomass, substrate (glucose), lactic, and acetate acids as well as ethanol concentrations were modified. A hybrid model was proposed to consider the effect of gene deletion on the metabolism of E. coli. The model parameters were estimated by the application of a least mean square method based on the instrument variable technique. To evaluate the parametric identifier method, a set of robust exact differentiators, based on the super-twisting algorithm, was implemented. The hybrid model was successfully characterized by the parameters obtained from experimental information of E. coli MG1655. The significant difference between parameters obtained with wild-type strain and the modified (with deleted genes) justifies the application of the parametric identification algorithm. This characterization can be used to optimize the production of different byproducts of commercial interest. PMID:27093969

  14. Peritonsillar abscess (PTA): clinical characteristics, microbiology, drug exposures and outcomes of a large multicenter cohort survey of 412 patients hospitalized in 13 French university hospitals.

    PubMed

    Lepelletier, D; Pinaud, V; Le Conte, P; Bourigault, C; Asseray, N; Ballereau, F; Caillon, J; Ferron, C; Righini, C; Batard, E; Potel, G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of hospitalized patients with peritonsillar abscess (PTA). We conducted a multicenter survey in 13 French university hospitals in 2009-2012 describing 412 patients. Median age was 29 year (range, 2-84) and current smoking habit was reported by 177 (43 %) patients. Most of the patients (92 %) had consulted a physician for sore throat within 10 days before admission for PTA diagnosis. Additional symptoms such as visible tonsil abnormalities (83 %), tender cervical adenopathy (57 %) and fever ≥ 38.5 °C (53 %) were also reported. A total of 65 % patients (269/412) reported recent systemic anti-inflammatory agents (AIAs) exposure by medical prescription (70 %), self-medication (22 %), or both (8 %); 61 % and 27 % reported recent exposure to antibiotic and topical treatments for sore throat, respectively. Non-steroidal AIAs were used most often (45 %), particularly arylpropionic derivatives. A rapid diagnosis antigen test (RDT) for Streptococcus pyogenes was performed in 70 (17 %) patients and was positive in 17 (24 %), of whom 9 (53 %) were exposed to AIAs and 14 (82 %) to antibiotics. To treat PTA, antibiotic therapy was given to 392 (95 %) patients. Of 333 antibiotic prescriptions, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and metronidazole were the most prescribed antibiotics (42 and 17 %, respectively). Surgical drainage of the abscess was performed in 119 (29 %) cases and tonsillectomy in 75 (18 %) cases. The clinical outcome was favorable during the hospital stay in 404 (98 %) patients. In conclusion, patients with sore throat are often exposed to AIAs before PTA diagnosis, and antibiotic prescription was not often based on the RDT positivity. PMID:26942743

  15. Relevance of Pure Tone Average (PTA) as a Predictor for Incus Erosion.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sanjeev; Gopinath, M; Subramanian, Mukundan; Vijayan, Nisha

    2012-12-01

    Between 40 and 90% of tympanoplasty require middle ear ossicular chain reconstruction. Ossicular discontinuity usually cannot be determined unless an operation is performed. The main objective was to determine the predictive value of pre-operative audiological factors in diagnosing incudal necrosis in patients with tubotympanic chronic suppurative otitis media. A retrospective clinical study of 20 patients who underwent ossicular reconstruction with autologous incus over a period of two years was performed. The mean pre-operative pure tone average was 49.18 dB HL.The minimum value being 45 dB HL and the maximum value being 64 dB HL. PMID:24294583

  16. Psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Wayne W; Sagarin, Brad J

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior (in the form of signing an online petition supporting the construction of a new lesbian, gay, and bisexual resource center on their campus). In addition, attitudes toward the possible outcomes of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior itself, and self-identity were found to predict intentions. Directions for future research on pro-gay activism are discussed. PMID:20665329

  17. Historical antecedents to the philosophy of Paul Feyerabend.

    PubMed

    Munévar, Gonzalo

    2016-06-01

    Paul Feyerabend has been considered a very radical philosopher of science for proposing that we may advance hypotheses contrary to well-confirmed experimental results, that observations make theoretical assumptions, that all methodological rules have exceptions, that ordinary citizens may challenge the judgment of experts, and that human happiness should be a key value for science. As radical as these theses may sound, they all have historical antecedents. In defending the Copernican view, Galileo exemplified the first two; Mill, Aristotle and Machiavelli all argued for pluralism; Aristotle gave commonsense reasons for why ordinary citizens may be able to judge the work of experts; and a combination of Plato's and Aristotle's views can offer strong support for the connection between science and happiness. PMID:27269259

  18. Explaining potential antecedents of workplace social support: reciprocity or attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Bowling, Nathan A; Beehr, Terry A; Johnson, Adam L; Semmer, Norbert K; Hendricks, Elizabeth A; Webster, Heather A

    2004-10-01

    Effects of social support are an important topic in occupational stress theories and research, yet little is known about support's potential antecedents. Based on reciprocity theory, the authors hypothesized that the social support received is related to the extent the employee performs organizational citizenship behaviors directed at individuals and to one's social competence; based on the notion of personal attraction, the authors hypothesized that employees' physical attractiveness and sense of humor would be associated with the amount of social support received. In a survey of 123 high school employees and separate ratings of their attractiveness, reciprocity variables were related but attraction variables were not related to social support availability. Further research should examine reciprocity in predicting social support. PMID:15506850

  19. The neural antecedents to voluntary action: Response to commentaries.

    PubMed

    Nachev, Parashkev; Hacker, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience must attend to the conceptual coherence of its hypotheses as well as to their empirical support. Examining the most influential studies of the neural antecedents to voluntary action, our Discussion Paper sought to identify the real-world consequences of neglecting the former in what we argued has been too narrow a pursuit of the latter. Though conceptual in form, our analysis is sharply empirical in its conclusions, revealing what have long been thought to be momentous experimental observations--such as the readiness potential--as the outcome of previously unidentified confounds that rob them of significance. Conversely, we suggested that experimental studies of two-way control, amongst other defining features of the voluntary, have been given less emphasis than the subject demands. Here, we ramify our analysis down the paths identified by others in the commentaries we received. PMID:26001157

  20. Internal marketing and the antecedents of nurse satisfaction and loyalty.

    PubMed

    Peltier, James W; Pointer, Lucille; Schibrowsky, John A

    2008-01-01

    Employee satisfaction and retention are critical issues that influence the success of any organization. Yet, one of the most critical problems facing the worldwide health care industry is the shortage of qualified nurses. Recent calls have been made within the traditional nursing literature for research that utilizes marketing and business models to better understand nurse satisfaction and retention. The purpose of this study is to develop scales that can be used to empirically test a model of the proposed antecedents of nurse job satisfaction and loyalty which have been used widely in the internal marketing and the relationship-marketing literature. Specifically, the study will investigate the degree to which structural bonding, social bonding, financial bonding activities, and quality of care impact how well nurses are satisfied with their job and their commitment to the organization. The results show that quality of care most impacted nurse satisfaction and loyalty, followed by structural, social, and financial bonds. PMID:19042513

  1. Bicultural identity integration (BII): components and psychosocial antecedents.

    PubMed

    Benet-Martínez, Verónica; Haritatos, Jana

    2005-08-01

    The present study examines the underresearched topic of bicultural identity; specifically, we: (1) unpack the construct of Bicultural Identity Integration (BII), or the degree to which a bicultural individual perceives his/her two cultural identities as "compatible" versus "oppositional," and (2) identify the personality (Big Five) and acculturation (acculturation stress, acculturation attitudes, bicultural competence) predictors of BII. Differences in BII, acculturation stress, and bicultural competence were measured with new instruments developed for the purposes of the study. Using a sample of Chinese American biculturals, we found that variations in BII do not define a uniform phenomenon, as commonly implied in the literature, but instead encompass two separate independent constructs: perceptions of distance (vs. overlap) and perceptions of conflict (vs. harmony) between one's two cultural identities or orientations. Results also indicated that cultural conflict and cultural distance have distinct personality, acculturation, and sociodemographic antecedents. PMID:15958143

  2. Trajectories of Physical Discipline: Early Childhood Antecedents and Developmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from age 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from age 5 to 15. Analyses indicated distinct physical discipline trajectory groups that varied in frequency of physical discipline and rate of change. In both samples, family ecological disadvantage differentiated the trajectory groups; in the first sample, early child externalizing also differentiated the groups. Controlling for early childhood externalizing, the minimal/ceasing trajectory groups were associated with the lowest levels of subsequent adolescent antisocial behavior in both samples and with parent-adolescent positive relationship quality in the second sample. PMID:19765007

  3. The neural antecedents to voluntary action: Response to commentaries

    PubMed Central

    Nachev, Parashkev; Hacker, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience must attend to the conceptual coherence of its hypotheses as well as to their empirical support. Examining the most influential studies of the neural antecedents to voluntary action, our Discussion Paper sought to identify the real-world consequences of neglecting the former in what we argued has been too narrow a pursuit of the latter. Though conceptual in form, our analysis is sharply empirical in its conclusions, revealing what have long been thought to be momentous experimental observations—such as the readiness potential—as the outcome of previously unidentified confounds that rob them of significance. Conversely, we suggested that experimental studies of two-way control, amongst other defining features of the voluntary, have been given less emphasis than the subject demands. Here, we ramify our analysis down the paths identified by others in the commentaries we received. PMID:26001157

  4. A model of global citizenship: antecedents and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva

    2013-01-01

    As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, exposure to global cultures affords individuals opportunities to develop global identities. In two studies, we examine the antecedents and outcomes of identifying with a superordinate identity--global citizen. Global citizenship is defined as awareness, caring, and embracing cultural diversity while promoting social justice and sustainability, coupled with a sense of responsibility to act. Prior theory and research suggest that being aware of one's connection with others in the world (global awareness) and embedded in settings that value global citizenship (normative environment) lead to greater identification with global citizens. Furthermore, theory and research suggest that when global citizen identity is salient, greater identification is related to adherence to the group's content (i.e., prosocial values and behaviors). Results of the present set of studies showed that global awareness (knowledge and interconnectedness with others) and one's normative environment (friends and family support global citizenship) predicted identification with global citizens, and global citizenship predicted prosocial values of intergroup empathy, valuing diversity, social justice, environmental sustainability, intergroup helping, and a felt responsibility to act for the betterment of the world. The relationship between antecedents (normative environment and global awareness) and outcomes (prosocial values) was mediated by identification with global citizens. We discuss the relationship between the present results and other research findings in psychology, the implications of global citizenship for other academic domains, and future avenues of research. Global citizenship highlights the unique effect of taking a global perspective on a multitude of topics relevant to the psychology of everyday actions, environments, and identity. PMID:22804560

  5. Antecedent Predictors of Children's Initiation of Sipping/Tasting Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John E; Molina, Brooke S G

    2014-01-01

    Background Sipping or tasting alcohol is one of the earliest alcohol-use behaviors in which young children engage, yet there is relatively little research on this behavior. Previous cross-sectional analyses determined that child sipping or tasting is associated with the child's attitude toward sipping and with a family environment supportive of alcohol use, but not with variables reflecting psychosocial proneness for problem behavior as formulated in Problem Behavior Theory (Jessor and Jessor, Problem Behavior and Psychosocial Development: A Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1977, Academic Press, New York). This study extended these analyses longitudinally to identify antecedent predictors of the childhood initiation of sipping or tasting alcohol in a multiwave study. Methods A sample of 452 children (238 girls) aged 8 or 10 and their families was drawn from Allegheny County, PA, using targeted-age directory sampling and random digit dialing procedures. Children were interviewed using computer-assisted interviews. Antecedent variables collected at baseline (Wave 1) were examined as predictors of the initiation of sipping/tasting alcohol in childhood (before age 12) among Wave 1 abstainers (n = 286). Results Ninety-four children initiated sipping/tasting alcohol in a nonreligious context between baseline and turning age 12. Initiation of sipping/tasting did not generally relate to baseline variables reflecting psychosocial proneness for problem behavior. Instead, as found in the previous cross-sectional analyses, the variables most predictive of initiating sipping/tasting were perceived parents' approval for child sipping, parents' reported approval for child sipping, parents' current drinking status, and children's attitudes toward sipping/tasting alcohol. Conclusions These longitudinal analyses replicate the earlier cross-sectional results. Young children's sipping/tasting of alcohol reflects parental modeling of drinking and parental approval of child sipping and

  6. Effects of antecedent land cover on physical, chemical, and biological responses to urbanization in streams across the conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuffney, T. F.; Qian, S.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of streams were assessed across gradients of urbanization in 9 metropolitan areas of the conterminous US (Boston, MA; Raleigh; NC, Birmingham, AL; Atlanta, GA; Milwaukee-Green Bay, WI; Denver, CO; Dallas-Fort Worth, TX; Salt Lake City, UT; and Portland, OR) as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program. Gradients of urbanization were established on the basis of a multimetric index of urban intensity that combined land cover, population, and road density. Simple regression models established that the condition of biological communities (e.g., invertebrate responses) showed statistically significant degradation as urbanization increased in six (Boston, Raleigh, Birmingham, Atlanta, Salt Lake, and Portland) of the nine metropolitan areas. Multiple regression models incorporating basin-scale land cover (e.g., forest, agricultural land) and environmental variables (e.g., water temperature, chemistry, hydrology) did not substantially improve the explanatory power of the regressions and could not explain differences in responses among metropolitan areas. Multilevel hierarchical models incorporating basin- and regional-scale predictors demonstrated that regional-scale climate (air temperature and precipitation) and antecedent land cover (i.e., land cover being converted to urban) predicted invertebrate responses to urbanization. The lack of identifiable urban responses for Milwaukee-Green Bay, Denver, and Dallas-Fort Worth were associated with high levels of antecedent agriculture (row crops and grazing) that degraded the biological communities and obscured the effects of urbanization. Urbanization was associated with increases in conductivity, nutrients, pesticides, and hydrologic variability. Levels of these variables at background sites were higher in regions with high antecedent agriculture; consequently, the effects of urbanization appeared to be

  7. New water-soluble polypyridine silver(I) derivatives of 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) with significant antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities.

    PubMed

    Smoleński, Piotr; Jaros, Sabina W; Pettinari, Claudio; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Vitali, Luca A; Petrelli, Dezemona; Kochel, Andrzej; Kirillov, Alexander M

    2013-05-14

    The new series of silver(I) coordination polymers [Ag(N-N)(μ-PTA)]n(X)n (1, 2, 4-8, 10, 11) and discrete monomers [Ag(N-N)(PTA)2](X) (3, 9) {N-N = bpy (1-3), dtbpy (4), neocup (5, 6), phen (7-9), dione (10, 11); X = NO3 (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10), PF6 (2, 4, 6, 8, 11)} were generated by self-assembly reactions, in MeOH at ~25 °C, of AgNO3 or AgPF6 with 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) and the corresponding polypyridines, namely 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine (dtbpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocup) and 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (dione). The compounds were obtained as air and light stable solids and characterized by IR, (1)H and (31)P{(1)H} NMR spectroscopy, ESI(+)-MS and elemental analyses. The crystal structure of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, revealing infinite one-dimensional (1D) linear chains driven by μ-PTA N,P-linkers. Apart from representing the first examples of the metal-PTA derivatives bearing polypyridine ligands, 1-11 also feature solubility in water (S(25°C) ≈ 4-18 mg mL(-1)). Selected compounds (1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 10) were thus tested for their biological properties and found to exhibit significant antibacterial and antifungal activities, screened in vitro against the standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus sanguinis, Staphylococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Furthermore, the compounds 5, 7, 9 and 10 show a pronounced antiproliferative activity against human malignant melanoma (A375), and the effects on the inhibition of tumor cells in vitro are in agreement with the DNA-binding studies. PMID:23474654

  8. Effects of antecedent hydrologic conditions, time dependence, and climate cycles on the suspended sediment load of the Salinas River, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Andrew B.; Pasternack, Gregory B.; Watson, Elizabeth B.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Goñi, Miguel A.

    2015-06-01

    Previous estimations of sediment flux for the Salinas River of central California were based on data collected in the 1970s and assumptions of time invariant suspended sediment-discharge behavior. The goals of this study were to estimate sediment flux from the Salinas River using data from 1967-2011 by incorporating time dependent behavior and reassess the role of El Niño Southern Oscillation patterns in inter-decadal sediment load. This study builds on previous findings that time-dependent suspended sediment behavior in this system is controlled in part by antecedent hydrologic conditions. The condition of temporal dependence was further tested herein through comparison of flux estimates obtained using time-dependent formulations and a multivariate approach incorporating hydrologic factors. Longer sampling records and incorporation of decadal scale behavior or antecedent hydrologic conditions resulted in average annual load estimates of 2.0-2.9 Mt/yr with 95% confidence intervals of ±25 to 202%, in comparison to earlier estimates of ∼3.3 Mt/yr. Previous overestimation of sediment load is due largely to the extrapolation of suspended sediment behavior from a decade of high sediment concentrations to the entire record, and the use of log-linear regression techniques on a non-linear system. The use of LOESS methods lowered QSS estimates and decreased confidence interval size. The inclusion of time-stratified and antecedent flow indices further decreased QSS estimates, but increased confidence interval size. However, temporal dependence of the CSS-Q relationship violates the assumptions of single base period regression, which suggests that time-stratified rating curves provide more realistic estimates of sediment flux means and uncertainty. The majority of suspended sediment was transported by flows of ∼25-90 times mean discharge depending on transport constituent (fines or sand) and estimation method. Periods of differential suspended sediment behavior changed

  9. Development of an antecedent moisture condition model for prediction of Rainfall-Derived Inflow/Infiltration (RDII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadri, S.; Graham, E.

    2011-12-01

    The rainfall-derived Infiltration/inflow (RDII) response of a sanitary sewer system is quite complex. In addition to rainfall, one of the major factors that control RDII response is the Antecedent Moisture Condition (AMC). AMC is one of the key inputs to many hydrological models. For urban hydrology planning and management, quantifying the effect of AMC, the moisture of soil condition during and prior a rainfall event will enhance the prediction capabilities of RDII-rainfall models. The problem with simply correlating the peak rainfall and peak flows is that the data will typically be scattered in a a way that the regression analysis will not yield reliable information. Thus, there is a need to find the contribution of AMC to RDII. In urban hydrology engineering projects, although soil moisture data can be very useful, especially for more pervious surfaces, it is typical that not much data is available. In the past, here has been little research on defining and calculating AMC in the domain of urban hydrology. In this study, a parametric model is developed to predict RDII as a function of antecedent rainfalls. The hypothesis of this study is that besides the current rainfall, the rainfall events of the past, up to certain limit of time, affect the current flow and therefore, AMC is directly related to a geometrically-weighted sum of rainfall which we will denote s[t]. Let γ be a parameter between 0 and 1, representing the effect of a day's rainfall on the next day. Then consider the geometrically-weighted sum s[t] = γ*r[t-1] + γ^2*r[t-2] + ... + γ^10*r[t-10] where t represents the present day (time) and r[t] is the rainfall depth on that day. Intuitively, s[t] measures the effect accumulated rainfall from the past 10 days. The general regression model is hence: Predicted flow at time t = α*r[t] + β*s[t] where β is a multiplier and α is the parameter based on a separate and stronger effect of rain at time t. The goal is to find the optimized parameters α,

  10. Brief antecedent assessment and treatment of tics in the general education classroom: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Watson, T Steuart; Dufrene, Brad; Weaver, Adam; Butler, Tonya; Meeks, Caroline

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if specific classroom antecedents were associated with motor and vocal tics in two males diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome. A functional assessment consisting of teacher and student interviews, direct observations, brief functional analysis, and confirmatory naturalistic observations indicated that specific antecedents could be identified for each participant. Simplified habit reversal was then implemented only under the antecedent condition that resulted in the highest rate of tics. The rate of tics decreased under the specific antecedent condition as well as at other times as validated by behavioral observations conducted at random times. The discussion focuses on the utility of conducting such assessments, the methodological and applied limitations of the current study, and avenues for further research. PMID:16204419

  11. Exploring utilitarian and hedonic antecedents for adopting information from a recommendation agent and unplanned purchase behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Research indicated that in order for properly utilizing recommendation agents (RAs), customers must rationally evaluate capability and suggestions of RAs during the interaction process. However, enjoying interactive processes and interface is also important. Methods for increasing user enjoyment of RAs are yet unknown. This study investigated the influences of utilitarian and hedonic factors on intention to adopt RAs suggestions and their antecedents. Involvement influences relative importance of utilitarian and hedonic factors. Contrary to common assumptions, customers may make unplanned purchases, rather than rational purchase. A field experiment with 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design reveals main findings. First, information diagnosticity and enjoyment enhance adoption intention simultaneously. Information diagnosticity is more important than enjoyment. Diagnosticity was determined by outcome similarity, and enjoyment was determined by both outcome similarity and atmospherics. The context of interacting with RAs is important. Outcome similarity even directly affects adoption intention. Second, highly involved users considered enjoyment and diagnosticity when forming adoption intentions, while users with low involvement only considered enjoyment. Third, information cascades altered the relationship between adoption intention and unplanned purchases. Most customers change selection after seeing ratings from other customers, even if they originally strongly want to adoption suggestion from RAs. Theoretical and managerial implications are proposed.

  12. Strabismus at Age 2 Years in Children Born Before 28 Weeks' Gestation: Antecedents and Correlates.

    PubMed

    VanderVeen, Deborah K; Allred, Elizabeth N; Wallace, David K; Leviton, Alan

    2016-03-01

    Children born very preterm are at greater risk of ophthalmic morbidities, including strabismus, than children born at term. We evaluated perinatal factors associated with strabismus at age 2 years in a large population of infants delivered before 28 weeks' gestation. A total of 996 infants in the multicenter ELGAN (Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn) study who had a retinal exam in infancy and a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age are included. Their mothers were interviewed about the pregnancy, and both mother and newborn charts were reviewed. Certified examiners administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and performed an examination of ocular alignment. Time-oriented logistic regression risk models were created to evaluate the associations of characteristics and exposures with the development of strabismus. Overall, 14% (n = 141) of the children had strabismus at 2 years, and 80% of strabismic children had esotropia. Characteristics associated with strabismus were birth before 26 weeks' gestation, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal history of aspirin ingestion. Associated postnatal factors included a SNAP-II (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology) illness severity value ≥ 30, brain ventriculomegaly, type I retinopathy of prematurity, and ventilator-dependent severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strabismus in very preterm populations is associated with a number of antenatal and postnatal antecedents as well as clinical and imaging correlates indicative of brain damage in these children. Routine ophthalmologic assessments in the early years can allow appropriate and timely interventions. PMID:26350726

  13. Distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism and their antecedents in full-time Australian employees.

    PubMed

    Magee, Christopher A; Caputi, Peter; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated distinct longitudinal trajectories of absenteeism over time, and underlying demographic, work, and health antecedents. Data from the Household, Income, and Labor Dynamics in Australia Survey were used; this is a panel study of a representative sample of Australian households. This paper focused on 2,481 full-time employees across a 5-year period. Information on annual sick leave and relevant sociodemographic, work, and health-related factors was collected through interviews and self-completed surveys. Growth mixture modeling indicated 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism over time. The moderate absenteeism trajectory (34.8%) of the sample had 4-5 days of sick leave per year and was used as the reference group. The low absenteeism trajectory (33.5%) had 1-2 days of absenteeism per year, while the no absenteeism trajectory (23.6%) had very low rates of absenteeism (<1 day per year). Finally, a smaller trajectory accounting for 8.1% of the sample had high levels of absenteeism (>11 days per year). Compared with the moderate absenteeism trajectory, the high absenteeism trajectory was characterized by poor health; the no absenteeism and low absenteeism trajectories had better health but may also reflect processes relating to presenteeism. These results provide important insights into the nature of absenteeism in Australian employees, and suggest that different patterns of absenteeism over time could reflect a range of demographic, work, and health related factors. PMID:25938167

  14. Unraveling care integration: Assessing its dimensions and antecedents in the Italian Health System.

    PubMed

    Calciolari, Stefano; Ilinca, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, consensus has grown on the need to organize health systems around the concept of care integration to better confront the challenges associated with demographic trends and financial sustainability. However, care integration remains an imprecise umbrella term in both the academic and policy arenas. In addition, little substantive knowledge exists on the success factors for integration initiatives. We propose a composite measure of care integration and a conceptual framework suggesting its relationships with three types of antecedents: contextual, cultural, and organizational factors. Our framework was tested using data from the Italian National Health System (NHS). We administered an ad-hoc questionnaire to all Italian local health units (LHUs), with a 60.4% response rate, and used structural equation modeling to assess the relationships between the relevant latent constructs. The results validated our measure of care integration and supported the hypothesized relationships. In particular, integration was found to be fostered by results-oriented institutional settings, a professional culture conducive to inclusiveness and shared goals, and organizational arrangements promoting clear expectations among providers. Thus, integration improves care and mediates the effects of specific operating means on care enhancement. PMID:26725643

  15. Affective Antecedents of the Perceived Effectiveness of Antidrug Advertisements: An Analysis of Adolescents’ Momentary and Retrospective Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Vohs, Kathleen D.; Luciana, Monica; Cuthbert, Bruce N.; MacDonald, Angus W.

    2013-01-01

    Perceived message effectiveness is often used as a diagnostic tool to determine whether a health message is likely to be successful or needs modification before use in an intervention. Yet, published research on the antecedents of perceived effectiveness is scarce and, consequently, little is known about why a message is perceived to be effective or ineffective. The present study’s aim was to identify and test the affective antecedents of perceived effectiveness of antidrug television messages in a sample of 190 adolescents in the 15–19 year age range. Factor-analytical tests of retrospective message evaluation items suggested two dimensions of perceived effectiveness, one that contained items such as convincingness whereas the other contained pleasantness items. Using retrospective data as well as real time valence and arousal ratings, we found that arousal underlies perceived convincingness and valence underlies perceived pleasantness. The results indicated activation of appetitive and defensive motivational systems, which suggests a clear motivational component to the concept of perceived message effectiveness. PMID:21499729

  16. When the customer shouldn't be king: antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment by clients and customers.

    PubMed

    Gettman, Hilary J; Gelfand, Michele J

    2007-05-01

    Much of the work in today's service industries requires women to deal with people outside of their organizations, namely, customers and clients, yet research on sexual harassment has focused almost exclusively on sexual harassment within organizations. Because the threat of harassment also operates at the boundaries of organizations, our existing models based solely on harassment inside organizations may be too restricted to adequately explain the harassment experiences of women in today's economy. To address this, the authors introduce a theoretical model of the antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment by clients and customers (CSH) and describe 2 field studies conducted to test components of the model. In Study 1, they developed a model of antecedents and consequences of CSH and illustrated that certain contextual factors (client power and gender composition of the client base) affect levels of CSH and that CSH is related to a number of job and psychological outcomes among professional women. Study 2 revealed that CSH is related to lower job satisfaction among nonprofessional women, above and beyond that which is accounted for by internal sexual harassment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:17484555

  17. Antecedent wetness conditions based on ERS scatterometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocca, L.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.; Morbidelli, R.

    2009-01-01

    SummarySoil moisture is widely recognized as a key parameter in environmental processes mainly for the role of rainfall partitioning into runoff and infiltration. Therefore, for storm rainfall-runoff modeling the estimation of the antecedent wetness conditions ( AWC) is one of the most important aspect. In this context, this study investigates the potential of scatterometer on board of the ERS satellites for the assessment of wetness conditions in three Tiber sub-catchments (Central Italy), of which one includes an experimental area for soil moisture monitoring. The satellite soil moisture data are taken from the ERS/METOP soil moisture archive. First, the scatterometer-derived soil wetness index ( SWI) data are compared with two on-site soil moisture data sets acquired by different methodologies on areas of different extension ranging from 0.01 km 2 to ˜60 km 2. Moreover, the reliability of SWI to estimate the AWC at a catchment scale is investigated considering the relationship between SWI and the soil potential maximum retention parameter, S, of the Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) method for abstraction. Several flood events occurred from 1992 to 2005 are selected for this purpose. Specifically, the performance of the SWI for S estimation is compared with two antecedent precipitation indices ( API) and one base flow index ( BFI). The S values obtained through the observed direct runoff volume and rainfall depth are used as benchmark. Results show the great reliability of the SWI for the estimation of wetness conditions both at the plot and catchment scale despite the complex orography of the investigated areas. As far as the comparison with on site soil moisture data set is concerned, the SWI is found quite reliable in representing the soil moisture at layer depth of 15 cm, with a mean correlation coefficient equal to 0.81. The characteristic time length parameter variations, as expected, is depended on soil type, with values in accordance with

  18. A qualitative and quantitative examination of the antecedents of customer incivility.

    PubMed

    Sliter, Michael; Jones, Morgan

    2016-04-01

    Customer incivility is known to have a negative impact on employees working in service jobs. Despite an understanding of the negative outcomes of customer incivility (e.g., burnout, disengagement, absenteeism), little research has investigated antecedents of this low-intensity deviant behavior. This is a clear oversight, given that understanding antecedents of customer incivility is essential for determining methods for reducing this stressor. As such, we conducted 2 studies examining these antecedents. For Study 1, we used a qualitative approach, assessing customer incivility from the perspective of the customer. Three overall themes (with 13 subthemes) emerged that could potentially lead to customer incivility: characteristics of the customer, characteristics of the organization/environment, and characteristics of the service employee. In Study 2, we conducted a quantitative study to investigate-from the perspective of the service employee-customer incivility antecedents that could be potentially controlled by the organization, either through changing the work environment or the employee (through training and selection). The results of a 2 time-point survey study showed that the service environment, service rep incivility, service orientation, agreeableness, and neuroticism served as antecedents to customer incivility. Practical implications are discussed, identifying options for organizational leaders interested in reducing customer incivility, and advice is provided for researchers seeking to further examine the antecedents of customer incivility. PMID:26641484

  19. Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this “gender paradox” in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others’ or one’s own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one’s ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727

  20. Motivational antecedent beliefs of endurance, strength, and flexibility activities.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M; Matheson, Deborah Hunt

    2007-03-01

    Research into the correlates of physical activity has focused almost exclusively on physical activity as an omnibus construct. Health Canada and the American College of Sports Medicine, however, advocate physical activity in terms of performing regular endurance, strength, and flexibility activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the absolute and relative contributions of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs associated with endurance, strength, and flexibility activities within a theory of planned behavior (TPB) structure. Participants were 185 undergraduates who completed measures of the TPB and a 2-week follow-up of endurance, strength, and flexibility behavior. Results using structural equation modeling and Hotelling's t-tests for dependent correlations identified different motivational antecedents for each type of physical activity (p < .05). Endurance behavior was influenced exclusively by behavioral beliefs, flexibility behavior was influenced by normative and control beliefs, and strength behavior was influenced by key behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. The different motivational profiles for each physical activity allude to the importance of tailoring interventions by physical activity type. PMID:17365895

  1. Personality and motivational antecedents of activism and civic engagement.

    PubMed

    Omoto, Allen M; Snyder, Mark; Hackett, Justin D

    2010-12-01

    This article conceptually links theory and research on volunteerism to different forms of political activity, specifically activism and civic engagement. Multiple perspectives and measures of personality as antecedents of volunteerism, activism, and civic engagement are outlined, including individual differences in motivations, interpersonal orientations, and traits. Next, self-report data from 624 people involved in AIDS service organizations (as clients, volunteers, staff, or supporters) are utilized to empirically explore the best personality predictors of AIDS activism and civic engagement. Other-focused rather than self-focused motivation better predicted AIDS activism and civic engagement. The only measure of interpersonal orientation consistently related to these outcomes was communal orientation; as well, only the trait of extraversion was related to both outcomes. In analyses testing the predictive power of constellations of personality measures, other-focused motivation better predicted AIDS activism and civic engagement than the other measures of motivation, interpersonal orientation, and traits. Finally, meditational analyses supported a developmental sequence in which other-focused motivation leads to specific activism, which, in turn, encourages broader civic engagement. The discussion focuses on theoretical implications for understanding the impact of personality on different forms of citizenship behaviors and of the applicability of the Volunteer Process Model for studying political activity and civic engagement. PMID:21039529

  2. Antecedents of teachers’ emotions in the classroom: an intraindividual approach

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Eva S.; Keller, Melanie M.; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Taxer, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    Using a preexisting, but as yet empirically untested theoretical model, the present study investigated antecedents of teachers’ emotions in the classroom. More specifically, the relationships between students’ motivation and discipline and teachers’ enjoyment and anger were explored, as well as if these relationships are mediated by teachers’ subjective appraisals (goal conduciveness and coping potential). The study employed an intraindividual approach by collecting data through a diary. The sample consisted of 39 teachers who each participated with one of their 9th or 10th grade mathematics classes (N = 758 students). Both teachers and students filled out diaries for 2–3 weeks pertaining to 8.10 lessons on average (N = 316 lessons). Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that students’ motivation and discipline explained 24% of variance in teachers’ enjoyment and 26% of variance in teachers’ anger. In line with theoretical assumptions, after introducing teachers’ subjective appraisals as a mediating mechanism into the model, the explained variance systematically increased to 65 and 61%, for teachers’ enjoyment and anger respectively. The effects of students’ motivation and discipline level on teachers’ emotions were partially mediated by teachers’ appraisals of goal conduciveness and coping potential. The findings imply that since teachers’ emotions depend to a large extent on subjective evaluations of a situation, teachers should be able to directly modify their emotional experiences during a lesson through cognitive reappraisals. PMID:26042067

  3. Oral Microbiota Shift after 12-Week Supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and PTA 5289; A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Romani Vestman, Nelly; Chen, Tsute; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla; Öhman, Carina; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2015-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus spp. potentially contribute to health by modulating bacterial biofilm formation, but their effects on the overall oral microbiota remain unclear. Methods and Findings Oral microbiota was characterized via 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA hypervariable region V3-V4 after 12 weeks of daily Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and PTA 5289 consumption. Forty-four adults were assigned to a test group (n = 22) that received lactobacilli lozenges (108 CFU of each strain/lozenge) or a control group that received placebo (n = 22). Presence of L. reuteri was confirmed by cultivation and species specific PCR. Tooth biofilm samples from 16 adults before, during, and after exposure were analyzed by pyrosequencing. A total of 1,310,292 sequences were quality filtered. After removing single reads, 257 species or phylotypes were identified at 98.5% identity in the Human Oral Microbiome Database. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the most abundant phyla. Streptococcus was the most common genus and the S. oralis/S. mitis/S. mitis bv2/S. infantis group comprised the dominant species. The number of observed species was unaffected by L. reuteri exposure. However, subjects who had consumed L. reuteri were clustered in a principal coordinates analysis relative to scattering at baseline, and multivariate modeling of pyrosequencing microbiota, and culture and PCR detected L. reuteri separated baseline from 12-week samples in test subjects. L. reuteri intake correlated with increased S. oralis/S. mitis/S. mitis bv2/S. infantis group and Campylobacter concisus, Granulicatella adiacens, Bergeyella sp. HOT322, Neisseria subflava, and SR1 [G-1] sp. HOT874 detection and reduced S. mutans, S. anginosus, N. mucosa, Fusobacterium periodicum, F. nucleatum ss vincentii, and Prevotella maculosa detection. This effect had disappeared 1 month after exposure was terminated. Conclusions L. reuteri consumption did not affect species

  4. Relationship between latex yield of Hevea brasiliensis and antecedent environmental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Shammi; Das, Gitali; Pothen, Jacob; Dey, Sushil Kumar

    2005-01-01

    A study on the relationship between latex yield and antecedent environmental data was undertaken for five clones (RRII203, RRII118, RRIM600, RRII105 and GT1) of Hevea brasiliensis (rubber) in Agartala, northeast India, a region in which rubber is not traditionally cultivated. The explained variance for the regression equations based on parameters determined on the day of tapping and up to 3 days prior to it, varied from 72% to 37% during the NWT period and 94 83% during the WT period. Soil moisture storage, 1 and 3 days prior to tapping, was found to be the primary parameter affecting yield for the NWT and WT periods, respectively. It was observed that the clone RRII105, with a comparatively lower yield to that of RRIM600, was more susceptible to daily WD conditions during the non-winter season. RRIM600 and RRII105 being high-yielding clones were also found to be fairly dependent on the AT of the day prior to tapping. The mean lag period correlation of this parameter with yield was also found to be higher during the WT period than during the NWT period. As a whole, the mean lag period based on prior measurements of environmental variables showed optimum correlation with yield at 15 20 days prior to the day of tapping. The study also confirms that varied responses of yield with environmental factors in this non-traditional region of rubber cultivation depend on clonal character.

  5. Examining Antecedents and Consequences of Gambling Passion: The Case of Gambling on Horse Races

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki-Joon; Hodgins, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the antecedents and consequences of gambling passion using structural equation modeling to examine relationships among gambling motivation, passion, emotion, and behavioral intentions in the horse racing industry. Methods An onsite survey was conducted with 447 patrons at a horseracing park in South Korea. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Gambling Passion Scale was valid and reliable, resulting in two sub-scales: obsessive passion (OP) and harmonious passion (HP). Results Study results indicated that extrinsic motivation influenced OP whereas intrinsic motivation significantly affected HP. Furthermore, OP was correlated with negative emotion, whereas HP was related to positive emotion. Gamblers' satisfaction was found to be influenced positively by positive emotion and negatively by negative emotion. Finally, satisfaction appeared to affect gamblers' behavioral intentions. Conclusion Study results echoed the notion of distinct and separate gambling motivations and passions among horse racing gamblers. Furthermore, results identified specific areas to which horse racing operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling. PMID:24474985

  6. Examining Antisocial Behavioral Antecedents of Juvenile Sexual Offenders and Juvenile Non-Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    McCuish, Evan C; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    In prospective longitudinal studies of juvenile offenders, the presence of multiple developmental pathways of antisocial behaviors has consistently been identified. An "antisocial" type of juvenile sex offender (JSO) has also been identified; however, whether antisocial JSOs follow different antisocial pathways has not been examined. In the current study, differences in antisocial pathways within JSOs and between JSOs and juvenile non-sex offenders (JNSOs) were examined. Data on Canadian male incarcerated adolescent offenders were used to identify whether behavioral antecedents differed within JSOs and between JSOs (n = 51) and JNSOs (n = 94). Using latent class analysis (LCA), three behavioral groups were identified. For both JSOs and JNSOs, there was a Low Antisocial, Overt, and Covert group. Overall, there were important within-group differences in the behavioral patterns of JSOs, but these differences resembled differences in the behavioral patterns of their JNSO counterpart. Risk factors including offense history, abuse history, and family history were more strongly associated with the Overt and Covert groups compared with the Low Antisocial group. Implications for JSO assessment practices were discussed. PMID:24487119

  7. Antecedents of Intact Cognition and Dementia at Age 90: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.; Okereke, Olivia I; Mukamal, Kenneth; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the possible antecedents of both dementia and sustained intact cognition at age 90 among men who underwent a prospective, multidisciplinary assessment from age 19 to 90, with little attrition. Methods A prospective 20-year reassessment of the 196 (out of 268) former Harvard College sophomores who survived until age 70. Begun in 1939 the Study gathered measurements of childhood environment, dominant personality traits, and objective mental and physical health over time, smoking in pack years, alcohol abuse and depression. Questionnaires were obtained every two years and physical exams every five years. Cognitive status was assessed at ages 80, 85 and 90. Results Despite addressing a wide variety health, behavioral and social factors over the lifespan, we observed few predictors with strong association with either intact cognition at age 90 (n = 40) or dementia (n = 44). Univariate analysis revealed seven suggestive predictors of intact cognition at age 90 or of dementia: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, high maternal education, young age of mother at subject’s birth, low BMI, good physical health at 60, and late retirement. Only the first 3 variables: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, and high maternal education remained significant with logistic regression. Conclusions In this prospective study of long-lived, highly educated men several well-known putative predictors of AD did not distinguish those who over the next 20 years developed dementia from those with unimpaired cognition until age 90. PMID:24733646

  8. Racism, ideology, and affirmative action revisited: the antecedents and consequences of "principled objections" to affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Federico, Christopher M; Sidanius, Jim

    2002-04-01

    In 2 studies, the antecedents and consequences of "principled objections" to affirmative action (specific, "race-neutral" reasons for opposing the policy) among Whites were examined. In Study 1. data from a probability sample of Los Angeles adults indicated the following: (a) that principled-objection endorsement was driven not merely by race-neutral values but also by dominance-related concerns like racism; (b) that principled objections mediated the effects of group dominance; and (c) that education strengthened-rather than attenuated-the relationship between dominance-related concerns and principled objections. whereas it left the relationship between race-neutral values and the latter essentially unchanged. In Study 2, the education findings were conceptually replicated in a panel study of undergraduates: The completion of additional years of college boosted the correlation between racism and principled objections, whereas it had no effect on the predictive power of conservatism. These results provide support for a general group-dominance approach, which suggests that factors like racism continue to shape White opposition to race-targeted policies. PMID:11999919

  9. The Motivating Effect of Antecedent Stimuli on the Web Shop: A Conjoint Analysis of the Impact of Antecedent Stimuli at the Point of Online Purchase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstrom, Asle

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of motivating operation (MO) to the field of online consumer research. A conjoint analysis was conducted to assess the motivating impact of antecedent stimuli on online purchasing. Stimuli tested were in-stock status, price, other customers' reviews, order confirmation procedures, and donation to charity. The…

  10. Water-Soluble Phosphine Capable of Dissolving Elemental Gold: The Missing Link between 1,3,5-Triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) and Verkade's Ephemeral Ligand.

    PubMed

    Britvin, Sergey N; Lotnyk, Andriy

    2015-04-29

    We herein describe a tricyclic phosphine with previously unreported tris(homoadamantane) cage architecture. That water-soluble, air- and thermally stable ligand, 1,4,7-triaza-9-phosphatricyclo[5.3.2.1(4,9)]tridecane (hereinafter referred to as CAP) exhibits unusual chemical behavior toward gold and gold compounds: it readily reduces Au(III) to Au(0), promotes oxidative dissolution of nanocrystalline gold(0) with the formation of water-soluble trigonal CAP-Au(I) complexes, and displaces cyanide from [Au(CN)2](-) affording triangular [Au(CAP)3](+) cation. From the stereochemical point of view, CAP can be regarded as an intermediate between 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) and very unstable aminophosphine synthesized by Verkade's group: hexahydro-2a,4a,6a-triaza-6b-phosphacyclopenta[cd]pentalene. The chemical properties of CAP are likely related to its anomalous stereoelectronic profile: combination of strong electron-donating power (Tolman's electronic parameter 2056.8 cm(-1)) with the low steric demand (cone angle of 109°). CAP can be considered as macrocyclic counterpart of PTA with the electron-donating power approaching that of strongest known phosphine electron donors such as P(t-Bu)3 and PCy3. Therefore, CAP as sterically undemanding and electron-rich ligand populates the empty field on the stereoelectronic map of phosphine ligands: the niche between the classic tertiary phosphines and the sterically undemanding aminophosphines. PMID:25897572

  11. Development of pyrF-Based Genetic System for Targeted Gene Deletion in Clostridium thermocellum and Creation of a pta Mutant ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Shital A.; Olson, Daniel G.; Argyros, D. Aaron; Miller, Bethany B.; Barrett, Trisha F.; Murphy, Daniel M.; McCool, Jesse D.; Warner, Anne K.; Rajgarhia, Vineet B.; Lynd, Lee R.; Hogsett, David A.; Caiazza, Nicky C.

    2010-01-01

    We report development of a genetic system for making targeted gene knockouts in Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that rapidly solubilizes cellulose. A toxic uracil analog, 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), was used to select for deletion of the pyrF gene. The ΔpyrF strain is a uracil auxotroph that could be restored to a prototroph via ectopic expression of pyrF from a plasmid, providing a positive genetic selection. Furthermore, 5-FOA was used to select against plasmid-expressed pyrF, creating a negative selection for plasmid loss. This technology was used to delete a gene involved in organic acid production, namely pta, which encodes the enzyme phosphotransacetylase. The C. thermocellum Δpta strain did not produce acetate. These results are the first examples of targeted homologous recombination and metabolic engineering in C. thermocellum, a microbe that holds an exciting and promising future in the biofuel industry and development of sustainable energy resources. PMID:20693441

  12. Down Regulation of ackA-pta Pathway in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3): A Step Toward Optimized Recombinant Protein Expression System

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Nahid; Mirshahi, Manouchehr; Babaeipour, Valiollah; Maghsoudi, Nader; Tahzibi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the most important problems in production of recombinant protein is to attain over-expression of the target gene and high cell density. In such conditions, the secondary metabolites of bacteria become toxic for the medium and cause cells to die. One of these aforementioned metabolites is acetate, which enormously accumulated in the medium, so that both cell and protein yields are affected. Objectives: To overcome this problem, several strategies applied. In this research we used antisense RNA strategy, where the transcription of phosphotransacetylase (PTA) and acetate kinase (ACK), two acetate pathway key enzymes, could be controlled, which led to reduced acetate production. Materials and Methods: In order to achieve this, recombinant plasmid harboring antisense sequences targeting both of pta and ackA was assembled, after transfecting to the cells, its effects on the cell growth and acetate accumulation in the minimal media was assessed and compared with the control, the plasmid without antisense cassette, in presence and absence of IPTG in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Results: It was observed that the mentioned strategy partially affect the growth and amount of excreted acetate in comparison with the control. In addition it was found that high down-regulation of the acetate production pathway reduces the growth rate of E. coli BL21 (DE3). Conclusions: The study principally proved the importance of this strategy in acetate excretion control. PMID:25147677

  13. Antenatal Antecedents of Cognitive Impairment at 24 Months In Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, Thomas M.; Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Hecht, Jonathan L.; Dammann, Olaf; Paneth, Nigel; McElrath, T. F.; Onderdonk, Andrew; Leviton, Alan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extremely low gestational age neonates are more likely than term infants to develop cognitive impairment. Few studies have addressed antenatal risk factors of this condition. We identified antenatal antecedents of cognitive impairment determined by the Mental Development Index (MDI) portion of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID-II), at 24 months corrected age. METHODS: We studied a multicenter cohort of 921 infants born before 28 weeks of gestation during 2002 to 2004 and assessed their placentas for histologic characteristics and microorganisms. The mother was interviewed and her medical record was reviewed. At 24 months adjusted age, children were assessed with BSID-II. Multinomial logistic models were used to estimate odds ratios. RESULTS: A total of 103 infants (11%) had an MDI <55, and 99 infants (11%) had an MDI between 55 and 69. No associations were identified between organisms recovered from the placenta and developmental delay. Factors most strongly associated with MDI <55 were thrombosis of fetal vessels (OR 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2, 7.7), maternal BMI >30 (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.5), maternal education ≤12 years (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.9, 6.2), nonwhite race (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3, 3.8), birth weight z score < −2 (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.1, 6.9), and male gender (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.6, 4.5). CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal factors, including thrombosis of fetal vessels in the placenta, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal obesity, convey information about the risk of cognitive impairment among extremely premature newborns. PMID:22331342

  14. The adult antisocial syndrome with and without antecedent conduct disorder: comparisons from an adoption study.

    PubMed

    Langbehn, D R; Cadoret, R J

    2001-01-01

    DSM antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) requires a retrospective diagnosis of conduct disorder-historical behavior not present in everyone with adult ASPD criteria. Using adoption study data, we examined the impact of this requirement on biological and environmental risk associations. We also compared clinical correlates of adult antisocial behavior with and without prior conduct disorder. We defined three subgroups: DSM-III ASPD (n = 30), adult antisocials without conduct disorder (n = 25), and controls (n = 142). By design, the sample had a high incidence of biological parent ASPD, which was partially confounded with fetal alcohol exposure. We compared the associations of both of these putative risk factors with subgroup membership after controlling for gender and adverse adoptive environment. We also examined differences in two sociopathy scales and the incidence of co-occurring affective, alcohol, and other substance use disorders. Finally, we explored differences in individual antisocial symptoms. Having an antisocial biological parent was a specific risk factor for ASPD. In contrast, fetal alcohol exposure, male gender, and adverse environment were associated with the adult antisocial syndrome, regardless of conduct disorder history. The two antisocial groups were similar with respect to sociopathy scales, co-occurring diagnoses, and the incidence of most individual symptoms. However, several adult and conduct disorder symptoms had significant specific associations with biological or environmental background or their interaction. Phenotypic expression of the biological-possibly genetic-risk for ASPD appears to be manifest before adulthood. The influence of other risk factors may not depend on antecedent conduct disorder. Despite this, we could not detect clinically important differences between the two sociopathic groups. The conduct disorder requirement therefore may be more relevant to etiological than clinical understanding of adult antisocial behavior

  15. Effects of hydromechanical loading history and antecedent soil mechanical damage on shallow landslide triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Linfeng; Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani

    2015-10-01

    Evidence suggests that the sudden triggering of rainfall-induced shallow landslides is preceded by accumulation of local internal failures in the soil mantle before their abrupt coalescence into a landslide failure plane. The mechanical status of a hillslope at any given time reflects competition between local damage accumulated during antecedent rainfall events and rates of mechanical healing (e.g., rebonding of microcracks and root regrowth). This dynamic interplay between damage accumulation and healing rates determines the initial mechanical state for landslide modeling. We evaluated the roles of these dynamic processes on landslide characteristics and patterns using a hydromechanical landslide-triggering model for a sequence of rainfall scenarios. The progressive nature of soil failure was represented by the fiber bundle model formalism that considers threshold strength of mechanical bonds linking adjacent soil columns and bedrock. The antecedent damage induced by prior rainfall events was expressed by the fraction of broken fibers that gradually regain strength or mechanically heal at rates specific to soil and roots. Results indicate that antecedent damage accelerates landslide initiation relative to pristine (undamaged) hillslopes. The volumes of first triggered landslides increase with increasing antecedent damage; however, for heavily damaged hillslopes, landslide volumes tend to decrease. Elapsed time between rainfall events allows mechanical healing that reduces the effects of antecedent damage. This study proposed a quantitative framework for systematically incorporating hydromechanical loading history and information on precursor events (e.g., such as recorded by acoustic emissions) into shallow landslide hazard assessment.

  16. A simulation study of the recession coefficient for antecedent precipitation index. [soil moisture and water runoff estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Blanchard, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The antecedent precipitation index (API) is a useful indicator of soil moisture conditions for watershed runoff calculations and recent attempts to correlate this index with spaceborne microwave observations have been fairly successful. It is shown that the prognostic equation for soil moisture used in some of the atmospheric general circulation models together with Thornthwaite-Mather parameterization of actual evapotranspiration leads to API equations. The recession coefficient for API is found to depend on climatic factors through potential evapotranspiration and on soil texture through the field capacity and the permanent wilting point. Climatologial data for Wisconsin together with a recently developed model for global isolation are used to simulate the annual trend of the recession coefficient. Good quantitative agreement is shown with the observed trend at Fennimore and Colby watersheds in Wisconsin. It is suggested that API could be a unifying vocabulary for watershed and atmospheric general circulation modelars.

  17. Divergent Associations of Antecedent- and Response-Focused Emotion Regulation Strategies with Midlife Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Loucks, Eric B.; Buka, Stephen L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not known whether various forms of emotion regulation are differentially related to cardiovascular disease risk. Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess whether antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation would have divergent associations with likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease. Methods Two emotion regulation strategies were examined: reappraisal (antecedent-focused) and suppression (response-focused). Cardiovascular disease risk was assessed with a validated Framingham algorithm that estimates the likelihood of developing CVD in 10 years. Associations were assessed among 373 adults via multiple linear regression. Pathways and gender-specific associations were also considered. Results One standard deviation increases in reappraisal and suppression were associated with 5.9 % lower and 10.0 % higher 10-year cardiovascular disease risk, respectively, in adjusted analyses. Conclusions Divergent associations of antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation with cardiovascular disease risk were observed. Effective emotion regulation may promote cardiovascular health. PMID:24570218

  18. The correlation of Skylab L-band brightness temperatures with antecedent precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The S194 L-band radiometer flown on the Skylab mission measured terrestrial radiation at the microwave wavelength of 21.4 cm. The terrain emissivity at this wavelength is strongly dependent on the soil moisture content, which can be inferred from antecedent precipitation. For the Skylab data acquisition pass from the Oklahoma panhandle to southeastern Texas on 11 June 1973, the S194 brightness temperatures are highly correlated with antecedent precipitation from the preceding eleven day period, but very little correlation was apparent for the preceding five day period. The correlation coefficient between the averaged antecedent precipitation index values and the corresponding S194 brightness temperatures between 230 K and 270 K, the region of apparent response to soil moisture in the data, was -0.97. The equation of the linear least squares line is given.

  19. Unwrapping the organizational entry process: disentangling multiple antecedents and their pathways to adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Wanberg, Connie R

    2003-10-01

    This 4-wave longitudinal study of newcomers in 7 organizations examined preentry knowledge, proactive personality, and socialization influences as antecedents of both proximal (task mastery, role clarity, work group integration, and political knowledge) and distal (organizational commitment, work withdrawal, and turnover) indicators of newcomer adjustment. Results suggest that preentry knowledge, proactive personality, and socialization influences from the organization, supervisors, and coworkers are independently related to proximal adjustment outcomes, consistent with a theoretical framework highlighting distinct dimensions of organizational and work task adjustment. The proximal adjustment outcomes partially mediated most of the relationships between the antecedents of adjustment and organizational commitment, work withdrawal, and turnover. PMID:14516244

  20. The abative effect: A new term to describe the action of antecedents that reduce operant responding

    PubMed Central

    Laraway, Sean; Snycerski, Susan; Michael, Jack; Poling, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Behavior-analytic terminology concerning the so-called inhibitory effect of operant antecedents lacks precision. The present paper describes the problem with current nomenclature concerning the effects of antecedent events that reduce operant responding and offers a solution to this problem. The solution consists of adopting a new term, abative, for the effect in question. This paper suggests that the new term has several advantages over terms currently used and that adopting this term will yield a variety of practical and theoretical benefits, including, but not limited to, a more consistent vocabulary to describe antecedent—behavior relations. PMID:22477232

  1. In flight measurement of steady and unsteady blade surface pressure of a single rotation large scale advanced prop-fan installed on the PTA aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parzych, D.; Boyd, L.; Meissner, W.; Wyrostek, A.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was performed by Hamilton Standard, Division of United Technologies Corporation, under contract by LeRC, to measure the blade surface pressure of a large scale, 8 blade model prop-fan in flight. The test bed was the Gulfstream 2 Prop-Fan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft. The objective of the test was to measure the steady and periodic blade surface pressure resulting from three different Prop-Fan air inflow angles at various takeoff and cruise conditions. The inflow angles were obtained by varying the nacelle tilt angles, which ranged from -3 to +2 degrees. A range of power loadings, tip speeds, and altitudes were tested at each nacelle tilt angle over the flight Mach number range of 0.30 to 0.80. Unsteady blade pressure data tabulated as Fourier coefficients for the first 35 harmonics of shaft rotational frequency and the steady (non-varying) pressure component are presented.

  2. Predicting Factors for Successful Maturation of Autogenous Haemodialysis Fistulas After Salvage Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in Diabetic Nephropathy: A Study on Follow-Up Doppler Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eui-Yong; Cho, Young Kwon; Cho, Sung Bum; Yoon, Dae Young; Suh, Seong O

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maturation failure of autogenous arteriovenous fistula (aAVF) has been increasing after surgical procedures and the salvage percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (sPTA) for immature aAVF has been identified as an effective treatment modality. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify factors predicting successful aAVF maturation and to determine positive technical aspects of sPTA. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records and radiological images of 59 patients who had undergone sPTA for non-maturing aAVFs. We analysed images from pre-surgical mapping Doppler ultrasonography, angiography, and angioplasty and follow-up Doppler ultrasonography performed within two weeks after sPTA. We assessed the following factors, for their ability to predict successful aAVF maturation: 1) patient factors (age; sex; co-morbidities; and aAVF age, side and type); 2) vessel factors (cephalic vein diameter and depth, presence of accessory veins, and pre- and postoperative radial artery disease); 3) lesion factors (stenosis number, location and severity); and 4) technical factors (presence of residual stenosis and anatomic success ratio (ASR) on follow-up Doppler ultrasonography). Results: The technical and clinical success rates were both 94.9% (56/59); the mean ASR was 0.84. An ASR of ≥ 0.7 and no significant residual stenosis (< 30%) (both P < 0.001) on two-week follow-up Doppler ultrasonography predicted successful aAVF maturation. Conclusion: For more precise prediction of successful aAVF maturation after sPTA, short-term follow-up Doppler ultrasonography (< 2 weeks) was useful. If the ASR was < 0.7 or if residual stenosis was ≥ 30%, immediate repeat sPTA is recommended. PMID:27127581

  3. A covariance structure model test of antecedents of adolescent alcohol misuse and a prevention effort.

    PubMed

    Dielman, T E; Shope, J T; Butchart, A T; Campanelli, P C; Caspar, R A

    1989-01-01

    As part of an alcohol misuse prevention evaluation, questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. A conceptual model of the antecedents of adolescent alcohol misuse and the effectiveness of a prevention effort was tested using covariance structure modeling techniques. The factor loadings for the model were all moderate to high, indicating that the observed variables served well as measurement instruments for the latent variables. The hypothesized structural relationships among the latent variables of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem were supported by the data. The full model explained 45 percent of the variance in alcohol misuse in the analysis based on the total sample. The direct effect of the intervention on alcohol misuse was small but significant in the hypothesized direction. The direct effects of the intervention on susceptibility to peer pressure and internal health locus of control were not significant. The model was tested separately for groups of students who had high versus low scores on susceptibility to peer pressure in order to test the interaction between susceptibility to peer pressure and exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol. The percentage of variance accounted for in alcohol misuse did not increase upon testing the model separately for students who had high versus low scores on susceptibility to peer pressure. Observed differences in the significance of the parameter estimates between the high and low susceptibility to peer pressure groups suggest that different approaches to the design and evaluation of substance abuse prevention programs may be necessary for different subgroups of students. PMID:2621540

  4. Syntheses, structures, and antimicrobial activity of new remarkably light-stable and water-soluble tris(pyrazolyl)methanesulfonate silver(I) derivatives of N-methyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane salt - [mPTA]BF4.

    PubMed

    Smoleński, Piotr; Pettinari, Claudio; Marchetti, Fabio; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Lupidi, Giulio; Badillo Patzmay, Gretta Veronica; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2015-01-20

    Two new silver(I) complexes of formula [Ag(mPTA)4](Tpms)4(BF4) (1) and [Ag(Tpms)(mPTA)](BF4) (2) (mPTA = N-methyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane cation, Tpms = tris(pyrazol-1-yl)methanesulfonate anion) have been synthesized and fully characterized by elemental analyses, (1)H and (31)P{(1)H} NMR, ESI-MS, and IR spectroscopic techniques. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of 1 discloses a noncoordinated nature of the Tpms species, existing as counterions around the highly charged metal center [Ag(mPTA)](5+), 1 being the first reported coordination compound bearing a κ(0)-Tpms. 1 features high solubility and stability in water (S25 °C ≈ 30 mg·mL(-1)). The two complexes interact with calf thymus DNA via intercalation mode, binding to the BSA with decrease of its tryptophan fluorescence with a static quenching mechanism. The two new silver complexes exhibit significant antibacterial and antifungal activities screened in vitro against the standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. PMID:25531979

  5. Sequential treatment of PTA wastewater in a two-stage UASB process: focusing on p-toluate degradation and microbial distribution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Woo, Seung Han; Lee, Min Woo; Park, Jong Moon

    2012-05-15

    Two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process was investigated as an efficient process configuration option for the treatment of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater. To study its feasibility in a defined condition, synthetic wastewater containing only the major pollutants (i.e., acetate, benzoate, terephthalate and p-toluate) was used. By focusing the role of the second stage on the p-toluate degradation, improved overall COD and p-toluate removal capacities of 4.18 and 1.35 g-thCOD/L·day could be achieved together with a complete COD removal efficiency. In this situation, all the pollutants except p-toluate were completely degraded in the first stage while 38 and 62% of p-toluate originally present in the wastewater were consecutively degraded in the individual stages. The concomitant methane production rate in each stage was 0.91 and 0.35 L/L·day respectively, and the methane yield on p-toluate was determined to be 0.12 L/g-thCOD. Batch tests using the granules obtained from each stage revealed that the acidogenic microorganisms enriched in both stages had a universal ability to degrade all aromatic pollutants present in the PTA wastewater. Moreover, image analysis using scanning electron microscope and confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization technique elucidated that the distribution of acidogens and methanogens within the granule was varied in each stage, which influenced the mass transfer regime resulting in the different pollutant degradation rates during the batch tests. PMID:22417741

  6. Antecedents of chronic lung disease following three patterns of early respiratory disease in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Laughon, Matthew; Bose, Carl; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Van Marter, Linda J.; Leviton, Alan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/INTRODUCTION The incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD) varies among groups defined by their early pattern of respiratory disease. Although CLD is common among infants with continuous exposure to increased ambient oxygen throughout the first two postnatal weeks the antecedents of CLD among preterm infants without this exposure are not well understood. PATIENTS AND METHODS We examined data collected prospectively on the 1204 (out of 1506) infants born in 2002 to 2004 at 23 to 27 completed weeks of gestation who survived to 36 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA). Based on their initial respiratory presentation and need for supplemental oxygen during the first two weeks, infants were classified as having early and persistent pulmonary dysfunction (EPPD), early recovery of pulmonary function followed by deterioration (PD), or consistently good pulmonary function characterized by low FiO2 (Low FiO2). RESULTS CLD was diagnosed in 69% of infants with EPPD, in 52% with PD, and 17% in the Low FiO2 group. Risk factors for CLD varied among these groups. Birth weight z-score < -1 conveyed information about CLD risk in all three groups and was the major risk factor for infants in the Low FiO2 group (Odds Ratio [OR] 27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7–95). Mechanical ventilation at 7 days was associated with increased risk in the pulmonary deterioration group (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.5–6.9) and the early and persistent pulmonary dysfunction group (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5–4.7), but not the Low FiO2 group (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.5–3.9). CONCLUSION Both the likelihood of a very preterm infant developing CLD and the profile of risk factors linked with CLD are related to the infant’s pattern of respiratory disease during the first two postnatal weeks. Among infants with little exposure to oxygen during this period, fetal growth restriction, not mechanical ventilation, is the factor with the strongest association with CLD. PMID:20688867

  7. Effects of antecedent soil moisture on runoff modeling in small semiarid watersheds of southeastern Arizona 2104

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antecedent soil moisture prior to a rain event influences the rainfall-runoff relationship, but its degree of importance and influence on overall model prediction capability for runoff modeling in semiarid areas is not clear. This study aimed to examine the sensitivity of runoff response to anteced...

  8. Antecedents of Career Exploration among Hong Kong Chinese University Students: Testing Contextual and Developmental Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Raysen; Arnold, John

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the antecedents of career exploration. We apply the perspectives of Flum and Blustein [Flum, H., & Blustein, D. L. (2000). Reinvigorating the study of vocational exploration: A framework for research. "Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56", 380-404] for the first time in Hong Kong, and we also test culture-specific…

  9. Using an Antecedent Art Intervention to Improve the Behavior of a Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Nai-Cheng; Plavnick, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an antecedent art intervention on reduction of off-task behavior for a 3-year-old child with autism. A single-case reversal design was used to show that one-on-one art task instruction occurring prior to large group instructional sessions produced decreased levels of off-task behavior when compared to…

  10. Students' Emotions during Homework in Mathematics: Testing a Theoretical Model of Antecedents and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettmers, Swantje; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    The experience of pleasant and unpleasant emotions in academic situations is known to affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to extend previous research by examining the antecedents and consequences of student emotions in the homework context. Multilevel analyses of a longitudinal dataset containing 3483 grade 9 and grade 10…

  11. The Antecedents of Friendships in Moderately Diverse Classrooms: Social Preference, Social Impact, and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the antecedents of cross-racial/ethnic friendships and same-racial/ethnic friendships. The sample consisted of 444 (161 African American, 108 European American, 100 Asian American, and 75 Latino) children who were in the fourth grade from 39 classrooms in 10 public elementary schools. Results of Mixed Linear…

  12. Antecedent Water Content Effects on Runoff and Sediment Yields From Two Coastal Plain Utisols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly-weathered, low-carbon, intensively cropped, drought-prone Coastal Plain soils of Georgia are susceptible to runoff and soil loss, especially at certain times of the year when soil water contents are elevated. Our objective was to quantify the effects of antecedent water content (AWC) on r...

  13. Contagious Flow: Antecedents and Consequences of Optimal Experience in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Satoris S.; Fullagar, Clive J.; Simmons, Mathias J.; Zhu, Mengmeng

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined undergraduate student understanding of, and interest in, course material as potential antecedents to student experiences of flow within a classroom setting. In addition, the social, informative, and contagious nature of flow were examined, as was the influence of being in flow during classroom coverage of material on…

  14. Developmental Antecedents and Social and Academic Consequences of Stereotype-Consciousness in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark; Strambler, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which included 124 children ages 5-11, examined developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness, defined as awareness of others' stereotypes. Greater age and more frequent parent-reported racial socialization practices were associated with greater likelihood of stereotype-consciousness.…

  15. Socialization and Individual Antecedents of Adolescents' and Young Adults' Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Buchmann, Marlis

    2010-01-01

    Socialization and individual differences were examined as antecedents of moral motivation in representative samples of 15-year-old adolescents (N = 1,258; 54% female) and 21-year-old young adults (N = 584; 53% female). The adolescents' primary caregivers (N = 1,056) also participated. The strength of moral motivation was rated by participants'…

  16. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi

    2007-01-01

    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  17. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a subsample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this article reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of "secure base script knowledge", as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are…

  18. Evidence-Based Practice: Quality Indicator Analysis of Antecedent Exercise in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasner, Melanie; Reid, Greg; MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to conduct a quality indicator analysis of studies exploring the effects of antecedent exercise on self-stimulatory behaviors of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), Google Scholar, SPORTDiscus, PsychINFO, and PubMed/MedLine databases from 1980 to October…

  19. Antecedents of and Reactions to Emotions in the United States and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, David; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examines the degree of cultural similarity and specificity in the emotional experiences of subjects from the United States and Japan. Found a high degree of cultural agreement in the antecedent/evaluation process, but some differences in relative/expressive aspects of emotion. (Author/BJV)

  20. Dispositional Antecedents and Outcomes of Political Skill in Organizations: A Four-Study Investigation with Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yongmei; Ferris, Gerald R.; Zinko, Robert; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Weitz, Bart; Xu, Jun

    2007-01-01

    We developed a four-study research plan to examine the dispositional antecedents of political skill and its job performance consequences, and also to incorporate the mediating role of reputation, drawing upon a recent theoretical model of political skill in organizations. Study 1 established the psychometric properties of the two reputation scales…

  1. A Study on the Conceptualization of Librarians' Career Movement and Identification of Antecedents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Younghee

    2011-01-01

    In today's world, the surrounding environment and organizations are constantly requiring individuals to engage in lifelong learning and develop boundaryless careers. In this paper, the antecedents of career movement for librarians or those working in related organizations will be identified and conceptualized. To this end, this study establishes a…

  2. Examination of an Antecedent Communication Intervention to Reduce Tangibly Maintained Challenging Behavior: A Controlled Analog Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark; Fragale, Christina; Gainey, Summer; Kang, Soyeon; Koch, Heather; Shubert, Jennifer; El Zein, Farah; Longino, Deanna; Chung, Moon; Xu, Ziwei; White, Pamela; Lang, Russell; Davis, Tonya; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Healy, Olive; Kagohara, Deborah; van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. Individual participant multielement and reversal designs were used…

  3. An Empirical Investigation of Dispositional Antecedents and Performance-Related Outcomes of Credit Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernerth, Jeremy B.; Taylor, Shannon G.; Walker, H. Jack; Whitman, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations use credit scores as an employment screening tool, but little is known about the legitimacy of such practices. To address this important gap, the reported research conceptualized credit scores as a biographical measure of financial responsibility and investigated dispositional antecedents and performance-related outcomes. Using…

  4. Exploring the Antecedents of Learning-Related Emotions and Their Relations with Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niculescu, Alexandra Corina; Tempelaar, Dirk; Dailey-Hebert, Amber; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Recent work suggests that learning-related emotions (LREs) play a crucial role in performance especially in the first year of university, a period of transition for most students; however, additional research is needed to show how these emotions emerge. We developed a framework which links a course-contextualized antecedent--academic control in…

  5. The Costs of Today's Jobs: Job Characteristics and Organizational Supports as Antecedents of Negative Spillover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotto, Angela R.; Lyness, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined job characteristics and organizational supports as antecedents of negative work-to-nonwork spillover for 1178 U.S. employees. Based on hierarchical regression analyses of 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce data and O*NET data, job demands (requirements to work at home beyond scheduled hours, job complexity, time and…

  6. Antecedents and Concomitants of Parenting Stress in Adolescent Mothers in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Karen S.; Holdsworth, Michelle J. A.; HoganBruen, Kathy D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to examine variables associated with different short-term trajectories in multiply disadvantaged adolescent mothers by investigating antecedents and concomitants of parenting stress. Method: We followed 49 adolescent mothers (ages 14-18 at study outset) who were wards in Illinois foster care using a longitudinal…

  7. Brief Antecedent Assessment and Treatment of Tics in the General Education Classroom: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, T.; Dufrene, Brad; Weaver, Adam; Butler, Tonya; Meeks, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if specific classroom antecedents were associated with motor and vocal tics in two males diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome. A functional assessment consisting of teacher and student interviews, direct observations, brief functional analysis, and confirmatory naturalistic observations indicated that…

  8. The Antecedents of Organizational Commitment: The Case of Australian Casual Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Therese A.; Bakalis, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the increasing attention of organizational commitment in the management literature, most studies predominantly focus on full-time workers in traditional work settings. This paper examined the antecedents of organizational commitment among casual academics working in the tertiary education sector in Australia.…

  9. The Antecedents of Menarcheal Age: Heredity, Family Environment, and Stressful Life Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Considered variations in pubertal timing, specifically age at menarche, and association with various antecedents, including heredity; weight and weight for height; stressful life events; family relations; absence or presence of adult male in household; and psychological adjustment, in 75 premenarcheal adolescent girls. Found complex interactions…

  10. Role Stress Revisited: Job Structuring Antecedents, Work Outcomes, and Moderating Effects of Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2014-01-01

    A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among…

  11. Antecedents of Compliance in 2-Year-Olds From a High-Risk Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Martha Farrell; Crichton, Leslie

    In order to identify antecedents of infant's compliance with mothers' directions on how to solve four tasks (graded in terms of stressfulness to the infant), 194 high-risk mothers and their 2-year-old children were observed on videotape and assessed with a six-point rating scale. Data collected prenatally and postnatally at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months…

  12. ERP Evidence for the Rapid Assignment of an (Appropriate) Antecedent to PRO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demestre, Josep; Garcia-Albea, Jose E.

    2007-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were recorded while subjects listened to sentences containing a controlled infinitival complement. Subject and object control items were used, both with 2 potential antecedents in the upper clause. Half of the sentences had a gender agreement violation between the null subject of the infinitival complement and an…

  13. An Experimental Investigation of the Antecedents and Consequences of Psychological Reactance in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Hannah; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2014-01-01

    Psychological reactance theory (PRT) is largely understudied in the classroom context. In this experiment, we manipulated instructors' use of clarity and forceful language as antecedents of psychological reactance and examined student communication outcomes (i.e., instructional dissent and challenge behavior) as ways in which students restore…

  14. A Longitudinal Panel Study on Antecedents and Outcomes of Work-Home Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmetz, Holger; Frese, Michael; Schmidt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical models of the antecedents and outcomes of work-home interference (WHI) suggest that work characteristics (e.g., job stressors, working hours) increase the probability that an individual experiences work-home interference. Since work-home interference is considered as a role stressor, these experiences should be detrimental for…

  15. Anaphoric Reference to Quantified Antecedents: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filik, Ruth; Leuthold, Hartmut; Moxey, Linda M.; Sanford, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    We report an event-related brain potential (ERP) study examining how readers process sentences containing anaphoric reference to quantified antecedents. Previous studies indicate that positive (e.g. "many") and negative (e.g. "not many") quantifiers cause readers to focus on different sets of entities. For example in "Many of the fans attended the…

  16. The correlation of Skylab L-band brightness temperatures with antecedent precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The S194 L-band radiometer flown on the Skylab mission measured terrestrial radiation at the microwave wavelength of 21.4 cm. The terrain emissivity at this wavelength is strongly dependent on the soil moisture content, which can be inferred from antecedent precipitation. For the Skylab data acquisition pass from the Oklahoma panhandle to southeastern Texas on 11 June 1973, the S194 brightness temperatures are highly correlated with antecedent precipitation from the preceding eleven day period, but very little correlation was apparent for the preceding five day period. The correlation coefficient between the averaged antecedent precipitation index values and the corresponding S194 brightness temperatures between 230 K and 270 K, the region of apparent response to soil moisture in the data, was -0.97. The equation of the linear least squares line fitted to the data was: API (cm) = 31.99 -0.114 TB (K), where API is the antecedent precipitation index and TB is the S194 brightness temperature.

  17. Effects of Fishing Education Programs on Antecedents of Responsible Environmental Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemer, William F.; Knuth, Barbara A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates fishing and aquatic stewardship outcomes associated with different levels of program exposure among n=619 participants in a national fishing education program (Hooked on Fishing-Not on Drugs) designed for youth in Grades 6-8. Supports the assumption that such programs are more likely to influence antecedents to environmentally…

  18. Utilizing Antecedent Manipulations and Reinforcement in the Treatment of Food Selectivity by Texture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najdowski, Adel C.; Tarbox, Jonathan; Wilke, Arthur E.

    2012-01-01

    Food selectivity by texture is relatively common in children. Treatments for food selectivity by texture have included components such as stimulus fading, reinforcement, and escape extinction. The purpose of the current study was to attempt to treat food selectivity by texture utilizing antecedent manipulations and reinforcement in the absence of…

  19. Investigating the Individual Difference Antecedents of Perceived Enjoyment in Students' Use of Blogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yi-Shun; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Liao, Yi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    With the proliferation of weblogs (blogs) used in educational contexts, gaining a better understanding of why students are willing to blog has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. The main purpose of this study is to explore the individual difference antecedents of perceived enjoyment and examine how they influence blogging…

  20. Causal Models of Role Stressor Antecedents and Consequences: The Importance of Occupational Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacharach, Samuel; Bamberger, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Survey data from 215 nurses (10 male) and 430 civil engineers (10 female) supported the plausibility of occupation-specific models (positing direct paths between role stressors, antecedents, and consequences) compared to generic models. A weakness of generic models is the tendency to ignore differences in occupational structure and culture. (SK)

  1. Antecedents and Consequences of Service Quality in a Higher Education Context: A Qualitative Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…

  2. The Use of Structural Analysis to Develop Antecedent-Based Interventions for Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stichter, Janine P.; Randolph, Jena K.; Kay, Denise; Gage, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Evidence continues to maintain that the use of antecedent variables (i.e., instructional practices, and environmental characteristics) increase prosocial and adaptive behaviors of students with disabilities (e.g., Kern et al. in J Appl Behav Anal 27(1):7-19, 1994; Stichter et al. in Behav Disord 30:401-418, 2005). This study extends the literature…

  3. Establishing Mand Emergence: The Effects of Three Training Procedures and Modified Antecedent Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Claire E.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a modified antecedent during probes for emergent mands following listener versus tact training for children with autism. Eight students, aged 7 to 11, were trained to respond to 3 sets of relational responses (front/back, left/right, on/under), each assigned a nonsense label. Three training types were evaluated:…

  4. The Effects of Antecedent Physical Activity on the Academic Engagement of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Heather; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Van Heest, Jaci

    2011-01-01

    A multiple baseline design was used to examine the effects of participation in antecedent physical activity on the academic engagement of four elementary-school children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The results indicated large effect sizes for academic engaged time for all four students. It was suggested that physical activity in…

  5. Antecedent Control of Oral Reading Errors and Self-Corrections by Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Singh, Judy

    1984-01-01

    The study evaluated effects of manipulating two antecedent stimulus events with respect to oral reading errors and self-corrections of four mentally retarded adolescents. Oral reading errors decreased and self-corrections increased when the children previewed the target text with their teacher before reading it orally. (Author/CL)

  6. Integrating Real-Time Antecedent Rubrics via Blackboard™ into a Community College General Psychology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the innovative and effective delivery of online course content by community colleges, but not much has been done on how learning management systems (LMS) can deliver real-time (immediate data delivery) antecedents that inform students of performance requirements. This pilot study used Blackboard's™…

  7. The Undefined Role of the Antecedent: Addressing the Measurement Quagmires in Applied Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stichter, Janine Peck; Conroy, Maureen A.; Boyd, Brian A.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have examined trends in the antecedent research literature through discussion of key conceptual models considered to guide this research (Conroy & Stichter, 2003; Smith & Iwata, 1997; Smith, Iwata, & Michael, 2000) as well as related trends in measurement (Mahon, Shores, & Buske, 1999). Despite varied points…

  8. Job Level, Demands, and Resources as Antecedents of Work-Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiRenzo, Marco S.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Weer, Chisty H.

    2011-01-01

    Although substantial research has examined the conflict that employees experience between their work and family roles, the literature has not investigated the prevalence and antecedents of work-family conflict for individuals who work at different levels of an organization. This study examines differences in work-family conflict (work interference…

  9. Reading the Past: Historical Antecedents to Contemporary Reading Methods and Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Arlene L.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the International Reading Association's foundational knowledge requirement that educators recognize historical antecedents to contemporary reading methods and materials. The historical overview presented here highlights the ineffective methods and restrictive materials that have been discarded and the progress that has been…

  10. Behavioral and Emotional Antecedents and Consequences of Binge Eating in Bulimic and Binge Eating College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzman, Melanie A.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.

    Recent studies have indicated that bulimia, characterized by binge eating followed by depressed mood and purging, is increasing. To investigate the behavioral and emotional antecedents and consequences of binge eating in women, 22 female college students (14 diagnosed bulimics, 8 binge eaters) completed self-monitoring forms for four binges.…

  11. Responsive and Proactive Stakeholder Orientation in Public Universities: Antecedents and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcón-del-Amo, María-del-Carmen; Casablancas-Segura, Carme; Llonch, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study, based on institutional theory, dynamic capabilities, and stakeholder theory, investigates the relationships between the antecedents of responsive and proactive stakeholder orientation and their consequences in the public university context. The results obtained mainly stress that the mimetic effect of copying successful university…

  12. Parent-Child and Triadic Antecedents of Children's Social Competence: Cultural Specificity, Shared Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq

    2010-01-01

    Guided by theories of cultural participation, the authors examined mother-child, father-child, and triadic interactive behaviors in 141 Israeli and Palestinian couples and their firstborn child at 5 and 33 months as antecedents of children's social competence. Four parent-child measures (parent sensitivity, child social engagement, parental…

  13. A systematic review and meta-analysis of antecedents of blood donation behavior and intentions.

    PubMed

    Bednall, Timothy C; Bove, Liliana L; Cheetham, Ali; Murray, Andrea L

    2013-11-01

    This meta-analysis sought to identify the strongest antecedents of blood donation behavior and intentions. It synthesized the results of 24 predictive correlational studies of donation behavior and 37 studies of donation intentions. The antecedents were grouped into six research programs: (1) the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and its extensions, (2) prosocial motivation, (3) affective expectations, (4) donor site experience, (5) past donation behavior, and (6) donor demographics. Antecedent categories were cross-validated by multiple coders, and combined effect sizes were analyzed using a random-effects model. For donation behavior, medium positive associations were found with five of the constructs from the extended TPB: intentions to donate, perceived behavioral control, attitude toward donation, self-efficacy and donor role identity. Other antecedents displaying a positive association with donation behavior included anticipated regret for not donating, number of past donations and donor age. Donor experiences at the collection site in the form of temporary deferral or adverse reactions had a medium negative association with behavior. For donation intentions, strong positive associations were observed for perceived behavioral control, attitude, self-efficacy, role identity and anticipated regret. Medium positive associations were observed for personal moral norm, subjective norm, satisfaction, and service quality. All other potential antecedents had weak or non-significant associations with behavior and intentions. Several of these associations were moderated by between-study differences, including donor experience, the period of data collection in which donation behavior was observed, and the use of a nominal (yes/no return) versus a ratio measure of donation behavior. Collectively, the results underscore the importance of enhancing donors' attitudes towards donation and building their perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy to donate. Further

  14. Inter-seasonal variability in baseflow recession rates: The role of aquifer antecedent storage in central California watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, Ryan; Hope, Allen

    2014-11-01

    Baseflow recession rates vary inter-seasonally in many watersheds. This variability is generally associated with changes in evapotranspiration; however, an additional and less studied control over inter-seasonal baseflow recession rates is the effect of aquifer antecedent storage. Understanding the role of aquifer antecedent storage on baseflow recession rates is crucial for Mediterranean-climate regions, where seasonal asynchronicity of precipitation and energy levels produces large inter-seasonal differences in aquifer storage. The primary objective of this study was to elucidate the relation between aquifer antecedent storage and baseflow recession rates in four central California watersheds using antecedent streamflow as a surrogate for watershed storage. In addition, a parsimonious storage-discharge model consisting of two nonlinear stores in parallel was developed as a heuristic tool for interpreting the empirical results and providing insight into how inter-seasonal changes in aquifer antecedent storage may affect baseflow recession rates. Antecedent streamflow cumulated from the beginning of the wateryear was found to be the strongest predictor of baseflow recession rates, indicating that inter-seasonal differences in aquifer storage are a key control on baseflow recession rates in California watersheds. Baseflow recession rates and antecedent streamflow exhibited a negative power-law relation, with baseflow recession rates decreasing by up to two orders of magnitude as antecedent streamflow levels increased. Inference based on the storage-discharge model indicated that the dominant source of recession flow shifted from small, rapid response aquifers at the beginning of the wet season to large, seasonal aquifers as the wet season progressed. Aquifer antecedent storage in California watersheds should be accounted for along with evapotranspiration when characterizing baseflow recession rates.

  15. Understanding the Antecedents of Korean High School Students’ Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy: Parental Influence, Peer Influence, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Su Ahn; Cho, NamAuk; Yoo, Jina

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the factors that influence Korean adolescents’ drinking refusal self-efficacy, which is known to be associated with alcohol use and drinking intentions. Specifically, this study considered parental monitoring, parent-child communication satisfaction, peer influence, and prior alcohol use as possible antecedents of Korean high school students’ drinking refusal self-efficacy. High school students (n = 538) in South Korea responded to the current study. The data revealed that parent-child communication satisfaction facilitated parental monitoring, and these factors indirectly predicted adolescents’ drinking behavior through peer influence. We also found that prior drinking, parental monitoring, and peer influence were directly associated with drinking refusal self-efficacy, and the self-efficacy, in turn, was associated with drinking intentions. These results not only suggest that drinking refusal self-efficacy are related to drinking behavior and intentions, but they also provide a theoretical explanation for how parental and peer influences are associated with adolescents’ drinking refusal self-efficacy. PMID:22980099

  16. Correlations between Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer data and an antecedent precipitation index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilke, G. D.; Mcfarland, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Passive microwave brightness temperatures from the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) can be used to infer the soil moisture content over agricultural areas such as the southern Great Plains of the United States. A linear regression analysis between three transforms of the five dual polarized SMMR wavelengths of 0.81, 1.36, 1.66, 2.80 and 4.54 cm and an antecedent precipitation index representing the precipitation history showed correlation coefficients greater than 0.90 for pixel aggregates of 25-50 km. The use of surface air temperatures to approximate the temperature of the emitting layer was not required to obtain high correlation coefficients between the transforms and the antecedent precipitation index.

  17. Individual and contextual antecedents of workplace aggression in aged care nurses and certified nursing assistants.

    PubMed

    Rodwell, John; Demir, Defne; Gulyas, Andre

    2015-08-01

    Employees in aged care are at high risk of workplace aggression. Research rarely examines the individual and contextual antecedents of aggression for specific types of workers within these settings, such as nurses and certified nursing assistants (CNAs). The study aimed to explore characteristics of the job demands-resources model (JD-R), negative affectivity (NA) and demographics related to workplace aggression for aged care workers. The survey study was based on 208 nurses and 83 CNAs working within aged care. Data from each group were analysed separately using ordinal regressions. Both aged care nurses and CNAs reported high rates of bullying, external emotional abuse, threat of assault and physical assault. Elements of the JD-R model and individual characteristics were related to aggression types for both groups. Characteristics of the JD-R model, NA and demographics are important in understanding the antecedents of aggression observed among aged care workers. PMID:26224217

  18. Individual- and perceived contextual-level antecedents of individual technical information inquiry in organizations.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hwee Hoon; Zhao, Bin

    2003-11-01

    The authors conducted an empirical study in research and development centers and research-oriented commercial companies in Singapore to test a model for understanding individuals' technical information inquiry behavior in organization settings. Individual-level antecedents (learning orientation, risk-taking propensity, and self-efficacy) and perceived contextual-level antecedents (management support, relationship quality, organizational norms favoring technical information inquiry, and accessibility of the information source) were theorized to affect one's evaluation of the potential benefits and costs in making technical information inquiries. The results showed that the perceived norms favoring technical information inquiry affected the willingness of individuals to make technical information inquiries through the mediating variable, expectancy value. In addition, compared with individual-level variables, perceived contextual-level variables explained slightly more variance in the willingness to make technical information inquiries. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:14992350

  19. Newcomer adjustment during organizational socialization: a meta-analytic review of antecedents, outcomes, and methods.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Talya N; Bodner, Todd; Erdogan, Berrin; Truxillo, Donald M; Tucker, Jennifer S

    2007-05-01

    The authors tested a model of antecedents and outcomes of newcomer adjustment using 70 unique samples of newcomers with meta-analytic and path modeling techniques. Specifically, they proposed and tested a model in which adjustment (role clarity, self-efficacy, and social acceptance) mediated the effects of organizational socialization tactics and information seeking on socialization outcomes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, intentions to remain, and turnover). The results generally supported this model. In addition, the authors examined the moderating effects of methodology on these relationships by coding for 3 methodological issues: data collection type (longitudinal vs. cross-sectional), sample characteristics (school-to-work vs. work-to-work transitions), and measurement of the antecedents (facet vs. composite measurement). Discussion focuses on the implications of the findings and suggestions for future research. PMID:17484552

  20. Antecedents and outcomes of union loyalty: a constructive replication and an extension.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hwee Hoon; Aryee, Samuel

    2002-08-01

    Primary data obtained from unionized employees in Singapore were used to examine P. A. Bamberger, A. N. Kluger, and R. Suchard's (1999) integrative model of the antecedents and outcomes of union commitment. Structural equation modeling results revealed support for their integrative model. Specifically, the results revealed the influence of job satisfaction on union loyalty to be indirect through organizational commitment. However, the union-related antecedents (union socialization and union instrumentality) were both directly and indirectly related to union loyalty through pro-union attitudes. In addition, union loyalty was related to the individually and organizationally directed union citizenship behavior dimensions. Limitations of the study and implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:12184575

  1. Assessing Injuries with Proxies: Implications for Understanding Concurrent Relations and Behavioral Antecedents of Pediatric Injuries

    PubMed Central

    van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the implications of using proxies of medically attended injuries (minor injuries and close calls) for understanding concurrent relations among—and behavioral antecedents of—pediatric injuries. Methods Participants were 812 children from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Measures of externalizing behavior, maternal depression, SES, and the home environment were examined as prospective predictors of minor injuries, close calls, and medically attended injuries. Results Minor injuries and close calls were associated with medically attended injuries concurrently. Regression equations revealed different prospective predictors across the three outcome variables. Conclusions This study was the first to examine concurrent associations among minor injuries, close calls, and medically attended injuries. Prospective antecedents of each injury assessment were also examined. The present findings signify the importance of distinguishing between these different methods of assessing pediatric injury. The study also illustrated that different analytic strategies were needed to represent observed data of each outcome variable. PMID:19451172

  2. Applying generalizability theory to examine the antecedents of perceived coach support.

    PubMed

    Coussens, Adam Howard; Rees, Tim; Freeman, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Although social support is integral to the coaching process, there is only a limited understanding of the antecedents of perceived coach support. We applied generalizability theory to examine perceived coach support and its antecedents at perceiver, provider, and relational levels of analysis. Two studies were conducted in which athletes rated the degree to which they identified with a selection of coaches, and the personality, competency, and supportiveness of those coaches. Univariate analyses demonstrated that the relational component accounted for a significant amount of variance in perceived coach support in both studies. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that when athletes perceive specific coaches to be highly agreeable, competent, and individuals with whom they share a common identity, they also perceive these same coaches to be particularly supportive in comparison with other coaches. PMID:25730891

  3. The influence of source landforms, antecedent precipitation, and winds on dust events in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantine, John-Andrew Chapin

    This dissertation identifies conditions associated with dust storms in North Africa. The introductory chapter frames a conceptual model of how atmospheric dustiness is governed by static landforms, dynamic characteristics of the surface (represented by cumulative antecedent precipitation or CAP), and surface wind fields. Visibility at 225 meteorological stations across Africa, north of 10° north latitude, is used as a proxy for atmospheric dust. A map of landforms is created from a multiple endmember mixture analysis of MODIS satellite imagery to represent landforms. The ten landforms identified are alluvial surfaces, dunes, dry lakebeds, water, basaltic surfaces, mountains, regs, bedrock surfaces, sandsheets, and vegetated surfaces. Climatological and event-based statistics are used to determine relationships between parameters related to visibility, landforms, CAP, and wind speed. CAP represents dynamic changes in the erodibility of the surface including the sheltering effect of vegetation and delivery of erodible sediments. Surface wind velocities represent the winds that mobilize fine sediments to become dust. Alluvial surfaces, dunes, dry lakebeds, regs, bedrock, and sandsheets are more often associated with low visibility (<5 km) events than high. Negative correlations between median wind speed and the monthly frequency of visibility less than five kilometers (DEF-5) identify 33 stations where factors other than dust strongly influence the visibility record and these stations are removed. Results regarding the relationship between CAP and dustiness find that at Sahelian and southern Saharan locations, vulnerability to dust emissions is related to drought reducing vegetation cover. At central, northern, and eastern Saharan locations, vulnerability to dust emissions is related to wet conditions, probably as a result of fresh sediment being deposited at erodible locations in the landscape. Wind speed results find that for any dust source, there is an

  4. Social Antecedents of Learned Helplessness in the Health Care Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Kenneth

    1982-01-01

    Examines social factors that lead to the development of learned helplessness in elderly persons in the health care setting, including stereotyping elderly by health care professionals, effects of unequal interpersonal exchange, and behaviors associated with sick and healer roles. Discusses programatic and educational prophylaxis and solutions to…

  5. A Model of the Antecedents of Training Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed Turab, Ghaneemah; Casimir, Gian

    2015-01-01

    Many organizations have invested heavily in training. However, only a small percentage of what is learnt from training is applied or transferred to the workplace. This study examines factors that influence training transfer. A conceptual model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action is hypothesized and tested. The sample consisted of 123 full-time…

  6. The Social Antecedents of Anger Proneness in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, R. Jay; Russell, David; Glover, Regan; Hutto, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    Anger has been shown to be an important factor in occupational maladjustment, family conflict, physical and sexual assault, criminal behavior, and substance abuse. It has also been linked with such adverse health outcomes as hypertension, heart disease, and cancer. Focusing on anger proneness, conceptualized as a relatively enduring propensity to…

  7. Acetylcholine-like and trimethylglycine-like PTA (1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) derivatives for the development of innovative Ru- and Pt-based therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Valeria; Fogagnolo, Marco; Marchi, Andrea; Marvelli, Lorenza; Sforza, Fabio; Bergamini, Paola

    2014-05-19

    The PTA N-alkyl derivatives (PTAC2H4OCOMe)X (1X: 1a, X = Br; 1b, X = I; 1c, X = PF6; 1d, X = BPh4), (PTACH2COOEt)X (2X: 2a, X = Br; 2b, X = Cl; 2c, X = PF6), and (PTACH2CH2COOEt)X (3X: 3a, X = Br; 3c, X = PF6), presenting all the functional groups of the natural cationic compounds acetylcholine or trimethylglycine combined with a P-donor site suitable for metal ion coordination, were prepared and characterized by NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The X-ray crystal structures of 1d and 2c were determined. Ligands 1c, 2b, and 3c were coordinated to Pt(II) and Ru(II) to give the cationic complexes cis-[PtCl2(L)2]X2 and [RuCpCl(PPh3)(L)]X (L = 1, 2, 3, X = Cl or PF6) designed with a structure targeted for anticancer activity. The X-ray crystal structure of [CpRu(PPh3)(PTAC2H4OCOMe)Cl]PF6 (1cRu) was determined. The antiproliferative activity of the ligands and the complexes was evaluated on three human cancer cell lines. PMID:24801393

  8. In-flight near- and far-field acoustic data measured on the Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) testbed and with an adjacent aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Loeffler, Irvin J.

    1993-01-01

    Flight tests to define the far-field tone source at cruise conditions were completed on the full-scale SR-7L advanced turboprop that was installed on the left wing of a Gulfstream 2 aircraft. This program, designated Propfan Test Assessment (PTA), involved aeroacoustic testing of the propeller over a range of test conditions. These measurements defined source levels for input into long-distance propagation models to predict en route noise. In-flight data were taken for seven test cases. Near-field acoustic data were taken on the Gulfstream fuselage and on a microphone boom that was mounted on the Gulfstream wing outboard of the propeller. Far-field acoustic data were taken by an acoustically instrumented Learjet that flew in formation with the Gulfstream. These flight tests were flown from El Paso, Texas, and from the NASA Lewis Research Center. A comprehensive listing of the aeroacoustic results from these flight tests which may be used for future analysis are presented.

  9. trans-thionate derivatives of Pt(II) and Pd(II) with water-soluble phosphane PTA and DAPTA ligands: antiproliferative activity against human ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Elena; Miranda, Susana; Lüttenberg, Sebastian; Fröhlich, Nils; Koenen, Jan-Moritz; Mohr, Fabian; Cerrada, Elena; Laguna, Mariano; Mendía, Aránzazu

    2013-06-01

    A series of PTA and DAPTA platinum(II) and palladium(II) thionate complexes of the type trans-[M(SN)2P2] were prepared from the reaction of cis-[MCl2P2] [M = Pt, Pd; P = PTA (1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane), DAPTA (3,7-diacetyl-1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane)] with the in situ generated sodium salts of the heterocyclic thiones S-m-methylpyrimidine-2-thione, S-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine-2-thione, S-4,6-dihydroxypyrimidine-2-thione, benzothiazole-2-thione, benzoxazole-2-thione, S-1,3,4,-thiadiazole-2-thione, S-4,5-H-thiazolan-2-thione, and S-pyrimidine-4(1H)-one-2-thione. The X-ray structures of six of the compounds confirm the trans disposition and, only in the case of [Pd2Cl2(S-pyrimidine-4(1H)-one-2-thionate)2(PTA)2], a dinuclear structure with a Pd-Pd distance of 3.0265(14)Å was observed. In vitro cytotoxicities against human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 and A2780cisR were evaluated for ten complexes showing a high inhibition of cellular growth with a comparable inhibitory potency (IC50) against A2780 cells to that of cisplatin. Notably, the compounds also show significant (up to 7-fold higher) activity in cisplatin-resistant A2780cisR cell lines. PMID:23692403

  10. Semi-arid vegetation response to antecedent climate and water balance windows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thoma, David P.; Munson, Seth M.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Witwicki, Dana L.; Bunting, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Questions Can we improve understanding of vegetation response to water availability on monthly time scales in semi-arid environments using remote sensing methods? What climatic or water balance variables and antecedent windows of time associated with these variables best relate to the condition of vegetation? Can we develop credible near-term forecasts from climate data that can be used to prepare for future climate change effects on vegetation? Location Semi-arid grasslands in Capitol Reef National Park, Utah, USA. Methods We built vegetation response models by relating the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from MODIS imagery in Mar–Nov 2000–2013 to antecedent climate and water balance variables preceding the monthly NDVI observations. We compared how climate and water balance variables explained vegetation greenness and then used a multi-model ensemble of climate and water balance models to forecast monthly NDVI for three holdout years. Results Water balance variables explained vegetation greenness to a greater degree than climate variables for most growing season months. Seasonally important variables included measures of antecedent water input and storage in spring, switching to indicators of drought, input or use in summer, followed by antecedent moisture availability in autumn. In spite of similar climates, there was evidence the grazed grassland showed a response to drying conditions 1 mo sooner than the ungrazed grassland. Lead times were generally short early in the growing season and antecedent window durations increased from 3 mo early in the growing season to 1 yr or more as the growing season progressed. Forecast accuracy for three holdout years using a multi-model ensemble of climate and water balance variables outperformed forecasts made with a naïve NDVI climatology. Conclusions We determined the influence of climate and water balance on vegetation at a fine temporal scale, which presents an opportunity to forecast vegetation

  11. A Factor-Analytic Study of Childhood Symptoms Antecedent to Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, James D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A sample of child guidance clinic patients who received an adult diagnosis of schizophrenia were followed through record sources into middle adulthood. The determination of within-sample differences in long-term adult outcome provided predictive criteria. (Editor)

  12. Examining Antecedents of Knowledge-Sharing Factors on Research Supervision: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khosravi, Arash; Ahmad, Mohammad Nazir

    2016-01-01

    The use of an effective supervision mechanism is crucial between a student and supervisor. The essential knowledge shared and transferred between these two parties must be observed and understood very well in order to ensure that students are produced at good level of quality for future professional knowledge workers. The aim of this study was to…

  13. A prospective study of childhood and adolescent antecedents of homelessness among a community population of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Kate E; Doherty, Elaine E; Robertson, Judith A; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2012-06-01

    Much is known about contemporaneous correlates of homelessness from studies of homeless individuals. However, few studies have prospectively examined early antecedents and prevalence of homelessness in community populations. We use data from a 35-year study of a community population of African Americans to examine relationships between homelessness and prior structural, family, school, and behavioral influences. Nearly 22% of males and 16% of females reported homelessness between ages 15 and 42, providing a rare estimate within an African American urban community population. In bivariate analyses, lower school bonds, depressed mood, violent behavior, and running away in adolescence are predictive for both males and females. Teen parenting and angry mood are unique influences for females, while for males, poor first grade classroom conduct and adolescent substance use are unique risks. In multivariate analyses, poor classroom conduct and weaker school bonds predict homelessness among males, while teen parenting does so for females. Running away before age 15 is strongly predictive of later homelessness for both males and females. These results reveal the relative influence of multiple, interrelated early risks on homelessness and confirm our hypothesis that factors linked to other poor outcomes also relate to homelessness, underscoring another benefit to early prevention efforts. PMID:22234393

  14. It matters how old you feel: Antecedents and performance consequences of average relative subjective age in organizations.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Florian; Raes, Anneloes M L; Bruch, Heike

    2015-09-01

    This article extends the conceptual knowledge of average relative subjective age in organizations by exploring organizational-level antecedents and consequences of employees, on average, feeling younger than their chronological age. We draw from the theories of selection-optimization-compensation and socioemotional selectivity to build a theoretical framework for relative subjective age in organizations. We hypothesize that companies in which employees, on average, perceive themselves to be younger than they actually are have a higher average individual goal accomplishment and, in turn, experience higher company performance. We further hypothesize that employees' average experience of high work-related meaning relates to a lower subjective age in organizations. In addition, we assess the role of environmental dynamism and age-inclusive human resource management as moderators in this theoretical model. Through empirically testing this model in a multisource dataset, including 107 companies with 15,164 participating employees, we received support for the hypothesized relationships. Our results contribute to current debates in the scientific literature on age and have important practical implications in light of the demographic changes faced by many companies. This research indicates to both researchers and practitioners that it is not employees' chronological age but their subjective age, a factor that can be influenced, which drives organizational performance outcomes. PMID:25798554

  15. Quality of Working Life: An Antecedent to Employee Turnover Intention

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to measure the level of quality of work life (QWL) among hospital employees in Iran. Additionally, it aimed to identify the factors that are critical to employees’ QWL. It also aimed to test a theoretical model of the relationship between employees’ QWL and their intention to leave the organization. Methods: A survey study was conducted based on a sample of 608 hospital employees using a validated questionnaire. Face, content and construct validity were conducted on the survey instrument. Results: Hospital employees reported low QWL. Employees were least satisfied with pay, benefits, job promotion, and management support. The most important predictor of QWL was management support, followed by job proud, job security and job stress. An inverse relationship was found between employees QWL and their turnover intention. Conclusion: This study empirically examined the relationships between employees’ QWL and their turnover intention. Managers can take appropriate actions to improve employees’ QWL and subsequently reduce employees’ turnover. PMID:24596835

  16. Antecedents and Covariates of Alcohol Consumption among Swiss Male Conscripts

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Mario; Kipke, Ingo; Frey, Franz; Rossler, Wulf; Lupi, Gianpiero; Vetter, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prevalence and correlates of alcohol consumption frequency in a sample of Swiss conscripts (n=25,611) in order to identify factors that predispose for frequent consumption. A self-report of drinking frequencies, as well as socio-demographic and psychosocial variables, was collected at psychiatric baseline screening. Based on univariate analyses, relevant variables were included in a multivariate multinomial logistic regression model. Six percent were abstainers, 15% reported rarely drinking, 53% occasional drinking, 24% regular drinking and 2% daily drinking. Except for substance use, most associations followed a “J”-shaped curve across the categories of alcohol frequency. Abstinence and frequent drinking can be perceived as deviations from the social norm. Both behaviors are associated with more psychosocial stressors and might be therefore special targets for further studies and new prevention programs. PMID:19440426

  17. The dispositional antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Hemant; Tangirala, Subrahmaniam; Srivastava, Nalin K; Kamdar, Dishan

    2016-09-01

    We propose that promotive voice, or the expression of suggestions for improving work practices in the organization, and prohibitive voice, or the expression of warnings about factors that can harm the organization, are differentially influenced by employees' dispositional inclination to be approach and avoidance oriented. Drawing on multisource survey data from 291 employees and their managers, we found that approach orientation had positive relationship with promotive voice and negative relationship with prohibitive voice. By contrast, avoidance orientation had positive relationship with prohibitive voice and negative relationship with promotive voice. Further, voice role expectations, or employees' beliefs about the extent to which a particular form of voice is expected from them in their daily work, moderated the effects of approach and avoidance orientations. Highlighting the unique nature of voice as a behavior that is especially sensitive to situational cues, the effects of approach and avoidance orientations on promotive and prohibitive voice were stronger when role expectations for that form of voice were weaker. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27599091

  18. Grief and depression after miscarriage: their separation, antecedents, and course.

    PubMed

    Beutel, M; Deckardt, R; von Rad, M; Weiner, H

    1995-01-01

    Bereavement is a major risk factor for physical illness, grief, depression, and anxiety. In contrast to recent tendencies in the psychiatric literature to equate grief and depression, we propose that a careful discrimination between the two must be made for diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative purposes. We report the results of a longitudinal study of a frequent but neglected event, miscarriage early in pregnancy, to make this point. Clinical criteria for differentiating grief and depressive reactions were developed based on phenomenological criteria and theoretical considerations. We hypothesized that the detrimental psychological and physical consequences occur only when the miscarriage was not mourned and resulted in a depressive reaction, but not in a grief reaction. In a controlled, representative study, 125 consecutive women were assessed shortly after their miscarriage (before the 20th week of gestation) and 6 months (N = 94) and 12 months (N = 90) later. Assessments included standardized questionnaires for life events, depression, physical complaints, anxiety, and a specific, multidimensional grief scale (Munich Grief Scale) that we had developed previously. Immediately after the miscarriage, the average anxiety and depression scores were elevated when compared with 80 pregnant and 125 age-matched community controls. Twenty percent of the patients who had miscarried showed a grief reaction, 12% showed a depressive reaction, and 20% responded with a combined depressive and grief reaction. The remaining women (48%) reported no changes in their emotional reactions. As predicted, longer-lasting psychological, social, and health status changes followed the initial depressive, but not the grief reactions. Depressive reactions were predicted by a history of previous depression, a lack of social resources, and an ambivalent attitude to the lost fetus. The grief measures were reliable and made it possible to discriminate between grief and depression. PMID

  19. Beneficial Effects of Antecedent Exercise Training on Limb Motor Function and Calpain Expression in a Rat Model of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Myoung; Kim, Eunjung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we investigated the effects of antecedent exercise on functional recovery and calpain protein expression following focal cerebral ischemia injury. [Subjects and Methods] The rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model was employed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group I comprised untreated normal rats (n=10); Group II comprised untreated rats with focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); Group III comprised rats that performed treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training after focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); and Group IV comprised rats that performed antecedent treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training before focal cerebral ischemia (n=10). At different time points (1, 7, 14, and 21 days), limb placement test score and the levels of calpain protein in the hippocampus were examined. [Results] In the antecedent exercise group, improvements in the motor behavior index (limb placement test) were observed and hippocampal calpain protein levels were decreased. [Conclusion] These results indicated that antecedent treadmill exercise prior to focal cerebral ischemia exerted neuroprotective effects against ischemic brain injury by improving motor performance and decreasing the levels of calpain expression. Furthermore, these results suggest that antecedent treadmill exercise of an appropriate intensity is critical for post-stroke rehabilitation. PMID:24259890

  20. The Relationship Between Anaphor Features and Antecedent Retrieval: Comparing Mandarin Ziji and Ta-Ziji

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Brian; Chow, Wing-Yee; Xiang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we report two self-paced reading experiments that investigate antecedent retrieval processes in sentence comprehension by contrasting the real-time processing behavior of two different reflexive anaphors in Mandarin Chinese. Previous work has suggested that comprehenders initially evaluate the fit between the morphologically simple long-distance reflexive “ziji” and the closest available subject position, only subsequently considering more structurally distant antecedents (Gao et al., 2005; Liu, 2009; Li and Zhou, 2010; Dillon et al., 2014; cf. Chen et al., 2012). In this paper, we investigate whether this locality bias effect obtains for other reflexive anaphors in Mandarin Chinese, or if it is associated specifically with the morphologically simple reflexive ziji. We do this by comparing the processing of ziji to the processing of the morphologically complex reflexive ta-ziji (lit. s/he-self). In Experiment 1, we investigate the processing of ziji, and replicate the finding of a strong locality bias effect for ziji in self-paced reading measures. In Experiment 2, we investigate the processing of the morphologically complex reflexive ta-ziji in the same structural configurations as Experiment 1. A comparison of our experiments reveals that ta-ziji shows a significantly weaker locality bias effect than ziji does. We propose that this results from the difference in the number of morphological and semantic features on the anaphor ta-ziji relative to ziji. Specifically, we propose that the additional retrieval cues associated with ta-ziji reduce interference from irrelevant representations in memory, allowing it to more reliably access an antecedent regardless its linear or structural distance. This reduced interference in turn leads to a diminished locality bias effect for the morphologically complex anaphor ta-ziji. PMID:26779079

  1. Effects of Intensive Therapy and Antecedent Hypoglycemia on Counterregulatory Responses to Hypoglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephen N.; Mann, Stephanie; Briscoe, Vanessa J.; Ertl, Andrew C.; Tate, Donna B.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The physiology of counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia in intensively treated type 2 diabetic subjects is largely unknown. Therefore, the specific aims of the study tested the hypothesis that 1) 6 months of intensive therapy to lower A1C <7.0% would blunt autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to hypoglycemia, and 2) antecedent hypoglycemia will result in counterregulatory failure during subsequent hypoglycemia in patients with suboptimal and good glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Fifteen type 2 diabetic patients (8 men/7 women) underwent 6-month combination therapy of metformin, glipizide XL, and acarbose to lower A1C to 6.7% and 2-day repeated hypoglycemic clamp studies before and after intensive therapy. A control group of eight nondiabetic subjects participated in a single 2-day repeated hypoglycemic clamp study. RESULTS—Six-month therapy reduced A1C from 10.2 ± 0.5 to 6.7 ± 0.3%. Rates of hypoglycemia increased to 3.2 episodes per patient/month by study end. Hypoglycemia (3.3 ± 0.1 mmol/l) and insulinemia (1,722 ± 198 pmol/l) were similar during all clamp studies. Intensive therapy reduced (P < 0.05) ANS and metabolic counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia. Antecedent hypoglycemia produced widespread blunting (P < 0.05) of neuroendocrine, ANS, and metabolic counterregulatory responses during subsequent hypoglycemia before and after intensive therapy in type 2 diabetic patients and in nondiabetic control subjects. CONCLUSIONS—Intensive oral combination therapy and antecedent hypoglycemia both blunt physiological defenses against subsequent hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Prior hypoglycemia of only 3.3 ± 0.1 mmol/l can result in counterregulatory failure in type 2 diabetic patients with suboptimal control and can further impair physiological defenses against hypoglycemia in intensively treated type 2 diabetes. PMID:19073776

  2. Why continuous simulation? The role of antecedent moisture in design flood estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathiraja, S.; Westra, S.; Sharma, A.

    2012-06-01

    Continuous simulation for design flood estimation is increasingly becoming a viable alternative to traditional event-based methods. The advantage of continuous simulation approaches is that the catchment moisture state prior to the flood-producing rainfall event is implicitly incorporated within the modeling framework, provided the model has been calibrated and validated to produce reasonable simulations. This contrasts with event-based models in which both information about the expected sequence of rainfall and evaporation preceding the flood-producing rainfall event, as well as catchment storage and infiltration properties, are commonly pooled together into a single set of "loss" parameters which require adjustment through the process of calibration. To identify the importance of accounting for antecedent moisture in flood modeling, this paper uses a continuous rainfall-runoff model calibrated to 45 catchments in the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Flood peaks derived using the historical daily rainfall record are compared with those derived using resampled daily rainfall, for which the sequencing of wet and dry days preceding the heavy rainfall event is removed. The analysis shows that there is a consistent underestimation of the design flood events when antecedent moisture is not properly simulated, which can be as much as 30% when only 1 or 2 days of antecedent rainfall are considered, compared to 5% when this is extended to 60 days of prior rainfall. These results show that, in general, it is necessary to consider both short-term memory in rainfall associated with synoptic scale dependence, as well as longer-term memory at seasonal or longer time scale variability in order to obtain accurate design flood estimates.

  3. Antecedent flow conditions and nitrate concentrations in the Mississippi River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Sprague, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between antecedent flow conditions and nitrate concentrations was explored at eight sites in the 2.9 million square kilometers (km2) Mississippi River basin, USA. Antecedent flow conditions were quantified as the ratio between the mean daily flow of the previous year and the mean daily flow from the period of record (Qratio), and the Qratio was statistically related to nitrate anomalies (the unexplained variability in nitrate concentration after filtering out season, long-term trend, and contemporaneous flow effects) at each site. Nitrate anomaly and Qratio were negatively related at three of the four major tributary sites and upstream in the Mississippi River, indicating that when mean daily streamflow during the previous year was lower than average, nitrate concentrations were higher than expected. The strength of these relationships increased when data were subdivided by contemporaneous flow conditions. Five of the eight sites had significant negative relationships (p ≤ 0.05) at high or moderately high contemporaneous flows, suggesting nitrate that accumulates in these basins during a drought is flushed during subsequent high flows. At half of the sites, when mean daily flow during the previous year was 50 percent lower than average, nitrate concentration can be from 9 to 27 percent higher than nitrate concentrations that follow a year with average mean daily flow. Conversely, nitrate concentration can be from 8 to 21 percent lower than expected when flow during the previous year was 50 percent higher than average. Previously documented for small, relatively homogenous basins, our results suggest that relationships between antecedent flows and nitrate concentrations are also observable at a regional scale. Relationships were not observed (using all contemporaneous flow data together) for basins larger than 1 million km2, suggesting that above this limit the overall size and diversity within these basins may necessitate the use of more

  4. Public health and health and wellbeing boards: antecedents, theory and development.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The 2012 Health and Social Care Act transfers responsibility for public health in England from primary care trusts to local authorities. This article traces the theoretical and policy antecedents of the proposals and highlights some key changes since their original conception in the 2010 public health white paper. It suggests that the development of health and well-being boards and their objectives can best be understood by viewing them through the theoretical prism of public value or new public service theory and concludes with some recommendations for their implementation and development. PMID:23780754

  5. Wearing the cloak: antecedents and consequences of creating facades of conformity.

    PubMed

    Hewlin, Patricia Faison

    2009-05-01

    This study examines a select set of relationships proposed in P. F. Hewlin's (2003) conceptual model of antecedents and consequences of creating facades of conformity. Results from a survey study of 238 employees working in multiple industries indicate that perceived nonparticipative work environments, minority status, self-monitoring, and collectivism are related to creating facades of conformity. Emotional exhaustion serves as a mediator between creating facades of conformity and members' intention to leave the organization. Collectivism moderates the relationship between emotional exhaustion and intention to leave. PMID:19450009

  6. Impacts of rainfall features and antecedent soil moisture on occurrence of preferential flow: A study at hillslopes using high-frequency monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhenyang; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    In order to evaluate influences of rainfall features and antecedent soil moisture on occurrence of preferential flow, a more than 2 years observation was conducted at 12 sites within a 7-km2 catchment, by applying the high-frequency monitoring approach. Totally 65 rainfall events were selected to compare among sites, and preferential flow was inferred when (i) responses of soil moisture did not follow a linear sequence with depth, and (ii) penetration velocity of wetting front in at least one horizon exceeded the threshold, which was set to be 5-10 times of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil matrix at different depths. Results showed that frequency of preferential flow was 40.7% in average, but varied from 17.9% to 74.3% among the sites. Correlations between the frequency and rainfall features, i.e. rainfall amount, duration, maximum and average intensity, were well fitted by logarithmic curves. Rainfall amount, which was most prominently correlated with frequency (R2=0.93), was regarded as the dominant driving factor of preferential flow, while average intensity was in second (R2=0.90). Antecedent soil moisture was also significantly correlated with the frequency. However, this should largely be attributed to the differences of soil moisture among sites, since varying range of soil moisture at a specific site was not wide enough to influence the frequency significantly. Further examination suggested that topography and surface cover (dead leaves and humus) were the controlling factors of both infiltration amount and occurrence of preferential flow, as water was more readily to infiltrate into soils and preferential flow was more readily to occur when slope gradient was small and surface cover was thick, while soil moisture was more likely to be a consequence of water storage capacity, rather than an inducer of preferential flow. This knowledge could be helpful in understanding the partitioning of surface runoff and infiltration, as well as runoff

  7. Using Structural Analysis in Head Start Classrooms: Antecedent-Based Interventions for Young Children at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kristy Lee

    2008-01-01

    The majority of FBA research has focused on identifying and developing interventions based on the function or consequences of problem behavior; however, increased attention has recently been focused on the effects of antecedent variables on problem behavior in natural settings. This study examined the functional antecedent-based process in early…

  8. Development of perceived job insecurity across two years: associations with antecedents and employee outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Mäkikangas, Anne; Mauno, Saija; De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

    2014-04-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study among 848 university employees investigated the individual development of perceived job insecurity (JI) in the context of changes occurring in the Finnish universities during the follow-up time. Adopting a person-oriented approach through latent profile analysis, 8 classes of employees with similar mean levels and mean-level changes in JI were identified. Two of these classes (75% of the participants) indicated stable (low, moderately high) JI, and the remaining 6 classes (25% of the participants) showed change (decreasing, increasing, curvilinear) in the level of JI across time. We then examined possible differences between these classes with respect to individual antecedents and outcomes of JI. Of the antecedents, the type of employment contract distinguished best between the JI classes. Of the outcomes, moderately high stable JI was associated with low stable vigor and high stable levels of exhaustion and turnover intentions across time. In addition, it seemed that a decrease in JI was associated with a decrease in exhaustion and turnover intentions and vice versa. Altogether the findings suggest that developmental JI classes exhibit a substantial amount of heterogeneity, which is simultaneously reflected in occupational well-being. PMID:24730428

  9. [Antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying: a longitudinal analysis with a structural equation model].

    PubMed

    Carretero Domínguez, Noelia; Gil-Monte, Pedro Rafael; Luciano Devis, Juan Vicente

    2011-11-01

    Most studies focusing on the antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying have used a cross-sectional design, which impedes determining the causality of the relationships. In the present work, we analyzed, by means of structural equation models, the relationship between workplace bullying and some variables that are considered antecedents (interpersonal conflicts, role ambiguity, role conflict, and workplace social support) or consequences (health complaints and inclination to absenteeism from work) of this phenomenon. Multicenter study with two phases. The sample consisted of 696 employees from 66 centers. Workplace bullying was assessed by means of the "Mobbing-UNIPSICO" questionnaire, and the other variables with frequency scales. The cross-sectional models indicated a significant association between role conflict, workplace social support, and workplace bullying in both study periods. Concerning the longitudinal relationships, only workplace social support was a significant predictor of workplace bullying, which, in turn, was a cross-sectional and longitudinal predictor of workers' health complaints. Our results show the mediating effect of workplace bullying between certain work conditions and health complaints, and it is recommendable to replicate these findings in a multi-occupational sample. PMID:22047848

  10. Franklin Elementary PTA's "Sweet Success"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freemon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Just a few short years ago, Franklin Elementary in Glendale, California, was in danger of closing its doors because enrollment was so low. The school district decided to put into place a series of language immersion programs at the site. It currently houses Spanish, Italian, and German immersion programs. These programs have boosted Franklin's…

  11. PTA en route noise measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr.; Garber, Donald P.

    1990-01-01

    A long-range advanced turboprop en route noise database was obtained with weather, tracking, and onboard measurements. In-flight noise directivity measurements were made. Data repeatability within a test day was excellent. Day-to-day variability existed and is not completely understood and therefore not predicted. Comparison of a two-dimensional ray-tracing propagation model with the ensemble average ground-measured data was good; however, as stated above, the day-to-day data variability was not completely predicted. Future research will include looking at alternative propagation models. Three-dimensional ray tracing, fast field program, and the parabolic equation are possibilities. The effect of turbulence needs to be accessed.

  12. The Sequential Introduction of Positive Antecedent and Consequent Components in a Compliance Training Package with Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellipanni, Kimberly D.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe; Roberts, Dannell S.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the separate and combined effects of the antecedent manipulations of effective instruction delivery and time-in, as well as the effects of the addition of the consequent manipulation of contingent praise in a compliance training package for four elementary students displaying low levels of compliance. Four teachers were trained to…

  13. Describing Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence Relations Using Conditional Probabilities and the General Operant Contingency Space: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Tanya L.; Martens, Brian K.; DiGennaro, Florence D.

    2005-01-01

    Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (A-B-C) recordings are often used in school settings as part of a functional assessment. A number of limitations are associated with A-B-C recordings, and a novel approach for describing data from A-B-C recordings is to compute conditional probabilities that can be graphed in the general operant contingency space to…

  14. Effects of Antecedent Prompt and Test Procedure on Teaching Simulated Menstrual Care Skills to Females with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersoy, Gulhan; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Kircaali-Iftar, Gonul

    2009-01-01

    Although menstrual care is among the most important skill areas for females with mild to moderate developmental disabilities to facilitate their independence, there is limited research examining this issue. The present study was designed to analyze the acquisition and maintenance effects of antecedent prompt and test procedure on teaching changing…

  15. An examination of antecedents to coal miners' hearing protection behaviors: A test of the theory of planned behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Quick, B.L.; Stephenson, M.T.; Witte, K.; Vaught, C.; Booth-Butterfield, S.; Patel, D.

    2008-07-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH) National Occupational Research Agenda (DHHS Publication No. 96-115) reports that approximately 50% of miners will experience hearing loss by age 50, compared to only 9% of the general population. The present investigation examines three antecedents believed to be associated with miner's use of hearing protection. A posttest-delayed-posttest-control group field research design was employed to assess antecedents toward wearing hearing protection. Following the initial posttest, miners' attitudes and subjective norms were antecedents to intentions to wear hearing protection devices. Also, intentions toward wearing hearing protection predicted hearing protection behaviors. Approximately six weeks later, miners' attitudes and perceived behavioral control were each significant predictors of intentions to wear hearing protection and again, intentions were positively associated with hearing protection behaviors. Our results indicate that appeals to normative influences may be the most effective antecedent to employ when persuading coal miners to wear hearing protection. However, messages designed to impact attitudes and perceived behavioral control were also effective.

  16. The Relationship between Use and Perception: The Case of Catalan Variants of a Subject Coreferential with an Antecedent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa Carreras, Joan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the relationship between use and perception of five Catalan variants of the variable "subject coreferential with an antecedent." This will be done by examining the results of a cloze test and three perception surveys answered in 1997 by 26 respondents. Two different correct constructions were then presented as…

  17. Use of an Antecedent Analysis and a Force Sensitive Platform to Compare Stereotyped Movements and Motor Tics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosland, Kimberly A.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schroeder, Stephen; Zarcane, Troy; Fowler, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Stereotyped movements displayed by 6 participants and tics displayed by 6 children were evaluated using an antecedent behavioral analysis and a force sensitive platform. We found that tics occurred more often in an alone condition when compared to high preference toy and play conditions, whereas stereotyped movements were more variable across…

  18. Perceived Deep-Level Dissimilarity: Personality Antecedents and Impact on Overall Job Attitude, Helping, Work Withdrawal, and Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Hui; Chuang, Aichia; Joshi, Aparna

    2008-01-01

    The current research extends three research areas in relational demography: considering deep-level dissimilarity in theory building, assessing dissimilarity perceptions directly in theory testing, and examining the antecedents of dissimilarity perceptions. The results, based on two field studies using diverse samples, demonstrate the effects of…

  19. Antecedents and Outcomes of Joint Trajectories of Mother-Son Conflict and Warmth during Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Criss, Michael M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Lacourse, Eric; Hyde, Luke W.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the development of mother-son relationship quality from ages 5 to 15 in a sample of 265 low-income families. Nonparametric random effects modeling was utilized to uncover distinct and homogeneous developmental trajectories of conflict and warmth; antecedents and outcomes of the trajectory groups also were examined. Four…

  20. Completing College: A Longitudinal Examination of Potential Antecedents of Success in Postsecondary Education for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achola, Edwin Obilo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the antecedent conditions that contribute to post-secondary education (PSE) completion for students with disabilities, taking into account institutional experiences associated with social integration. A prospective longitudinal design was used to analyze data from the National Longitudinal Transition…

  1. Middle Childhood Antecedents to Progressions in Male Adolescent Substance Use: An Ecological Analysis of Risk and Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Yoerger, Karen

    1999-01-01

    This study examined antecedents to early patterned alcohol and tobacco use and marijuana experimentation between ages 11 and 16 for an at-risk male sample. Findings suggested that family, peer, and child characteristics were inextricably connected within an ecology of development. A structural equation prediction model suggested a higher order…

  2. An Evaluation of Antecedent Exercise on Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement Using a Three-Component Multiple Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Heather; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Atwell, Amy

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated antecedent exercise for treating the automatically reinforced problem behavior of 4 individuals with autism. We conducted preference assessments to identify leisure and exercise items that were associated with high levels of engagement and low levels of problem behavior. Next, we conducted three 3-component multiple-schedule…

  3. An Interdisciplinary Meta-Analysis of the Potential Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences of Protege Perceptions of Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eby, Lillian Turner de Tormes; Allen, Tammy D.; Hoffman, Brian J.; Baranik, Lisa E.; Sauer, Julia B.; Baldwin, Sean; Morrison, M. Ashley; Kinkade, Katie M.; Maher, Charleen P.; Curtis, Sara; Evans, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarized youth, academic, and workplace research on the potential antecedents (demographics, human capital, and relationship attributes), correlates (interaction frequency, relationship length, performance, motivation, and social capital), and consequences (attitudinal, behavioral, career-related, and health-related outcomes)…

  4. Antecedents and Outcomes of Level and Rates of Change in Perceived Control: The Moderating Role of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infurna, Frank J.; Okun, Morris A.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived control is interrelated with aging-related outcomes across adulthood and old age. Relatively little is known, however, about resources as antecedents of longitudinal change in perceived control and the role of perceived control as a buffer against mortality risk when these resources are low. We examined functional limitations, depressive…

  5. Childhood Antecedents of Being a Cigarette Smoker in Early Adulthood. The Finnish "From a Boy to a Man" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemela, Solja; Sourander, Andre; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Susser, Ezra; Helenius, Hans; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Tamminen, Tuula; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify childhood psychiatric symptoms as antecedents of cigarette smoking at age 18. Methods: In 1989, a general population sample of 2946 8-year-old boys born in Finland in 1981 was assessed using the Rutter's parent and teacher questionnaires, and the Child Depression Inventory. This birth cohort was followed up in 1999, when the…

  6. Factors Predictive of Mathematics Achievement in Kindergarten, First and Third Grades: An Opportunity-Propensity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, James P.; Wasik, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    A secondary analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Sample (N = 17,401) was conducted to determine the factors that are most strongly associated with math achievement during kindergarten, first grade, and third grade. Factors from the following three categories were considered: antecedent factors (e.g., family…

  7. Pink triangles: antecedents and consequences of perceived workplace discrimination against gay and lesbian employees.

    PubMed

    Ragins, B R; Cornwell, J M

    2001-12-01

    A model of perceived sexual orientation discrimination was tested in a national sample of 534 gay and lesbian employees. The effects of legislation, organizational policies and practices, and work group composition on perceived sexual orientation discrimination were examined, as well as the attitudinal and organizational outcomes associated with discrimination. Gay employees were more likely to report discrimination when employed in groups that were primarily heterosexual and in organizations that lacked supportive policies and were not covered by protective legislation. Disclosure of sexual orientation at work was related to discrimination and antecedent variables. Perceived discrimination was associated with negative work attitudes and fewer promotions. Organizational policies and practices had the strongest impact on perceived discrimination and were directly related to outcomes. PMID:11768065

  8. Intentions to work during terminal illness: an exploratory study of antecedent conditions.

    PubMed

    Westaby, James D; Versenyi, Andrea; Hausmann, Robert C

    2005-11-01

    Facing a terminal illness is an unimaginably difficult experience, yet many individuals intend to work despite their prognosis. However, research has not systematically examined the potential antecedents underlying such intentions. Using behavioral intention theory as an underlying framework, this study hypothesized that reasons for working (intrinsic and extrinsic), the will to live, disability severity, accessibility of travel, and age would predict intentions to work during terminal illness. A representative sample of medically diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (a.k.a. Lou Gehrig's disease) patients with a mean life expectancy of approximately 3 years participated (mean age=57.8 years). Controlling for length of diagnosis, employment status, and demographic variables, results indicated that intrinsic reasons were particularly strong predictors of intentions, followed by age, disability severity, and accessibility of travel. Exploratory findings also indicated that behavioral intentions were positively related to future employment status, consistent with past theory. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:16316283

  9. A Study of the Antecedents and Consequences of Members' Helping Behaviors in Online Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Kuo-Ming

    Despite the growing popularity of online communities, there are a major gap between practitioners and academicians as to how to share information and knowledge among members of these groups. However, none of the previous studies have integrated these variables into a more comprehensive framework. Thus more validations are required the aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical model that enables us to examine the antecedents and consequences effects of members’ helping behavior in online communities. The moderating effects of the sense of community on the relationships between members’ helping behaviors on information sharing and knowledge contribution are also evaluated. A complete model is developed for empirical testing. Using Yahoo’s members as the samples of this study, the empirical results suggested that online communities members’ helping behavior represents a large pool of product know-how. They seem to be a promising source of innovation capabilities for new product development.

  10. The effects of antecedent flows on sediment entrainment in a mountain stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Luca; Comiti, Francesco; Dell'Agnese, Andrea; Engel, Angel; Lucia, Ana

    2015-04-01

    The difficulty for predicting bedload transport and identifying incipient motion thresholds in high mountain streams is well-known, especially during flood events. Surrogate methods aiming at quantification of sediment transport rates and sizes have been developed thorughout the last decades; among those, tracers in general, and PITs (Passive Integrated Transponders) in particular are a good alternative in particle dynamics study. Usually, the recovery of PITs after flood events is done by means of a portable antenna; however an alternate valid option is represented by antennas fixed on the channel bank or on the river shores. The use of stationary antennas allows to know the actual discharge at the moment of motion. This study focuses on incipient motion of tracers measured by means of a stationary antenna system in the upper part of a mountain basin (Saldur River, drainage area 18.6 km2, Italian Alps) where significant daily fluctuations in summer - due to the part of the basin (2.3 km2) being glacierized - are monitored. From 2011 to 2013, flow discharge varied between 1 and 10 m3s-1. A total of 587 clasts equipped with PITs ranging from 35 to 580 mm were released along the main channel, in a confined reach with bed morphology transitional from plane-bed to step-pool (6% slope). PIT-tagged clasts were gently deployed on the riverbed, few meters upstream of an antenna anchored to the channel bed. Flow stage data were acquired at 10 min interval by means of a pressure transducer installed near the fixed antenna. The analysis of preliminary results showed that the relationship between the size of transported tracers and the discharge measured at the time clasts were passing above the antenna is weak. Hence, it was investigated the influence of antecedent flows on incipient motion, by dividing the peak discharge recorded between each PIT deployment and the subsequent entrainment by the actual critical discharge at the time of movement (ratio Qmax/Qc). Results show

  11. Developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    McKown, Clark; Strambler, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which included 124 children ages 5-11, examined developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness, defined as awareness of others' stereotypes. Greater age and more frequent parent-reported racial socialization practices were associated with greater likelihood of stereotype-consciousness. Children who knew of broadly held stereotypes more often explained hypothetical negative interracial encounters between White actors and Black targets as discriminatory. In addition, among African American and Latino children who knew about broadly held stereotypes, diagnostic testing conditions led to stereotype threat effects on a standardized working memory task. Findings are discussed in terms of the contribution to our understanding of children's developing thinking about and response to stereotypes and related phenomena. PMID:19930343

  12. A meta-analysis of the antecedents and consequences of pay level satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Williams, Margaret L; McDaniel, Michael A; Nguyen, Nhung T

    2006-03-01

    This study reports results from a meta-analysis of 28 correlates of pay level satisfaction involving 240 samples from 203 studies conducted over the past 35 years. Results are presented in 4 categories: primary determinants, antecedents, correlates, and outcomes of pay satisfaction. The authors controlled for pay in examining relations between correlates and pay level satisfaction, as suggested by theory and when primary studies were available to do so. The authors found support for many of the relations suggested by a theoretical model and also note some limitations in the research that has tested this model. The authors recommend changes and additions to the model and suggest additional primary research in specific areas. PMID:16551191

  13. Developmental antecedents of political ideology: a longitudinal investigation from birth to age 18 years.

    PubMed

    Fraley, R Chris; Griffin, Brian N; Belsky, Jay; Roisman, Glenn I

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here examined the developmental antecedents of conservative versus liberal ideologies using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and a follow-up study conducted when the sample was 18 years old. Specifically, we examined variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies at age 18 years as a function of parenting attitudes and child temperament during the first 5 years of life. Consistent with long-standing theories on the development of political attitudes, our results showed that parents' authoritarian attitudes assessed when children were 1 month old predicted conservative attitudes in those children more than 17 years later. Consistent with the findings of Block and Block (2006), our results also showed that early childhood temperament predicted variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies. PMID:23054474

  14. B. F. Skinner's Science and Human Behavior: its antecedents and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Catania, A Charles

    2003-11-01

    Skinner's Science and Human Behavior marked a transition from a treatment of behavior that took physics as its reference science to one that emphasized behavior as a fundamental part of the subject matter of biology. The book includes what may be Skinner's earliest statement about the similarity of operant selection to Darwinian natural selection in phylogeny. Other major topics discussed in the book included multiple causation, private events, the self, and social contingencies. Among the important antecedents were Skinner's own Behavior of Organisms and Keller & Schoenfeld's Pincinples of Psychology. Current developments in education, behavioral economics, and some behavior therapies can be attributed at least in part to Skinner's seminal work. The effective behavioral analysis of governmental and religious systems will probably depend on elaborations of our understanding of verbal behavior. PMID:14964711

  15. New perspective on job burnout: exploring the root cause beyond general antecedents analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Wu, Peng; Wei, Wei

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies of job burnout are discussed and three types of job burnout are presented and compared. Various studies of job burnout were reviewed in terms of participants, burnout situation, and root cause. Next, the framework of job burnout antecedents was reformulated, including characteristics of organizations, work, and individuals. Three types of job burnout-organizational weakness-caused burnout, work weakness-caused burnout, and individual characteristic-caused burnout-were posited based on the root causes contributing to job burnout. Finally, the three subcomponents of job burnout were compared on availability, concealment, universality, severity, duration, diffusibility, and changeability. Root causes of job burnout should be attended to in job burnout research and intervention programs. PMID:22897086

  16. B. F. Skinner's Science and Human Behavior: its antecedents and its consequences.

    PubMed Central

    Catania, A Charles

    2003-01-01

    Skinner's Science and Human Behavior marked a transition from a treatment of behavior that took physics as its reference science to one that emphasized behavior as a fundamental part of the subject matter of biology. The book includes what may be Skinner's earliest statement about the similarity of operant selection to Darwinian natural selection in phylogeny. Other major topics discussed in the book included multiple causation, private events, the self, and social contingencies. Among the important antecedents were Skinner's own Behavior of Organisms and Keller & Schoenfeld's Pincinples of Psychology. Current developments in education, behavioral economics, and some behavior therapies can be attributed at least in part to Skinner's seminal work. The effective behavioral analysis of governmental and religious systems will probably depend on elaborations of our understanding of verbal behavior. PMID:14964711

  17. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sub-sample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this paper reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of secure base script knowledge, as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved. Secure base script knowledge was (a) modestly to moderately correlated with more well established assessments of adult attachment, (b) associated with mother-child attachment in the first three years of life and with observations of maternal and paternal sensitivity from childhood to adolescence, and (c) partially accounted for associations previously documented in the SECCYD cohort between early caregiving experiences and Adult Attachment Interview states of mind (Booth-LaForce & Roisman, 2014) as well as self-reported attachment styles (Fraley, Roisman, Booth-LaForce, Owen, & Holland, 2013). PMID:25264703

  18. An empirical investigation of dispositional antecedents and performance-related outcomes of credit scores.

    PubMed

    Bernerth, Jeremy B; Taylor, Shannon G; Walker, H Jack; Whitman, Daniel S

    2012-03-01

    Many organizations use credit scores as an employment screening tool, but little is known about the legitimacy of such practices. To address this important gap, the reported research conceptualized credit scores as a biographical measure of financial responsibility and investigated dispositional antecedents and performance-related outcomes. Using personality data collected from employees, objective credit scores obtained from the Fair Isaac Corporation, and performance data provided by supervisors, we found conscientiousness to be positively related and agreeableness to be negatively related to credit scores. Results also indicate significant relationships between credit scores and task performance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Credit scores did not, however, predict workplace deviance. Implications for organizations currently using or planning to use credit scores as part of the screening process are discussed. PMID:22023073

  19. Differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers: developmental antecedents and behavioral comparisons.

    PubMed

    Burton, David L; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually victimized sexual abusers have more severe developmental antecedents (trauma, family characteristics, early exposure to pornography and personality) and recent behavioral difficulties (characteristics of sexual aggression, sexual arousal, use of pornography, and nonsexual criminal behavior) than the nonsexually victimized group. Results are contrasted with recent typological research, which found no relationship between sexual victimization and subtype membership. Treatment, research, and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:21259148

  20. Antecedents and outcomes of abusive supervision: test of a trickle-down model.

    PubMed

    Aryee, Samuel; Chen, Zhen Xiong; Sun, Li-Yun; Debrah, Yaw A

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined antecedents of abusive supervision and the relative importance of interactional and procedural justice as mediators of the relationship between abusive supervision and the work outcomes of affective organizational commitment and individual- and organization-directed citizenship behaviors. Data were obtained from subordinate-supervisor dyads from a telecommunication company located in southeastern China. Results of moderated regression analysis revealed that authoritarian leadership style moderated the relationship between supervisors' perceptions of interactional justice and abusive supervision such that the relationship was stronger for supervisors high rather than low in authoritarian leadership style. In addition, results of structural equation modeling analysis revealed that subordinates' perceptions of interactional but not procedural justice fully mediated the relationship between abusive supervision and the work outcomes. Implications for future investigations of abusive supervision are discussed. PMID:17227160

  1. Water Imbibition into Rock as Affected by Sample Shape, Pore, Conductivity, and Antecedent Water Content

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. Ewing

    2005-08-29

    Infiltration is often presumed to follow Philip's equation, I = st{sup 1/2}, where I is cumulative infiltration, s is sorptivity, and t is time. This form of the equation is appropriate for short times, and/or for negligible gravitational effects. For a uniform soil, this equation describes a plot of log(mass imbibed) versus log(time), with a slope (imbibition exponent) of 1/2. The equation has also been applied to low-porosity rocks, where the extremely small pores render gravitational forces negligible. Experiments recently performed on a wide variety of rocks produced imbibition exponents from 0.2 to 0.5. Many rock types showed initial imbibition proceeding as I {approx} t{sup 1/4}, then later switched to ''normal'' (t{sup 1/2}) behavior. The distance to the wetting front that corresponds to this cross-over behavior was found to be related to the sample shape: tall thin samples are more likely to exhibit the exponent 1/4, and to cross over to 1/2-type behavior later, while short, squat samples are less likely to display the 1/4-type behavior at all. Additionally, the exponents are sensitive to antecedent water content, with initially wetter samples having smaller values. In this study, we present the experimental data, and provide a consistent and physically-based explanation using percolation theory. The analogy between imbibition and diffusion is used to model imbibition into samples with low pore connectivity, with the exponents and their crossover behavior emerging from a random walk process. All laboratory phenomena--different exponents, crossover behavior, and effects of sample shape and antecedent water content--are reproduced by the model, with similar patterns across experiment and simulation. We conclude both that diffusion is a useful and powerful conceptual model for understanding imbibition, and also that imbibition experiments, being simpler than diffusion measurements, can be used to examine diffusive behavior in rock.

  2. Systemic Disaffection: A Three-Factor Theory of Political Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Samuel

    The paper develops a theory of political alienation based upon interactions among three antecedent conditions. Political alienation is interpreted as combining feelings of inefficacy, discontent, cynicism, estrangement, and hopelessness. The factors evaluated for their contribution to political alienation are: (1) critical perceptions of…

  3. Influence of Antecedent Hydrologic Conditions on Nitrate and Phosphorus Export from a Small Agricultural Catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrae, M. L.; English, M. C.; Schiff, S. L.; Stone, M.

    2009-04-01

    The ability of the scientific community to quantify and predict discharge and nutrient transport in a range of settings is confounded by the effects of antecedent hydrologic conditions in upland areas. Previous work has empirically linked spatial variables such as land use, soil type, topography, and drainage characteristics to hydrochemical export from various landscapes (e.g. MCDOWELL et al., 2001; ARHEIMER and LIDEN, 2000; STAMM et al., 1998; JORDAN et al., 1997; WELSCH et al., 2001). However, the specific reasons why similar types of events produce different nutrient export patterns are poorly understood. Nutrient (nitrate, soluble and total phosphorus) transport from agricultural catchments is difficult to quantify and predict because of the influence of variable hydrologic flowpaths and their interaction with varying nutrient pools. This research examines the role of antecedent hydrologic conditions on stream discharge and nitrate (NO3-), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) export from a small (2.7 km2) first-order agricultural catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada. During 59 events occurring over a two-year sampling period (year-round), runoff ratios ranged from 0-0.99). Runoff ratios increased throughout successive events as conditions became wetter although key indices of antecedent wetness such as water table position, pre-event streamflow and soil moisture did not yield predictive relationships. Nitrate, SRP and TP transport from the catchment increased with antecedent wetness during some periods but decreased with antecedent wetness during other periods. This variability appears to be linked to a combination of the position of water table before and during the event, as well as timing of fertilizer application. It is hypothesized that in general, wetter antecedent hydrologic conditions increase nutrient transport from the catchment by increasing macropore connectivity between surface soil horizons and tile drains, although this

  4. Effect of antecedent-hydrological conditions on rainfall triggering of debris flows in ash-fall pyroclastic mantled slopes of Campania (southern Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Napolitano, E.; Fusco, F; Baum, Rex L.; Godt, Jonathan W.; De Vita, P.

    2015-01-01

    Mountainous areas surrounding the Campanian Plain and the Somma-Vesuvius volcano (southern Italy) are among the most risky areas of Italy due to the repeated occurrence of rainfallinduced debris flows along ash-fall pyroclastic soil-mantled slopes. In this geomorphological framework, rainfall patterns, hydrological processes taking place within multi-layered ash-fall pyroclastic deposits and soil antecedent moisture status are the principal factors to be taken into account to assess triggering rainfall conditions and the related hazard. This paper presents the outcomes of an experimental study based on integrated analyses consisting of the reconstruction of physical models of landslides, in situ hydrological monitoring, and hydrological and slope stability modeling, carried out on four representative source areas of debris flows that occurred in May 1998 in the Sarno Mountain Range. The hydrological monitoring was carried out during 2011 using nests of tensiometers and Watermark pressure head sensors and also through a rainfall and air temperature recording station. Time series of measured pressure head were used to calibrate a hydrological numerical model of the pyroclastic soil mantle for 2011, which was re-run for a 12-year period beginning in 2000, given the availability of rainfall and air temperature monitoring data. Such an approach allowed us to reconstruct the regime of pressure head at a daily time scale for a long period, which is representative of about 11 hydrologic years with different meteorological conditions. Based on this simulated time series, average winter and summer hydrological conditions were chosen to carry out hydrological and stability modeling of sample slopes and to identify Intensity- Duration rainfall thresholds by a deterministic approach. Among principal results, the opposing winter and summer antecedent pressure head (soil moisture) conditions were found to exert a significant control on intensity and duration of rainfall

  5. Does antecedent precipitation play a role for floods in (small) Swiss catchments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froidevaux, Paul; Schwanbeck, Jan; Weingartner, Rolf; Chevalier, Clément; Romppainen-Martius, Olivia

    2014-05-01

    River flooding is one of the most devastating natural hazards worldwide. In Switzerland, like in many other regions, the building of flood protection infrastructures is complicated by difficulties in assessing flood risk due to: - The large year-to-year variability in flood losses. The variations amount to several orders of magnitude (see for ex. Hilker et al., 2009). - The non-stationarity of the flood risk at longer time scales. A pronounced decadal variability in flood risk has been observed by Schmocker-Fackel and Naef (2010) and Köplin et al. (2013) show that climate change will induce diverse and complex regional changes in flood risk. A better understanding of flood processes is therefore required in order to better predict changes in flood frequency. It has been hypothesized that flood frequency variations are linked to changes in the atmospheric circulation. Consequently, the whole mechanism chain starting from atmospheric circulation patterns triggering severe precipitation weather and ending with extreme river discharge must be considered. In a step in that direction we characterize precipitation events that triggered observed annual maximum discharges at 120 discharge stations during the last 53 years in Switzerland. The precipitation dataset is a temporally-homogeneous complex interpolation of daily rain gauge data on a 1 by 1 km grid covering the Swiss territory (MeteoSwiss, 2011). We test the relationship between different catchment-averaged precipitation indices and flood occurrence. We explicitly separate antecedent and event-associated precipitation. The preliminary results show that antecedent precipitation (weekly to monthly sums ending 3 days before the event) are no significant flood predictors for most of the catchments. On the other hand, a very strong signal is found for the 1-3 days precipitation sums. Lessons for flood modeling in Swiss catchments is that a strong effort is required in order to represent the flood-associated weather

  6. Antecedent Wetness Conditions based on ERS scatterometer data in support to rainfall-runoff modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocca, L.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.

    2009-04-01

    Despite of its small volume compared to other components of the hydrologic cycle, the soil moisture is of fundamental importance to many hydrological, meteorological, biological and biogeochemical processes. For storm rainfall-runoff modeling the estimation of the Antecedent Wetness Conditions (AWC) is one of the most important issues to determine the hydrological response. In this context, this study investigates the potential of the scatterometer on board of the ERS satellites for the assessment of soil wetness conditions at two different scales. The satellite soil moisture data set, available from 1992, is downloaded from the ERS/METOP Soil Moisture archive located at http://www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/radar/index.php?go=ascat. At the local scale, the scatterometer-derived soil wetness index (SWI) data (Wagner, W., Lemoine, G., and Rott, H., 1999. A Method for Estimating Soil Moisture from ERS Scatterometer and Soil Data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 70, 191-207) have been compared with two in-situ soil moisture data sets. At the catchment scale, the reliability of the SWI to estimate the AWC has been tested considering its relationship with the soil potential maximum retention parameter, S, of the Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) method for abstraction. The parameter S has been derived by considering several flood events occurred from 1992 to 2005 in different catchments of central Italy. The performance of two Antecedent Precipitation Indices (API) and one Base Flow Index (BFI), usually employed in the hydrological practice for the AWC assessment, have been compared with the SWI. The obtained results show a high accuracy of the SWI for the estimation of wetness conditions both at the local and catchment scale despite of the complex orography of the investigated areas (Brocca, L., Melone, F., Moramarco, T., Morbidelli, R., 2009. Antecedent wetness conditions based on ERS scatterometer data. Journal of Hydrology, 364 (1-2), 73-87). At the local scale

  7. Internalizing Antecedents and Consequences of Binge-Eating Behaviors in a Community-Based, Urban Sample of African American Females

    PubMed Central

    Musci, Rashelle J.; Hart, Shelley R.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of problem-eating behaviors is often overlooked in research as it typically shares many symptoms with other more common psychiatric illnesses. Binge-eating problems are at the forefront of the popular media because of the connection to obesity; therefore, increased knowledge of binge eating problems, particularly the internalizing antecedents and consequences will have implications in a multitude of domains, including prevention programs aimed at physical and mental health. The current study examines the antecedents of binge-eating behaviors by exploring how the growth of internalizing symptoms influences the proximal outcome of a binge-eating inventory in a longitudinal sample of African American girls. Additional consequences of binge-eating problems are also explored. This study focuses on binge-eating problems in order to present valuable information for prevention scientists who wish to develop target individuals at high risk for internalizing problems such as suicide. PMID:23873475

  8. Antecedents of team potency and team effectiveness: an examination of goal and process clarity and servant leadership.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Liden, Robert C

    2011-07-01

    Integrating theories of self-regulation with team and leadership literatures, this study investigated goal and process clarity and servant leadership as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team effectiveness, operationalized as team performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Our sample of 304 employees represented 71 teams in 5 banks. Results showed that team-level goal and process clarity as well as team servant leadership served as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior. Furthermore, we found that servant leadership moderated the relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency, such that the positive relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency were stronger in the presence of servant leadership. PMID:21319877

  9. The effects of antecedent flows on sediment entrainment in a mountain stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, L.; Comiti, F.; Dell'Agnese, A.; Engel, M.; Lucía, A.

    2014-12-01

    Bedload transport in mountain streams is notoriously difficult to measure, and substantial efforts are currently devoted to develop and test reliable surrogate techniques for quantifying bedload transport rates and size. Tracers, and in particular Passive Integrated Transponders (PITs), represent a powerful method to assess particle dynamics. PITs are usually searched after floods using a portable antenna, and grain size of tracers are typically related to the peak of the events. However, antennas fixed on the channel bed have the potential to identify the actual discharge at the time of transport. This work focuses on incipient motion of tracers measured with a stationary antenna in the upper part of a mountain basin (Saldur River, drainage area 18.6 km2, Italian Alps), where a glacier (2.3 km2) determines significant daily discharge fluctuations in summer. During the study period (2011 to 2013) flow discharge ranged from 1 to 10 m3s-1. Almost 600 clasts - ranging in diameter from 40 mm to about 0.5 m - were equipped with PITs and laid in a confined reach (6% slope) of the main channel featuring a bed morphology transitional from plane-bed to step-pool. PITs-clasts were gently placed on the bed surface few meters upstream of an antenna fixed on the channel bed, where flow stage is recorded every 10 min. Preliminary results indicate that discharge at the time of passage above the antenna is only slightly related to the size of transported tracers, providing little evidence of size-selectivity conditions in this stream. The influence of antecedent flows on incipient motion was then investigated dividing the maximum discharge recorded between each PIT placement and its subsequent entrainment by the actual critical discharge at the time of movement (ratio Qmax/Qc). It results that only 45% of tracers moved at Qmax/Qc ~ 1, and 70% of tracers moved at Qmax/Qc < 1.5. Therefore, about 30% of tracers had to previously experience a discharge substantially higher than the

  10. Antecedent moisture content and soil texture effects on infiltration and erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, A. I.; Huang, C.; Levy, G. J.

    2006-12-01

    Water infiltration, seal formation, runoff and erosion depend on the soil's inherent properties and surface conditions. Most erosion models consider only soil inherent properties (mainly texture) in assessing infiltration and erosion without consideration of spatial and temporary variation in the surface condition, particularly the antecedent moisture content. We studied the interaction of two different surface conditions, i.e. antecedent moisture content (AMC) and aging (timing after wetting) on infiltration (IR), seal formation (runoff generation) and erosion in four soils varying from loam to clay. Soil samples were packed in erosion box and wetted with different amounts of water (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, or 16 mm) to obtain a wide moisture range (i.e., pF 0-6.2, or from air dry to full saturation). The boxes were put in plastic bags and allowed to age for 0.01, 1, 3, or 7 days. Then the soil in the erosion box exposed to 60 mm of rain. At no aging final IR of soils did not change significantly, but runoff volume (a measure for seal development) and soil loss increased with an increase in AMC mainly because of aggregate breakdown. For any given aging, the highest IR and smallest runoff volume and soil loss were obtained at the intermediate AMC levels (pF 2.4-4.2, between wilting point and field capacity). For instance, in the clay soil to which 3 mm of water (pF~2.7) was added, as aging increased from one to seven days, final IR increased from 5.3 to 7.9 mm h-1, while runoff and soil loss decreased from 34 mm to 22 mm, and from 630 to 360 g m2 respectively. At this AMC range, increasing aging time resulted in up to 40% increase in IR and decrease in runoff or soil loss. This tendency significantly more pronounced for clay soils because water-filled pores in the clay fabric were considered active in the stabilization process and the development of cohesive bonds between and within particles during the aging period. The results of this study are important for soil

  11. The Impact of Employee Engagement Factors and Job Satisfaction on Turnover Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Mary Lynn; Morris, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    The current literature review examined a proposed relationship between the antecedent-employee engagement factors--and the outcome variable turnover intent mediated by job satisfaction. Kahn's Personal Engagement Theory, Equity Theory, and Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction were used as the theoretical underpinnings for the review.…

  12. Science Teaching Efficacy of Preservice Elementary Teachers: Examination of the Multiple Factors Reported as Influential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tastan Kirik, Özgecan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the science teaching efficacy beliefs of preservice elementary teachers and the relationship between efficacy beliefs and multiple factors such as antecedent factors (participation in extracurricular activities and number of science and science teaching methods courses taken), conceptual understanding, classroom management…

  13. The use of sexually explicit internet material and its antecedents: a longitudinal comparison of adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2011-10-01

    An implicit assumption in research on adolescents' use of sexually explicit internet material (SEIM) is that they may feel more attracted to such material than adults, given the "forbidden" character of SEIM for minors. However, systematic comparisons between adolescents' and adults' SEIM use and of its antecedents are missing. We conducted a two-wave panel survey among a nationally representative sample of 1,445 Dutch adolescents and a nationally representative sample of 833 Dutch adults. Adolescents' and adults' SEIM use was similar. When significant differences in the SEIM use occurred, they indicated that adults used SEIM more often than adolescents. Male adults were the most frequent users of SEIM. No difference in the antecedent structure of SEIM use emerged between adolescents and adults. In both groups, males, sensation seekers, as well as people with a not exclusively heterosexual orientation used SEIM more often. Among adolescents and adults, lower life satisfaction increased SEIM use. Our findings suggest that the frequency of SEIM use and its antecedents are largely the same among adolescents and adults. PMID:20623250

  14. Misperceptions of facial emotions among youth aged 9-14 years who present multiple antecedents of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Hannah; Calkins, Monica E; Kohler, Christian G; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Laurens, Kristin R

    2014-03-01

    Similar to adults with schizophrenia, youth at high risk for developing schizophrenia present difficulties in recognizing emotions in faces. These difficulties might index vulnerability for schizophrenia and play a role in the development of the illness. Facial emotion recognition (FER) impairments have been implicated in declining social functioning during the prodromal phase of illness and are thus a potential target for early intervention efforts. This study examined 9- to 14-year-old children: 34 children who presented a triad of well-replicated antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz), including motor and/or speech delays, clinically relevant internalizing and/or externalizing problems, and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), and 34 typically developing (TD) children who presented none of these antecedents. An established FER task (ER40) was used to assess correct recognition of happy, sad, angry, fearful, and neutral expressions, and facial emotion misperception responses were made for each emotion type. Relative to TD children, ASz children presented an overall impairment in FER. Further, ASz children misattributed neutral expressions to face displaying other emotions and also more often mislabeled a neutral expression as sad compared with healthy peers. The inability to accurately discriminate subtle differences in facial emotion and the misinterpretation of neutral expressions as sad may contribute to the initiation and/or persistence of PLEs. Interventions that are effective in teaching adults to recognize emotions in faces could potentially benefit children presenting with antecedents of schizophrenia. PMID:23378011

  15. Urban Waste Recycling Behavior: Antecedents of Participation in a Selective Collection Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcés, Conchita; Lafuente, Alberto; Pedraja, Marta; Rivera, Pilar

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the antecedents of urban waste recycling behavior. To achieve this goal, a concrete urban waste management program was chosen. The study focuses on the Selective Collection Program (SCP) in Zaragoza, a medium-sized city in northeastern Spain. The research starts with a conceptual model in which the variables that potentially affect recycling behavior can be classified into two groups: incentives and barriers. Moreover, the sociodemographic characteristics of the individuals are included in our study. Given that the proposed model requires specification of latent variables or constructs, the analysis is based on the Structural Equation Models (SEM) methodology. The results revealed that environmental awareness, knowledge of the environmental impact of urban waste, and the positive perception of management by local government exercise a positive effect on individual recycling behavior, while perceived personal difficulties (space and time availability) and distance to and from the container have a negative effect. As regards sociodemographic variables, this study found that annual family income sustains a negative relationship with recycling behavior, while age maintains a positive one. The results obtained clearly show the important role that the public authorities play, especially municipal governments, in achieving the waste recycling objectives established in accordance with international legislation.

  16. Effects of Antecedent GABA A Receptor Activation on Counterregulatory Responses to Exercise in Healthy Man.

    PubMed

    Hedrington, Maka S; Tate, Donna B; Younk, Lisa M; Davis, Stephen N

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether antecedent stimulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors with the benzodiazepine alprazolam can blunt physiologic responses during next-day moderate (90 min) exercise in healthy man. Thirty-one healthy individuals (16 male/15 female aged 28 ± 1 year, BMI 23 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were studied during separate, 2-day protocols. Day 1 consisted of morning and afternoon 2-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic or hypoglycemic clamps with or without 1 mg alprazolam given 30 min before a clamp. Day 2 consisted of 90-min euglycemic cycling exercise at 50% VO2max. Despite similar euglycemia (5.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L) and insulinemia (46 ± 6 pmol/L) during day 2 exercise studies, GABA A activation with alprazolam during day 1 euglycemia resulted in significant blunting of plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormone responses. Lipolysis (glycerol, nonesterified fatty acids) and endogenous glucose production during exercise were also reduced, and glucose infusion rates were increased following prior euglycemia with alprazolam. Prior hypoglycemia with alprazolam resulted in further reduction of glucagon and cortisol responses during exercise. We conclude that prior activation of GABA A pathways can play a significant role in blunting key autonomous nervous system, neuroendocrine, and metabolic physiologic responses during next-day exercise in healthy man. PMID:25901095

  17. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Pesce, Caterina; Chiang, Yi-Te; Kuo, Cheng-Yuh; Fong, Dong-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict) control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT), with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity. PMID:25914634

  18. Brazilian purpuric fever: epidemic purpura fulminans associated with antecedent purulent conjunctivitis. Brazilian Purpuric Fever Study Group.

    PubMed

    1987-10-01

    In late 1984, 10 children in a small, rural town in Brazil had high fever associated with vomiting and abdominal pain. Within 12-48 h of the onset of fever, purpura developed associated with vascular collapse and peripheral necrosis. All 10 children died. Cerebrospinal fluid examinations did not suggest meningitis and, when done, tests were negative for Neisseria meningitidis. Other culture, serological, and necropsy examinations did not reveal a cause. Case-finding uncovered another cluster of similar illness in children in a second town and sporadic cases in five other cities. Two case-control studies demonstrated that children who became ill were significantly more likely than control children to have had conjunctivitis during the month before illness. This conjunctivitis was purulent, preceded the onset of more severe disease by 3-15 days, and had resolved before fever began. Although no conjunctival cultures were obtained from case-children, Haemophilus aegyptius was the most common pathogen isolated from other conjunctival cultures during the epidemic. This organism was also isolated from a non-aseptic skin scraping from 1 case child. A 25-megadalton plasmid distinguished the H aegyptius isolates epidemiologically associated with illness from other Brazilian conjunctival isolates. Brazilian purpuric fever is a newly recognized syndrome of epidemic purpura fulminans associated with antecedent purulent conjunctivitis, possibly caused by H aegyptius. PMID:2888985

  19. Modelling antecedents of blood donation motivation among non-donors of varying age and education.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, K P H; Abraham, C; Ruiter, R A C; Veldhuizen, I J T; Dehing, C J G; Bos, A E R; Schaalma, H P

    2009-02-01

    Understanding blood donation motivation among non-donors is prerequisite to effective recruitment. Two studies explored the psychological antecedents of blood donation motivation and the generalisability of a model of donation motivation across groups differing in age and educational level. An older well-educated population and a younger less well-educated population were sampled. The studies assessed the role of altruism, fear of blood/needles and donation-specific cognitions including attitudes and normative beliefs derived from an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Across both samples, results showed that affective attitude, subjective norm, descriptive norm, and moral norm were the most important correlates of blood donation intentions. Self-efficacy was more important among the younger less well-educated group. Altruism was related to donation motivation but only indirectly through moral norm. Similarly, fear of blood/needles only had an indirect effect on motivation through affective attitude and self-efficacy. Additional analyses with the combined data set found no age or education moderation effects, suggesting that this core model of donation-specific cognitions can be used to inform future practical interventions recruiting new blood donors in the general population. PMID:18547458

  20. Predictive statistical models linking antecedent meteorological conditions and waterway bacterial contamination in urban waterways.

    PubMed

    Farnham, David J; Lall, Upmanu

    2015-06-01

    Although the relationships between meteorological conditions and waterway bacterial contamination are being better understood, statistical models capable of fully leveraging these links have not been developed for highly urbanized settings. We present a hierarchical Bayesian regression model for predicting transient fecal indicator bacteria contamination episodes in urban waterways. Canals, creeks, and rivers of the New York City harbor system are used to examine the model. The model configuration facilitates the hierarchical structure of the underlying system with weekly observations nested within sampling sites, which in turn were nested inside of the harbor network. Models are compared using cross-validation and a variety of Bayesian and classical model fit statistics. The uncertainty of predicted enterococci concentration values is reflected by sampling from the posterior predictive distribution. Issuing predictions with the uncertainty reasonably reflected allows a water manager or a monitoring agency to issue warnings that better reflect the underlying risk of exposure. A model using only antecedent meteorological conditions is shown to correctly classify safe and unsafe levels of enterococci with good accuracy. The hierarchical Bayesian regression approach is most valuable where transient fecal indicator bacteria contamination is problematic and drainage network data are scarce. PMID:25813489

  1. Antecedents and outcomes of organizational support for development: the critical role of career opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kraimer, Maria L; Seibert, Scott E; Wayne, Sandy J; Liden, Robert C; Bravo, Jesus

    2011-05-01

    This study examines antecedents and behavioral outcomes of employees' perceptions of organizational support for development. We first propose that employees' past participation in formal developmental activities and experience with developmental relationships positively relate to their perceptions of organizational support for development. We then propose that perceived career opportunity within the organization moderates the relationship between organizational support for development and employee performance and turnover. Using a sample of 264 exempt-level employees and their supervisors, we found that participation in training classes, leader-member exchange, and career mentoring were each positively related to employees' perceptions of organizational support for development. We also found support for the moderator hypotheses. Specifically, development support positively related to job performance, but only when perceived career opportunity within the organization was high. Further, development support was associated with reduced voluntary turnover when perceived career opportunity was high, but it was associated with increased turnover when perceived career opportunity was low. Our study demonstrates that social exchange and career motivation theory work together to explain when and how employees' perceptions of organizational support for development relate to turnover and job performance. PMID:21114356

  2. Anaphoric reference to quantified antecedents: an event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Filik, Ruth; Leuthold, Hartmut; Moxey, Linda M; Sanford, Anthony J

    2011-11-01

    We report an event-related brain potential (ERP) study examining how readers process sentences containing anaphoric reference to quantified antecedents. Previous studies indicate that positive (e.g. many) and negative (e.g. not many) quantifiers cause readers to focus on different sets of entities. For example in Many of the fans attended the game, focus is on the fans who attended (the reference set), and subsequent pronominal reference to this set, as in, Their presence was a boost to the team, is facilitated. In contrast, if many is replaced by not many, focus shifts to the fans who did not attend (the complement set), and reference to this set, as in, Their absence was disappointing, is preferred. In the current studies, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while participants read positive or negative quantified statements followed by anaphoric reference to the reference set or complement set. Results showed that the pronoun their elicited a larger N400 following negative than positive quantifiers. There was also a larger N400 on the disambiguating word (presence/absence) for complement set reference following a positive quantifier, and for reference set reference following a negative quantifier. Findings are discussed in relation to theoretical accounts of complement anaphora. PMID:21986293

  3. Paving the road to war with group membership, appraisal antecedents, and anger.

    PubMed

    Cheung-Blunden, Violet; Blunden, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This study uses appraisal theory, functionalist approach to emotions, and recent theory on group emotions as a basic framework to model the genesis of supporting military action. During the year after the events of 9/11, 588 college students participated in a series of four studies that assessed religious affiliation, appraisal antecedents, anger response to viewing photographs of the 9/11 attack, and support for military action. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that the relation between support for the war and attitudes toward terrorism and relevance could be explained adequately by a model in which anger mediated the effects of attitudes and relevance on support. Attitudes toward terrorism were further identified as mediators that could explain the group effect by Christians. The result was not only generalizable across the conflict in Afghanistan and Iraq, but also in terms of how consent for war manifests itself--outright calls for bloodshed versus more subtle, politically loaded, posturing (e.g. entreaties to "support our troops"). PMID:17786941

  4. Bombing alone: tracing the motivations and antecedent behaviors of lone-actor terrorists,.

    PubMed

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender's grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors' plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. PMID:24313297

  5. Attitudes antecedent to transition to self-management of a chronic genetic disorder.

    PubMed

    Giarelli, E; Bernhardt, B A; Pyeritz, R E

    2008-10-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is the exemplar of chronic genetic disorders that require multiorgan system management by health care providers (HCPs) and lifelong self-management by affected individuals. This article describes the ways to facilitate transition to self-management (TSM) by the adolescent with MFS. This thematic content analysis uses data collected for a larger grounded theory investigation of TSM of a chronic genetic disorder in adolescents and focuses on the system issues related to transition. A total sample of 107 included three groups of participants: parents (n = 39), adolescents (n = 37, ages 14-21 years) and young adults (n = 16, ages 22-34 years) with MFS, and HCPs (n = 15), including physicians, genetic counselors, and nurses. Data were derived from 180 transcripts of audiotaped interviews and a sociodemographic survey. Frames of mind that are antecedent to transition were belief in the diagnosis, wanting to understand and appreciate the cause and effect of MFS, and willing to share responsibility in problem solving. These frames of mind occurred primarily within the context of the family relationship. Parents taught children self-surveillance as 'listening to one's body'. The parent's fears and need to stay involved in the child's health care slowed the child's independent work on self-management responsibilities. A systematic, institutionalized transition program for adolescents might involve parents and the child soon after diagnosis and incrementally build acknowledgment, understanding, and rapport. PMID:18616734

  6. Antecedents to and outcomes of Rh(D) isoimmunization: Mater Mothers Hospital, Brisbane, 1988-1995.

    PubMed

    Portmann, C; Ludlow, J; Joyce, A; Chan, F Y

    1997-02-01

    We analyzed the antecedents and outcomes of Rh(D) isoimmunization in a local population. Forty-two Rh(D) isoimmunized women attending Mater Mothers Hospital for antenatal care were identified through the Mater Hospital Blood Bank database; their records were reviewed for variables including sensitizing events, obstetric interventions and pregnancy outcomes. In this group, 74% of women became sensitized despite receiving anti-D immune globulin, 17% did not receive anti-D appropriately and the other failed to attend for treatment of bleeding in pregnancy. Antenatal sensitization was implicated in 6 women (14%) and potentially responsible for isoimmunization in another 18. Over half of the 80 viable pregnancies in this study group required some form of obstetric intervention. Thirty pregnancies required amniocentesis and 1 in 3 babies underwent either intrauterine or exchange transfusion. Three fetal deaths occurred as a result of severe disease. This study offers information highlighting circumstances in which immunoprophylaxis guidelines have failed to impart protection against Rh(D) sensitization and the consequences of such failures. PMID:9075540

  7. A note on emotion appraisal and burnout: the mediating role of antecedent-focused coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Nizielski, Sophia; Hallum, Suhair; Schütz, Astrid; Lopes, Paulo N

    2013-07-01

    Burnout is a serious problem in the profession of teaching. Previous studies have found that teachers with high perceived abilities to appraise emotions tend to experience symptoms of burnout less frequently than others. The aim of this study was to investigate processes that may underlie this relation. We hypothesized that teachers' perceived abilities to appraise their own and others' emotions would facilitate proactive coping and attending to student needs. In turn, these antecedent-focused regulation strategies were expected to help teachers deal with emotionally demanding situations at work. We tested the hypotheses using multiple mediation analyses of self-report data from 300 teachers, controlling for general perceived self-efficacy, teaching experience, work demands, and school-level effects. Results showed that both proactive coping and attending to student needs constituted mediators of the relations between self-emotion appraisal and burnout as well as between other-emotion appraisal and burnout. Although we cannot infer causality from the present data, the perceived abilities to appraise their own emotions and those of others may help to protect teachers from burnout by enabling them to prevent potential stressors and to engage with their students effectively. PMID:23834450

  8. Antecedents and consequences of customer-company identification: expanding the role of relationship marketing.

    PubMed

    Ahearne, Michael; Bhattacharya, C B; Gruen, Thomas

    2005-05-01

    This article presents an empirical test of organizational identification in the context of customer-company (C-C) relationships. It investigates whether customers identify with companies and what the antecedents and consequences of such identification are. The model posits that perceived company characteristics, construed external image, and the perception of the company's boundary-spanning agent lead to C-C identification. In turn, such identification is expected to impact both in-role behavior (i.e., product utilization) as well as extra-role behavior (i.e., citizenship). The model was tested in a consultative selling context of pharmaceutical sales reps calling on physicians. Results from the empirical test indicated that customers do indeed identify with organizations and that C-C identification positively impacts both product utilization behavior and extra-role behavior even when the effect of brand perception is accounted for. Second, the study found that the organization's characteristics as well as the salesperson's characteristics contributed to the development of C-C identification. PMID:15910151

  9. Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Actor Terrorists*,†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender’s grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors’ plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. PMID:24313297

  10. FIGO Stage III Metastatic Gestational Choriocarcinoma Developed From an Antecedent Partial Hydatidiform Molar Pregnancy Bearing a Numerical Chromosomal Aberration 68, XX: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Naili; Litkouhi, Babak; Mannion, Ciaran M

    2016-03-01

    A 36-yr-old, gravida 5 para 4 woman presented with uterine bleeding and was discovered to have a 3.7-cm uterine mass with multiple, bilateral, lung metastases. Six months earlier, the patient was diagnosed with a partial hydatidiform mole that demonstrated a rare chromosomal karyotype 68, XX[12]. The patient's serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin was elevated from baseline to 12,039 mIU/mL before the treatment. A total hysterectomy was performed and revealed a markedly hemorrhagic, extensively necrotic choriocarcinoma. The tumor mass invaded to a depth of 1/3 of the uterine wall thickness. Cytogenetic analysis of the choriocarcinoma revealed the same 68, XX karyotype, as observed in the antecedent partial hydatidiform mole. A clinical diagnosis of advanced stage invasive choriocarcinoma was rendered, with a risk factor score of 5. Following the development of chemoresistance to a single-agent (methotrexate) regimen, the patient subsequently received 5 cycles of chemotherapy (EMA-CO), without any major complication. She is currently >5 yr posttreatment and is asymptomatic. Her most recent imaging studies, including scans of chest and brain, show no evidence of disease, and her serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin level has remained consistently below detectable levels. PMID:26352546

  11. Staff-reported antecedents to aggression in a post-acute brain injury treatment programme: what are they and what implications do they have for treatment?

    PubMed

    Giles, Gordon Muir; Scott, Karen; Manchester, David

    2013-01-01

    Research in psychiatric settings has found that staff attribute the majority of in-patient aggression to immediate environmental stressors. We sought to determine if staff working with persons with brain injury-related severe and chronic impairment make similar causal attributions. If immediate environmental stressors precipitate the majority of aggressive incidents in this client group, it is possible an increased focus on the management of factors that initiate client aggression may be helpful. The research was conducted in a low-demand treatment programme for individuals with chronic cognitive impairment due to acquired brain injury. Over a six-week period, 63 staff and a research assistant reported on 508 aggressive incidents. Staff views as to the causes of client aggression were elicited within 72 hours of observing an aggressive incident. Staff descriptions of causes were categorised using qualitative methods and analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Aggression towards staff was predominantly preceded by (a) actions that interrupted or redirected a client behaviour, (b) an activity demand, or (c) a physical intrusion. The majority of aggressive incidents appeared hostile/angry in nature and were not considered by staff to be pre-meditated. Common treatment approaches can be usefully augmented by a renewed focus on interventions aimed at reducing antecedents that provoke aggression. Possible approaches for achieving this are considered. PMID:23782342

  12. Staff-reported antecedents to aggression in a post-acute brain injury treatment programme: What are they and what implications do they have for treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Gordon Muir; Scott, Karen; Manchester, David

    2013-01-01

    Research in psychiatric settings has found that staff attribute the majority of inpatient aggression to immediate environmental stressors. We sought to determine if staff working with persons with brain injury-related severe and chronic impairment make similar causal attributions. If immediate environmental stressors precipitate the majority of aggressive incidents in this client group, it is possible an increased focus on the management of factors that initiate client aggression may be helpful. The research was conducted in a low-demand treatment programme for individuals with chronic cognitive impairment due to acquired brain injury. Over a six-week period, 63 staff and a research assistant reported on 508 aggressive incidents. Staff views as to the causes of client aggression were elicited within 72 hours of observing an aggressive incident. Staff descriptions of causes were categorised using qualitative methods and analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Aggression towards staff was predominantly preceded by (a) actions that interrupted or redirected a client behaviour, (b) an activity demand, or (c) a physical intrusion. The majority of aggressive incidents appeared hostile/angry in nature and were not considered by staff to be pre-meditated. Common treatment approaches can be usefully augmented by a renewed focus on interventions aimed at reducing antecedents that provoke aggression. Possible approaches for achieving this are considered. PMID:23782342

  13. Predicting Short Term Runoff Efficiency Using Antecedent Soil Moisture Estimates From Ground Penetrating Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermance, J. F.; Bohidar, R. N.

    2002-05-01

    Hydrologists universally recognize the importance of antecedent soil moisture conditions for predicting the response of catchments to storm events. We describe a pilot study involving a series of repeat geophysical measurements over a 5 month period to determine the water content of the subsurface immediately before a sequence of precipitation events. We correlate the resultant streamflow "response" of the local catchment to each event with the antecedent soil moisture at our reference site using a metric commonly employed by hydrologists: the ratio Qef/W, referred to here as the "short term runoff efficiency", which is simply the time-integrated volume of event flow (Qef) at the catchment's outflow point normalized by the volume of total precipitation (W) over its area. To determine the volumetric water content (Cw) of soils, past studies suggest the effectiveness of pulsed radio frequency methods, such as time domain reflectometry (TDR), or ground-penetrating radar (GPR). To first order, for typical field conditions and procedures, the velocity of a radio pulse in the subsurface is inversely proportional to the square root of the bulk dielectric constant, which in turn is proportional to the soil's water content. For this study, the advantage of GPR over conventional TDR measurements is that the GPR procedure determines average velocities from two-way traveltimes to an interface at depth, resulting in estimates of average physical properties over much larger volumes of the subsurface than would TDR. Our hydrologic data are USGS daily averaged discharges from the Ten Mile River (watershed area = 138 km2; 53.2 mi2) in southern New England. Daily values of precipitation were provided by personnel from the Seekonk Water District Office (MA) adjacent to the field site. Our hydrograph separation was facilitated by the observation that the event flow seems to be adequately represented by a simple composite cascaded linear reservoir model. The GPR data involved a series

  14. Innate Immune Response to LPS in Airway Epithelium Is Dependent on Chronological Age and Antecedent Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Maniar-Hew, Kinjal; Clay, Candice C.; Postlethwait, Edward M.; Evans, Michael J.; Fontaine, Justin H.

    2013-01-01

    The immune mechanisms for neonatal susceptibility to respiratory pathogens are poorly understood. Given that mucosal surfaces serve as a first line of host defense, we hypothesized that the innate immune response to infectious agents may be developmentally regulated in airway epithelium. To test this hypothesis, we determined whether the expression of IL-8 and IL-6 in airway epithelium after LPS exposure is dependent on chronological age. Tracheas from infant, juvenile, and adult rhesus monkeys were first exposed to LPS ex vivo, and then processed for air–liquid interface primary airway epithelial cell cultures and secondary LPS treatment in vitro. Compared with adult cultures, infant and juvenile cultures expressed significantly reduced concentrations of IL-8 after LPS treatment. IL-8 protein in cultures increased with animal age, whereas LPS-induced IL-6 protein was predominantly associated with juvenile cultures. Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway RT-PCR arrays showed differential expressions of multiple mRNAs in infant cultures relative to adult cultures, including IL-1α, TLR10, and the peptidoglycan recognition protein PGLYRP2. To determine whether the age-dependent cytokine response to LPS is reflective of antecedent exposures, we assessed primary airway epithelial cell cultures established from juvenile monkeys housed in filtered air since birth. Filtered air–housed animal cultures exhibited LPS-induced IL-8 and IL-6 expression that was discordant with age-matched ambient air–housed animals. A single LPS aerosol in vivo also affected this cytokine profile. Cumulatively, our findings demonstrate that the innate immune response to LPS in airway epithelium is variable with age, and may be modulated by previous environmental exposures. PMID:23600597

  15. The role of antecedent soil moisture on variability of the North American Monsoon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Qian, Y.; Leung, R.

    2006-12-01

    We evaluate the influence of soil moisture anomalies on the timing and strength of North American Monsoon system (NAMS) precipitation using the MM5 mesoscale climate model coupled with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model. Our experiments are motivated by results of previous data analysis that has evaluated the role of land surface conditions on variations in monsoon precipitation in the Arizona-New Mexico northwestern Mexico subregions of the NAMS region. These previous studies showed that soil moisture memory can propagate winter precipitation anomalies, and hence land surface cooling, through the dry spring season and into early summer. The effect is greater in NW Mexico where the monsoon begins earlier than in the southwestern U.S. We further investigate this land surface feedback mechanism through a set of coupled model runs using MM5/VIC. These coupled runs are consistent with the previous off-line runs to the extent that the VIC land surface scheme is the basis for soil moisture prediction in both. MM5/VIC control runs together with a set of sensitivity experiments in which soil moisture is prescribed to field capacity, wilting point and VIC soil moisture climatology, respectively, during pre-monsoon seasons (April-June) are used to examine the influence of antecedent (above-normal, below-normal and normal) soil moisture on pre-monsoon (May and June) surface temperature. Surface temperature, and its contrast with sea surface temperature, is a key driver of the onset of the NAMS. These experiments are intended to better understand the role of land- atmosphere feedbacks on the NAMS by testing a range of land surface and climate conditions in the coupled modeling environment.

  16. The role of antecedent soil moisture on variability of the North American Monsoon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C.; Qian, Y.; Leung, R.; Gochis, D.; Cavazos, T.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2007-05-01

    We evaluate the influence of soil moisture anomalies on the timing and strength of North American Monsoon system (NAMS) precipitation through analysis of retrospective data sets including off-line simulations with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model, and through coupled model simulations using the MM5 mesoscale climate model coupled with the VIC land surface scheme. The role of land surface conditions on variations in monsoon precipitation in the Arizona-New Mexico and northwestern Mexico subregions of the North American Monsoon region are evaluated. The retrospective data analysis shows that soil moisture memory can propagate winter precipitation anomalies, and hence land surface cooling, through the dry spring season and into early summer. The effect is greater in NW Mexico where the monsoon begins earlier than in the southwestern U.S. We further investigate this land surface feedback mechanism through a set of coupled model runs using MM5/VIC. These coupled runs are consistent with the previous off-line runs to the extent that the VIC land surface scheme is the basis for soil moisture prediction in both. MM5/VIC control runs together with a set of sensitivity experiments in which soil moisture is prescribed to field capacity, wilting point and VIC soil moisture climatology, respectively, during pre-monsoon seasons (April-June) are used to examine the influence of antecedent (above-normal, below-normal and normal) soil moisture on pre-monsoon (May and June) surface temperature. Surface temperature, and its contrast with sea surface temperature, is a key driver of the onset of the NAMS. These experiments are intended to better understand the role of land-atmosphere feedbacks on the NAMS by testing a range of land surface and climate conditions in the coupled modeling environment.

  17. Mental Health Antecedents of Early Midlife Insomnia: Evidence from a Four-Decade Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Gregory, Alice M.; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, HonaLee; Parsons, Michael; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia is a highly prevalent condition that constitutes a major public health and economic burden. However, little is known about the developmental etiology of adulthood insomnia. Design: We examined whether indicators of psychological vulnerability across multiple developmental periods (psychiatric diagnoses in young adulthood and adolescence, childhood behavioral problems, and familial psychiatric history) predicted subsequent insomnia in adulthood. Setting and Participants: We used data from the ongoing Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a population-representative birth cohort study of 1,037 children in New Zealand who were followed prospectively from birth (1972–1973) through their fourth decade of life with a 95% retention rate. Measurements: Insomnia was diagnosed at age 38 according to DSM-IV criteria. Psychiatric diagnoses, behavioral problems, and family psychiatric histories were assessed between ages 5 and 38. Results: In cross-sectional analyses, insomnia was highly comorbid with multiple psychiatric disorders. After controlling for this concurrent comorbidity, our results showed that individuals who have family histories of depression or anxiety, and who manifest lifelong depression and anxiety beginning in childhood, are at uniquely high risk for age-38 insomnia. Other disorders did not predict adulthood insomnia. Conclusions: The link between lifelong depression and anxiety symptoms and adulthood insomnia calls for further studies to clarify the neurophysiological systems or behavioral conditioning processes that may underlie this association. Citation: Goldman-Mellor S, Gregory AM, Caspi A, Harrington H, Parsons M, Poulton R, Moffitt TE. Mental health antecedents of early midlife insomnia: evidence from a four-decade longitudinal study. SLEEP 2014;37(11):1767-1775. PMID:25364072

  18. The impact of antecedent fire area on burned area in southern California coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Price, Owen F; Bradstock, Ross A; Keeley, Jon E; Syphard, Alexandra D

    2012-12-30

    Frequent wildfire disasters in southern California highlight the need for risk reduction strategies for the region, of which fuel reduction via prescribed burning is one option. However, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing the area of wildfire. Here, we use 29 years of historical fire mapping to quantify the relationship between annual wildfire area and antecedent fire area in predominantly shrub and grassland fuels in seven southern California counties, controlling for annual variation in weather patterns. This method has been used elsewhere to measure leverage: the reduction in wildfire area resulting from one unit of prescribed fire treatment. We found little evidence for a leverage effect (leverage = zero). Specifically our results showed no evidence that wildfire area was negatively influenced by previous fires, and only weak relationships with weather variables rainfall and Santa Ana wind occurrences, which were variables included to control for inter-annual variation. We conclude that this is because only 2% of the vegetation burns each year and so wildfires rarely encounter burned patches and chaparral shrublands can carry a fire within 1 or 2 years after previous fire. Prescribed burning is unlikely to have much influence on fire regimes in this area, though targeted treatment at the urban interface may be effective at providing defensible space for protecting assets. These results fit an emerging global model of fire leverage which position California at the bottom end of a continuum, with tropical savannas at the top (leverage = 1: direct replacement of wildfire by prescribed fire) and Australian eucalypt forests in the middle (leverage ~ 0.25). PMID:23064248

  19. Event-Level Analysis of Antecedents for Youth Violence: Comparison of Dating Violence with Non-Dating Violence

    PubMed Central

    Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Walton, Maureen A.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Blow, Frederic C.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dating violence (DV) has emerged as a major concern among youth with links to substance use, injuries, and death. The Emergency Department (ED) provides an opportunity for violence screening and prevention interventions. Additional data are needed regarding antecedents of DV versus non-dating violence (NDV; e.g., acquaintance, stranger) to develop ED-based violence interventions for youth. Methods Participants were 575 patients screening positive for past 6-month drug use in an urban ED who completed timeline follow-back aggression modules at Baseline, 6-, and 12-months, indicating event-specific antecedents of violence. Multi-level logistic regressions using event-level data, nested by individual and time (i.e. Baseline, 6- and 12-month assessment intervals) to examine antecedents of DV vs. NDV. Post-hoc analyses examined substance use × reasons and gender interactions. Results Prescription sedative/opioid misuse was more likely to be reported prior to DV whereas alcohol only, and co-ingested alcohol and marijuana only, were more likely to be reported prior to NDV. Reasons for DV included: “personal belongings, “angry/bad mood,” “jealousy,” “drunk/high on drugs” and “arguing about sex”. Reasons for NDV included: “rumors,” “retaliation,” “personal space” and “aid (someone) due to physical attack”. Substance use before/during conflicts and reasons for conflicts were both uniquely associated with DV versus NDV. Two gender interactions were found. Conclusions ED based interventions for urban youth need to be tailored by gender, substance use (alcohol, cocaine, sedatives), reasons for violence, and type of violence (DV vs. NDV). PMID:24182751

  20. Antecedents and outcomes of level and rates of change in perceived control: The moderating role of age.

    PubMed

    Infurna, Frank J; Okun, Morris A

    2015-10-01

    Perceived control is interrelated with aging-related outcomes across adulthood and old age. Relatively little is known, however, about resources as antecedents of longitudinal change in perceived control and the role of perceived control as a buffer against mortality risk when these resources are low. We examined functional limitations, depressive symptoms, and emotional support as antecedents of level and rates of change in perceived control and whether level and rates of change in perceived control buffer the relations between high functional limitations and depressive symptoms and lack of emotional support and mortality risk. In addition, age was investigated as a moderator of these associations. To do so, we used 16-year longitudinal data from participants in the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study who were at least 40 years old at Wave 1 (N = 2,540; mean age = 62.85, SD = 12.15; 65% women). With respect to the antecedents of perceived control, results indicated that more functional limitations and depressive symptoms, as well as having less emotional support, were each associated with lower levels of and stronger declines in perceived control over time. Additionally, more functional limitations and less emotional support were more detrimental to levels of perceived control in midlife compared to old age. Focusing on outcomes of perceived control, more positive rates of change in perceived control protected against mortality risk for those with fewer functional limitations and depressive symptoms and more emotional support, and this was more pronounced for functional limitations and depressive symptoms in old age as compared to midlife. Our discussion focuses on the complex interplay among perceived control, functional limitations, depressive symptoms, and emotional support; how they vary with age; and the implications of our findings for interventions. PMID:26214226

  1. Impaired visual fixation at age 2 years in children born before the 28th week of gestation. Antecedents and correlates in the multi-center ELGAN Study

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Anuradha; Msall, Michael E; Droste, Patrick; Allred, Elizabeth N; O'Shea, T. Michael; Kuban, Karl; Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the prevalence, antecedents and correlates of impaired visual fixation in former very preterm newborns. Methods In the multi-center ELGAN Study sample of 1057 infants born before the 28th week of gestation who had a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age, we identified 73 who were unable to follow an object across the midline. We compared them to the 984 infants who could follow an object across the midline. Results In this sample of very preterm newborns, those who had impaired visual fixation were much more likely than those without impaired visual fixation to have been born after the shortest of gestations (odds ratio = 3.2; 99% confidence interval =1.4, 7.5) and exposed to maternal aspirin (OR: 5.2; 99% CI: 2.2, 12). They were also more likely than their peers to have had prethreshold ROP (OR: 4.1; 99% CI: 1.8, 9.0). At age 2 years, the children with impaired fixation were more likely than others to be unable to walk (even with assistance) (OR: 7.5; 99% CI: 2.2, 26) and have a Mental Development Index more than 3 standard deviations below the mean of a normative sample (OR:3.6; 99% CI: 1.4, 8.2). Conclusion Risk factors for brain and retinal damage, such as very low gestational age, appear to be risk factors for impaired visual fixation. This inference is further supported by the co-occurrence at age 2 years of impaired visual fixation, inability to walk, and a very low Mental Development Index PMID:24938138

  2. A Factor-Analytic Investigation of Role Types and Profiles of Higher Education Department Chairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, James B.; Gmelch, Walter H.

    This paper reports on a study that investigated the role, attitudes, and behaviors of department chairs in higher education. Specifically, the study investigated four objectives: (1) to examine role factors of effective chair performance; (2) to assess the impact of antecedent variables such as individual characteristics (gender, marital status,…

  3. An Exploration of Job, Organizational, and Environmental Factors Associated with High and Low Nursing Assistant Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannon, Diane; Zinn, Jacqueline S.; Mor, Vincent; Davis, Jullet

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines factors that distinguish nursing facilities with very high and very low nursing assistant turnover rates from a middle referent group, exploring the possibility that high and low turnover are discrete phenomena with different antecedents. Design and Methods: Data from a stratified sample of facilities in eight…

  4. An Empirical Study on the Role of Context Factors in Employees' Commitment to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soumyaja, Devi; Kamlanabhan, T. J.; Bhattacharyya, Sanghamitra

    2011-01-01

    The study attempts to address the gap of exploring the possible antecedents of employees' commitment to change and its three dimensions. The role of context factors--participation in decision making, quality of communication, trust in management and history of change--are tested on overall commitment to change and also on its three…

  5. Client Factors as Predictors of Restraint and Seclusion in People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheirs, Jan G. M.; Blok, Jan B.; Tolhoek, Myrte A.; El Aouat, Fadoua; Glimmerveen, Johanna C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To gain more insight into the antecedent factors of restraint in institutionalised people with intellectual disability (ID), the role played by several demographic and psychological client variables was investigated. Methods: The data of 475 people (age range 12-95 years) who were residents in a Dutch institution for people with ID…

  6. The role of antecedent land surface conditions in North American Monsoon warm season precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Cavazos, T.

    2005-12-01

    North American Monsoon (NAM) warm season precipitation strongly affects the semiarid regions of the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico. A first step in developing useful prediction capabilities for NAM precipitation is to explore links between the NAM seasonal (JJAS) precipitation and the antecedent pre-monsoon (previous autumn, winter, and spring) land surface conditions, such as precipitation, surface air temperature, soil moisture, and snow cover. We define two monsoon regions: western in Arizona and eastern in New Mexico which exhibit a "pure" monsoon signal, and northwestern Mexico as the core NAM region. Land surface data for the east and west regions are monthly aggregates from the extended retrospective North American Land Data Assimilation System (N-LDAS) archive for the period 1950 to 1999, which includes gridded precipitation (P), mean surface air temperature (Ts), and Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model-derived soil moisture (Sm), and snow water equivalent (SWE). For northwestern Mexico three different sources of station data are combined and gridded to be analogous to the N-LDAS archive: Servicio MeterorolOgico Nacional (SMN) daily data (pre-1940 - 2003), SMN daily historical precipitation data (1995 - near real-time), and northwestern Mexico NAME Event Raingage Network (NERN) precipitation daily data (2002 - ). Long-term (1950-2003) retrospective VIC model runs were then performed to produce derived data (soil moisture, snow) analogous to those in the N-LDAS archive. Through correlation and composite analysis, we find that the two southwest US regions and northwestern Mexico exhibit somewhat different land surface feedback mechanism. For the U.S, regions, we previously proposed a land surface feedback hypothesis and found that while NAM precipitation is correlated with the previous winter's precipitation, the corresponding soil moisture anomaly contributes little to the predictability of NAM precipitation. For northwestern

  7. HIV and AIDS in Workplace: The role of behaviour antecedents on behavioural intentions

    PubMed Central

    Dipeolu, I. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV and AIDS) constitutes one of the major challenges to development worldwide. Actions taken by employers of labour against staff or applicants living with HIV have great impacts in the labour force and in the fight to mitigate the impact of the disease condition. In Nigeria, there's paucity of documented work about employers of labour's behavioural intentions when they are faced with staff/applicant living with the virus. This study explored the behavioural antecedents and intentions of employers of labour in Ibadan North Local Government Area, Oyo state, Nigeria. Methods The study was cross-sectional survey in design. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 400 study respondents (38 public and 362 private sectors) for interview. The instrument for data collection was a pre-tested semi–structured questionnaire. Attitude was categorised as negative (score ≤ 54) and positive (score ≥55). Data were analysed and presented using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results There were more males (68.2%) respondents than females (31.8%). A large majority, 79.0%, in the public sector (PuS) and 72.9% in the private sector (PrS) knew that an infected healthy looking person could harbour and transmit HIV to others. A majority, 80.0%, of which 2.3% with no formal education, 1.0% primary education, 13.5% high school education, 41.5% bachelor, 21.0% postgraduate and 0.8% with other qualifications were of the view that workers infected with HIV should not be sacked. Slightly less than half (48.0%) would keep their staff's HIV status secret while more than half, 57.0%, would not recruit a PLWHA. More PrS respondents (47.8%) claimed to have ever organised HIV/AIDS-related educational programmes for staff than PuS (42.1%) (p<0.05). Almost equal respondents (PuS 36.8%) and (PrS 36.2%) would require mandatory test for HIV before employment. Only 1.8% (PuS) and 6% (PrS) reported that

  8. Testing a model of antecedents and consequences of defensive pessimism and self-handicapping in school physical education.

    PubMed

    Ntoumanis, Nikos; Taylor, Ian M; Standage, Martyn

    2010-12-01

    There has been very limited research on the use of self-worth protection strategies in the achievement context of school physical education (PE). Thus the aim of the present study was to examine some antecedents and consequences of defensive pessimism and self-handicapping. The sample comprised 534 British pupils (275 females, 259 males) recruited from two schools who responded to established questionnaires. Results of structural equation modelling analysis indicated that self-handicapping and defensive pessimism were positively predicted by fear of failure and negatively predicted by competence valuation. In addition, defensive pessimism was negatively predicted by physical self-concept. In turn, defensive pessimism negatively predicted enjoyment in PE and intentions to participate in future optional PE programmes. Self-handicapping did not predict enjoyment or intentions. Results from multi-sample structural equation modelling showed the specified model to be largely invariant across males and females. The findings indicate that although both strategies aim to protect one's self-worth, some of their antecedents and consequences in PE may differ. PMID:21058166

  9. Job characteristics, physical and psychological symptoms, and social support as antecedents of sickness absence among men and women in the private industrial sector.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Ari; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Kalimo, Raija; Mutanen, Pertti; Vahtera, Jussi; Peiró, José M

    2003-09-01

    Most longitudinal studies on the relationship between psychosocial health resources and risks, and the employees' subsequent sickness absences have been conducted in the public sector. The purpose of this study was to find out psychosocial antecedents of sickness absenteeism in the private industrial sector. The effects of job characteristics (job autonomy and job complexity), physical and psychological symptoms, and social support (from coworkers and supervisors) on sickness absenteeism were investigated. The number of long (4-21 days) and very long (>21 days) sickness absence episodes of 3895 persons (76% men and 24% women, mean age 44 years) was obtained from the health registers of a multinational forest industry corporation in 1995-1998. A questionnaire survey on the working conditions and health of the workers was carried out in 1996. The follow-up time of the sickness absences was 1-year 9-month. Job autonomy was found to be associated with long and very long episodes in men (rate ratio (RR) in the lowest autonomy group approximately 2 times higher than the highest autonomy group), and with very long episodes of absence in women (2-3 times higher RR between the low vs. the high category). Low job complexity predicted men's very long absences (RR 1.4). Long and very long episodes were associated with physical and psychological symptoms (RR 1.2-1.7) among men and women. Lack of coworkers' support increased the frequency of very long sickness absence among men (RR 1.4), and lack of supervisor's support among women (RR 1.6). Also, some interaction effects of social support variables were observed among both genders. We conclude that the studied psychosocial factors are associated with subsequent sickness absence, and that the associations are partly gender-specific. The results showing which variables are related to employees' sickness absenteeism in the private industrial sector can be applied in human resource management and health service planning. PMID

  10. Antecedents of Teachers' Educational Beliefs about Mathematics and Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching among In-Service Teachers in High Poverty Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkin, Danya M.; Ekmekci, Adem; Papakonstantinou, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the antecedents of three types of educational beliefs about mathematics among 151 teachers predominantly working in high poverty schools. Studies across various countries have found that teachers in high poverty schools are less likely to enact instructional approaches that align with mathematics reform standards set by…

  11. Academic Emotions from a Social-Cognitive Perspective: Antecedents and Domain Specificity of Students' Affect in the Context of Latin Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Thomas; Pekrun, Reinhard; Hall, Nathan; Haag, Ludwig

    2006-01-01

    This study concentrates on two assumptions of a social-cognitive model outlining the development of academic emotions (emotions directly linked to learning, classroom instruction, and achievement), namely on their antecedents and domain-specific organization. Our sample consisted of 200 students from Grades 7 to 10. Proposed relationships…

  12. Part II: Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers and Delinquent Youth--Further Group Comparisons of Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, George S.; Burton, David L.; Howard, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper published in the "Journal of Child Sexual Abuse," we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers (Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to…

  13. A Comparison of Teacher Checklists Used over 15 Days and a One-Day Antecedent Analysis to Conduct a Medication Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, R.; Larsen, D.; Derby, K. M.; McLaughlin, T. F.; Weber, K. P.; Brown, K.; Herring, M.

    2004-01-01

    A one-day antecedent analysis and an extended school-based double-blind medication trial were used to assess the effects of Ritalin on the disruptive behavior of a child diagnosed with ADHD. The evaluations took place in an outpatient clinic and in the child's general education classroom. The results of both evaluations indicated that the…

  14. Emergent Literacy Skills, Behavior Problems and Familial Antecedents of Reading Difficulties: A Follow-Up Study of Reading Achievement from Kindergarten to Fifth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Hugo Camara; Perdry, Herve; Soria, Carmen; Pulgar, Salome; Cusin, Francoise; Dellatolas, Georges

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation between emergent literacy skills, teachers' reports of behavioral problems, and word reading achievement in a community sample of French students. Family background was investigated and included familial antecedents of reading difficulties (Fa/Rd) and parents' educational level. The analyses explored the pattern of…

  15. Modeling Technology Preparedness as an Antecedent of Mathematic Pre-Service Teachers' Self Efficacy, Perceived Usefulness and Intention toward Use of Information Technology in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Gimba, W. Rahmatu; Ahmed, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study test a specified model of information technology (IT) preparedness as antecedent of pre-service teachers' self efficacy, perceived usefulness, and intention toward IT use for teaching in Nigeria. Survey method was employed for prosecuting the study. The participants of the study comprise of 200 pre-service teachers studying Mathematics…

  16. Aldicarb and carbofuran transport in a Hapludalf influenced by differential antecedent soil water content and irrigation delay.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, H V; Anderson, S H; Goyne, K W; Gantzer, C J

    2009-01-01

    Pesticide use in agroecosystems can adversely impact groundwater quality via chemical leaching through soils. Few studies have investigated the effects of antecedent soil water content (SWC) and timing of initial irrigation (TII) after chemical application on pesticide transport and degradation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of antecedent soil water content (wet vs dry) and timing of initial irrigation (0h Delay vs 24h Delay) on aldicarb [(EZ)-2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-methylcarbamoyloxime] and carbofuran [2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate] transport and degradation parameters at a field site with Menfro silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalf) soils. Aldicarb and carbofuran were applied to plots near field capacity (wet) or near permanent wilting point (dry). Half of the dry and wet plots received irrigation water immediately after chemical application and the remaining plots were irrigated after a 24h Delay. The transport and degradation parameters were estimated using the method of moments. Statistical significance determined for SWC included averages across TII levels, and significance determined for TII included averages across SWC levels. For the dry treatment, aldicarb was detected 0.10 m deeper (P<0.01) on two of the four sampling dates and carbofuran was detected at least 0.10 m deeper (P<0.05) on all of the sampling dates compared to the wet treatment. Pore water velocity was found to be higher (P<0.10) in the dry vs wet treatments on three of four dates for aldicarb and two of four dates for carbofuran. Retardation coefficients for both pesticides showed similar evidence of reduced values for the dry vs wet treatments. These results indicate deeper pesticide movement in the initially dry treatment. For aldicarb and carbofuran, estimated values of the degradation rate were approximately 40-49% lower in the initially dry plots compared to the initially wet plots

  17. A Meta-Analytic Review of Work-Family Conflict and Its Antecedents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byron, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    This meta-analytic review combines the results of more than 60 studies to help determine the relative effects of work, nonwork, and demographic and individual factors on work interference with family (WIF) and family interference with work (FIW). As expected, work factors related more strongly to WIF, and some nonwork factors were more strongly…

  18. Combination of AIDP and pyramidal signs associated with antecedent hepatitis A infection: a rare (co)occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bhawna; Nagpal, Kadam; Handa, Rahul; Dubey, Parul

    2013-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a postinfectious illness and commonly occurs in association with infective agents such as Campylobacter jejuni, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, HIV, shigella, clostridium, Haemophilus influenzae; occasionally with acute hepatitis B, C, E; and more rarely with hepatitis A, as documented in various case reports. Classically, GBS presents with hyporeflexia or areflexia, but preserved and brisk reflexes have been described in context with GBS variant, AMAN (acute motor axonal neuropathy), in approximately 33% of the cases. Preserved or exaggerated tendon reflexes with extensor plantar response is not usually seen in patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP). We report a rare case of AIDP with upper motor neuron signs in association with an antecedent hepatitis A infection. PMID:23761608

  19. Me or we? The role of personality and justice as other-centered antecedents to innovative citizenship behaviors within organizations.

    PubMed

    Moon, Henry; Kamdar, Dishan; Mayer, David M; Takeuchi, Riki

    2008-01-01

    The present research takes an "other-centered" approach to examining personal and contextual antecedents of taking charge behavior in organizations. Largely consistent with the authors' hypotheses, regression analyses involving data collected from 2 diverse samples containing both coworkers and supervisors demonstrated that the other-centered trait, duty, was positively related to taking charge, whereas the self-centered trait, achievement striving, was negatively related to taking charge. In addition, the authors found that procedural justice at the organizational level was positively related to taking charge when evaluated by a coworker, while both procedural and distributive justice were positively related to taking charge when considered by a supervisor. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:18211137

  20. Antecedents of perceived coach autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors: coach psychological need satisfaction and well-being.

    PubMed

    Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M

    2011-04-01

    Within the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, research has considered the consequences of coaches' autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors on various athlete outcomes (e.g., motivation and performance). The antecedents of such behaviors, however, have received little attention. Coaches (N = 443) from a variety of sports and competitive levels completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their psychological need satisfaction, well-being and perceived interpersonal behaviors toward their athletes. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that coaches' competence and autonomy need satisfaction positively predicted their levels of psychological well-being, as indexed by positive affect and subjective vitality. In turn, coaches' psychological well-being positively predicted their perceived autonomy support toward their athletes, and negatively predicted their perceived controlling behaviors. Overall, the results highlight the importance of coaching contexts that facilitate coaches' psychological need satisfaction and well-being, thereby increasing the likelihood of adaptive coach interpersonal behavior toward athletes. PMID:21558583

  1. Work-Family Conflict Among Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: A Structural Equation Model of Antecedents and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Lynn Y; Raffenaud, Amanda; Fottler, Myron

    2016-01-01

    Conflict between work and family is a human resource management issue that is particularly relevant for nurses. Nursing is a demanding profession, and a high proportion of nurses are women, who tend to have greater family responsibilities than men. Little is known regarding work-family conflict among nurses, and even less is known about how this affects newly licensed registered nurses (NLRNs), who can be stressed from their new jobs and careers. This study empirically tests a model of antecedents and outcomes of work-family and family-work conflict among a sample of NLRNs. We developed a model of the relationships between personal and work environment characteristics, work-family and family-work conflicts, job satisfaction, and intent to leave the job and profession. We used structural equation modeling (Amos, IBM SPSS) to test the model with data from.a survey of NLRNs. We examined a number of latent variables, as well as direct and mediating relationships. The measurement models for all latent variables were validated. The final model indicated that age, health, and family responsibilities are antecedents of family-work conflict; job demands lead to work-family conflict; family-work conflict contributes to job difficulties, which lowers job satisfaction, which, in turn, increases the intent to leave the job and profession; and work-family conflict increases the intent to leave the job and profession (but does not directly affect job satisfaction). Policies to help NLRNs with family responsibilities could reduce family-work conflict, which might reduce job difficulties and improve satisfaction and retention. In addition, policies to reduce job demands could reduce work-family conflict and improve retention. PMID:27111932

  2. Sociodemographic Antecedent Validators of Suicidal Behavior: A Review of Recent Literature.

    PubMed

    Conejero, Ismael; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Giner, Lucas; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    Suicidal behavior and its prevention constitute a major public health issue. Etiology of suicidal behavior is multifactorial. Whereas current research is mostly focused on clinical and biological risk factors, the sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behavior, first highlighted by Durkheim, have received less attention. Besides the well-known impact of age and gender, sociodemographic variables such as marital and parental status, education, occupation, income, employment status, religion, migration or minority status, and sexual orientation are repeatedly reported to play an important role in suicidal behavior. This narrative review aimed to summarize recent research on sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behavior and to elicit possible implications for suicide prevention. PMID:27595860

  3. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Tajoure, Meloud; Tajouri, Ali E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Abuzriba, Mokhtar E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Akreem, Mosbah

    2013-12-16

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A and the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  4. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajoure, Meloud; Tajouri, Ali; Abuzriba, Mokhtar; Akreem, Mosbah

    2013-12-01

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A & the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  5. Michigan PTA Presents the Parents' Answer Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Alice R., Ed.; And Others

    This book was written to help parents build on their already existing skills and knowledge in the area of child rearing, become more competent parents, and mobilize their resources to strengthen family functioning. It consists of a series of questions posed by readers of the "Parent Talk Page" of the "Detroit Free Press" newspaper and answers to…

  6. Transcription Factor SomA Is Required for Adhesion, Development and Virulence of the Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chi-Jan; Sasse, Christoph; Gerke, Jennifer; Valerius, Oliver; Irmer, Henriette; Frauendorf, Holm; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Straßburger, Maria; Tran, Van Tuan; Herzog, Britta; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Braus, Gerhard H.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Flo8/Som1 controls filamentous growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and virulence in the plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Flo8/Som1 includes a characteristic N-terminal LUG/LUH-Flo8-single-stranded DNA binding (LUFS) domain and is activated by the cAMP dependent protein kinase A signaling pathway. Heterologous SomA from Aspergillus fumigatus rescued in yeast flo8 mutant strains several phenotypes including adhesion or flocculation in haploids and pseudohyphal growth in diploids, respectively. A. fumigatus SomA acts similarly to yeast Flo8 on the promoter of FLO11 fused with reporter gene (LacZ) in S. cerevisiae. FLO11 expression in yeast requires an activator complex including Flo8 and Mfg1. Furthermore, SomA physically interacts with PtaB, which is related to yeast Mfg1. Loss of the somA gene in A. fumigatus resulted in a slow growth phenotype and a block in asexual development. Only aerial hyphae without further differentiation could be formed. The deletion phenotype was verified by a conditional expression of somA using the inducible Tet-on system. A adherence assay with the conditional somA expression strain indicated that SomA is required for biofilm formation. A ptaB deletion strain showed a similar phenotype supporting that the SomA/PtaB complex controls A. fumigatus biofilm formation. Transcriptional analysis showed that SomA regulates expression of genes for several transcription factors which control conidiation or adhesion of A. fumigatus. Infection assays with fertilized chicken eggs as well as with mice revealed that SomA is required for pathogenicity. These data corroborate a complex control function of SomA acting as a central factor of the transcriptional network, which connects adhesion, spore formation and virulence in the opportunistic human pathogen A. fumigatus. PMID:26529322

  7. Distilling the Antecedents and Enabling Dynamics of Leader Moral Courage: A Framework to Guide Action.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Marie; Jackson, Debra; Daly, John; Usher, Kim

    2015-05-01

    Intelligent, robust and courageous nursing leadership is essential in all areas of nursing, including mental health. However, in the nursing leadership literature, the theoretical discourse regarding how leaders recognise the need for action and make the choice to act with moral purpose is currently limited. Little has been written about the cognitions, capabilities and contextual factors that enable leader courage. In particular, the interplay between leader values and actions that are characterised as good or moral remains underexplored in the nursing leadership literature. In this article, through a discursive literature synthesis we seek to distill a more detailed understanding of leader moral courage; specifically, what factors contribute to leaders' ability to act with moral courage, what factors impede such action, and what factors do leaders need to foster within themselves and others to enable action that is driven by moral courage. From the analysis, we distilled a multi-level framework that identifies a range of individual characteristics and capabilities, and enabling contextual factors that underpin leader moral courage. The framework suggests leader moral courage is more complex than often posited in theories of leadership, as it comprises elements that shape moral thought and conduct. Given the complexity and challenges of nursing work, the framework for moral action derived from our analysis provides insight and suggestions for strengthening individual and group capacity to assist nurse leaders and mental health nurses to act with integrity and courage. PMID:26090942

  8. Examining antecedents of infant attachment security with mothers and fathers: An ecological systems perspective☆

    PubMed Central

    Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    Taking an ecological systems perspective, early parent–child relationships can be affected by interactions between systems where some are more proximally linked to the child than others. Socioeconomic status, a distal factor, is associated with social functioning during childhood, but research on its association with functioning during infancy, particularly attachment, is scant and inconsistent. Moreover, it is not clear how distal factors affect infant functioning. Other systems such as marital adjustment and parenting may moderate or mediate relations between distal factors and infant attachment. The current longitudinal study (n = 135) examined the role of various systems – parental resources, marital functioning, parental sensitivity and involvement – in early infancy (3-, 5-, 7-months) on infant–mother (12-months) and infant–father (14-months) attachment security. Findings supported moderating processes but in different ways for infant–mother versus infant–father dyads. Implications for future studies and interventions are discussed. PMID:25890261

  9. US Geological Survey urban-stormwater data base of constituent storm loads; characteristics of rainfall, runoff, and antecedent conditions; and basin characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mustard, M.H.; Driver, N.E.; Chyr, John; Hansen, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    A data base which consists of constituent storm loads, characteristics of rainfall, runoff, and antecedent conditions, and basin characteristics measured at most of the stations in the U.S. Geological Survey urban-stormwater data-collection network in metropolitan areas throughout the United States has been compiled. Tables of these constituents storm loads and characteristics are presented in this report. The data base also is available on magnetic tape. The data represent 1,144 storms at 97 stations in 21 metropolitan areas. Storm loads for 18 constituents and 15 characteristics of rainfall, runoff, and antecedent conditions are reported. Twenty-eight selected basin characteristics also are reported, including 11 categories of land use. (USGS)

  10. The effect of antecedent moisture conditions on sediment and phosphorus loss during overland flow: Mahantango Creek catchment, Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, R. W.; Sharpley, A. N.

    2002-10-01

    The loss of P in overland flow from most cultivated soils is controlled by erosion, and in-turn soil moisture. We evaluated the effect of soil moisture on erosion and P transport in overland flow by applying rainfall (7 cm h-1) to packed soil boxes (1 m long and 0·15 m wide) and field plots (1 and 10 m long by 1 m wide) of silt loams in a central Pennsylvania (USA) catchment. Flow from packed soil boxes took longer to initiate as antecedent soil moisture decreased from field capacity (2 min) to air dried (8 to 9 min). Even in the more complex field plots (i.e. soil heterogeneity and topography), the wetter site (1 by 10 m plot; 70% field capacity) produced flow more quickly (3 min) and in greater volume (439 L) than the drier site (1 by 10 m plot; 40% field capacity, 15 min, and 214 L, respectively). However, less suspended sediment was transported from wetter soil boxes (1·6 to 2·5 g L-1) and field plots (0·9 g L-1) than drier boxes (2·9 to 4·2 g L-1) and plots (1·2 g L-1). Differences are attributed to their potential for soil aggregate breakdown, slaking and dispersion, which contribute to surface soil sealing and crusting, as dry soils are subject to rapid wetting (by rainfall). During flow, selective erosion and antecedent moisture conditions affected P transport. At field capacity, DRP and PP transport varied little during overland flow. Whereas P transport from previously dry soil decreased rapidly after the initiation of flow (6 to 1·5 mg TP L-1), owing to the greater slaking and dispersion of P-rich particles into flow at the beginning than end of the flow event. These results indicate that soil moisture fluctuations greatly effect erosion and P transport potential and that management to decrease the potential for loss should consider practices such as conservation tillage and cover crops, particularly on areas where high soil P and erosion coincide.

  11. Ian Is Intelligent but Leshaun Is Lazy: Antecedents and Consequences of Attributional Stereotypes in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Christine

    2008-01-01

    One explanation for the widening achievement gap in America and throughout Europe between ethnic minorities/immigrants, and Whites is the influence of cultural stereotypes on attributions made by both educators and students. This paper explores some factors that increase the likelihood that educators will consciously or unconsciously rely on…

  12. Adult Role Transitions: Some Antecedents and Outcomes Early in the Life Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frank M.; Frese, Wolfgang

    Focusing on the pre-adolescent to late-adolescent portion of the life cycle, research examined how "early" exit from student role and "early" entry into adult roles of parent or spouse reflects factors operating prior to adolescence. Interviews during 1969 with 1,202 fifth and sixth graders and their mothers in 6 southern states, and again during…

  13. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Antecedents of Locus of Control Orientation in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickline, Virginia B.; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.; Kincheloe, Amy Ransom; Osborn, Albert F.

    2011-01-01

    Locus of control (LOC) is related to many aspects of human behavior, yet relatively little is known about what factors in early childhood may dispose a child to develop an internal or external LOC orientation. Data from a British epidemiological, longitudinal, cohort study of 12,463 children and their mothers were used to identify, from a wide…

  14. Investigating School-Wide Antecedents of Good Practice Dissemination from Individual Subject Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophersen, Knut-Andreas; Elstad, Eyvind; Turmo, Are

    2012-01-01

    Good practice dissemination is an unsolved problem in education. This article describes how clear and "soft" leadership and perceptions of social and economic exchange operate in the bottom-up processes of school reforms and examines the relative impact of these factors on school-wide good practice dissemination and discusses how leadership…

  15. Social Loafing on Group Projects: Structural Antecedents and Effect on Student Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Praveen; O'Brien, Connie L.

    2008-01-01

    To respond to the expectations of the industry and business school accreditation bodies, marketing faculty have been making extensive use of group projects in their curricula. A common problem with the use of student groups, however, is that of social loafing. In this study, we identify some easy-to-implement project set-up factors and examine…

  16. A Study on the Interrelations between the Security-Related Antecedents of Customers' Online Trust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peikari, Hamid Reza

    Despite the wide attention of previous studies to explore the influence of different security-related factors on customers' online trust, the interrelations between such factors and their direct and indirect influences on customers' trust have been neglected. This study investigates the direct and indirect interrelations between the factors authentication, encryption, technical protection and externally provided assurances including third party security and privacy seals with customers' trust in the business-to-customer (B2C) environment. The data was collected from 238 respondents and after the test of reliability and validity of the scale, the hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. The results showed that customers' perception of encryption and authentication mechanisms implemented by a Website have a positive significant influence on their perceived technical protection while technical protection was found to significantly influence customers' trust to the Website. However, the analysis did not find any relation between the third party assurance and customers' trust, indicating that despite the high expenses companies involve to obtain such assurances from reputed third parties, such mechanisms and assurances do not have any direct or indirect significant influence on customers' trust; which raises questions on the value of such mechanisms .finally, after discussing the findings and implication of this study for both academic and business worlds, suggestions for future studies were made to have a better understanding of the dimensions of the interrelations between the security-related factors.

  17. The Development of Stranger Fear in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Normative Development, Individual Differences, Antecedents, and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2013-01-01

    Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments…

  18. Antecedents of Continued Usage Intentions of Web-Based Learning Management System in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lwoga, Edda Tandi; Komba, Mercy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that predict students' continued usage intention of web-based learning management systems (LMS) in Tanzania, with a specific focus on the School of Business of Mzumbe University. Specifically, the study investigated major predictors of actual usage and continued usage intentions of…

  19. Electronic Textbooks: Antecedents of Students' Adoption and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpend, Regis; Gattiker, Thomas F.; Lowe, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Faculty and students are increasingly faced with the opportunity to use electronic versions of textbooks (e-texts). Despite the advantages of e-texts and recent advances in technology, evidence suggests that students are still reluctant to adopt and use e-texts. This situation leads us to investigate two research questions: What factors contribute…

  20. Antecedents and Outcomes of Workplace Incivility: Implications for Human Resource Development Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Ghosh, Rajashi

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional, correlational study (N = 402) examined the relationships among select demographics, workplace adaptation, employee affect, and incivility and physical health and job satisfaction. The paper-and-pencil survey battery consisted of nine scales. The hypotheses were tested through correlational, factor analytic, and hierarchical…

  1. A Quantitative Examination of User Experience as an Antecedent to Student Perception in Technology Acceptance Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Rory

    2013-01-01

    Internet-enabled mobile devices have increased the accessibility of learning content for students. Given the ubiquitous nature of mobile computing technology, a thorough understanding of the acceptance factors that impact a learner's intention to use mobile technology as an augment to their studies is warranted. Student acceptance of mobile…

  2. When Students Complain: An Antecedent Model of Students' Intention to Complain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lala, Vishal; Priluck, Randi

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the factors that influence students' intention to complain following a bad classroom experience using a customer service framework from the marketing literature. An online survey was conducted with 288 participants using the critical incident approach. Results indicate that predictors of intention to complain differ based on…

  3. A Conceptual Framework Examining the Antecedents of Career Decisiveness Using Motivation Systems Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Srabasti

    2013-01-01

    An extensive body of vocational research has been dedicated to the topic of career-decision making behavior. Work is integral to human functioning, and all psychologists need to understand the role of work in people's lives. Understanding factors influencing work choices and helping individuals effectively make career decisions is the focus…

  4. If I Can Do for My People, I Can Do for Myself: Examining Racial Factors for Their Influence on Goal Efficacy for Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley-Edwards, Keisha L.; Agonafer, Edden; Edmonston, Rashida; Flannigan, Alaina

    2016-01-01

    Using a sociocultural stress and coping approach, this study focuses on the antecedents of goal efficacy, or an individual's appraisal that they can achieve their goals. Despite being in college, less than half of the participants demonstrated goal efficacy. Racial factors including racial cohesion, racial dissonance and race-related stress, along…

  5. Assessing Arboreal Adaptations of Bird Antecedents: Testing the Ecological Setting of the Origin of the Avian Flight Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dececchi, T. Alexander; Larsson, Hans C. E.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of avian flight is a classic macroevolutionary transition with research spanning over a century. Two competing models explaining this locomotory transition have been discussed for decades: ground up versus trees down. Although it is impossible to directly test either of these theories, it is possible to test one of the requirements for the trees-down model, that of an arboreal paravian. We test for arboreality in non-avian theropods and early birds with comparisons to extant avian, mammalian, and reptilian scansors and climbers using a comprehensive set of morphological characters. Non-avian theropods, including the small, feathered deinonychosaurs, and Archaeopteryx, consistently and significantly cluster with fully terrestrial extant mammals and ground-based birds, such as ratites. Basal birds, more advanced than Archaeopteryx, cluster with extant perching ground-foraging birds. Evolutionary trends immediately prior to the origin of birds indicate skeletal adaptations opposite that expected for arboreal climbers. Results reject an arboreal capacity for the avian stem lineage, thus lending no support for the trees-down model. Support for a fully terrestrial ecology and origin of the avian flight stroke has broad implications for the origin of powered flight for this clade. A terrestrial origin for the avian flight stroke challenges the need for an intermediate gliding phase, presents the best resolved series of the evolution of vertebrate powered flight, and may differ fundamentally from the origin of bat and pterosaur flight, whose antecedents have been postulated to have been arboreal and gliding. PMID:21857918

  6. Linking health information seeking to behavioral outcomes: antecedents and outcomes of childhood vaccination information seeking in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ou; Kim, Soyoon

    2015-01-01

    Although research on health information has made significant progress in identifying the antecedents of individuals' information-seeking behavior in the context of the United States, the results have not been generalizable to the contexts of many other countries. Moreover, little is known about how one's information-seeking behavior is connected to actual behavioral outcomes relevant to the search action. The authors conducted an online survey with a stratified random sample of 1,004 mothers to examine the applicability of the comprehensive model of health information seeking in predicting the use of diverse childhood vaccination information sources in South Korea, and to investigate associations between the mothers' engagement with specific vaccine information sources and behavioral intention to immunize their children. Findings indicated that the hierarchical structure and the role of predictors within the comprehensive model of health information seeking provided a valid framework in the context of vaccine information seeking in Korea. In addition, the authors found negative associations between the use of certain types of information sources and mothers' intention to vaccinate. This suggests that the dissemination of critical health information through a variety of available sources does not automatically lead to prudent behavioral decisions when the specific characteristics of the different sources are not considered. PMID:25539018

  7. Examining the antecedents of challenge and threat states: the influence of perceived required effort and support availability.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lee J; Vine, Samuel J; Wilson, Mark R; Freeman, Paul

    2014-08-01

    To date, limited research has explicitly examined the antecedents of challenge and threat states proposed by the biopsychosocial model. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the influence of perceived required effort and support availability on demand/resource evaluations, challenge and threat states, and motor performance. A 2 (required effort; high, low)×2 (support availability; available, not available) between-subjects design was used with one hundred and twenty participants randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. Participants received instructions designed to manipulate perceptions of required effort and support availability before demand/resource evaluations and cardiovascular responses were assessed. Participants then performed the novel motor task (laparoscopic surgery) while performance was recorded. Participants in the low perceived required effort condition evaluated the task as more of a challenge (i.e., resources outweighed demands), exhibited a cardiovascular response more indicative of a challenge state (i.e., higher cardiac output and lower total peripheral resistance), and performed the task better (i.e., quicker completion time) than those in the high perceived required effort condition. However, perceptions of support availability had no significant impact on participants' demand/resource evaluations, cardiovascular responses, or performance. Furthermore, there was no significant interaction effect between perceptions of required effort and support availability. The findings suggest that interventions aimed at promoting a challenge state should include instructions that help individuals perceive that the task is not difficult and requires little physical and mental effort to perform effectively. PMID:24867434

  8. Hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging during a face-name learning task in adolescents with antecedents of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Mónica; Junqué, Carme; Vendrell, Pere; Caldú, Xavier; Narberhaus, Ana; Bargalló, Núria; Falcón, Carles; Botet, Francesc; Mercader, Josep Maria

    2005-04-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to map hippocampal activation during a declarative memory task in a sample of 14 adolescents with antecedents of prematurity (AP). The sample with AP was matched by age, sex and handedness with 14 full-term controls with no history of neurological or psychiatric illness. The target task consisted in learning 16 novel face-name pairs, and the control task involved the examination of two repeated face-name pairs. Stereological methods were also used to quantify hippocampal volumes. In both groups, we observed increased activation in the learning condition compared to the control task in the right fusiform gyrus and the left inferior occipital gyrus, but only premature subjects activated the hippocampus. Group comparison of the activation versus control conditions showed that prematures had greater activity in the right hippocampus than controls during the encoding of the word-face association. Volumetric analyses showed a significant left hippocampal volume loss in adolescents with AP. In addition, we found a significant positive correlation in the premature group between right hippocampal activation and face-name recognition. Functional MRI data also correlated with structural MRI data: right hippocampal activation correlated positively with right hippocampal volume. Our findings are consistent with previous studies of brain plasticity after focal lesions. Left hippocampal tissue loss may be related to an increase in contralateral brain activity, probably reflecting a compensatory mechanism. Our data also suggest that this plasticity is not enough to achieve normal performance. PMID:15784435

  9. Effects of culturally specific cessation messages on theoretical antecedents of behavior among low-income african american smokers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Monica S; Baker, Elizabeth A; Rodríguez de Ybarra, Denise

    2010-06-01

    Previous research has highlighted the importance of cultural relevance in health risk communications, including tobacco interventions. However, few studies have examined the active components of smoking cessation messages targeting low-income African American smokers. This study tested the influence of message content and culturally specific framing in a sample of adult smokers. In a 2 x 2 factorial experiment, 243 African American smokers (M = 19 cigarettes/day) recruited from the community (55% women; mean age = 43 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: culturally specific smoking messages, standard smoking messages, culturally specific exercise/weight messages, or standard exercise/weight messages. The primary outcome measures were theoretical antecedents to behavior change, including risk perceptions (general, personal, and culturally specific), readiness to quit smoking, and smoking-related knowledge. The results showed that the smoking messages produced greater culturally specific risk perceptions, readiness to quit smoking, and smoking-related knowledge. The culturally specific messages produced greater personal risk perceptions and intentions to quit. Culturally specific risk perceptions were most affected by culturally specific smoking messages. Findings support the roles of message content and culturally specific framing in the efficacy of brief written interventions for smoking cessation in this population. Future research is needed to examine the influence of these constructs on behavior change. PMID:20565159

  10. Unique Influences of Adolescent Antecedents on Adult Borderline Personality Disorder Features

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Olino, Thomas M.; Klein, Daniel N.; Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a dearth of prospective information regarding adolescent precursors of borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study aims to determine the unique associations between early maladaptive family functioning, parental psychiatric diagnoses, proband early-onset psychiatric diagnosis and BPD symptoms in adulthood using an existing longitudinal study. Participants were randomly selected from nine high schools in western Oregon. A total of 1,709 students (ages 14-18 years) completed two assessments during adolescence. All adolescents with a history of a depressive disorder (n = 360) or a history of non-mood disorders (n = 284), and a random sample of adolescents with no history of psychopathology (n = 457) were invited to participate in a third and fourth evaluation when participants were on average 24 years and 30 years, respectively. Biological parents were interviewed at the third assessment. The multivariate model with all early risk factors found that maternal-child discord (p < .05), maternal BPD (p < .05), paternal Substance Use Disorder (SUD) (p < .05), and proband depression (p < .05), SUD (p < .001), and suicidality (p < .05) were associated with later BPD symptoms. Maternal SUD and proband anxiety, Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder were also associated with proband BPD symptoms in univariate analyses, but were no longer significant when the other risk factors were included in the model. Multivariate assessment models are needed to identify unique risk factors for Borderline Personality Disorder. This will enhance the efficiency of screening efforts for early detection of risk. PMID:23397935

  11. Personality trait development at the end of life: Antecedents and correlates of mean-level trajectories.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jenny; Ram, Nilam; Smith, Jacqui; Gerstorf, Denis

    2016-09-01

    Empirical evidence over the past 20 years has documented that key aspects of personality traits change during adulthood. However, it is essentially an open question whether and how traits change at the very end of life and what role health, cognitive performance, perceived control, and social factors play in those changes. To examine these questions, we applied growth models to 13-year longitudinal data obtained from now-deceased participants in the Berlin Aging Study (N = 463; age at baseline M = 85.9 years, SD = 8.4; 51% men). Results revealed that neuroticism, on average, increases (about 0.3 SD in the last 10 years) and that this increase becomes even steeper at the end of life. In contrast, extraversion and openness decline rather steadily at the end of life (about -0.5 SD in the last 10 years). Additionally, poor health manifested as a risk factor for declines in extraversion and openness late in life but not neuroticism. Similar to earlier phases of life, better cognitive performance related to more openness. More loneliness was associated with higher neuroticism, whereas more social activity was associated with higher levels of extraversion and openness. Intriguing additional insights indicated that more personal control was associated with higher levels of extraversion and openness, whereas the feeling that one's life is controlled by others was associated with higher neuroticism but also with higher openness closer to death. We discuss potential pathways by which health, cognitive performance, control, and social inclusion resources and risk factors affect personality development late in life. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26479363

  12. Molecular Screening Tools to Study Arabidopsis Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wehner, Nora; Weiste, Christoph; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, more than 2000 genes are estimated to encode transcription factors (TFs), which clearly emphasizes the importance of transcriptional control. Although genomic approaches have generated large TF open reading frame (ORF) collections, only a limited number of these genes is functionally characterized, yet. This review evaluates strategies and methods to identify TF functions. In particular, we focus on two recently developed TF screening platforms, which make use of publically available GATEWAY®-compatible ORF collections. (1) The Arabidopsis thaliana TF ORF over-Expression (AtTORF-Ex) library provides pooled collections of transgenic lines over-expressing HA-tagged TF genes, which are suited for screening approaches to define TF functions in stress defense and development. (2) A high-throughput microtiter plate based protoplast trans activation (PTA) system has been established to screen for TFs which are regulating a given promoter:Luciferase construct in planta. PMID:22645547

  13. What Drives Apostates and Converters? The Social and Familial Antecedents of Religious Change among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Gregory S.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-01-01

    While research on the psychology of religion and spirituality has examined religious conversion, little research has examined social and familial variables that might play a role in conversion in adolescence. Longitudinal work examining concurrent conversion experiences – as opposed to retrospective reports – is particularly rare. In an examination of 209 parent-adolescent dyads, findings suggested that those who became religious at Time 2 had higher social competence at Time 1 than did apostates, whereas adolescents who were religious at both times had higher social competence, parent communication, and parent trust than apostates. Additionally, those who converted to their parent’s religion at Time 2 were higher than apostates in Time 1 social competence and parent communication. Results point to the importance of considering social and familial factors in religious conversion. PMID:25664141

  14. Severe viral oesophagitis, pharyngitis, and stomatitis as antecedents of ileocecal Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Waluga, Marek; Budzyńska, Agnieszka; Kajor, Maciej; Hartleb, Marek

    2015-01-01

    We present a 22-year-old male who developed a severe erosive oesophagitis extending to the pharynx and oral cavity without obvious risk factors. Endoscopic image suggested viral aetiology that could not be confirmed by routine serological diagnostics of infections with cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Herpes simplex virus. The histopathological evaluation also gave no definite clues to the aetiology of the inflammation. Treatment with acyclovir was ineffective, but gancyclovir therapy caused spectacular clinical improvement and healing of erosions. Two months later the patient presented febrile diarrhoea that was a symptom of ileocecal Crohn's disease proven by endoscopy, enterography, and histopathology. It is the first report of severe viral oesophagitis preceding clinical manifestation of Crohn's disease. This observation warrants further study towards the viral aetiology of oral, pharyngeal, and oesophageal erosions, frequently associated with Crohn's disease. PMID:25960815

  15. What it takes to get proactive: An integrative multilevel model of the antecedents of personal initiative.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ying; Liao, Hui; Raub, Steffen; Han, Joo Hun

    2016-05-01

    Building upon and extending Parker, Bindl, and Strauss's (2010) theory of proactive motivation, we develop an integrated, multilevel model to examine how contextual factors shape employees' proactive motivational states and, through these proactive motivational states, influence their personal initiative behavior. Using data from a sample of hotels collected from 3 sources and over 2 time periods, we show that establishment-level initiative-enhancing human resource management (HRM) systems were positively related to departmental initiative climate, which was positively related to employee personal initiative through employee role-breadth self-efficacy. Further, department-level empowering leadership was positively related to initiative climate only when initiative-enhancing HRM systems were low. These findings offer interesting implications for research on personal initiative and for the management of employee proactivity in organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26653528

  16. Antecedents of Elderly Home Residency in Cognitive Healthy Elders: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sigaroudi, Abdolhosein Emami; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Admission to elderly homes brings with itself fear of losing home and many other mental consequences to both the elder and family members. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of elders about factors influencing living in the elderly home. Using a qualitative design, 14 elder people living in elderly homes were chosen through purposive sampling based on defined criteria. Semi-structured interviews were held with the participants and field noting was taken during the interviews. Collected data was analyzed using thematic analysis, which resulted in the development of three main themes: “basic Predictors”, “self-care crisis”, and “role crisis”, which were consisted of a couple of subthemes. We conclude that nurses to better care in community and elderly homes, need to know that living in elderly homes has universal predictors; Of course their weight and position are different on different contexts. PMID:23445709

  17. Guilt about first intercourse: an antecedent of sexual dissatisfaction among college women.

    PubMed

    Moore, N B; Davidson, J K

    1997-01-01

    First sexual intercourse is often viewed as a rite of passage to adulthood. While one's initial coital experience may lead to affirmation of self-identity, it is disappointing for many, resulting in feelings of guilt and shame. If guilt feelings do emerge, the likelihood of future sexual dissatisfaction is greatly increased. In particular, women with high levels of sexual guilt tend to perceive less sexual arousal, resulting in less enjoyment from their sexual encounters. The purposes of this investigation were to identify those factors correlated with feeling guilty about first sexual intercourse and to examine the influence of guilt about first intercourse on current sexual satisfaction. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to never-married college women, with the subsample for this investigation consisting of 570 women. Significant variables correlated with guilt at first sexual intercourse include uncommunicative mother and father figures, overstrict father figure, uncomfortableness with sexuality, physiological and psychological sexual dissatisfaction with first intercourse, guilt feelings about current intercourse, and psychological sexual dissatisfaction. These findings have substantial implications for sex researchers, sex therapists, family therapists, and sexuality educators who wish to promote healthy sexuality, through both attitudes and behavior. PMID:9094034

  18. Perceived antecedents of marital satisfaction among Turkish, Turkish-Dutch, and Dutch couples.

    PubMed

    Celenk, Ozgur; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2013-01-01

    We studied mainstream couples in The Netherlands and Turkey as well as Turkish-Dutch immigrant couples to address cultural factors associated with marital satisfaction. A total of 13 Turkish (mainstream couples living in Turkey), 19 Turkish-Dutch (Turkish immigrant couples living in The Netherlands), and 17 Dutch (mainstream couples living in The Netherlands) married dyads (total of 98 individuals) were independently interviewed about positive and negative characteristics of marriages, determinants of general marital satisfaction and dissatisfaction, spousal communication, marital conflict, and marital roles. Multivariate tests revealed ethnic group differences on all marriage-related domains except the conflict resolution strategies. However, univariate analyses showed differences in few themes within domains; main differences were assessed between the Turkish/Turkish-Dutch (who put more emphasis on children and economical aspects) and Dutch couples (who put more emphasis on behavior, and personality of the spouse, reciprocity, emotional sharing, and psychological roles). Turkish-Dutch couples were more similar to Turkish than to Dutch couples. Results were discussed in light of the socioeconomic development and cultural value theories, which are believed to provide a useful framework for understanding the role of culture in marital satisfaction. PMID:23126343

  19. Infant feeding practices reflect antecedent risk of xerophthalmia in Nepali children.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, J; Shankar, A V; West, K P; Ram, R; Dhungel, C; Dahal, B

    1997-07-01

    The association between infant feeding patterns and vitamin A deficiency (VAD)-associated xerophthalmia was investigated in a case-control study of 156 children, 1-6 years old, from a rural lowland region of Nepal. The 78 children with previous xerophthalmia determined on the basis of current Bitot's spots, corneal xerosis, or night blindness were matched with 78 controls on the basis of locale, age, and the presence and age of a younger sibling. The diet history method was used to elicit infant feeding practices from mothers. Frequency of consumption of 21 key foods was calculated over the 2-year period of the diet history. The analysis supported the hypothesis that infant dietary practices can influence the subsequent risk for VAD. The feeding of meat (odds ratio (OR), 0.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.01-0.70) or fish (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.99) with eggs (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.01-0.88) and mango (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.13-0.60) was protective in association with xerophthalmia in early childhood. In factor analysis, only the "animal flesh" feeding pattern, practiced in the second year of life, was significantly protective against xerophthalmia (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.94). These findings confirm the importance of introducing vitamin A-rich foods during weaning to reduce the risk of VAD-associated xerophthalmia in the later preschool years. PMID:9234033

  20. Antecedents of Psychological Contract Breach: The Role of Job Demands, Job Resources, and Affect

    PubMed Central

    Vantilborgh, Tim; Bidee, Jemima; Pepermans, Roland; Griep, Yannick; Hofmans, Joeri

    2016-01-01

    While it has been shown that psychological contract breach leads to detrimental outcomes, relatively little is known about factors leading to perceptions of breach. We examine if job demands and resources predict breach perceptions. We argue that perceiving high demands elicits negative affect, while perceiving high resources stimulates positive affect. Positive and negative affect, in turn, influence the likelihood that psychological contract breaches are perceived. We conducted two experience sampling studies to test our hypotheses: the first using daily surveys in a sample of volunteers, the second using weekly surveys in samples of volunteers and paid employees. Our results confirm that job demands and resources are associated with negative and positive affect respectively. Mediation analyses revealed that people who experienced high job resources were less likely to report psychological contract breach, because they experienced high levels of positive affect. The mediating role of negative affect was more complex, as it increased the likelihood to perceive psychological contract breach, but only in the short-term. PMID:27171275

  1. Atrazine and alachlor transport in claypan soils as influenced by differential antecedent soil water content.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, H V; Anderson, S H; Goyne, K W; Gantzer, C J

    2008-01-01

    Increased attention to ground water contamination has encouraged an interest in mechanisms of solute transport through soils. Few studies have investigated the effect of the initial soil water content on the transport and degradation of herbicides for claypan soils. We investigated the effect of claypan soils at initial field capacity vs. permanent wilting level on atrazine and alachlor transport. The soil studied was Mexico silt loam (fine, smectitic, mesic Aeric Vertic Epiaqualf) with a subsoil clay content, primarily montmorillonite, of >40%. Strontium bromide, atrazine, and alachlor were applied to plots; half were at field capacity (Wet treatment), and half were near the permanent wilting point (Dry treatment). Soil cores were removed at selected depths and times, and cores were analyzed for bromide and herbicide concentrations. Bromide, atrazine, and alachlor were detected at the 0.90-m depth in dry plots within 15 d after experiment initiation. Bromide was detected 0.15 m deeper (P < 0.05) in the Dry compared with the Wet treatment at 1, 7, and 60 d after application and >0.30 m deeper (P < 0.01) in the Dry treatment at 15 and 30 d after application; similar treatment results were found for atrazine and alachlor, although on fewer dates with significant differences. The mobility order of the applied chemicals was bromide > atrazine > alachlor. The atrazine apparent half-life was significantly longer in the Dry plots compared with the Wet plots. The retardation factor determined from the relative velocity of each herbicide to that of bromide was higher for alachlor than for atrazine. This study identifies the impact that shrinkage cracks have for different moisture conditions on preferential transport of herbicides in claypan soils. PMID:18574193

  2. Smoking Antecedents: Separating Between- and Within-Person Effects of Tobacco Dependence in a Multiwave Ecological Momentary Assessment Investigation of Adolescent Smoking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) investigations have shown that the antecedents of smoking vary with individual differences in tobacco dependence. This has been interpreted as indicating that the transition to dependence is characterized by an erosion of external stimulus control over smoking. Rigorously testing this requires collecting multiple waves of EMA data, which permits separation of the influence of between- and within-person tobacco dependence variation in multilevel models. Methods: Adolescents (n = 313, 9th or 10th grade at baseline) participated in up to 4 waves of week-long EMA assessment over the course of 2 years as part of a larger longitudinal, observational study. At each wave, participants recorded contextual features and subjective states in response to prompted diary assessments and when smoking. They completed a youth-specific form of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale at each wave. Results: In cross-sectional multilevel analyses, smoking was less contingent on alcohol/drug use and was more common at home and in the morning for adolescents with higher levels of dependence. Multiwave analyses demonstrated that these effects were largely attributable to between-person variation in dependence, although parameter estimates for intraindividual dependence × antecedent effects tended to be in the predicted direction. Discussion: Findings provided partial support for the contention that the antecedents of smoking shift as an individual progresses to higher levels of dependence. Distinctive choices concerning smoking settings also appear to reflect between-person differences in propensity to dependence. More generally, the findings illustrate the value of using multilevel modeling and repeated EMA assessments to investigate the correlates of tobacco dependence at different levels of analysis. PMID:23990475

  3. A method of evaluating effects of antecedent precipitation on duststorms and its application to Yuma, Arizona, 1981-1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKinnon, D.J.; Elder, D.F.; Helm, P.J.; Tuesink, M.F.; Nist, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Precipitation causes several short- and long-term effects on wind-induced surface erodibility and subsequent dust emission. Among the principal effects considered by this paper are soil moisture, soil crusts, and vegetation. A quantitative method is developed to assess these effects using differences between the potential and the actual amounts of dust emitted from dust sources as inferred from surface meteorological measurements obtained downwind from those sources. The results of this assessment must be interpreted with caution, however, when the size and location of dust sources are unknown. Using meteorological data recorded near Yuma, Arizona at the Yuma Marine Corps Air Station (YMCAS), the method is applied to calculate the potential and actual amounts of dust emitted from upwind dust sources during the spring and fall/winter seasons between January 1, 1981 and May 31, 1988. (Spring is considered to be the period between February 1 and May 31; fall/winter, between October 1 and January 31.) Because summer precipitation is intermittent and wind patterns are localized, summer meteorological data are not used to evaluate regional correlations between precipitation and dust storms. For the period between 1981 and 1988, a correlation of -0.60 was found between fall/winter precipitation and the actual amount of dust emitted from sources upwind of YMCAS during the following spring. A particularly strong reduction in dust emission was noted during the springs of 1983 and 1984 following the start of an 'El Nino event' in fall/winter 1982. Photographs taken at a geological and meteorological data-collection (Geomet) site, located in the natural desert 25 km southeast of YMCAS, show a correspondence between increased antecedent precipitation recorded at the site and increased vegetation. Whereas the annual precipitation totals at YMCAS and the Geomet site from the beginning of 1982 through 1984 are high, their seasonal totals, especially during the fall/winter seasons

  4. Investigating surface and groundwater mixing dynamics under varying antecedent moisture conditions in a karst aquifer, Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C.; Banner, J. L.; Musgrove, M.; Mahler, B. J.

    2010-12-01

    Variability in Sr concentrations and isotope values of groundwater from the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer during the period of November 2008 to March 2010 reflects a broad range of hydrologic conditions, and lends insight into surface and groundwater mixing dynamics. Surface water recharge rapidly moves through the karst groundwater system, making surface water quality an important component of groundwater quality. Understanding how surface and groundwater mixing changes in response to varying antecedent moisture conditions is critical to groundwater management. Within the Barton Spring segment, groundwater compositions are characterized by Sr concentrations (median = 1,600 μg/l) and Sr isotope values (median = 0.70792) that reflect extensive interaction with the carbonate bedrock. Surface water, in contrast, has lower Sr concentrations (median = 290 μg/l) and higher Sr isotope values (median = 0.70805) that reflect interaction with soils and urban water inputs. Groundwater was sampled from wells that accessed conduit and diffuse flow dominated parts of the aquifer and from the main discharge point (Barton Springs) of the aquifer segment. Samples were collected in conditions ranging from drought and near-historically low spring discharge to above average rainfall conditions and spring discharge. Groundwater sampled from a well accessing the diffuse part of the aquifer had consistent Sr concentrations and Sr isotope values, reflecting little to no surface water mixing. Groundwater sampled from a well accessing the conduit part of the aquifer had gradually decreasing Sr concentrations and increasing Sr isotope values with increasingly wetter hydrologic conditions, reflecting an increasing proportion of surface water mixing. While spring water also has decreasing Sr concentrations and increasing Sr isotope values with increasingly wetter hydrologic conditions, concentrations and isotope values begin to change only after spring discharge exceeded 50

  5. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient’s age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849

  6. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery.

    PubMed

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient's age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849

  7. Communication Style as an Antecedent to Reactance, Self-Efficacy, and Restoration of Freedom for Drug- and Alcohol-Involved Women on Probation and Parole.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sandi W; Cornacchione, Jennifer J; Morash, Merry; Kashy, Deborah; Cobbina, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    This study extends research on psychological reactance theory by examining probation and parole officer (PO) communication style as an antecedent to female offenders' reactance and 2 indicators of subsequent drug and alcohol abuse while serving probation or parole sentences. Structural equation modeling was conducted to test a mediational path model, the results of which demonstrated that perceptions of PO conversational communication style were negatively associated with reactance but positively associated with self-efficacy to avoid drugs and alcohol. Conversely, women who perceived their POs as having a conformity communication style were more likely to report higher levels of reactance and lower self-efficacy to avoid drugs and alcohol. Psychological reactance led to desire to restore freedom, whereas self-efficacy to avoid drugs and alcohol did not. Desire to restore freedom was linked with reports of using drugs and alcohol and violations of parole or probation for using drugs and alcohol. These findings highlight the importance of communication style as an antecedent to reactance and in the relationship between POs and offenders. PMID:27070189

  8. The effect of storm sequence, catchment structure, vegetation type and antecedent moisture conditions on nutrient loading and stream discharge for a small Catskill mountain watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randolph, A.; Schneiderman, E. M.; Pierson, D. C.; Zion, M. S.; Band, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    Research suggests that among the possible consequences of climate change could be a change in the spatio-temporal pattern of precipitation within and across years. In particular, it is suggested that changes in inter-storm period, storm depth and the partitioning of precipitation between rain and snow events could occur. A complex interaction exists between precipitation, topographic controls, catchment structure and vegetation type and status. Collectively, they define a spatial pattern of antecedent moisture conditions across the landscape prior to each precipitation event, which in turn significantly impacts stream flow characteristics such as base flow, storm flow and nutrient loading. In the present study, we use a spatially distributed hydro-ecological model (RHESSys) to model the change in the relative contribution of stream flow and nutrient loading from sub-catchments within Biscuit Brook (Catskill mountains, New York, USA) as a function of precipitation pattern and vegetation cover. Specifically, we investigate how the spatial pattern of antecedent moisture conditions within each sub-catchment varies as a function of modeled vegetation type and precipitation pattern, and how the aggregate response of the catchment changes in terms of base flow, storm flow and nutrient loading. Implications for water quality and water quality management are assessed and discussed. Key words: climate change, RHESSys, stream discharge, nutrient loading, watershed modeling, ecological modeling, water quality

  9. Transmission of the Aegilops ovata chromosomes carrying gametocidal factors in hexaploid triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm.) hybrids.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, M; Majka, M; Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina, A; Ponitka, A; Pudelska, H; Belter, J; Wiśniewska, H

    2016-08-01

    The main aim of this work was to induce the chromosome rearrangements between Aegilops ovata (UUMM) and hexaploid triticale (AABBRR) by expression of the gametocidal factor located on the chromosome 4M. The Aegilops ovata × Secale cereale (UUMMRR) amphiploids and triticale 'Moreno' were used to produce hybrids by reciprocal crosses. Chromosome dynamics was observed in subsequent generations of hybrids during mitotic metaphase of root meristems and first metaphase of meiosis of pollen mother cells. Chromosomes were identified by genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) using pTa71, pTa791, pSc119.2 and pAs1 DNA probes. It has been shown that the origin of the genetic background had an influence on Aegilops chromosome transmission. Moreover, it has been reported that the preferential transmission of chromosome 4M appeared during both androgenesis and gynogenesis. It is also hypothesised that the expression of the triticale Gc gene suppressor had an influence on the semi-fertility of hybrids but did not inhibit the chromosome rearrangements. This paper also describes the double haploid production, which enabled to obtain plants with two identical copies of triticale chromosomes with translocations of Aegilops chromatin segments. PMID:26825077

  10. Childhood Risk Factors for Early-Onset Drinking*

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is relatively little research on the childhood antecedent predictors of early-onset alcohol use. This study examined an array of psychosocial variables assessed at age 10 and reflecting Problem Behavior Theory as potential antecedent risk factors for the initiation of alcohol use at age 14 or younger. Method: A sample of 452 children (238 girls) ages 8 or 10 and their families was drawn from Allegheny County, PA, using targeted-age directory sampling and random-digit dialing procedures. Children and parents were interviewed using computer-assisted interviews. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the age-10 univariate and multivariate predictors of the initiation of alcohol use by age 14 or younger. Results: Twenty-five percent of the sample reported having more than a sip or a taste of alcohol in their life by age 14. Sex, race, and age cohort did not relate to early drinking status. Children with two parents were less likely to initiate drinking early. Early initiation of drinking related significantly to an array of antecedent risk factors (personality, social environment, and behavioral) assessed at age 10 that reflect psychosocial proneness for problem behavior. In the multivariate model, the variables most predictive of early-onset drinking were having a single parent, sipping or tasting alcohol by age 10, having parents who also started drinking at an early age, and parental drinking frequency. Conclusions: Initiation of alcohol use by age 14 reflects childhood psychosocial proneness to engage in problem behavior as measured by Problem Behavior Theory and having a family environment conducive to alcohol use. PMID:21906502

  11. Gender Differences in the Factors Explaining Risky Behavior Online.

    PubMed

    Sasson, Hagit; Mesch, Gustavo

    2016-05-01

    In searching for the social and cognitive antecedents of risky online behaviors, some studies have relied on the theory of planned behavior. According to the theory, three components serve as predictors of a given behavior-attitudes toward the behavior (beliefs that people hold about a given behavior), subjective norms (perceptions of what significant others think about the behavior) and perceived behavior control (perceptions about the ease or difficulty of engaging in a particular behavior). However, none of these studies considered the possibility that these factors work differently for boys and girls. We constructed models of the possible antecedents (attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavior control) of risky behavior online and tested them using a representative sample of 495 sixth to eleventh grade students (46 % female) in a large city in Israel. We measured risky behavior online with items indicating the frequency of posting personal details, sending an insulting message and meeting face-to-face with a stranger met online. Structural equation modeling revealed that peers' subjective norms (beliefs that friends approve of engaging in risky online behaviors), parents' subjective norms (beliefs that parents accept involvement in risky online behaviors) and perceived behavior control were related to boys' risky behavior online, whereas for girls, only parents' subjective norms had such an association. Expanding the models to include other factors underscored that family factors were most strongly associated with girls' risky behavior online. PMID:27016219

  12. Members of the LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN Transcription Factor Family Are Involved in the Regulation of Secondary Growth in Populus[W

    PubMed Central

    Yordanov, Yordan S.; Regan, Sharon; Busov, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of secondary (woody) growth is of substantial economic and environmental interest but is poorly understood. We identified and subsequently characterized an activation-tagged poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba) mutant with enhanced woody growth and changes in bark texture caused primarily by increased secondary phloem production. Molecular characterization of the mutation through positioning of the tag and retransformation experiments shows that the phenotype is conditioned by activation of an uncharacterized gene that encodes a novel member of the LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) family of transcription factors. Homology analysis showed highest similarity to an uncharacterized LBD1 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana, and we consequently named it Populus tremula × Populus alba (Pta) LBD1. Dominant-negative suppression of Pta LBD1 via translational fusion with the repressor SRDX domain caused decreased diameter growth and suppressed and highly irregular phloem development. In wild-type plants, LBD1 was most highly expressed in the phloem and cambial zone. Two key Class I KNOTTED1-like homeobox genes that promote meristem identity in the cambium were downregulated, while an Altered Phloem Development gene that is known to promote phloem differentiation was upregulated in the mutant. A set of four LBD genes, including the LBD1 gene, was predominantly expressed in wood-forming tissues, suggesting a broader regulatory role of these transcription factors during secondary woody growth in poplar. PMID:21097711

  13. Key success factors for clinical knowledge management systems: Comparing physician and hospital manager viewpoints.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sho-Fang; Hsieh, Ping-Jung; Chen, Hui-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The study explores the perceptions of physicians and hospital managers regarding the key success factors (KSFs) of a clinical knowledge management system (CKMS). It aims to eliminate the perception gap and gain more insights for a successful CKMS.A survey was conducted in four medical centers in Taiwan. A total of 340 questionnaires, including 15 for hospital managers and 70 for physicians in each hospital, were administered. The effective response rates are 78.3% and 56.1% respectively. Partial least square (PLS) were used to analyze the data.The results identified six KSFs of CKMS including system software and hardware, knowledge quality, system quality, organizational factors, user satisfaction, and policy factors. User satisfaction and policy factors have direct effects on perceived CKMS performance. Knowledge quality is regarded as an antecedent to user satisfaction, while system quality is the antecedent to both user satisfaction and policy factors. System software and hardware was supported only by managers, and organizational factors were supported only by physicians.Among the factors, this study highlighted the policy factor. Besides, the study provides hospital managers additional insights into physician requirements for organizational support. Third, more physician participation and involvement are recommended when introducing and developing a CKMS. PMID:26444813

  14. Underlying Factors of Family Literacy Practices as Antecedents of Reading Achievement: A Longitudinal, Factorial, Multiple Regression Study Using ECLS-K Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Stacey Jonell

    2011-01-01

    The study had twofold purposes. The first one is to establish the underlying structure of family literacy practices at the different grade levels kindergarten, first, third, fifth, and eighth, for children who were followed in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K). The second purpose is to investigate the…

  15. Part II: differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers and delinquent youth: further group comparisons of developmental antecedents and behavioral challenges.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, George S; Burton, David L; Howard, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper published in the Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers ( Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011 ). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to pornography) and behavioral difficulties (sexual aggression, arousal, pornography use, and nonsexual offenses). The present study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized adolescent sexual abusers with a group of nonsexually victimized delinquent youth. Findings included that delinquent youth had fewer behavioral and developmental problems than the comparison groups. In addition, sexually victimized sexual abusers had the highest mean scores on trauma and personality measures. Implications for research and treatment are offered. PMID:22574846

  16. Antecedent mid-tropospheric frontogenesis caused by the interaction between a tropical cyclone and midlatitude trough: a case study of Typhoon Rusa (2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Eun-Hyuk; Lim, Gyu-Ho; Kim, Joo-Hong; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2014-10-01

    This study examines antecedent mid-tropospheric frontogenesis (AMF) resulting from the interaction between Typhoon Rusa (2002) and a midlatitude trough over the Korean Peninsula. In this event, the AMF contributed to the first peak in the time series of rainfall in Gangneung (37.75°N, 128.90°E), occurring about 12 h before the time of the extratropical transition (ET) process of the tropical cyclone (TC). Using observations and high-resolution model outputs, we showed that the AMF contributed to the antecedent rainfall in Gangneung during the first rainfall period when Gangneung was located outside of Rusa's sphere of direct influence. A Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model experiment was conducted to diagnose the frontogenetical features and associated precipitation processes in detail. The experiment revealed that the AMF was mainly forced by the horizontal deformation forcing (HDF). The direction of the HDF was oriented from southwest to northeast in the middle part of the peninsula. The HDF increased positively due to the confluence of the southeasterlies from the TC and the northwesterlies emanating from the midlatitude trough. The experiment also suggested that the mid-tropospheric moisture originated from the subtropical ocean and deposited into the frontal region by the southerlies on the eastern periphery of the TC, which enhanced the convergence of moisture flux in the frontal region during the first rainfall period. The thermally direct circulation associated with the AMF lead to the mid-tropospheric saturation, which enhanced the precipitation of the first rainfall event together with the orographically forced convection at the low level above Gangneung.

  17. The Role of Antecedent Geology in Submarine Slope Failure: Insights from the Currituck Slide Complex along the Central U.S. Atlantic Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. C.; Brothers, D. S.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Craig, B.; Chaytor, J. D.; Flores, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the influence of antecedent geology on the distribution of submarine landslides along the central U.S. Atlantic margin, we examined a suite of multichannel seismic data, including vintage airgun data from Norfolk Canyon to Cape Hatteras and new high-resolution sparker data across the Currituck Slide, as well as regional multibeam bathymetry. Areas north and south of the Currituck Slide are characterized by oblique margin morphology, defined by angular, convex deltaic clinoforms deposited during the Mid-Miocene, which generated an abrupt shelf-break with relatively steep downslope gradients (>8°). As a result, upper slope sediment bypass, closely spaced submarine canyons, and small landslides confined to canyon headwalls and sidewalls characterize these areas. In contrast, the Currituck region is defined by a sigmoidal geometry, with a smooth shelf-edge rollover and more gentle slope gradient (<6°) that allowed >800m of Plio-Pleistocene sediment accumulation across the continental slope prior to failure. Regionally continuous seismic reflectors show little or no evidence of canyonization beneath the Currituck Slide. A significant volume of intact strata on the lower slope suggests the Currituck region was a primary depocenter for fluvial inputs during multiple sea level lowstands. Failure along bedding planes is evident in outcropping strata along the upper and lower headwalls. Buried scarps beneath these headwalls imply repeated cycles of failure. Folds and faults suggest differential compaction across these scarps may have contributed to the most recent failure. These results suggest high sedimentation and subsequent compaction along a sigmoidal margin were critical components in preconditioning the Currituck Slide for failure. Examination of the regional geological framework illustrates the importance of sediment supply and antecedent slope morphology in the development of large, potentially unstable depocenters along passive margins.

  18. Assessment of arsenic concentration in stream water using neuro fuzzy networks with factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fi-John; Chung, Chang-Han; Chen, Pin-An; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Coynel, Alexandra; Vachaud, Georges

    2014-10-01

    We propose a systematical approach to assessing arsenic concentration in a river through: important factor extraction by a nonlinear factor analysis; arsenic concentration estimation by the neuro-fuzzy network; and impact assessment of important factors on arsenic concentration by the membership degrees of the constructed neuro-fuzzy network. The arsenic-contaminated Huang Gang Creek in northern Taiwan is used as a study case. Results indicate that rainfall, nitrite nitrogen and temperature are important factors and the proposed estimation model (ANFIS(GT)) is superior to the two comparative models, in which 50% and 52% improvements in RMSE are made over ANFIS(CC) and ANFIS(all), respectively. Results reveal that arsenic concentration reaches the highest in an environment of lower temperature, higher nitrite nitrogen concentration and larger one-month antecedent rainfall; while it reaches the lowest in an environment of higher temperature, lower nitrite nitrogen concentration and smaller one-month antecedent rainfall. It is noted that these three selected factors are easy-to-collect. We demonstrate that the proposed methodology is a useful and effective methodology, which can be adapted to other similar settings to reliably model water quality based on parameters of interest and/or study areas of interest for universal usage. The proposed methodology gives a quick and reliable way to estimate arsenic concentration, which makes good contribution to water environment management. PMID:25046611

  19. Role of antecedent conditions on nitrogen and phosphorus mobilisation observed in a lowland arable catchment in eastern England: insights from high-frequency monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outram, Faye; Hiscock, Kevin; Dugdale, Stephen; Lovett, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    In order to reduce annual riverine loadings of nutrients which are responsible for degradation of ecosystems downstream and in near coastal areas, it is important to first understand the mobilisation and pathways responsible for transporting them from source to river and how these pathways vary in space and time. The Blackwater tributary of the River Wensum in Norfolk, England, has been equipped with a sensor network as part of the Demonstration Test Catchments project, which has the aim of reducing pollution from agriculture to river systems whilst maintaining food security by the trial of mitigation measures on working farms at the sub-catchment level. The River Wensum is a lowland chalk catchment with intensive arable agriculture and high occurrence of tile drainage on heavier soils. Three hydrological years of high-frequency data have been gathered in the Blackwater since October 2011, including rainfall, half hourly measurements of discharge and groundwater level coupled with hydrochemical parameters including nitrate, total phosphorus (TP) and total reactive phosphorus (TRP). In the three years of data collection, there were distinct departures from long-term rainfall averages as the winter of 2011-12 was extremely dry following a drought from the previous hydrological year, followed by a summer which was unseasonably wet, which continued into the following winter. The relationship between rainfall, storage and discharge was found to be complex, which in turn had an impact on the dominant controls transporting nutrients from the landscape to the river network. Thirty three storms occurred throughout the three year period which have been analysed in the context of the range of hydrometeorological conditions observed throughout the dataset. Discharge-concentration hysteretic responses of nitrogen, TP and TRP have been used alongside statistical analysis of storm characteristics including antecedent hydrological conditions. The nitrate storm response showed

  20. Socio-cultural and economic antecedents of adolescent sexual decision-making and HIV-risk in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Katz, Ingrid T; Ybarra, Michele L; Wyatt, Monique A; Kiwanuka, Julius P; Bangsberg, David R; Ware, Norma C

    2013-01-01

    With more than half of new infections occurring among youth, HIV/AIDS remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 48 adolescents and 15 adult key informants in a rural Ugandan community to identify influences on adolescent sexual decision-making. Inductive data analytic methods revealed five thematic influences: (1) social pressure, (2) decline of the Senga (a familial figure who traditionally taught female adolescents about how to run a household), (3) cultural barriers to condom use, (4) knowledge of HIV transmission and modes of prevention, and (5) a moral injunction against sex before marriage. Influences were classified as HIV/AIDS risk and protective factors and organized to form an explanatory framework of adolescent sexual risk-taking. Risk factors pull youth toward risky behavior, while protective factors push them away. Predominance of risk over protective influences explains persistent sexual risk-taking by Ugandan youth. HIV prevention programs designed for Ugandan adolescents should take competing factors and sociocultural and economic influences into account. PMID:22835224

  1. Speaking more broadly: an examination of the nature, antecedents, and consequences of an expanded set of employee voice behaviors.

    PubMed

    Maynes, Timothy D; Podsakoff, Philip M

    2014-01-01

    Scholarly interest in employee voice behavior has increased dramatically over the past 15 years. Although this research has produced valuable knowledge, it has focused almost exclusively on voice as a positively intended challenge to the status quo, even though some scholars have argued that it need not challenge the status quo or be well intentioned. Thus, in this paper, we create an expanded view of voice; one that extends beyond voice as a positively intended challenge to the status quo to include voice that supports how things are being done in organizations as well as voice that may not be well intentioned. We construct a framework based on this expanded view that identifies 4 different types of voice behavior (supportive, constructive, defensive, and destructive). We then develop and validate survey measures for each of these. Evidence from 5 studies across 4 samples provides strong support for our new measures in that (a) a 4-factor confirmatory factor analysis model fit the data significantly better than 1-, 2-, or 3-factor models; (b) the voice measures converged with and yet remained distinct from conceptually related comparison constructs; (c) personality predictors exhibited unique patterns of relationships with the different types of voice; (d) variations in actual voice behaviors had a direct causal impact on responses to the survey items; and (e) each type of voice significantly impacted important outcomes for voicing employees (e.g., likelihood of relying on a voicing employee's opinions and evaluations of a voicing employee's overall performance). Implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:24041119

  2. Inhibition by CāINH of Hageman Factor Fragment Activation of Coagulation, Fibrinolysis, and Kinin Generation

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Alan D.; Kaplan, Allen P.; Austen, K. Frank

    1973-01-01

    Highly purified inhibitor of the first component of complement (CāINH) was shown to inhibit the capacity of active Hageman factor fragments to initiate kinin generation, fibrinolysis, and coagulation. The inhibition of prealbumin Hageman factor fragments observed was dependent upon the time of interaction of the fragments with CāINH and not to an effect upon kallikrein or plasmin generated. The inhibition of the coagulant activity of the intermediate sized Hageman factor fragment by CāINH was not due to an effect on PTA or other clotting factors. The inhibition by CāINH of both the prealbumin and intermediate sized Hageman factor fragments occurred in a dose response fashion. The CāINH did not appear to be consumed when the activity of the Hageman factor fragments was blocked, although the fragments themselves could no longer be recovered functionally or as a protein on alkaline disc gel electrophoretic analysis. These results suggest that the CāINH may have an enzymatic effect on the fragments or that an additional site on CāINH is involved in Cā inactivation. Images PMID:4703226

  3. A self-determination theory approach to understanding the antecedents of teachers' motivational strategies in physical education.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ian M; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Standage, Martyn

    2008-02-01

    Physical education teachers can influence students' self-determination through the motivational strategies that they use. The current study examined how teachers' reported use of three motivational strategies (providing a meaningful rationale, providing instrumental help and support, and gaining an understanding of the students) were predicted by perceived job pressure, perceptions of student self-determination, the teachers' autonomous orientation, psychological need satisfaction, and self-determination to teach. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which perceived job pressure, perceptions of student self-determination, and teacher autonomous orientation predicted teacher psychological need satisfaction, which, in turn positively influenced teacher self-determination. The last positively predicted the use of all three strategies. Direct positive effects of teachers' psychological need satisfaction on the strategies of gaining an understanding of students and instrumental help and support were also found. In summary, factors that influence teacher motivation may also indirectly affect their motivational strategies toward students. PMID:18369244

  4. ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF DRUG ABUSE IN RATS SELECTIVELY BRED FOR HIGH AND LOW RESPONSE TO NOVELTY

    PubMed Central

    Flagel, Shelly B.; waselus, Maria; Clinton, Sarah M; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda

    2013-01-01

    Human genetic and epidemiological studies provide evidence that only a subset of individuals who experiment with potentially addictive drugs become addicts. What renders some individuals susceptible to addiction remains to be determined, but most would agree that there is no single trait underlying the disorder. However, there is evidence in humans that addiction liability has a genetic component, and that certain personality characteristics related to temperament (e.g. the sensation-seeking trait) are associated with individual differences in addiction liability. Consequently, we have used a selective breeding strategy based on locomotor response to a novel environment to generate two lines of rats with distinct behavioral characteristics. We have found that the resulting phenotypes differ on a number of neurobehavioral dimensions relevant to addiction. Relative to bred low-responder (bLR) rats, bred high-responder (bHR) rats exhibit increased exploratory behavior, are more impulsive, more aggressive, seek stimuli associated with rewards, and show a greater tendency to relapse. We therefore utilize this unique animal model to parse the genetic, neural and environmental factors that contribute to addiction liability. Our work shows that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), dopaminergic molecules, and members of the fibroblast growth factor family are among the neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that play a role in both the initial susceptibility to addiction as well as the altered neural responses that follow chronic drug exposure. Moreover, our findings suggest that the hippocampus plays a major role in mediating vulnerability to addiction. It is hoped that this work will emphasize the importance of personalized treatment strategies and identify novel therapeutic targets for humans suffering from addictive disorders. PMID:23639434

  5. The role of vegetation patches and antecedent soil moisture conditions in runoff and erosion connectivity in a 4-times burnt pine stand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regensburg, Taco; González-Pelayo, Oscar; Martins, Martinho; Hosseini, Mohammedreza; Keesstra, Saskia; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2015-04-01

    As part of the EU-FP7 project CASCADE, which addresses tipping-points in land degradation of Mediterranean ecosystems, the degradation drivers of repeated wildfires and post-fire drought spell are being studied in maritime pine stands in north-central Portugal. Preliminary results indicated that overland flow and sediment losses were markedly higher at 4-times burnt sites than at one-time burnt sites and, at the same time, that they were markedly higher at recently burnt than long-unburnt sites. These results, however, concerned micro-plots where post-fire recovery was mainly due to seeders and, as a consequence, rather reduced during the study period of the first two years following the wildfire ("inter-patches"). In the framework of COST Action ES1306 (Connecting European Connectivity Research), the present follow-up study aimed at assessing how the overland flow and erosion generated at such inter-patches would be "handled" by downslope vegetation patches and, in particular, patches where the main shrub species in the study area, Pterospartum tridentatum, had re-sprouted. More specifically, this study wanted to assess: (i) how the sink function of these vegetation patches was influenced by potential flow length or the length of the upslope inter-patch; and (ii) how it varied through time and, in particular, with antecedent soil moisture content. The study site is a south-west facing slope in an area that had burnt, with moderate severity, in early September 2012 and three more times before that since 1975 (as of when burnt area maps are available). By the time of the 2012-fire, it was covered by a sparse maritime pine stand that was roughly 7-years old. During October 2014, the study site was instrumented with a total of 12 bounded runoff plots, equally divided over the three slope sections (upper, middle and lower). At each slope section, four types of plots were laid out using square plots of 50 cm x 50 cm as basic building blocks. They were: (i) single inter

  6. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis function and the relationship with chronic widespread pain and its antecedents.

    PubMed

    McBeth, John; Chiu, Yee H; Silman, Alan J; Ray, David; Morriss, Richard; Dickens, Chris; Gupta, Anindya; Macfarlane, Gary J

    2005-01-01

    In clinic studies, altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function has been associated with fibromyalgia, a syndrome characterised by chronic widespread body pain. These results may be explained by the associated high rates of psychological distress and somatisation. We address the hypothesis that the latter, rather than the pain, might explain the HPA results. A population study ascertained pain and psychological status in subjects aged 25 to 65 years. Random samples were selected from the following three groups: satisfying criteria for chronic widespread pain; free of chronic widespread pain but with strong evidence of somatisation ('at risk'); and a reference group. HPA axis function was assessed from measuring early morning and evening salivary cortisol levels, and serum cortisol after physical (pain pressure threshold exam) and chemical (overnight 0.25 mg dexamethasone suppression test) stressors. The relationship between HPA function with pain and the various psychosocial scales assessed was modelled using appropriate regression analyses, adjusted for age and gender. In all 131 persons with chronic widespread pain (participation rate 74%), 267 'at risk' (58%) and 56 controls (70%) were studied. Those in the chronic widespread pain and 'at risk' groups were, respectively, 3.1 (95% CI (1.3, 7.3)) and 1.8 (0.8, 4.0) times more likely to have a saliva cortisol score in the lowest third. None of the psychosocial factors measured were, however, associated with saliva cortisol scores. Further, those in the chronic widespread pain (1.9 (0.8, 4.7)) and 'at risk' (1.6 (0.7, 3.6)) groups were also more likely to have the highest serum cortisol scores. High post-stress serum cortisol was related to high levels of psychological distress (p = 0.05, 95% CI (0.02, 0.08)). After adjusting for levels of psychological distress, the association between chronic widespread pain and post-stress cortisol scores remained, albeit slightly attenuated. This is the first

  7. The effects of antecedent dry days on the nitrogen removal in layered soil infiltration systems for storm run-off control.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kang-Woo; Yoon, Min-Hyuk; Song, Kyung-Guen; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2011-01-01

    The effects of antecedent dry days (ADD) on nitrogen removal efficiency were investigated in soil infiltration systems, with three distinguishable layers: mulch layer (ML), coarse soil layer (CSL) and fine soil layer (FSL). Two sets of lab-scale columns with loamy CSL (C1) and sandy CSL (C2) were dosed with synthetic run-off, carrying chemical oxygen demand of 100 mg L(-1) and total nitrogen of 13 mg L(-1). The intermittent dosing cycle was stepwise adjusted for 5, 10 and 20 days. The influent ammonium and organic nitrogen were adsorbed to the entire depth in C1, while dominantly to the FSL in C2. In both columns, the effluent ammonium concentration increased while the organic nitrogen concentration decreased, as ADD increased from 5 to 20 days. The effluent of C1 always showed nitrate concentration exceeding influent, caused by nitrification, by increasing amounts as ADD increased. However, the wash-out of nitrate in C1 was not distinct in terms of mass since the effluent flow rate was only 25% of the influent. In contrast, efficient reduction (>95%) of nitrate loading was observed in C2 under ADD of 5 and 10 days, because of insignificant nitrification in the CSL and denitrification in the FSL. However, for the ADD of 20 days, a significant nitrate wash-out appeared in C2 as well, possibly because of the re-aeration by the decreasing water content in the FSL. Consequently, the total nitrogen load escaping with the effluent was always smaller in C2, supporting the effectiveness of sandy CSL over loamy FSL for nitrogen removal under various ADDs. PMID:21879550

  8. A Multi-Platform Approach to Examine Spatial and Temporal Variability of Antecedent Moisture Content on Model-Generated Runoff from a Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, W. J.; Ahmad, S.; Young, M.; Shafer, D. S.; Miller, J. J.; Chief, K.

    2009-12-01

    Ungaged watersheds are commonly found in the arid southwest United States. Models are the only practicable method available to water resource managers, earth scientists, and civil engineers for estimating stormwater runoff volumes and flowrates. Significant design decisions are thus based on synthetic hydrographs calculated from coarse-resolution surveys, from which hydraulic properties are obtained. These synthetic hydrographs are often calculated using methods developed for other areas of the country with entirely different environments and landuses that may not be entirely applicable to the arid southwest. This study seeks to examine the use of pedo-transfer functions and soil hydrology principles to determine a more physically-based approach for obtaining soil hydraulic properties and antecedent moisture content (AMC). A multi-modeling platform approach was developed that uses site-specific soil hydraulic and physical data, evaluates them through a regression model, predicts the AMC for a specific set of meteorological conditions, and then predicts stormwater runoff volumes and flowrates. The modeling software packages used for this platform are Rosetta, HYDRUS-1D, and FLO-2D, respectively, all of which are publicly available. The approaches were tied together using Matlab. All data were geospatially rectified and assigned with specific geomorphic surfaces, accounting for spatial variability. Temporal variability of water content is then examined using atmospheric demand and soil properties. These different AMC values are surrogates for successive storm intervals of 1, 5, 10, and 30 days, and used in FLO-2D, a physically-based hydraulic model, which solves full dynamic wave equations for surface runoff. The overall approach was tested on a meso-scale watershed in the Mojave Desert to evaluate the watershed response for design storm frequencies of 2-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year return periods. The results show that this multi-platform approach can efficiently

  9. Fire activity as a function of fire–weather seasonal severity and antecedent climate across spatial scales in southern Europe and Pacific western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urbieta, Itziar R.; Zavala, Gonzalo; Bedia, Joaquin; Gutierrez, Jose M.; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Camia, Andrea; Keeley, Jon E.; Moreno, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate has a strong influence on fire activity, varying across time and space. We analyzed the relationships between fire–weather conditions during the main fire season and antecedent water-balance conditions and fires in two Mediterranean-type regions with contrasted management histories: five southern countries of the European Union (EUMED)(all fires); the Pacific western coast of the USA (California and Oregon, PWUSA)(national forest fires). Total number of fires (≥1 ha), number of large fires (≥100 ha) and area burned were related to mean seasonal fire weather index (FWI), number of days over the 90th percentile of the FWI, and to the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) from the preceding 3 (spring) or 8 (autumn through spring) months. Calculations were made at three spatial aggregations in each area, and models related first-difference (year-to-year change) of fires and FWI/climate variables to minimize autocorrelation. An increase in mean seasonal FWI resulted in increases in the three fire variables across spatial scales in both regions. SPEI contributed little to explain fires, with few exceptions. Negative water-balance (dry) conditions from autumn through spring (SPEI8) were generally more important than positive conditions (moist) in spring (SPEI3), both of which contributed positively to fires. The R2 of the models generally improved with increasing area of aggregation. For total number of fires and area burned, the R2 of the models tended to decrease with increasing mean seasonal FWI. Thus, fires were more susceptible to change with climate variability in areas with less amenable conditions for fires (lower FWI) than in areas with higher mean FWI values. The relationships were similar in both regions, albeit weaker in PWUSA, probably due to the wider latitudinal gradient covered in PWUSA than in EUMED. The large variance explained by some of the models indicates that large-scale seasonal forecast could help anticipating

  10. Effect of antecedent moderate-intensity exercise on the glycemia-increasing effect of a 30-sec maximal sprint: a sex comparison.

    PubMed

    Justice, Tara D; Hammer, Greta L; Davey, Raymond J; Paramalingam, Nirubasini; Guelfi, Kym J; Lewis, Lynley; Davis, Elizabeth A; Jones, Timothy W; Fournier, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether a prior bout of moderate-intensity exercise attenuates the glycemia-increasing effect of a maximal 30-sec sprint. A secondary aim was to determine whether the effect of antecedent exercise on the glucoregulatory response to sprinting is affected by sex. Participants (men n = 8; women n = 7) were tested on two occasions during which they either rested (CON) or cycled for 60-min at a moderate intensity of ~65% V ˙ O 2 peak (EX) before performing a 30-sec maximal cycling effort 195 min later. In response to the sprint, blood glucose increased to a similar extent between EX and CON trials, peaking at 10 min of recovery, with no difference between sexes (P > 0.05). Blood glucose then declined at a faster rate in EX, and this was associated with a glucose rate of disappearance (R d) that exceeded the glucose rate of appearance (R a) earlier in EX compared with CON, although the overall glucose R a and R d profile was higher in men compared with women (P < 0.05). The response of growth hormone was attenuated during recovery from EX compared with CON (P < 0.05), with a lower absolute response in women compared with men (P < 0.05). The response of epinephrine and norepinephrine was also lower in women compared with men (P < 0.05) but similar between trials. In summary, a prior bout of moderate-intensity exercise does not affect the magnitude of the glycemia-increasing response to a 30-sec sprint; however, the subsequent decline in blood glucose is more rapid. This blood glucose response is similar between men and women, despite less pronounced changes in glucose R a and R d, and a lower response of plasma catecholamines and growth hormone to sprinting in women. PMID:26019290

  11. The "con" of concept analysis A discussion paper which explores and critiques the ontological focus, reliability and antecedents of concept analysis frameworks.

    PubMed

    Beckwith, Sue; Dickinson, Angela; Kendall, Sally

    2008-12-01

    This paper draws on the work of Paley and Duncan et al in order to extend and engender debate regarding the use of Concept Analysis frameworks. Despite the apparent plethora of Concept Analysis frameworks used in nursing studies we found that over half of those used were derived from the work of one author. This paper explores the suitability and use of these frameworks and is set at a time when the numbers of published concept analysis papers are increasing. For the purpose of this study thirteen commonly used frameworks, identified from the nursing journals 1993 to 2005, were explored to reveal their origins, ontological and philosophical stance, and any common elements. The frameworks were critiqued and links made between their antecedents. It was noted if the articles contained discussion of any possible tensions between the ontological perspective of the framework used, the process of analysis, praxis and possible nursing theory developments. It was found that the thirteen identified frameworks are mainly based on hermeneutic propositions regarding understandings and are interpretive procedures founded on self-reflective modes of discovery. Six frameworks rely on or include the use of casuistry. Seven of the frameworks identified are predicated on, or adapt the work of Wilson, a school master writing for his pupils. Wilson's framework has a simplistic eleven step, binary and reductionist structure. Other frameworks identified include Morse et al's framework which this article suggests employs a contestable theory of concept maturity. Based on the findings revealed through our exploration of the use of concept analysis frameworks in the nursing literature, concerns were raised regarding the unjustified adaptation and alterations and the uncritical use of the frameworks. There is little evidence that these frameworks provide the necessary depth, rigor or replicability to enable the development in nursing theory which they underpin. PMID:18715562

  12. Effect of antecedent moderate-intensity exercise on the glycemia-increasing effect of a 30-sec maximal sprint: a sex comparison

    PubMed Central

    Justice, Tara D; Hammer, Greta L; Davey, Raymond J; Paramalingam, Nirubasini; Guelfi, Kym J; Lewis, Lynley; Davis, Elizabeth A; Jones, Timothy W; Fournier, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether a prior bout of moderate-intensity exercise attenuates the glycemia-increasing effect of a maximal 30-sec sprint. A secondary aim was to determine whether the effect of antecedent exercise on the glucoregulatory response to sprinting is affected by sex. Participants (men n = 8; women n = 7) were tested on two occasions during which they either rested (CON) or cycled for 60-min at a moderate intensity of ~65% (EX) before performing a 30-sec maximal cycling effort 195 min later. In response to the sprint, blood glucose increased to a similar extent between EX and CON trials, peaking at 10 min of recovery, with no difference between sexes (P > 0.05). Blood glucose then declined at a faster rate in EX, and this was associated with a glucose rate of disappearance (Rd) that exceeded the glucose rate of appearance (Ra) earlier in EX compared with CON, although the overall glucose Ra and Rd profile was higher in men compared with women (P < 0.05). The response of growth hormone was attenuated during recovery from EX compared with CON (P < 0.05), with a lower absolute response in women compared with men (P < 0.05). The response of epinephrine and norepinephrine was also lower in women compared with men (P < 0.05) but similar between trials. In summary, a prior bout of moderate-intensity exercise does not affect the magnitude of the glycemia-increasing response to a 30-sec sprint; however, the subsequent decline in blood glucose is more rapid. This blood glucose response is similar between men and women, despite less pronounced changes in glucose Ra and Rd, and a lower response of plasma catecholamines and growth hormone to sprinting in women. PMID:26019290

  13. Fire activity as a function of fire-weather seasonal severity and antecedent climate across spatial scales in southern Europe and Pacific western USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbieta, Itziar R.; Zavala, Gonzalo; Bedia, Joaquín; Gutiérrez, José M.; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús; Camia, Andrea; Keeley, Jon E.; Moreno, José M.

    2015-11-01

    Climate has a strong influence on fire activity, varying across time and space. We analyzed the relationships between fire-weather conditions during the main fire season and antecedent water-balance conditions and fires in two Mediterranean-type regions with contrasted management histories: five southern countries of the European Union (EUMED)(all fires); the Pacific western coast of the USA (California and Oregon, PWUSA)(national forest fires). Total number of fires (≥1 ha), number of large fires (≥100 ha) and area burned were related to mean seasonal fire weather index (FWI), number of days over the 90th percentile of the FWI, and to the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) from the preceding 3 (spring) or 8 (autumn through spring) months. Calculations were made at three spatial aggregations in each area, and models related first-difference (year-to-year change) of fires and FWI/climate variables to minimize autocorrelation. An increase in mean seasonal FWI resulted in increases in the three fire variables across spatial scales in both regions. SPEI contributed little to explain fires, with few exceptions. Negative water-balance (dry) conditions from autumn through spring (SPEI8) were generally more important than positive conditions (moist) in spring (SPEI3), both of which contributed positively to fires. The R2 of the models generally improved with increasing area of aggregation. For total number of fires and area burned, the R2 of the models tended to decrease with increasing mean seasonal FWI. Thus, fires were more susceptible to change with climate variability in areas with less amenable conditions for fires (lower FWI) than in areas with higher mean FWI values. The relationships were similar in both regions, albeit weaker in PWUSA, probably due to the wider latitudinal gradient covered in PWUSA than in EUMED. The large variance explained by some of the models indicates that large-scale seasonal forecast could help anticipating fire

  14. Antecedents and correlates of improved cognitive performance in children exposed in Utero to low levels of lead

    SciTech Connect

    Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA ); Sloman, J. Wheelock College, Boston, MA )

    1990-11-01

    Up to 2 years of age, children with umbilical cord blood lead levels of 10 to 25 {mu}g/dL achieve significantly lower scores on tests of cognitive development than do children with lower prenatal exposures. By age 5 years, however, they appear to have recovered from, or at least compensated for, this early insult. Change in performance between 24 and 57 months of age was examined in relation to level of postnatal lead exposure and various sociodemographic factors. Among children with high prenatal lead exposure, greater recovery of function was associated with lower blood level at 57 months, higher socioeconomic status, higher Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores, higher maternal IQ, and female gender. The difference between the scores at 57 months of children with optimal and less optimal values on these variables generally exceed 1/2 standard deviation. Higher prenatal lead exposure is associated with an increased risk of early cognitive deficit. Furthermore, the risk that a deficit will persist through the preschool years is increased among children with high prenatal exposure and either high postnatal exposure or less optimal sociodemographic characteristics.

  15. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers' postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers' attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers. PMID:26441808

  16. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent–child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers’ attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers. PMID:26441808

  17. The Augmented Cognitive Mediation Model: Examining Antecedents of Factual and Structural Breast Cancer Knowledge Among Singaporean Women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Edmund W J; Shin, Mincheol; Kawaja, Ariffin; Ho, Shirley S

    2016-05-01

    As knowledge acquisition is an important component of health communication research, this study examines factors associated with Singaporean women's breast cancer knowledge using an augmented cognitive mediation model. We conducted a nationally representative study that surveyed 802 women between the ages of 30 and 70 using random-digit dialing. The results supported the augmented cognitive mediation model, which proposes the inclusion of risk perception as a motivator of health information seeking and structural knowledge as an additional knowledge dimension. There was adequate support for the hypothesized paths in the model. Risk perception was positively associated with attention to newspaper, television, Internet, and interpersonal communication. Attention to the three media channels was associated with interpersonal communication, but only newspaper and television attention were associated with elaboration. Interpersonal communication was positively associated with structural knowledge, whereas elaboration was associated with both factual and structural knowledge. Differential indirect effects between media attention and knowledge dimensions via interpersonal communication and elaboration were found. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27128006

  18. Clarification of the antecedents of hospital nurse organizational citizenship behavior -- an example from a Taiwan regional hospital.

    PubMed

    Chu, Cheng-I; Lee, Ming-Shinn; Hsu, Hsiang-Ming; Chen, I-Chi

    2005-12-01

    Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) are deemed indispensable due to their importance in promoting positive relationships among employees and involving employees in the organization's activities. OCB is believed to facilitate attainment of a hospital's goals and enhance a hospital's performance. The aim of this study is to extend the work of previous studies by providing an integrated model of OCB and demonstrate its applicability in a non-Western culture. Questionnaires were completed by 314 non-supervisory hospital nurses, each of whom was given a supervisor rating for their OCB. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the convergent and discriminant validity of the variables in the model. Multiple regression analysis was used because it provided estimates of net effects and explanatory power. The results showed that job satisfaction, supervisor support, job involvement, and procedural justices had significant effects on the nurses' citizenship behaviors. Since the study used a non-Western site in one of Taiwan's health care institutions, its overall findings should contribute to further understanding of the cross-cultural aspects of OCB. PMID:16372242

  19. Neuro-psychopharmacogenetics and Neurological Antecedents of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Unlocking the Mysteries of Resilience and Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Bowirrat, Abdalla; Chen, Thomas J.H.; Blum, Kenneth; Madigan, Margaret; Bailey, John A.; Chuan Chen, Amanda Lih; Downs, B. William; Braverman, Eric R.; Radi, Shahien; Waite, Roger L.; Kerner, Mallory; Giordano, John; Morse, Siohban; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Gold, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background and Hypothesis: Although the biological underpinnings of immediate and protracted trauma-related responses are extremely complex, 40 years of research on humans and other mammals have demonstrated that trauma (particularly trauma early in the life cycle) has long-term effects on neurochemical responses to stressful events. These effects include the magnitude of the catecholamine response and the duration and extent of the cortisol response. In addition, a number of other biological systems are involved, including mesolimbic brain structures and various neurotransmitters. An understanding of the many genetic and environmental interactions contributing to stress-related responses will provide a diagnostic and treatment map, which will illuminate the vulnerability and resilience of individuals to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Proposal and Conclusions: We propose that successful treatment of PTSD will involve preliminary genetic testing for specific polymorphisms. Early detection is especially important, because early treatment can improve outcome. When genetic testing reveals deficiencies, vulnerable individuals can be recommended for treatment with “body friendly” pharmacologic substances and/or nutrients. Results of our research suggest the following genes should be tested: serotoninergic, dopaminergic (DRD2, DAT, DBH), glucocorticoid, GABAergic (GABRB), apolipoprotein systems (APOE2), brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Monamine B, CNR1, Myo6, CRF-1 and CRF-2 receptors, and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Treatment in part should be developed that would up-regulate the expression of these genes to bring about a feeling of well being as well as a reduction in the frequency and intensity of the symptoms of PTSD. PMID:21629442

  20. Antenatal antecedents of a small head circumference at age 24-months post-term equivalent in a sample of infants born before the 28th post-menstrual week

    PubMed Central

    Leviton, Alan; Kuban, Karl; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Hecht, Jonathan L.; Onderdonk, Andrew; O'Shea, T. Michael; McElrath, Thomas; Paneth, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the antecedents of microcephaly in early childhood among children born at extremely low gestational age. Aim To identify some of the antecedents of microcephaly at age two years among children born before the 28th week of gestation. Study design Observational cohort study. Subjects 1004 infants born before the 28th week of gestation. Outcome measures Head circumference Z-scores of <−2 and ≥−2, <−1. Results Risk of microcephaly and a less severely restricted head circumference decreased monotonically with increasing gestational age. After adjusting for gestational age and other potential confounders, the risk of microcephaly at age 2 years was increased if microcephaly was present at birth [odds ratio: 8.8 ((95% confidence interval: 3.7, 21)], alpha hemolytic Streptococci were recovered from the placenta parenchyma [2.9 (1.2, 6.9)], the child was a boy [2.8 (1.6, 4.9)], and the child's mother was not married [2.5 (1.5, 4.3)]. Antecedents associated not with microcephaly, but with a less extreme reduction in head circumference were recovery of Propionibacterium sp from the placenta parenchyma [2.9 (1.5, 5.5)], tobacco exposure [2.0 (1.4, 3.0)], and increased syncytial knots in the placenta [2.0 (1.2, 3.2)]. Conclusions Although microcephaly at birth predicts a small head circumference at 2 years among children born much before term, pregnancy and maternal characteristics provide supplemental information about the risk of a small head circumference years later. Two findings appear to be novel. Tobacco exposure during pregnancy, and organisms recovered from the placenta predict reduced head circumference at age two years. PMID:20674197

  1. Tips for Treasurers: Budget Basics for a PTA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villaire, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Presents four steps that PTAs can use in developing a budget: determine the programs and projects to be carried out for the coming year; make realistic estimates of how much each will cost and how they will be funded; seek approval from the board and membership; and establish a system for keeping track of how well the projected budget is matching…

  2. PTA and School System Team Up to Teach Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veit, Carmela

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a decade-long program of values education initiated by a public school system, with support from the local Parent Teacher Association council. The article also discusses cooperative efforts to develop and implement a program that includes the study and practical application of ethics and conduct codes. (IAH)

  3. Today's PTA Advocate: Speak Up to Stop Sequestration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Jacque

    2012-01-01

    The word sequestration has been in the news lately when talking about the federal budget. Sequestration refers to across-the-board cuts, and depending on where one lives and the amount of federal aid one's community receives, those cuts could amount to as much as 17 percent. That spells bad news for schools unless parents, educators, and other…

  4. How to Build a Plugged-In PTA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sherri

    2012-01-01

    Think social media is just a fad? Think it is only for the kids? Facebook reports there are more than 800 million users, and the average user has 130 Facebook friends. Twitter now has 100 million monthly users tweeting 6,939 tweets per second or about 230 million tweets each day! More than 3 billion videos are viewed on YouTube, and YouTube Mobile…

  5. So...Your PTA Wants to Build a Playground!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Sandra J.

    1993-01-01

    Offers schools and parent-teacher groups an organized, systematic approach to the development, building, and maintenance of a safe playground. Includes advice on (1) initial planning strategies; (2) safety guidelines for the selection of equipment and surface materials; (3) layout and design; and (4) installation and maintenance. (TJQ)

  6. Characterization of carbides composite surface layers produced by PTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajoure, M.; Tajouri, A.

    2015-03-01

    Composite surface layer of nickel base with titanium carbide in powder form was deposited on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard by using plasma transferred arc technique. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hardfacin process was successfully conducted by using PMNICr50P alloy plus titanium carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 754 HV and minimum dilution of 4.6 % were achieved by using an arc current of 80 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A& the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base with titanium carbide feature uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with irregular grain shape and relatively small particles size, and regular boundary line between the substrate and over layer with presence of black area along the boundary line. A few micro - porosities are located in the matrix.

  7. Structure-borne noise estimates for the PTA aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates of the level of in-flight structure-borne noise transmission in the Propfan Test Assessment Aircraft were carried out for the first three blade passage frequencies. The procedure used combined the frequency response functions of wing strain to cabin sound pressure level (SPL) response obtained during ground test with in-flight measured wing strain response data. The estimated cabin average in-flight structure-borne noise levels varied from 64 to 84 dB, with an average level of 74 dB. The estimates showed little dependence on engine/propeller power, flight altitude, or flight Mach number. In general, the bare cabin noise levels decreased with increasing propeller tone, giving rise to a plausible structure-borne noise transmission problem at the higher blade passage tones. Without knowledge of the effects of a high insertion loss side wall treatment on structure-borne noise transmission, no quantitative conclusions could be made.

  8. RISK FACTORS FOR SLOW GAIT SPEED: A NESTED CASE-CONTROL SECONDARY ANALYSIS OF THE MEXICAN HEALTH AND AGING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Zepeda, M.U.; González-Chavero, J.G.; Salinas-Martinez, R.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical performance tests play a major role in the geriatric assessment. In particular, gait speed has shown to be useful for predicting adverse outcomes. However, risk factors for slow gait speed (slowness) are not clearly described. Objectives To determine risk factors associated with slowness in Mexican older adults. Design A two-step process was adopted for exploring the antecedent risk factors of slow gait speed. First, the cut-off values for gait speed were determined in a representative sample of Mexican older adults. Then, antecedent risk factors of slow gait speed (defined using the identified cut-points) were explored in a nested, cohort case-control study. Setting, participants One representative sample of a cross-sectional survey for the first step and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (a cohort characterized by a 10-year follow-up). Measurements A 4-meter usual gait speed test was conducted. Lowest gender and height-stratified groups were considered as defining slow gait speed. Sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, psychological and health-care related variables were explored to find those associated with the subsequent development of slow gait speed. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were performed. Results In the final model, age, diabetes, hypertension, and history of fractures were associated with the development of slow gait speed. Conclusions Early identification of subjects at risk of developing slow gait speed may halt the path to disability due to the robust association of this physical performance test with functional decline. PMID:26889463

  9. Using New Theory and Experimental Methods to Understand the Relative Controls of Storage, Antecedent Conditions and Precipitation Intensity on Transit Time Distributions through a Sloping Soil Lysimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Pangle, L. A.; Cardoso, C.; Lora, M.; Wang, Y.; Harman, C. J.; Troch, P. A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Transit time distributions (TTD) are an efficient way of characterizing transport through the complex flow dynamics of a hydrologic system, and can serve as a basis for spatially-integrated solute transport modeling. Recently there has been progress in the development of a theory of time-variable TTDs that captures the effect of temporal variability in the timing of fluxes as well as changes in flow pathways. Furthermore, a new formulation of this theory allows the essential transport properties of a system to be parameterized by a physically meaningful time-variable probability distribution, the Ω function. This distribution determines how the age distribution of water in storage is sampled by the outflow. The form of the Ω function varies if the flow pathways change, but is not determined by the timing of fluxes (unlike the TTD). In this study, we use this theory to characterize transport by transient flows through a homogeneously packed 1 m3 sloping soil lysimeter. The transit time distribution associated with each of four irrigation periods (repeated daily for 24 days) are compared to examine the significance of changes in the Ω function due to variations in total storage, antecedent conditions, and precipitation intensity. We observe both the time-variable TTD and the Ω function experimentally by applying the PERTH method (Harman and Kim, 2014, GRL, 41, 1567-1575). The method allows us to observe multiple overlapping time-variable TTD in controlled experiments using only two conservative tracers. We hypothesize that both the TTD and the Ω function will vary in time, even in this small scale, because water will take different flow pathways depending on the initial state of the lysimeter and irrigation intensity. However, based on primarily modeling, we conjecture that major variability in the Ω function will be limited to a period during and immediately after each irrigation. We anticipate the Ω function is almost time-invariant (or scales simply with

  10. Improved understanding of solute concentration-discharge dynamics through state-of-the-art antecedent moisture content (AMC) monitoring and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eludoyin, A. O.; Brazier, R.; Quine, T.; Bol, R.; Orr, R.; Griffith, B.

    2012-04-01

    The relationship between solute/sediment concentration and discharge (c-Q) can be neither understood nor predicted without full understanding of the antecedent moisture content (AMC). Many preceding studies have ignored this variable in part because of the problems associated with accurate and full documentation of AMC. This study presents new insights into the control of AMC on c-Q made possible through work on the uniquely well-instrumented 'NorthWyke Farm Platform' which was commissioned in April 2011 as a UK national capability for collaborative research, training and knowledge exchange in agro-environmental sciences for agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices. The Farm Platform was designed into 15 hydrological units based on a predicted 50-year flood event, each with H-flume at catchment outlet. 9.2 km of French drains were installed at 800mm soil depth with perforated plastic drainage pipe installed to collect surface and near surface flow from the catchments. Each flume receives flow from 2 branches of each French drain system and discharges via concrete piping and a sampling pit. Where required the catchment is protected from groundwater seepage and surface runoff ingress from adjacent catchment with open ditches and sealed pipes. Discharge is measured at each flume with an ISCO bubbler flowmeter, and concentrations of Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Ammonium (NH4-N), Nitrate (NO3-N), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), total Phosphorus, chloride, pH and turbidity are monitored at 15 minutes intervals. In addition, rainfall, soil temperature and soil moisture are monitored at the same timestep. This study analyses discharge and soil moisture data alongside TOC, NO3-N and PO4-P at 15 min intervals in rain events between November 28 and December 13, 2011. Soil moisture exhibited moderately strong relationships with TOC and NO3 (r≥ -0.38; p≤0.05), but a weak one with PO4. Discharge, on the other hand, exhibited a weak (r ≤0

  11. Organization of the gene for human factor XI

    SciTech Connect

    Asakai, R.; Chung, D.W.; Davie, E.W.

    1987-05-01

    Factor XI (plasma thromboplastin antecedent) is a plasma glycoprotein that participates in the contact phase of blood coagulation. The gene for human factor XI has been isolated from two human genomic libraries using a full length cDNA as a hybridization probe. Four overlapping recombinant lambda phage containing the entire human factor XI gene have been isolated and characterized by restriction mapping, Southern blotting and selective DNA sequencing. The gene for human factor XI is 25 kilobases in length and consists of 15 exons. The introns divide the coding sequence into segments that encode recognizable domains in the protein. Thus, exon I codes for the 5' noncoding region; exon II codes for the signal peptide of 18 amino acids. The following 8 exons (exon III to exon X) encode the 4 tandem repeats that constitute the heavy chain of factor XIa. The location of the introns and the junction type are strictly conserved in each of these repeats. Exon XI codes for the connecting peptide and exons XII, XIII, XIV and XV code for the light chain of factor XIa that contains the catalytic triad of the serine protease. The location of the introns and the junction types in this region of the gene are identical to those in the corresponding regions of the genes for human tissues plasminogen activator and porcine urokinase.

  12. The relationship between organisational factors and the effectiveness of environmental management.

    PubMed

    Tung, Amy; Baird, Kevin; Schoch, Herbert

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the relationship between specific organisational factors (top management support, training, employee participation, teamwork and the link of performance to rewards) with the effectiveness of environmental management. The effectiveness of environmental management is measured in respect of the effectiveness of environmental management processes and environmental performance. Data were collected by mail survey questionnaire from a random sample of 899 senior financial officers in Australian manufacturing organisations. The findings highlight the significance of the effectiveness of environmental management processes as an antecedent of environmental performance and a mediator of the relationship between organisational factors and environmental performance. The findings provide managers with an insight into the specific organisational factors that they need to focus on to enhance the effectiveness of environmental management. PMID:24952341

  13. Antecedents to Prostitution: Childhood Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadon, Susan M.; Koverola, Catherine; Schludermann, Eduard H.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent prostitutes (n=45) and adolescent nonprostitutes (n=37) were interviewed regarding their experiences related to childhood physical and sexual abuse, leaving home, family functioning, parental alcohol and drug use, and level of self-esteem. Although results replicated previous findings, when a comparison group was considered the same…

  14. Personality Antecedents of the Vote.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bruce A.

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between psychological traits and voting behavior. Investigated is the thesis that psychological traits are useful concepts for political scientists as predictors of consistency in behavior. Contending that previous trait theory research has been generally unimpressive, the author…

  15. Antecedents of the Theory Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jack A.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the conceptual roots of the theory movement in educational administration, highlighting the ideas of Auguste Comte and the logical positivists. Explains how core concepts that shaped the theory movement were diffused into educational administration and sets forth implications for future study. (Author/WD)

  16. Antecedents and Consequences of Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catania, A. Charles

    2006-01-01

    As instances of behavior, words interact with environments. But they also interact with each other and with other kinds of behavior. Because of the interlocking nature of the contingencies into which words enter, their behavioral properties may become increasingly removed from nonverbal contingencies, and their relationship to those contingencies…

  17. Defining Risk Factors for Red Man Syndrome in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Angela L.; Gaedigk, Andrea; Dai, Hongying; James, Laura P.; Jones, Bridgette L.; Neville, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Red man syndrome (RMS) is a well known adverse reaction that occurs in pediatric patients receiving vancomycin, yet reported prevalence is varied, and characteristics and risk factors, are not well understood. Our objective was to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors for red man syndrome in pediatric patients receiving vancomycin, including contributing genetic factors. Methods A multi-center retrospective study of 546 subjects (0.5– 21 years) who received at least one dose of intravenous vancomycin was conducted. Demographic and symptom data were collected through chart review and parent/nurse report. Genotype analysis included ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the histamine pathway. Results RMS was observed in 77 (14%) subjects receiving vancomycin. 40% of subjects with RMS symptoms developed rash, pruritis and flushing, without hypotension. Antecedent antihistamine use was identified as a risk factor for RMS (p<0.001). Multivariate regression analysis identified age >2 years (p=0.008), previous RMS (p<0.001), VC dose (p=0.02), and VC concentration (p=0.017) as RMS risk factors, while African-American race was protective (p=0.011). We observed an apparent association between RMS and a SNP in the diamine oxidase gene (p=0.044); however, no associations were revealed by multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis. Conclusions RMS is a common adverse event in children receiving vancomycin. Identified risk factors are Caucasian ethnicity, age ≥ 2 years, previous RMS history, vancomycin dose ≥10 mg/kg, vancomycin concentration ≥5 mg/ml and antecedent antihistamine use. Known genetic variants in histamine metabolism or receptors do not appear to be substantial contributors to risk of RMS. PMID:22327873

  18. Assessment of risk factors related to suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Song, Joo Yun; Yu, Han Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Hwang, Samuel S-H; Cho, Hyun-Sang; Kim, Yong Sik; Ha, Kyooseob; Ahn, Yong Min

    2012-11-01

    We compared the characteristics of patients with bipolar disorder with and without a history of suicide attempts to identify the risk factors of suicide in this disorder. Among 212 patients with bipolar disorder, 44 (21.2%) patients had histories of suicide attempts. Suicide attempters were younger and more likely to be diagnosed with bipolar II. The variables that differentiated those who did from those who did not attempt suicide included age at first contact, lifetime history of antidepressant use, major depressive episode, mixed episode, auditory hallucinations, rapid cycling, the number of previous mood episodes, age of first depressive episode, and age of first psychotic symptoms. Strong predictors of suicide attempts were younger age at onset, lifetime history of auditory hallucinations, and history of antidepressant use. Antecedent depressive episodes and psychotic symptoms predicted the first suicide attempt in patients with bipolar disorder. This study could help clinicians to understand the major risk factors of suicidal behavior in bipolar disorder. PMID:23124183

  19. Factor XII (Hageman factor) deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... takes longer than normal to clot in a test tube. Factor XII deficiency is a rare inherited disorder. Symptoms There are usually no symptoms. Exams and Tests Factor XII deficiency is most often found when ...

  20. The effect of hydrological factors on trace metal contamination in the river Tawe, South Wales.

    PubMed

    Bird, S C

    1987-01-01

    The concentrations of nickel, copper, iron, chromium, lead, cadmium, manganese and zinc have been studied in a small river in South Wales. The river drains the contaminated industrial wasteland of the Lower Swansea Valley which is currently undergoing redevelopment and landscaping activity. The high trace metal levels found in the river waters result from weathering and erosion of this waste material, as well as from two industrial point sources of nickel, and iron and chromium. Hydrological factors found to be of importance in determining current spatial and temporal patterns of contamination included: (1) the river's available dilution at any one time, (2) antecedent river flow conditions, (3) river water pH and (4) the prevailing runoff processes in operation at any one time. The metals are present mostly in their dissolved state (i.e. > 70%), with the exception of iron and chromium which are present mostly as particulates (i.e > 80%). PMID:15092754