Science.gov

Sample records for antecedent pta factor

  1. PTA of Infrapopliteal Arteries: Long-term Clinical Follow-up and Analysis of Factors Influencing Clinical Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Peregrin, Jan H. Koznar, Boris; Kovac, Josef; Lastovickova, Jarmila; Novotny, Jiri; Vedlich, Daniel; Skibova, Jelena

    2010-08-15

    This study was a retrospective analysis of patients with CLI who underwent infrapopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). The main goal was to evaluate clinical and morphological factors that influence the clinical outcome of PTA in long-term follow-up. A total of 1,445 PTA procedures were performed in 1,268 patients. Main indications for PTA included gangrene, nonhealing ulcers, or rest pain. The mean number of treated arteries was 1.77 artery/limb, and the majority of lesions were type TASC D. The technical success rate of PTA was 89% of intended-to-treat arteries. The main criterion of clinical success was functional limb salvage (LS). One-year follow-up involved 1,069 limbs. Primary and secondary 1-year LS rates were 76.1 and 84.4%, respectively. The effect of clinical and morphological parameters on the 1-year LS was that the only associated disease with an adverse effect on LS rate was DM combined with dialysis. Regarding limb preprocedural status, gangrene was clearly a negative predictor. The most important factor affecting LS was the number of patent arteries post-PTA: patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 patent arteries had 1-year primary LS rates of 56.4, 73.1, 80.4, and 83%, respectively. Long-term follow-up of LS rates demonstrated secondary LS rates of 84.4, 78.8, and 73.3% at 1, 5, and 10 years. Every effort should be made to perform PTA for as many arteries as possible, even if TASC D type, to improve clinical outcome. Our study shows that repeat PTA is capable of keeping the long-term LS rate close to 75%.

  2. Isolation and characterization of bovine factor XI (plasma thromboplastin antecedent).

    PubMed

    Koide, T; Kato, H; Davie, E W

    1977-05-17

    Factor XI (plasma thromboplastic antecedent) has been purified approximately 28 000-fold from bovine plasma with an overall yield of about 30%. The isolation procedure involves barium sulfate adsorption of contaminants, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and chromatography on heparin-agarose, CM-Sephadex, and DEAE-Sephadex. The final product was homogeneous when examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis. A minimal mol wt of 124 000 was determined by sedimentation equilibrium. Factor XI is composed of two similar or identical polypeptide chain (mol wt of approximately 55 000), and these two chains are held together by a disulfide bond(s). Factor XI is a glycoprotein which contains approximately 11% carbohydrate including 5.4% heose, 4.7% N-acetylhexosamine, and 1.0% N-acetylneuraminic acid. Other properties of this coagulation factor including its amino acid composition and inhibition by antibodies prepared in rabbits are also reported. PMID:861211

  3. Antecedent Classroom Factors and Disruptive Behaviors of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Asmus, Jennifer M.; Boyd, Brian A.; Ladwig, Crystal N.; Sellers, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships between antecedent classroom factors and the disruptive behaviors of five elementary-aged students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the influence of four types of molar antecedent classroom factors (i.e., instructional setting, instructional activity,…

  4. Social Networks in the Classroom: Personality Factors as Antecedents of Student Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Matthew T.; Johnson, Bryan R.; Darnold, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines personality factors as antecedents of student social capital. We hypothesize relationships between two constructs taken from the five-factor model of personality (agreeableness and extraversion) and two variables that reflect a student's social capital (quantity of ties and strength of ties) in an academic setting. Analysis of…

  5. Tools for Today's PTA Volunteer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children: The National PTA Magazine, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Becoming a PTA volunteer takes more than a willingness to serve; it takes knowing how to work effectively within the PTA and school community. This article describes what National PTA offers volunteers. When one trains with PTA resources, one has a chance to: (1) Participate in workshops and seminars with family-engagement experts; (2) Network…

  6. Antecedent Factors Affecting Academic Performance of Graduate Students at the Nairobi Evangelical Graduate School of Theology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbogo, Rosemary Wahu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Master's level thesis work that was done in 1997 to assess the antecedent factors affecting the academic performance of graduate students at the Nairobi Evangelical School of Theology (N.E.G.S.T.), which is currently Africa International University (AIU). The paper reviews the effect of lack of finance on…

  7. NOT Your Mother's PTA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manno, Bruno V.

    2012-01-01

    The organization that claims to represent the voice and interests of K-12 students and their parents is the Parent Teacher Association, widely known as the PTA. The organization aims to provide "parents and families with a powerful voice to speak on behalf of every child while providing the best tools for parents to help their children be…

  8. Separation of Plasma Thromboplastin Antecedent from Kallikrein by the Plasma α2-Macroglobulin, Kallikrein Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Harpel, Peter C.

    1971-01-01

    Plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA, factor XI) is an important intermediate in the intrinsic coagulation system, and plasma kallikrein has been implicated as a mediator of the inflammatory process. Whereas their biologic activities are functionally distinct, their identity as separate entities in plasma has not been fully established, and the nature of their plasma inhibitors has not been completely characterized. A partially purified preparation containing the clotting, tosyl arginine methyl ester (TAMe) esterase and kinin-producing activities of these substances has been prepared by DEAE-cellulose chromatography of a Celite eluate obtained from acid-treated human plasma. These activities were not separable by acrylamide gel electrophoresis nor by isoelectric focusing, their pI being approximately 8.7. Human plasma α2-macroglobulin has been shown to inhibit the proteolytic activity of kallikrein and to inhibit partially its TAMe esterase activity. An α2-macroglobulin, PTA, kallikrein incubation mixture was separated by gel filtration chromatography. The α2-macroglobulin formed a high molecular weight complex with kallikrein and appeared in early chromatographic fractions. The PTA-clotting activity was not inhibited by the α2-macroglobulin; 64% of the initial PTA activity was isolated in later fractions free of kallikrein-induced kinin-like activity. In contrast, clotting, TAMe esterase, and kinin-forming activities were inhibited after gel filtration chromatography of an incubation mixture of these activities and partially purified C1̄ inactivator (C1 esterase inhibitor). Electrofocusing of an incubation mixture of an activated PTA, kallikrein preparation, and α2-macroglobulin resulted in the isolation of a PTA fraction free of kallikrein proteolytic activity, and with 4% of the original TAMe esterase activity. In this manner, activated PTA and plasma kallikrein have been shown to be distinct substances, and methods have been introduced for the further

  9. Propfan Test Assessment (PTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, B. H.; Poland, D. T.; Bartel, H. W.; Withers, C. C.; Brown, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of the Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) Program were to validate in flight the structural integrity of large-scale propfan blades and to measure noise characteristics of the propfan in both near and far fields. All program objectives were met or exceeded, on schedule and under budget. A Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation GII aircraft was modified to provide a testbed for the 2.74m (9 ft) diameter Hamilton Standard SR-7 propfan which was driven by a 4475 kw (600 shp) turboshaft engine mounted on the left-hand wing of the aircraft. Flight research tests were performed for 20 combinations of speed and altitude within a flight envelope that extended to Mach numbers of 0.85 and altitudes of 12,192m (40,000 ft). Propfan blade stress, near-field noise on aircraft surfaces, and cabin noise were recorded. Primary variables were propfan power and tip speed, and the nacelle tilt angle. Extensive low altitude far-field noise tests were made to measure flyover and sideline noise and the lateral attenuation of noise. In coopertion with the FAA, tests were also made of flyover noise for the aircraft at 6100m (20,000 ft) and 10,668m (35,000 ft). A final series of tests were flown to evaluate an advanced cabin wall noise treatment that was produced under a separate program by NASA-Langley Research Center.

  10. The "PTA" of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Gerard L.

    Three developments in the field of foreign language education seem to have particularly great potential for foreign language teaching and learning in the 1990s: (1) proficiency; (2) technology; and (3) authenticity (PTA). The first of these developments involves the language proficiency movement's debate over the establishment of a common metric…

  11. The PTA TV Trainer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    This updated version of a 1977 manual provides information about the television industry, communications regulations, and citizen recourse to improper broadcasting procedures for use in training Parent Teacher Association (PTA) volunteers to work for effective change within the television industry. The first section discusses the operations of the…

  12. The Four Generations of PTA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinckerhoff, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    Generation change, intergenerational conflict, whatever one calls it, the society is confronted with different generations that often have a failure to communicate. For PTAs (Parent Teacher Association), an older generation may be leading a PTA while a younger generation constitutes the majority of the parents, or newly minted teachers may be…

  13. How The PTA Views Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Carol

    The Parent Teachers Association (PTA) has had a long interest in physical education. At the convention at which the PTA was founded, a major address was presented on the subject of "physical culture." After 80 years, the PTA is still concerned with the physical as well as mental education of children. A major concern is with the psychological…

  14. A Model of Consumer Response to Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising: Antecedents and Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jisu; Delorme, Denise E; Reid, Leonard N

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the health care marketplace and lack of systematic research on OTC drug advertising (OTCA) effects, this study tested a theory-based, product category-specific OTCA effects model. Structural equation modeling analysis of data for 1 OTC drug category, analgesics, supported the proposed model, explaining the OTCA effect process from key consumer antecedents to ad involvement, from ad involvement to ad attention, from ad attention to cognitive responses, then to affective/evaluative responses, leading to the final behavioral outcome. Several noteworthy patterns also emerged: (a) Product involvement was directly linked to ad attention, rather than exerting an indirect influence through ad involvement; (b) ad attention was significantly related to both cognitive and affective/evaluative responses to different degrees, with stronger links to cognitive responses; and PMID:26312772

  15. Northern Parkway PTA Makes Health a Habit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdinand, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Health and fitness have been on the agenda of Northern Parkway Elementary School for quite some time, thanks to the concerted efforts of its involved and active PTA officers and members. For the past five years, the Northern Parkway PTA has held a popular and well-attended Family Fun and Fitness Night and has complemented the activities and…

  16. The Effects of Antecedent Exercise on Motor Function Recovery and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gyeyeop; Kim, Eunjung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we investigated the effect of antecedent exercise on functional recovery and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression following focal cerebral ischemia injury. [Subjects] The rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was employed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group I included untreated normal rats (n=10); Group II included untreated rats with focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); Group III included rats that performed treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training after focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); and Group IV included rats that performed antecedent treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training before focal cerebral ischemia (n=10) as well as treadmill exercise after ischemia. At different time points (1, 7, 14, and 21 days) Garcia’s score, and the hippocampal expressions level of BDNF were examined. [Results] In the antecedent exercise group, improvements in the motor behavior index (Garcia’s score) were observed and hippocampal BDNF protein expression levels increased. [Conclusion] These results indicate that antecedent treadmill exercise, before permanent brain ischemia exerts a neuroprotective effect against ischemia brain injury by improving motor performance and increasing the level of BDNF expression. Furthermore, the antecedent treadmill exercise of appropriate intensity is critical for post-stroke rehabilitation. PMID:24259800

  17. Antecedents of Charter School Success in New York State: Charter School Management Agencies and Additional Factors That Affect English/Language Arts Test Scores in Elementary Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Charter schools frequently receive public as well as federal attention, and there is a growing body of research becoming available examining charter schools. With all this research there is still a need for further studies which deal specifically with antecedents of charter school success. This study examined factors contributing toward the…

  18. Parental 'affectionless control' as an antecedent to adult depression: a risk factor refined.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, A; Henderson, A S; Andrews, G

    1993-02-01

    It has been well established that individuals with a history of depression report their parents as being less caring and more overprotective of them than do controls. 'Affectionless control' in childhood has thus been proposed as a risk factor for depression. Evidence is presented from a logistic regression analysis of data from a volunteer community sample that lack of care rather than over-protection is the primary risk factor. No evidence for an interaction effect of low care and over-protection was found. PMID:8475201

  19. Experimental and modeling study of pure terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater transport in the vadose zone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuiling; Liu, Changli; Pei, Lixin; Pang, Yajie; Zhang, Yun; Hou, Hongbing

    2015-02-01

    PTA wastewater discharged from a factory was selected as the research object in this project and CODcr was selected as the characteristic pollution factor. Static adsorption and soil column leaching experiments of silty clay and clayey soil were carried out to study the adsorption, bio-degradation and dispersion coefficient of CODcr in PTA wastewater. Hydrus-1D was used to build the convection-diffusion model to demonstrate the migration of PTA wastewater in the vadose zone. The results indicate that silty clay and clayey soil in the vadose zone can adsorb, degrade and impede the contaminants in PTA wastewater; however, the coefficient of adsorption and degradation were very low, they were down to 0.0002 L g(-1), 0.0003 L g(-1) and 0.0097 d(-1), 0.0077 d(-1) for silty clay and clayey soil, respectively. Under the virtual condition that, wastewater in the sewage pool is 5 m deep, CODcr concentration is 4000 mg L(-1), vadose zone is 21 m, PTA wastewater will reach the phreatic surface after 20.87 years. When wastewater in the sewage pool is 7 m with other conditions unchanged, after 17.18 years PTA wastewater will reach groundwater. The results show that there is a higher pollution risk for groundwater if we do not take any anti-seepage measures. PMID:25524255

  20. Corbell PTA's Wild Walk: Fundraiser Cultivates Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    When Corbell Elementary opened its doors in 2006 in Frisco, Texas, its newly formed PTA faced the challenge of implementing a productive fundraiser to get the school off to a great start. The new board chose to focus its efforts on a single fundraiser, rather than a series of smaller ones. They wanted to avoid having the children selling any kind…

  1. National PTA Gets Connected with Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Derek

    2011-01-01

    People are busy, we all know that. Getting their attention is harder and harder all the time. That's especially true for member organizations and advocacy groups. The National PTA is both and has adapted some social media practices to reach out and maintain contact with more than 5 million volunteers in 25,000 local units. James Martinez, senior…

  2. How to Share the Value of PTA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Back, Krista

    2011-01-01

    While virtually everyone agrees that it is important for parents and caregivers to get involved in their children's education--in fact, when asked, most parents will gush about how much they care about the education of their child--there is a disconnect when it comes to Parent Teacher Association (PTA). Parents, especially younger ones, have…

  3. Make Your PTA an Essential Resource to Your Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Delcenia

    2011-01-01

    In these stressful times, many Parent Teacher Association (PTA) leaders are finding membership recruitment and retention to be particularly challenging. The Black Star Community PTA in Chicago has found some unique methods of getting their community to support students and families, and join PTA. The basis for their efforts is in recognizing the…

  4. Manganese Complexes of 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA): The First Nitrogen Bound Transition Metal Complex of PTA

    SciTech Connect

    Frost,B.; Bautista, C.; Huang, R.; Shearer, J.

    2006-01-01

    The structures of two manganese(II) complexes of 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) reveal the first transition-metal complexes of PTA in which the metal preferentially coordinates to a nitrogen and not the phosphorus of PTA. The coordination environment about the manganese was probed using X-ray crystallography (solid state) and EXAFS spectroscopy (solution).

  5. PTA1 Helium Pressurization System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steadman, Todd; Majumdar, Alok; Holt, Kimberly

    1999-01-01

    A transient model of the Propulsion Test Article 1 (PTA1) Helium Pressurization System was developed using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The model included feed lines from the facility interface to the engine purge interface and Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Rocket Propellant 1 (RP-1) tanks, the propellant tanks themselves including ullage space and propellant feed lines to their respective pump interfaces. GFSSPs capability was extended to model a control valve to maintain ullage pressure within a specified limit and pressurization processes such as heat transfer between ullage gas, propellant and the tank wall. The purpose of the model is to predict the flow system characteristics in the entire pressurization system during 80 seconds of pre-pressurization operation, 420 seconds of pressurization stand-by operation and 150 seconds of engine operation. Subsequent to the work presented here, the PTA1 model has been updated to include the LOX and RP-1 pumps, while the pressurization option itself has been modified to include the effects of mass transfer. This updated model will be compared with PTA1 test data as it becomes available.

  6. Propfan Test Assessment (PTA): Flight test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, B. H.; Bartel, H. W.; Reddy, N. N.; Swift, G.; Withers, C. C.; Brown, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft was flown to obtain glade stress and noise data for a 2.74m (9 ft.) diameter single rotation propfan. Tests were performed at Mach numbers to 0.85 and altitudes to 12,192m (40,000 ft.). The propfan was well-behaved structurally over the entire flight envelope, demonstrating that the blade design technology was completely adequate. Noise data were characterized by strong signals at blade passage frequency and up to 10 harmonics. Cabin noise was not so high as to preclude attainment of comfortable levels with suitable wall treatment. Community noise was not excessive.

  7. Variant PTA Terminating in Cerebellar Artery, Associated with Multiple Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yeong Uk

    2016-01-01

    Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is one of the remnant fetal anastomoses between the carotid artery and basilar artery. PTAs are classified according to angiographic appearance and various connection. Among them, those directly terminating in the cerebellar arteries are rare subtype. In addition, aneurysms of the PTA are unusual in the literature and have not previously accompanied this subtype of PTA connecting cerebellar artery. We present the first case of an aneurysm of the PTA which is directly terminating in the cerebellar arteries and combined with multiple aneurysms. PMID:27446623

  8. Variant PTA Terminating in Cerebellar Artery, Associated with Multiple Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yeong Uk; Kim, Jin Woo

    2016-01-01

    Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is one of the remnant fetal anastomoses between the carotid artery and basilar artery. PTAs are classified according to angiographic appearance and various connection. Among them, those directly terminating in the cerebellar arteries are rare subtype. In addition, aneurysms of the PTA are unusual in the literature and have not previously accompanied this subtype of PTA connecting cerebellar artery. We present the first case of an aneurysm of the PTA which is directly terminating in the cerebellar arteries and combined with multiple aneurysms. PMID:27446623

  9. Antecedent conditions, hydrological connectivity and anthropogenic inputs: Factors affecting nitrate and phosphorus transfers to agricultural headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Outram, Faye N; Cooper, Richard J; Sünnenberg, Gisela; Hiscock, Kevin M; Lovett, Andrew A

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines relationships between rainfall-runoff, catchment connectivity, antecedent moisture conditions and fertiliser application with nitrate-N and total phosphorus (TP) fluxes in an arable headwater catchment over three hydrological years (2012-2014). Annual precipitation totals did not vary substantially between years, yet the timing of rainfall strongly influenced runoff generation and subsequent nitrate-N and TP fluxes. The greatest nitrate-N (>250 kg N day(-1)) and TP (>10 kg TP day(-1)) fluxes only occurred when shallow groundwater was within 0.6m of the ground surface and runoff coefficients were greater than 0.1. These thresholds were reached less frequently in 2012 due to drought recovery resulting in lower annual nitrate-N (7.4 kg N ha(-1)) and TP (0.12 kg P ha(-1)) fluxes in comparison with 2013 (15.1 kg N ha(-1); 0.21 kg P ha(-1)). The wet winter of 2013 with elevated shallow groundwater levels led to more frequent activation of sub-surface pathways and tile drain flow. Throughout the period, dry antecedent conditions had a temporary effect in elevating TP loads. Evidence of TP source exhaustion after consecutive storm events can be attributed to the repeated depletion of temporarily connected critical source areas to the river network via impermeable road surfaces. Fertiliser application varied considerably across three years due to differences in crop rotation between farms, with annual N and P fertiliser inputs varying by up to 21% and 41%, respectively. Proportional reductions in annual riverine nitrate-N and TP loadings were not observed at the sub-catchment outlet as loadings were largely influenced by annual runoff. Nitrate loadings were slightly higher during fertiliser application, but there was little relationship between P fertiliser application and riverine TP load. These data indicate that this intensive arable catchment may be in a state of biogeochemical stationarity, whereby legacy stores of nutrients buffer against changes

  10. Synthesis and structural characterization of copper(I) complexes bearing N-methyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (mPTA): cytotoxic activity evaluation of a series of water soluble Cu(I) derivatives containing PTA, PTAH and mPTA ligands.

    PubMed

    Porchia, Marina; Benetollo, Franco; Refosco, Fiorenzo; Tisato, Francesco; Marzano, Cristina; Gandin, Valentina

    2009-12-01

    New copper(I) complexes containing the water soluble N-methyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (mPTA) phosphine have been synthesized by ligand-exchange reactions starting from [Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)][BF(4)] or [Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)][PF(6)] precursors and (mPTA)X (X=CF(3)SO(3), I). Depending on the ligand counter ion, the hydrophilic [Cu(mPTA)(4)][(CF(3)SO(3))(4)(BF(4))] 3a and [Cu(mPTA)(4)][(CF(3)SO(3))(4)(PF(6))] 3c complexes or the iodine-coordinated [Cu(mPTA)(3)I]I(3)4 species were obtained respectively and fully characterized by spectroscopic methods. Single crystal structural characterization was undertaken for [Cu(mPTA)(3)I]I(3).H(2)O, 4.H(2)O, and [Cu(mPTA)(4)][(CF(3)SO(3))(2)(BF(4))(3)] .0.25H(2)O, 3b.0.25H(2)O, the latter obtained by crystallization of [Cu(mPTA)(4)][(CF(3)SO(3))(4)(BF(4))] 3a. The cytotoxicity of analogous tetrahedral homoleptic Cu(I) derivatives [Cu(PTA)(4)](BF(4)) 1, [Cu(PTAH)(4)][Cl(4)(BF(4))] 2, [Cu(mPTA)(4)][(CF(3)SO(3))(4)(BF(4))] 3a and [Cu(mPTA)(4)][(CF(3)SO(3))(4)(PF(6))] 3c was evaluated against a panel of several human tumor cell lines. All the complexes showed in vitro antitumor activity comparable to that of the reference metallodrug cisplatin. Tests performed on cisplatin sensitive and resistant cell lines showed that against human ovarian 2008/C13(*) cell line pair, the resistance factor of copper derivatives was roughly 7-fold lower than that of cisplatin, whereas against human cervix cancer A431/A431-Pt cell line pair it was about 2.5-fold lower. These results, confirming the circumvention of cisplatin resistance, support the hypothesis that phosphine copper(I) complexes follow different cytotoxic mechanisms than do platinum drugs. PMID:19822369

  11. The PTA Story: A Century of Commitment to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    This book recounts the historical achievements of the National PTA and its sister organization, the National Congress of Colored Parents and Teachers. The PTA is the result of the hard work of such women as Phoebe Apperson Hearst and Alice McLellan Birney, founders of the original National Congress of Mothers, and Selma Sloan Butler, who, with the…

  12. Antecedent influences on behavior disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R G; Iwata, B A

    1997-01-01

    The influence of antecedent events on behavior disorders has been relatively understudied by applied behavior analysts. This lack of research may be due to a focus on consequences as determinants of behavior and a historical disagreement on a conceptual framework for describing and interpreting antecedent variables. We suggest that antecedent influences can be described using terms derived from basic behavioral principles and that their functional properties can be adequately interpreted as discriminative and establishing operations. A set of studies on assessment and treatment of behavior disorders was selected for review based on their relevance to the topic of antecedent events. These studies were categorized as focusing on assessment of antecedent events, antecedent treatments for behavior disorders maintained by either positive or negative reinforcement, and special cases of antecedent events in behavior disorders. Some directions for future research on antecedent influences in the analysis and treatment of behavior disorders are discussed. PMID:9210312

  13. PTA proves its worth in high-volume hardfacing jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Raghu, D.; Webber, R.

    1996-02-01

    Imparting wear and corrosion resistance to metal surfaces by providing a hard surface is the basis for hardfacing. The realization of the economic advantage of increased wear by providing a metal deposit on a relatively low-cost substrate has spurred the growth of hardfacing over the last half century. Plasma transferred arc (PTA) hardfacing and laser beam hardfacing are relative newcomers to this arena. Hardfacing with PTA is ideal for high-volume hardfacing where a high degree of quality, reliability and consistency is required. Significant advances in materials and equipment have helped to spur the advancement of the technology and the wider acceptance by industry. It is believed that in the future, PTA hardfacing systems will be developed that rely a great deal on microprocessors and robotics, more so than at present. These would further enhance the product quality and consistency and would enable tailor-made PTA system designs for multiple applications. The quest for new materials for PTA hardfacing that combine wear and corrosion resistance and weldability is expected to continue. Newer applications are constantly being developed as more and more medium- and small-scale operators realize the advantages that can be derived from the use of PTA hardfacing. The basic driving force for these improvements and growth is quality, reliability, productivity and significant long-term cost reduction.

  14. Qualitative Studies: Historiographical Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rilla Dean

    This paper provides an overview of qualitative studies' antecedents among historiographers and of the positivist tide which nearly engulfed them. Humans live by interpretations. The task of social science--the basic task of qualitative studies--is to study these interpretations so that we can better understand the meanings which people use to…

  15. Antecedent Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: What Is Protecting Whom?

    PubMed Central

    Hollinger, Sabrina K.; Okosun, Ike S.; Mitchell, Cassie S.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that antecedent diseases are less prevalent in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients than the general age-matched population, which suggests possible neuroprotection. Antecedent disease could be protective against ALS or, conversely, the asymptomatic early physiological underpinnings of ALS could be protective against other antecedent disease. Elucidating the impact of antecedent disease on ALS is critical for assessing diagnostic risk factors, prognostic outcomes, and intervention timing. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between antecedent conditions and ALS onset age and disease duration (i.e. survival). Medical history surveys for 1439 Emory ALS Clinic patients (Atlanta, GA, USA) were assessed for antecedent hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, asthma, arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), thyroid, kidney, liver, and other non-ALS neurological diseases. The ALS onset age and disease duration are compared between the antecedent and non-antecedent populations using chi square, Kaplan–Meier, and ordinal logistic regression. When controlled for confounders, antecedent hypertension (high blood pressure), hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol), arthritis, COPD, thyroid disease, and non-ALS neurological disease are found to be statistically associated with a delayed ALS onset age, whereas antecedent obesity [body mass index (BMI) > 30] was correlated to earlier ALS onset age. With the potential exceptions of liver disease and diabetes (the latter without other common comorbid conditions), antecedent disease is associated with overall shorter ALS disease duration. The unique potential relationship between antecedent liver disease and longer ALS disease duration warrants further investigation, especially given liver disease was found to be a factor of 4–7 times less prevalent in ALS. Notably, most conditions associated with delayed ALS onset are also associated with shorter

  16. PTA1, an essential gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affecting pre-tRNA processing.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, J P; Peebles, C L

    1992-01-01

    We have identified an essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, PTA1, that affects pre-tRNA processing. PTA1 was initially defined by a UV-induced mutation, pta1-1, that causes the accumulation of all 10 end-trimmed, intron-containing pre-tRNAs and temperature-sensitive but osmotic-remedial growth. pta1-1 does not appear to be an allele of any other known gene affecting pre-tRNA processing. Extracts prepared from pta1-1 strains had normal pre-tRNA splicing endonuclease activity. pta1-1 was suppressed by the ochre suppressor tRNA gene SUP11, indicating that the pta1-1 mutation creates a termination codon within a protein reading frame. The PTA1 gene was isolated from a genomic library by complementation of the pta1-1 growth defect. Episome-borne PTA1 directs recombination to the pta1-1 locus. PTA1 has been mapped to the left arm of chromosome I near CDC24; the gene was sequenced and could encode a protein of 785 amino acids with a molecular weight of 88,417. No other protein sequences similar to that of the predicted PTA1 gene product have been identified within the EMBL or GenBank data base. Disruption of PTA1 near the carboxy terminus of the putative open reading frame was lethal. Possible functions of the PTA1 gene product are discussed. Images PMID:1508188

  17. L-Tryptophan Production in Escherichia coli Improved by Weakening the Pta-AckA Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lina; Duan, Xuguo; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Acetate accumulation during the fermentation process of Escherichia coli FB-04, an L-tryptophan production strain, is detrimental to L-tryptophan production. In an initial attempt to reduce acetate formation, the phosphate acetyltransferase gene (pta) from E. coli FB-04 was deleted, forming strain FB-04(Δpta). Unfortunately, FB-04(Δpta) exhibited a growth defect. Therefore, pta was replaced with a pta variant (pta1) from E. coli CCTCC M 2016009, forming strain FB-04(pta1). Pta1 exhibits lower catalytic capacity and substrate affinity than Pta because of a single amino acid substitution (Pro69Leu). FB-04(pta1) lacked the growth defect of FB-04(Δpta) and showed improved fermentation performance. Strain FB-04(pta1) showed a 91% increase in L-tryptophan yield in flask fermentation experiments, while acetate production decreased by 35%, compared with its parent FB-04. Throughout the fed-batch fermentation process, acetate accumulation by FB-04(pta1) was slower than that by FB-04. The final L-tryptophan titer of FB-04(pta1) reached 44.0 g/L, representing a 15% increase over that of FB-04. Metabolomics analysis showed that the pta1 genomic substitution slightly decreased carbon flux through glycolysis and significantly increased carbon fluxes through the pentose phosphate and common aromatic pathways. These results indicate that this strategy enhances L-tryptophan production and decreases acetate accumulation during the L-tryptophan fermentation process. PMID:27348810

  18. L-Tryptophan Production in Escherichia coli Improved by Weakening the Pta-AckA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lina; Duan, Xuguo; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Acetate accumulation during the fermentation process of Escherichia coli FB-04, an L-tryptophan production strain, is detrimental to L-tryptophan production. In an initial attempt to reduce acetate formation, the phosphate acetyltransferase gene (pta) from E. coli FB-04 was deleted, forming strain FB-04(Δpta). Unfortunately, FB-04(Δpta) exhibited a growth defect. Therefore, pta was replaced with a pta variant (pta1) from E. coli CCTCC M 2016009, forming strain FB-04(pta1). Pta1 exhibits lower catalytic capacity and substrate affinity than Pta because of a single amino acid substitution (Pro69Leu). FB-04(pta1) lacked the growth defect of FB-04(Δpta) and showed improved fermentation performance. Strain FB-04(pta1) showed a 91% increase in L-tryptophan yield in flask fermentation experiments, while acetate production decreased by 35%, compared with its parent FB-04. Throughout the fed-batch fermentation process, acetate accumulation by FB-04(pta1) was slower than that by FB-04. The final L-tryptophan titer of FB-04(pta1) reached 44.0 g/L, representing a 15% increase over that of FB-04. Metabolomics analysis showed that the pta1 genomic substitution slightly decreased carbon flux through glycolysis and significantly increased carbon fluxes through the pentose phosphate and common aromatic pathways. These results indicate that this strategy enhances L-tryptophan production and decreases acetate accumulation during the L-tryptophan fermentation process. PMID:27348810

  19. Antecedents of Norwegian Beginning Teachers' Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…

  20. Overview of NASA PTA propfan flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, Edwin J.

    1990-01-01

    The progress is covered of the NASA sponsored Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) flight test program. In PTA, a 9 ft. diameter propfan was installed on the left wing of a Gulfstream GII executive jet and is undergoing extensive flight testing to evaluate propfan structural integrity, near and far field noise, and cabin interior noise characteristics. This research testing includes variations in propeller tip speed and power loading, nacelle tilt angle, and aircraft Mach number and altitude. As a result, extensive parametric data will be obtained to verify and improve computer codes for predicting propfan aeroelastic, aerodynamic, and aeroacoustic characteristics. Over 600 measurements are being recorded for each of approx. 600 flight test conditions.

  1. Antecedent factors in teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Black, D

    1979-10-01

    41 women under 17 presenting with pregnancy at 2 Sheffield hospitals were interviewed between December 1976-77. 78% had experienced intercourse by age 15. 7 had more than 1 partner. 21 were pregnant by age 15. 50% came from large families, 4 or more children. There was a family history of illegitimacy in 1/3 of the group. 46% had experienced separation from 1 or both parents before age 7, chronic illness, death or divorce of parents. Only 8 had received contraceptive advice; 7 had received no school sex education. Most sources of information were mothers, siblings, and friends. 70% knew of at least 3 methods of contraception: withdrawal, the sheath, and the pill. The chemist and the general practitioner were most frequently named sources. 3 had gone to a clinic; most could not identify any clinics. 18 felt contraception should be their own decision; 15 felt it should be a joint decision. The high level of accepted risk taking and nonacceptability of the source of information were the most common reasons for noncontraceptive use. Adolescent pregnancies occur more frequently in lower socioeconomic classes. The majority of the women who continued with the pregnancy (15) were older and presented after 14 weeks. PMID:12336080

  2. Proximal antecedents to violent events in adolescent dating relationships.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Pamela S; Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence affects 25-60% of adolescents. This study developed a typology of proximal antecedents to violent events in adolescent dating relationships. Descriptions of 307 dating violence events were extracted from transcribed interviews with 87 young adults who experienced dating violence as adolescents. Verbatim text preceding the description of each violent event was identified as a proximal antecedent. Cross-case analysis was used to develop a typology of five antecedent categories: "pulling away,"  "demanding obedience," "discovering involvement with a rival," "defining the relationship," "demonstrating disrespect." Practitioners can use this typology to engage teens in discussions of factors that precede dating violence events. PMID:21992258

  3. Elementary Foreign Language Teacher-PTA Liaison Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Public Schools, VA. Div. of Adult Services.

    A handbook for the organization and implementation of an elementary school foreign language program presents guidelines for teachers and PTA liaisons. The program provides supplemental elementary-level instruction for children in Spanish, French, German, Italian, Chinese, and Arabic. Much of the program planning and organization is conducted by…

  4. Synthesis, catalytic properties and biological activity of new water soluble ruthenium cyclopentadienyl PTA complexes [(C5R5)RuCl(PTA)2] (R = H, Me; PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane).

    PubMed

    Akbayeva, Dina N; Gonsalvi, Luca; Oberhauser, Werner; Peruzzini, Maurizio; Vizza, Francesco; Brüggeller, Peter; Romerosa, Antonio; Sava, Gianni; Bergamo, Alberta

    2003-01-21

    The new water soluble ruthenium complexes [(C5R5)RuCl(PTA)2] (R = H, Me; PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) were synthesised and characterised. Their evaluation as regioselective catalysts for hydrogenation of unsaturated ketones in aqueous biphasic conditions and as cytotoxic agents towards the TS/A adenocarcinoma cell line is briefly presented. PMID:12585422

  5. PTA test bed aircraft engine inlet model test report, revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The inlet duct test for the Propfan Testbed Assessment (PTA) program was completed in November 1984. The basic test duct was designed using the Lockheed QUADPAN computational code. Test objectives were to experimentally evaluate, modify as required, and eventually verify satisfactory performance as well as duct/engine compatibility. Measured total pressure recovery for the basic duct was 0.993 with no swirl and 0.989 for inflow with a 30 degree simulated swirl angle. This compared to a predicted recovery of 0.979 with no swirl. Measured circumferential distortion with swirl, based on a least-square curve fit of the data, was 0.204 compared to a maximum allowable value of 0.550. Other measured distortion parameters did as well or better relative to their respective maximum allowable values. The basic duct configuration with no refinements is recommended for the PTA inlet as a minimum cost installation.

  6. Childhood antecedents of adult sense of belonging.

    PubMed

    Hagerty, Bonnie M; Williams, Reg Arthur; Oe, Hiroaki

    2002-07-01

    Sense of belonging has been proposed to be a basic human need, and deficits in sense of belonging have been linked to problems in social and psychological functioning. Yet, there is little evidence about what early life experiences contribute to sense of belonging. The purpose of this study was to examine potential childhood antecedents of adult sense of belonging. The sample consisted of 362 community college students ranging in age from 18 to 72 years, with a mean age of 26 years. Measures included the Sense of Belonging Instrument, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Childhood Adversity and Adolescent Deviance Instrument. Multiple regression analysis was used to correlate childhood antecedents with adult sense of belonging. The final reduced model included 12 variables, which accounted for 25% of the variance in sense of belonging. Significant positive antecedents with a relationship with sense of belonging were perceived caring by both mother and father while growing up, participation in high school athletic activity, and parental divorce. Significant negative variables with a relationship with sense of belonging included perceived overprotection of father, high school pregnancy, family financial problems while growing up, incest, and homosexuality. Knowledge of these factors should influence interventions with families regarding child-rearing and parenting practices, mediating the effects of crises during childhood such as divorce and teen pregnancy, and the interpersonal growth needs of teenagers. PMID:12205719

  7. Overview of NASA PTA propfan flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, Edwin J.

    1987-01-01

    During the last several years high-speed propellers have made the transition from a wind tunnel curiosity to a very likely near-term, fuel-efficient propulsion system that could revolutionize the subsonic commercial air transport industry. A key ingredient in this remarkable progress is the advanced turboprop industry. Working together, NASA and industry have developed and flight tested two propeller propulsion systems to provide answers to key technical questions and concerns. An industry team is currently developing a third propeller propulsion system for flight testing late this year. The progress of one of the NASA-industry flight test programs, called the Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) Program is reported. In PTA, a 9 foot diameter propfan was installed on the left wing of a Gulfstream GII executive jet and is undergoing extensive flight testing at Dobbins Air Force Base to evaluate propfan structural integrity, near and far field noise, and cabin interior noise characteristics. This research testing includes variations in propeller tip speed and power loading, nacelle tilt angle, and aircraft Mach number and altitude. As a result, extensive parametric data will be obtained to verify and improve computer codes for predicting propeller structural aeroelastic, aerodynamic, and acoustic characteristics. Over 600 measurements are being recorded for each of approximately 600 flight test conditions.

  8. Genetics and Physiology of Acetate Metabolism by the Pta-Ack Pathway of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Nam; Ahn, Sang-Joon

    2015-01-01

    In the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans, phosphotransacetylase (Pta) catalyzes the conversion of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetyl phosphate (AcP), which can be converted to acetate by acetate kinase (Ack), with the concomitant generation of ATP. A ΔackA mutant displayed enhanced accumulation of AcP under aerobic conditions, whereas little or no AcP was observed in the Δpta or Δpta ΔackA mutant. The Δpta and Δpta ΔackA mutants also had diminished ATP pools compared to the size of the ATP pool for the parental or ΔackA strain. Surprisingly, when exposed to oxidative stress, the Δpta ΔackA strain appeared to regain the capacity to produce AcP, with a concurrent increase in the size of the ATP pool compared to that for the parental strain. The ΔackA and Δpta ΔackA mutants exhibited enhanced (p)ppGpp accumulation, whereas the strain lacking Pta produced less (p)ppGpp than the wild-type strain. The ΔackA and Δpta ΔackA mutants displayed global changes in gene expression, as assessed by microarrays. All strains lacking Pta, which had defects in AcP production under aerobic conditions, were impaired in their abilities to form biofilms when glucose was the growth carbohydrate. Collectively, these data demonstrate the complex regulation of the Pta-Ack pathway and critical roles for these enzymes in processes that appear to be essential for the persistence and pathogenesis of S. mutans. PMID:25979891

  9. Antecedents of Maternal Separation Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Greta G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined antecedents of maternal separation anxiety in 83 Italian mothers prior to their infants or toddlers entering group care. Mothers' anxiety did not vary with the child's age. Anxious mothers were younger and less educated, received less support, had temperamentally negative infants, and provided less varied stimulation in the home. (MM)

  10. Maternal Gatekeeping: Antecedents and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaunt, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined maternal gatekeeping, its background and psychological antecedents, and its consequences for paternal and maternal involvement in child care. In sum, 209 couples with 6- to 36-month-old children completed extensive questionnaires. Analyses revealed that various dimensions of gate-keeping were differentially associated with the…

  11. Strain Mechanosensing Quantitatively Controls Diameter Growth and PtaZFP2 Gene Expression in Poplar1

    PubMed Central

    Coutand, Catherine; Martin, Ludovic; Leblanc-Fournier, Nathalie; Decourteix, Mélanie; Julien, Jean-Louis; Moulia, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical signals are important factors that control plant growth and development. External mechanical loadings lead to a decrease in elongation and a stimulation of diameter growth, a syndrome known as thigmomorphogenesis. A previous study has demonstrated that plants perceive the strains they are subjected to and not forces or stresses. On this basis, an integrative biomechanical model of mechanosensing was established (“sum-of-strains model”) and tested on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) elongation but not for local responses such as diameter growth or gene expression. The first aim of this interdisciplinary work was to provide a quantitative study of the effect of a single transitory bending on poplar (Populus tremula × alba) diameter growth and on the expression level of a primary mechanosensitive transcription factor gene, PtaZFP2. The second aim of this work was to assess the sum-of-strains model of mechanosensing on these local responses. An original bending device was built to study stem responses according to a controlled range of strains. A single bending modified plant diameter growth and increased the relative abundance of PtaZFP2 transcripts. Integrals of longitudinal strains induced by bending on the responding tissues were highly correlated to local plant responses. The sum-of-strains model of mechanosensing established for stem elongation was thus applicable for local responses at two scales: diameter growth and gene expression. These novel results open avenues for the ordering of gene expression profiles as a function of the intensity of mechanical stimulation and provide a generic biomechanical core for an integrative model of thigmomorphogenesis linking gene expression with growth responses. PMID:19571311

  12. The Antecedents and Correlates of Parental Perceptions of Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom

    Examined were antecedents and behavioral correlates of parental perceptions of efficacy, using data from a national survey of 3,000 parents and a study of 65 mother-infant dyads. Survey data were used to determine what factors are predictive of parental perceptions of efficacy. Dyadic data were used primarily to examine the relation between…

  13. Evaluation of propeller/nacelle interactions in the PTA program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aljabri, A. S.; Lyman, V.; Parker, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced highly-loaded propellers are proposed to power transport aircraft that cruise at high subsonic speeds giving significant fuel savings over the equivalent turbofan engine. In order to realize these savings, the propeller must be installed so that the aerodynamics of the propeller/nacelle combination do not lead to excessive cyclic blade stresses or installation losses. The on-going, NASA sponsored, Propfan Test Assessment Program (PTA) has provided the first high-speed wind-tunnel data on an installed propfan complete with an inlet. This paper presents computational techniques that allow: (1) optimization of inlet plane location, (2) contouring of lip and cowl, and (3) estimation of propeller cyclic loads due to a nonuniform flowfield. These computational methods, in spite of the complexity of the configuration and the slipstream effects, provide predictions of aerodynamic performance which are in excellent agreement with wind-tunnel data.

  14. Antecedents and Consequences of Envy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Geir; Glasø, Lars; Martinsen, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual attributes and envy, and to determine how envy may impact personal response variables in the workplace. To address these issues we apply Vecchio's theory on antecedents and consequences of envy (1995) as a theoretical framework. The present study relied on a cross-sectional measurement design. A total of 135 leaders and 772 followers employed in business organizations participated. SEM analysis shows that span of supervision serves as an important antecedent of envy, where span of supervision is significantly associated to envy via supportive leadership. Furthermore, envy seems to be indirectly and negatively related to self-esteem via distress and directly related to social loafing. The implications of these findings are discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined. PMID:25961743

  15. Occurrence and fate of the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA) in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Cavoski, Ivana; Costi, Roberta; Sarais, Giorgia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Miano, Teodoro M.; Lattanzio, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, one of the most common plant species on Earth, produces a wide range of secondary metabolites including the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA). This bracken constituent causes acute poisoning, blindness and cancer in animals, and can be transferred to man when bracken is utilized as food. Also milk from cows eating bracken is thought to be the vector for the transfer of PTA to humans, as well as PTA-contaminated drinking waters. Although some studies on the effect of growth conditions and soil properties on the production and mobility of PTA have been carried out (mainly in the North of Europe), results are sometimes conflicting and further investigations are needed. The aim of the present work is to study the occurrence and the fate of PTA in soils showing different physico-chemical features, collected in different pedoclimatic areas (from the South of Italy), but having the extensive ("wild") livestock farming as common denominator. The PTA content was determined in both soil and fern samples by GC-MS; both the extraction protocol and recovery were previously tested through incubation studies. Soils samples were also characterizes from the physical and chemical point of view (pH, EC, texture, total carbonates, cation exchange capacity, organic C, total N, available nutrients and heavy metal concentration) in order to correlate the possible influence of soil parameters on PTA production, occurrence and mobility. PTA concentration in soil samples was always PTA concentration in the corresponding Pteridium samples (2-780 µg/g), ii) the soil organic matter content (ranging from 3.4 to 22.8%), iii) the soil pH (ranging from 5.9 to 6.6), iv) the soil texture, v) the depth (0-10 cm; 10-20 cm), and vi) precipitations (ranging from 780 to 960 mm/a). This seems to suggest the degradation of the PTA by indigenous microbial community

  16. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  17. Transbrachial Thrombolysis, PTA and Stenting in the Lower Extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Stefan Fischbach, Roman; Brochhagen, Hans-Georg; Heindel, Walter; Landwehr, Peter

    2003-11-15

    We present an analysis of 37 interventions in the arteries of the lower limbs via a transbrachial arterial approach. Twenty-six patients (42-79 years) underwent 37 interventional procedures in the lower extremities (iliac n = 6, iliac + femoro-popliteal n = 1, femoro-popliteal n = 30) with a vascular approach via the brachial artery (33 left sided, 4 right sided, introducer sheath 4-7 F). The transbrachial approach was chosen to avoid puncture of femoral bypass graft material. Technical success could be achieved in 11/13 thrombolyses, 8/9 PTAs, 7/10 combinations of thrombolysis and percutaneous transluminar angioplasty (PTA) and in the placement of two stents. One patient suffered from periprocedural severe re-thrombosis due to insufficient anticoagulation during fibrinolysis, and twice thrombolysis was incomplete. One puncture-related false aneurysm of the brachial artery had to be corrected surgically. One transient ischemic attack (TIA) and four minor complications occurred. Transbrachial vascular approach for arterial interventions in iliac and femoro-popliteal pathologies is a reasonable alternative to the transaxillary access if transfemoral puncture has to be avoided. The technical success rate is comparable with the results of the transaxillary and transfemoral approach. To minimize, at least theoretically, the risk of cerebral complications, the left- sided approach should be preferred and intravenous heparin should be administered routinely.

  18. Water-soluble Ru(II)- and Ru(III)-halide-PTA complexes (PTA=1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane): Chemical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Battistin, F; Scaletti, F; Balducci, G; Pillozzi, S; Arcangeli, A; Messori, L; Alessio, E

    2016-07-01

    Four structurally related Ru(II)-halide-PTA complexes, of general formula trans- or cis-[Ru(PTA)4X2] (PTA=1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane, X=Cl (1, 2), Br (3, 4), were prepared and characterized. Whereas compounds 1 and 2 are known, the corresponding bromo derivatives 3 and 4 are new. The Ru(III)-PTA compound trans-[RuCl4(PTAH)2]Cl (5, PTAH=PTA protonated at one N atom), structurally similar to the well-known Ru(III) anticancer drug candidates (Na)trans-[RuCl4(ind)2] (NKP-1339, ind=indazole) and (Him)trans-[RuCl4(dmso-S)(im)] (NAMI-A, im=imidazole), was also prepared and similarly investigated. Notably, the presence of PTA confers to all complexes an appreciable solubility in aqueous solutions at physiological pH. The chemical behavior of compounds 1-5 in water and in physiological buffer, their interactions with two model proteins - cytochrome c and ribonuclease A - as well as with a single strand oligonucleotide (5'-CGCGCG-3'), and their in vitro cytotoxicity against a human colon cancer cell line (HCT-116) and a myeloid leukemia (FLG 29.1) were investigated. Upon dissolution in the buffer, sequential halide replacement by water molecules was observed for complexes 1-4, with relatively slow kinetics, whereas the Ru(III) complex 5 is more inert. All tested compounds manifested moderate antiproliferative properties, the cis compounds 2 and 4 being slightly more active than the trans ones (1 and 3). Mass spectrometry experiments evidenced that all complexes exhibit a far higher reactivity towards the reference oligonucleotide than towards model proteins. The chemical and biological profiles of compounds 1-5 are compared to those of established ruthenium drug candidates in clinical development. PMID:26920229

  19. Reported causal antecedents of discrete emotions in late life.

    PubMed

    Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P; Weiner, Bernard; Newall, Nancy E

    2009-01-01

    Valuable insights about emotional well-being can be learned from studying older adults who have wrestled with differentiating and regulating their emotions while they navigate through the many joys and traumas of a lifetime. Our objective was to document the underlying reasons for older adults' (n = 353, ages 72 -99) emotional experiences. Using a phenomenological approach, we identified participants' reported reasons (i.e., antecedents) for a broad variety of positive and negative emotions, classifying them into thematic categories through a content analysis. The array of thematic categories that emerged for some emotions was more differentiated than for others. For example, 14 antecedent categories were required to account for the emotion of happiness; whereas, only 4 categories were needed to capture all antecedents for anger. Our analysis provided a rich description of what older adults report as the causes of their emotions, showing that later life is characterized as a time when the loss of love ones elicits sadness, self-limitations elicit frustration, and others' transgressions elicit anger. Yet, our data show that old age can be portrayed even more so as a time when a variety of positive emotions are elicited by social factors (interactions and relationships), achievements, and personal attributes. Finally, in an analysis of the most common antecedents for pride (accomplishments) and anger (other's transgression), we suggest that pride over accomplishments is most likely elicited by internal attributions to skill and effort; whereas, anger over others' transgressions is most likely elicited by controllable attributions to the transgressor's inconsiderate or offensive behavior. Overall, this shows the utility of applying Weiner's attributional framework (Weiner, 1985) to an analysis of emotion antecedents in late life. PMID:19522180

  20. Carrier lifetime influence on clamped silicon wafer resonance by PTA effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapus, C.; Augereau, F.; Podlecki, J.; Lévêque, G.; Foucaran, A.; Attal, J.

    2010-06-01

    This experimental work presents reproducible measurement conditions to allow amplification of the mechanical vibration generated by photo-thermo-acoustics (PTA) effect using the resonance of circular silicon membranes clamped by nitrile o-rings on a diameter of 30 mm (Di). We use wafers with various thickness (h) between 250 and 1000 μm and with carrier lifetime between 3 and 30 μs. Under the condition to have a resolution of few picometers for the measurement, it is possible to characterize the resonance mechanism obtained without contact by conventional laser vibrometry using a modulated laser diode of only a few milliwatts of power. Compared to perfect clamped membranes, the first Eigen frequency presents a downward shift of some hundreds Hertz due to the circular clamping by o-ring as predicted by our simplified model. The resonance frequency depends linearly on the thickness as long as Di/h > 80. The quality factor (Q) does not exceed ten in agreement with our model for spring loaded membrane in air. The low value of quality factor and its variation according to thickness follow our predictions. Moreover, Q is independent of carrier lifetime whereas first resonance amplitude increases with it but less than prediction for bulks.

  1. Patient-centered care: antecedents, triggers, and mediators.

    PubMed

    Galland, Leo

    2006-01-01

    Functional medicine is essentially patient centered, rather than disease centered. A structure is presented for uniting a patient-centered approach to diagnosis and treatment with the fruits of modern clinical science (which evolved primarily to serve the prevailing model of disease-centered care). The core scientific concepts of disease pathogenesis are antecedents, triggers, and mediators. Antecedents are factors, genetic or acquired, that predispose to illness; triggers are factors that provoke the symptoms and signs of illness; and mediators are factors, biochemical or psychosocial, that contribute to pathological changes and dysfunctional responses. Understanding the antecedents, triggers, and mediators that underlie illness or dysfunction in each patient permits therapy to be targeted to the needs of the individual. The conventional diagnosis assigned to the patient may be of value in identifying plausible antecedents, triggers or mediators for each patient, but is not adequate by itself for the designing of patient-centered care. Applying the model of person-centered diagnosis to patients facilitates the recognition of disturbances that are common in people with chronic illness. Diet, nutrition, and exposure to environmental toxins play central roles in functional medicine because they may predispose to illness, provoke symptoms, and modulate the activity of biochemical mediators through a complex and diverse set of mechanisms. Explaining those mechanisms is a key objective of the Textbook of Functional Medicine (from which this article is excerpted). A patient's beliefs about health and illness are critically important for self-care and may influence both behavioral and physiological responses to illness. Perceived self-efficacy is an important mediator of health and healing. Enhancement of patients' self-efficacy through information, education, and the development of a collaborative relationship between patient and healer is a cardinal goal in all clinical

  2. Insertion of Self-Expandable Nitinol Stents Without Previous Balloon Angioplasty Reduces Restenosis Compared with PTA Prior to Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Harnek, Jan; Zoucas, Evita; Stenram, Unne; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2002-10-15

    Purpose: To compare the development of intimal hyperplasia after deployment of a self-expanding nitinol stent with and without previous percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA), with the results after PTA alone. Methods: In nine healthy pigs, the iliac arteries were divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 6 arteries) was treated with PTA; group 2 n 6)with insertion of self-expanding stents after PTA; and group 3 (n = 6) with stent insertion without previous PTA. After 8 weeks the vessels were examined with intravascular ultrasonography,histologic examination and morphometric analysis. Results: Although the injury index in group 1 (0.17{+-} 0.57) was lower (p <0.05) than in group 2 (0.26 {+-} 0.06) and group 3 (0.26 {+-} 0.08), PTA-treated arteries showed significantly (p <0.05) reduced mean luminal gain (0.53 {+-} 2.84) compared with arteries treated with PTA prior to stenting (2.58 {+-} 1.38) and compared with stenting alone (4.65 {+-}5.34). Stenting after PTA resulted in a higher (p<0.05) restenosis index (2.63 {+-} 1.06) compared with stenting without PTA (1.35 {+-} 0.59). Group 2 also had a significantly thicker intimap <0.05) and 83% and 74% higher intima/mediaratio (p <0.05) compared with groups 1 and 3, respectively. Conclusion: Insertion of a self-expandable nitinol stent without previous PTA results in less intimalhyperplasia than if PTA is performed prior to stenting, suggesting that direct stenting can be used in angioplasty sessions with a favorable outcome.

  3. Long-Term Antecedents and Outcomes of Perceived Control

    PubMed Central

    Infurna, Frank J.; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived control plays an important role in shaping development throughout adulthood and old age. Using data from the adult lifespan sample of the national German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP; N > 10,000, covering 25 years of measurement), we explored long-term antecedents, correlates, and outcomes of perceived control and examined if associations differ with age. Targeting correlates and antecedents of control, findings indicated that higher concurrent levels of social participation, life satisfaction, and self-rated health as well as more positive changes in social participation over the preceding 11 years were each predictive of between-person differences in perceived control. Targeting health outcomes of control, survival analyses revealed that perceived control predicted 14-year hazard rates for disability (n = 996 became disabled) and mortality (n = 1,382 died). The effect for mortality, but not for disability, was independent of socio-demographic and psychosocial factors. Overall, we found very limited support for age-differential associations. Our results provide further impetus to thoroughly examine processes involved in antecedent-consequent relations among perceived control, facets of social life, well-being, and health. PMID:21517184

  4. Antecedent Selection: Comparing Simplified and Typical Verbal Antecedents for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez-Brown, Mapy; Scott, Jack; Ross, Denise E.

    2005-01-01

    This study measured the differential effects of simplified and typical verbal antecedents on acquisition of picture discriminations for four preschool children with autism. During baseline probes, participants emitted no correct selection responses to pictures of common stimuli during either simplified or typical verbal antecedent conditions.…

  5. Gold(I) complexes with alkylated PTA (1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) phosphanes as anticancer metallodrugs.

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Elena; Gascón, Sonia; Atrián-Blasco, Elena; Rodriguez-Yoldi, M Jesus; Cerrada, Elena; Laguna, Mariano

    2014-05-22

    New stable thiolate gold(I) derivatives containing the alkylated phosphanes [PTA-CH2Ph]Br and [PTA-CH2COOMe]Br derived from 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) have been prepared by different routes of synthesis. By the use of basic media to deprotonate the corresponding thiol in the former and by transmetallation reactions from tin (IV) complexes, in the later, thus avoiding side reactions on the phosphane. Strong antiproliferative effects are observed for most of the compounds, including the chloro- and bromo precursors with the series of phosphanes derived from PTA, in human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, PD7 and TC7 clones). Apoptosis-induced cell death is found for all compounds, being the thiolate derivatives with [PTA-CH2Ph]Br the most effective, as shown by an annexin-V/propidium iodide double-staining assay. PMID:24732792

  6. NiO-PTA supported on ZIF-8 as a highly effective catalyst for hydrocracking of Jatropha oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Li, Rong; Chen, Pan; Rao, Xin; Deng, Lihong; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2016-03-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA) supported on a ZIF-8 (NiO-PTA/ZIF-8) catalyst was first synthesized and it showed high activity and good selectivity for the hydrocracking of Jatropha oil. The catalyst was characterized by SEM, SEM-EDS, TEM, N2 adsorption, FT-IR, XRD and XPS. Compared with the NiO-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst, the selectivity of C15-C18 hydrocarbon increased over 36%, and catalytic efficiency increased 10 times over the NiO-PTA/ZIF-8 catalyst. The prepared NiO-PTA/ZIF-8 catalyst was stable for a reaction time of 104 h and the kinetic behavior was also analyzed. This catalyst was found to bypass the presulfurization process, showing promise as an alternative to sulfided catalysts for green diesel production.

  7. NiO-PTA supported on ZIF-8 as a highly effective catalyst for hydrocracking of Jatropha oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Li, Rong; Chen, Pan; Rao, Xin; Deng, Lihong; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2016-01-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA) supported on a ZIF-8 (NiO-PTA/ZIF-8) catalyst was first synthesized and it showed high activity and good selectivity for the hydrocracking of Jatropha oil. The catalyst was characterized by SEM, SEM-EDS, TEM, N2 adsorption, FT-IR, XRD and XPS. Compared with the NiO-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst, the selectivity of C15-C18 hydrocarbon increased over 36%, and catalytic efficiency increased 10 times over the NiO-PTA/ZIF-8 catalyst. The prepared NiO-PTA/ZIF-8 catalyst was stable for a reaction time of 104 h and the kinetic behavior was also analyzed. This catalyst was found to bypass the presulfurization process, showing promise as an alternative to sulfided catalysts for green diesel production. PMID:27020579

  8. NiO-PTA supported on ZIF-8 as a highly effective catalyst for hydrocracking of Jatropha oil

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Li, Rong; Chen, Pan; Rao, Xin; Deng, Lihong; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2016-01-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA) supported on a ZIF-8 (NiO-PTA/ZIF-8) catalyst was first synthesized and it showed high activity and good selectivity for the hydrocracking of Jatropha oil. The catalyst was characterized by SEM, SEM-EDS, TEM, N2 adsorption, FT-IR, XRD and XPS. Compared with the NiO-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst, the selectivity of C15-C18 hydrocarbon increased over 36%, and catalytic efficiency increased 10 times over the NiO-PTA/ZIF-8 catalyst. The prepared NiO-PTA/ZIF-8 catalyst was stable for a reaction time of 104 h and the kinetic behavior was also analyzed. This catalyst was found to bypass the presulfurization process, showing promise as an alternative to sulfided catalysts for green diesel production. PMID:27020579

  9. The PTA in the Urban Context: Phase II; An Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    The National PTA Urban Task Force chose to focus on three issues facing urban education: inadequate financing of public education, lack of parental or broad-based community participation in schools, and youth unemployment. The Task Force identified coalition building at local and national levels as the best strategy for helping resolve the…

  10. Neointimal Hyperplasia after Silverhawk Atherectomy versus Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) in Femoropopliteal Stent Reobstructions: A Controlled, Randomized Pilot Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Brodmann, Marianne Rief, Peter; Froehlich, Harald; Dorr, Andreas; Gary, Thomas; Eller, Philipp; Hafner, Franz; Deutschmann, Hannes; Seinost, Gerald; Pilger, Ernst

    2013-02-15

    Due to intimal hyperplasia instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment is still an unsolved problem. Different techniques have been discussed in case of reintervention to guarantee longlasting patency rate. We conducted a randomized, controlled, pilot trial comparing Silverhawk atherectomy with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with a first instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment, to evaluate intima media thickness (IMT) within the treated segment, as a parameter of recurrence of intimal hyperplasia. In a total 19 patients were included: 9 patients in the atherectomy device and 10 patients in the PTA arm. IMT within the treated segment was statistically significantly elevated in all patients treated with the Silverhawk device versus the patients treated with PTA. The obvious differentiation in elevation of IMT in nonfavor for patients treated with the Silverhawk device started at month 2 (max IMT SH 0.178 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.1 mm, p = 0.001) with a spike at month 5 (max IMT SH 0.206 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.145 mm, p = 0.003) and a decline once again at month 6 (max IMT SH 0.177 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.121 mm, p = 0.02). The values for mean IMT performed the same way. Although Silverhawk atherectomy provides good results at first sight, in the midterm follow-up of treatment of first instent restenosis it did not perform better than PTA as it showed elevated reoccurrence of intimal media hyperplasia.

  11. Antecedents and Consequences of Situational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Patall, Erika A.; Messersmith, Emily E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a growing body of research on situational interest (SI). Yet, we still know relatively little about how SI is supported in the classroom and the academic benefits of SI. Aim: The current study investigated (1) contextual antecedents of SI; (2) potential benefits of SI for academic outcomes; and (3) SI as a mediator of…

  12. Non-Syntactic Antecedents and Frame Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gensler, Orin

    A polemic is made for frame semantics and the linguistic phenomenon of anaphoric reference without noun phrase (NP) antecedent is examined within this frame. Non-syntactic anaphora is that which does not point out into the real world but rather points back into the discourse in a frame which has been built up between the speaker and hearer in a…

  13. Antecedents and Outcomes of Career Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryee, Samuel; Tan, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    A model of antecedents and outcomes of career commitment was tested with data from 510 of 650 Singaporean teachers and nurses surveyed. The model did not fit the data: career satisfaction did not affect career commitment directly or indirectly through organizational commitment. Career commitment was not significantly related to work quality. (SK)

  14. Early Antecedents to Students' Expected Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garger, John; Thomas, Michael; Jacques, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to confirm the predictive validity of several antecedents to students' early perceptions of future performance in collegiate courses. Design/methodology/approach: A non-experimental design was used to test a proposed model based on a review of relevant literature. Students completed surveys capturing the…

  15. SOME DEVELOPMENTAL ANTECEDENTS OF LEVEL OF ASPIRATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROWNE, DOUGLAS P.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY REPORTS CHILDREARING PRACTICES AND CHILD BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH A SUBSEQUENT LEVEL OF ASPIRATION (LOA). ANTECEDENT MEASURES WERE CHILDREARING ATTITUDES REPORTED BY 379 MOTHERS OF FIVE-YEAR OLDS IN AN EARLIER STUDY. AT THE TIME OF THIS STUDY, THE 83 SUBJECTS WERE 18 YEARS OLD. THEY WERE ADMINISTERED TWO PERSONALITY SCALES AND THE…

  16. Should flood regimes change in a warming climate? The role of antecedent moisture conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldemeskel, Fitsum; Sharma, Ashish

    2016-07-01

    Assessing changes to flooding is important for designing new and redesigning existing infrastructure to withstand future climates. While there is speculation that floods are likely to intensify in the future, this question is often difficult to assess due to inadequate records on streamflow extremes. An alternate way of determining possible extreme flooding is through assessment of the two key factors that lead to the intensification of floods: the intensification of causative rainfall and changes in the wetness conditions prior to rainfall. This study assesses global changes in the antecedent wetness prior to extreme rainfall. Our results indicate a significant increase in the antecedent moisture in Australia and Africa over the last century; however, there was also a decrease in Eurasia and insignificant change in North America. Given the nature of changes found in this study, any future flood assessment for global warming conditions should take into account antecedent moisture conditions.

  17. Effect of Heat Treatment on Wear Resistance of Nickel Aluminide Coatings Deposited by HVOF and PTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benegra, M.; Santana, A. L. B.; Maranho, O.; Pintaude, G.

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to compare the wear resistance of nickel aluminide coatings deposited using plasma transferred arc (PTA) and high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) processes. Wear resistance was measured in rubber wheel abrasion tests. In both deposition processes, the same raw material (nickel aluminide powder) was atomized and deposited on a 316L steel plate substrate. After deposition, specimens were subjected to thermal cycling, aiming solubilization and precipitation. Coatings deposited using PTA developed different microstructures as a result of the incorporation of substrate elements. However, despite the presence of these microstructures, they performed better than coatings processed using HVOF before the heat treatment. After thermal cycling, the superficial hardness after the wear tests for both processes was similar, resulting in similar mass losses.

  18. Numerical Modeling of Helium Pressurization System of Propulsion Test Article (PTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steadman, Todd; Majumdar, Alok; Holt, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    A transient model of the Propulsion Test Article (PTA) Helium Pressurization System was developed using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The model included feed lines from the facility interface to the engine purge interface and Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Rocket Propellant 1 (RP-1) tanks, the propellant tanks themselves including ullage space and propellant feed lines to their respective pump interfaces. GFSSP's capability was extended to model a control valve to maintain ullage pressure within a specified limit and pressurization processes such as heat transfer between ullage gas, propellant and the tank wall. The purpose of the model is to predict the flow system characteristics in the entire pressurization system during 80 seconds of lower feed system priming, 420 seconds of fuel and LOX pump priming and 150 seconds of engine firing. Subsequent to the work presented here, the PTA model has been updated to include the LOX and RP-1 pumps, while the pressurization option itself has been modified to include the effects of mass transfer. This updated model will be compared with PTA test data as it becomes available.

  19. Antecedents of Employees' Involvement in Work-Related Learning: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Baert, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Involvement in work-related learning seems to be more complex than a simple supply-demand fit. An interplay of several factors can influence this involvement at different stages of the decision-making process of the employee. The aim of this systematic review is to examine which antecedents of work-related learning have been identified in previous…

  20. An insight into the role of phosphotransacetylase (pta) and the acetate/acetyl-CoA node in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Pastor, José M; Renilla, Sergio; Bernal, Vicente; Iborra, José L; Cánovas, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Background Acetate metabolism in Escherichia coli plays an important role in the control of the central metabolism and in bioprocess performance. The main problems related to the use of E. coli as cellular factory are i) the deficient utilization of carbon source due to the excretion of acetate during aerobic growth, ii) the inhibition of cellular growth and protein production by acetate and iii) the need for cofactor recycling (namely redox coenzymes and free CoASH) to sustain balanced growth and cellular homeostasis. Results This work analyzes the effect of mutations in the acetate excretion/assimilation pathways, acetyl-CoA synthethase (acs) and phosphotransacetylase (pta), in E. coli BW25113 grown on glucose or acetate minimal media. Biomass and metabolite production, redox (NADH/NAD+) and energy (ATP) state, enzyme activities and gene expression profiles related to the central metabolism were analyzed. The knock-out of pta led to a more altered phenotype than that of acs. Deletion of pta reduced the ability to grow on acetate as carbon source and strongly affected the expression of several genes related to central metabolic pathways. Conclusion Results showed that pta limits biomass yield in aerobic glucose cultures, due to acetate production (overflow metabolism) and its inefficient use during glucose starvation. Deletion of pta severely impaired growth on acetate minimal medium and under anaerobiosis due to decreased acetyl-coenzyme A synthethase, glyoxylate shunt and gluconeogenic activities, leading to lower growth rate. When acetate is used as carbon source, the joint expression of pta and acs is crucial for growth and substrate assimilation, while pta deletion severely impaired anaerobic growth. Finally, at an adaptive level, pta deficiency makes the strain more sensitive to environmental changes and de-regulates the central metabolism. PMID:19852855

  1. Psychosocial Antecedents of Chronic Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towberman, Donna B.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined associations between selected characteristics and background historical events of subjects and chronic delinquency, defined as the number of adjudicated offenses. Results indicate that family functioning had a strong association. Other factors include early age at first adjudication, out-of-home placements, having been abused,…

  2. Personality traits and developmental experiences as antecedents of childbearing motivation.

    PubMed

    Miller, W B

    1992-05-01

    Childbearing motivation may be conceptualized as based upon psychological traits and shaped by experiences during childhood, adolescence, and early adult life. This paper explores what those traits and developmental experiences are. Two measures of childbearing motivation, one positive and the other negative, are described. Using a sample of 362 married men and 354 married women, the paper systematically examines the factors associated with these measures. In addition to a set of basic personality traits, these factors include parental characteristics, teenage experiences, and a number of variables from young adult behavior domains such as marriage, education, work, religion, and parental relationships. Stepwise multiple regression analyses lead to two final constrained, simultaneous-equation regression models. These models indicate the importance of both personality traits and diverse life-cycle experiences in the development of childbearing motivation, the differential gender distribution of predictors, and the different experiential antecedents of positive and negative motivation. PMID:1607052

  3. Antecedents of Intimate Partner Violence Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Finneran, Catherine; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Examinations of gay and bisexual men’s (GBM) perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV), including their perceptions of events likely to precipitate IPV, are lacking. Focus group discussions with GBM (n = 83) yielded 24 unique antecedents, or triggers, of IPV in male–male relationships. Venue-recruited survey participants (n = 700) identified antecedents that were likely to cause partner violence in male–male relationships, including antecedents GBM-specific currently absent from the literature. Chi-square tests found significant variations in antecedent endorsement when tested against recent receipt of IPV. Linear regression confirmed that men reporting recent IPV endorsed significantly more IPV antecedents than men without recent IPV (β = 1.8155, p < .012). A better understanding of the IPV event itself in male–male couples versus heterosexual couples, including its antecedents, can inform and strengthen IPV prevention efforts. PMID:25069147

  4. Application of GPR, EMI, and Lidar to Assess the Role of Antecedent Geology in Barrier Island Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernette, P. A.; Weymer, B. A.; Houser, C.; Bishop, M. P.; Everett, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Barrier island longevity is threatened by the observed and modeled accelerating rates of sea-level rise. It has been suggested that subsurface geologic structure is also an important factor controlling barrier island morphology and long-term island evolution, yet the precise role of antecedent geology on the response and recovery of barrier islands to hurricanes and sea-level rise remains unclear. Thus, this study aims to provide more detailed insight into the role of the antecedent geology on barrier island evolution at two sites along the Texas, USA coast: Follets Island and a portion of North Padre Island. Alongshore and across-island ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic inductance (EMI) surveys are used in this study to infer subsurface geologic structure. The accuracy of the interpreted geophysical survey data was assessed using selective vibracoring. Information about island morphology is derived from airborne and terrestrial LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs). Preliminary results suggest that dune height is generally lower and washover frequency higher in areas where the antecedent geologic surface is deeper. Another important factor influencing dune breaching and washover locations is offshore bathymetry. The barrier island is generally narrower in areas where an offshore swale is present. The antecedent geologic structure is an important factor influencing barrier island morphology. Integrating EMI, GPR, and seismic subsurface geologic structure information and surficial morphology information helps improve our understanding of factors affecting barrier island evolution and the role that antecedent geology plays in island morphology.

  5. How different types of users develop trust in technology: A qualitative analysis of the antecedents of active and passive user trust in a shared technology

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Le, Kim; Deitermann, Annika; Montague, Enid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antecedents of trust in technology for active users and passive users working with a shared technology. According to the prominence-interpretation theory, to assess the trustworthiness of a technology, a person must first perceive and evaluate elements of the system that includes the technology. An experimental study was conducted with 54 participants who worked in two-person teams in a multi-task environment with a shared technology. Trust in technology was measured using a trust in technology questionnaire and antecedents of trust were elicited using an open-ended question. A list of antecedents of trust in technology was derived using qualitative analysis techniques. The following categories emerged from the antecedent: technology factors, user factors, and task factors. Similarities and differences between active users and passive user responses, in terms of trust in technology were discussed. PMID:24882059

  6. Photo-aquation of cis-[RuCl2(mPTA)4](CF3SO3)4 in water (mPTA = N-methyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane).

    PubMed

    Girotti, Rugiada; Romerosa, Antonio; Mañas, Sonia; Serrano-Ruiz, Manuel; Perutz, Robin

    2011-01-28

    On irradiating the complex cis-[RuCl(2)(mPTA)(4)](CF(3)SO(3))(4) (2) with near UV light at room temperature, (OC-6-13)-[RuCl(2)(mPTA)(3)(H(2)O)](CF(3)SO(3))(3) (3) was obtained. Complex 3 is the product of the substitution in 2 of one mPTA by a H(2)O molecule and the rearrangement from cis to trans of the two chlorides. The selective photo-reaction of 2 is produced with radiation of 300 < λ < 400 nm or with λ = 367 nm in 50 min (Φ(367 nm) (D(2)O) = 0.18 ± 0.01). The reaction is not reversible with visible light. The transformation of 2 into 3 is not dependent on the pH but only on the radiation used. Reaction of 3 with NaCl leads to (OC-6-21)-[RuCl(3)(mPTA)(3)](CF(3)SO(3))(2) (4) which could be directly obtained by irradiation of 2 with λ = 367 nm in water and 5 eq. of NaCl (Φ(367 nm) (D(2)O) = 0.17 ± 0.01). Complex 4 turns slowly to 2 in water with 1 eq. of mPTA under light of λ > 416 nm. Complete conversion of 4 into 2 was achieved after more than one day. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopy, and 2, 3 and 4 by single crystal X-ray determination. An easy synthesis for the ligand mPTA(CF(3)SO(3)) is also reported. PMID:21135936

  7. Maternal anxiety: course and antecedents during the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Britton, John R

    2008-01-01

    The early course and antecedents of postpartum anxiety are unknown. This study sought to determine the course and antecedents of maternal anxiety during the first month postpartum and to develop a model to predict 1-month anxiety using information obtainable before perinatal hospital discharge. Two hundred and ninety-six mothers were screened before discharge with the State (SS) and Trait (TS) Scales of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Demographic characteristics were assessed by questionnaire and medical record review, and psychiatric history, measures of perinatal stress, and resilient factors were determined by focused questions and formal instruments. At 1-month postpartum, the SS was repeated. Scores on the SS were significantly higher at 1 month than immediately postpartum (35.30+/-0.68 versus 33.38+/-0.60, mean+/-standard error, P=.004), but only 58.6% of mothers with high pre-discharge anxiety had high anxiety at 1 month. One-month anxiety correlated with pre-discharge SS and TS scores, a history of psychiatric problems including depressed mood, medical and negative social life events, lack of pregnancy planning and prenatal class attendance, perceived peripartum stress, and duration of postpartum hospital stay. Inverse correlations were observed with education, household income, and resiliency factors. In multivariate modeling, anxiety trait, education, history >or=2 years of depression, and perception of peripartum stress accounted for 50% of the variance in the 1-month SS score. Maternal anxiety increases during the first postpartum month. Women with high trait anxiety, low education, a history of depressed mood, and a perception of high peripartum stress are at risk for experiencing anxiety at this time. PMID:17397041

  8. Antecedents of ICT Attitudes of Distance Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Rugayah; Ahmad, Hashim; Abdullah, Che Zainab

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the antecedents of ICT attitudes of distance education (e-PJJ) students at the Institute of Education Development (InED), UiTM. The antecedents studied were computer anxiety, confidence, liking, and usefulness. The findings are important to strengthen InED's policy for using ICT and other technologies to…

  9. Antecedents of Adolescent Initiation of Sex, Contraceptive Use, and Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the literature to identify the most important antecedents associated with adolescent initiation of sex, contraception use, and pregnancy. Results indicate that over 100 antecedents create a complex, detailed picture of the correlates of adolescent sexual behaviors. They describe characteristics of adolescents themselves, their partners,…

  10. Life Course Antecedents of Premarital Conception in Great Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Stephen T.

    1994-01-01

    Examined possible antecedents of premarital and marital conceptions early in lives of young women (n=5,167) and men (n=5,585). Found that significant antecedents of premarital conception for both sexes were low socioeconomic status; low adolescent social adjustment; and family environment characterized by parent-child arguing, parental divorce or…

  11. Exploring the Relevant Antecedents of Superintendent Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Understanding antecedents to superintendent leadership development is crucial for the continued improvement of schools. This qualitative study seeks to identify skills superintendents consider critical to their position, antecedents that developed those skills, and provide an increased understanding of the methods needed for developing current and…

  12. Antecedents of Low Vocational Identity in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterowd, Carrie L.; Krieshok, Thomas S.

    This study examined antecedents related to low vocational identity in college freshmen. College students (N=360) completed the 35-item Low Vocational Identity Antecedents Scale (LVIAS) developed for this study, the Vocational Identity Scale (VIS), and other measures. Based on results from this sample, a 15-item LVIAS was developed that…

  13. Final Scientific/Technical Report for "A Novel,Highly Efficient and Economic Purification Process Revolutionizing PTA Production"

    SciTech Connect

    Wytcherley, Randi; Balderston, Kristen; Ball,George; Chou, Tai-Li

    2008-06-06

    GTC Technology, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the DOE’s Industrial Technologies Program and in collaboration with Montana State University, has completed pilot scale testing of a revolutionary new process to produce purified terephthalic acid (PTA), a crucial chemical commodity manufactured worldwide. Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) is a starting material for the formation of polyester resin. Polyester resin is used to make many valuable commercial products, including clothing, plastic containers and films. In traditional PTA production, critical reactions are carried out at high temperatures and pressures, creating physically harsh and economically costly operating conditions. The chemical halide bromine is an essential ingredient for part of the conventional process. As a result of using bromine, the highly toxic and environmentally insidious compound methyl bromide is formed. The corrosive nature of bromine also mandates the use of specialized and expensive corrosion-resistant materials for plant construction. Plants processing PTA conventionally must also use copious amounts of precious water resources and manage costly water treatment operations. GTC’s new TA purification method employs a unique two-step crystallization process capable of operating at lower temperatures and pressures than traditional methods. Utilization of a highly selective, proprietary organic solvent blend also allows for the flexibility of accepting higher levels of impurities in the initial purification feedstock. The relaxed physical operating conditions combined with the effectiveness of the blended organic solvent allow for the efficient purification of feedstock created in a bromine free manner. Along with the elimination of bromine, the new purification technology drastically reduces energy costs and expensive wastewater treatment. Industry wide implementation in the United States alone could yield energy savings of 22 trillion BTU per year. In 2007, using the

  14. Wh-filler-gap dependency formation guides reflexive antecedent search

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Michael; Ackerman, Lauren; Baumann, Peter; Potter, David; Yoshida, Masaya

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies on online sentence processing have shown that the parser can resolve non-local dependencies rapidly and accurately. This study investigates the interaction between the processing of two such non-local dependencies: wh-filler-gap dependencies (WhFGD) and reflexive-antecedent dependencies. We show that reflexive-antecedent dependency resolution is sensitive to the presence of a WhFGD, and argue that the filler-gap dependency established by WhFGD resolution is selected online as the antecedent of a reflexive dependency. We investigate the processing of constructions like (1), where two NPs might be possible antecedents for the reflexive, namely which cowgirl and Mary. Even though Mary is linearly closer to the reflexive, the only grammatically licit antecedent for the reflexive is the more distant wh-NP, which cowgirl. (1). Which cowgirl did Mary expect to have injured herself due to negligence? Four eye-tracking text-reading experiments were conducted on examples like (1), differing in whether the embedded clause was non-finite (1 and 3) or finite (2 and 4), and in whether the tail of the wh-dependency intervened between the reflexive and its closest overt antecedent (1 and 2) or the wh-dependency was associated with a position earlier in the sentence (3 and 4). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 indicate the parser accesses the result of WhFGD formation during reflexive antecedent search. The resolution of a wh-dependency alters the representation that reflexive antecedent search operates over, allowing the grammatical but linearly distant antecedent to be accessed rapidly. In the absence of a long-distance WhFGD (Experiments 3 and 4), wh-NPs were not found to impact reading times of the reflexive, indicating that the parser's ability to select distant wh-NPs as reflexive antecedents crucially involves syntactic structure. PMID:26500579

  15. Daily hassles, their antecedents and outcomes among professional first responders: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Gerry; Berglund, Anna Karin; Ohlsson, Alicia

    2016-08-01

    Occupational groups such as firefighters, military officers, paramedics and police officers are exposed to a combination of acute, severe and accumulated everyday stress. Drawing on the daily hassles perspective on stress, the aim was to synthesize existing research on daily hassles in professional first responder settings into a theoretical model. A systematic mixed studies review with an integrated design was undertaken. The selection process resulted in 40 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. The selected papers represented two literature reviews, one qualitative study, eight longitudinal studies and 29 cross-sectional studies. Five superior categories emerged in the analysis: Individual antecedent and continuously framing factors, Environmental antecedent and continuously framing factors, Appraisal and coping processes, Daily hassles and Outcome. Suggestions for future research are presented. PMID:27291300

  16. High speed wind tunnel tests of the PTA aircraft. [Propfan Test Assessment Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aljabri, A. S.; Little, B. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Propfans, advanced highly-loaded propellers, are proposed to power transport aircraft that cruise at high subsonic speeds, giving significant fuel savings over the equivalent turbofan-powered aircraft. NASA is currently sponsoring the Propfan Test Assessment Program (PTA) to provide basic data on the structural integrity and acoustic performance of the propfan. The program involves installation design, wind-tunnel tests, and flight tests of the Hamilton Standard SR-7 propfan in a wing-mount tractor installation on the Gulfstream II aircraft. This paper reports on the high-speed wind-tunnel tests and presents the computational aerodynamic methods that were employed in the analyses, design, and evaluation of the configuration. In spite of the complexity of the configuration, these methods provide aerodynamic predictions which are in excellent agreement with wind-tunnel data.

  17. Responses of soil water percolation to dynamic interactions among rainfall, antecedent moisture and season in a forest site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xiaoming; Liao, Kaihua; Feng, Huihui; Zhu, Qing

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of soil water percolation below the rooting zone and its responses to the dynamic interactions of different factors are important for the control of non-point source pollution. Based on 3600 scenarios in Hydrus-1D simulation, this study revealed the integrated effects of rainfall characteristics (rainfall amount, maximum rainfall intensity or MRI, time distribution characteristics of rainfall or TDC), antecedent moisture and the season on deep percolation (DP) at a forest site in Taihu Lake Basin, China. Results showed that Hydrus-1D model can well simulate the soil water dynamics at this site. Antecedent moisture had the greatest relative contribution to DP (85.7%), followed by rainfall amount (10.9%) and MRI (3.4%). As the antecedent moisture increased, the relative contribution of the season on DP increased from 0.0% to 16.4%. In comparison, that of MRI decreased from 58.7% to 38.5% and that of rainfall amount followed a bell shape pattern (greatest when the antecedent moisture was 0.26 m3 m-3). The relative contribution of antecedent moisture to DP in summer was the greatest (87.8%), while that of the rainfall was the least. The TDC influenced DP by affecting the responses of DP to other factors. When the rainfall amount was ⩾80 mm and the antecedent moisture content was ⩾0.34 m3 m-3, effect of TDC on DP could be observed. The DP of TDC_B (rainfall intensity linearly increased with time) was the lowest, while that of TDC_E (rainfall intensity kept constant with time) was the greatest. Findings of this study have practical significance for investigating the water and pollutant transport in vadose zone.

  18. Consideration of "g" as a Common Antecedent for Cognitive Ability Test Performance, Test Motivation, and Perceived Fairness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Lam, Holly

    2007-01-01

    Several different analyses were used to test the hypothesis that test-taking motivation, perceived test fairness, and actual test performance are correlated only because they share a common antecedent. First, hierarchical regressions reveal that initial test performance has a unique influence on non-ability factors even after controlling for…

  19. Rhythms of life: antecedents and outcomes of work-family balance in employed parents.

    PubMed

    Aryee, Samuel; Srinivas, E S; Tan, Hwee Hoon

    2005-01-01

    This study examined antecedents and outcomes of a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance in terms of the direction of influence (work-family vs. family-work) and type of effect (conflict vs. facilitation). Respondents were full-time employed parents in India. Confirmatory factor analysis results provided evidence for the discriminant validity of M. R. Frone's (2003) fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance. Results of moderated regression analysis revealed that different processes underlie the conflict and facilitation components. Furthermore, gender had only a limited moderating influence on the relationships between the antecedents and the components of work-family balance. Last, work-family facilitation was related to the work outcomes of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. PMID:15641894

  20. Antecedents of periventricular haemorrhage in infants weighing 1250 g or less at birth.

    PubMed Central

    Szymonowicz, W; Yu, V Y; Wilson, F E

    1984-01-01

    Fifty infants who weighed 1250 g or less at birth were studied with serial real time cerebral ultrasound to evaluate the temporal relation of various perinatal factors to the onset and progression of periventricular haemorrhage (PVH). The significant antecedents of PVH were severe bruising at birth, low birthweight, short gestation, ratio of arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) to fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2), and haematocrit on admission, hyaline membrane disease, assisted ventilation, pneumothorax, administration of tubocurarine, hypercapnia, hypoxaemia, and hypotension. Case control studies, in which infants with PVH at 26 weeks' and 28 weeks' gestation were compared with matched infants without PVH, confirmed that the antecedents identified were independent of gestational influences. A multivariate discriminant analysis for the antecedents of PVH showed that hyaline membrane disease, hypercapnia, and short gestation correctly classified presence or absence of PVH in 78% of the study group. A similar analysis comparing infants with germinal layer haemorrhage or intraventricular haemorrhage with those who developed intracerebral extension of haemorrhage showed that three factors found on admission (hypothermia, a low PaO2:FiO2 ratio, and severe bruising) combined to classify correctly 90% of the haemorrhages. Our data suggest that prevention of perinatal trauma and asphyxia as well as respiratory illness, especially hyaline membrane disease, and stabilisation of blood gas tensions, blood pressure, and haematocrit within the physiological range, are likely to be the most effective ways of preventing PVH in extremely preterm infants. PMID:6696488

  1. When Children Learn Programming: Antecedents, Concepts and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneiderman, Ben

    1985-01-01

    Discusses components of an educational plan which supports acquisition of computer programing skills by elementary school children, including antecedent knowledge required (sequencing, similarity, character recognition, part/whole relationships, conditional forms, repetition, and incrementation); initial programing concepts; and outcomes valuable…

  2. Active search for antecedents in cataphoric pronoun resolution

    PubMed Central

    Pablos, Leticia; Doetjes, Jenny; Ruijgrok, Bobby; Cheng, Lisa L.-S.

    2015-01-01

    Cataphoric dependencies where a pronoun precedes its antecedent appear to call on different mechanisms in language comprehension from forward dependencies where the antecedent precedes the pronoun. Previous research has shown that the resolution of cataphoric dependencies involves predictive processes such as the active search mechanism, which hypothesizes the automatic search for an antecedent immediately after encountering a cataphoric pronoun. The current study employs gender mismatch to investigate whether the active search for an antecedent of a cataphoric pronoun is restricted only to grammatically licit positions. We present results from an event-related potential experiment on the reading comprehension of cataphoric dependencies in Dutch. Results show that gender mismatch gives rise to an anterior negativity at grammatically licit antecedent positions only. We hypothesize that this negativity reflects the prediction failure for an antecedent after encountering a pronoun, rather than a gender mismatch. We discuss the timing, topography and functionality of this negativity with respect to previous studies and how this relates to the ERPs elicited in the processing of structural constraints on pronoun resolution. PMID:26579023

  3. The role of antecedent moisture conditions on flood response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yu; Westra, Seth; Lambert, Michael; Lambert, Martin

    2016-04-01

    A catchment's antecedent moisture conditions (AMC) represent the relative wetness of a catchment prior to a flood event. The catchment's moisture content prior to an extreme precipitation event can have a significant influence on overall flood response. This study derives an 'antecedent effect ratio' (AER) metric to describe the importance of a catchment's antecedent moisture content on overall runoff volume. The metric was applied to 211 catchments in Australia using hourly precipitation and streamflow data to identify the difference in flood response between dry and wet AMC. Regional calibration of the antecedent period length was used to estimate the effect ratio for all catchments. The AER was found to vary substantially, with the difference in flood response during wet and dry antecedent conditions up to three times that under median conditions for some sites. Higher AER values were found at latitudes closer to the equator and for catchments with highly seasonal precipitation regimes. Other climatic characteristics (e.g. mean annual precipitation, aridity index) and physical catchment characteristics (e.g. vegetation ratio, soil depth) had lesser influence. To improve the assessment of flood models it is important to have metrics, such as the AER, that can evaluate the contribution of antecedent moisture towards a flood response.

  4. An assessment of antecedent events influencing noncompliance in an outpatient clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Call, Nathan A; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Cooper-Brown, Linda J; Boeiter, Eric W

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown that various factors can influence noncompliance, including task novelty, rate of presentation, and task preference. This study examined the impact of selected antecedent variables on noncompliance in an outpatient clinic setting. In two experiments involving 6 typically developing children, the consequences for noncompliance remained constant. During Experiment 1, demands that included noncontingent access to adult attention were contrasted with the same demands that did not include attention within a multielement design. In Experiment 2, demands were altered by decreasing the difficulty or amount of work or providing access to attention. In both experiments, results indicated idiosyncratic responses to the manipulated variables, with decreases in noncompliance observed following introduction of one or more antecedent variables with 5 of the 6 participants. These results suggested that noncompliance can be reduced via changes in antecedent variables, including adding potential positive reinforcers to the task situation, and that it is possible to probe variables that alter noncompliance in an outpatient clinic setting. PMID:15293634

  5. Antecedents and consequences of psychological and team empowerment in organizations: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Scott E; Wang, Gang; Courtright, Stephen H

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides meta-analytic support for an integrated model specifying the antecedents and consequences of psychological and team empowerment. Results indicate that contextual antecedent constructs representing perceived high-performance managerial practices, socio-political support, leadership, and work characteristics are each strongly related to psychological empowerment. Positive self-evaluation traits are related to psychological empowerment and are as strongly related as the contextual factors. Psychological empowerment is in turn positively associated with a broad range of employee outcomes, including job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and task and contextual performance, and is negatively associated with employee strain and turnover intentions. Team empowerment is positively related to team performance. Further, the magnitude of parallel antecedent and outcome relationships at the individual and team levels is statistically indistinguishable, demonstrating the generalizability of empowerment theory across these 2 levels of analysis. A series of analyses also demonstrates the validity of psychological empowerment as a unitary second-order construct. Implications and future directions for empowerment research and theory are discussed. PMID:21443317

  6. Missing Drivers with Dementia: Antecedents and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Meredeth A.; Greenblum, Catherine A.; Boltz, Marie; Galvin, James E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the circumstance in which persons with dementia become lost while driving, how missing drivers are found, and how Silver Alert notificationsare instrumental in those discoveries. DESIGN A retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING Retrospective record review. PARTICIPANTS Conducted using 156 records from the Florida Silver Alert program for the time period October, 2008 through May 2010. These alerts were issued in Florida for a missing driver with dementia. MEASUREMENTS Information derived from the reports on characteristics of the missing driver, antecedents to missing event and discovery of a missing driver. RESULTS and CONCLUSION The majority of missing drivers were males, with ages ranging from 58’94, who were being cared for by a spouse. Most drivers became lost on routine, caregiver-sanctioned trips to usual locations. Only 15% were in the act of driving when found with most being found in or near a parked car and the large majority were found by law enforcement officers. Only 40% were found in the county they went missing and 10% were found in a different state. Silver Alert notifications were most effective for law enforcement; citizen alerts resulted in a few discoveries. There was a 5% mortality rate in the study population with those living alone more likely to be found dead than alive. An additional 15% were found in dangerous situations such as stopped on railroad tracks. Thirty-two percent had documented driving or dangerous errors such as, driving thewrong way or into secluded areas, or walking in or near roadways. PMID:23134069

  7. Psychosocial antecedents of unwed motherhood among indigent adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, H B; Smith, P B; Pokorny, A D

    1979-06-01

    This study was undertaken to test theoretically based hypotheses regarding psychosocial antecedents of unwed motherhood among indigent adolescents. These hypotheses were derived from the theory that deviant social responses result from previously acquired negative self-attitudes. Data was obtained by survey of a 50% sample of female 7th graders from an urban school system. The experimental group was made up of 82 subjects who received perinatal care at a clinic for indigent adolescents and who gave birth out of wedlock at least 1 year after the survey and before reaching age 18. One control group consisted of 164 students matched 2:1 with each unwed mother according to race, mother's education and school. A 2nd control group included 164 randomly selected students. Analysis of the data obtained permitted identification of specific self-rejecting attitudes developed among the prospective unwed mothers in the course of normative group experiences. These attitudes, together with the social positions of these subjects and the erosion of controls exerted by family and school authorities emerged as significant factors contributing to the adoption of deviant behavior patterns. These deviant patterns, including those associated with unwed motherhood, appear to be congruent with subculturally influenced values and with adaptive/defensive patterns. On the whole, results indicate that the general theory of deviant behavior that has been applied to other behaviors can be used to explain the precursors of unwed motherhood among indigent adolescents. PMID:12335791

  8. The Historical Antecedents of the UPR School of Tropical Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mayo-Santana, Raúl; Peña-Carro, Lucy; Rabionet, Silvia E

    2016-06-01

    This article deals with the historical antecedents of the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) School of Tropical Medicine (STM) under the auspices of Columbia University. It presents a general view of the social, institutional and conceptual factors that were correlated with the establishment of the STM. The authors start by examining the historical continuities and discontinuities present during the imperial transitions between Spanish colonial and U.S. military medicine at the turn of the 20th century. The clarification of these changes is important for the proper understanding of the emergence of tropical medicine in Puerto Rico, marked by the identification of the biological determinant of the so called "peasants' anemia." The essay focuses on two institutional precursor events: the Puerto Rico Anemia Commissions (1904-1908) and the Institute of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (1912-1914). Their nature and work paved the way for the establishment of the STM. The notions of tropical medicine and diseases are considered as historical concepts. The support of the Rockefeller Foundation to several significant public health activities in Puerto Rico is also examined. Finally, the social and health conditions which prevailed at the time of the creation of the STM have been summarized. In general, the article provides a sense of historical context deemed essential to understand the emergence and evolution of the STM. PMID:27232865

  9. The family antecedents and the subsequent outcomes of early puberty.

    PubMed

    Arim, Rübab G; Tramonte, Lucia; Shapka, Jennifer D; Dahinten, V Susan; Willms, J Douglas

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine both the family antecedents and the outcomes of early puberty, with a particular focus on factors related to family socioeconomic status (SES). The study employed a comprehensive measurement of pubertal development and longitudinal data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. The sample (N = 8,440; 49% girls) included four cohorts of children who were followed biennially for 10 years, starting from age 4-11 to 14-21 years. Data were drawn at different years of age from these cohorts of children. Girls whose fathers were unemployed were more likely to experience early puberty than those whose fathers were employed. For boys, those living with fathers who had not finished secondary school were more likely to experience early puberty. Early maturing girls tended to engage in smoking and drinking at an earlier age compared with their peers. These findings provide support for psychosocial acceleration theory and suggest that different aspects of low family SES may act as a psychosocial stress for early pubertal maturation in boys versus girls, which may lead to engagement in drinking and smoking at a younger age, at least for girls. PMID:21298330

  10. Lactate preserves neuronal metabolism and function following antecedent recurrent hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Raimund I.; Jiang, Lihong; Herman, Peter; Zhao, Chen; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Mason, Graeme F.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Rothman, Douglas L.; Sherwin, Robert S.; Behar, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoglycemia occurs frequently during intensive insulin therapy in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and remains the single most important obstacle in achieving tight glycemic control. Using a rodent model of hypoglycemia, we demonstrated that exposure to antecedent recurrent hypoglycemia leads to adaptations of brain metabolism so that modest increments in circulating lactate allow the brain to function normally under acute hypoglycemic conditions. We characterized 3 major factors underlying this effect. First, we measured enhanced transport of lactate both into as well as out of the brain that resulted in only a small increase of its contribution to total brain oxidative capacity, suggesting that it was not the major fuel. Second, we observed a doubling of the glucose contribution to brain metabolism under hypoglycemic conditions that restored metabolic activity to levels otherwise only observed at euglycemia. Third, we determined that elevated lactate is critical for maintaining glucose metabolism under hypoglycemia, which preserves neuronal function. These unexpected findings suggest that while lactate uptake was enhanced, it is insufficient to support metabolism as an alternate substrate to replace glucose. Lactate is, however, able to modulate metabolic and neuronal activity, serving as a “metabolic regulator” instead. PMID:23543056

  11. The antecedents of teen fatherhood: a retrospective case-control study of Great Britain youth.

    PubMed Central

    Dearden, K A; Hale, C B; Woolley, T

    1995-01-01

    Historically, researchers have focused on identifying risk factors for teen motherhood, largely ignoring teen fathers. This study uses the 1958 National Child Development Study of Great Britain to examine antecedents of teen fatherhood. Teen fathers were compared with later fathers and nonfathers by using epidemiological methods. Results indicate that boys who became fathers while in their teens were at increased risk for experiencing problems at home and at school and were more likely to demonstrate aggressive, truant, and law-breaking behaviors. Many of these risk factors were also evident among those who became fathers while in their early 20s. PMID:7702121

  12. Wind tunnel performance results of an aeroelastically scaled 2/9 model of the PTA flight test prop-fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George L.; Rose, Gayle E.; Podboy, Gary G.

    1987-01-01

    High speed wind tunnel aerodynamic performance tests of the SR-7A advanced prop-fan have been completed in support of the Prop-Fan Test Assessment (PTA) flight test program. The test showed that the SR-7A model performed aerodynamically very well. At the cruise design condition, the SR-7A prop fan had a high measured net efficiency of 79.3 percent.

  13. Deletion of poxB, pta, and ackA improves 1,3-propanediol production by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Zhang, Yongqiang; Xu, Danfeng; Xiang, Gang; Jia, Zongxiao; Fu, Shuilin; Gong, Heng

    2016-03-01

    To date, few studies have focused on reducing the toxic by-product acetate during 1,3-propanediol production by Klebsiella pneumoniae. In this study, the effects of deleting the poxB, pta, and ackA genes, which are involved in the two main acetate synthesis pathways, on cell growth and 1,3-propanediol production were investigated. Although acetate synthesis via pyruvate oxidase (PoxB, encoded by poxB) generally seems unnecessary and wasteful, PoxB was shown to play an important role in K. pneumoniae. Deletion of poxB severely inhibited cell growth, and the poxB mutant exhibited an anomalously high accumulation of acetate in aerobic cultures and failed to produce an endogenous supply of carbon dioxide (CO2) in anaerobic cultures. It is interesting that both the aerobic and anaerobic growth defects of the poxB mutant were corrected by further deleting pta and ackA, which blocked the other main acetate synthesis pathway. The poxB-pta-ackA mutant excreted less acetate and showed an excellent ability to produce 1,3-propandiol. The final 1,3-propanediol yield and concentration in a 2-L fed-batch fermentation reached 0.66 (mol/mol) and 76.8 g/L, respectively, which were 16 and 15 % greater, respectively, than those of the parent strain. PMID:26695159

  14. Hydroprocessing of Jatropha Oil for Production of Green Diesel over Non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Lei, Jiandu; He, Jing; Deng, Lihong; Wang, Luying; Fan, Kai; Rong, Long

    2015-01-01

    The non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst was developed to produce green diesel from the hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil. The Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by one-pot synthesis of Ni/Al2O3 with the co-precipitation method and then impregnanting Ni/Al2O3 with PTA solution. The catalysts were characterized with BET, SEM-EDX, TEM, XRD, XPS, TGA and NH3-TPD. The Ni and W species of the Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst were much more homogeneously distributed on the surface than that of commercial Al2O3. Catalytic performance in the hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil was evaluated by GC. The maximum conversion of Jatropha oil (98.5 wt%) and selectivity of the C15-C18 alkanes fraction (84.5 wt %) occurred at 360 °C, 3.0 MPa, 0.8 h−1. The non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst is more environmentally friendly than the conventional sulfided hydroprocessing catalyst, and it exhibited the highest catalytic activity than the Ni-PTA catalyst supported with commercial Al2O3 grain and Al2O3 powder. PMID:26162092

  15. Hydroprocessing of Jatropha Oil for Production of Green Diesel over Non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Lei, Jiandu; He, Jing; Deng, Lihong; Wang, Luying; Fan, Kai; Rong, Long

    2015-07-01

    The non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst was developed to produce green diesel from the hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil. The Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by one-pot synthesis of Ni/Al2O3 with the co-precipitation method and then impregnanting Ni/Al2O3 with PTA solution. The catalysts were characterized with BET, SEM-EDX, TEM, XRD, XPS, TGA and NH3-TPD. The Ni and W species of the Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst were much more homogeneously distributed on the surface than that of commercial Al2O3. Catalytic performance in the hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil was evaluated by GC. The maximum conversion of Jatropha oil (98.5 wt%) and selectivity of the C15-C18 alkanes fraction (84.5 wt %) occurred at 360 °C, 3.0 MPa, 0.8 h-1. The non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst is more environmentally friendly than the conventional sulfided hydroprocessing catalyst, and it exhibited the highest catalytic activity than the Ni-PTA catalyst supported with commercial Al2O3 grain and Al2O3 powder.

  16. The predictive value of the in vitro platelet toxicity assay (iPTA) for the diagnosis of hypersensitivity reactions to sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Elzagallaai, Abdelbaset A; Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) are rare but potentially fatal adverse drug reactions (ADRs). A reliable test to diagnose DHRs would be a major advance in the clinical care for patients and in the evaluation of ADRs during drug development as well as for mechanistic studies of drug hypersensitivity. Available in vitro tests including the lymphocyte toxicity assay (LTA) have been used but are time-consuming, cumbersome, and expensive. We have developed a novel diagnostic test for DHRs, the in vitro platelet toxicity assay (iPTA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of the iPTA in diagnosis of DHRs to sulfonamides. We recruited 66 individuals (36 DHS-sulfa patients and 30 healthy controls) to participate in the study. Blood samples were obtained and LTA and iPTA were performed in parallel. There was concentration-dependent toxicity in the cells of patients when incubated with the reactive hydroxylamine metabolite of sulfamethoxazole for both the LTA and iPTA (P < .05). The iPTA was more sensitive than conventional LTA test in detecting susceptibility of patient cells to in vitro toxicity (P < .05). The novel iPTA has considerable potential as an investigative tool for DHS as it is more sensitive and cheaper, requiring no special reagents. PMID:23670648

  17. Antecedent versus consequent events as predictors of problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Camp, Erin M; Iwata, Brian A; Hammond, Jennifer L; Bloom, Sarah E

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of results from descriptive and functional analyses of problem behavior generally have shown poor correspondence. Most descriptive analyses have focused on relations between consequent events and behavior, and it has been noted that attention is a common consequence for problem behavior even though it may not be a functional reinforcer. Because attention may be prescribed simply as a means of stopping serious problem behavior, it is possible that naturally occurring antecedent events (establishing operations) might be better predictors of problem behavior than consequences. We conducted descriptive and functional analyses of the problem behaviors of 7 participants. Conditional probabilities based on combined antecedent and consequent events showed correspondence with the functional analysis data for 4 of the 7 participants, but antecedent events were no better than consequent events in identifying the function of problem behavior. PMID:19949538

  18. Statistics Anxiety: Nature, Etiology, Antecedents, Effects, and Treatments--A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Wilson, Vicki A.

    2003-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive summary of the literature on statistics anxiety, focusing on its nature, etiology, and prevalence. Identifies antecedents of statistics anxiety and the effects of these antecedents on statistics achievement. (SLD)

  19. Considering Antecedent Factors for Transplant Recipient Athletes Learning to Live

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Patient education about managing chronic illness is critical given the growing burden of health care costs on society. Transplant recipients are forced into obtaining and learning how to understand complex information. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to highlight learning barriers and effective techniques used to manage care through…

  20. Childhood Antecedents and Maintaining Factors in Maladaptive Daydreaming.

    PubMed

    Somer, Eli; Somer, Liora; Jopp, Daniela S

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the fantasy activity of 16 individuals who were seeking online peer-support and advice for maladaptive daydreaming (MD). MD is an under-researched mental activity described as persistent vivid fantasy activity that replaces human interaction and/or interferes with important areas of functioning. We employed a grounded theory methodology that yielded seven common themes presented as a sequential descriptive narrative about the nature, precursors, and consequences of MD. The presented "storyline" included the following themes: (1) daydreaming as an innate talent for vivid fantasy; (2) daydreaming and social isolation-a two-way street; (3) the role of trauma in the development of MD; (4) the rewards of daydreaming; (5) the insatiable yearning for daydreaming; (6) shame and concealment; (7) unsuccessful treatment attempts. A main conclusion of our study is that there is an urgent need for early identification of MD and its correct diagnoses in adulthood. PMID:27002749

  1. Gender Specific Differences in the Perceived Antecedents of Academic Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Russell W.

    This document consists of the report of a study undertaken to establish the existence of any gender specific differences in the perceived antecedents of academic stress. The definition of stress as a negative emotion strongly associated with doubt about coping is suggested to be particularly relevant to the academic arena where students…

  2. Student Trust and Its Antecedents in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Amit K.; Whipple, Thomas W.; Bryan, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    Based on the belief that long-term marketing costs for colleges can be reduced by focusing on building trust, studied the antecedents to trust in students and alumni. Data collected from 250 students and alumni indicated that strategic plans that improve perceived sincerity, expertise, and congeniality of a college can be successfully used to…

  3. Further Analysis of Antecedent Interventions on Preschoolers' Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, David A.; Zonneveld, Kimberly; Harris, Carelle; Marcus, Alonna; Reagan, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Functional analyses were conducted to identify reinforcers for noncompliance exhibited by 3 young children. Next, the effects of three antecedent-based interventions--noncontingent access to a preferred item, a warning, and a high-probability instructional sequence--were examined. The high-probability instructional sequence was effective for 1…

  4. Further Evaluation of Antecedent Social Events during Functional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, David E.; Hardesty, Samantha L.; Luczynski, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The value of a reinforcer may change based on antecedent events, specifically the behavior of others (Bruzek & Thompson, 2007). In the current study, we examined the effects of manipulating the behavior of the therapist on problem behavior while all dimensions of reinforcement were held constant. Both participants' levels of problem behaviors…

  5. Attendance At Activities With a Geriatric Population: Antecedents and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Dennis B.

    The effectiveness of various procedures in maintaining attendance at activities of residents at a geriatric facility was examined. A special, intermittently programmed or delayed consequence for attendance was added to regularly scheduled activities. Attendance at activities with and without the consequence was compared. Later, antecedent events…

  6. Antecedents of Medical Workplace Violence in South China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Wenzhi; Deng, Ling; Liu, Meng; Yu, Min

    2011-01-01

    It has been noted that workplace violence most frequently occurs in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to explore antecedents of workplace violence in south China. The authors conducted face-to-face, in-depth, semistructured interviews with 30 hospital staff who had experienced at least one incident of workplace violence from patients during…

  7. Childhood Antecedents to Adult Coronary Artery Diseases. Special Reference Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the childhood antecedents to atherosclerosis and hypertension. While diet is related to the development of coronary artery diseases, there is some disagreement about what dietary changes are necessary or desirable in children to prevent their development, and at what age such changes should be made. Fifty-five…

  8. Contextual Antecedents of Informal Feedback in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Rijt, Janine; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    This study brings together findings from different research angles on informal feedback in the workplace. We explore the individual and joint influences of three contextual antecedents of seeking feedback: support for learning, psychological safety, and work pressure. Based on our survey of 138 employees from various organizations, hierarchical…

  9. Antecedents and Consequences of Work Engagement Among Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Sayfouri, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Engaged nurses have high levels of energy and are enthusiastic about their work which impacts quality of health care services. However, in the context of Iran, due to observed burnout, work engagement among nurses necessitates immediate exploration. Objectives: This investigation aimed to identify a suitable work engagement model in nursing profession in hospitals according to the hypothesized model and to determine antecedents and consequences related to work engagement among nurses. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was given to 279 randomly-selected nurses working in two general teaching hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran) to measure antecedents and consequences of work engagement using the Saks’s (2005) model. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the model fitness. Results: Two paths were added using LISREL software. The resulting model showed good fitness indices (χ2 = 23.62, AGFI = 0.93, CFI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.07) and all the coefficients of the paths were significant (t ≥ 2, t ≤ -2). A significant correlation was found between work engagement and model variables. Conclusions: Paying adequate attention to the antecedents of work engagement can enhance the quality of performance among nurses. Additionally, rewards, organizational and supervisory supports, and job characteristics should be taken into consideration to establish work engagement among nurses. Further researches are required to identify other probable antecedents and consequences of nursing work engagement, which might be related to specific cultural settings. PMID:25763212

  10. Young Children's Social Information Processing: Family Antecedents and Behavioral Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runions, Kevin C.; Keating, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    Little research has examined whether social information processing (SIP) measures from early childhood predict externalizing problems beyond the shared association with familial risk markers. In the present study, family antecedents and first-grade externalizing behaviors were studied in relation to preschool and 1st-grade SIP using data from…

  11. Environmental Stress and Biobehavioral Antecedents of Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, David S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of research on the biobehavioral antecedents of coronary heart disease, including stressful occupational settings characterized by high demands and little control over the job, and the Type A pattern, particularly hostility and mode of anger expression (anger-in). Discusses research on physiologic responsiveness (reactivity)…

  12. Developmental Trajectories and Antecedents of Distal Parental Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Groups of adolescents were identified on the basis of developmental trajectories of their families' rules and their parents' knowledge of their activities. Characteristics of the adolescent, peer antisociality, and family context were tested as antecedents. In sum, 404 parent-adolescent dyads provided data for adolescents aged 10-16. Most…

  13. Antecedents and Consequences of Residential Choice and School Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni; Glover, Robert W.; Holcombe, W. Lee; Stokes, S. Lynne

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the antecedents and consequences of residential choice and school transfers within one of the eight largest urban school districts in Texas. This study is based on survey data from a representative sample of parents of K-12 students enrolled in this district. In addition to demographic characteristics of the family, the…

  14. Trajectories of Physical Discipline: Early Childhood Antecedents and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from ages 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from ages 5 to 15. Analyses indicated…

  15. Workplace Incivility: Worker and Organizational Antecedents and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, James E., II; Bartlett, Michelle E.; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Unresolved workplace conflicts represent the largest reducible costs to an organization (Keenan & Newton, 1985). As incivility increases (Buhler, 2003; Pearson, Andersson, & Wegner, 2001; Pearson & Porath, 2005) more research is being conducted (Tepper, Duffy, Henle, & Lambert, 2006; Vickers, 2006). This review examined antecedents (variables that…

  16. Modeling Antecedents of Student Loyalty in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perin, Marcelo Gattermann; Sampaio, Claudio Hoffmann; Simoes, Claudia; de Polvora, Rosiane Polvora

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to understand the antecedents of student loyalty in the Brazilian context. In particular we address the impact of student trust, commitment and quality perception on loyalty. A quantitative study was conducted among business management student majors from two private Brazilian Higher Education Institutions…

  17. Positive Antecedent and Consequent Components in Child Compliance Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dannell Speights; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe; Bellipanni, Kimberly D.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of positive antecedent (effective instruction delivery and time-in) and consequent components (contingent praise) on the compliance of 4 children in a clinic setting. Results suggest that the use of effective instruction delivery alone increased compliance above baseline levels for the 4 children and that the…

  18. Pseudomonas fluorescens PTA-CT2 Triggers Local and Systemic Immune Response Against Botrytis cinerea in Grapevine.

    PubMed

    Gruau, Charlotte; Trotel-Aziz, Patricia; Villaume, Sandra; Rabenoelina, Fanja; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Aziz, Aziz

    2015-10-01

    Although induced systemic resistance (ISR) is well-documented in the context of plant-beneficial bacteria interactions, knowledge about the local and systemic molecular and biochemical defense responses before or upon pathogen infection in grapevine is very scarce. In this study, we first investigated the capacity of grapevine plants to express immune responses at both above- and below-ground levels upon interaction with a beneficial bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens PTA-CT2. We then explored whether the extent of priming state could contribute to the PTA-CT2-induced ISR in Botrytis cinerea-infected leaves. Our data provide evidence that this bacterium colonized grapevine roots but not the above-ground plant parts and altered the plant phenotype that displayed multiple defense responses both locally and systemically. The grapevine roots and leaves exhibited distinct patterns of defense-related gene expression during root colonization by PTA-CT2. Roots responded faster than leaves and some responses were more strongly upregulated in roots than in leaves and vice versa for other genes. These responses appear to be associated with some induction of cell death in roots and a transient expression of HSR, a hypersensitive response-related gene in both local (roots) and systemic (leaves) tissues. However, stilbenic phytoalexin patterns followed opposite trends in roots compared with leaves but no phytoalexin was exuded during plant-bacterium interaction, suggesting that roots could play an important role in the transfer of metabolites contributing to immune response at the systemic level. Unexpectedly, in B. cinerea-infected leaves PTA-CT2-mediated ISR was accompanied in large part by a downregulation of different defense-related genes, including HSR. Only phytoalexins and glutathion-S-transferase 1 transcripts were upregulated, while the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes was maintained at a higher level than the control. This suggests that decreased

  19. Mass spectrometry and UV-VIS spectrophotometry of ruthenium(II) [RuClCp(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 complex in solution.

    PubMed

    Peña-Méndez, Eladia María; González, Beatriz; Lorenzo, Pablo; Romerosa, Antonio; Havel, Josef

    2009-12-01

    Ruthenium(II) complexes are of great interest as a new class of cancerostatics with advantages over classical platinum compounds including lower toxicity. The stability of the [RuClCp(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 complex (I) (Cp cyclopentadienyl, mPTA N-methyl 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) in aqueous solution was studied using spectrophotometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption/ionization (LDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Spectrophotometry proves that at least three different reactions take place in water. Dissolution of I leads to fast coordination of water molecules to the Ru(II) cation and then slow hydrolysis and ligand exchange of chloride and mPTA with water, hydroxide or with trifluoromethane sulfonate itself. Via MALDI and LDI of the hydrolyzed solutions the formation of singly positively charged ions of general formula RuCl(p)(Cp)(q)(mPTA)(r)(H2O)(s)(OH)(t) (p = 0-1, q = 0-1, r = 0-2, s = 0-5, t = 0-2) and of some fragment ions was shown. The stoichiometry was determined by analyzing the isotopic envelopes and computer modelling. The [RuClCp(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 complex can be stabilized in dilute hydrochloric acid or in neutral 0.15 M isotonic sodium chloride solution. PMID:19902414

  20. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of [RuCp(PPh3)2(HdmoPTA)](OSO2CF3)2 (HdmoPTA = 3,7-H-3,7-Dimethyl-1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane).

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Zenaida; Lorenzo-Luis, Pablo; Serrano-Ruiz, Manuel; Martín-Batista, Elva; Padrón, José M; Scalambra, Franco; Romerosa, Antonio

    2016-08-15

    The complex [RuCp(PPh3)2(HdmoPTA)](OSO2CF3)2 (2; HdmoPTA = 3,7-H-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane) was synthesized and characterized. Its crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The complex showed a more potent antiproliferative activity than cisplatin against a representative panel of human cancer cells. PMID:27462992

  1. Antecedents of deviant responses: Predicting from a general theory of deviant behavior.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, H B

    1977-03-01

    A statement of a general theory of deviant behavior asserts that four factors or processes intervene between the development of self-rejecting attitudes and adoption of deviant patterns. An earlier report demonstrated a relationship between antecedent negative self-attitudes and subsequent increases in seven variables that reflected these four factors. The present paper tests hypotheses that these seven variables are in turn related to the subsequent adoption of each of 22 deviant responses. Subjects were seventh-grade students (N=4694) who responded to questionnaires at T1 and T2 (a year later). The seven independent variables were measured by scale scores based on subject responses at T1. Adoption of deviant responses was defined in terms of subject's selfreports of performing each of 22 deviant acts between T1 and T2 after having denied performance of the deviant act during a specified period prior to T1. The results were interpreted as supporting the hypotheses, although relatively few exceptions were noted. These findings together with those of the earlier analysis were thus congruent with the theoretical position that the relationship between antecedent self-rejection and subsequent deviant responses is mediated by the subjective association of membership group experiences with feelings of self-rejection, the genesis of contranormative attitudes, the inability to satisfy the self-esteem motive through normative response patterns, and awareness of deviant alternatives to these normative patterns that in the past have failed to permit development of self-accepting attitudes. PMID:24408234

  2. Antecedent rivers and early rifting: a case study from the Plio-Pleistocene Corinth rift, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemelsdaël, Romain; Ford, Mary; Malartre, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    facies distribution throughout the early rift evolution. We show that the length scale of fluvial facies transitions is greater than and therefore not related to fault spacing. First order facies variations instead occur at the scale of the full antecedent fluvial system. Strike-parallel subsidence variations in individual fault blocks represent a second order controlling factor on stratigraphic architecture. As depocentres enlarged through time, sediments progressively filled palaeorelief, and formed a continuous alluvial plain above active faults. There was limited creation of footwall relief and thus no significant consequent drainage system developed. Here, instead of being diverted toward subsiding zones, the drainage system overfilled the whole rift from the onset of faulting. Moreover, the zones of maximum subsidence on individual faults are aligned across strike parallel to the persistent fluvial axis. This implies that long-term sediment loading influenced the growth of normal faults. We conclude that a major antecedent drainage system inherited from the Hellenide mountain belt supplied high volumes of coarse sediment from the onset of faulting in the western Corinth rift (around 4 Ma). These observations demonstrate that antecedent drainage systems can be important in the tectono-sedimentary evolution of rift basins.

  3. [Individual and environmental antecedents of mobbing].

    PubMed

    Mościcka, Agnieszka; Drabek, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present the most common risk factors of bullying at the workplace. In the relevant literature one can find two main classes of bullying risk factors: environmental and individual. The most important environmental predictors of bullying are negative social climate, ineffective social communication and poor work organization. Among individual risk factors of bullying the most frequently pointed are functional features, such as low level of assertiveness, lack of social skills, ineffective coping with difficult situations and the few relatively stable individual characteristics, like neuroticism, trait anxiety, hostility and aggression. Most authors underline the crucial role of environmental factors in the development of bullying, and the individual characteristics of persons involved in this pathological relation are usually seen as the modifiers of bullying process. PMID:20865859

  4. The antecedents of identification: a rhetorical analysis of British Muslim activists' constructions of community and identity.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Nick; Kahani-Hopkins, Vered

    2004-03-01

    This paper takes as its focus the perception of community. This is analysed through reference to the literature concerning the adoption of more inclusive, superordinate social categories. Whilst most research tends to focus on the consequences of these social categories for self and other perception, we focus on their antecedents. These are typically hypothesized to include such issues as the perception of the subordinate groups' common fate and factors affecting their perceptual differentiation (e.g. their similarity and entitativity). However, rather than conceiving of such issues as pre-given antecedent variables, we explore how these issues (and others) are actively constructed in and through discourse. More specifically, we explore how such issues are sites of contestation as activists with different political projects seek to construct quite different versions of the relevant superordinate community identity. Our data are qualitative and are drawn from contemporary debates amongst British Muslims concerning their relations with non-Muslim Britons and non-British Muslims across the globe. A key issue in these deliberations concerns the nature of British Muslims' identity and the superordinate identifications that best facilitate its expression and realization. We suggest that constructions of common fate, similarity, entitativity etc., far from being 'givens', are the means through which different definitions of Muslim identity are constructed and different forms of collective action mobilized. PMID:15035697

  5. Creative Self-Efficacy: An Exploration of Its Antecedents, Consequences, and Applied Implications.

    PubMed

    Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    Creativity and innovation are at the core of important outcomes such as economic and sales growth, production of articles and students' learning. Thus, it is not surprising to find research articles on creativity and innovation across different disciplines such as business, psychology, and education. Given the importance of understanding creativity and innovation, we reviewed the empirical literature examining the antecedents and consequences of creative self-efficacy in the work domain. Our review used the theory of individual creative action and social cognitive theory as guiding frameworks to place creative self-efficacy in the creativity and innovation process, define creativity and innovation, explore how creative self-efficacy has been measured, examine the antecedents and consequences of creative self-efficacy, point out gaps in knowledge and offer suggestions for future research and provide some applied implications. One important finding was that creative self-efficacy has made a significant contribution as a process variable explaining how several organizational and personal factors influence creative outcomes via their influence on creative self-efficacy. PMID:26431487

  6. A relational framework for understanding bullying: Developmental antecedents and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rodkin, Philip C; Espelage, Dorothy L; Hanish, Laura D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research on the relational processes involved in peer bullying, considering developmental antecedents and long-term consequences. The following themes are highlighted: (a) aggression can be both adaptive and maladaptive, and this distinction has implications for bullies' functioning within peer social ecologies; (b) developmental antecedents and long-term consequences of bullying have not been well-distinguished from the extant research on aggressive behavior; (c) bullying is aggression that operates within relationships of power and abuse. Power asymmetry and repetition elements of traditional bullying definitions have been hard to operationalize, but without these specifications and more dyadic measurement approaches there may be little rationale for a distinct literature on bullying--separate from aggression. Applications of a relational approach to bullying are provided using gender as an example. Implications for future research are drawn from the study of relationships and interpersonal theories of developmental psychopathology. PMID:25961312

  7. Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work.

    PubMed

    Parker, Sharon K; Williams, Helen M; Turner, Nick

    2006-05-01

    Using a sample of U.K. wire makers (N = 282), the authors tested a model in which personality and work environment antecedents affect proactive work behavior via cognitive-motivational mechanisms. Self-reported proactive work behaviors (proactive idea implementation and proactive problem solving) were validated against rater assessments for a subsample (n = 60) of wire makers. With the exception of supportive supervision, each antecedent was important, albeit through different processes. Proactive personality was significantly associated with proactive work behavior via role breadth self-efficacy and flexible role orientation, job autonomy was also linked to proactive behavior via these processes, as well as directly; and coworker trust was associated with proactive behavior via flexible role orientation. In further support of the model, the cognitive-motivational processes for proactive work behavior differed from those for the more passive outcome of generalized compliance. PMID:16737360

  8. The antecedents of buyers' perceived justice in online markets.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shun-Po; Chou, Huey-Wen; Chiu, Chao-Min

    2013-07-01

    The success of a business largely depends upon customers' intentions to continue to purchase, but this can be a challenge for vendors in online markets. This study proposes a model which identifies an initial set of justice antecedents and evaluates their relation to perceived justice, trust, and repurchase intention in online markets. The theoretical model is tested by using structural equation modeling on a data set of 424 buyers in Yahoo! Kimo online auction market. The results demonstrate that three dimensions of justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional) are positively and significantly related to trust, which in turn affects buyers' intention to repurchase. Moreover, among the three dimensions of justice judgments, distributive justice and interactional justice are relatively more important than procedural justice in predicting buyers' trust in sellers. In terms of the antecedents of justice, this study provides evidence that product quality and delivery performance are significantly related to distributive justice, while information quality and contact channel are important antecedents of procedural justice. This study also finds that responsiveness is important in enhancing buyers' judgments of interactional justice. PMID:23465031

  9. Antecedent Frequency Effects on Anaphoric Pronoun Resolution: Evidence from Spanish.

    PubMed

    Egusquiza, Nerea; Navarrete, Eduardo; Zawiszewski, Adam

    2016-02-01

    High-frequency words are usually understood and produced faster than low-frequency words. Although the effect of word frequency is a reliable phenomenon in many domains of language processing, it remains unclear whether and how frequency affects pronominal anaphoric resolution. We evaluated this issue by means of two self-paced reading experiments. Native speakers of Spanish read sentences containing the anaphoric noun or pronoun at the subject syntactic position (Experiment 1) or at the object syntactic position (Experiment 2) while the antecedent of the anaphor was either a high-frequency or a low-frequency word. Results showed that nominal anaphors were read faster when referring to high-frequency than to low-frequency antecedents, and faster when referring to subjects than to objects. Critically, pronoun reading times were unaffected by the frequency and by the syntactic position of the antecedent. These results are congruent with theories assuming that syntactic information of the words is not frequency sensitive. PMID:25300350

  10. Family, employment, and individual resource-based antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-07-01

    This study used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,019) to examine family, employment, and individual antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood. Work-family conflict and important confounding factors were controlled. From the family domain, higher income-to-needs ratio and social support were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the employment domain, greater job rewards, benefits of employment for children, and work commitment were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the individual domain, higher maternal education and extroversion were associated with higher work-family enrichment. No family, employment, and individual characteristics were associated with work-family conflict across time except for partner intimacy. In general, the results supported antecedents of work-family enrichment that supply needed resources. The present study contributed to the literature by identifying antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment across early child developmental stages, which goes beyond examinations of particular life stages and a work-family conflict perspective. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26641483

  11. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia without evidence of antecedent viral upper respiratory infection

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Cristina Moran; Janvier, Jack; Zhang, Kunyan; Fonseca, Kevin; Gregson, Dan; Church, Deirdre; Laupland, Kevin; Rabin, Harvey; Elsayed, Sameer; Conly, John

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: USA300 community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains causing necrotizing pneumonia have been reported in association with antecedent viral upper respiratory tract infections (URI). METHODS: A case series of necrotizing pneumonia presenting as a primary or coprimary infection, secondary to CA-MRSA without evidence of antecedent viral URI, is presented. Cases were identified through the infectious diseases consultation service records. Clinical and radiographic data were collected by chart review and electronic records. MRSA strains were isolated from sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, pleural fluid or blood cultures and confirmed using standard laboratory procedures. MRSA strains were characterized by susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa typing, agr typing and multilocus sequence typing. Testing for respiratory viruses was performed by appropriate serological testing of banked sera, or nucleic acid testing of nasopharyngeal or bronchoalveloar lavage specimens. RESULTS: Ten patients who presented or copresented with CA necrotizing pneumonia secondary to CA-MRSA from April 2004 to October 2011 were identified. The median length of stay was 22.5 days. Mortality was 20.0%. Classical risk factors for CA-MRSA were identified in seven of 10 (70.0%) cases. Chest tube placement occurred in seven of 10 patients with empyema. None of the patients had historical evidence of antecedent URI. In eight of 10 patients, serological or nucleic acid testing testing revealed no evidence of acute viral coinfection. Eight strains were CMRSA-10 (USA300). The remaining two strains were a USA300 genetically related strain and a USA1100 strain. CONCLUSION: Pneumonia secondary to CA-MRSA can occur in the absence of an antecedent URI. Infections due to CA-MRSA are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Clinicians need to have an awareness of this clinical entity, particularly in patients who are in risk

  12. A Non-sulfided flower-like Ni-PTA Catalyst that Enhances the Hydrotreatment Efficiency of Plant Oil to Produce Green Diesel

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Pan; Deng, Lihong; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2015-01-01

    The development of a novel non-sulfided catalyst with high activity for the hydrotreatment processing of plant oils, is of high interest as a way to improve the efficient production of renewable diesel. To attempt to develop such a catalyst, we first synthesized a high activity flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst used in the hydrotreatment processes of plant oils. The obtained catalyst was characterized with SEM, EDX, HRTEM, BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XPS and TGA. A probable formation mechanism of flower-like Ni(OH)2 is proposed on the basis of a range of contrasting experiments. The results of GC showed that the conversion yield of Jatropha oil was 98.95%, and the selectivity of C11-C18 alkanes was 70.93% at 360 °C, 3 MPa, and 15 h−1. The activity of this flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst was more than 15 times higher than those of the conventional Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalysts. Additionally, the flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst exhibited good stability during the process of plant oil hydrotreatment. PMID:26503896

  13. A Non-sulfided flower-like Ni-PTA Catalyst that Enhances the Hydrotreatment Efficiency of Plant Oil to Produce Green Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Pan; Deng, Lihong; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2015-10-01

    The development of a novel non-sulfided catalyst with high activity for the hydrotreatment processing of plant oils, is of high interest as a way to improve the efficient production of renewable diesel. To attempt to develop such a catalyst, we first synthesized a high activity flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst used in the hydrotreatment processes of plant oils. The obtained catalyst was characterized with SEM, EDX, HRTEM, BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XPS and TGA. A probable formation mechanism of flower-like Ni(OH)2 is proposed on the basis of a range of contrasting experiments. The results of GC showed that the conversion yield of Jatropha oil was 98.95%, and the selectivity of C11-C18 alkanes was 70.93% at 360 °C, 3 MPa, and 15 h-1. The activity of this flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst was more than 15 times higher than those of the conventional Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalysts. Additionally, the flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst exhibited good stability during the process of plant oil hydrotreatment.

  14. Academic Performance Antecedent Scale: validation with native and recent immigrant children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ru-Jer; Kuo, Kung-Bin; Cheng, Chien-Ming; Hsieh, Pei-Jung; Wang, Han-Yu; Chang, Ya-Wen; Shen, Chia-Yi

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to assess the measurement invariance of the three subscales of the newly developed Academic Performance Antecedent Scale (APAS)--School Factors, Mother's Parenting Style, and Individual Factors--across native and new immigrant children in Taiwan. The study sample comprised 527 Grade 4 students (M age = 10.4 yr., SD = 0.6), 263 boys and 264 girls. The three groups were urban and rural children of Taiwanese natives (n = 343, 65.1%), and 184 children with non-Taiwanese mothers (34.9%). The four-factor structure of the School Factors Subscale, the three-factor structure of the Mother's Parenting Style Subscale, and the five-factor structure of the Individual Factors Subscale all showed at least acceptable fit for the groups. In addition, metric invariance was confirmed for the School Factors and Individual Factors Subscales. Metric invariance was partially obtained for the Mother's Parenting Style Subscale. The findings provide validity evidences for cross-cultural generalizability of the APAS. PMID:24245069

  15. Molecular classification of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (pTa low-grade, pT1 low-grade, and pT1 high-grade subgroups) using methylation of tumor-suppressor genes.

    PubMed

    Sacristan, Raquel; Gonzalez, Carolina; Fernández-Gómez, Jesus M; Fresno, Florentino; Escaf, Safwan; Sánchez-Carbayo, Marta

    2014-09-01

    The role of epigenetics in distinguishing pathological and clinical subgroups in bladder cancer is not fully characterized. We evaluated whether methylation of tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) would classify non-muscle-invasive (NMI) bladder cancer subgroups and predict outcome. A retrospective design included the following paraffin-embedded primary NMI tumor types (n = 251): pTa low grade (LG) (n = 79), pT1LG (n = 81), and pT1 high grade (HG) (n = 91). Methylation of 25 TSGs was measured using methylation-specific, multiplex, ligation-dependent probe amplification. The TSGs most frequently methylated in the overall series were STK11 (96.8%), MGMT2 (64.5%), RARB (63.0%), and GATA5 (63.0%). TSG methylation correlated to clinicopathological variables in each subgroup and in the overall NMI series. Methylation of RARB, CD44, PAX5A, GSTP1, IGSF4 (CADM1), PYCARD, CDH13, TP53, and GATA5 classified pTa versus pT1 tumors whereas RARB, CD44, GSTP1, IGSF4, CHFR, PYCARD, TP53, STK11, and GATA5 distinguished LG versus HG tumors. Multivariate analyses indicated that PAX5A, WT1, and BRCA1 methylation independently predicted recurrence in pTaLG, PAX6, ATM, CHFR, and RB1 in pT1LG disease; PYCARD, in pT1HG disease; and PAX5A and RB1, in the overall series. Methylation of TSGs provided a molecular classification of NMI disease according to clinicopathological factors. Furthermore, TSG methylation predicted recurrence in NMI subgroups. PMID:24998186

  16. Facet personality and surface-level diversity as team mental model antecedents: implications for implicit coordination.

    PubMed

    Fisher, David M; Bell, Suzanne T; Dierdorff, Erich C; Belohlav, James A

    2012-07-01

    Team mental models (TMMs) have received much attention as important drivers of effective team processes and performance. Less is known about the factors that give rise to these shared cognitive structures. We examined potential antecedents of TMMs, with a specific focus on team composition variables, including various facets of personality and surface-level diversity. Further, we examined implicit coordination as an important outcome of TMMs. Results suggest that team composition in terms of the cooperation facet of agreeableness and racial diversity were significantly related to team-focused TMM similarity. TMM similarity was also positively predictive of implicit coordination, which mediated the relationship between TMM similarity and team performance. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant interaction between the trust facet of agreeableness and racial diversity in predicting TMM similarity. Results are discussed in terms of facilitating the emergence of TMMs and corresponding implications for team-related human resource practices. PMID:22468847

  17. Early childhood antecedents of aggression and passive-withdrawal in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Renken, B; Egeland, B; Marvinney, D; Mangelsdorf, S; Sroufe, L A

    1989-06-01

    Early childhood antecedents of elementary school aggression and passive-withdrawal were evaluated in a large longitudinal study (N = 191). With teacher ratings as outcome measures, a variety of predictor variables were selected from a comprehensive data base. Predictors were selected to represent several major factors: (a) a developmental history of insecure attachment and poor adjustment; (b) inadequate or hostile parental care; and (c) stressful or chaotic life circumstances. Support was found for the prediction of these behavior problems from early childhood measures (up to one third of the variance), with results varying with sex and outcome measure. Results were stronger for boys than girls, and stronger for aggression than for passive-withdrawal. Boys' outcome was strongly related to attachment classification at 18 months. It is suggested that these findings support Bowlby's view that early acquired "working models" of self and other affect later interpersonal functioning. PMID:2769557

  18. Safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organisations: antecedents and consequences of safety behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Muñiz, Beatriz; Montes-Peón, José Manuel; Vázquez-Ordás, Camilo José

    2012-03-01

    The occupational health and safety standard OHSAS 18001 has gained considerable acceptance worldwide, and firms from diverse sectors and of varying sizes have implemented it. Despite this, very few studies have analysed safety management or the safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organisations. The current work aims to analyse the safety climate in these organisations, identify its dimensions, and propose and test a structural equation model that will help determine the antecedents and consequences of employees' safety behaviour. For this purpose, the authors carry out an empirical study using a sample of 131 OHSAS 18001-certified organisations located in Spain. The results show that management's commitment, and particularly communication, have an effect on safety behaviour and on safety performance, employee satisfaction, and firm competitiveness. These findings are particularly important for management since they provide evidence about the factors that should be encouraged to reduce risks and improve performance in this type of organisation. PMID:22269566

  19. The antecedents and belief-polarized effects of thought confidence.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsuan-Yi; Lien, Nai-Hwa; Liang, Kuan-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates 2 possible antecedents of thought confidence and explores the effects of confidence induced before or during ad exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that both consumers' dispositional optimism and spokesperson attractiveness have significant effects on consumers' confidence in thoughts that are generated after viewing the advertisement. Higher levels of thought confidence will influence the quality of the thoughts that people generate, lead to either positively or negatively polarized message processing, and therefore induce better or worse advertising effectiveness, depending on the valence of thoughts. The authors posit the belief-polarization hypothesis to explain these findings. PMID:21902013

  20. Antecedents and Consequences of Psychiatric Disorders in African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Run; Ge, Xiaojia; Brody, Gene H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    This study included three waves of data, collected from approximately 890 African-American children and their families. Antecedents and consequences of psychiatric disorders among this population were examined. Children's temperament, pubertal timing, and experience of stressful life events were tested as antecedents of psychiatric disorders.…

  1. Antecedent-Based Interventions for Young Children at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kristy L.; Scott, Terrance M.

    2009-01-01

    Following descriptive functional assessment procedures, a brief structural analysis was used to confirm the hypothesized antecedent conditions that preceded problem behavior across three children enrolled in Head Start classrooms. A withdrawal design investigated the effectiveness of antecedent-based interventions to reduce disruptive behaviors…

  2. Effect of a Visual Prompt on Changes in Antecedents and Consequents of Teaching Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David E.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a visual prompt placed within an actual music teaching situation to effect changes in the frequency of teacher antecedents (spoken questions and statements), the quality of those antecedents (appropriate and inappropriate questions), and the frequency of teacher consequents (spoken approvals).…

  3. Antecedents and Consequences of the Frequency of Upward and Downward Social Comparisons at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Douglas J.; Ferris, D. Lance; Heller, Daniel; Keeping, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper examines the dispositional and situational antecedents, as well as the attitudinal and behavioral consequences, of the frequency of upward and downward social comparisons. We predicted social comparison frequency would be influenced by uncertainty-related antecedents, and that social comparisons in organizations would be…

  4. Pre-Service Teacher Beliefs on the Antecedents to Bullying: A Concept Mapping Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Joel A.; Nowicki, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, researchers gathered Canadian pre-service teachers' beliefs on the antecedents to bullying. Concept mapping (Kane & Trochim, 2007) was used to analyze the data. This study's findings identified pre-service teachers to have accurate beliefs, inaccurate beliefs, and a lack of knowledge about the antecedents to bullying. Concept…

  5. Antecedents and Consequences of Retirement Planning and Decision-Making: A Meta-Analysis and Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topa, Gabriela; Moriano, Juan Antonio; Depolo, Marco; Alcover, Carlos-Maria; Morales, J. Francisco

    2009-01-01

    In this study, meta-analytic procedures were used to examine the relationships between retirement planning, retirement decision and their antecedent and consequences. Our review of the literature generated 341 independent samples obtained from 99 primary studies with 188,222 participants. A small effect size (ES) for antecedents of retirement…

  6. Emotional Antecedents and Consequences of Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Alexander L.; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.

    2007-01-01

    Emotional experiences immediately prior to (emotional antecedents) and following (emotional consequences) deliberate self-harm and suicide attempts in female inmates (N = 63) were examined. Anger was the antecedent emotion reported by the largest proportion of individuals who had engaged in deliberate self-harm (45.16%), suicide attempts (40.9%),…

  7. Antecedents of Absorptive Capacity: A New Model for Developing Learning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei-Zadeh, Mohammad; Darwish, Tamer K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrated framework to indicate which antecedents of absorptive capacity (AC) influence its learning processes, and to propose testing of this model in future work. Design/methodology/approach Relevant literature into the antecedents of AC was critically reviewed and analysed with the objective…

  8. Is reasoning from counterfactual antecedents evidence for counterfactual reasoning?

    PubMed Central

    Rafetseder, Eva; Perner, Josef

    2011-01-01

    In most developmental studies the only error children could make on counterfactual tasks was to answer with the current state of affairs. It was concluded that children who did not show this error are able to reason counterfactually. However, children might have avoided this error by using basic conditional reasoning (Rafetseder, Cristi-Vargas, & Perner, 2010). Basic conditional reasoning takes an antecedent, which like in counterfactual reasoning can be counter to fact, and combines it with a conditional (or set of conditionals reflecting knowledge of how the world works) to draw a likely conclusion. A critical feature of counterfactual reasoning then is that these additional assumptions be modelled after the actual events to which the counterfactual is taken to be counterfactual. In contrast in basic conditional reasoning one enriches the given antecedent with any plausible assumptions. In our tasks basic conditional reasoning leads to different answers than counterfactual reasoning. For instance, a doctor, sitting in the park with the intention to read a paper, is called to an emergency at the swimming pool. The question, “if there had been no emergency, where would the doctor be?” should counterfactually be answered “in the park”. But ignoring the doctor’s intentions and just reasoning on plausible grounds one might answer: “in the hospital”. Only by 6 years, did children give mostly correct answers. PMID:22187537

  9. Antecedents of clinical information technology sophistication in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jaana, Mirou; Ward, Marcia M; Paré, Guy; Sicotte, Claude

    2006-01-01

    Grounded in the resource-based theory and the innovation diffusion theory, this article develops and tests a research model for assessing the antecedents of hospital innovativeness with regard to clinical information technology (IT) applications. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of U.S. hospitals (n = 74) to assess three dimensions of clinical IT sophistication. Secondary data were used to measure the antecedents, namely, four groups of organizational capacity variables. Bivariate and regression analyses were conducted to identify significant associations. A significant percentage (45-61%) of the variance in clinical IT sophistication was explained, mostly by leadership and knowledge sharing capacities. In particular, IT tenure and technical knowledge resources were significantly related to clinical IT sophistication. Surprisingly, managerial tenure and hospital's belonging to a network showed significant negative associations with two dimensions of the clinical IT sophistication construct. To address the challenges they face, hospitals should consider encouraging career development for current individuals in charge of IT activities, and attracting professionals with an IT background who have the knowledge and ability to trigger new ideas and favor the adoption and use of clinical IT applications in these settings. PMID:17077703

  10. Antecedents of Neonatal Encephalopathy in the Vermont Oxford Network Encephalopathy Registry

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Peter; Edwards, Erika M.; Horbar, Jeffrey D.; Kenny, Michael J.; Inder, Terrie; Pfister, Robert H.; Raju, Tonse; Soll, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a major predictor of death and long-term neurologic disability, but there are few studies of antecedents of NE. OBJECTIVES: To identify antecedents in a large registry of infants who had NE. METHODS: This was a maternal and infant record review of 4165 singleton neonates, gestational age of ≥36 weeks, meeting criteria for inclusion in the Vermont Oxford Network Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry. RESULTS: Clinically recognized seizures were the most prevalent condition (60%); 49% had a 5-minute Apgar score of ≤3 and 18% had a reduced level of consciousness. An abnormal maternal or fetal condition predated labor in 46%; maternal hypertension (16%) or small for gestational age (16%) were the most frequent risk factors. In 8%, birth defects were identified. The most prevalent birth complication was elevated maternal temperature in labor of ≥37.5°C in 27% of mothers with documented temperatures compared with 2% to 3.2% in controls in population-based studies. Clinical chorioamnionitis, prolonged membrane rupture, and maternal hypothyroidism exceeded rates in published controls. Acute asphyxial indicators were reported in 15% (in 35% if fetal bradycardia included) and inflammatory indicators in 24%. Almost one-half had neither asphyxial nor inflammatory indicators. Although most infants with NE were observably ill since the first minutes of life, only 54% of placentas were submitted for examination. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically recognized asphyxial birth events, indicators of intrauterine exposure to inflammation, fetal growth restriction, and birth defects were each observed in term infants with NE, but much of NE in this large registry remained unexplained. PMID:23071210

  11. Evaluation of Combined-Antecedent Variables on Functional Analysis Results and Treatment of Problem Behavior in a School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolezal, Danielle N.; Kurtz, Patricia F.

    2010-01-01

    Call, Wacker, Ringdahl, and Boelter (2005) conducted an analysis in which a single-antecedent condition was compared to a multiple-antecedent condition. The present study extended Call et al. by conducting a structured descriptive assessment (SDA) to identify the antecedent variables most associated with problem behavior in a student with…

  12. In Vivo Anticancer Activity, Toxicology and Histopathological Studies of the Thiolate Gold(I) Complex [Au(Spyrimidine)(PTA-CH2Ph)]Br.

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Elena; Gascón, Sonia; García de Jalón, José A; Romanos, Eduardo; Rodriguez-Yoldi, Maria Jesus; Cerrada, Elena; Laguna, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    A physiologically stable thiolate gold(I) derivative [Au(Spyrimidine)(PTA-CH2Ph)]Br has shown inhibition in colon cancer proliferation of Caco-2/TC7, Caco-2/PD7 and HTC-116-luc2 cell lines via apoptotic pathway and S-phase arrest in the cell cycle. Intraperitoneal injection of [Au(Spyrimidine)(PTA-CH2Ph)]Br in athymic nude mice inoculated with HTC-116-luc2 cells prolonged their survival and greatly inhibited tumour growth, near to disappearance. Low concentration of gold in urine and blood were detected in mice after 48 h of administration of 5 mg/kg body weight (bw) of the gold complex and non-organ (kidney and liver) damage has been detected after gold treatment. The results obtained suggested that the thiolate gold(I) derivative shown here could be considered as a candidate for therapeutic treatment in colon cancer. PMID:25634450

  13. Robust Parameter Identification to Perform the Modeling of pta and poxB Genes Deletion Effect on Escherichia Coli.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Torres, V; Rios-Lozano, M; Badillo-Corona, J A; Chairez, I; Garibay-Orijel, C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to design a robust parameter identification algorithm to characterize the effect of gene deletion on Escherichia coli (E. coli) MG1655. Two genes (pta and poxB) in the competitive pathways were deleted from this microorganism to inhibit pyruvate consumption. This condition deviated the E. coli metabolism toward the Krebs cycle. As a consequence, the biomass, substrate (glucose), lactic, and acetate acids as well as ethanol concentrations were modified. A hybrid model was proposed to consider the effect of gene deletion on the metabolism of E. coli. The model parameters were estimated by the application of a least mean square method based on the instrument variable technique. To evaluate the parametric identifier method, a set of robust exact differentiators, based on the super-twisting algorithm, was implemented. The hybrid model was successfully characterized by the parameters obtained from experimental information of E. coli MG1655. The significant difference between parameters obtained with wild-type strain and the modified (with deleted genes) justifies the application of the parametric identification algorithm. This characterization can be used to optimize the production of different byproducts of commercial interest. PMID:27093969

  14. Peritonsillar abscess (PTA): clinical characteristics, microbiology, drug exposures and outcomes of a large multicenter cohort survey of 412 patients hospitalized in 13 French university hospitals.

    PubMed

    Lepelletier, D; Pinaud, V; Le Conte, P; Bourigault, C; Asseray, N; Ballereau, F; Caillon, J; Ferron, C; Righini, C; Batard, E; Potel, G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of hospitalized patients with peritonsillar abscess (PTA). We conducted a multicenter survey in 13 French university hospitals in 2009-2012 describing 412 patients. Median age was 29 year (range, 2-84) and current smoking habit was reported by 177 (43 %) patients. Most of the patients (92 %) had consulted a physician for sore throat within 10 days before admission for PTA diagnosis. Additional symptoms such as visible tonsil abnormalities (83 %), tender cervical adenopathy (57 %) and fever ≥ 38.5 °C (53 %) were also reported. A total of 65 % patients (269/412) reported recent systemic anti-inflammatory agents (AIAs) exposure by medical prescription (70 %), self-medication (22 %), or both (8 %); 61 % and 27 % reported recent exposure to antibiotic and topical treatments for sore throat, respectively. Non-steroidal AIAs were used most often (45 %), particularly arylpropionic derivatives. A rapid diagnosis antigen test (RDT) for Streptococcus pyogenes was performed in 70 (17 %) patients and was positive in 17 (24 %), of whom 9 (53 %) were exposed to AIAs and 14 (82 %) to antibiotics. To treat PTA, antibiotic therapy was given to 392 (95 %) patients. Of 333 antibiotic prescriptions, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and metronidazole were the most prescribed antibiotics (42 and 17 %, respectively). Surgical drainage of the abscess was performed in 119 (29 %) cases and tonsillectomy in 75 (18 %) cases. The clinical outcome was favorable during the hospital stay in 404 (98 %) patients. In conclusion, patients with sore throat are often exposed to AIAs before PTA diagnosis, and antibiotic prescription was not often based on the RDT positivity. PMID:26942743

  15. Relevance of Pure Tone Average (PTA) as a Predictor for Incus Erosion.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sanjeev; Gopinath, M; Subramanian, Mukundan; Vijayan, Nisha

    2012-12-01

    Between 40 and 90% of tympanoplasty require middle ear ossicular chain reconstruction. Ossicular discontinuity usually cannot be determined unless an operation is performed. The main objective was to determine the predictive value of pre-operative audiological factors in diagnosing incudal necrosis in patients with tubotympanic chronic suppurative otitis media. A retrospective clinical study of 20 patients who underwent ossicular reconstruction with autologous incus over a period of two years was performed. The mean pre-operative pure tone average was 49.18 dB HL.The minimum value being 45 dB HL and the maximum value being 64 dB HL. PMID:24294583

  16. The neural antecedents to voluntary action: Response to commentaries

    PubMed Central

    Nachev, Parashkev; Hacker, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience must attend to the conceptual coherence of its hypotheses as well as to their empirical support. Examining the most influential studies of the neural antecedents to voluntary action, our Discussion Paper sought to identify the real-world consequences of neglecting the former in what we argued has been too narrow a pursuit of the latter. Though conceptual in form, our analysis is sharply empirical in its conclusions, revealing what have long been thought to be momentous experimental observations—such as the readiness potential—as the outcome of previously unidentified confounds that rob them of significance. Conversely, we suggested that experimental studies of two-way control, amongst other defining features of the voluntary, have been given less emphasis than the subject demands. Here, we ramify our analysis down the paths identified by others in the commentaries we received. PMID:26001157

  17. Internal marketing and the antecedents of nurse satisfaction and loyalty.

    PubMed

    Peltier, James W; Pointer, Lucille; Schibrowsky, John A

    2008-01-01

    Employee satisfaction and retention are critical issues that influence the success of any organization. Yet, one of the most critical problems facing the worldwide health care industry is the shortage of qualified nurses. Recent calls have been made within the traditional nursing literature for research that utilizes marketing and business models to better understand nurse satisfaction and retention. The purpose of this study is to develop scales that can be used to empirically test a model of the proposed antecedents of nurse job satisfaction and loyalty which have been used widely in the internal marketing and the relationship-marketing literature. Specifically, the study will investigate the degree to which structural bonding, social bonding, financial bonding activities, and quality of care impact how well nurses are satisfied with their job and their commitment to the organization. The results show that quality of care most impacted nurse satisfaction and loyalty, followed by structural, social, and financial bonds. PMID:19042513

  18. Bicultural identity integration (BII): components and psychosocial antecedents.

    PubMed

    Benet-Martínez, Verónica; Haritatos, Jana

    2005-08-01

    The present study examines the underresearched topic of bicultural identity; specifically, we: (1) unpack the construct of Bicultural Identity Integration (BII), or the degree to which a bicultural individual perceives his/her two cultural identities as "compatible" versus "oppositional," and (2) identify the personality (Big Five) and acculturation (acculturation stress, acculturation attitudes, bicultural competence) predictors of BII. Differences in BII, acculturation stress, and bicultural competence were measured with new instruments developed for the purposes of the study. Using a sample of Chinese American biculturals, we found that variations in BII do not define a uniform phenomenon, as commonly implied in the literature, but instead encompass two separate independent constructs: perceptions of distance (vs. overlap) and perceptions of conflict (vs. harmony) between one's two cultural identities or orientations. Results also indicated that cultural conflict and cultural distance have distinct personality, acculturation, and sociodemographic antecedents. PMID:15958143

  19. Psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Wayne W; Sagarin, Brad J

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior (in the form of signing an online petition supporting the construction of a new lesbian, gay, and bisexual resource center on their campus). In addition, attitudes toward the possible outcomes of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior itself, and self-identity were found to predict intentions. Directions for future research on pro-gay activism are discussed. PMID:20665329

  20. Historical antecedents to the philosophy of Paul Feyerabend.

    PubMed

    Munévar, Gonzalo

    2016-06-01

    Paul Feyerabend has been considered a very radical philosopher of science for proposing that we may advance hypotheses contrary to well-confirmed experimental results, that observations make theoretical assumptions, that all methodological rules have exceptions, that ordinary citizens may challenge the judgment of experts, and that human happiness should be a key value for science. As radical as these theses may sound, they all have historical antecedents. In defending the Copernican view, Galileo exemplified the first two; Mill, Aristotle and Machiavelli all argued for pluralism; Aristotle gave commonsense reasons for why ordinary citizens may be able to judge the work of experts; and a combination of Plato's and Aristotle's views can offer strong support for the connection between science and happiness. PMID:27269259

  1. Explaining potential antecedents of workplace social support: reciprocity or attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Bowling, Nathan A; Beehr, Terry A; Johnson, Adam L; Semmer, Norbert K; Hendricks, Elizabeth A; Webster, Heather A

    2004-10-01

    Effects of social support are an important topic in occupational stress theories and research, yet little is known about support's potential antecedents. Based on reciprocity theory, the authors hypothesized that the social support received is related to the extent the employee performs organizational citizenship behaviors directed at individuals and to one's social competence; based on the notion of personal attraction, the authors hypothesized that employees' physical attractiveness and sense of humor would be associated with the amount of social support received. In a survey of 123 high school employees and separate ratings of their attractiveness, reciprocity variables were related but attraction variables were not related to social support availability. Further research should examine reciprocity in predicting social support. PMID:15506850

  2. The neural antecedents to voluntary action: Response to commentaries.

    PubMed

    Nachev, Parashkev; Hacker, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience must attend to the conceptual coherence of its hypotheses as well as to their empirical support. Examining the most influential studies of the neural antecedents to voluntary action, our Discussion Paper sought to identify the real-world consequences of neglecting the former in what we argued has been too narrow a pursuit of the latter. Though conceptual in form, our analysis is sharply empirical in its conclusions, revealing what have long been thought to be momentous experimental observations--such as the readiness potential--as the outcome of previously unidentified confounds that rob them of significance. Conversely, we suggested that experimental studies of two-way control, amongst other defining features of the voluntary, have been given less emphasis than the subject demands. Here, we ramify our analysis down the paths identified by others in the commentaries we received. PMID:26001157

  3. Trajectories of Physical Discipline: Early Childhood Antecedents and Developmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from age 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from age 5 to 15. Analyses indicated distinct physical discipline trajectory groups that varied in frequency of physical discipline and rate of change. In both samples, family ecological disadvantage differentiated the trajectory groups; in the first sample, early child externalizing also differentiated the groups. Controlling for early childhood externalizing, the minimal/ceasing trajectory groups were associated with the lowest levels of subsequent adolescent antisocial behavior in both samples and with parent-adolescent positive relationship quality in the second sample. PMID:19765007

  4. A model of global citizenship: antecedents and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva

    2013-01-01

    As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, exposure to global cultures affords individuals opportunities to develop global identities. In two studies, we examine the antecedents and outcomes of identifying with a superordinate identity--global citizen. Global citizenship is defined as awareness, caring, and embracing cultural diversity while promoting social justice and sustainability, coupled with a sense of responsibility to act. Prior theory and research suggest that being aware of one's connection with others in the world (global awareness) and embedded in settings that value global citizenship (normative environment) lead to greater identification with global citizens. Furthermore, theory and research suggest that when global citizen identity is salient, greater identification is related to adherence to the group's content (i.e., prosocial values and behaviors). Results of the present set of studies showed that global awareness (knowledge and interconnectedness with others) and one's normative environment (friends and family support global citizenship) predicted identification with global citizens, and global citizenship predicted prosocial values of intergroup empathy, valuing diversity, social justice, environmental sustainability, intergroup helping, and a felt responsibility to act for the betterment of the world. The relationship between antecedents (normative environment and global awareness) and outcomes (prosocial values) was mediated by identification with global citizens. We discuss the relationship between the present results and other research findings in psychology, the implications of global citizenship for other academic domains, and future avenues of research. Global citizenship highlights the unique effect of taking a global perspective on a multitude of topics relevant to the psychology of everyday actions, environments, and identity. PMID:22804560

  5. Antecedent Predictors of Children's Initiation of Sipping/Tasting Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John E; Molina, Brooke S G

    2014-01-01

    Background Sipping or tasting alcohol is one of the earliest alcohol-use behaviors in which young children engage, yet there is relatively little research on this behavior. Previous cross-sectional analyses determined that child sipping or tasting is associated with the child's attitude toward sipping and with a family environment supportive of alcohol use, but not with variables reflecting psychosocial proneness for problem behavior as formulated in Problem Behavior Theory (Jessor and Jessor, Problem Behavior and Psychosocial Development: A Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1977, Academic Press, New York). This study extended these analyses longitudinally to identify antecedent predictors of the childhood initiation of sipping or tasting alcohol in a multiwave study. Methods A sample of 452 children (238 girls) aged 8 or 10 and their families was drawn from Allegheny County, PA, using targeted-age directory sampling and random digit dialing procedures. Children were interviewed using computer-assisted interviews. Antecedent variables collected at baseline (Wave 1) were examined as predictors of the initiation of sipping/tasting alcohol in childhood (before age 12) among Wave 1 abstainers (n = 286). Results Ninety-four children initiated sipping/tasting alcohol in a nonreligious context between baseline and turning age 12. Initiation of sipping/tasting did not generally relate to baseline variables reflecting psychosocial proneness for problem behavior. Instead, as found in the previous cross-sectional analyses, the variables most predictive of initiating sipping/tasting were perceived parents' approval for child sipping, parents' reported approval for child sipping, parents' current drinking status, and children's attitudes toward sipping/tasting alcohol. Conclusions These longitudinal analyses replicate the earlier cross-sectional results. Young children's sipping/tasting of alcohol reflects parental modeling of drinking and parental approval of child sipping and

  6. Effects of antecedent land cover on physical, chemical, and biological responses to urbanization in streams across the conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuffney, T. F.; Qian, S.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of streams were assessed across gradients of urbanization in 9 metropolitan areas of the conterminous US (Boston, MA; Raleigh; NC, Birmingham, AL; Atlanta, GA; Milwaukee-Green Bay, WI; Denver, CO; Dallas-Fort Worth, TX; Salt Lake City, UT; and Portland, OR) as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program. Gradients of urbanization were established on the basis of a multimetric index of urban intensity that combined land cover, population, and road density. Simple regression models established that the condition of biological communities (e.g., invertebrate responses) showed statistically significant degradation as urbanization increased in six (Boston, Raleigh, Birmingham, Atlanta, Salt Lake, and Portland) of the nine metropolitan areas. Multiple regression models incorporating basin-scale land cover (e.g., forest, agricultural land) and environmental variables (e.g., water temperature, chemistry, hydrology) did not substantially improve the explanatory power of the regressions and could not explain differences in responses among metropolitan areas. Multilevel hierarchical models incorporating basin- and regional-scale predictors demonstrated that regional-scale climate (air temperature and precipitation) and antecedent land cover (i.e., land cover being converted to urban) predicted invertebrate responses to urbanization. The lack of identifiable urban responses for Milwaukee-Green Bay, Denver, and Dallas-Fort Worth were associated with high levels of antecedent agriculture (row crops and grazing) that degraded the biological communities and obscured the effects of urbanization. Urbanization was associated with increases in conductivity, nutrients, pesticides, and hydrologic variability. Levels of these variables at background sites were higher in regions with high antecedent agriculture; consequently, the effects of urbanization appeared to be

  7. New water-soluble polypyridine silver(I) derivatives of 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) with significant antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities.

    PubMed

    Smoleński, Piotr; Jaros, Sabina W; Pettinari, Claudio; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Vitali, Luca A; Petrelli, Dezemona; Kochel, Andrzej; Kirillov, Alexander M

    2013-05-14

    The new series of silver(I) coordination polymers [Ag(N-N)(μ-PTA)]n(X)n (1, 2, 4-8, 10, 11) and discrete monomers [Ag(N-N)(PTA)2](X) (3, 9) {N-N = bpy (1-3), dtbpy (4), neocup (5, 6), phen (7-9), dione (10, 11); X = NO3 (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10), PF6 (2, 4, 6, 8, 11)} were generated by self-assembly reactions, in MeOH at ~25 °C, of AgNO3 or AgPF6 with 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) and the corresponding polypyridines, namely 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine (dtbpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocup) and 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (dione). The compounds were obtained as air and light stable solids and characterized by IR, (1)H and (31)P{(1)H} NMR spectroscopy, ESI(+)-MS and elemental analyses. The crystal structure of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, revealing infinite one-dimensional (1D) linear chains driven by μ-PTA N,P-linkers. Apart from representing the first examples of the metal-PTA derivatives bearing polypyridine ligands, 1-11 also feature solubility in water (S(25°C) ≈ 4-18 mg mL(-1)). Selected compounds (1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 10) were thus tested for their biological properties and found to exhibit significant antibacterial and antifungal activities, screened in vitro against the standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus sanguinis, Staphylococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Furthermore, the compounds 5, 7, 9 and 10 show a pronounced antiproliferative activity against human malignant melanoma (A375), and the effects on the inhibition of tumor cells in vitro are in agreement with the DNA-binding studies. PMID:23474654

  8. Effects of antecedent hydrologic conditions, time dependence, and climate cycles on the suspended sediment load of the Salinas River, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Andrew B.; Pasternack, Gregory B.; Watson, Elizabeth B.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Goñi, Miguel A.

    2015-06-01

    Previous estimations of sediment flux for the Salinas River of central California were based on data collected in the 1970s and assumptions of time invariant suspended sediment-discharge behavior. The goals of this study were to estimate sediment flux from the Salinas River using data from 1967-2011 by incorporating time dependent behavior and reassess the role of El Niño Southern Oscillation patterns in inter-decadal sediment load. This study builds on previous findings that time-dependent suspended sediment behavior in this system is controlled in part by antecedent hydrologic conditions. The condition of temporal dependence was further tested herein through comparison of flux estimates obtained using time-dependent formulations and a multivariate approach incorporating hydrologic factors. Longer sampling records and incorporation of decadal scale behavior or antecedent hydrologic conditions resulted in average annual load estimates of 2.0-2.9 Mt/yr with 95% confidence intervals of ±25 to 202%, in comparison to earlier estimates of ∼3.3 Mt/yr. Previous overestimation of sediment load is due largely to the extrapolation of suspended sediment behavior from a decade of high sediment concentrations to the entire record, and the use of log-linear regression techniques on a non-linear system. The use of LOESS methods lowered QSS estimates and decreased confidence interval size. The inclusion of time-stratified and antecedent flow indices further decreased QSS estimates, but increased confidence interval size. However, temporal dependence of the CSS-Q relationship violates the assumptions of single base period regression, which suggests that time-stratified rating curves provide more realistic estimates of sediment flux means and uncertainty. The majority of suspended sediment was transported by flows of ∼25-90 times mean discharge depending on transport constituent (fines or sand) and estimation method. Periods of differential suspended sediment behavior changed

  9. Development of an antecedent moisture condition model for prediction of Rainfall-Derived Inflow/Infiltration (RDII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadri, S.; Graham, E.

    2011-12-01

    The rainfall-derived Infiltration/inflow (RDII) response of a sanitary sewer system is quite complex. In addition to rainfall, one of the major factors that control RDII response is the Antecedent Moisture Condition (AMC). AMC is one of the key inputs to many hydrological models. For urban hydrology planning and management, quantifying the effect of AMC, the moisture of soil condition during and prior a rainfall event will enhance the prediction capabilities of RDII-rainfall models. The problem with simply correlating the peak rainfall and peak flows is that the data will typically be scattered in a a way that the regression analysis will not yield reliable information. Thus, there is a need to find the contribution of AMC to RDII. In urban hydrology engineering projects, although soil moisture data can be very useful, especially for more pervious surfaces, it is typical that not much data is available. In the past, here has been little research on defining and calculating AMC in the domain of urban hydrology. In this study, a parametric model is developed to predict RDII as a function of antecedent rainfalls. The hypothesis of this study is that besides the current rainfall, the rainfall events of the past, up to certain limit of time, affect the current flow and therefore, AMC is directly related to a geometrically-weighted sum of rainfall which we will denote s[t]. Let γ be a parameter between 0 and 1, representing the effect of a day's rainfall on the next day. Then consider the geometrically-weighted sum s[t] = γ*r[t-1] + γ^2*r[t-2] + ... + γ^10*r[t-10] where t represents the present day (time) and r[t] is the rainfall depth on that day. Intuitively, s[t] measures the effect accumulated rainfall from the past 10 days. The general regression model is hence: Predicted flow at time t = α*r[t] + β*s[t] where β is a multiplier and α is the parameter based on a separate and stronger effect of rain at time t. The goal is to find the optimized parameters α,

  10. Brief antecedent assessment and treatment of tics in the general education classroom: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Watson, T Steuart; Dufrene, Brad; Weaver, Adam; Butler, Tonya; Meeks, Caroline

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if specific classroom antecedents were associated with motor and vocal tics in two males diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome. A functional assessment consisting of teacher and student interviews, direct observations, brief functional analysis, and confirmatory naturalistic observations indicated that specific antecedents could be identified for each participant. Simplified habit reversal was then implemented only under the antecedent condition that resulted in the highest rate of tics. The rate of tics decreased under the specific antecedent condition as well as at other times as validated by behavioral observations conducted at random times. The discussion focuses on the utility of conducting such assessments, the methodological and applied limitations of the current study, and avenues for further research. PMID:16204419

  11. Distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism and their antecedents in full-time Australian employees.

    PubMed

    Magee, Christopher A; Caputi, Peter; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated distinct longitudinal trajectories of absenteeism over time, and underlying demographic, work, and health antecedents. Data from the Household, Income, and Labor Dynamics in Australia Survey were used; this is a panel study of a representative sample of Australian households. This paper focused on 2,481 full-time employees across a 5-year period. Information on annual sick leave and relevant sociodemographic, work, and health-related factors was collected through interviews and self-completed surveys. Growth mixture modeling indicated 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism over time. The moderate absenteeism trajectory (34.8%) of the sample had 4-5 days of sick leave per year and was used as the reference group. The low absenteeism trajectory (33.5%) had 1-2 days of absenteeism per year, while the no absenteeism trajectory (23.6%) had very low rates of absenteeism (<1 day per year). Finally, a smaller trajectory accounting for 8.1% of the sample had high levels of absenteeism (>11 days per year). Compared with the moderate absenteeism trajectory, the high absenteeism trajectory was characterized by poor health; the no absenteeism and low absenteeism trajectories had better health but may also reflect processes relating to presenteeism. These results provide important insights into the nature of absenteeism in Australian employees, and suggest that different patterns of absenteeism over time could reflect a range of demographic, work, and health related factors. PMID:25938167

  12. Exploring utilitarian and hedonic antecedents for adopting information from a recommendation agent and unplanned purchase behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Research indicated that in order for properly utilizing recommendation agents (RAs), customers must rationally evaluate capability and suggestions of RAs during the interaction process. However, enjoying interactive processes and interface is also important. Methods for increasing user enjoyment of RAs are yet unknown. This study investigated the influences of utilitarian and hedonic factors on intention to adopt RAs suggestions and their antecedents. Involvement influences relative importance of utilitarian and hedonic factors. Contrary to common assumptions, customers may make unplanned purchases, rather than rational purchase. A field experiment with 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design reveals main findings. First, information diagnosticity and enjoyment enhance adoption intention simultaneously. Information diagnosticity is more important than enjoyment. Diagnosticity was determined by outcome similarity, and enjoyment was determined by both outcome similarity and atmospherics. The context of interacting with RAs is important. Outcome similarity even directly affects adoption intention. Second, highly involved users considered enjoyment and diagnosticity when forming adoption intentions, while users with low involvement only considered enjoyment. Third, information cascades altered the relationship between adoption intention and unplanned purchases. Most customers change selection after seeing ratings from other customers, even if they originally strongly want to adoption suggestion from RAs. Theoretical and managerial implications are proposed.

  13. Strabismus at Age 2 Years in Children Born Before 28 Weeks' Gestation: Antecedents and Correlates.

    PubMed

    VanderVeen, Deborah K; Allred, Elizabeth N; Wallace, David K; Leviton, Alan

    2016-03-01

    Children born very preterm are at greater risk of ophthalmic morbidities, including strabismus, than children born at term. We evaluated perinatal factors associated with strabismus at age 2 years in a large population of infants delivered before 28 weeks' gestation. A total of 996 infants in the multicenter ELGAN (Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn) study who had a retinal exam in infancy and a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age are included. Their mothers were interviewed about the pregnancy, and both mother and newborn charts were reviewed. Certified examiners administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and performed an examination of ocular alignment. Time-oriented logistic regression risk models were created to evaluate the associations of characteristics and exposures with the development of strabismus. Overall, 14% (n = 141) of the children had strabismus at 2 years, and 80% of strabismic children had esotropia. Characteristics associated with strabismus were birth before 26 weeks' gestation, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal history of aspirin ingestion. Associated postnatal factors included a SNAP-II (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology) illness severity value ≥ 30, brain ventriculomegaly, type I retinopathy of prematurity, and ventilator-dependent severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strabismus in very preterm populations is associated with a number of antenatal and postnatal antecedents as well as clinical and imaging correlates indicative of brain damage in these children. Routine ophthalmologic assessments in the early years can allow appropriate and timely interventions. PMID:26350726

  14. Unraveling care integration: Assessing its dimensions and antecedents in the Italian Health System.

    PubMed

    Calciolari, Stefano; Ilinca, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, consensus has grown on the need to organize health systems around the concept of care integration to better confront the challenges associated with demographic trends and financial sustainability. However, care integration remains an imprecise umbrella term in both the academic and policy arenas. In addition, little substantive knowledge exists on the success factors for integration initiatives. We propose a composite measure of care integration and a conceptual framework suggesting its relationships with three types of antecedents: contextual, cultural, and organizational factors. Our framework was tested using data from the Italian National Health System (NHS). We administered an ad-hoc questionnaire to all Italian local health units (LHUs), with a 60.4% response rate, and used structural equation modeling to assess the relationships between the relevant latent constructs. The results validated our measure of care integration and supported the hypothesized relationships. In particular, integration was found to be fostered by results-oriented institutional settings, a professional culture conducive to inclusiveness and shared goals, and organizational arrangements promoting clear expectations among providers. Thus, integration improves care and mediates the effects of specific operating means on care enhancement. PMID:26725643

  15. When the customer shouldn't be king: antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment by clients and customers.

    PubMed

    Gettman, Hilary J; Gelfand, Michele J

    2007-05-01

    Much of the work in today's service industries requires women to deal with people outside of their organizations, namely, customers and clients, yet research on sexual harassment has focused almost exclusively on sexual harassment within organizations. Because the threat of harassment also operates at the boundaries of organizations, our existing models based solely on harassment inside organizations may be too restricted to adequately explain the harassment experiences of women in today's economy. To address this, the authors introduce a theoretical model of the antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment by clients and customers (CSH) and describe 2 field studies conducted to test components of the model. In Study 1, they developed a model of antecedents and consequences of CSH and illustrated that certain contextual factors (client power and gender composition of the client base) affect levels of CSH and that CSH is related to a number of job and psychological outcomes among professional women. Study 2 revealed that CSH is related to lower job satisfaction among nonprofessional women, above and beyond that which is accounted for by internal sexual harassment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:17484555

  16. Affective Antecedents of the Perceived Effectiveness of Antidrug Advertisements: An Analysis of Adolescents’ Momentary and Retrospective Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Vohs, Kathleen D.; Luciana, Monica; Cuthbert, Bruce N.; MacDonald, Angus W.

    2013-01-01

    Perceived message effectiveness is often used as a diagnostic tool to determine whether a health message is likely to be successful or needs modification before use in an intervention. Yet, published research on the antecedents of perceived effectiveness is scarce and, consequently, little is known about why a message is perceived to be effective or ineffective. The present study’s aim was to identify and test the affective antecedents of perceived effectiveness of antidrug television messages in a sample of 190 adolescents in the 15–19 year age range. Factor-analytical tests of retrospective message evaluation items suggested two dimensions of perceived effectiveness, one that contained items such as convincingness whereas the other contained pleasantness items. Using retrospective data as well as real time valence and arousal ratings, we found that arousal underlies perceived convincingness and valence underlies perceived pleasantness. The results indicated activation of appetitive and defensive motivational systems, which suggests a clear motivational component to the concept of perceived message effectiveness. PMID:21499729

  17. Antecedent wetness conditions based on ERS scatterometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocca, L.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.; Morbidelli, R.

    2009-01-01

    SummarySoil moisture is widely recognized as a key parameter in environmental processes mainly for the role of rainfall partitioning into runoff and infiltration. Therefore, for storm rainfall-runoff modeling the estimation of the antecedent wetness conditions ( AWC) is one of the most important aspect. In this context, this study investigates the potential of scatterometer on board of the ERS satellites for the assessment of wetness conditions in three Tiber sub-catchments (Central Italy), of which one includes an experimental area for soil moisture monitoring. The satellite soil moisture data are taken from the ERS/METOP soil moisture archive. First, the scatterometer-derived soil wetness index ( SWI) data are compared with two on-site soil moisture data sets acquired by different methodologies on areas of different extension ranging from 0.01 km 2 to ˜60 km 2. Moreover, the reliability of SWI to estimate the AWC at a catchment scale is investigated considering the relationship between SWI and the soil potential maximum retention parameter, S, of the Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) method for abstraction. Several flood events occurred from 1992 to 2005 are selected for this purpose. Specifically, the performance of the SWI for S estimation is compared with two antecedent precipitation indices ( API) and one base flow index ( BFI). The S values obtained through the observed direct runoff volume and rainfall depth are used as benchmark. Results show the great reliability of the SWI for the estimation of wetness conditions both at the plot and catchment scale despite the complex orography of the investigated areas. As far as the comparison with on site soil moisture data set is concerned, the SWI is found quite reliable in representing the soil moisture at layer depth of 15 cm, with a mean correlation coefficient equal to 0.81. The characteristic time length parameter variations, as expected, is depended on soil type, with values in accordance with

  18. A qualitative and quantitative examination of the antecedents of customer incivility.

    PubMed

    Sliter, Michael; Jones, Morgan

    2016-04-01

    Customer incivility is known to have a negative impact on employees working in service jobs. Despite an understanding of the negative outcomes of customer incivility (e.g., burnout, disengagement, absenteeism), little research has investigated antecedents of this low-intensity deviant behavior. This is a clear oversight, given that understanding antecedents of customer incivility is essential for determining methods for reducing this stressor. As such, we conducted 2 studies examining these antecedents. For Study 1, we used a qualitative approach, assessing customer incivility from the perspective of the customer. Three overall themes (with 13 subthemes) emerged that could potentially lead to customer incivility: characteristics of the customer, characteristics of the organization/environment, and characteristics of the service employee. In Study 2, we conducted a quantitative study to investigate-from the perspective of the service employee-customer incivility antecedents that could be potentially controlled by the organization, either through changing the work environment or the employee (through training and selection). The results of a 2 time-point survey study showed that the service environment, service rep incivility, service orientation, agreeableness, and neuroticism served as antecedents to customer incivility. Practical implications are discussed, identifying options for organizational leaders interested in reducing customer incivility, and advice is provided for researchers seeking to further examine the antecedents of customer incivility. PMID:26641484

  19. Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this “gender paradox” in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others’ or one’s own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one’s ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727

  20. Motivational antecedent beliefs of endurance, strength, and flexibility activities.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M; Matheson, Deborah Hunt

    2007-03-01

    Research into the correlates of physical activity has focused almost exclusively on physical activity as an omnibus construct. Health Canada and the American College of Sports Medicine, however, advocate physical activity in terms of performing regular endurance, strength, and flexibility activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the absolute and relative contributions of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs associated with endurance, strength, and flexibility activities within a theory of planned behavior (TPB) structure. Participants were 185 undergraduates who completed measures of the TPB and a 2-week follow-up of endurance, strength, and flexibility behavior. Results using structural equation modeling and Hotelling's t-tests for dependent correlations identified different motivational antecedents for each type of physical activity (p < .05). Endurance behavior was influenced exclusively by behavioral beliefs, flexibility behavior was influenced by normative and control beliefs, and strength behavior was influenced by key behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. The different motivational profiles for each physical activity allude to the importance of tailoring interventions by physical activity type. PMID:17365895

  1. Antecedents of teachers’ emotions in the classroom: an intraindividual approach

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Eva S.; Keller, Melanie M.; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Taxer, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    Using a preexisting, but as yet empirically untested theoretical model, the present study investigated antecedents of teachers’ emotions in the classroom. More specifically, the relationships between students’ motivation and discipline and teachers’ enjoyment and anger were explored, as well as if these relationships are mediated by teachers’ subjective appraisals (goal conduciveness and coping potential). The study employed an intraindividual approach by collecting data through a diary. The sample consisted of 39 teachers who each participated with one of their 9th or 10th grade mathematics classes (N = 758 students). Both teachers and students filled out diaries for 2–3 weeks pertaining to 8.10 lessons on average (N = 316 lessons). Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that students’ motivation and discipline explained 24% of variance in teachers’ enjoyment and 26% of variance in teachers’ anger. In line with theoretical assumptions, after introducing teachers’ subjective appraisals as a mediating mechanism into the model, the explained variance systematically increased to 65 and 61%, for teachers’ enjoyment and anger respectively. The effects of students’ motivation and discipline level on teachers’ emotions were partially mediated by teachers’ appraisals of goal conduciveness and coping potential. The findings imply that since teachers’ emotions depend to a large extent on subjective evaluations of a situation, teachers should be able to directly modify their emotional experiences during a lesson through cognitive reappraisals. PMID:26042067

  2. Personality and motivational antecedents of activism and civic engagement.

    PubMed

    Omoto, Allen M; Snyder, Mark; Hackett, Justin D

    2010-12-01

    This article conceptually links theory and research on volunteerism to different forms of political activity, specifically activism and civic engagement. Multiple perspectives and measures of personality as antecedents of volunteerism, activism, and civic engagement are outlined, including individual differences in motivations, interpersonal orientations, and traits. Next, self-report data from 624 people involved in AIDS service organizations (as clients, volunteers, staff, or supporters) are utilized to empirically explore the best personality predictors of AIDS activism and civic engagement. Other-focused rather than self-focused motivation better predicted AIDS activism and civic engagement. The only measure of interpersonal orientation consistently related to these outcomes was communal orientation; as well, only the trait of extraversion was related to both outcomes. In analyses testing the predictive power of constellations of personality measures, other-focused motivation better predicted AIDS activism and civic engagement than the other measures of motivation, interpersonal orientation, and traits. Finally, meditational analyses supported a developmental sequence in which other-focused motivation leads to specific activism, which, in turn, encourages broader civic engagement. The discussion focuses on theoretical implications for understanding the impact of personality on different forms of citizenship behaviors and of the applicability of the Volunteer Process Model for studying political activity and civic engagement. PMID:21039529

  3. Oral Microbiota Shift after 12-Week Supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and PTA 5289; A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Romani Vestman, Nelly; Chen, Tsute; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla; Öhman, Carina; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2015-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus spp. potentially contribute to health by modulating bacterial biofilm formation, but their effects on the overall oral microbiota remain unclear. Methods and Findings Oral microbiota was characterized via 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA hypervariable region V3-V4 after 12 weeks of daily Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and PTA 5289 consumption. Forty-four adults were assigned to a test group (n = 22) that received lactobacilli lozenges (108 CFU of each strain/lozenge) or a control group that received placebo (n = 22). Presence of L. reuteri was confirmed by cultivation and species specific PCR. Tooth biofilm samples from 16 adults before, during, and after exposure were analyzed by pyrosequencing. A total of 1,310,292 sequences were quality filtered. After removing single reads, 257 species or phylotypes were identified at 98.5% identity in the Human Oral Microbiome Database. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the most abundant phyla. Streptococcus was the most common genus and the S. oralis/S. mitis/S. mitis bv2/S. infantis group comprised the dominant species. The number of observed species was unaffected by L. reuteri exposure. However, subjects who had consumed L. reuteri were clustered in a principal coordinates analysis relative to scattering at baseline, and multivariate modeling of pyrosequencing microbiota, and culture and PCR detected L. reuteri separated baseline from 12-week samples in test subjects. L. reuteri intake correlated with increased S. oralis/S. mitis/S. mitis bv2/S. infantis group and Campylobacter concisus, Granulicatella adiacens, Bergeyella sp. HOT322, Neisseria subflava, and SR1 [G-1] sp. HOT874 detection and reduced S. mutans, S. anginosus, N. mucosa, Fusobacterium periodicum, F. nucleatum ss vincentii, and Prevotella maculosa detection. This effect had disappeared 1 month after exposure was terminated. Conclusions L. reuteri consumption did not affect species

  4. Relationship between latex yield of Hevea brasiliensis and antecedent environmental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Shammi; Das, Gitali; Pothen, Jacob; Dey, Sushil Kumar

    2005-01-01

    A study on the relationship between latex yield and antecedent environmental data was undertaken for five clones (RRII203, RRII118, RRIM600, RRII105 and GT1) of Hevea brasiliensis (rubber) in Agartala, northeast India, a region in which rubber is not traditionally cultivated. The explained variance for the regression equations based on parameters determined on the day of tapping and up to 3 days prior to it, varied from 72% to 37% during the NWT period and 94 83% during the WT period. Soil moisture storage, 1 and 3 days prior to tapping, was found to be the primary parameter affecting yield for the NWT and WT periods, respectively. It was observed that the clone RRII105, with a comparatively lower yield to that of RRIM600, was more susceptible to daily WD conditions during the non-winter season. RRIM600 and RRII105 being high-yielding clones were also found to be fairly dependent on the AT of the day prior to tapping. The mean lag period correlation of this parameter with yield was also found to be higher during the WT period than during the NWT period. As a whole, the mean lag period based on prior measurements of environmental variables showed optimum correlation with yield at 15 20 days prior to the day of tapping. The study also confirms that varied responses of yield with environmental factors in this non-traditional region of rubber cultivation depend on clonal character.

  5. Racism, ideology, and affirmative action revisited: the antecedents and consequences of "principled objections" to affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Federico, Christopher M; Sidanius, Jim

    2002-04-01

    In 2 studies, the antecedents and consequences of "principled objections" to affirmative action (specific, "race-neutral" reasons for opposing the policy) among Whites were examined. In Study 1. data from a probability sample of Los Angeles adults indicated the following: (a) that principled-objection endorsement was driven not merely by race-neutral values but also by dominance-related concerns like racism; (b) that principled objections mediated the effects of group dominance; and (c) that education strengthened-rather than attenuated-the relationship between dominance-related concerns and principled objections. whereas it left the relationship between race-neutral values and the latter essentially unchanged. In Study 2, the education findings were conceptually replicated in a panel study of undergraduates: The completion of additional years of college boosted the correlation between racism and principled objections, whereas it had no effect on the predictive power of conservatism. These results provide support for a general group-dominance approach, which suggests that factors like racism continue to shape White opposition to race-targeted policies. PMID:11999919

  6. Antecedents of Intact Cognition and Dementia at Age 90: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.; Okereke, Olivia I; Mukamal, Kenneth; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the possible antecedents of both dementia and sustained intact cognition at age 90 among men who underwent a prospective, multidisciplinary assessment from age 19 to 90, with little attrition. Methods A prospective 20-year reassessment of the 196 (out of 268) former Harvard College sophomores who survived until age 70. Begun in 1939 the Study gathered measurements of childhood environment, dominant personality traits, and objective mental and physical health over time, smoking in pack years, alcohol abuse and depression. Questionnaires were obtained every two years and physical exams every five years. Cognitive status was assessed at ages 80, 85 and 90. Results Despite addressing a wide variety health, behavioral and social factors over the lifespan, we observed few predictors with strong association with either intact cognition at age 90 (n = 40) or dementia (n = 44). Univariate analysis revealed seven suggestive predictors of intact cognition at age 90 or of dementia: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, high maternal education, young age of mother at subject’s birth, low BMI, good physical health at 60, and late retirement. Only the first 3 variables: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, and high maternal education remained significant with logistic regression. Conclusions In this prospective study of long-lived, highly educated men several well-known putative predictors of AD did not distinguish those who over the next 20 years developed dementia from those with unimpaired cognition until age 90. PMID:24733646

  7. Examining Antecedents and Consequences of Gambling Passion: The Case of Gambling on Horse Races

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki-Joon; Hodgins, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the antecedents and consequences of gambling passion using structural equation modeling to examine relationships among gambling motivation, passion, emotion, and behavioral intentions in the horse racing industry. Methods An onsite survey was conducted with 447 patrons at a horseracing park in South Korea. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Gambling Passion Scale was valid and reliable, resulting in two sub-scales: obsessive passion (OP) and harmonious passion (HP). Results Study results indicated that extrinsic motivation influenced OP whereas intrinsic motivation significantly affected HP. Furthermore, OP was correlated with negative emotion, whereas HP was related to positive emotion. Gamblers' satisfaction was found to be influenced positively by positive emotion and negatively by negative emotion. Finally, satisfaction appeared to affect gamblers' behavioral intentions. Conclusion Study results echoed the notion of distinct and separate gambling motivations and passions among horse racing gamblers. Furthermore, results identified specific areas to which horse racing operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling. PMID:24474985

  8. Examining Antisocial Behavioral Antecedents of Juvenile Sexual Offenders and Juvenile Non-Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    McCuish, Evan C; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    In prospective longitudinal studies of juvenile offenders, the presence of multiple developmental pathways of antisocial behaviors has consistently been identified. An "antisocial" type of juvenile sex offender (JSO) has also been identified; however, whether antisocial JSOs follow different antisocial pathways has not been examined. In the current study, differences in antisocial pathways within JSOs and between JSOs and juvenile non-sex offenders (JNSOs) were examined. Data on Canadian male incarcerated adolescent offenders were used to identify whether behavioral antecedents differed within JSOs and between JSOs (n = 51) and JNSOs (n = 94). Using latent class analysis (LCA), three behavioral groups were identified. For both JSOs and JNSOs, there was a Low Antisocial, Overt, and Covert group. Overall, there were important within-group differences in the behavioral patterns of JSOs, but these differences resembled differences in the behavioral patterns of their JNSO counterpart. Risk factors including offense history, abuse history, and family history were more strongly associated with the Overt and Covert groups compared with the Low Antisocial group. Implications for JSO assessment practices were discussed. PMID:24487119

  9. The Motivating Effect of Antecedent Stimuli on the Web Shop: A Conjoint Analysis of the Impact of Antecedent Stimuli at the Point of Online Purchase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstrom, Asle

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of motivating operation (MO) to the field of online consumer research. A conjoint analysis was conducted to assess the motivating impact of antecedent stimuli on online purchasing. Stimuli tested were in-stock status, price, other customers' reviews, order confirmation procedures, and donation to charity. The…

  10. Antenatal Antecedents of Cognitive Impairment at 24 Months In Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, Thomas M.; Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Hecht, Jonathan L.; Dammann, Olaf; Paneth, Nigel; McElrath, T. F.; Onderdonk, Andrew; Leviton, Alan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extremely low gestational age neonates are more likely than term infants to develop cognitive impairment. Few studies have addressed antenatal risk factors of this condition. We identified antenatal antecedents of cognitive impairment determined by the Mental Development Index (MDI) portion of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID-II), at 24 months corrected age. METHODS: We studied a multicenter cohort of 921 infants born before 28 weeks of gestation during 2002 to 2004 and assessed their placentas for histologic characteristics and microorganisms. The mother was interviewed and her medical record was reviewed. At 24 months adjusted age, children were assessed with BSID-II. Multinomial logistic models were used to estimate odds ratios. RESULTS: A total of 103 infants (11%) had an MDI <55, and 99 infants (11%) had an MDI between 55 and 69. No associations were identified between organisms recovered from the placenta and developmental delay. Factors most strongly associated with MDI <55 were thrombosis of fetal vessels (OR 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2, 7.7), maternal BMI >30 (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.5), maternal education ≤12 years (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.9, 6.2), nonwhite race (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3, 3.8), birth weight z score < −2 (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.1, 6.9), and male gender (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.6, 4.5). CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal factors, including thrombosis of fetal vessels in the placenta, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal obesity, convey information about the risk of cognitive impairment among extremely premature newborns. PMID:22331342

  11. The adult antisocial syndrome with and without antecedent conduct disorder: comparisons from an adoption study.

    PubMed

    Langbehn, D R; Cadoret, R J

    2001-01-01

    DSM antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) requires a retrospective diagnosis of conduct disorder-historical behavior not present in everyone with adult ASPD criteria. Using adoption study data, we examined the impact of this requirement on biological and environmental risk associations. We also compared clinical correlates of adult antisocial behavior with and without prior conduct disorder. We defined three subgroups: DSM-III ASPD (n = 30), adult antisocials without conduct disorder (n = 25), and controls (n = 142). By design, the sample had a high incidence of biological parent ASPD, which was partially confounded with fetal alcohol exposure. We compared the associations of both of these putative risk factors with subgroup membership after controlling for gender and adverse adoptive environment. We also examined differences in two sociopathy scales and the incidence of co-occurring affective, alcohol, and other substance use disorders. Finally, we explored differences in individual antisocial symptoms. Having an antisocial biological parent was a specific risk factor for ASPD. In contrast, fetal alcohol exposure, male gender, and adverse environment were associated with the adult antisocial syndrome, regardless of conduct disorder history. The two antisocial groups were similar with respect to sociopathy scales, co-occurring diagnoses, and the incidence of most individual symptoms. However, several adult and conduct disorder symptoms had significant specific associations with biological or environmental background or their interaction. Phenotypic expression of the biological-possibly genetic-risk for ASPD appears to be manifest before adulthood. The influence of other risk factors may not depend on antecedent conduct disorder. Despite this, we could not detect clinically important differences between the two sociopathic groups. The conduct disorder requirement therefore may be more relevant to etiological than clinical understanding of adult antisocial behavior

  12. Down Regulation of ackA-pta Pathway in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3): A Step Toward Optimized Recombinant Protein Expression System

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Nahid; Mirshahi, Manouchehr; Babaeipour, Valiollah; Maghsoudi, Nader; Tahzibi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the most important problems in production of recombinant protein is to attain over-expression of the target gene and high cell density. In such conditions, the secondary metabolites of bacteria become toxic for the medium and cause cells to die. One of these aforementioned metabolites is acetate, which enormously accumulated in the medium, so that both cell and protein yields are affected. Objectives: To overcome this problem, several strategies applied. In this research we used antisense RNA strategy, where the transcription of phosphotransacetylase (PTA) and acetate kinase (ACK), two acetate pathway key enzymes, could be controlled, which led to reduced acetate production. Materials and Methods: In order to achieve this, recombinant plasmid harboring antisense sequences targeting both of pta and ackA was assembled, after transfecting to the cells, its effects on the cell growth and acetate accumulation in the minimal media was assessed and compared with the control, the plasmid without antisense cassette, in presence and absence of IPTG in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Results: It was observed that the mentioned strategy partially affect the growth and amount of excreted acetate in comparison with the control. In addition it was found that high down-regulation of the acetate production pathway reduces the growth rate of E. coli BL21 (DE3). Conclusions: The study principally proved the importance of this strategy in acetate excretion control. PMID:25147677

  13. Water-Soluble Phosphine Capable of Dissolving Elemental Gold: The Missing Link between 1,3,5-Triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) and Verkade's Ephemeral Ligand.

    PubMed

    Britvin, Sergey N; Lotnyk, Andriy

    2015-04-29

    We herein describe a tricyclic phosphine with previously unreported tris(homoadamantane) cage architecture. That water-soluble, air- and thermally stable ligand, 1,4,7-triaza-9-phosphatricyclo[5.3.2.1(4,9)]tridecane (hereinafter referred to as CAP) exhibits unusual chemical behavior toward gold and gold compounds: it readily reduces Au(III) to Au(0), promotes oxidative dissolution of nanocrystalline gold(0) with the formation of water-soluble trigonal CAP-Au(I) complexes, and displaces cyanide from [Au(CN)2](-) affording triangular [Au(CAP)3](+) cation. From the stereochemical point of view, CAP can be regarded as an intermediate between 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) and very unstable aminophosphine synthesized by Verkade's group: hexahydro-2a,4a,6a-triaza-6b-phosphacyclopenta[cd]pentalene. The chemical properties of CAP are likely related to its anomalous stereoelectronic profile: combination of strong electron-donating power (Tolman's electronic parameter 2056.8 cm(-1)) with the low steric demand (cone angle of 109°). CAP can be considered as macrocyclic counterpart of PTA with the electron-donating power approaching that of strongest known phosphine electron donors such as P(t-Bu)3 and PCy3. Therefore, CAP as sterically undemanding and electron-rich ligand populates the empty field on the stereoelectronic map of phosphine ligands: the niche between the classic tertiary phosphines and the sterically undemanding aminophosphines. PMID:25897572

  14. Development of pyrF-Based Genetic System for Targeted Gene Deletion in Clostridium thermocellum and Creation of a pta Mutant ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Shital A.; Olson, Daniel G.; Argyros, D. Aaron; Miller, Bethany B.; Barrett, Trisha F.; Murphy, Daniel M.; McCool, Jesse D.; Warner, Anne K.; Rajgarhia, Vineet B.; Lynd, Lee R.; Hogsett, David A.; Caiazza, Nicky C.

    2010-01-01

    We report development of a genetic system for making targeted gene knockouts in Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that rapidly solubilizes cellulose. A toxic uracil analog, 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), was used to select for deletion of the pyrF gene. The ΔpyrF strain is a uracil auxotroph that could be restored to a prototroph via ectopic expression of pyrF from a plasmid, providing a positive genetic selection. Furthermore, 5-FOA was used to select against plasmid-expressed pyrF, creating a negative selection for plasmid loss. This technology was used to delete a gene involved in organic acid production, namely pta, which encodes the enzyme phosphotransacetylase. The C. thermocellum Δpta strain did not produce acetate. These results are the first examples of targeted homologous recombination and metabolic engineering in C. thermocellum, a microbe that holds an exciting and promising future in the biofuel industry and development of sustainable energy resources. PMID:20693441

  15. Effects of hydromechanical loading history and antecedent soil mechanical damage on shallow landslide triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Linfeng; Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani

    2015-10-01

    Evidence suggests that the sudden triggering of rainfall-induced shallow landslides is preceded by accumulation of local internal failures in the soil mantle before their abrupt coalescence into a landslide failure plane. The mechanical status of a hillslope at any given time reflects competition between local damage accumulated during antecedent rainfall events and rates of mechanical healing (e.g., rebonding of microcracks and root regrowth). This dynamic interplay between damage accumulation and healing rates determines the initial mechanical state for landslide modeling. We evaluated the roles of these dynamic processes on landslide characteristics and patterns using a hydromechanical landslide-triggering model for a sequence of rainfall scenarios. The progressive nature of soil failure was represented by the fiber bundle model formalism that considers threshold strength of mechanical bonds linking adjacent soil columns and bedrock. The antecedent damage induced by prior rainfall events was expressed by the fraction of broken fibers that gradually regain strength or mechanically heal at rates specific to soil and roots. Results indicate that antecedent damage accelerates landslide initiation relative to pristine (undamaged) hillslopes. The volumes of first triggered landslides increase with increasing antecedent damage; however, for heavily damaged hillslopes, landslide volumes tend to decrease. Elapsed time between rainfall events allows mechanical healing that reduces the effects of antecedent damage. This study proposed a quantitative framework for systematically incorporating hydromechanical loading history and information on precursor events (e.g., such as recorded by acoustic emissions) into shallow landslide hazard assessment.

  16. A simulation study of the recession coefficient for antecedent precipitation index. [soil moisture and water runoff estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Blanchard, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The antecedent precipitation index (API) is a useful indicator of soil moisture conditions for watershed runoff calculations and recent attempts to correlate this index with spaceborne microwave observations have been fairly successful. It is shown that the prognostic equation for soil moisture used in some of the atmospheric general circulation models together with Thornthwaite-Mather parameterization of actual evapotranspiration leads to API equations. The recession coefficient for API is found to depend on climatic factors through potential evapotranspiration and on soil texture through the field capacity and the permanent wilting point. Climatologial data for Wisconsin together with a recently developed model for global isolation are used to simulate the annual trend of the recession coefficient. Good quantitative agreement is shown with the observed trend at Fennimore and Colby watersheds in Wisconsin. It is suggested that API could be a unifying vocabulary for watershed and atmospheric general circulation modelars.

  17. Divergent Associations of Antecedent- and Response-Focused Emotion Regulation Strategies with Midlife Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Loucks, Eric B.; Buka, Stephen L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not known whether various forms of emotion regulation are differentially related to cardiovascular disease risk. Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess whether antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation would have divergent associations with likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease. Methods Two emotion regulation strategies were examined: reappraisal (antecedent-focused) and suppression (response-focused). Cardiovascular disease risk was assessed with a validated Framingham algorithm that estimates the likelihood of developing CVD in 10 years. Associations were assessed among 373 adults via multiple linear regression. Pathways and gender-specific associations were also considered. Results One standard deviation increases in reappraisal and suppression were associated with 5.9 % lower and 10.0 % higher 10-year cardiovascular disease risk, respectively, in adjusted analyses. Conclusions Divergent associations of antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation with cardiovascular disease risk were observed. Effective emotion regulation may promote cardiovascular health. PMID:24570218

  18. The correlation of Skylab L-band brightness temperatures with antecedent precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The S194 L-band radiometer flown on the Skylab mission measured terrestrial radiation at the microwave wavelength of 21.4 cm. The terrain emissivity at this wavelength is strongly dependent on the soil moisture content, which can be inferred from antecedent precipitation. For the Skylab data acquisition pass from the Oklahoma panhandle to southeastern Texas on 11 June 1973, the S194 brightness temperatures are highly correlated with antecedent precipitation from the preceding eleven day period, but very little correlation was apparent for the preceding five day period. The correlation coefficient between the averaged antecedent precipitation index values and the corresponding S194 brightness temperatures between 230 K and 270 K, the region of apparent response to soil moisture in the data, was -0.97. The equation of the linear least squares line is given.

  19. Unwrapping the organizational entry process: disentangling multiple antecedents and their pathways to adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Wanberg, Connie R

    2003-10-01

    This 4-wave longitudinal study of newcomers in 7 organizations examined preentry knowledge, proactive personality, and socialization influences as antecedents of both proximal (task mastery, role clarity, work group integration, and political knowledge) and distal (organizational commitment, work withdrawal, and turnover) indicators of newcomer adjustment. Results suggest that preentry knowledge, proactive personality, and socialization influences from the organization, supervisors, and coworkers are independently related to proximal adjustment outcomes, consistent with a theoretical framework highlighting distinct dimensions of organizational and work task adjustment. The proximal adjustment outcomes partially mediated most of the relationships between the antecedents of adjustment and organizational commitment, work withdrawal, and turnover. PMID:14516244

  20. The abative effect: A new term to describe the action of antecedents that reduce operant responding

    PubMed Central

    Laraway, Sean; Snycerski, Susan; Michael, Jack; Poling, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Behavior-analytic terminology concerning the so-called inhibitory effect of operant antecedents lacks precision. The present paper describes the problem with current nomenclature concerning the effects of antecedent events that reduce operant responding and offers a solution to this problem. The solution consists of adopting a new term, abative, for the effect in question. This paper suggests that the new term has several advantages over terms currently used and that adopting this term will yield a variety of practical and theoretical benefits, including, but not limited to, a more consistent vocabulary to describe antecedent—behavior relations. PMID:22477232

  1. Predicting Factors for Successful Maturation of Autogenous Haemodialysis Fistulas After Salvage Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in Diabetic Nephropathy: A Study on Follow-Up Doppler Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eui-Yong; Cho, Young Kwon; Cho, Sung Bum; Yoon, Dae Young; Suh, Seong O

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maturation failure of autogenous arteriovenous fistula (aAVF) has been increasing after surgical procedures and the salvage percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (sPTA) for immature aAVF has been identified as an effective treatment modality. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify factors predicting successful aAVF maturation and to determine positive technical aspects of sPTA. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records and radiological images of 59 patients who had undergone sPTA for non-maturing aAVFs. We analysed images from pre-surgical mapping Doppler ultrasonography, angiography, and angioplasty and follow-up Doppler ultrasonography performed within two weeks after sPTA. We assessed the following factors, for their ability to predict successful aAVF maturation: 1) patient factors (age; sex; co-morbidities; and aAVF age, side and type); 2) vessel factors (cephalic vein diameter and depth, presence of accessory veins, and pre- and postoperative radial artery disease); 3) lesion factors (stenosis number, location and severity); and 4) technical factors (presence of residual stenosis and anatomic success ratio (ASR) on follow-up Doppler ultrasonography). Results: The technical and clinical success rates were both 94.9% (56/59); the mean ASR was 0.84. An ASR of ≥ 0.7 and no significant residual stenosis (< 30%) (both P < 0.001) on two-week follow-up Doppler ultrasonography predicted successful aAVF maturation. Conclusion: For more precise prediction of successful aAVF maturation after sPTA, short-term follow-up Doppler ultrasonography (< 2 weeks) was useful. If the ASR was < 0.7 or if residual stenosis was ≥ 30%, immediate repeat sPTA is recommended. PMID:27127581

  2. In flight measurement of steady and unsteady blade surface pressure of a single rotation large scale advanced prop-fan installed on the PTA aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parzych, D.; Boyd, L.; Meissner, W.; Wyrostek, A.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was performed by Hamilton Standard, Division of United Technologies Corporation, under contract by LeRC, to measure the blade surface pressure of a large scale, 8 blade model prop-fan in flight. The test bed was the Gulfstream 2 Prop-Fan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft. The objective of the test was to measure the steady and periodic blade surface pressure resulting from three different Prop-Fan air inflow angles at various takeoff and cruise conditions. The inflow angles were obtained by varying the nacelle tilt angles, which ranged from -3 to +2 degrees. A range of power loadings, tip speeds, and altitudes were tested at each nacelle tilt angle over the flight Mach number range of 0.30 to 0.80. Unsteady blade pressure data tabulated as Fourier coefficients for the first 35 harmonics of shaft rotational frequency and the steady (non-varying) pressure component are presented.

  3. A covariance structure model test of antecedents of adolescent alcohol misuse and a prevention effort.

    PubMed

    Dielman, T E; Shope, J T; Butchart, A T; Campanelli, P C; Caspar, R A

    1989-01-01

    As part of an alcohol misuse prevention evaluation, questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. A conceptual model of the antecedents of adolescent alcohol misuse and the effectiveness of a prevention effort was tested using covariance structure modeling techniques. The factor loadings for the model were all moderate to high, indicating that the observed variables served well as measurement instruments for the latent variables. The hypothesized structural relationships among the latent variables of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem were supported by the data. The full model explained 45 percent of the variance in alcohol misuse in the analysis based on the total sample. The direct effect of the intervention on alcohol misuse was small but significant in the hypothesized direction. The direct effects of the intervention on susceptibility to peer pressure and internal health locus of control were not significant. The model was tested separately for groups of students who had high versus low scores on susceptibility to peer pressure in order to test the interaction between susceptibility to peer pressure and exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol. The percentage of variance accounted for in alcohol misuse did not increase upon testing the model separately for students who had high versus low scores on susceptibility to peer pressure. Observed differences in the significance of the parameter estimates between the high and low susceptibility to peer pressure groups suggest that different approaches to the design and evaluation of substance abuse prevention programs may be necessary for different subgroups of students. PMID:2621540

  4. Syntheses, structures, and antimicrobial activity of new remarkably light-stable and water-soluble tris(pyrazolyl)methanesulfonate silver(I) derivatives of N-methyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane salt - [mPTA]BF4.

    PubMed

    Smoleński, Piotr; Pettinari, Claudio; Marchetti, Fabio; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Lupidi, Giulio; Badillo Patzmay, Gretta Veronica; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2015-01-20

    Two new silver(I) complexes of formula [Ag(mPTA)4](Tpms)4(BF4) (1) and [Ag(Tpms)(mPTA)](BF4) (2) (mPTA = N-methyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane cation, Tpms = tris(pyrazol-1-yl)methanesulfonate anion) have been synthesized and fully characterized by elemental analyses, (1)H and (31)P{(1)H} NMR, ESI-MS, and IR spectroscopic techniques. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of 1 discloses a noncoordinated nature of the Tpms species, existing as counterions around the highly charged metal center [Ag(mPTA)](5+), 1 being the first reported coordination compound bearing a κ(0)-Tpms. 1 features high solubility and stability in water (S25 °C ≈ 30 mg·mL(-1)). The two complexes interact with calf thymus DNA via intercalation mode, binding to the BSA with decrease of its tryptophan fluorescence with a static quenching mechanism. The two new silver complexes exhibit significant antibacterial and antifungal activities screened in vitro against the standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. PMID:25531979

  5. Sequential treatment of PTA wastewater in a two-stage UASB process: focusing on p-toluate degradation and microbial distribution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Woo, Seung Han; Lee, Min Woo; Park, Jong Moon

    2012-05-15

    Two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process was investigated as an efficient process configuration option for the treatment of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater. To study its feasibility in a defined condition, synthetic wastewater containing only the major pollutants (i.e., acetate, benzoate, terephthalate and p-toluate) was used. By focusing the role of the second stage on the p-toluate degradation, improved overall COD and p-toluate removal capacities of 4.18 and 1.35 g-thCOD/L·day could be achieved together with a complete COD removal efficiency. In this situation, all the pollutants except p-toluate were completely degraded in the first stage while 38 and 62% of p-toluate originally present in the wastewater were consecutively degraded in the individual stages. The concomitant methane production rate in each stage was 0.91 and 0.35 L/L·day respectively, and the methane yield on p-toluate was determined to be 0.12 L/g-thCOD. Batch tests using the granules obtained from each stage revealed that the acidogenic microorganisms enriched in both stages had a universal ability to degrade all aromatic pollutants present in the PTA wastewater. Moreover, image analysis using scanning electron microscope and confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization technique elucidated that the distribution of acidogens and methanogens within the granule was varied in each stage, which influenced the mass transfer regime resulting in the different pollutant degradation rates during the batch tests. PMID:22417741

  6. Antecedents of chronic lung disease following three patterns of early respiratory disease in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Laughon, Matthew; Bose, Carl; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Van Marter, Linda J.; Leviton, Alan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/INTRODUCTION The incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD) varies among groups defined by their early pattern of respiratory disease. Although CLD is common among infants with continuous exposure to increased ambient oxygen throughout the first two postnatal weeks the antecedents of CLD among preterm infants without this exposure are not well understood. PATIENTS AND METHODS We examined data collected prospectively on the 1204 (out of 1506) infants born in 2002 to 2004 at 23 to 27 completed weeks of gestation who survived to 36 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA). Based on their initial respiratory presentation and need for supplemental oxygen during the first two weeks, infants were classified as having early and persistent pulmonary dysfunction (EPPD), early recovery of pulmonary function followed by deterioration (PD), or consistently good pulmonary function characterized by low FiO2 (Low FiO2). RESULTS CLD was diagnosed in 69% of infants with EPPD, in 52% with PD, and 17% in the Low FiO2 group. Risk factors for CLD varied among these groups. Birth weight z-score < -1 conveyed information about CLD risk in all three groups and was the major risk factor for infants in the Low FiO2 group (Odds Ratio [OR] 27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7–95). Mechanical ventilation at 7 days was associated with increased risk in the pulmonary deterioration group (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.5–6.9) and the early and persistent pulmonary dysfunction group (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5–4.7), but not the Low FiO2 group (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.5–3.9). CONCLUSION Both the likelihood of a very preterm infant developing CLD and the profile of risk factors linked with CLD are related to the infant’s pattern of respiratory disease during the first two postnatal weeks. Among infants with little exposure to oxygen during this period, fetal growth restriction, not mechanical ventilation, is the factor with the strongest association with CLD. PMID:20688867

  7. Behavioral and Emotional Antecedents and Consequences of Binge Eating in Bulimic and Binge Eating College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzman, Melanie A.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.

    Recent studies have indicated that bulimia, characterized by binge eating followed by depressed mood and purging, is increasing. To investigate the behavioral and emotional antecedents and consequences of binge eating in women, 22 female college students (14 diagnosed bulimics, 8 binge eaters) completed self-monitoring forms for four binges.…

  8. The Antecedents of Menarcheal Age: Heredity, Family Environment, and Stressful Life Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Considered variations in pubertal timing, specifically age at menarche, and association with various antecedents, including heredity; weight and weight for height; stressful life events; family relations; absence or presence of adult male in household; and psychological adjustment, in 75 premenarcheal adolescent girls. Found complex interactions…

  9. Role Stress Revisited: Job Structuring Antecedents, Work Outcomes, and Moderating Effects of Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2014-01-01

    A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among…

  10. Antecedents of Compliance in 2-Year-Olds From a High-Risk Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Martha Farrell; Crichton, Leslie

    In order to identify antecedents of infant's compliance with mothers' directions on how to solve four tasks (graded in terms of stressfulness to the infant), 194 high-risk mothers and their 2-year-old children were observed on videotape and assessed with a six-point rating scale. Data collected prenatally and postnatally at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months…

  11. ERP Evidence for the Rapid Assignment of an (Appropriate) Antecedent to PRO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demestre, Josep; Garcia-Albea, Jose E.

    2007-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were recorded while subjects listened to sentences containing a controlled infinitival complement. Subject and object control items were used, both with 2 potential antecedents in the upper clause. Half of the sentences had a gender agreement violation between the null subject of the infinitival complement and an…

  12. An Experimental Investigation of the Antecedents and Consequences of Psychological Reactance in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Hannah; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2014-01-01

    Psychological reactance theory (PRT) is largely understudied in the classroom context. In this experiment, we manipulated instructors' use of clarity and forceful language as antecedents of psychological reactance and examined student communication outcomes (i.e., instructional dissent and challenge behavior) as ways in which students restore…

  13. A Longitudinal Panel Study on Antecedents and Outcomes of Work-Home Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmetz, Holger; Frese, Michael; Schmidt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical models of the antecedents and outcomes of work-home interference (WHI) suggest that work characteristics (e.g., job stressors, working hours) increase the probability that an individual experiences work-home interference. Since work-home interference is considered as a role stressor, these experiences should be detrimental for…

  14. Anaphoric Reference to Quantified Antecedents: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filik, Ruth; Leuthold, Hartmut; Moxey, Linda M.; Sanford, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    We report an event-related brain potential (ERP) study examining how readers process sentences containing anaphoric reference to quantified antecedents. Previous studies indicate that positive (e.g. "many") and negative (e.g. "not many") quantifiers cause readers to focus on different sets of entities. For example in "Many of the fans attended the…

  15. The correlation of Skylab L-band brightness temperatures with antecedent precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The S194 L-band radiometer flown on the Skylab mission measured terrestrial radiation at the microwave wavelength of 21.4 cm. The terrain emissivity at this wavelength is strongly dependent on the soil moisture content, which can be inferred from antecedent precipitation. For the Skylab data acquisition pass from the Oklahoma panhandle to southeastern Texas on 11 June 1973, the S194 brightness temperatures are highly correlated with antecedent precipitation from the preceding eleven day period, but very little correlation was apparent for the preceding five day period. The correlation coefficient between the averaged antecedent precipitation index values and the corresponding S194 brightness temperatures between 230 K and 270 K, the region of apparent response to soil moisture in the data, was -0.97. The equation of the linear least squares line fitted to the data was: API (cm) = 31.99 -0.114 TB (K), where API is the antecedent precipitation index and TB is the S194 brightness temperature.

  16. Effects of Fishing Education Programs on Antecedents of Responsible Environmental Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemer, William F.; Knuth, Barbara A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates fishing and aquatic stewardship outcomes associated with different levels of program exposure among n=619 participants in a national fishing education program (Hooked on Fishing-Not on Drugs) designed for youth in Grades 6-8. Supports the assumption that such programs are more likely to influence antecedents to environmentally…

  17. Utilizing Antecedent Manipulations and Reinforcement in the Treatment of Food Selectivity by Texture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najdowski, Adel C.; Tarbox, Jonathan; Wilke, Arthur E.

    2012-01-01

    Food selectivity by texture is relatively common in children. Treatments for food selectivity by texture have included components such as stimulus fading, reinforcement, and escape extinction. The purpose of the current study was to attempt to treat food selectivity by texture utilizing antecedent manipulations and reinforcement in the absence of…

  18. Investigating the Individual Difference Antecedents of Perceived Enjoyment in Students' Use of Blogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yi-Shun; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Liao, Yi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    With the proliferation of weblogs (blogs) used in educational contexts, gaining a better understanding of why students are willing to blog has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. The main purpose of this study is to explore the individual difference antecedents of perceived enjoyment and examine how they influence blogging…

  19. Causal Models of Role Stressor Antecedents and Consequences: The Importance of Occupational Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacharach, Samuel; Bamberger, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Survey data from 215 nurses (10 male) and 430 civil engineers (10 female) supported the plausibility of occupation-specific models (positing direct paths between role stressors, antecedents, and consequences) compared to generic models. A weakness of generic models is the tendency to ignore differences in occupational structure and culture. (SK)

  20. Antecedents and Consequences of Service Quality in a Higher Education Context: A Qualitative Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…

  1. The Use of Structural Analysis to Develop Antecedent-Based Interventions for Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stichter, Janine P.; Randolph, Jena K.; Kay, Denise; Gage, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Evidence continues to maintain that the use of antecedent variables (i.e., instructional practices, and environmental characteristics) increase prosocial and adaptive behaviors of students with disabilities (e.g., Kern et al. in J Appl Behav Anal 27(1):7-19, 1994; Stichter et al. in Behav Disord 30:401-418, 2005). This study extends the literature…

  2. Establishing Mand Emergence: The Effects of Three Training Procedures and Modified Antecedent Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Claire E.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a modified antecedent during probes for emergent mands following listener versus tact training for children with autism. Eight students, aged 7 to 11, were trained to respond to 3 sets of relational responses (front/back, left/right, on/under), each assigned a nonsense label. Three training types were evaluated:…

  3. The Effects of Antecedent Physical Activity on the Academic Engagement of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Heather; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Van Heest, Jaci

    2011-01-01

    A multiple baseline design was used to examine the effects of participation in antecedent physical activity on the academic engagement of four elementary-school children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The results indicated large effect sizes for academic engaged time for all four students. It was suggested that physical activity in…

  4. Antecedent Control of Oral Reading Errors and Self-Corrections by Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Singh, Judy

    1984-01-01

    The study evaluated effects of manipulating two antecedent stimulus events with respect to oral reading errors and self-corrections of four mentally retarded adolescents. Oral reading errors decreased and self-corrections increased when the children previewed the target text with their teacher before reading it orally. (Author/CL)

  5. Responsive and Proactive Stakeholder Orientation in Public Universities: Antecedents and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcón-del-Amo, María-del-Carmen; Casablancas-Segura, Carme; Llonch, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study, based on institutional theory, dynamic capabilities, and stakeholder theory, investigates the relationships between the antecedents of responsive and proactive stakeholder orientation and their consequences in the public university context. The results obtained mainly stress that the mimetic effect of copying successful university…

  6. Effects of antecedent soil moisture on runoff modeling in small semiarid watersheds of southeastern Arizona 2104

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antecedent soil moisture prior to a rain event influences the rainfall-runoff relationship, but its degree of importance and influence on overall model prediction capability for runoff modeling in semiarid areas is not clear. This study aimed to examine the sensitivity of runoff response to anteced...

  7. Antecedents of Career Exploration among Hong Kong Chinese University Students: Testing Contextual and Developmental Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Raysen; Arnold, John

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the antecedents of career exploration. We apply the perspectives of Flum and Blustein [Flum, H., & Blustein, D. L. (2000). Reinvigorating the study of vocational exploration: A framework for research. "Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56", 380-404] for the first time in Hong Kong, and we also test culture-specific…

  8. Using an Antecedent Art Intervention to Improve the Behavior of a Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Nai-Cheng; Plavnick, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an antecedent art intervention on reduction of off-task behavior for a 3-year-old child with autism. A single-case reversal design was used to show that one-on-one art task instruction occurring prior to large group instructional sessions produced decreased levels of off-task behavior when compared to…

  9. Students' Emotions during Homework in Mathematics: Testing a Theoretical Model of Antecedents and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettmers, Swantje; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    The experience of pleasant and unpleasant emotions in academic situations is known to affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to extend previous research by examining the antecedents and consequences of student emotions in the homework context. Multilevel analyses of a longitudinal dataset containing 3483 grade 9 and grade 10…

  10. The Antecedents of Friendships in Moderately Diverse Classrooms: Social Preference, Social Impact, and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the antecedents of cross-racial/ethnic friendships and same-racial/ethnic friendships. The sample consisted of 444 (161 African American, 108 European American, 100 Asian American, and 75 Latino) children who were in the fourth grade from 39 classrooms in 10 public elementary schools. Results of Mixed Linear…