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Sample records for anterior hepatic transection

  1. Anterior Hepatic Transection for Caudate Lobectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chaib, Eleazar; Ribeiro, Marcelo A F; de Souza, Yngrid Ellyn Dias Maciel; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto C

    2009-01-01

    Resection of the caudate lobe (segment I- dorsal sector, segment IX- right paracaval region, or both) is often technically difficult due to the lobe’s location deep in the hepatic parenchyma and because it is adjacent to the major hepatic vessels (e.g., the left and middle hepatic veins). A literature search was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE for the terms “caudate lobectomy” and “anterior hepatic transection” (AHT) covering 1992 to 2007. AHT was used in 110 caudate lobectomies that are discussed in this review. Isolated caudate lobectomy was performed on 28 (25.4%) patients, with 11 case (11%) associated with hepatectomy, while 1 (0.9%) was associated with anterior segmentectomy. Complete caudate lobectomy was performed on 82 (74.5%) patients. Hepatocellular carcinoma was observed in 106 (96.3%) patients, while 1 (0.9%) had hemangioma and 3 (2.7%) had metastatic caudate tumors. AHT was used in 108 (98.1%) caudate resections, while AHT associated with a right-sided approach was performed in 2 (1.8%) cases. AHT is recommended for tumors located in the paracaval portion of the caudate lobe (segment IX). AHT is usually a safe and potentially curative surgical option. PMID:19936187

  2. Utility of the Gyrus open forceps in hepatic parenchymal transection

    PubMed Central

    Porembka, Matthew R; Doyle, M B Majella; Hamilton, Nicholas A; Simon, Peter O; Strasberg, Steven M; Linehan, David C; Hawkins, William G

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate if the Gyrus open forceps is a safe and efficient tool for hepatic parenchymal transection. Background: Blood loss during hepatic transection remains a significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality associated with liver surgery. Various electrosurgical devices have been engineered to reduce blood loss. The Gyrus open forceps is a bipolar cautery device which has recently been introduced into hepatic surgery. Methods: We conducted a single-institution, retrospective review of all liver resections performed from November 2005 through November 2007. Patients undergoing resection of at least two liver segments where the Gyrus was the primary method of transection were included. Patient charts were reviewed; clinicopathological data were collected. Results: Of the 215 open liver resections performed during the study period, 47 patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean patient age was 61 years; 34% were female. The majority required resection for malignant disease (94%); frequent indications included colorectal metastasis (66%), hepatocellular carcinoma (6%) and cholangiocarcinoma (4%). Right hemihepatectomy (49%), left hemihepatectomy (13%) and right trisectionectomy (13%) were the most frequently performed procedures. A total of 26 patients (55%) underwent a major ancillary procedure concurrently. There were no operative mortalities. Median operative time was 220 min (range 97–398 min). Inflow occlusion was required in nine patients (19%) for a median time of 12 min (range 3–30 min). Median total estimated blood loss was 400 ml (range 10–2000 ml) and 10 patients (21%) required perioperative transfusion. All patients had macroscopically negative margins. Median length of stay was 8 days. Two patients (4%) had clinically significant bile leak. The 30-day postoperative mortality was zero. Conclusions: Use of the Gyrus open forceps appears to be a safe and efficient manner of hepatic parenchymal transection which allows

  3. Open hepatic parenchymal transection using ultrasonic dissection and bipolar coagulation.

    PubMed

    Lesurtel, Mickael; Belghiti, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Liver transection is the most challenging part of liver resection due to the risk of massive blood loss which is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality, as well as reduced long-term survival after resection of malignancies. Among the devices used for open parenchyma transection, ultrasonic dissection with bipolar cautery forceps is one of the most widely used technique worldwide. We identified four retrospective comparative studies and three randomized controlled trials dealing with the efficacy of ultrasonic dissector (UD) compared with other techniques including the historical clamp crushing technique. UD is associated with similar blood loss and slower resection time compared with water-jet or clamp crushing technique. However, it seems to be more precise in dissecting vessels. Its use does not impact on morbidity and hospital stay compared with other techniques. From an economic point of view, UD is the most expensive technique and may be a disadvantage for low centre volume. UD with bipolar cautery is one of the safest and the most efficient device for liver transection, even if its superiority over the clamp crushing technique has not been well established. It is considered as a standard technique for liver transection. PMID:18773097

  4. Open hepatic parenchymal transection using ultrasonic dissection and bipolar coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Lesurtel, Mickael

    2008-01-01

    Liver transection is the most challenging part of liver resection due to the risk of massive blood loss which is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality, as well as reduced long-term survival after resection of malignancies. Among the devices used for open parenchyma transection, ultrasonic dissection with bipolar cautery forceps is one of the most widely used technique worldwide. We identified four retrospective comparative studies and three randomized controlled trials dealing with the efficacy of ultrasonic dissector (UD) compared with other techniques including the historical clamp crushing technique. UD is associated with similar blood loss and slower resection time compared with water-jet or clamp crushing technique. However, it seems to be more precise in dissecting vessels. Its use does not impact on morbidity and hospital stay compared with other techniques. From an economic point of view, UD is the most expensive technique and may be a disadvantage for low centre volume. UD with bipolar cautery is one of the safest and the most efficient device for liver transection, even if its superiority over the clamp crushing technique has not been well established. It is considered as a standard technique for liver transection. PMID:18773097

  5. Function of transected or avulsed rectus muscles following recovery using an anterior orbitotomy approach

    PubMed Central

    Pineles, Stacy L.; Laursen, Jessica; Goldberg, Robert A.; Demer, Joseph L.; Velez, Federico G.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the function of muscles retrieved from a retrobulbar location using an anterior orbitotomy approach and to identify the prognostic factors favoring a good outcome. METHODS The records of all patients undergoing anterior orbitotomy for the retrieval of a transected or avulsed muscle in a retrobulbar location were reviewed. Ocular motility, before and after retrieval (with ductions scaled from −4 to +4), was evaluated. RESULTS Record review identified 11 patients who had suffered trauma to 12 muscles (5 inferior, 6 medial, and 1 lateral rectus muscle). Ductions improved from −4 ± 0.4 preoperatively to −2.7 ± 0.9 postoperatively (P = 0.002); mean primary position deviation improved from 34Δ ± 14Δ-15Δ ± 9Δ (P < 0.001), and mean deviation in the field of action improved from 47Δ ± 20Δ-20Δ ± 22Δ (P = 0.02). Ductions improved by at least two units in three patients, all of whom had medial rectus trauma. Single binocular vision in primary gaze was achieved in 6 patients. Patients with medial rectus muscle injury and patients injured by sinus surgery had the lowest likelihood of recovering single binocular vision. CONCLUSIONS Our results are similar to historical series in which muscles were not retrieved and transpositions performed; however, muscle retrieval avoids risks associated with transposition surgeries such as anterior segment ischemia. Muscle recovery via the anterior orbitotomy approach may be reasonable to consider in those cases with a reasonable possibility of having active force generation postoperatively. PMID:22835914

  6. A clinical comparative analysis of crush/clamp, stapler, and dissecting sealer hepatic transection methods1

    PubMed Central

    Earl, T. Mark; Chari, Ravi S.; Gorden, D. Lee; Merchant, Nipun B.; Wright, J. Kelly; Feurer, Irene D.; Pinson, C. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Several methods for hepatic parenchymal division exist. The primary aim was to assess differences in postoperative bile leaks, operative blood loss, and margin status between three transection methods: crush/clamp (CC), stapler (SP), or dissecting sealer (DS). Methods. A single institution, retrospective cohort study was performed on data collected over a three-year period in patients undergoing elective liver resection using the CC, SP, or DS. Patients were excluded if multiple methods of transection were used or for intraoperative death. The association of bile leak with transection type was assessed. A logistic regression model was tested to assess if blood loss was associated with the covariates of transection method, use of portal inflow occlusion, extent of liver resection, and other concurrent major operations. Results. Analyses included 141 patients. The stapler method was quicker than the other methods (p=0.01). The risk of postoperative bile leak was no different between CC, SP, and DS transection methods (p=0.23). There was no difference in mean blood loss or transfusions; however, hepatectomies performed with DS were associated with an increased risk of blood loss ≥1000 mL compared to CC (p=0.04). There were no differences in mean surgical margin between the three methods. Conclusion. The risk of bile leaks was not different between the three methods. While mean blood loss was similar, hepatectomy performed with the DS was associated with an increased risk of having operative blood loss ≥1000 mL compared to CC. Margins were equal by all methods. The stapler method was quicker. PMID:18982146

  7. Comparison of harmonic scalpel versus conventional knot tying for transection of short hepatic veins at liver transplantation: prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Olmez, A; Karabulut, K; Aydin, C; Kayaalp, C; Yilmaz, S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare harmonic scalpel for short hepatic vein transection with conventional ligation during recipient hepatectomy with caval preservation. Sixteen patients undergoing elective living donor liver transplantation were randomized into 2 groups. We recorded number, diameter, and location of each short hepatic vein, procedure time, central venous pressure, and degree of liver failure (Child-Pugh and Model for End stage Liver Disease scores). As an end point, we observed the intraoperative and postoperative bleeding rates of the transected veins. We transected 144 veins of mean diameter of 2.6 ± 1.8 mm (range, 1-12 mm). Mean number of short hepatic veins in each person was 9 (range, 5-16). Harmonic scalpel was safe for veins with a diameter ≤ 2 mm; these veins were more prone to bleeding with conventional ligation. Bleeding rate was higher after ligation of veins in the upper half than the lower half of the cava (37% vs 21%; P = .04). Both total and per vessel procedure time did not differ between the groups. No postoperative bleeding complications occurred. Transection of veins with a diameter ≤ 2 mm by harmonic scalpel was as safe as conventional ligation. Harmonic scalpel transection of small hepatic veins (≤ 2 mm) can be even safer than conventional control by knot tying, particularly in narrow areas. PMID:22841252

  8. Right hepatectomy with extra-hepatic vascular division prior to transection: intention-to-treat analysis of a standardized policy

    PubMed Central

    Boleslawski, Emmanuel; Decanter, Gauthier; Truant, Stéphanie; Bouras, Ahmed Fouad; Sulaberidze, Lasha; Oberlin, Olivier; Pruvot, François-René

    2012-01-01

    Background Right hepatectomy (RH) is the most common type of major hepatectomy and can be achieved without portal triad clamping (PTC) in non-cirrhotic liver. The present study reviews our standardized policy of performing RH without systematic PTC. Methods One hundred and eighty-one consecutive RH were performed in non-cirrhotic patients, with division of the right afferent and efferent blood vessels prior to transection, without systematically using PTC. Prospectively collected data were analysed, focusing on the following endpoints: need for salvage PTC, ischaemic time, blood loss and post-operative outcome. Results Extra-hepatic division of the right hepatic vessels was feasible in all patients, but was ineffective in 48 patients (26.5%) who required salvage PTC during transection. In those patients, the median ischaemic time was 20 min. The median blood loss was 500 ml (50–3000). Six patients (3.3%) experienced post-operative liver failure. Overall morbidity, severe morbidity and mortality were 42%, 12.1% and 1.6%, respectively, with peri-operative transfusion rate (16.6%) being the only factor associated with morbidity. Discussion By performing RH with extra-hepatic vascular division prior to transection, PTC can be safely avoided in the majority of patients. PMID:22954006

  9. Combined Effect of Bilateral Ovariectomy and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection With Medial Meniscectomy on the Development of Osteoarthritis Model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the combined effect of bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) with medial meniscectomy (MM) on the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Twenty female 15-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Five rats in each group underwent bilateral OVX (OVX group), bilateral ACLT with MM (ACLT with MM group), bilateral OVX plus ACLT with MM (OVX plus ACLT with MM group), and sham surgery (SHAM group). All the rats were subjected to treadmill running for 4 weeks. The behavioral evaluation for induction of OA used the number of rears method, and this was conducted at 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-surgery. Bone mineral density (BMD) was calculated with micro-computerized tomography images and the modified Mankin's scoring was used for the histological changes. Results The number of rears in the OVX plus ACLT with MM group decreased gradually and more rapidly in the ACLT with MM group. Histologically, the OVX plus ACLT with MM group had a significantly higher modified Mankin's score than the OVX group (p=0.008) and the SHAM group (p=0.008). BMDs of the OVX plus ACLT with MM group were significantly lower than the SHAM group (p=0.002), and the ACLT with MM group (p=0.003). Conclusion We found that bilateral OVX plus ACLT with MM induced definite OA change in terms of histology and BMD compared to bilateral OVX and ACLT with MM alone. Therefore, OVX and ACLT with MM was an appropriate degenerative OA rat model. PMID:27606264

  10. 24R,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Protects against Articular Cartilage Damage following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Boyan, Barbara D; Hyzy, Sharon L; Pan, Qingfen; Scott, Kayla M; Coutts, Richard D; Healey, Robert; Schwartz, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) in humans is associated with low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]. In vitamin D replete rats, radiolabeled 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3] accumulates in articular cartilage following injection of [3H]-25(OH)D3. Previously, we showed that 24R,25(OH)2D3 blocks chondrocyte apoptosis via phospholipase D and p53, suggesting a role for 24R,25(OH)2D3 in maintaining cartilage health. We examined the ability of 24R,25(OH)2D3 to prevent degenerative changes in articular cartilage in an OA-like environment and the potential mechanisms involved. In vitro, rat articular chondrocytes were treated with IL-1β with and without 24R,25(OH)2D3 or 1α,25(OH)2D3. 24R,25(OH)2D3 but not 1α,25(OH)2D3 blocked the effects of IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner, and its effect was partially mediated through the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. In vivo, unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transections were performed in immunocompetent rats followed by intra-articular injections of 24R,25(OH)2D3 or vehicle (t = 0, 7, 14, 21 days). Tissues were harvested on day 28. Joints treated with vehicle had changes typical of OA whereas joints treated with 24R,25(OH)2D3 had less articular cartilage damage and levels of inflammatory mediators. These results indicate that 24R,25(OH)2D3 protects against OA, and suggest that it may be a therapeutic approach for preventing trauma-induced osteoarthritis. PMID:27575371

  11. Two-Surgeon Technique for Hepatic Parenchymal Transection of the Noncirrhotic Liver Using Saline-Linked Cautery and Ultrasonic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, Thomas A.; Zorzi, Daria; Abdalla, Eddie K.; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze our experience with saline-linked cautery in hepatic surgery. Summary Background Data: Safe and efficient hepatic parenchymal transection is predicated on the ability to simultaneously address 2 tasks: parenchymal dissection and hemostasis. To date, no single instrument has been designed that addresses both of these tasks. Saline-linked cautery is now widely used in liver surgery and is reported to decrease blood loss during liver transection, but data on its exact benefits are lacking. Methods: From a single institution, prospective liver surgery database, we identified 32 consecutive patients with noncirrhotic livers who underwent resection for primary or metastatic disease using a 2-surgeon technique with saline-linked cautery and ultrasonic dissection (SLC+UD) from December 2002 to January 2004. From the same database, we identified a contemporary and matched set of 32 patients who underwent liver resection with similar indications using ultrasonic dissection alone (UD alone). Operative and anesthetic variables were retrospectively analyzed to identify differences between the 2 groups. Results: The 2 groups were equivalent in terms of age, gender, tumor histology, tumor number, and tumor size. The UD+SLC group had a decreased duration of inflow occlusion (20 minutes versus 30 minutes, P = 0.01), blood loss (150 mL versus 250 mL, P = 0.034), and operative time (187 minutes versus 211 minutes, P = 0.027). Postoperative liver function and complication rates were similar in each group. Conclusions: The 2-surgeon technique for liver parenchymal transection using SLC and UD in noncirrhotic livers is safe and may provide advantages over other techniques. PMID:16041206

  12. Intra-articular injection of a nutritive mixture solution protects articular cartilage from osteoarthritic progression induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection in mature rabbits: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoo-Sin; Lim, Si-Woong; Lee, Il-Hoon; Lee, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jong-Sung; Han, Jin Soo

    2007-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that disrupts the collagenous matrix of articular cartilage and is difficult to cure because articular cartilage is a nonvascular tissue. Treatment of OA has targeted macromolecular substitutes for cartilage components, such as hyaluronic acid or genetically engineered materials. However, the goal of the present study was to examine whether intra-articular injection of the elementary nutrients restores the matrix of arthritic knee joints in mature animals. A nutritive mixture solution (NMS) was composed of elementary nutrients such as glucose or dextrose, amino acids and ascorbic acid. It was administered five times (at weeks 6, 8, 10, 13 and 16) into the unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transected knee joints of mature New Zealand White rabbits, and the effect of NMS injection was compared with that of normal saline. OA progression was histopathologically evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining, by the Mankin grading method and by scanning electron microscopy at week 19. NMS injection decreased progressive erosion of articular cartilage overall compared with injection of normal saline (P < 0.01), and nms joints exhibited no differences relative to normal cartilage that had not undergone transection of the anterior cruciate ligament, as assessed using the mankin grading method. Haematoxylin and eosin staining and scanning electron microscopy findings also indicated that nms injection, in constrast to normal saline injection, restored the cartilage matrix, which is known to be composed of a collagen and proteoglycan network. thus, nms injection is a potent treatment that significantly retards oa progression, which in turn prevents progressive destruction of joints and functional loss in mature animals. PMID:17257416

  13. Efficacy test of Polycan, a beta-glucan originated from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001, on anterior cruciate ligament transection and partial medial meniscectomy-induced-osteoarthritis rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo-Wan; Cho, Hyung-Rae; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2012-02-01

    The object of this study was to assess the efficacy of Polycan from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001, which is composed mostly of beta-1,3-1,6-glucan, on osteoarthritis (OA)-induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection and partial medial meniscectomy (ACLT&PMM). Three different dosages of Polycan (85, 42.5, and 21.25 mg/kg) were orally administered once a day for 84 days to male rats a week after ACLT&PMM surgery. Changes in the circumference and maximum extension angle of each knee, and in cartilage histopathology were assessed using Mankin scores 12 weeks after Polycan administration. In addition, cartilage proliferation was evaluated using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). As the result of ACLT&PMM, classic OA was induced with increases in maximum extension angles, edematous knees changes, and capsule thickness, as well as decreases in chondrocyte proliferation, cartilages degenerative changes, and loss of articular cartilage. However, these changes (except for capsule thickness) were markedly inhibited in all Polycan- and diclofenac sodium-treated groups compared with OA control. Although diclofenac sodium did not influence BrdU uptake, BrdU-immunoreactive cells were increased with all dosages of Polycan, which means that Polycan treatment induced proliferation of chondrocytes in the surface articular cartilage of the tibia and femur. The results obtained in this study suggest that 84 days of continuous oral treatment of three different dosages of Polycan led to lesser degrees of articular stiffness and histological cartilage damage compared with OA controls 91 days after OA inducement, suggesting that the optimal Polycan dosage to treat OA is 42.5 mg/kg based on the present study. PMID:22370362

  14. A new osteophyte segmentation algorithm using partial shape model and its applications to rabbit femur anterior cruciate ligament transection via micro-CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Saha, P K; Liang, G; Elkins, J M; Coimbra, A; Duong, L T; Williams, D S; Sonka, M

    2011-08-01

    Osteophyte is an additional bony growth on a normal bone surface limiting or stopping motion at a deteriorating joint. Detection and quantification of osteophytes from CT images is helpful in assessing disease status as well as treatment and surgery planning. However, it is difficult to distinguish between osteophytes and healthy bones using simple thresholding or edge/texture features due to the similarity of their material composition. In this paper, we present a new method primarily based active shape model (ASM) to solve this problem and evaluate its application to anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) rabbit femur model via CT imaging. The common idea behind most ASM based segmentation methods is to first build a parametric shape model from a training dataset and apply the model to find a shape instance in a target image. A common challenge with such approaches is that a diseased bone shape is significantly altered at regions with osteophyte deposition misguiding an ASM method and eventually leading to suboptimum segmentations. This difficulty is overcome using a new partial ASM method that uses bone shape over healthy regions and extrapolates it over the diseased region according to the underlying shape model. Finally, osteophytes are segmented by subtracting partial-ASM derived shape from the overall diseased shape. Also, a new semi-automatic method is presented in this paper for efficiently building a 3D shape model for an anatomic region using manual reference of a few anatomically defined fiducial landmarks that are highly reproducible on individuals. Accuracy of the method has been examined on simulated phantoms while reproducibility and sensitivity have been evaluated on CT images of 2-, 4- and 8-week post-ACLT and sham-treated rabbit femurs. Experimental results have shown that the method is highly accurate ( R2 = 0.99), reproducible (ICC = 0.97), and sensitive in detecting disease progression (p-values: 0.065,0.001 and < 0.001 for 2- vs. 4, 4

  15. Bilateral simultaneous anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, an extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis C cured with direct acting antivirals.

    PubMed

    Prud'homme, Sylvie; Nevens, Frederik; Casteels, Ingele

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with a bilateral optic anterior ischemic neuropathy as an extrahepatic complication of a chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection. The patient presented with a bilateral visual acuity loss and bilateral optic disc oedema. The optic neuropathy was associated with a sudden increase in the viral HCV load after a recent liver transplantation. The stop of the calcineurin inhibitor had no effect on the course of the optic neuropathy. Visual improvement and normalization of HCV viraemia occurred after treatment with sofosbuvir and daclatasvir, which are direct acting antivirals. PMID:27625964

  16. Bilateral simultaneous anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, an extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis C cured with direct acting antivirals

    PubMed Central

    Prud’homme, Sylvie; Nevens, Frederik; Casteels, Ingele

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with a bilateral optic anterior ischemic neuropathy as an extrahepatic complication of a chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection. The patient presented with a bilateral visual acuity loss and bilateral optic disc oedema. The optic neuropathy was associated with a sudden increase in the viral HCV load after a recent liver transplantation. The stop of the calcineurin inhibitor had no effect on the course of the optic neuropathy. Visual improvement and normalization of HCV viraemia occurred after treatment with sofosbuvir and daclatasvir, which are direct acting antivirals. PMID:27625964

  17. A New Osteophyte Segmentation Algorithm Using the Partial Shape Model and Its Applications to Rabbit Femur Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection via Micro-CT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liang, G.; Elkins, J. M.; Coimbra, A.; Duong, L. T.; Williams, D. S.; Sonka, M.

    2015-01-01

    Osteophyte is an additional bony growth on a normal bone surface limiting or stopping motion at a deteriorating joint. Detection and quantification of osteophytes from computed tomography (CT) images is helpful in assessing disease status as well as treatment and surgery planning. However, it is difficult to distinguish between osteophytes and healthy bones using simple thresholding or edge/texture features due to the similarity of their material composition. In this paper, we present a new method primarily based on the active shape model (ASM) to solve this problem and evaluate its application to the anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT) rabbit femur model via micro-CT imaging. The common idea behind most ASM-based segmentation methods is to first build a parametric shape model from a training dataset and then apply the model to find a shape instance in a target image. A common challenge with such approaches is that a diseased bone shape is significantly altered at regions with osteophyte deposition misguiding an ASM method and eventually leading to suboptimum segmentations. This difficulty is overcome using a new partial-ASM method that uses bone shape over healthy regions and extrapolates it over the diseased region according to the underlying shape model. Finally, osteophytes are segmented by subtracting partial-ASM-derived shape from the overall diseased shape. Also, a new semiautomatic method is presented in this paper for efficiently building a 3-D shape model for an anatomic region using manual reference of a few anatomically defined fiducial landmarks that are highly reproducible on individuals. Accuracy of the method has been examined on simulated phantoms while reproducibility and sensitivity have been evaluated on micro-CT images of 2-, 4- and 8-week post-ACLT and sham-treated rabbit femurs. Experimental results have shown that the method is highly accurate (R2 = 0.99), reproducible (ICC = 0.97), and sensitive in detecting disease progression (p

  18. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Kids > Hepatitis Print A A A ... an important digestive liquid called bile . What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation (say: in-fluh-MAY- ...

  19. Intraoperative assessment of hepatic venous congestion with direct clamping of the hepatic vein trunk for living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, S; Lee, S G; Kim, K H; Park, K M; Lee, Y J; Ahn, C S; Moon, D B; Ha, T Y; Cho, S H; Oh, K B

    2004-06-01

    We devised a hepatic vein clamping method to assess the amount of hepatic venous congestion (HVC) before liver transection. From February 2003 to May 2003, this method was applied to 5 of 58 living donor livers especially to assess donor safety. The left portal vein and proper hepatic artery as well as the middle hepatic vein (MHV)-left hepatic vein (LHV) trunk were clamped simultaneously to assess the HVC in the remnant right lobe before performing extended left lobectomy. As three donors demonstrated the extent of the HVC equivalent to about 40% of the right lobe volume (RLV), their operations proceeded according to the preoperative plan. The territory of HVC after liver transection was the same as that observed with direct clamping of the hepatic vein. However, one donor showed massive HVC more than 50% of RLV and the operative plan was adjusted to harvest only the left lobe without the MHV trunk for donor safety. To assess the HVC in the remnant left lobe, the isolated LHV trunk was occluded after clamping the donor's proper hepatic artery. The whole left lobe except for a small area at the anterior portion of the medial segment became discolored on LHV clamping: the opposite demarcation appeared on MHV clamping. The amount of HVC was so small that we harvested the right lobe with the MHV trunk. All donors and recipients recovered uneventfully. We believe that this direct clamping method makes the assessment of HVC feasible before parenchymal transection of a donor liver. PMID:15251358

  20. Angiographic Assessment of the Right Hepatic Artery for Encasement by Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Comparison Between Antero-Posterior and Right Anterior Oblique Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Hiroyoshi; Iwata, Ryoko; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2001-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of right anterior oblique (RAO) arteriography for evaluating encasement of the right hepatic artery (RHA) by hilar cholangiocarcinoma.Methods: Celiac arteriography was performed in both the antero-posterior (AP) and RAO projection in ten patients with cholangiocarcinoma. The lengths of the arteries between the bifurcation of the anterior and posterior branch of the liver and the following points were measured: (a) the bifurcation of the left and right hepatic artery (AP-LR), (b) the bifurcation of the proper hepatic artery and the gastroduodenal artery (AP-PG). Additionally, image quality in investigating the invasion of the RHA was evaluated.Results: On the AP images, the average lengths of AP-LR and AP-PG were 24.5 {+-} 5.1 mm and 30.0 {+-} 4.9 mm, respectively. On RAO images, the lengths were 28.2 {+-} 4.6 mm and 32.7 {+-} 4.8 mm, respectively. Every length was different between the two projections (p < 0.01). In 6 of 10 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma, images in RAO projections were superior to AP images for evaluation of encasement.Conclusion: We conclude that angiography obtained in the RAO projection yields images that are superior to those obtained in the conventional AP projection for assessment of RHA encasement.

  1. Opportunistic use of a Foley catheter to provide a common electrocautery with a water-irrigating channel for hepatic parenchymal transection.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuzo; Yoshioka, Masato; Watanabe, Go; Uchinami, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    High-tech surgical energy devices that are used during a single surgery have increased in number and the expense for such disposable units is by no means negligible. We developed a handmade water-irrigating monopolar electrocautery using a Foley catheter to perform liver parenchymal transection. A commonly used 20-24 Fr Foley catheter was cut at a length of about 8 cm. The shaft of the 5 mm ball electrode measuring 13.5 cm in length was then inlaid into the urine drainage channel. The target tissues were cauterized without making an eschar, thereby preventing the adhesion of the electrode to the tissues. A ball electrode with our handmade water irrigation sheath can be made in only a few minutes at a very low cost, using common medical supplies and yielding satisfactory effects comparable to the use of specialized high-tech devices. PMID:25801851

  2. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been associated with drinking contaminated water. Hepatitis Viruses Type Transmission Prognosis A Fecal-oral (stool to ... risk for severe disease. Others A variety of viruses can affect the liver Signs and Symptoms Hepatitis ...

  3. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... be serious. Some can lead to scarring, called cirrhosis, or to liver cancer. Sometimes hepatitis goes away by itself. If it does not, it can be treated with drugs. Sometimes hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Vaccines can help prevent some viral forms.

  4. Comments on transect methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.L.

    1980-02-01

    One of the outcomes of the recent spate of attention to environmental problems is the realization that we do not have suitable methods to census non-game species. Since marking is expensive and time-consuming, investigators have tended to look for methods that involve only visual techniques. One of the leading candidates thus becomes the line transect method. The purpose here is to briefly describe some of the available transect methods, and to comment on some aspects that may be of particular interest and importance.

  5. Ariel's transecting valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This highest-resolution Voyager 2 view of Ariel's terminator shows a complex array of transecting valleys with super-imposed impact craters. Voyager obtained this clear-filter, narrow-angle view from a distance of 130,000 kilometers (80,000 miles) and with a resolution of about 2.4 km (1.5 mi). Particularly striking to Voyager scientists is the fact that the faults that bound the linear valleys are not visible where they transect one another across the valleys. Apparently these valleys were filled with deposits sometime after they were formed by tectonic processes, leaving them flat and smooth. Sinuous rilles (trenches) later formed, probably by some flow process. Some type of fluid flow may well have been involved in their evolution. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  6. Non-transecting bulbar urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Andrich, Daniela E.; Mundy, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    Excision and end-to-end anastomosis (EPA) has been the preferred urethroplasty technique for short bulbar strictures and is associated with an excellent functional outcome. Driven by concerns over the potential morbidity associated with dividing the urethra, therefore compromising spongiosal blood flow, as well as spongiofibrosis being superficial in the majority of non-traumatic bulbar strictures, the non-transecting technique for bulbar urethroplasty has been developed with the aim of achieving the same success as EPA without the morbidity associated with transection. This manuscript highlights the fundamental principles underlying the ongoing debate—transection or non-transection of the strictured bulbar urethra? The potential advantages of avoiding dividing the corpus spongiosum of the urethra are discussed. The non-transecting anastomotic procedure together with its various modifications are decribed in detail. Our experience with this technique is presented. Non-transecting excision of spongiofibrosis with preservation of well vascularised underlying spongiosum provides an excellent alternative to dividing the urethra during urethroplasty for short non-traumatic proximal bulbar strictures. PMID:26816808

  7. Harness Traction Technique (HARNESS): Novel Method for Controlling the Transection Plane During Laparoscopic Hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Itano, Osamu; Oshima, Go; Kitago, Minoru; Suzuki, Keiichi; Hayatsu, Shigeo; Shinoda, Masahiro; Abe, Yuta; Hibi, Taizo; Yagi, Hiroshi; Ikoma, Naruhiko; Aiko, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-08-01

    We present our experience using a novel method for controlling the transection plane, which we termed as the Harness Traction Technique (HARNESS) and evaluate its usefulness. From May 2009 to March 2012, laparoscopic hepatectomies using HARNESS were performed on 35 patients. After the superficial hepatic parenchyma on the line was transected at 1 to 2 cm depth, 5 mm tape was placed along the groove of the line and tied to prevent it from slipping off. Tape was tied and pulled using a forceps toward the best direction for minimizing the bleeding, moving the transection point to the appropriate position and creating good tension for parenchymal transection at the transection point. There were no conversions to laparotomy or intraoperative complications. HARNESS is useful for controlling the dissection line during laparoscopic hepatectomy, leading to precise and safe laparoscopic liver parenchymal dissection. PMID:26121541

  8. Transect workshop held in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazangi, Muawia

    A workshop on the progress of the Global Geoscience Transects (GGT) project in the Middle East and Africa (see maps) was held January 15-17 in Cairo, Egypt. (Transect plans in the region have been described in Eos, 69, p. 124). It was jointly organized and funded by the Egyptian National Committee of Geodesy and Geophysics and the International Lithosphere Program coordinating Committee CC-7 of GGT. A. Ashour of Cairo University, Egypt, chaired the workshop; the general secretary was S. Riad of Assiut University, Egypt, who was responsible for most of the organization, scheduling and implementation of the workshop.

  9. How Far Can We Go with Laparoscopic Liver Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma? Laparoscopic Sectionectomy of the Liver Combined with the Resection of the Major Hepatic Vein Main Trunk

    PubMed Central

    Morise, Zenichi; Kawabe, Norihiko; Tomishige, Hirokazu; Nagata, Hidetoshi; Kawase, Jin; Arakawa, Satoshi; Isetani, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Although the reports of laparoscopic major liver resection are increasing, hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) close to the liver hilum and/or major hepatic veins are still considered contraindications. There is virtually no report of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) for HCC which involves the main trunk of major hepatic veins. We present our method for the procedure. We experienced 6 cases: 3 right anterior, 2 left medial, and 1 right posterior extended sectionectomies with major hepatic vein resection; tumor sizes are within 40–75 (median: 60) mm. The operating time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay are within 341–603 (median: 434) min, 100–750 (300) ml, and 8–44 (18) days. There was no mortality and 1 patient developed postoperative pleural effusion. For these procedures, we propose that the steps listed below are useful, taking advantages of the laparoscopy-specific view. (1) The Glissonian pedicle of the section is encircled and clamped. (2) Liver transection on the ischemic line is performed in the caudal to cranial direction. (3) During transection, the clamped Glissonian pedicle and the peripheral part of hepatic vein are divided. (4) The root of hepatic vein is divided in the good view from caudal and dorsal direction. PMID:26448949

  10. Estimation of fractal dimensions from transect data

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1994-04-01

    Fractals are a useful tool for analyzing the topology of objects such as coral reefs, forest canopies, and landscapes. Transects are often studied in these contexts, and fractal dimensions computed from them. An open question is how representative a single transect is. Transects may also be used to estimate the dimensionality of a surface. Again the question of representativeness of the transect arises. These two issues are related. This note qualifies the conditions under which transect data may be considered to be representative or may be extrapolated, based on both theoretical and empirical results.

  11. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-ke; Yang, Juan-mei; Huang, Yi-bo; Ren, Dong-dong; Chi, Fang-lu

    2015-01-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds. PMID:26199619

  12. Traumatic transection of the lateral rectus muscle with chorioretinitis sclopetaria.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Kelly; Verity, David; Ali, Nadeem

    2015-01-01

    A man, aged 67 years, sustained monocular trauma to the left eye while gardening, presenting with light perception, complete absence of abduction, and chorioretinitis sclopetaria. At surgery, the lateral rectus was found to be transected at the equator of the globe, with an area of locally abraded sclera. A few posterior muscle fibers were identified and sutured to the residual anterior fibers. With a partial improvement of the esodeviation, after a further 6 months he proceeded to lateral transposition of the superior and inferior recti to healthy sclera 4 mm from the limbus, with adjunctive medial rectus botulinum toxin. Six months later, the angle of primary deviation remained stable at 4 prism diopters base out with improved abduction. Vision in the eye remained reduced at 20/200 (with eccentric fixation) due to macular changes secondary to the sclopetaria. In conclusion, this case describes a rare example of complete traumatic transection of the lateral rectus with chorioretinitis sclopetaria, due to orbital injury. With appropriate surgery, the angle of deviation can be considerably improved despite complete muscle transection and scleral injury. PMID:25790075

  13. Geoscientists will meet to organize transects project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Global Geosciences Transects (GGT) project is a new activity of the International Lithosphere Program (ILP). The objective of GGT is to compile a series of 100 km-wide crustal transects across major structures in all continents.The transects will be similar to those being produced by the North American Continent- Ocean Transects Program under the coordination of Robert C. Speed (Northwestern University, Evanston, 111.), except that they will include continental interiors and paleostructures (e.g., Precambrian sutures, rifts) as well as continental margins and active tectonic zones

  14. Global geoscience transects in the Arab region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazangi, Mauwia

    The Global Geoscience Transects (GGT) project is one of the most recent initiatives of the International Lithosphere Program (ILP). The GGT project is represented by ILP Coordinating Committee 7 (CC7), which is coordinated by J . Monger (Geological Survey of Canada, Vancouver). M. Barazangi (Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.) is responsible for the coordination of the Middle East and North Africa region, which includes most of the Arab countries.The main objective of the GGT project is to strengthen and broaden international cooperation mainly through active participation of Earth scientists in constructing geological and geophysical transects, especially cross sections. The transects will be at least to Moho depth and will contain as much detail as transects of geological structures mapped on Earth's surface. The transects are being selected by the participating geoscientists to traverse all continents and, as much as possible, to form a continuous grid across political boundaries. Members of CC7 act as regional coordinators to help the local Earth scientists to initiate and implement GGT objectives. The implementation phase has to a large extent been standardized to follow clear guidelines that were developed by CC7 members. These guidelines are based on a modified and expanded version of the recent highly successful Continent-Ocean Transect project of the Geological Society of America.

  15. Iatrogenic oesophageal transection during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed Nasir; Al-Saif, Osama Habib

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has been hailed as an easy and safe procedure when compared with other bariatric operations. However, it may be associated with well-recognised early complications such as leaks and bleeding, as well as late ones such as stenosis and weight regain. Iatrogenic complete oesophageal transection has never been reported before as a complication. We report a case of complete oesophageal transection during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy that was not recognised intraoperatively. The repair of this iatrogenic injury was staged, with the final stage carried out some 3 months after the initial procedure. This case report highlights the possible occurrence of complete oesophageal transection during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and suggests steps to avoid and correct such complications. PMID:24591379

  16. Phacoemulsification in anterior megalophthalmos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Graham A; Hann, Joshua V; Braga-Mele, Rosa

    2006-07-01

    This case outlines the phacoemulsification technique used to overcome the challenge of the hyperdeep anterior chamber, weak zonules, abnormal anterior capsule, and large capsular bag. Key steps included trypan blue staining of the anterior capsule, a large capsulorhexis, prolapse of the nucleus into the anterior chamber with phacoemulsification anterior to the capsulorhexis, and a posterior chamber-placed iris-clip intraocular lens. Successful visual rehabilitation is achievable in these anatomically challenging eyes. PMID:16857490

  17. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » For Veterans and the Public Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... the Public Veterans and Public Home How is Hepatitis C Treated? Find the facts about the newest ...

  18. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with hepatitis? How does a pregnant woman pass hepatitis B virus to her baby? If I have hepatitis B, what does my baby need so that she ... Can I breastfeed my baby if I have hepatitis B? More information on viral hepatitis What is hepatitis? ...

  19. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint.

    PubMed

    Go, Seung Je; Sul, Young Hoon; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck

    2016-08-01

    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury. PMID:27478816

  20. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint

    PubMed Central

    Go, Seung Je; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck

    2016-01-01

    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury. PMID:27478816

  1. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cystocele Anterior vaginal wall repair (surgical treatment of urinary incontinence) - series References Lentz GM. Anatomic defects of the ... 72. Read More Anterior Inflatable artificial sphincter Stress urinary incontinence Urinary catheters Urinary incontinence - injectable implant Urinary incontinence - ...

  2. ACL/MCL transection affects knee ligament insertion distance of healing and intact ligaments during gait in the Ovine model.

    PubMed

    Tapper, Janet E; Funakoshi, Yusei; Hariu, Mitsuhiro; Marchuk, Linda; Thornton, Gail M; Ronsky, Janet L; Zernicke, Ron; Shrive, Nigel G; Frank, Cyril B

    2009-08-25

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of combined transection of the anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments on the intact and healing ligaments in the ovine stifle joint. In vivo 3D stifle joint kinematics were measured in eight sheep during treadmill walking (accuracy: 0.4+/-0.4mm, 0.4+/-0.4 degrees ). Kinematics were measured with the joint intact and at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after either surgical ligament transection (n=5) or sham surgery without transection (n=3). After sacrifice at 20 weeks, the 3D subject-specific bone and ligament geometry were digitized, and the 3D distances between insertions (DBI) of ligaments during the dynamic in vivo motion were calculated. Anterior cruciate ligament/medial collateral ligament (ACL/MCL) transection resulted in changes in the DBI of not only the transected ACL, but also the intact lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), while the DBI of the transected MCL was not significantly changed. Increases in the maximal ACL DBI (2 week: +4.2mm, 20 week: +5.7mm) caused increases in the range of ACL DBI (2 week: 3.6mm, 20 week: +3.8mm) and the ACL apparent strain (2 week: +18.9%, 20 week: +24.0%). Decreases in the minimal PCL DBI (2 week: -3.2mm, 20 week: -4.3mm) resulted in increases in the range of PCL DBI (2 week: +2.7mm, 20 week: +3.2mm). Decreases in the maximal LCL DBI (2 week: -1.0mm, 20 week: -2.0mm) caused decreased LCL apparent strain (2 week: -3.4%, 20 week: -6.9%). Changes in the mechanical environment of these ligaments may play a significant role in the biological changes observed in these ligaments. PMID:19643414

  3. Transection of Radioactive Seeds in Breast Specimens.

    PubMed

    Gilcrease, Michael Z; Dogan, Basak E; Black, Dalliah M; Contreras, Alejandro; Dryden, Mark J; Jimenez, Sandra M

    2016-10-01

    Radioactive seed localization is a new procedure for localizing breast lesions that has several advantages over the standard wire-localization procedure. It is reported to be safe for both patients and medical personnel. Although it is theoretically possible to transect the titanium-encapsulated seed while processing the breast specimen in the pathology laboratory, the likelihood of such an event is thought to be exceedingly low. In fact, there are no previous reports of such an event in the literature to date. We recently encountered 2 cases in which a radioactive seed was inadvertently transected while slicing a breast specimen at the grossing bench. In this report, we describe each case and offer recommendations for minimizing radioactive exposure to personnel and for preventing radioactive contamination of laboratory equipment. PMID:27627744

  4. Bombing Target Identification from Limited Transect Data

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Barry L.; Hathaway, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; McKenna, Sean A.

    2006-08-07

    A series of sensor data combined with geostatistical techniques were used to determine likely target areas for a historic military aerial bombing range. Primary data consisted of magnetic anomaly information from limited magnetometer transects across the site. Secondary data included airborne LIDAR, orthophotography, and other general site characterization information. Identification of likely target areas relied primarily upon kriging estimates of magnetic anomaly densities across the site. Secondary information, such as impact crater locations, was used to refine the boundary delineations.

  5. Transmed Transect VIII: from Laurussia to Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, R. A.; Mart, Y.; Okay, A.; Robertson, A.; Stovba, S.; Khriachtchevskaia, O.

    2003-04-01

    TransMed transect VIII crosses the easternmost Mediterranean Sea. Some 2600 km long, it runs from Laurussia in the north (Ukrainian Shield) to Gondwana in the south (Arabian Shield). The Late Palaeozoic aged intracratonic Dniepr-Donets rift basin lies near the northern end of the transect and the modern intracratonic Red Sea rift lies at the southern end. Intervening tectonic units, north to south, include the Scythian Platform and Crimean Orogen in Ukraine; the Black Sea; the Pontides, Kirsehir Massif, and Taurides in Turkey; Cyprus with the Troodos complex; the Levant Basin and distal parts of the Nile Delta in the eastern Mediterranean; and the Sinai in Egypt. Deep structure, including crustal thickness and affinity, is poorly known along much of the transect. Although all available crustal scale seismic data have been considered, much of the deeper parts of the transect are inferred from the exposed geology and how this can be modelled in terms of regional paleotectonics and are, accordingly, speculative. Palaeozoic and younger sediments of the Scythian Platform overlie basement that is surmised to be younger than the adjoining Archean Ukrainian Shield. The whole of the crust of the Crimean Orogen, underlying thrust nappes emplaced during the early Mesozoic, is speculated to comprise an accretionary complex of mainly Triassic age that is correlated with the Sakarya Zone of northern Turkey. The Black Sea is a back-arc rift basin that opened in Late Cretacous-Tertiary times but the margins of the Black Sea intersected by the transect are not conjugate. The Pontide margin of the Black Sea, in northern Turkey, is formed by the Istanbul Zone, with Proterozoic-aged basement correlative with Moesian crust found in southern Romania and Bulgaria. The Kirsehir Massif is made up of Cretaceous metamorphic and granitic rocks, and represents the deeper parts of a magmatic arc. The Taurides form a south-vergent thrust-stack involving Palaeozoic to Eocene sediments. The

  6. Successful case of pancreaticoduodenectomy with resection of the hepatic arteries preserving a single aberrant hepatic artery for a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ichida, Akihiko; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Akahane, Masaaki; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Kaneko, Junichi; Aoki, Taku; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-03-01

    A 65-year-old male with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting with a duodenal ulcer was referred to our department. The tumor involved the common hepatic artery, gastroduodenal artery, left hepatic artery and the right posterior hepatic artery, but not the right anterior hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery. The hepatic arteries, except the aberrant right anterior hepatic artery, were embolized using coils 18 days before the surgery. The patient underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy with resection of the tumor-encased hepatic arteries, while preserving the aberrant artery. The patient was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 13 with no ischemic complications. A histopathological examination revealed a grade 2 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor according to the classification of the World Health Organization, and the surgical margin was negative. The patient developed hepatic metastases 16 months after surgery; hence, hepatic resection was performed. The present surgical strategy is applicable in patients with relatively low-grade pancreatic malignancies involving major hepatic arteries. PMID:24477525

  7. Hepatic Resection Using a Water Jet Dissector

    PubMed Central

    Stain, S. C.; Guastella, T.; Maddern, G. J.; Blumgart, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity in major hepatic resection is often related to hemorrhage. A high pressure, high velocity water jet has been developed and has been utilized to assist in hepatic parenchymal transection. Sixty-seven major hepatic resections were performed for solid hepatic tumors. The tissue fracture technique was used in 51 patients (76%), and the water jet dissector was used predominantly in 16 patients (24%). The extent of hepatic resection using each technique was similar. The results showed no difference in operative duration (p = .499). The mean estimated blood loss using the water jet was 1386 ml, and tissue fracture technique 2450 ml (p = .217). Transfusion requirements were less in the water jet group (mean 2.0 units) compared to the tissue fracture group (mean 5.2 units); (p = .023). Results obtained with the new water dissector are encouraging. The preliminary results suggest that blood loss may be diminished. PMID:8387808

  8. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... or past infection, or immunity to hepatitis A Hepatitis B tests: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), you have ...

  9. Hepatitis C and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems : Hepatitis C Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis C What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B . Hepatitis C and HIV About 25% of people living ...

  10. Hepatitis B and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems : Hepatitis B Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis B What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis B and HIV About 10% of people living ...

  11. Hepatitis Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by viruses. They include hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. To diagnose hepatitis, your health care provider will ask you about your medical history and symptoms, do a physical exam, and order blood tests. There are blood tests for each type of ...

  12. [Isolated anterior cervical hypertrichosis].

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, B; Cabanillas, M; de las Heras, C; Cacharrón, J M

    2009-01-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis was described by Trattner and coworkers in 1991. It consists of a of hair at the anterior cervical level just above the laryngeal prominence. To date, only 28 cases of anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Although it is normally an isolated finding, it may be associated with mental retardation, hallux valgus, retinal disorders, other hair disorders, facial dysmorphism, or sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman who presented with this condition as an isolated finding. PMID:19268113

  13. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... infected with the hepatitis B virus, can I breastfeed? • If I am infected with the hepatitis B ... infected with the hepatitis C virus, can I breastfeed? • Glossary What are hepatitis B and hepatitis C ...

  14. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... There are different tests for hepatitis A and B. A positive test is ... may mean: You currently have a hepatitis infection. This may ...

  15. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  16. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    MedlinePlus

    HEPATITIS C & INCARCERATION What is hepatitis? “Hepatitis” means inflammation or swelling of the liver. The liver is an important ... viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They are all different from each other and ...

  17. Intubated, ventilating patients with complete tracheal transection: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Bowley, Douglas M. G.; Plani, Frank; Murillo, Dennis; Smith, Martin; Degiannis, Elias

    2003-01-01

    Tracheal transection is a rare injury after blunt trauma. The presence of complete tracheal transection in the intubated, ventilating patient is even more rare and constitutes a major diagnostic challenge. The liberal use of computed tomography (CT) scans as an adjunct to endoscopy is paramount. PMID:12855026

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that ... medical care is an important factor in staying as healthy as possible. The American Liver Foundation is ...

  19. Hepatitis D

    MedlinePlus

    ... if the hepatitis B virus is also present. Transmission Hepatitis D can be found in the blood, ... other body fluids of people who are infected. Transmission happens when infected body fluid enters another person’s ...

  20. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Lupoid hepatitis; Chronic acute liver disease ... This form of hepatitis is an autoimmune disease . The body's immune system cannot tell the difference between healthy body tissue and harmful, outside ...

  1. Hepatic ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatic ischemia is a condition in which the liver does not get enough blood or oxygen, causing injury to ... pressure from any condition can lead to hepatic ischemia. Such conditions may include: Abnormal heart rhythms Dehydration ...

  2. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  3. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000279.htm Hepatitis B To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the ...

  4. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 507 Hepatitis C WHAT IS HEPATITIS C? HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED? ... treatment may be less likely to work. Hep C treatment is less effective for coinfected people. Cure ...

  5. Correction of bias in belt transect studies of immotile objects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Pospahala, R.S.

    1970-01-01

    Unless a correction is made, population estimates derived from a sample of belt transects will be biased if a fraction of, the individuals on the sample transects are not counted. An approach, useful for correcting this bias when sampling immotile populations using transects of a fixed width, is presented. The method assumes that a searcher's ability to find objects near the center of the transect is nearly perfect. The method utilizes a mathematical equation, estimated from the data, to represent the searcher's inability to find all objects at increasing distances from the center of the transect. An example of the analysis of data, formation of the equation, and application is presented using waterfowl nesting data collected in Colorado.

  6. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  7. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations ​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Español Hepatitis A Page Content On this page: What is ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is hepatitis A? Hepatitis * A is a virus , or infection, ...

  8. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations ​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Autoimmune Hepatitis Page Content On this page: What is autoimmune ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is autoimmune hepatitis? Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic—or long lasting— ...

  9. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  10. Complete Brachial Artery Transection following closed Posterior Elbow Dislocation: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    C, JayanthKumar B; Sampath, Deepak; N, Hanumantha Reddy; Motukuru, Vishnu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vascular injury associated withclosed posterior elbow dislocations is rare and it usually occurs along with open dislocation, anterior dislocation, penetrating injuries, dislocations associated with fracture. We report such a case of closed posterior elbow dislocation with complete brachial artery rupture. Case Report: A 58 years old lady sustained posterior dislocation of right elbow following a fall at home. She presented three days later with complaints of severe pain, swelling around the right elbow and numbness of fingers following a closed reduction done elsewhere. Computed graft angiography showed complete transection of brachialartery. Patient was treated with thrombectomy, right great saphenous vein graft interposition repair of brachial artery and forearm fasciotomy. Conclusion: Vascular injuries associated with posterior elbow dislocation are very rare, but high index of suspicion of arterial injury need to be thought off and repeated vascular examination during pre and post reduction stage should be done to prevent complications. PMID:27299092

  11. Transection Speed and Impact on Perioperative Inflammatory Response – A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Stapler Hepatectomy and CUSA Resection

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Christoph; Klaus, Daniel A.; Tudor, Bianca; Fleischmann, Edith; Wekerle, Thomas; Roth, Georg; Bodingbauer, Martin; Kaczirek, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background Parenchymal transection represents a crucial step during liver surgery and many different techniques have been described so far. Stapler resection is supposed to be faster than CUSA resection. However, whether speed impacts on the inflammatory response in patients undergoing liver resection (LR) remains unclear. Materials and Methods This is a randomized controlled trial including 40 patients undergoing anatomical LR. Primary endpoint was transection speed (cm2/min). Secondary endpoints included the perioperative change of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, overall surgery duration, length of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality. Results Mean transection speed was significantly higher in patients undergoing stapler hepatectomy compared to CUSA resection (CUSA: 1 (0.4) cm2/min vs. Stapler: 10.8 (6.1) cm2/min; p<0.0001). Analyzing the impact of surgery duration on inflammatory response revealed a significant correlation between IL-6 levels measured at the end of surgery and the overall length of surgery (p<0.0001, r = 0.6188). Patients undergoing CUSA LR had significantly higher increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6) after parenchymal transection compared to patients with stapler hepatectomy in the portal and hepatic veins, respectively (p = 0.028; p = 0.044). C-reactive protein levels on the first post-operative day were significantly lower in the stapler cohort (p = 0.010). There was a trend towards a reduced overall surgery time in patients with stapler LR, especially in the subgroup of patients undergoing minor hepatectomies (p = 0.020). Conclusions Liver resection using staplers is fast, safe and suggests a diminished inflammatory response probably due to a decreased parenchymal transection time. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01785212 PMID:26452162

  12. Hepatitis Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  13. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  14. Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjeet Kumar; Ansari, Ms

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum (CAUD) may be found all along the anterior urethra and may present itself at any age, from infant to adult. Most children with this condition present with difficulty in initiating micturition, dribbling of urine, poor urinary stream, or urinary tract infection. A careful history will reveal that these children never had a good urinary stream since birth, and the telltale sign is a cystic swelling of the penile urethra. In this paper, we present two cases of CAUD that were managed by excision of the diverticulum with primary repair. PMID:26328174

  15. Correlation of Tc-99m GSA hepatic studies with biopsies in patients with chronic active hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Tomiguchi, S; Kira, T; Oyama, Y; Nabeshima, M; Nakashima, R; Tsuji, A; Kojima, A; Takahashi, M; Yoshimatsu, S; Sagara, K

    1995-08-01

    To determine whether scintigraphic findings of Tc-99m DTPA-galactosyl-HSA (GSA) correspond to histopathologic findings, Tc-99m GSA hepatic scintigraphy and biopsy were compared in 65 patients with chronic active hepatitis. After injecting 185 MBq of Tc-99m GSA, anterior images were obtained at 5 minutes and 15 minutes. Scintigrams were classified into three grades according to the extent of visualization of the cardiac blood pool on 5 minute and 15 minute images. Biopsies were subjectively graded for findings of necrosis and fibrosis. Scintigraphic grades on 5 minute images were correlated with hepatic necrosis and fibrosis and those on 15-minute images with hepatic fibrosis. Scintigraphic abnormalities of Tc-99m GSA correlated well with histopathologic abnormalities, especially with hepatic fibrosis and necrosis in patients with chronic active hepatitis. PMID:7586877

  16. Stable isotope differences among the Lake Michigan 2015 CSMI transects

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the Lake Michigan 2015 Cooperative Science and Monitoring Initiative (CSMI), eight transects situated near tributaries that present a gradient of phosphorus loads were sampled from nearshore to offshore during May, July, and September. Our objective was to evaluate associa...

  17. [Toxic anterior segment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cornut, P-L; Chiquet, C

    2011-01-01

    Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) is a general term used to describe acute, sterile postoperative inflammation due to a non-infectious substance that accidentally enters the anterior segment at the time of surgery and mimics infectious endophthalmitis. TASS most commonly occurs acutely following anterior segment surgery, typically 12-72h after cataract extraction. Anterior segment inflammation is usually quite severe with hypopyon. Endothelial cell damage is common, resulting in diffuse corneal edema. No bacterium is isolated from ocular samples. The causes of TASS are numerous and difficult to isolate. Any device or substance used during the surgery or in the immediate postoperative period may be implicated. The major known causes include: preservatives in ophthalmic solutions, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices, bacterial endotoxin, and intraocular lens-induced inflammation. Clinical features of infectious and non-infectious inflammation are initially indistinguishable and TASS is usually diagnosed and treated as acute endophthalmitis. It usually improves with local steroid treatment but may result in chronic elevation of intraocular pressure or irreversible corneal edema due to permanent damage of trabecular meshwork or endothelial cells. PMID:21176994

  18. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis B?Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus. ...

  19. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is found in ...

  20. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  1. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases. These include: Graves disease Inflammatory bowel disease Rheumatoid arthritis Scleroderma Sjogren syndrome Systemic lupus erythematosus Thyroiditis Type 1 diabetes Ulcerative colitis Autoimmune hepatitis may occur in family ...

  2. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Hepatitis B HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) Measles Meningococcal Disease Mumps Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Pneumococcal Disease Rubella (German Measles) Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Tetanus (Lockjaw) Professional Resources Adult ...

  3. Persistence of the nasotrigeminal reflex after pontomedullary transection.

    PubMed

    Panneton, W Michael; Gan, Qi; Sun, D Wei

    2012-03-15

    Most behaviors have numerous components based on reflexes, but the neural circuits driving most reflexes rarely are documented. The nasotrigeminal reflex induced by stimulating the nasal mucosa causes an apnea, a bradycardia, and variable changes in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). In this study we tested the nasotrigeminal reflex after transecting the brainstem at the pontomedullary junction. The nasal mucosae of anesthetized rats were stimulated with ammonia vapors and their brainstems then were transected. Complete transections alone induced an increase in resting heart rate (HR; p<0.001) and MABP (p<0.001), but no significant change in ventilation. However, the responses to nasal stimulation after transection were similar to those seen prior to transection. HR still dropped significantly (p<0.001), duration of apnea remained the same, as did changes in MABP. Results from rats whose transection were incomplete are discussed. These data implicate that the neuronal circuitry driving the nasotrigeminal reflex, and indirectly the diving response, is intrinsic to the medulla and spinal cord. PMID:22154693

  4. COAST: Cascadia Open-Access Seismic Transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, W.; Johnson, H. P.; Kent, G.; Keranen, K. M.; Tobin, H. J.; Trehu, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Cascadia margin is the site of active subduction, where the Juan de Fuca plate subducts under the North American plate at a rate of ~35 mm/yr. This system is of great scientific and societal interest, as it is capable of very large (Mw~9) earthquakes, creates volcanic hazards in the Cascades, and hosts periodic episodic tremor and slip (ETS) episodes. Despite evidence that the system has generated large megathrust earthquakes, limited seismicity creates large uncertainties in the position, structure, and physical state of the plate boundary. The COAST (Cascadia Open-Access Seismic Transects) project conducted an open-access, open-participation 2D seismic survey of the Cascadia subduction margin off Grays Harbor, WA, that will provide benchmark seismic images to address key scientific issues regarding the location, physical state, fluid budget, and associated methane systems of the subducting plate boundary and overlying crust. We collected seismic reflection, multibeam bathymetric, sidescan sonar, gravity, and magnetic data on the Cascadia subduction margin from the R/V Langseth in July 2012 in a high-priority GeoPRISMS corridor off Grays Harbor, Washington. The cruise was open-participation, with an organized shipboard education and training program, and the data are open-access, with immediate, full release to the community of all geophysical data. Project goals include (1) determining the location of the offshore plate boundary, (2) constraining sediment subduction and plate boundary roughness, (3) estimating pore fluid pathways, (4) determining controls on methane distribution, and (5) imaging compressional and extensional structures that may pose geohazards on the Cascadia margin. Initial observations include the following: (1) The Pleistocene accretionary wedge is well imaged and shows landward-vergent thrust faulting throughout our survey area. An outboard series of ramp-and-thrust structures gives way to a region characterized by folds that separate

  5. Establishment of a rat model for osteoarthritis resulting from anterior cruciate ligament rupture and its significance

    PubMed Central

    OUYANG, XIAO; WANG, JIAN; HONG, SHI DONG; XIN, FENG; WANG, LIN; YANG, XIAO WEI; WANG, JING RONG; WANG, LI MING; WEI, BO; WANG, QING; CUI, WEI DING

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of a model concerned with osteoarthritis resulting from the anterior cruciate ligament rupture of rats and investigate the associated mechanism, as well as provide a theoretical basis for clinical treatment of the disease. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into two groups of 20 rats each and the anterior cruciate ligament transaction model and knee joint brake model were successfully established. Two rats in the anterior cruciate ligament transection group (10%) and 3 rats in the knee joint brake group (15.0%) died. The survival rate of the two groups was not statistically significant (χ2<0.001, P=1.000). Swelling of the knee joint and synovium of rats in the two experimental groups was aggravated. The Mankin score was significantly higher in the anterior cruciate ligament transection group than that in the experimental group and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). By contrast, no significant difference was observed for osteoarthritis severity for the two experimental groups (P>0.05). Analysis of the subgroups showed that the proportion of the anterior cruciate ligament in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the knee joint brake group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). By contrast, the difference was not statistically significant in the comparison of the medium and early proportion (P>0.05). The content of protein polysaccharide and II collagen fiber in the experimental group of the anterior cruciate ligament transection was lower than that of the knee joint brake group, and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Thus the mechanism of osteoarthritis may be associated with the decrease in the content of protein and II collagen fibers. PMID:26668592

  6. Anterior mandibular ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhandarwar, Ajay H.; Bakhshi, Girish D.; Borisa, Ashok D.; Wagh, Amol; Kapoor, Rajat; Kori, Channabasappa G.

    2012-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic tumor. These are usually asymptomatic until a large size is attained. Ameloblastoma has tendency to spread locally and has a high recurrence rate. Majority of ameloblastomas (80%) arise from the mandible. Ameloblastoma arising from anterior mandibular region (symphysis-menti) is rare. Very few cases of midline anterior ameloblastomas are reported in the literature. They often require wide local excision. Reconstruction of mandible in these cases is challenging. We present a case of mandibular ameloblastoma arising from symphysis-menti. Patient underwent wide surgical excision of the tumor followed by immediate reconstruction using free fibular vascular flap, stabilized with titanium reconstructive plates. A brief case report ands review of literature is presented. PMID:24765429

  7. Anterior urethral stricture review

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Marshall J.

    2013-01-01

    Male anterior urethral stricture disease is a commonly encountered condition that presents to many urologists. According to a National Practice Survey of Board Certified Urologist in the United States most urologists treat on average 6-20 urethral strictures yearly. Many of those same urologists surveyed treat with repeated dilation or internal urethrotomy, despite continual recurrence of the urethral stricture. In point of fact, the urethroplasty despite its high success rate, is underutilized by many practicing urologists. Roughly half of practicing urologist do not perform urethroplasty in the United States. Clearly, the reconstructive ladder for urethral stricture management that was previously described in the literature may no longer apply in the modern era. The following article reviews the etiology, diagnosis, management and comparisons of treatment options for anterior urethral strictures. PMID:26816721

  8. Anterior perineal sinus.

    PubMed

    Oliver, G C; Rubin, R J; Salvati, E P; Eisenstat, T E; Lott, J

    1991-09-01

    Each year we treat several patients with an anterior perineal sinus tract. They do not conform to commonly encountered perineal problems such as pilonidal disease, epidermal cysts, hidradenitis, fistulous abscess, or inflammatory bowel disease. In an effort to improve understanding of the problem and its clinical significance, we reviewed our practice records for the period from 1968 through 1988. Fifty-six patients underwent surgery for an anterior perineal sinus tract. In 31 patients, the clinical and pathologic condition defied classical diagnostic categorization. We have termed these lesions "anterior perineal sinuses." Their clinical characteristics, treatment, and pathologic assessment from the body of this report. Male predominance (87 percent) and midlife presentation (average age, 44 years) characterized this group. Local symptoms were present from several weeks to several years prior to treatment. Local anesthesia (74 percent) and limited surgery (100 percent) resulted in complete healing in all patients (average, 7 weeks). A 15 percent recurrence rate was noted. The pathologic evaluation demonstrated acute and chronic dermal and subcutaneous inflammation. The etiology of this process remains uncertain. Its predominance along the median raphe suggests a congenital midline inclusion disorder. PMID:1914743

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bleibel, Wissam; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis affect hundreds of millions of patients all over the world. The majority of patients with cirrhosis will eventually develop complications related to portal hypertension. One of these recurrent and difficult to treat complications is hepatic encephalopathy. Studies have indicated that overt hepatic encephalopathy affects 30 to 45% of patients with cirrhosis and a higher percentage may be affected by minimal degree of encephalopathy. All of these factors add to the impact of hepatic encephalopathy on the healthcare system and presents a major challenge to the gastroenterologist, hospitalist and primary care physician. PMID:23006457

  10. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . 2014;161(1):58-66. PMID 24863637 ... Development Conference Statement: Management of hepatitis B. Ann Intern Med . 2009;150:104-10. PMID: 19124811 www. ...

  11. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Change Plan Wallet card for patients to record their alcohol use over a 4-week period as a way to monitor and reduce their drinking behavior. Glossary Definitions of terms commonly used with viral hepatitis and ...

  12. Tibialis Anterior Tendon Transfer.

    PubMed

    Mulhern, Jennifer L; Protzman, Nicole M; Brigido, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    Tendon transfer procedures are used commonly for the correction of soft tissue imbalances and instabilities. The complete transfer and the split transfer of the tibialis anterior tendon are well-accepted methods for the treatment of idiopathic equinovarus deformity in children and adults. Throughout the literature, complete and split transfer have been shown to yield significant improvements in ankle and foot range of motion and muscle function. At present, there is insufficient evidence to recommend one procedure over the other, although the split procedure has been advocated for consistently achieving inversion to eversion muscle balance without overcorrection. PMID:26590723

  13. Hepatitis C - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus (HCV). Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis A and hepatitis B . ... Elisofon SA, Jonas MMF. Viral hepatitis in children. In: Boyer TD, Manns MP, Sanyal AJ, eds. Zakim & Boyer's Hepatology: A Textbook of Liver Disease. 6th ed. ...

  14. Hepatitis B Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 10 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  15. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis D virus ... Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is found only in people who carry the hepatitis B virus. HDV may make liver ... B virus but who never had symptoms. Hepatitis D infects about 15 million people worldwide. It occurs ...

  16. Hepatitis C FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  17. Hepatitis B FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  18. Hepatitis A Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis A Testing Share this page: Was this page ... HAV-Ab total; Anti-HAV Formal name: Viral Hepatitis A Antibody Related tests: Hepatitis B Testing ; Hepatitis ...

  19. Hepatitis A FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis A FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  20. The Superficial Precoagulation, Sealing, and Transection Method: A “Bloodless” and “Ecofriendly” Laparoscopic Liver Transection Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ikoma, Naruhiko; Takei, Hidehiro; Oshima, Go; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Minimizing blood loss is an important aspect of laparoscopic liver resection. Liver transection is the most challenging part of liver resection, but no standard method is available for this step at present. Herein, we have introduced the superficial precoagulation, sealing, and transection (SPST) method, a potentially “bloodless” and “ecofriendly” laparoscopic liver transection technique involving reusable devices: the VIO soft-coagulation system; VIO BiClamp (bipolar electrosurgical coagulation); Olympus SonoSurg (ultrasonic surgical system); and CUSA (ultrasonic aspirator). Furthermore, we have reported the short-term outcomes of laparoscopic liver transection with the SPST method. Methods: The study included 14 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic partial liver resection with the SPST method at a single institution between August 2008 and June 2010. Results: The median operative time was 201 minutes (range, 97 to 332 min) and the median blood loss was 5 mL (range, 5 to 250 mL). There was no requirement for blood transfusion, no intraoperative complications, and no cases of conversion to open laparotomy. There were no liver transection-related complications such as postoperative bile leakage, bleeding, or infection. All surgical margins were negative, with a mean margin of 4.6 mm, and no local recurrence was observed at an average follow-up of 37.6 months. Conclusions: The SPST method is a simple, efficient, and cost-effective surgical technique for laparoscopic liver resection. It is associated with low intraoperative blood loss and good short-term outcomes. We recommend that the SPST method should be used as a standard technique for laparoscopic liver transection (Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/SLE/A103). PMID:24752166

  1. Uveitis (acute anterior)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Anterior uveitis is rare, with an annual incidence of 12/100,000 population, although it is more common in Finland (annual incidence of 23/100,000), probably because of genetic factors, such as high frequency of HLA–B27 in the population. It is often self-limiting, but can, in some cases, lead to complications such as posterior synechiae, cataract, glaucoma, and chronic uveitis. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of anti-inflammatory eye drops on acute anterior uveitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found six systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: corticosteroids, mydriatics, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug eye drops. PMID:21736765

  2. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... Stomach ache Nausea Diarrhea No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will ...

  3. Management of low velocity gunshot wounds to the anterior urethra: the role of primary repair versus urinary diversion alone.

    PubMed

    Husmann, D A; Boone, T B; Wilson, W T

    1993-07-01

    The management of partial transection of the anterior urethra following penetrating penile injuries is controversial. Optional therapeutic techniques range from a primary sutured reapproximation to urinary diversion alone. We recently managed 17 low velocity gunshot wounds to the external genitalia in which the missile traversed the penile corpus cavernosum, and was associated with less than 40% transection of the corpus spongiosum and anterior urethra. Nine patients were managed with suprapubic diversion, skin débridement and corporeal closure along with placement of a urethral catheter. Eight patients were managed by suprapubic diversion, débridement, closure of the corporeal bodies and a primary sutured reapproximation of the anterior urethra. Urethral strictures developed in 7 patients (78%) managed by a suprapubic tube and urethral stenting during an average followup of 20 months (range 18 to 24). In contrast, 1 patient (12%) managed by a sutured urethral approximation had a urethral stricture during an average followup of 20 months (range 18 to 30, p < 0.01). Our data support a significantly better prognosis for partial transection of the anterior urethra secondary to low velocity gunshot wounds if managed by aggressive wound débridement, corporeal repair, placement of a suprapubic catheter and primary repair of the urethra. PMID:8510278

  4. Bioengineered anterior cruciate ligament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, Gregory (Inventor); Kaplan, David (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor); Martin, Ivan (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament ex vivo. The method comprises seeding pluripotent stem cells in a three dimensional matrix, anchoring the seeded matrix by attachment to two anchors, and culturing the cells within the matrix under conditions appropriate for cell growth and regeneration, while subjecting the matrix to one or more mechanical forces via movement of one or both of the attached anchors. Bone marrow stromal cells are preferably used as the pluripotent cells in the method. Suitable matrix materials are materials to which cells can adhere, such as a gel made from collagen type I. Suitable anchor materials are materials to which the matrix can attach, such as Goinopra coral and also demineralized bone. Optimally, the mechanical forces to which the matrix is subjected mimic mechanical stimuli experienced by an anterior cruciate ligament in vivo. This is accomplished by delivering the appropriate combination of tension, compression, torsion, and shear, to the matrix. The bioengineered ligament which is produced by this method is characterized by a cellular orientation and/or matrix crimp pattern in the direction of the applied mechanical forces, and also by the production of collagen type I, collagen type III, and fibronectin proteins along the axis of mechanical load produced by the mechanical forces. Optimally, the ligament produced has fiber bundles which are arranged into a helical organization. The method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament can be adapted to produce a wide range of tissue types ex vivo by adapting the anchor size and attachment sites to reflect the size of the specific type of tissue to be produced, and also adapting the specific combination of forces applied, to mimic the mechanical stimuli experienced in vivo by the specific type of tissue to be produced. The methods of the present invention can be further modified to incorporate other stimuli experienced in vivo by the

  5. A hierarchical modeling framework for multiple observer transect surveys.

    PubMed

    Conn, Paul B; Laake, Jeffrey L; Johnson, Devin S

    2012-01-01

    Ecologists often use multiple observer transect surveys to census animal populations. In addition to animal counts, these surveys produce sequences of detections and non-detections for each observer. When combined with additional data (i.e. covariates such as distance from the transect line), these sequences provide the additional information to estimate absolute abundance when detectability on the transect line is less than one. Although existing analysis approaches for such data have proven extremely useful, they have some limitations. For instance, it is difficult to extrapolate from observed areas to unobserved areas unless a rigorous sampling design is adhered to; it is also difficult to share information across spatial and temporal domains or to accommodate habitat-abundance relationships. In this paper, we introduce a hierarchical modeling framework for multiple observer line transects that removes these limitations. In particular, abundance intensities can be modeled as a function of habitat covariates, making it easier to extrapolate to unsampled areas. Our approach relies on a complete data representation of the state space, where unobserved animals and their covariates are modeled using a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Observer detections are modeled via a bivariate normal distribution on the probit scale, with dependence induced by a distance-dependent correlation parameter. We illustrate performance of our approach with simulated data and on a known population of golf tees. In both cases, we show that our hierarchical modeling approach yields accurate inference about abundance and related parameters. In addition, we obtain accurate inference about population-level covariates (e.g. group size). We recommend that ecologists consider using hierarchical models when analyzing multiple-observer transect data, especially when it is difficult to rigorously follow pre-specified sampling designs. We provide a new R package, hierarchical

  6. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  7. Anterior hip pain.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, J W

    1999-10-15

    Anterior hip pain is a common complaint with many possible causes. Apophyseal avulsion and slipped capital femoral epiphysis should not be overlooked in adolescents. Muscle and tendon strains are common in adults. Subsequent to accurate diagnosis, strains should improve with rest and directed conservative treatment. Osteoarthritis, which is diagnosed radiographically, generally occurs in middle-aged and older adults. Arthritis in younger adults should prompt consideration of an inflammatory cause. A possible femoral neck stress fracture should be evaluated urgently to prevent the potentially significant complications associated with displacement. Patients with osteitis pubis should be educated about the natural history of the condition and should undergo physical therapy to correct abnormal pelvic mechanics. "Sports hernias," nerve entrapments and labral pathologic conditions should be considered in athletic adults with characteristic presentations and chronic symptoms. Surgical intervention may allow resumption of pain-free athletic activity. PMID:10537384

  8. Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bharti; Kumar Dharma, Vijay; Chawla, Sumit; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Following acute infection, 20% of people eliminate the virus over weeks or months and are often asymptomatic. The remaining 80% of people will develop chronic disease, of which approximately 20% will eventually develop liver cirrhosis and 1–5% will develop liver cancer. About 150 million people are chronically infected with HCV, and more than 350 000 people die every year from hepatitis C related liver diseases. The economic cost of hepatitis C is significant both to the individual and to the society. In the United States the average lifetime cost of the disease was estimated at $33 407 USD with the cost of a liver transplant approximately $200 000 USD. PEG-IFN and ribavirin treatment is also expensive and, at an average cost of approximately GB £7000 in the UK for a treatment course, is unaffordable in developing countries. Hepatitis C, not only brings down the quality of the life of individuals but also affect progress of the nation by adding financial burden. If we prevent the disease from occurring or find a perfect cure of the disease, in form of a prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine, it will be a boon to not only to the individual but to the nation as a whole. PMID:24165512

  9. Hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Juan; Mínguez, Beatriz

    2008-02-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a severe complication of cirrhosis that is related to the effects of ammonia. Analysis of interorgan ammonia trafficking has identified an important role of skeletal muscle in ammonia removal and has highlighted the importance of the nutritional status. Ammonia causes neurotransmitter abnormalities and induces injury to astrocytes that is partially mediated by oxidative stress. These disturbances lead to astrocyte swelling and brain edema, which appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurological manifestations. Inflammatory mediators worsen brain disturbances. New methods for assessing hepatic encephalopathy include clinical scales, neuropsychological tests, imaging of portal-systemic circulation, and magnetic resonance of the brain. Reappraisal of current therapy indicates the need for performing placebo-controlled trials and the lack of evidence for administering diets with restricted protein content. Liver transplant should be considered in selected patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Future prospects include new drugs that decrease plasma ammonia, measures to reduce brain edema, and liver-support devices. PMID:18293278

  10. [Hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Juan; Mur, Rafael Esteban

    2014-07-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (EH) is a severe complication of hepatic cirrhosis that is characterized by multiple neuropsychiatric manifestations. EH is usually triggered by a precipitating factor and occurs in patients with severely impaired hepatic function. Minimal EH is characterized by minor cognitive impairments that are difficult to specify but represent a risk for the patients. The primary pathophysiological mechanism of EH is considered to be an increase in blood ammonia with an impairment in the patency of the blood-brainbarrier and its metabolism to glutamine in astrocytes. The diagnosis is clinical and neuroimaging techniques can be complementary. The diagnosis of minimal EH requires specific neurocognitive tests. The clinical evaluation should be directed towards identifying the trigger. Nonabsorbable disaccharides and rifaximin constitute the treatment of choice, along with prophylaxis for new episodes. PMID:25087716

  11. [Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: case report].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Gutiérrez, Mario H; Sánchez-Corona, José; García-Ortiz, José E; Castañeda-Cisneros, Gema; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Nory O; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; García-Cruz, Diana

    2016-10-01

    The non-syndromic anterior cervical hypertrichosis (OMIM N° 600457) is a genetic disorder characterized by a patch of hair at the level of the laryngeal prominence. We present a 12-year-old boy with anterior cervical hypertrichosis and mild generalized hypertrichosis. He has no neurological, ophthalmological or skeletal anomalies. The clinical follow up is 10 years. PMID:27606653

  12. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician ... Body Hepatitis means “inflammation of the liver.” This inflammation can be caused by a wide variety of toxins, drugs, and metabolic diseases, as well as infection. There ...

  13. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Low-grade fever Nausea and vomiting Pale or clay-colored stools Yellow skin (jaundice) ... The virus does not remain in the body after the infection is gone. Most people with hepatitis A recover within 3 months. Nearly all people get better within 6 months. There ...

  14. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider will closely monitor and manage any side effects that may occur, as high doses of prednisone are often prescribed to treat autoimmune hepatitis. Immune system suppressors. Medications that suppress the immune system prevent the body from making autoantibodies and block the immune reaction ...

  15. Methodology for Augmenting Existing Paths with Additional Parallel Transects

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, John E.

    2013-09-30

    Visual Sample Plan (VSP) is sample planning software that is used, among other purposes, to plan transect sampling paths to detect areas that were potentially used for munition training. This module was developed for application on a large site where existing roads and trails were to be used as primary sampling paths. Gap areas between these primary paths needed to found and covered with parallel transect paths. These gap areas represent areas on the site that are more than a specified distance from a primary path. These added parallel paths needed to optionally be connected together into a single path—the shortest path possible. The paths also needed to optionally be attached to existing primary paths, again with the shortest possible path. Finally, the process must be repeatable and predictable so that the same inputs (primary paths, specified distance, and path options) will result in the same set of new paths every time. This methodology was developed to meet those specifications.

  16. Case of pituitary stalk transection syndrome ascertained after breech delivery.

    PubMed

    Fukuta, Kaori; Hidaka, Takao; Ono, Yosuke; Kochi, Keiko; Yasoshima, Kuniaki; Arai, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Pituitary stalk transection syndrome (PSTS) is a rare complication that can accompany breech delivery. Early diagnosis of this syndrome is difficult, and it may cause a serious delay in the diagnosis. We present a case of PSTS ascertained after breech delivery. A 20-year-old woman presented with primary amenorrhea. The patient was born by breech delivery and had a history of treatment for pituitary dwarfism. Her laboratory findings showed pituitary hypothyroidism, and hormone replacement therapy was initiated. At 28 years old, she became pregnant and had a normal delivery at 38 weeks' gestation. One year after delivery, her thyroid hormone level changed. Laboratory test showed adrenocortical insufficiency, and magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland showed transection of the pituitary stalk and development of an ectopic posterior lobe. These findings were compatible with PSTS. When a patient who has been born by breech delivery presents with symptoms of pituitary deficiency, PSTS should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26631915

  17. Co-incidence of acute appendicitis and appendiceal transection after blunt abdominal trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Moslemi, Sam; Forootan, Hamid Reza; Tahamtan, Maryam

    2013-12-01

    A 13-year-old boy with a history of bicycle handlebar injury to the left side of his abdomen was brought to the Emergency Department of our center. On admission, his vital signs were stable and abdominal examination revealed ecchymosis and tenderness of the injured areas. Mild to moderate free fluid and two small foci of free air in the anterior aspect of the abdomen, in favor of pneumoperitoneum, were detected in abdominopelvic sonography and CT-scan, respectively. In less than 6 hours, the patient developed generalized peritonitis. Therefore, exploratory laparotomy was promptly performed, which revealed appendiceal transection and rupture of the small bowel mesentery. Appendectomy and small bowel mesoplasty were done, with pathological diagnosis of acute appendicitis and periappendicitis. After surgery, the patient had a non-complicated hospital course. This rare case highlights the significance of the early management of appendiceal traumatic injuries in order to prevent further complicated events, especially in patients who are much more exposed to this risk due to their traumatic background. PMID:24293790

  18. Anterior radical debridement and anterior instrumentation in tuberculosis spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Benli, I Teoman; Acaroğlu, Emre; Akalin, Serdar; Kiş, Mahmut; Duman, Evrim; Un, Ahmet

    2003-04-01

    The conventional procedure in the treatment of vertebral tuberculosis is drainage of the abscess, curettage of the devitalized vertebra and application of an antituberculous chemotherapy regimen. Posterior instrumentation results are encouraging in the prevention or treatment of late kyphosis; however, a second-stage operation is needed. Recently, posterolateral or transpedicular drainage without anterior drainage or posterior instrumentation following anterior drainage in the same session has become the preferred treatment, in order that kyphotic deformity can be avoided. Information on the use of anterior instrumentation along with radical debridement and fusion is scarce. This study reports on the surgical results of 63 patients with Pott's disease who underwent anterior radical debridement with anterior fusion and anterior instrumentation (23 patients with Z-plate and 40 patients with CDH system). Average age at the time of operation was 46.8+/-13.4 years. Average duration of follow-up was 50.9+/-12.9 months. Local kyphosis was measured preoperatively, postoperatively and at the last follow-up visit as the angle between the upper and lower end plates of the collapsed vertebrae. Vertebral collapse, destruction, cold abscess, and canal compromise were assessed on magnetic resonance (MR) images. It was observed that the addition of anterior instrumentation increased the rate of correction of the kyphotic deformity (79.7+/-20.1%), and was effective in maintaining it, with an average loss of 1.1 degrees +/-1.7 degrees. Of the 25 patients (39.7%) with neurological symptoms, 20 (80%) had full and 4 (16%) partial recoveries. There were very few intraoperative and postoperative complications (major vessel complication: 3.2%; secondary non-specific infection: 3.2%). Disease reactivation was not seen with the employment of an aggressive chemotherapy regimen. It was concluded that anterior instrumentation is a safe and effective method in the treatment of tuberculosis

  19. The North American Monsoon GPS TRANSECT Experiment 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D. K.; Bennett, R. A.; Perez, O. R.; Minjarez, C.; Serra, Y. L.; Quintanar, A.; Alatorre, L.; Granados, A.; Vazquez, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    The need for meteorology observations in Northwest Mexico strongly motivated the North American Monsoon GPS TRANSECT Experiment 2013; however, the goals of this experiment are much broader. The GNSS/GPS technique for providing water vapor measurements has now been used for almost two decades, particularly for validation, observational studies and forecasting. These studies suggest the technique provides total column water vapor with high accuracy and with a high degree of stability over time making it very useful for many research applications over a variety of time scales. The Experiment has two principal scientific aims: (1) to address basic science questions regarding the role of water vapor fluxes in the SMO in initiating deep convection and growth into MCSs by utilizing a novel measurement technique. (2) to improve NAM operational forecasts through PWV data assimilation Broader impacts of the experiment also include strengthening the international long-term collaborative efforts between Mexico and the US focusing on the climate and meteorology of Northwest Mexico and the Southwest US. 10 GPS meteorological stations in addition to 7 existing Suominet sites (http://www.suominet.ucar.edu/) . were arranged in 3 specific transects, each with a particular observational goal. To cover the highest reaches of the SMO, a transect from Bahía de Kino to Chihuahua City was constructed providing the opportunity to evaluate convective initiation and the diurnal cycle of precipitable water vapor fields over complex terrain. The second transect along the Gulf of California (GoC) coastal plains was motivated by the need to capture of low-level moisture "gulf surges" propagating up the GoC in addition to other tropical disturbances. The third transect, Los Mochis to Badiraguato, captures the strong precipitation gradient between the GoC and the foothills of Sinaloa. We present initial results on the diurnal cycle of precipitable water vapor as a function of elevation for both

  20. Anterior Repair with Processed Dermis

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Anterior Repair with Axis® Tutoplast® Processed Dermis and Digitex® - Performed by Dr. Manish Patel Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2016 BroadcastMed, Inc. ...

  1. Anterior Knee Pain (Chondromalacia Patellae).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrick, James G.

    1989-01-01

    This article presents a pragmatic approach to the definition, diagnosis, and management of anterior knee pain. Symptoms and treatment are described. Emphasis is on active involvement of the patient in the rehabilitation exercise program. (IAH)

  2. [Hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Jacques, Jérémie; Carrier, Paul; Debette-Gratien, Marilyne; Sobesky, Rodolphe; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a severe complication of liver cirrhosis and is an important therapeutic challenge, with a social and economic issue. If, now, the pathophysiology is not totally understood (main role of ammonia, but a better understanding of cerebral mechanisms), the clinical presentation is well-known. Some treatments are useful (disaccharides, treatment of the trigger) but their efficiency is limited. Nevertheless, the emergence of new treatments, such as non-absorbable antibiotics (rifaximin essentially), is an interesting therapeutic tool. PMID:26597584

  3. Hepatitis A - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... have the virus and do not practice good hygiene. Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis B ... where diapers are changed to ensure that proper hygiene is followed. If your child gets hepatitis A, ...

  4. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  5. Preventing hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  6. Drug-induced hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  7. What Is Hepatitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Know hepatitis - Act now Event notice Key ...

  8. Enzyme activities along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Knoltsch, Anna; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Takriti, Mounir; Richter, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and thus carbon and nutrient cycling in soils is mediated by the activity of extracellular enzymes. The specific activities of these enzymes and their ratios to each other represent the link between the composition of soil organic matter and the nutrient demand of the microbial community. Depending on the difference between microbial nutrient demand and substrate availability, extracellular enzymes can enhance or slow down different nutrient cycles in the soil. We investigated activities of six extracellular enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, leucine-amino-peptidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitotriosidase, phosphatase and phenoloxidase) in the topsoil organic horizon, topsoil mineral horizon and subsoil horizon in seven ecosystems along a 1,500 km-long North-South transect in Western Siberia. The transect included sites in the southern tundra, northern taiga, middle taiga, southern taiga, forest-steppe (in forested patches as well as in adjacent meadows) and Steppe. We found that enzyme patterns varied stronger with soil depth than between ecosystems. Differences between horizons were mainly based on the increasing ratio of oxidative enzymes to hydrolytic enzymes. Differences between sites were more pronounced in topsoil than in subsoil mineral horizons, but did not reflect the north-south transect and the related gradients in temperature and precipitation. The observed differences between sites in topsoil horizons might therefore result from differences in vegetation rather than climatic factors. The decreasing variability in the enzyme pattern with depth might also indicate that the composition of soil organic matter becomes more similar with soil depth, most likely by an increasing proportion of microbial remains compared to plant derived constituents of SOM. This also indicates, that SOM becomes less divers the more it is processed by soil microorganisms. Our findings highlight the importance of soil depth on enzyme

  9. Collagen-omental graft in experimental spinal cord transection.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, J C; Goldsmith, H S

    1990-01-01

    Spinal cord transection was induced in 3 groups of cats. The gap was surgically reconstructed using a collagen matrix bridge (Group COL), collagen matrix + pedicled omentum graft (Group COM), or gelfoam (Group GEF). After a variable observation period, animals underwent distal cord horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) injections, somatosensory evoked potentials recordings and polarographic measurement of local spinal cord blood flow (1SCBF) using the hydrogen clearance technique. The cord tissue was removed for histologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Results showed retrograde HRP labelling of proximal segmental cord neurons and somatosensory evoked potentials were present in group COM but not in COL or GEF treated animals. Local SCBF was 66% and 87% higher in COM than COL or GEF animals respectively but this increase could be reversed if flow from the pedicled omentum was clamped-off. Histologic examination of cord tissue after 45 days revealed the presence of catecholaminergic axons distal to the transection site in COM but not COL or GEF groups. Moreover, after 90 days, the rate and density of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-IR) axons was 10-fold higher in COM than COL group and this was accompanied by a proportionate increase in the vascular density between the two groups. GEF treated animals showed no regeneration of transected fibers and poor blood flow pattern. These findings indicate that the placement of a pedicled omentum on a collagen matrix bridge results in near restoration of normal SCBF to the reconstructed cord region and is associated with marked regeneration of axons below the lesion site. PMID:2336984

  10. Postherniotomy dysejaculation: successful treatment with mesh removal and nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Aasvang, E K; Kehlet, H

    2008-12-01

    Dysejaculation following groin hernia repair can occur in about 1-2% of patients, resulting in impairment of sexual function. We report a case of chronic postherniotomy dysejaculation treated with transection of the ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves and decompression of vas deferens that was embedded and twisted in shrunken mesh and scar tissue. At three months follow-up, there was reduced overall pain and no dysejaculation, and quantitative sensory testing showed reversal of sensory abnormalities, except for sensory loss, compared with preoperative values. PMID:18437287

  11. Penetrating intracranial gunshot wound transecting the right transverse sinus

    PubMed Central

    Beaty, Narlin Bennet; Diaz, Cara; Crandall, Kenneth; Sansur, Charles

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old man sustained a gunshot wound to the posterior head. Imaging demonstrated a transection of the right transverse sinus, a retained bullet fragment and significant cerebellar oedema. The patient emergently underwent suboccipital decompression associated with brisk bleeding from the transverse sinus. Reported examples of surgical management of cerebral venous sinuses include: packing, grafting, patching and ligation. Our patient had a codominant transverse sinus and underwent successful unilateral ligation. His postoperative course was uneventful, however, he did require a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. He was subsequently discharged to rehab with a favourable outcome. PMID:22987903

  12. A 700 km long crustal transect across northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Gallart, Josep; Díaz, Jordi; Gil, Alba; Harnafi, Mimoun; Ouraini, Fadila; Ayarza, Puy; Teixell, Antonio; Arboleya, Maria Luisa; Palomeras, Imma; Levander, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Two controlled-source wide angle seismic reflection experiments have been acquired recently (2010 and 2011) in northern Africa across Morocco. A lithospheric scale transect can be constructed by joining both data sets. Hence, an approximately 700 km-long seismic velocity cross section can be derived. From south-to-north the transect goes from the Sahara Platform, south of Merzouga, to Tanger in the north. The first experiment, SIMA, aimed to constrain the crustal structure across the Atlas Mountains. The Rif, the orogenic belt located just south of the coast of Alboran Sea, was the target of the second experiment, RIFSIS. In both cases 900 recording instruments (TEXANS) from the IRIS-PASSCAL instrument center were used to record the acoustic energy generated by explosion shots. In both experiments the shots consisted of 1 TM of explosives fired in ~30 m deep boreholes. Although the data quality varies from shot to shot, key seismic phases as Pg, PmP, Pn, and a few intra-crustal arrivals have been identified to constrain the velocity-depth structure along the whole transect. Forward modelling of the seismic reflection/refraction phases reveals a crust consisting of 3 layers in average. The Moho topography shows from south to north a relatively moderate crustal root beneath the High Atlas, which can reach 40-42 km depth. The crust is thicker beneath the Rif where the Moho is imaged as an asymmetric feature that locally defines a crustal root reaching depths of 50 km and suggesting a crustal imbrication. P wave velocities are rather low in the crust and upper mantle. First arrivals/reflections tomography supports the forward modelling results. Low fold wide-angle stacks obtained by using hyperbolic move-out reveals the geometry of the Moho along the entire transect. Beneath the Atlas, the moderate crustal root inferred is not isostatically consistent with the high surface elevations, hence supporting the idea of a 'mantle plume' as main contributor to the Atlas

  13. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, viral hepatitis, and liver cancer make liver disease one of the 10 leading ... disease are decreasing, those for viral hepatitis and liver cancer are on the rise, both in the U.S. ...

  14. Anatomical versus Non-Anatomical Single Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Cadaveric Study of Comparison of Knee Stability

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hong-Chul; Yoon, Yong-Cheol; Wang, Joon-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the initial stability of anatomical and non-anatomical single bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to determine which would better restore intact knee kinematics. Our hypothesis was that the initial stability of anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction would be superior to that of non-anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction. Methods Anterior tibial translation (ATT) and internal rotation of the tibia were measured with a computer navigation system in seven pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric knees under two testing conditions (manual maximum anterior force, and a manual maximum anterior force combined with an internal rotational force). Tests were performed at 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees of flexion with the ACL intact, the ACL transected, and after reconstruction of one side of a pair with either anatomical or non-anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction. Results Under manual maximal anterior force, both reconstruction techniques showed no significant difference of ATT when compared to ACL intact knee state at 30° of knee flexion (p > 0.05). Under the combined anterior and internal rotatory force, non-anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction showed significant difference of ATT compared to those in ACL intact group (p < 0.05). In contrast, central anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction showed no significant difference of ATT compared to those in ACL intact group (p > 0.05). Internal rotation of the tibia showed no significant difference in the ACL intact, the ACL transected, non-anatomical reconstructed and anatomical reconstructed knees. Conclusions Anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction restored the initial stability closer to the native ACL under combined anterior and internal rotational forces when compared to non-anatomical ACL single bundle reconstruction. PMID:23205233

  15. The effect of animal movement on line transect estimates of abundance.

    PubMed

    Glennie, Richard; Buckland, Stephen T; Thomas, Len

    2015-01-01

    Line transect sampling is a distance sampling method for estimating the abundance of wild animal populations. One key assumption of this method is that all animals are detected at their initial location. Animal movement independent of the transect and observer can thus cause substantial bias. We present an analytic expression for this bias when detection within the transect is certain (strip transect sampling) and use simulation to quantify bias when detection falls off with distance from the line (line transect sampling). We also explore the non-linear relationship between bias, detection, and animal movement by varying detectability and movement type. We consider animals that move in randomly orientated straight lines, which provides an upper bound on bias, and animals that are constrained to a home range of random radius. We find that bias is reduced when animal movement is constrained, and bias is considerably smaller in line transect sampling than strip transect sampling provided that mean animal speed is less than observer speed. By contrast, when mean animal speed exceeds observer speed the bias in line transect sampling becomes comparable with, and may exceed, that of strip transect sampling. Bias from independent animal movement is reduced by the observer searching further perpendicular to the transect, searching a shorter distance ahead and by ignoring animals that may overtake the observer from behind. However, when animals move in response to the observer, the standard practice of searching further ahead should continue as the bias from responsive movement is often greater than that from independent movement. PMID:25799206

  16. Anterior Orbit and Adnexal Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Al Hussain, Hailah; Edward, Deepak P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe six cases of anterior orbital and adnexal amyloidosis and to report on proteomic analysis to characterize the nature of amyloid in archived biopsies in two cases. Materials and Methods: The clinical features, radiological findings, pathology, and outcome of six patients with anterior orbit and adnexal amyloidosis were retrieved from the medical records. The biochemical nature of the amyloid was determined using liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy archived paraffin-embedded tissue in two cases. Results: Of the six cases, three had unilateral localized anterior orbit and lacrimal gland involvement. Four of the six patients were female with an average duration of 12.8 years from the time of onset to presentation eyelid infiltration by amyloid caused ptosis in five cases. CT scan in patients with lacrimal gland involvement (n = 3) demonstrated calcified deformable anterior orbital masses and on pathological exmaintionamyloid and calcific deposits replaced the lacrimal gland acini. Ptosis repair was performed in three patients with good outcomes. One patient required repeated debulking of the mass and one patient had recurrenct disease. Proteomic analysis revealed polyclonal IgG-associated amyloid deposition in one patient and AL kappa amyloid in the second patient. Conclusion: Amyloidosis of the anterior orbit and lacrimal gland can present with a wide spectrum of findings with good outcomes after surgical excision. The nature of amyloid material can be precisely determined in archival pathology blocks using diagnostic proteomic analysis. PMID:24014979

  17. Use of Aortic Endograft for Repair of Intraoperative Iliocaval Injury during Anterior Spine Exposure.

    PubMed

    Chou, Elizabeth L; Colvard, Benjamin D; Lee, Jason T

    2016-02-01

    Vascular injury during anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a well-documented occurrence. Most vascular injuries continue to be managed with direct open repair. We report the outcome of a 61-year-old woman who experienced inferior vena cava and left common iliac vein injury during a difficult exposure for multilevel ALIF. The distal cava and common iliac vein were repaired with a Gore Excluder cuff and limb. The endovascular repair permitted control of the injury without more morbid maneuvers such as iliac artery transection. Thus endovascular repair of intraoperative caval injury is a valuable option in emergent situations with low morbidity and good durability. PMID:26597236

  18. Bilateral Traumatic Globe Luxation with Optic Nerve Transection

    PubMed Central

    Tok, Levent; Tok, Ozlem Yalcin; Argun, Tugba Cakmak; Yilmaz, Omer; Gunes, Alime; Unlu, Elif Nisa; Sezer, Sezgin; Ibisoglu, Seda; Argun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to document clinical findings and management of a patient with bilateral globe luxation and optic nerve transection. Materials and Methods A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with bilateral traumatic globe luxation following a motor vehicle accident. Results Visual acuity testing showed no light perception. The right pupil was dilated and bilaterally did not react to light. The globes were bilaterally intact. A computed tomography scan revealed Le Fort type II fractures, bilateral optic nerve transection and disruption of all extraocular muscles. The globes of the patient were bilaterally reduced into the orbit. However, the patient developed phthisis bulbi in the right eye at month 3. Conclusion Globe luxation presents a dramatic clinical picture, and may lead to the development of severe complications due to the concomitance of complete optic nerve dissection and multiple traumas. Even if the luxated globe is repositioned into the orbit, there is still an increased risk of the development of phthisis due to ischemia. PMID:25606034

  19. Multiple subpial transection: a review of 21 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Sawhney, I M; Robertson, I J; Polkey, C E; Binnie, C D; Elwes, R D

    1995-01-01

    Multiple subpial transection (MST) is a novel technique in surgery for epilepsy, employed in patients where some or all of the epileptogenic zone cannot be resected because it lies in a vital cortical area. Twenty one patients subjected to MST were reviewed. Eighteen patients had medically intractable epilepsy and three patients had Landau-Kleffner syndrome. Their ages ranged from 6 to 47 (mean 15-9) and duration of epilepsy ranged from 0.33 to 42 (mean 8.6) years. Preoperative MRI showed focal abnormalities in eight cases. Detailed electrophysiological examination was carried out on all patients. Brain resection was performed in addition to MST in 12 patients. A further six patients underwent brain biopsy. Three patients with Landau-Kleffner syndrome were subjected neither to resection nor to biopsy. Histopathological examination showed Rasmussen's syndrome in six patients, cortical dysplasia in six, cerebral tumour in one, and non-specific changes in five. Multiple subpial transection was carried out mainly in precentral and postcentral regions. Eighteen patients have been followed up for one to five years, and three for 10 months. The three patients with Landau-Kleffner syndrome were mute before operation and have shown substantial recovery of speech. Of the other 18, 11 showed a worthwhile decrease in seizure frequency. None of the patients developed chronic neurological deficits attributable to MST. It is concluded that MST leads to worthwhile seizure control without major neurological deficit in patients who would otherwise be inoperable. PMID:7897419

  20. Radon and ammonia transects across the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Semprini, L.; Kruger, P.

    1981-01-01

    Radon and ammonia transects, conducted at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, involve measurement of concentration gradients at wells along lines of structural significance in the reservoir. Analysis of four transects showed radon concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 3.60 nCi/kg and ammonia concentrations from 17.6 to 59.3 mg/l. The data showed the lower concentrations in wells of lowest enthalpy fluid and the higher concentrations in wells of highest enthalpy fluid. Linear correlation analysis of the radon-enthalpy data indicated a strong relationship, with a marked influence by the two-phase conditions of the produced fluid. It appears that after phase separation in the reservoir, radon achieves radioactive equilibrium between fluid and rock, suggesting that the phase separation occurs well within the reservoir. A two-phase mixing model based on radon-enthalpy relations allows estimation of the fluid phase temperatures in the reservoir. Correlations of ammonia concentration with fluid enthalpy suggests an equilibrium partitioning model in which enrichment of ammonia correlates with higher enthalpy vapor.

  1. Protect Yourself from Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop yellowish eyes and skin. All the hepatitis viruses can cause acute, or short-term, hepatitis. Some can also cause chronic hepatitis, in which the infection lasts a long time, sometimes for your whole life. Chronic hepatitis can eventually lead to scarring of ...

  2. [Hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Festi, Davide; Marasco, Giovanni; Ravaioli, Federico; Colecchia, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common complication of liver cirrhosis and it can manifest with a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities of varying severity, acuity and time course with important clinical implications. According to recent guidelines, HE has been classified into different types, depending on the severity of hepatic dysfunction, the presence of porto-systemic shunts and the number of previous episodes or persistent manifestations. From a clinical point of view, HE can be recognized as unimpaired, covert (that deals with minimal and grade 1 according to the grading of mental state), and overt (that is categorized from grade 2 to grade 4). Different and only partially known pathogenic mechanisms have been identified, comprising ammonia, inflammatory cytokines, benzodiazepine-like compounds and manganese deposition. Different therapeutic strategies are available for treating HE, in particular the overt HE, since covert HE needs to be managed case by case. Recognition and treatment of precipitating factors represent fundamental part of the management. The more effective treatments, which can be performed separately or combined, are represented by non-absorbable disaccharides (lactulose and lactitol) and the topic antibiotic rifaximin; other possible therapies, mainly used in patients non responders to previous treatments, are represented by branched chain amino acids and metabolic ammonia scavengers. PMID:27571468

  3. Hepatic osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Angelo; Verardo, Alberto; Di Pascoli, Marco; Giannini, Sandro; Bolognesi, Massimo

    2014-09-01

    Metabolic disturbances of bone are frequent in patients with chronic liver disease. The prevalence of osteoporosis among patients with advanced chronic liver disease is reported between 12% and 55%; it is higher in primary biliary cirrhosis. All patients with advanced liver disease should be screened for osteoporosis with a densitometry, especially if the etiology is cholestatic and in the presence of other risk factors. Clinical relevance of hepatic osteodystrophy increases after liver transplantation. After liver transplant, a rapid loss of bone mineral density can be detected in the first 6 months, followed by stabilization and slight improvement of the values. At the time of transplantation, bone density values are very important prognostic factors. Therapy of hepatic osteodystrophy is based primarily on the control of risk factors: cessation of tobacco and alcohol assumption, reduction of caffeine ingestion, exercise, supplementation of calcium and vitamin D, limitation of drugs such as loop diuretics, corticosteroids, cholestyramine. Bisphosphonates have been proposed for the therapy of osteoporosis in patients with liver disease, particularly after liver transplantation. The possible side effects of oral administration of bisphosphonates, such as the occurrence of esophageal ulcerations, are of particular concern in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension, due to the risk of gastrointestinal hemorrhage from ruptured esophageal varices, although this risk is probably overestimated. PMID:25568651

  4. Image-guided ureteral reconstruction using rendezvous technique for complex ureteric transection after gunshot injuries.

    PubMed

    Arabi, Mohammad; Mat'hami, Abdulaziz; Said, Mohammad T; Bulbul, Muhammad; Haddad, Maurice; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    2016-01-01

    Management of complex ureteric transection poses a significant clinical challenge, particularly after gunshot injuries due to marked distortion of anatomy and associated tissue loss. We report two cases of total ureteric transection due to gunshot injury successfully repaired using fluoroscopy-guided rendezvous procedure and double J stent placement. This minimally invasive approach may offer a safe and effective technique to repair complete ureteral transection and obviate the need for complex surgical procedures. PMID:26955601

  5. Image-guided ureteral reconstruction using rendezvous technique for complex ureteric transection after gunshot injuries

    PubMed Central

    Arabi, Mohammad; Mat’hami, Abdulaziz; Said, Mohammad T.; Bulbul, Muhammad; Haddad, Maurice; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    2016-01-01

    Management of complex ureteric transection poses a significant clinical challenge, particularly after gunshot injuries due to marked distortion of anatomy and associated tissue loss. We report two cases of total ureteric transection due to gunshot injury successfully repaired using fluoroscopy-guided rendezvous procedure and double J stent placement. This minimally invasive approach may offer a safe and effective technique to repair complete ureteral transection and obviate the need for complex surgical procedures. PMID:26955601

  6. Vertebral Artery Transection in Nonpenetrating Trauma: A Series of 4 Patients.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Ezekiel; Lehnert, Bruce; McNeeley, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injury is a common and potentially devastating consequence of nonpenetrating trauma to the head and neck. The degree of injury ranges from minimal intimal disruption to complete transection with free extravasation. Although blunt carotid transection has been well characterized in clinical reports and radiologic studies, the computed tomographic angiography (CTA) features of blunt vertebral artery transection have not been well described. We report a series of 4 patients presenting to our level I trauma center with blunt vertebral artery transection, with an emphasis on their CTA imaging findings at presentation and their respective clinical courses. A brief review of the pertinent literature is provided. PMID:26122415

  7. Prevention of Cartilage Degeneration and Gait Asymmetry by Lubricin Tribosupplementation in the Rat Following ACL Transection

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Gregory D.; Elsaid, Khaled A.; Kelly, Karen A.; Anderson, Scott C.; Zhang, Ling; Teeple, Erin; Waller, Kimberly; Fleming, Braden C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether cartilage degeneration is prevented or minimized in an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rat model following a single dose-escalated intra-articular injection of lubricin derived from human synoviocytes in culture (HSL). Methods Unilateral ACL transection (ACLT) of the right hindlimb was performed in Lewis rats (N = 56). Control animals underwent a capsulotomy alone leaving the ACL intact (N = 11). Intra-articular injections (50μl/injection) of PBS (N = 14) and HSL (N = 14; 1600μg/ml) were performed on day 7 post-surgery. Animals were euthanized on day 70 post-surgery. Histological specimens were immunoprobed for lubricin, and sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Urinary CTX-II (uCTX-II) levels were measured on day 35 and 70 post-surgery. Hindlimb maximum applied force was determined using a variable resistor walkway to monitor quadruped gait asymmetries. Results Increased immunostaining for lubricin in the superficial zone and on the surface of cartilage was observed in lubricin-treated and control animals but not the PBS-treated nor the untreated ACLT animals. On post-operative day 35 and 70, uCTXII levels of HSL-treated animals were lower than corresponding untreated and PBS-treated (p=0.005; p<0.001 respectively) animals. ACLT animals treated with HSL and control animals distributed their weight equally between hindlimbs compared to PBS treated or untreated animals (p<0.01). Conclusion A single intra-articular injection of concentrated lubricin, following ACLT, reduced collagen type II degradation and improved weight bearing in the affected joint. This study supports the practice of tribosupplementation with lubricin in retarding cartilage degeneration and possibly the development of post-traumatic OA. PMID:22127873

  8. Duodenal Transection without Pancreatic Injury following Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bankar, Sanket Subhash; Gosavi, Vikas S.; Hamid, Mohd.

    2014-01-01

    With the inventions of faster cars and even more faster motorbikes there is a worldwide increase in road traffic accidents, which has increased the incidence of blunt abdominal trauma but still duodenal injury following a blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon and can pose a formidable challenge to the surgeon and failure to manage it properly can result in devastating results. It may typically occur in isolation or with pancreatic injury. Here, we report a case of an isolated transection of the third part of the duodenum with normal pancreas following a blunt abdominal trauma. The initial clinical changes in isolated duodenal injury may be extremely subtle before life-threatening, peritonitis develops. Hence, a high index of suspicion, on the basis of mechanism of injury and physical examination is the key in early detection of duodenal injury especially in a rural hospital like ours where the facilities for computed tomography scan are not available. PMID:25598947

  9. Duodenal Transection without Pancreatic Injury following Blunt Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Bankar, Sanket Subhash; Gosavi, Vikas S; Hamid, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    With the inventions of faster cars and even more faster motorbikes there is a worldwide increase in road traffic accidents, which has increased the incidence of blunt abdominal trauma but still duodenal injury following a blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon and can pose a formidable challenge to the surgeon and failure to manage it properly can result in devastating results. It may typically occur in isolation or with pancreatic injury. Here, we report a case of an isolated transection of the third part of the duodenum with normal pancreas following a blunt abdominal trauma. The initial clinical changes in isolated duodenal injury may be extremely subtle before life-threatening, peritonitis develops. Hence, a high index of suspicion, on the basis of mechanism of injury and physical examination is the key in early detection of duodenal injury especially in a rural hospital like ours where the facilities for computed tomography scan are not available. PMID:25598947

  10. Mathematical models for nonparametric inferences from line transect data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, K.P.; Anderson, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    A general mathematical theory of line transects is develoepd which supplies a framework for nonparametric density estimation based on either right angle or sighting distances. The probability of observing a point given its right angle distance (y) from the line is generalized to an arbitrary function g(y). Given only that g(O) = 1, it is shown there are nonparametric approaches to density estimation using the observed right angle distances. The model is then generalized to include sighting distances (r). Let f(y/r) be the conditional distribution of right angle distance given sighting distance. It is shown that nonparametric estimation based only on sighting distances requires we know the transformation of r given by f(O/r).

  11. Viral hepatitis: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Satsangi, Sandeep; Chawla, Yogesh K

    2016-07-01

    Viral hepatitis is a cause for major health care burden in India and is now equated as a threat comparable to the "big three" communicable diseases - HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Hepatitis A virus and Hepatitis E virus are predominantly enterically transmitted pathogens and are responsible to cause both sporadic infections and epidemics of acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus are predominantly spread via parenteral route and are notorious to cause chronic hepatitis which can lead to grave complications including cirrhosis of liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Around 400 million people all over the world suffer from chronic hepatitis and the Asia-Pacific region constitutes the epicentre of this epidemic. The present article would aim to cover the basic virologic aspects of these viruses and highlight the present scenario of viral hepatitis in India. PMID:27546957

  12. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  13. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  14. Hepatitis B Blood Tests: FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working on ... people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 10 Other Languages . Resource Video See More ...

  15. Anterior spinal cord syndrome of unknown etiology

    PubMed Central

    Klakeel, Merrine; Thompson, Justin; McDonald, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A spinal cord injury encompasses a physical insult to the spinal cord. In the case of anterior spinal cord syndrome, the insult is a vascular lesion at the anterior spinal artery. We present the cases of two 13-year-old boys with anterior spinal cord syndrome, along with a review of the anatomy and vasculature of the spinal cord and an explanation of how a lesion in the cord corresponds to anterior spinal cord syndrome. PMID:25552812

  16. Demonstration of Pelvic Anatomy by Modified Midline Transection that Maintains Intact Internal Pelvic Organs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Hanno; Saito, Toshiyuki; Herrmann, Gudrun; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Hammer, Niels; Sandrock, Mara; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    Gross dissection for demonstrating anatomy of the human pelvis has traditionally involved one of two approaches, each with advantages and disadvantages. Classic hemisection in the median plane through the pelvic ring transects the visceral organs but maintains two symmetric pelvic halves. An alternative paramedial transection compromises one side…

  17. Comparison of line transects and point counts for monitoring spring migration in forested wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Elliott, A.B.

    2000-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of 400-m line transects and sets of three point counts at detecting avian richness and abundance in bottomland hardwood forests and intensively managed cottonwood (Populus deltoides) plantations within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. We detected more species and more individuals on line transects than on three point counts during 218 paired surveys conducted between 24 March and 3 June, 1996 and 1997. Line transects also yielded more birds per unit of time, even though point counts yielded higher estimates of relative bird density. In structurally more-complex bottomland hardwood forests, we detected more species and individuals on line transects, but in more-open cottonwood plantations, transects surpassed point counts only at detecting species within 50 m of the observer. Species richness and total abundance of Nearctic-Neotropical migrants and temperate migrants were greater on line transects within bottomland hardwood forests. Within cottonwood plantations, however, only species richness of Nearctic-Neotropical migrants and total abundance of temperate migrants were greater on line transects. Because we compared survey techniques using the same observer, within the same forest stand on a given day, we assumed that the technique yielding greater estimates of avian species richness and total abundance per unit of effort is superior. Thus, for monitoring migration within hardwood forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, we recommend using line transects instead of point counts.

  18. 38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3... Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a veteran within 35 days of termination of active military service, it...

  19. Anatomical and functional recovery following spinal cord transection in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, I; Oppenheim, R W; O'Brien, M; Shneiderman, A

    1990-09-01

    Following complete transection of the thoracic spinal cord at various times during embryonic development, chick embryos and posthatched animals exhibited various degrees of anatomical and functional recovery depending upon the age of injury. Transection on embryonic day 2 (E2), when neurogenesis is still occurring and before descending or ascending fiber tracts have formed, produced no noticeable behavioral or anatomical deficits. Embryos hatched on their own and were behaviorally indistinguishable from control hatchlings. Similar results were found following transection on E5, an age when neurogenesis is complete and when ascending and descending fiber tracts have begun to project through the thoracic region. Within 48 h following injury on E5, large numbers of nerve fibers were observed growing across the site of transection. By E8, injections of horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) administered caudal to the lesion, retrogradely labelled rostral spinal and brainstem neurons. Embryos transected on E5 were able to hatch and could stand and locomote posthatching in a manner that was indistinguishable from controls. Following spinal cord transections on E10, anatomical recovery of the spinal cord at the site of injury was not quite as complete as after E5 transection. Nonetheless, anatomical continuity was restored at the site of injury, axons projected across this region, and rostral spinal and brainstem neurons could be retrogradely labelled following HRP injections administered caudal to the lesion. At least part of this anatomical recovery may be mediated by the regeneration or regrowth of lesioned axons. Although none of the embryos transected on E10 that survived to hatching were able to hatch on their own, because several sham-operated embryos were also unable to hatch, we do not attribute this deficit to the spinal transection. When E10-transected embryos were aided in escaping from the shell, they were able to support their own weight, could stand, and locomote

  20. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    PubMed

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  1. Hepatic abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, S.; Langer, V.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic abscesses are potentially lethal diseases if early diagnosis and treatment are not instituted. They are prevalent all over the globe and pyogenic abscesses are predominant over amoebic. With better control of intra abdominal and systemic infections by a spectrum of antibiotics, aetiology of pyogenic abscesses are secondary to interventions and diseases in the biliary tree to a large extent today. The common organisms isolated are the Gram negative group. Amoebic abscesses continue to plague some regions of the world where hygiene and sanitation are questionable. Over the years, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis have evolved remarkably. Imaging modalities like ultrasonography and CT scan have become the cornerstone of diagnosis. The absence of ionizing radiation makes MRI an attractive alternative in patients who require multiple follow up scans. Serological testing in amoebic abscesses has become more reliable. Though antibiotics have remained the principal modality of management, percutaneous drainage of abscesses have vastly improved the chances of cure and bring down the morbidity drastically in pyogenic abscesses. Amoebic abscesses respond well to medical treatment with nitroimidazoles, and minimally invasive surgical drainage is an option in cases where open surgery is indicated. PMID:24532886

  2. Hepatitis Foundation International

    MedlinePlus

    ... partner – it's your best friend. Welcome. The Hepatitis Foundation International (HFI) is a 501 (c) 3 non- ... and cures is your participation in the Hepatitis Foundation International Registry. Whether you are affected, a caregiver, ...

  3. Hepatitis A - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... hepatitis A. Children can get hepatitis A at day care center from other children or from child care ... treatment with immunoglobulin therapy. If your child attends day care: Make sure the children and staff at the ...

  4. Hepatitis C (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs ...

  5. Hepatitis B Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... IgM; anti-HBe; Hepatitis B e Antibody; HBV DNA Formal name: Hepatitis B Virus Testing Related tests: ... produced by the virus, and others detect viral DNA . The main uses for HBV tests include: To ...

  6. Hepatitis E Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Sébastien; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Kamar, Nassim; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Although most hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are asymptomatic, some can be severe, causing fulminant hepatitis and extra-hepatic manifestations, including neurological and kidney injuries. Chronic HEV infections may also occur in immunocompromised patients. This review describes how our understanding of the pathogenesis of HEV infection has progressed in recent years. PMID:27527210

  7. Hepatitis E Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lhomme, Sébastien; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Kamar, Nassim; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Although most hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are asymptomatic, some can be severe, causing fulminant hepatitis and extra-hepatic manifestations, including neurological and kidney injuries. Chronic HEV infections may also occur in immunocompromised patients. This review describes how our understanding of the pathogenesis of HEV infection has progressed in recent years. PMID:27527210

  8. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis B (HBV) Print A A A Text Size ... Prevented? How Is It Treated? What Is It? Hepatitis (pronounced: hep-uh-TIE-tiss) is a disease ...

  9. Treating hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Karmen

    2014-10-01

    (1) New treatments for hepatitis C are curing more people than before. (2) Baby boomers make up an estimated 75 percent of all cases of hepatitis C. (3) Medicare and some insurance plans cover screening for hepatitis C as a preventive service without a copayment. PMID:25514812

  10. Structural transect across Ventua basin and western Transverse Ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Namson, J.S.

    1987-05-01

    A retrodeformable cross section that integrates surface and subsurface data across the Ventura basin and western Transverse Ranges illustrates the structural style and evolution of Oligocene to Holocene age structures. Three deformational events are recognized: Oligocene to early Miocene compression, late Miocene through Pliocene normal faulting, and Pleistocene to Holocene compression. Oligocene to early Miocene compression caused uplift and formation of a large antiform north of the Santa Ynez fault in the central part of the range. This antiform is interpreted to be a ramp-related fold associated with movement on a southwest-verging blind thrust fault. Late Miocene through Pliocene age normal faulting along the Oak Ridge fault formed the southern boundary of the Ventura basin. The basin formed by simple block rotation along the normal fault and was filled by up to 6 km of Pliocene and Pleistocene clastic sediment. During Pleistocene to Holocene compression, the Ventura basin and western Transverse Ranges were deformed by both north- and south-verging thrust faults and related folds. The Ventura Avenue anticline is interpreted to be the result of imbricate thrust faulting in the Rincon and Monterey formations. Along the Oak Ridge trend, thrust-related folds rotated and reactivated the late Miocene and Pliocene age normal faults. A restoration of the regional transect documents 34% or 35 km of shortening by thrusting and folding during the Pleistocene to Holocene phase of compression.

  11. Transcriptome profiling of the rat retina after optic nerve transection

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Masayuki; Tanaka, Yuji; Omodaka, Kazuko; Nishiguchi, Koji M.; Nakamura, Orie; Tsuda, Satoru; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases characterized by alterations in the contour of the optic nerve head (ONH), with corresponding visual field defects and progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). This progressive RGC death is considered to originate in axonal injury caused by compression of the axon bundles in the ONH. However, the molecular pathomechanisms of axonal injury-induced RGC death are not yet well understood. Here, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to examine transcriptome changes in rat retinas 2 days after optic nerve transection (ONT), and then used computational techniques to predict the resulting alterations in the transcriptional regulatory network. RNA-seq revealed 267 differentially expressed genes after ONT, 218 of which were annotated and 49 unannotated. We also identified differentially expressed transcripts, including potentially novel isoforms. An in silico pathway analysis predicted that CREB1 was the most significant upstream regulator. Thus, this study identified genes and pathways that may be involved in the pathomechanisms of axonal injury. We believe that our data should serve as a valuable resource to understand the molecular processes that define axonal injury-driven RGC death and to discover novel therapeutic targets for glaucoma. PMID:27353354

  12. Factors controlling floc settling velocity along a longitudinal estuarine transect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, A.J.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    A 147 km longitudinal transect of flocculated cohesive sediment properties in San Francisco Bay (SFB) was conducted on June 17th, 2008. Our aim was to determine the factors that control floc settling velocity along the longitudinal axis of the estuary. The INSSEV-LF video system was used to measure floc diameters and settling velocities at 30 stations at a distance of 0.7 m above the estuary bed. Floc sizes (D) ranged from 22 μm to 639 μm and settling velocities (Ws) ranged between 0.04 mm·s− 1 and 15.8 mm·s− 1 during the longitudinal transect. Nearbed turbulent shear stresses throughout the transect duration were within the 0.2–0.5 Pa range which typically stimulates flocculation growth. The individual D–Ws–floc density plots suggest the suspended sediments encountered throughout SFB were composed of both muddy cohesive sediment and mixed sediments flocs. Mass-weighted population mean settling velocity (Wsmass) ranged from 0.5 mm·s− 1 to 10 mm·s− 1. The macrofloc and microfloc (demarcation at 160 μm) sub-populations demonstrated parameterised settling velocities which spanned nearly double the range of the sample mean settling velocities (Wsmean). The macroflocs tended to dominate the suspended mass (up to 77% of the ambient suspended solid concentration; SSC) from San Pablo Bay to Carquinez Strait (the vicinity of the turbidity maximum zone). Microfloc mass was particularly significant (typically 60–100% of the SSC) in the northern section of South Bay and most of Central Bay. The transect took eleven hours to complete and was not fully synoptic. During slack tide, larger and faster settling flocs deposited, accounting for most of the longitudinal variability. The best single predictor of settling velocity was water velocity 39 min prior to sampling, not suspended-sediment concentration or salinity. Resuspension and settling lags are likely responsible for the lagged response of settling velocity to water velocity. The distribution of

  13. Circum-Arctic lithospheric transects from onshore to offshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pease, V.; Coakley, B.; Faleide, J. I.; Jokat, W.; Miller, E. L.; Stephenson, R.; Meisling, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the evolution of the lithosphere over time involves the integration and interpretation of geological and geophysical data, combined with good knowledge of the physical processes at work in the lithosphere giving rise to past and present structures. Tectonic activity related to the rifting process created the present-day structure of today's Arctic basins and bathymetric highs, and in the process modified older structures and architecture of the crust and lithosphere. The correlation of circum-Arctic terranes and orogens help to not only reconstruct paleogeography but to also define the role and determine the nature of the lithospheric processes that were active in the complex tectonic evolution of the Arctic. CALE (Circum Arctic Lithosphere Evolution), an international and multidisciplinary effort involving c. 35 geologists and geophysicists from ten different countries working to link the onshore and offshore regions across the circum-Arctic region, is a scientific network in it's last year of a 5-year program. Sedimentary cover and crust to mantle cross-sections from onshore to offshore have been created integrating the latest scientific knowledge and data sets available for the Arctic. The project's principal Arctic transects include: Ellesmere-Canada Basin, Pacific Ocean-Lomonosov Ridge through the Bering Strait, across the Laptev Sea rift to the DeLong Islands, Barents and Kara regions across Timan-Pechora and Taimyr. These sections, the culmination of the CALE project, and their principle findings will be presented for the first time with discussion of outstanding issues yet to be resolved.

  14. The effect of brain transection on the response to forced submergence in ducks.

    PubMed

    Gabbott, G R; Jones, D R

    1991-10-01

    The effect of brain transection at two levels on cardiovascular responses to forced submergence has been investigated in ducks. Compared with intact ducks, neither decerebration nor brain stem transection at the rostral mesencephalic (RM) level had any effect on development of diving bradycardia, or heart rate at the end of two-min dives. Arterial blood pressure was maintained in brain transected ducks as well as in intact ducks. Furthermore, end-dive arterial blood gases and pH were also similar in intact and brain transected ducks confirming that the oxygen sparing cardiovascular adjustments, involving a massive increase in total peripheral resistance, were unimpaired by brain transection. In this respect, ducks with RM transections tolerated four-min dives. However, the increase in post-dive VE seen in intact and decerebrated ducks was prevented by RM transection. We conclude that control of the circulatory response to diving resides in the lower brainstem, is reflexogenic in nature, and does not depend on the cognitive perception of 'fearful' stimuli. PMID:1753065

  15. Impediments to eye transplantation: ocular viability following optic-nerve transection or enucleation

    PubMed Central

    Ellenberg, D; Shi, J; Jain, S; Chang, J-H; Ripps, H; Brady, S; Melhem, E R; Lakkis, F; Adamis, A; Chen, D-F; Ellis-Behnke, R; Langer, R S; Strittmatter, S M; Azar, D T

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance of ocular viability is one of the major impediments to successful whole-eye transplantation. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of the current literature to help guide future studies in order to overcome this hurdle. A systematic multistage review of published literature was performed. Three specific questions were addressed: (1) Is recovery of visual function following eye transplantation greater in cold-blooded vertebrates when compared with mammals? (2) Is outer retina function following enucleation and reperfusion improved compared with enucleation alone? (3) Following optic-nerve transection, is there a correlation between retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and either time after transection or proximity of the transection to the globe? In a majority of the studies performed in the literature, recovery of visual function can occur after whole-eye transplantation in cold-blooded vertebrates. Following enucleation (and reperfusion), outer retinal function is maintained from 4 to 9 h. RGC survival following optic-nerve transection is inversely related to both the time since transection and the proximity of transection to the globe. Lastly, neurotrophins can increase RGC survival following optic-nerve transection. This review of the literature suggests that the use of a donor eye is feasible for whole-eye transplantation. PMID:19286686

  16. A Rare Case of Complete Stent Fracture, Coronary Arterial Transection, and Pseudoaneurysm Formation Induced by Repeated Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Fumiaki; Kanemoto, Masashi; Yamada, Jutaro; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Tsuboi, Hidetoshi; Fujii, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a rare asymptomatic case of complete stent fracture, coronary arterial transection, and pseudoaneurysm formation in response to repeated stenting. The proximal and distal ends of transected coronary artery were closed, and distal bypass was performed. Coronary arterial transection can occur in patients with repeated stenting as a long-term adverse event. PMID:26543650

  17. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  18. Line transect estimation of population size: the exponential case with grouped data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, K.P.; Crain, B.R.

    1979-01-01

    Gates, Marshall, and Olson (1968) investigated the line transect method of estimating grouse population densities in the case where sighting probabilities are exponential. This work is followed by a simulation study in Gates (1969). A general overview of line transect analysis is presented by Burnham and Anderson (1976). These articles all deal with the ungrouped data case. In the present article, an analysis of line transect data is formulated under the Gates framework of exponential sighting probabilities and in the context of grouped data.

  19. Integration of potential-field and digital geologic data for two North American geoscience transects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Two North American contributions to the Global Geoscience Transects Program, the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine transect and the Great Lakes portion of the United States-Canadian Border transect, are among the first to produce digital geology in a form that can be combined with gridded gravity and aeromagnetic data. Maps of shaded relief and color-composite bandpass-filtered potential-field data combined with overlays of digitized geologic contacts and faults reveal significant new geologic information, including the relative thickness of plutons, the structure of poorly exposed or concealed magnetic units, and possible evidence for mineralized ground. -from Author

  20. Differences in distribution of modified basins and ducks relative to roadside transects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Sklebar, H.T.; Buhl, T.K.

    2003-01-01

    Wetland basins in the Prairie Pothole Region of the U.S. are commonly modified by excavation (e.g., roadside ditches, stock dugouts), partial drainage (ditching), and diking. Differences in the distribution of modified wetlands may affect the predictive accuracy of waterfowl survey data if such wetlands are not distributed randomly in the landscape and if waterfowl are not distributed equally among them. We used data collected on thirty-eight 40-km2 plots in North Dakota to examine the distribution of modified basins relative to roadside transects and their use by five species of dabbling ducks in 1995. The 800-m-wide transects were subdivided into an inner 400-m transect, centered on the road, and the remaining outer transect area. We compared the distribution of modified and natural wetland basins among three sample areas: 1) the inner 400-m wide roadside transect area, 2) the outer transect area, and 3) the remaining area within the 40-km2 plot that was outside of the transects (outer plot). Duck use was compared between the two transect areas. The plots contained 20,582 basins, of which 88.5% were unmodified, 7.5% were excavated, 3.7% were partially drained, and 0.2% were diked. Nearly all excavated temporary (89%) and seasonal (90%) basins occurred in the inner transect area, reflecting the high proportion of basins that would be defined as roadside ditches. Excavated semipermanent basins were more evenly distributed among the outer plot and two transect widths; these basins often were dugouts but also included roadside ditches. Partially drained and diked basins also were fairly evenly distributed among the three sample areas. Semipermanent basins had greater use by mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintails (A. acuta) when they were partially drained than when they were excavated or unmodified; pintails also had greater use of partially drained seasonal basins. Use of wetland basins by gadwall (A. strepera), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and

  1. Hepatitis: protecting BMETs & CEs.

    PubMed

    Baker, S A

    1994-01-01

    Hepatitis is the primary occupational hazard for healthcare workers. Not until the 1970s were hepatitis viruses isolated and identified as types A and B. In the late 1970s, hepatitis D was discovered as a major cause of fulminant hepatitis. Soon, it was evident that another type was also at work. Because testing was only available for types A and B, the new category was referred to as non-A, non-B. In the 1980s, scientists identified two more viruses from this non-A, non-B group, namely hepatitis E and hepatitis C. These five types of hepatitis have different modes of transmission. The fecal-to-oral route is the mode of transmission for hepatitis types A and E. But, types B and D are bloodborne pathogens. With the advent of a safe vaccine for hepatitis B, this category is declining. To date, hepatitis C appears to have multiple routes of transmission, with half the cases being posttransfusion. In the United States, 85,000 people per year develop chronic hepatitis C, which ultimately leads to severe liver damage. This paper addresses each of the five viruses that have been grouped by routes of transmission, prevention techniques for BMETs and CEs, and statistics of reported cases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) over the last 20 years. PMID:10139739

  2. Artificial ultra-fine aerosol tracers for highway transect studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Thomas A.; Barnes, David E.; Wuest, Leann; Gribble, David; Buscho, David; Miller, Roger S.; De la Croix, Camille

    2016-07-01

    The persistent evidence of health impacts of roadway aerosols requires extensive information for urban planning to avoid putting populations at risk, especially in-fill projects. The required information must cover both highway aerosol sources as well as transport into residential areas under a variety of roadway configurations, traffic conditions, downwind vegetation, and meteorology. Such studies are difficult and expensive to do, but were easier in the past when there was a robust fine aerosol tracer uniquely tied to traffic - lead. In this report we propose and test a modern alternative, highway safety flare aerosols. Roadway safety flares on vehicles in traffic can provide very fine and ultra-fine aerosols of unique composition that can be detected quantitatively far downwind of roadways due to a lack of upwind interferences. The collection method uses inexpensive portable aerosol collection hardware and x-ray analysis protocols. The time required for each transect is typically 1 h. Side by side tests showed precision at ± 4%. We have evaluated this technique both by aerosol removal in vegetation in a wind tunnel and by tracking aerosols downwind of freeways as a function of season, highway configuration and vegetation coverage. The results show that sound walls for at-grade freeways cause freeway pollution to extend much farther downwind than standard models predict. The elevated or fill section freeway on a berm projected essentially undiluted roadway aerosols at distances well beyond 325 m, deep into residential neighborhoods. Canopy vegetation with roughly 70% cover reduced very fine and ultra-fine aerosols by up to a factor of 2 at distances up to 200 m downwind.

  3. Overview of the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, David L.; Waring, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    The Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project is a study of ecosystem functions in coniferous forests using the methods of computer modeling, experimental and theoretical remote sensing, and ecological field and laboratory techniques. The study is focused on predicting the major fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water, and the factors that dynamically regulate them. The OTTER project was conceived to test two major questions: (1) Can a generalized ecosystem simulation model, designed to use mainly parameters available from remote sensing, predict the functioning of forests across an environmentally variable region? and (2) To what extent can the variables required by this model be derived from remotely sensed data? The scientific objectives and scope of the project demanded that a coordinated effort be made to link ground measurements with remote sensing and modeling requirements. OTTER was selected as a focus for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-sponsored Multi-sensor Aircraft Campaign (MAC; combining NASA aircraft and sensors with those of others) on the basis of experience gained in past ecosystem studies and remote-sensing projects, and the importance of the OTTER objectives to NASA's long-range science goals and plans. Having several independent approaches available, both on the ground and from various remote-sensing platforms, proved valuable in estimating and validating many of the critical variables. This experience and cross comparison should help simplify future studies of a similar nature. Edited data sets from the OTTER project are now available to the scientific community on optical disks or via on-line data banks at NASA (Washington, D.C., USA) and Oregon State University (Corvallis, Oregon, USA).

  4. Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Alaskan Lakes Along a Latitudinal Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cruz, K. C.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Anthony, P.; Thalasso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Karla Martinez-Cruz* **, Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui*, Katey M. Walter Anthony*, Peter Anthony*, and Frederic Thalasso**. * Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska. ** Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Cinvestav, Mexico city, D. F., Mexico. Methane (CH4) is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide and water vapor. Boreal lakes play an important role in the current global warming by contributing as much as 6% of global atmospheric CH4 sources annually. On the other hand, aerobic methane oxidation (methanotrophy) in lake water is a fundamental process in global methane cycling that reduces the amount of CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Several environmental factors affect aerobic methane oxidation in the water column both directly and indirectly, including concentration of CH4 and O2, temperature and carbon budgets of lakes. We analyzed the potential of aerobic methane oxidation (PMO) rates in incubations of water collected from 30 Alaskan lakes along a north-south transect during winter and summer 2011. Our findings showed an effect of CH4 and O2 concentrations, temperature and yedoma thawing permafrost on PMO activity in the lake water. The highest PMO rates were observed in summer by lakes situated on thawing yedoma permafrost, most of them located in the interior of Alaska. We also estimated that 60-80% of all CH4 produced in Alaskan lakes could be taken up by methanotrophs in the lake water column, showing the significant influence of aerobic methane oxidation of boreal lakes to the global CH4 budget.

  5. A basin redox transect at the dawn of animal life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, Erik A.; Halverson, Galen P.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Macdonald, Francis A.; Johnston, David T.

    2013-06-01

    Multiple eukaryotic clades make their first appearance in the fossil record between ~810 and 715 Ma. Molecular clock studies suggest that the origin of animal multicellularity may have been part of this broader eukaryotic radiation. Animals require oxygen to fuel their metabolism, and low oxygen levels have been hypothesized to account for the temporal lag between metazoan origins and the Cambrian radiation of large, ecologically diverse animals. Here, paleoredox conditions were investigated in the Fifteenmile Group, Ogilvie Mountains, Yukon, Canada, which hosts an 811 Ma ash horizon and spans the temporal window that captures the inferred origin and early evolution of animals. Iron-based redox proxies, redox-sensitive trace elements, organic carbon percentages and pyrite sulfur isotopes were analyzed in seven stratigraphic sections along two parallel basin transects. These data suggest that for this basin, oxygenated shelf waters overlay generally anoxic deeper waters. The anoxic water column was dominantly ferruginous, but brief periods of euxinia likely occurred. These oscillations coincide with changes in total organic carbon, suggesting euxinia was primarily driven by increased organic carbon loading. Overall, these data are consistent with proposed quantitative constraints on Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen being greater than 1% of modern levels, but less than present levels. Comparing these oxygen levels against the likely oxygen requirements of the earliest animals, both theoretical considerations and the ecology of modern oxygen-deficient settings suggest that the inferred oxygen levels in the mixed layer would not have been prohibitive to the presence of sponges, eumetazoans or bilaterians. Thus the evolution of the earliest animals was probably not limited by the low absolute oxygen levels that may have characterized Neoproterozoic oceans, although these inferred levels would constrain animals to very small sizes and low metabolic rates.

  6. Vegetation and Soil Responses to Fertilization Along the Kalahari Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Caylor, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Ries, L.; Okin, G.; Swap, R.; Shugart, H.; Scanlon, T.; Macko, S.

    2006-12-01

    To better understand how soil nutrients and soil moisture interactively control vegetation dynamics in savanna ecosystems, a large-scale stable isotope fertilization experiment was conducted using four study sites with different mean annual precipitation (MAP), along the Kalahari Transect (KT). KT in southern Africa traverses a dramatic aridity gradient (from 200 mm to more than 1000 mm MAP, through the Republic of South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Zambia), on relatively homogenous soils (deep Kalahari sands). The experimental design consisted of a randomized block design with four 21 m x 13 m plots at each site. Each plot was divided into four 10 m x 6 m subplots with a 1 m buffer zone between each subplot. Four treatments (N addition, P addition, N+P addition and control) were randomly applied to the subplots. The N and N+P additions were enriched with 15N to a signature of 10.3 ‰. Grass foliar 15N was significantly higher in the N and N+P addition than in the control or P-addition during following growing season. The differences disappeared in the second growing season. Soil 15N and soil surface CO2 fluxes were not different between treatments in both seasons for all four locations. Herbaceous biomass responses to fertilization were different in different locations. Significantly higher biomass was observed in N+P addition in driest site and in P addition in wetter site. The 15N results provide evidence of N uptake limitation and we also see evidence of productivity limitation. These results suggest that there is a complex feedback between soil and vegetation in savanna ecosystems.

  7. Stereopsis after anterior temporal lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Decramer, Thomas; van Loon, Johannes; Goffin, Jan; Van Paesschen, Wim; Janssen, Peter; Theys, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Brain areas critical for stereopsis have been investigated in non-human primates but are largely unknown in the human brain. Microelectrode recordings and functional MRI (fMRI) studies in monkeys have shown that in monkeys the inferior temporal cortex is critically involved in 3D shape categorization. Furthermore, some human fMRI studies similarly suggest an involvement of visual areas in the temporal lobe in depth perception. We aimed to investigate the role of the human anterior temporal neocortex in stereopsis by assessing stereoscopic depth perception before and after anterior temporal lobectomy. Eighteen epilepsy surgery patients were tested, pre- and postoperatively, in 3 different depth discrimination tasks. Sensitivity for local and global disparity was tested in a near-far discrimination task and sensitivity for 3D curvature was assessed in a convex-concave discrimination task, where 3D shapes were presented at different positions in depth. We found no evidence that temporal lobe epilepsy surgery has a significant effect on stereopsis. In contrast with earlier findings, we conclude that local as well as global stereopsis is maintained after unilateral resection of the temporal pole in epilepsy surgery patients. Our findings, together with previous studies, suggest that in humans more posterior visual regions underlie depth perception. PMID:27344239

  8. Incidental Anterior Cruciate Ligament Calcification: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hisami; Fischer, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The calcification of knee ligaments is a finding noted only in a handful of case reports. The finding of an anterior cruciate ligament calcification has been reported once in the literature. Comparable studies involving the posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and an ossicle within the anterior cruciate ligament are likewise discussed in reports of symptomatic patients. We report a case of incidentally discovered anterior cruciate ligament calcification. We discuss the likely etiology and clinical implications of this finding. PMID:27200163

  9. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  10. [Endovascular repair for an acute traumatic aortic transection: a case report].

    PubMed

    Sanioğlu, Soner; Sahin, Sinan; Aydoğan, Hakki; Barutça, Hakan; Eren, Ergin

    2012-03-01

    A thirty-eight-year-old male patient who suffered from 10th and 11th thoracal vertebrae fractures, paraplegia and acute traumatic aortic transection because of accidental fall was referred to our hospital. Open surgical repair carried a very high risk due to severe coexisting injuries. Transection was treated with 30x100 mm Valiant thoracic endograft, which was deployed just distal to the ostium of the left carotid artery. The patient was transferred to the neurosurgery clinic for treatment of paraplegia after an uneventful recovery. Endovascular repair of acute transection confers substantial advantages in mortality and morbidity compared to surgical repair. However, the long-term durability of thoracic endografts remains unknown. If the long-term results are as satisfactory as the promising mid-term results, this technique may become the gold standard approach for the treatment of acute transection. PMID:22792827

  11. Hepatic encephalopathy: a review.

    PubMed

    Lizardi-Cervera, Javier; Almeda, Paloma; Guevara, Luis; Uribe, Misael

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complication that presents in as many as 28% of patients with cirrhosis, and reported up to ten years after the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Commonly, it is observed in patients with severe hepatic failure and is characterized by neuropsychiatric manifestations that can range in severity from a mild alteration in mental state to a coma; additionally, some neuromuscular symptoms can be observed. This complication of either acute or chronic hepatic disease is the result of a diminished hepatic reservoir and inability to detoxify some toxins that originate in the bowel. Today, the role of astrocytes, specifically the Alzheimer type II cells, is known to be very important in the pathogenesis of the hepatic encephalopathy, and will be reviewed later. In conclusion, the objectives of this review are: To understand the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, To recognize the precipitating factors, as well as preventive measures for the development of the hepatic encephalopathy, To describe the new classification of hepatic encephalopathy and its clinical implications, To recognize the clinical manifestations and stages of the disease, To understand the main diagnostic tests used to detect the hepatic encephalopathy, To describe the main therapeutic treatments of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:15115963

  12. Effects of vestibular nerve transection on the calcium incorporation of fish otoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anken, Ralf H.; Edelmann, Elke; Rahmann, Hinrich

    2001-08-01

    Previous investigations revealed that the growth of fish inner ear otoliths (otolith size and calcium-incorporation) depends on the amplitude and the direction of gravity, suggesting the existence of a (negative) feedback mechanism. In search for the regulating unit, the vestibular nerve was transected unilaterally in neonate swordtail fish ( Xiphophorus helleri) which were subsequently incubated in the calcium-tracer alizarin-complexone. Calcium incorporation ceased on the transected head sides, indicating that calcium uptake is neurally regulated.

  13. A parametric generalization of the Hayne estimator for line transect sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.

    1979-01-01

    The Hayne model for line transect sampling is generalized by using an elliptical (rather than circular) flushing model for animal detection. By assuming the ration of major and minor axes lengths is constant for all animals, a model results which allows estimation of population density based directly upon sighting distances and sighting angles. The derived estimator of animal density is a generalization of the Hayne estimator for line transect sampling.

  14. Variability of land degradation along topographic transects in two Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh; Anaya-Romero, María; Phillips, Jonathan D.; Jordán, Antonio; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; de la Rosa, Diego

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of topography, soil factors and climate conditions on land degradation along topographic transects in two Mediterranean areas: Seville (southern Spain) and El-Fayoum (northern Egypt). Elevation and slope gradient information from both study sites were obtained from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, processed using ENVI 4.7. Additionally, topographic transects were developed using ArcGIS 10 software. To represent the highest variability in elevation, lithology, soil and land use in each site, one representative topographic transect from El-Fayoum and two topographic transects from Seville were selected. Soil characteristics along each of the topographic transect were obtained by mapping land surveying and laboratory analyses data. MicroLEIS DSS (Pantanal and Raizal submodels) was used to assess soil contamination with phosphorus, nitrogen, heavy metals and pesticides and water erosion vulnerability along the topographic transects for each study site using soil data, including depth, texture, drainage, carbonate content, salinity, sodium saturation, organic matter content and acidity (pH). Additionally, monthly average values of climate variables (mean temperature, maximum and minimum rainfall and number of rainy days) have been used. The results obtained by Raizal and Pantanal models suggest that lower elevation areas from transects show low vulnerability classes in both degradation processes (water erosion and soil contamination), when compared to uplands. The variation of climate conditions and soil factors along the Seville and El-Fayoum transects were responsible for the observed variability in both soil degradation processes (erosion and contamination). Key words: MicroLEIS DSS, soil degradation, soil factors, topography, DEM

  15. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. From Hollywood's "Walk of Stars" to Main Street, USA, people from all walks ... that includes many well-known names: Legendary television star Larry Hagman was diagnosed with advanced hepatitis C ...

  16. Biomechanical Characterization of a Model of Noninvasive, Traumatic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Maerz, Tristan; Kurdziel, Michael D; Davidson, Abigail A; Baker, Kevin C; Anderson, Kyle; Matthew, Howard W T

    2015-10-01

    The onset of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) remains prevalent following traumatic joint injury such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, and animal models are important for studying the pathomechanisms of PTOA. Noninvasive ACL injury using the tibial compression model in the rat has not been characterized, and it may represent a more clinically relevant model than the common surgical ACL transection model. This study employed four loading profiles to induce ACL injury, in which motion capture analysis was performed, followed by quantitative joint laxity testing. High-speed, high-displacement loading repeatedly induces complete ACL injury, which causes significant increases in anterior-posterior and varus laxity. No loading protocol induced valgus laxity. Tibial internal rotation and anterior subluxation occurs up to the point of ACL failure, after which the tibia rotates externally as it subluxes over the femoral condyles. High displacement was more determinative of ACL injury compared to high speed. Low-speed protocols induced ACL avulsion from the femoral footprint whereas high-speed protocols caused either midsubstance rupture, avulsion, or a combination injury of avulsion and midsubstance rupture. This repeatable, noninvasive ACL injury protocol can be utilized in studies assessing PTOA or ACL reconstruction in the rat. PMID:25777293

  17. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound accelerates nerve regeneration following inferior alveolar nerve transection in rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mai; Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Shinoda, Masamichi; Iwata, Koichi; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury, which is frequently caused by orofacial surgery or trauma, induces sensory loss in orofacial regions innervated by the IAN. However, no effective treatment for orofacial sensory loss currently exists. We determined whether sensory loss in facial skin above the mental foramen following IAN transection was recovered by exposure of the transected IAN to low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS). Inferior alveolar nerve transection (IANX) was performed in 7-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. On day 7 after IANX, the effect of daily LIPUS (from day 0) on the transected IAN, in terms of sensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the facial skin above the mental foramen, was examined. Moreover, the number of trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the facial skin above the mental foramen of rats with IANX treated daily with LIPUS was counted using the retrograde neurotracing technique. Daily exposure of the transected IAN to LIPUS significantly promoted recovery of the head-withdrawal threshold in response to mechanical stimulation of the facial skin above the mental foramen, and the number of TG neurons innervating the facial skin above mental foramen was significantly increased in rats with IANX treated daily with LIPUS compared with sham or LIPUS-unexposed rats. Daily treatment of stumps of the transected IAN with LIPUS facilitated morphological and functional regeneration, suggesting that LIPUS is an effective and novel therapy for IAN injury. PMID:27058986

  18. Swimming behaviour and calcium incorporation into inner ear otoliths of fish after vestibular nerve transection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, E.; Anken, R. H.; Rahmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations on neonate swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) revealed that otolithic calcium incorporation (visualized using the calcium tracer alizarin complexone) and thus otolith growth had ceased after nerve transection, supporting a hypothesis according to which the gravity-dependent otolith growth is regulated neuronally. Subsequent investigations on larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) yielded contrasting results, repeatedly depending on the particular batch of cichlids investigated. Like most neonate swordtails, Type I cichlids revealed a stop of calcium incorporation after unilateral vestibular nerve transection. Their behaviour after transection was normal, and the otolithic calcium incorporation in controls of the same batch was symmetric. In Type II cichlids, however, vestibular nerve transection had no effect on otolithic calcium incorporation. They behaved kinetotically after transection (this kind of kinetosis was qualitatively similar to the swimming behaviour exhibited by larval cichlids during microgravity in the course of parabolic aircraft flights). The otolithic calcium incorporation in control animals was asymmetric. These results show that the effects of vestibular nerve transection as well as the efficacy of the mechanism, which regulates otolith growth/otolithic calcium incorporation, are - depending on the particular batch of animals - genetically predispositioned. In conclusion, the regulation of otolithic calcium incorporation is guided neuronally, in part via the vestibular nerve and, in part, via a further pathway, which remains to be addressed in the course of future investigations.

  19. Swimming Behavior and Calcium Incorporation into inner Ear Otoliths of Fish after vestibular Nerve Transection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, E.; Anken, R.; Rahmann, H.

    Previous investigations on neonate swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) revealed that otolithic calcium incorporation (visualized using the calcium-tracer alizarin- complexone) and thus otolith growth had ceased after nerve transection, supporting a hypothesis according to which the gravity-dependent otolith growth is regulated neuronally. Subsequent investigations on larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) yielded contrasting results, repeatedly depending on the particular batch of cichlids investigated: Like neonate swordtails, type I cichlids revealed a stop of calcium incorporation after unilateral vestibular nerve transection. Their behaviour after transection was normal and the otolithic calcium incorporation in controls of the same batch was symmetrical. In type II cichlids, however, vestibular nerve transection had no effect on otolithic calcium incorporation. They behaved kinetotically after transection (this kind of kinetosis was qualitatively similar to the swimming behaviour exhibited by larval cichlids during microgravity in the course of parabolic aircraft flights). The otolithic calcium incorporation in control animals was asymmetrical. These results stongly suggest that the effects of vestibular nerve transection as well as the efficacy of the mechanism, which regulates otolith growth/otolithic calcium incorporation, are - depending on the particular batch of animals - genetically predispositioned. Thus, it is assumed that the mechanisms regulating otolith growth and equlibibrium differ in the two types of cichlid fish. This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) e.V. (FKZ: 50 WB 9997).

  20. Swimming behaviour and calcium incorporation into inner ear otoliths of fish after vestibular nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, E; Anken, R H; Rahmann, H

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations on neonate swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) revealed that otolithic calcium incorporation (visualized using the calcium tracer alizarin complexone) and thus otolith growth had ceased after nerve transection, supporting a hypothesis according to which the gravity-dependent otolith growth is regulated neuronally. Subsequent investigations on larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) yielded contrasting results, repeatedly depending on the particular batch of cichlids investigated. Like most neonate swordtails, Type I cichlids revealed a stop of calcium incorporation after unilateral vestibular nerve transection. Their behaviour after transection was normal, and the otolithic calcium incorporation in controls of the same batch was symmetric. In Type II cichlids, however, vestibular nerve transection had no effect on otolithic calcium incorporation. They behaved kinetotically after transection (this kind of kinetosis was qualitatively similar to the swimming behaviour exhibited by larval cichlids during microgravity in the course of parabolic aircraft flights). The otolithic calcium incorporation in control animals was asymmetric. These results show that the effects of vestibular nerve transection as well as the efficacy of the mechanism, which regulates otolith growth/otolithic calcium incorporation, are--depending on the particular batch of animals--genetically predispositioned. In conclusion, the regulation of otolithic calcium incorporation is guided neuronally, in part via the vestibular nerve and, in part, via a further pathway, which remains to be addressed in the course of future investigations. PMID:15803634

  1. Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Murawski, Christopher D.; Wolf, Megan R.; Araki, Daisuke; Muller, Bart; Tashman, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is common procedure performed by orthopedic surgeons, particularly in association with sports-related injuries. Whereas traditional reconstruction techniques used a single bundle graft that was typically placed in a non-anatomic position, a renewed interest in anatomy has facilitated the popularization of anatomic reconstruction techniques. Recently, a focus has been placed on individualizing ACL surgery based on each patient’s native anatomical characteristics (e.g., insertion site size, notch size, and shape), thereby dictating the ultimate procedure of choice. As subjective outcome measurements have demonstrated varying outcomes with respect to single- versus double-bundle ACL reconstruction, investigators have turned to more objective techniques, such as in vivo kinematics, as a means of evaluating joint motion and cartilage contact mechanics. Further investigation in this area may yield important information with regard to the potential progression to osteoarthritis after ACL reconstruction, including factors affecting or preventing it. PMID:26069663

  2. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  3. Hepatitis B in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tram T

    2016-06-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is estimated to affect >350 million people worldwide and represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality related to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV remains an important source of incident cases of HBV. Current barriers to eradication of incident HBV infections via MTCT include underutilization of immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccination and hepatitis B immune globulin in certain endemic regions as well as failure of immunoprophylaxis. PMID:27190321

  4. Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    HEPATITIS C Information on Testing & Diagnosis What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent ...

  5. Inferior mesenteric vein serves as an alternative guide for transection of the pancreatic body during pancreaticoduodenectomy with concomitant vascular resection: a comparative study evaluating perioperative outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tumors of the pancreatic head often involve the superior mesenteric and portal veins. The purpose of this study was to assess perioperative outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) with concomitant vascular resection using the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) as a guide for transection of the pancreatic body (Whipple at IMV, WATIMV). Methods One hundred thirty-seven patients had segmental vein resection during PD between January 2006 and June 2013. Depending on whether the standard approach of creating a tunnel anterior to the mesenterico-portal vein (MPV) axis was achieved for pancreatic transection, patients were subjected to a standard PD with vein resection procedure (s-PD + VR, n = 75) or a modified procedure (m-PD + VR, n = 62). Within the m-PD + VR group, 28 patients underwent the WATIMV procedure, while 34 patients underwent the usual procedure of transection, or ‘central pancreatectomy’ (c-PD + VR). Results The volume of intraoperative blood loss and the blood transfusion requirements were significantly greater, and the venous wall invasion and neural invasion frequency were significantly higher in the m-PD + VR group compared with the s-PD + VR group. There were no significant differences in the length of hospitalization, postoperative morbidity, and grades of complications between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression identified intraoperative blood transfusion (P = 0.004) and vascular invasion (P = 0.008) as the predictors of postoperative morbidity. Further stratification of the entire cohort of 62 (45%) patients who underwent m-PD + VR showed a higher rate of negative resection margins (96.4%) in the WATIMV group compared with the c-PD + VR group (76.5%) (P = 0.06). The volume of intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.013), and intraoperative blood transfusion requirements (P = 0.07) were significantly greater in the c-PD + VR group compared with the WATIMV group

  6. [Treatment for hepatic osteodystrophy].

    PubMed

    Kaji, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Chronic liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis, are caused by various pathogenesis, such as viral hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune hepatitis and steatohepatitis. There have not been enough clinical evidence about the treatment of hepatic osteodystrophy at the present time. Several reports suggested that bisphosphonates, such as alendronate, are effective for an increase in bone mineral density in patients with chronic liver disease. Vitamin D treatment might be useful for the frequent prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the pathogenesis of hepatic oseodystrophy. The use of estrogens will be limited for the risk of liver dysfunction and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26503875

  7. Giant Cavernous Haemangioma of the Anterior Mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Seyda Ors; Samancılar, Ozgur; Usluer, Ozan; Acar, Tuba; Yener, Ali Galip

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas of the anterior mediastinum is rare. We present a case of a 56-year-old male patient with a giant cavernous hemangioma of the anterior mediastinum, 18 cm in diameters, approached by left posterolateral thoracotomy. To the best of our knowledge, such a unique case has not been previously presented in the literature. PMID:26644773

  8. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: a sporadic case

    PubMed Central

    Bostan, Sezen; Yaşar, Şirin; Serdar, Zehra Aşiran; Gizlenti, Sevda

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis is a very rare form of primary localized hypertrichosis. It consists of a tuft of terminal hair on the anterior neck just above the laryngeal prominence. The etiology is still unknown. In this article, we reported a 15-year-old female patient who presented to our clinic with a complaint of hypertrichosis on the anterior aspect of the neck for the last five years. Her past medical history revealed no pathology except for vesicoureteral reflux. On the basis of clinical presentation, our patient was diagnosed with anterior cervical hypertrichosis and she was considered to be a sporadic case due to lack of other similar cases in familial history. To date, 33 patients with anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis can be associated with other abnormalities, but it frequently presents as an isolated defect (70%). The association of vesicoureteral reflux and anterior cervical hypertrichosis which was observed in our patient might be coincidental. So far, no case of anterior cervical hypertrichosis associated with vesicoureteral reflux has been reported in the literature. PMID:27103865

  9. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: a sporadic case.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Sezen; Yaşar, Şirin; Serdar, Zehra Aşiran; Gizlenti, Sevda

    2016-03-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis is a very rare form of primary localized hypertrichosis. It consists of a tuft of terminal hair on the anterior neck just above the laryngeal prominence. The etiology is still unknown. In this article, we reported a 15-year-old female patient who presented to our clinic with a complaint of hypertrichosis on the anterior aspect of the neck for the last five years. Her past medical history revealed no pathology except for vesicoureteral reflux. On the basis of clinical presentation, our patient was diagnosed with anterior cervical hypertrichosis and she was considered to be a sporadic case due to lack of other similar cases in familial history. To date, 33 patients with anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis can be associated with other abnormalities, but it frequently presents as an isolated defect (70%). The association of vesicoureteral reflux and anterior cervical hypertrichosis which was observed in our patient might be coincidental. So far, no case of anterior cervical hypertrichosis associated with vesicoureteral reflux has been reported in the literature. PMID:27103865

  10. Determining Optimal Location and Numbers of Sample Transects for Characterization of UXO Sites

    SciTech Connect

    BILISOLY, ROGER L.; MCKENNA, SEAN A.

    2003-01-01

    Previous work on sample design has been focused on constructing designs for samples taken at point locations. Significantly less work has been done on sample design for data collected along transects. A review of approaches to point and transect sampling design shows that transects can be considered as a sequential set of point samples. Any two sampling designs can be compared through using each one to predict the value of the quantity being measured on a fixed reference grid. The quality of a design is quantified in two ways: computing either the sum or the product of the eigenvalues of the variance matrix of the prediction error. An important aspect of this analysis is that the reduction of the mean prediction error variance (MPEV) can be calculated for any proposed sample design, including one with straight and/or meandering transects, prior to taking those samples. This reduction in variance can be used as a ''stopping rule'' to determine when enough transect sampling has been completed on the site. Two approaches for the optimization of the transect locations are presented. The first minimizes the sum of the eigenvalues of the predictive error, and the second minimizes the product of these eigenvalues. Simulated annealing is used to identify transect locations that meet either of these objectives. This algorithm is applied to a hypothetical site to determine the optimal locations of two iterations of meandering transects given a previously existing straight transect. The MPEV calculation is also used on both a hypothetical site and on data collected at the Isleta Pueblo to evaluate its potential as a stopping rule. Results show that three or four rounds of systematic sampling with straight parallel transects covering 30 percent or less of the site, can reduce the initial MPEV by as much as 90 percent. The amount of reduction in MPEV can be used as a stopping rule, but the relationship between MPEV and the results of excavation versus no

  11. Anterior capsulotomy using the CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barak, Adiel; Ma-Naim, Tova; Rosner, Mordechai; Eyal, Ophir; Belkin, Michael

    1998-06-01

    Continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) is the preferred technique for removal of the anterior capsule during cataract surgery due to this technique assuring accurate centration of the intraocular lens. During modern cataract surgery, especially with small or foldable intra ocular lenses, centration of the lens is obligatory. Radial tears at the margin of an anterior capsulotomy may be associated with the exit of at least one loop of an intraocular lens out of the capsular bag ('pea pod' effect) and its subsequent decentration. The anterior capsule is more likely to ream intact if the continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) technique is used. Although manual capsulorhexis is an ideal anterior capsulectomy technique for adults, many ophthalmologists are still uncomfortable with it and find it difficult to perform, especially in complicated cases such as these done behind small pupil, cataract extraction in children and pseudoexfoliation syndrome. We have developed a technique using a CO2 laser system for safe anterior capsulotomy and tested it in animal eyes.

  12. Atraumatic Anterior Dislocation of the Hip Joint

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuru, Tadahiko; Morita, Yasuyuki; Murata, Yasuaki; Itou, Junya; Morita, Yuji; Munakata, Yutaro; Kato, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Dislocation of the hip joint in adults is usually caused by high-energy trauma such as road traffic accidents or falls from heights. Posterior dislocation is observed in most cases. However, atraumatic anterior dislocation of the hip joint is extremely rare. We present a case of atraumatic anterior dislocation of the hip joint that was induced by an activity of daily living. The possible causes of this dislocation were anterior capsule insufficiency due to developmental dysplasia of the hip, posterior pelvic tilt following thoracolumbar kyphosis due to vertebral fracture, and acetabular anterior coverage changes by postural factor. Acetabular anterior coverage changes in the sagittal plane were measured using a tomosynthesis imaging system. This system was useful for elucidation of the dislocation mechanism in the present case. PMID:26819791

  13. Anterior Shoulder Instability with Concomitant Superior Labrum from Anterior to Posterior (SLAP) Lesion Compared to Anterior Instability without SLAP Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Durban, Claire Marie C.; Kim, Je Kyun; Kim, Sae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with combined anterior instability and superior labrum from anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions, and to analyze the effect of concomitant SLAP repair on surgical outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent arthroscopic stabilization for anterior shoulder instability between January 2004 and March 2013. A total of 120 patients were available for at least 1-year follow-up. Forty-four patients with reparable concomitant detached SLAP lesions (group I) underwent combined SLAP and anterior stabilization, and 76 patients without SLAP lesions (group II) underwent anterior stabilization alone. Patient characteristics, preoperative and postoperative pain scores, Rowe scores, and shoulder ranges of motion were compared between the 2 groups. Results Patients in group I had higher incidences of high-energy trauma (p = 0.03), worse preoperative pain visual analogue scale (VAS) (p = 0.02), and Rowe scores (p = 0.04). The postoperative pain VAS and Rowe scores improved equally in both groups without significant differences. Limitation in postoperative range of motion was similar between the groups (all p-value > 0.05). Conclusions Anterior instability with SLAP lesion may not be related to frequent episodes of dislocation but rather to a high-energy trauma. SLAP fixation with anterior stabilization procedures did not lead to poor functional outcomes if appropriate surgical techniques were followed. PMID:27247742

  14. The contribution of each anterior cruciate ligament bundle to the Lachman test: a cadaver investigation.

    PubMed

    Christel, P S; Akgun, U; Yasar, T; Karahan, M; Demirel, B

    2012-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of a partial tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is still subject to debate. Little is known about the contribution of each ACL bundle during the Lachman test. We investigated this using six fresh-frozen cadaveric lower limbs. Screws were placed in the femora and tibiae as fixed landmarks for digitisation of the bone positions. The femur was secured horizontally in a clamp. A metal hook was screwed to the tibial tubercle and used to apply a load of 150 N directed anteroposteriorly to the tibia to simulate the Lachman test. The knees then received constant axial compression and 3D knee kinematic data were collected by digitising the screw head positions in 30° flexion under each test condition. Measurements of tibial translation and rotation were made, first with the ACL intact, then after sequential cutting of the ACL bundles, and finally after complete division of the ACL. Two-way analysis of variance analysis was performed. During the Lachman test, in all knees and in all test conditions, lateral tibial translation exceeded that on the medial side. With an intact ACL, both anterior and lateral tibial landmarks translated significantly more than those on the medial side (p < 0.001). With sequential division of the ACL bundles, selective cutting of the posterolateral bundle (PLB) did not increase translation of any landmark compared with when the ACL remained intact. Cutting the anteromedial bundle (AMB) resulted in an increased anterior translation of all landmarks. Compared to the intact ACL, when the ACL was fully transected a significant increase in anterior translation of all landmarks occurred (p < 0.001). However, anterior tibial translation was almost identical after AMB or complete ACL division. We found that the AMB confers its most significant contribution to tibial translation during the Lachman test, whereas the PLB has a negligible effect on anterior translation. Section of the PLB had a greater effect on increasing

  15. Trends in flood peaks' magnitude and seasonality in European transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantini, Elena; Mallucci, Stefano; Allamano, Paola; Claps, Pierluigi; Laio, Francesco; Viglione, Alberto; Hall, Julia; Blöschl, Günter

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade floods seems to have lashed more and more European population, so that more accurate studies concerning flood events tendencies are needed. We present a work in which trends in flood peaks' magnitude and seasonality (in time and space) are analyzed at the European scale: in total 2055 and 4340 stations respectively for magnitude and seasonality are considered along transect lines including entire nations, ranging typically from north to south of Europe. The work is part of the ERC Project "Deciphering River Flood Change". Trend analysis of flood magnitudes is applied to time series longer than 40 years. We find that there is a cluster of stations with negative trends in flood magnitude around the alpine and perialpine area. Positive trends are more frequent in the valleys of the mid Europe. We also use quantile regressions to investigate the behaviour of the highest quantiles, corresponding to floods with the highest return period. The original database is further divided into four classes based on station elevation; the group of catchments between 500 and 1000 m a.s.l. has the most positive trends for the large quantiles. The analysis is further developed by considering the coefficient of variation in 10-years time windows covering the data; the possible presence of trends in the CV is investigated. The obtained results show that there is a global prevalence of positive trend in the CVs, in particular for stations between 500 and 1000 m a.s.l., demonstrating a tendency toward the increase of very large (and possibly very small) annual maxima. To better discriminate the above results we used quantile regressions, able to highlight the trend behaviour of the highest quantiles computed on flood time series, Moreover, the database is divided into four classes based on station elevation. Results show that the group of catchments between 500 and 1000 m a.s.l. has definite and positive trends for the large quantiles. A different branch of this study

  16. A transect of Tertiary central volcanoes across northwest Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, B. T.; Duncan, R. A.; Carley, T. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Skagi-Snaefellsnes rift zone (SSRZ) was the focus of rifting in Iceland from ~15-7 Ma. We report on a transect of central volcanoes and isolated exposures of silicic rocks erupted from the SSRZ in northwest Iceland. The youngest system investigated is an epizonal intrusive series, gabbro to granite, at the northern end of Vididalsfjall, near the axis of the SSRZ. The granite yields an Ar/Ar plateau age of 7.03 × 0.07 Ma (all dates ×2σ), and SHRIMP 206Pb/238U zircon analysis gives an age of 6.79 × 0.35 Ma (n=15). This represents the final silicic activity in the northern SSRZ prior to abandonment at this latitude. Just east of the SSRZ is a central volcano exposed in Vatnsdalsfjall, Langadalsfjall, and Laxardalsfjoll, informally termed the southern Skagi central volcano. Ar/Ar ages for intermediate to silicic rocks in this system include a 7.62 × 0.32 Ma dacite, 7.80 × 0.07 Ma andesite, and a 7.82 × 0.04 Ma rhyolite. The rhyolite was also dated by SHRIMP zircon analysis yielding an age of 7.62 × 0.29 Ma (n=19). The Arnes central volcano is exposed on the northeastern tip of the West Fjords peninsula, east of the SSRZ. Based on correlation with nearby dated paleomagnetic surveys the age is ~12 Ma. The Hrafnfjordur central volcano further west in the West Fjords may be the oldest central volcano exposed on land in Iceland. A SHRIMP zircon age for the main dacite lava is 14.16 × 0.40 Ma (n=14). The three central volcanoes feature nearly continuous compositional spectra from basalt to a high-silica dacite or rhyolite. Extensive rhyolites occur in southern Skagi and Arnes, but with 2/3 of the system mapped, there are no true rhyolites at Hrafnfjordur; the most extensive silicic unit is a dacite lava (65-70 wt.% SiO2). Variation in Zr vs. SiO2 seems to implicate a cryptic high-silica low-Zr rhyolite magma as an end-member of mixing for some andesites at Hrafnfjordur, but Zr/Ti disproves this. The origin of most of the silicic magmas is likely by crustal

  17. Dissolved Ti in the US GEOTRACES Atlantic Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, R. W.; Moran, S.; Kelly, R. P.; Kelley, K. A.; Graham, D.

    2012-12-01

    data for dissolved Ti in the open Atlantic. Croot's values and our values both agree well with Orians' original analyses, which not only confirms our respective analytical approaches but also suggests that the GEOTRACES rosette system, small parts of which contain Ti, does not contaminate seawater samples for Ti. We also present data from the 2011 GEOTRACES station taken at BATS in the western Atlantic and at Station 11 from the 2010 GEOTRACES transect in the eastern Atlantic. Our profile to 2000 m (= 213 pM) is similar to that of Orians et al. (1990) to the same depth, but extends deeper to 3597 m. Unlike the deep Pacific profile of Orians et al. (1990) from Station PAPA, which extends to 3860 m and reaches a maximum of 263 pM at that depth, our BATS profile is essentially invariant with depth below 2000 m. We observe a similar deepwater distribution at Station 11, which shows an increase from 60 pM near the surface to a maximum of 180 pM at 700 m, followed perhaps by a slight decrease to 130 pM at 3300 m depth.

  18. Erythropoietic and hepatic porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Gross, U; Hoffmann, G F; Doss, M O

    2000-11-01

    Porphyrias are divided into erythropoietic and hepatic manifestations. Erythropoietic porphyrias are characterized by cutaneous symptoms and appear in early childhood. Erythropoietic protoporphyria is complicated by cholestatic liver cirrhosis and progressive hepatic failure in 10%, of patients. Acute hepatic porphyrias (delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency porphyria, acute intermittent porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria and variegate porphyria) are characterized by variable extrahepatic gastrointestinal, neurological-psychiatric and cardiovascular manifestations requiring early diagnosis to avoid life-threatening complications. Acute hepatic porphyrias are pharmacogenetic and molecular regulatory diseases (without porphyrin accumulation) mainly induced by drugs, sex hormones, fasting or alcohol. The disease process depends on the derepression of hepatic delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthase following haem depletion. In contrast to the acute porphyrias, nonacute, chronic hepatic porphyrias such as porphyria cutanea tarda are porphyrin accumulation disorders leading to cutaneous symptoms associated with liver disease, especially caused by alcohol or viral hepatitis. Alcohol, oestrogens, haemodialysis, hepatitis C and AIDS are triggering factors. Porphyria cutanea tarda is the most common porphyria, followed by acute intermittent porphyria and erythropoietic protoporphyria. The molecular genetics of the porphyrias is very heterogenous. Nearly every family has its own mutation. The mutations identified account for the corresponding enzymatic deficiencies, which may remain clinically silent throughout life. Thus, the recognition of the overt disorder with extrahepatic manifestations depends on the demonstration of biochemical abnormalities due to these primary defects and compensatory hepatic overexpression of hepatic delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthase in the acute porphyrias. Consequently, haem precursors are synthesized in excess. The increased

  19. Hepatitis and activity

    PubMed Central

    Krikler, Dennis M.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of physical activity during an attack of infectious hepatitis are discussed. There is no evidence that activity during convalescence produces any ill-effects. On the other hand, strenuous physical activity in the acute stage may be dangerous, possibly because hepatic blood-flow is reduced. PMID:5560143

  20. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... people at risk for contracting hepatitis. But frequent hand washing and good hygiene practices can reduce this risk. All kids in ... to prevent viral hepatitis you should: Follow good hygiene and avoid crowded, ... their hands thoroughly after using the toilet and before eating. ...

  1. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rick W.; Haas, Amanda K.; Anderson, Joy; Calabrese, Gary; Cavanaugh, John; Hewett, Timothy E.; Lorring, Dawn; McKenzie, Christopher; Preston, Emily; Williams, Glenn; Amendola, Annunziato

    2015-01-01

    Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction rehabilitation has evolved over the past 20 years. This evolution has been driven by a variety of level 1 and level 2 studies. Evidence Acquisition: The MOON Group is a collection of orthopaedic surgeons who have developed a prospective longitudinal cohort of the ACL reconstruction patients. To standardize the management of these patients, we developed, in conjunction with our physical therapy committee, an evidence-based rehabilitation guideline. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Results: This review was based on 2 systematic reviews of level 1 and level 2 studies. Recently, the guideline was updated by a new review. Continuous passive motion did not improve ultimate motion. Early weightbearing decreases patellofemoral pain. Postoperative rehabilitative bracing did not improve swelling, pain range of motion, or safety. Open chain quadriceps activity can begin at 6 weeks. Conclusion: High-level evidence exists to determine appropriate ACL rehabilitation guidelines. Utilizing this protocol follows the best available evidence. PMID:26131301

  2. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  3. Hepatitis E in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Lhomme, Sebastien; Izopet, Jacques; Kamar, Nassim

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has a worldwide distribution and is known to cause acute and fulminant hepatitis. However, over the last few years, it has been shown to also cause chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in immunosuppressed patients, especially solid-organ-transplant patients. In immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients, HEV is also associated with extra-hepatic manifestations, such as neurological symptoms and kidney injury. Unfortunately, a diagnostic assay for HEV infection is still not available in all countries. Reduction of immunosuppression is the first-line therapeutic option for organ-transplant patients with chronic hepatitis. In addition, ribavirin is highly efficient at treating chronic HEV infection. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding HEV diagnosis, its natural history, clinical manifestations, and treatments in patients with a solid-organ transplant. PMID:26838163

  4. [Update chronic viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Ziegenhagen, D J

    2016-03-01

    More than 500,000 people in Germany have chronic viral hepatitis. The interferon-based treatments formerly used in hepatitis B have been widely replaced by life-long oral medication with nucleoside or nucleotide analogues. Treatment for chronic hepatitis C has been improved substantially by the development of new and very expensive drug combinations. Up to 90% of patients can now be cured with certainty, and one to two years after successful treatment there is no relevant risk of recurrence. These individuals expect to receive insurance cover under appropriate conditions. Vaccination programmes are very efficient at decreasing the incidence of hepatitis B, but no vaccine against hepatitis C is likely to become available in the next decade. PMID:27111951

  5. The longitudinal epineural incision and complete nerve transection method for modeling sciatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xing-long; Wang, Pei; Sun, Bo; Liu, Shi-bo; Gao, Yun-feng; He, Xin-ze; Yu, Chang-yu

    2015-01-01

    Injury severity, operative technique and nerve regeneration are important factors to consider when constructing a model of peripheral nerve injury. Here, we present a novel peripheral nerve injury model and compare it with the complete sciatic nerve transection method. In the experimental group, under a microscope, a 3-mm longitudinal incision was made in the epineurium of the sciatic nerve to reveal the nerve fibers, which were then transected. The small, longitudinal incision in the epineurium was then sutured closed, requiring no stump anastomosis. In the control group, the sciatic nerve was completely transected, and the epineurium was repaired by anastomosis. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, Wallerian degeneration was observed in both groups. In the experimental group, at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, distinct medullary nerve fibers and axons were observed in the injured sciatic nerve. Regular, dense myelin sheaths were visible, as well as some scarring. By 12 weeks, the myelin sheaths were normal and intact, and a tight lamellar structure was observed. Functionally, limb movement and nerve conduction recovered in the injured region between 4 and 12 weeks. The present results demonstrate that longitudinal epineural incision with nerve transection can stably replicate a model of Sunderland grade IV peripheral nerve injury. Compared with the complete sciatic nerve transection model, our method reduced the difficulties of micromanipulation and surgery time, and resulted in good stump restoration, nerve regeneration, and functional recovery. PMID:26692866

  6. Full spinal cord regeneration after total transection is not possible due to entropy change.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, P; Sokal, P

    2016-09-01

    Transected spinal cord regeneration is a main challenge of regenerative medicine. The mainstream of research is focused on the promotion of spinal axons growth, which is strongly inhibited in mammals. Assuming that the inhibition of the axonal growth may be ever overcome, the complexity of neural reconnections may be the second serious stand to overcome. Peripheral nerve axons regeneration seem to form a random pattern of their targets reconnections. The hypothesis is that due to the laws of entropy or irreversible information loss the full spinal cord restoration after the transection is not possible. The hypothesis is discussed based on several assumptions. Simplifying the dissertation spinal cord is represented by 2millions of pyramidal axons. After the transection each of these axons has to make a growth and reconnect with exactly matching targets below the transection, in the same number. Axons are guided by neurotrophic factors and afterwards reconnected with neuroplasticity mechanisms. Assuming random reconnections, there are 2,000,000! permutations [Formula: see text] , therefore the chance of ideally random but correct reconnection of pyramidal axons with adequate targets is 1/2,000,000!. Apart from pyramidal axons, there are other axons, like extrapyramidal, sensory and associative. Empirical data and analysis of neurotrophic factors and organogenesis mechanisms may seem to slightly contradict the hypothesis, but strictly adhering to the second law of thermodynamics and entropy laws the full restoration of the transected cord may never be possible. PMID:27515203

  7. Environment, vegetation and greenness (NDVI) along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D. A.; Epstein, H. E.; Raynolds, M. K.; Kuss, P.; Kopecky, M. A.; Frost, G. V.; Daniëls, F. J. A.; Leibman, M. O.; Moskalenko, N. G.; Matyshak, G. V.; Khitun, O. V.; Khomutov, A. V.; Forbes, B. C.; Bhatt, U. S.; Kade, A. N.; Vonlanthen, C. M.; Tichý, L.

    2012-03-01

    Satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; an index of vegetation greenness and photosynthetic capacity) indicate that tundra environments are generally greening and becoming more productive as climates warm in the Arctic. The greening, however, varies and is even negative in some parts of the Arctic. To help interpret the space-based observations, the International Polar Year (IPY) Greening of the Arctic project conducted ground-based surveys along two >1500 km transects that span all five Arctic bioclimate subzones. Here we summarize the climate, soil, vegetation, biomass, and spectral information collected from the North America Arctic transect (NAAT), which has a more continental climate, and the Eurasia Arctic transect (EAT), which has a more oceanic climate. The transects have broadly similar summer temperature regimes and overall vegetation physiognomy, but strong differences in precipitation, especially winter precipitation, soil texture and pH, disturbance regimes, and plant species composition and structure. The results indicate that summer warmth and NDVI increased more strongly along the more continental transect.

  8. Sealing frequency of B104 cells declines exponentially with decreasing transection distance from the axon hillock.

    PubMed

    McGill, Christopher H; Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, Solomon Raju; Poon, Andrew D; Mikesh, Michelle; Bittner, George D

    2016-05-01

    Transection of nerve axons (axotomy) leads to rapid (Wallerian) degeneration of the distal portion of the severed axon whereas the proximal portion and the soma often survive. Clinicians and neuroscientists have known for decades that somal survival is less likely for cells transected nearer to the soma, compared to further from the soma. Calcium ion (Ca(2+)) influx at the cut axonal end increases somal Ca(2+) concentration, which subsequently activates apoptosis and other pathways that lead to cell death. The same Ca(2+) influx activates parallel pathways that seal the plasmalemma, reduce Ca(2+) influx, and thereby enable the soma to survive. In this study, we have examined the ability of transected B104 axons to seal, as measured by uptake or exclusion of fluorescent dye, and quantified the relationship between sealing frequency and transection distance from the axon hillock. We report that sealing frequency is maximal at about 150μm (μm) from the axon hillock and decreases exponentially with decreasing transection distance with a space constant of about 40μm. We also report that after Ca(2+) influx is initiated, the curve of sealing frequency versus time is well-fit by a one-phase, rising exponential model having a time constant of several milliseconds that is longer nearer to, versus further from, the axon hillock. These results could account for the increased frequency of cell death for axotomies nearer to, versus farther from, the soma of many types of neurons. PMID:26851541

  9. A Brain-Machine-Muscle Interface for Restoring Hindlimb Locomotion after Complete Spinal Transection in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Monzurul; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zicong; Li, Yan; He, Jufang

    2014-01-01

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) is a neuroprosthetic device that can restore motor function of individuals with paralysis. Although the feasibility of BMI control of upper-limb neuroprostheses has been demonstrated, a BMI for the restoration of lower-limb motor functions has not yet been developed. The objective of this study was to determine if gait-related information can be captured from neural activity recorded from the primary motor cortex of rats, and if this neural information can be used to stimulate paralysed hindlimb muscles after complete spinal cord transection. Neural activity was recorded from the hindlimb area of the primary motor cortex of six female Sprague Dawley rats during treadmill locomotion before and after mid-thoracic transection. Before spinal transection there was a strong association between neural activity and the step cycle. This association decreased after spinal transection. However, the locomotive state (standing vs. walking) could still be successfully decoded from neural recordings made after spinal transection. A novel BMI device was developed that processed this neural information in real-time and used it to control electrical stimulation of paralysed hindlimb muscles. This system was able to elicit hindlimb muscle contractions that mimicked forelimb stepping. We propose this lower-limb BMI as a future neuroprosthesis for human paraplegics. PMID:25084446

  10. Mini-open anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Gandhoke, Gurpreet S; Ricks, Christian; Tempel, Zachary; Zuckerbraun, Brian; Hamilton, D Kojo; Okonkwo, David O; Kanter, Adam S

    2016-07-01

    In deformity surgery, anterior lumbar interbody fusion provides excellent biomechanical support, creates a broad surface area for arthrodesis, and induces lordosis in the lower lumbar spine. Preoperative MRI, plain radiographs, and, when available, CT scan should be carefully assessed for sacral slope as it relates to pubic symphysis, position of the great vessels (especially at L4/5), disc space height, or contraindication to an anterior approach. This video demonstrates the steps in an anterior surgical procedure with minimal open exposure. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/r3bC4_vu1hQ . PMID:27364424

  11. How I do it: Anterior pull-through tympanoplasty for anterior eardrum perforations.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jeffrey P; Wong, Yu-Tung; Yang, Tzong-Hann; Miller, Mia

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions This technique is offered as a convenient and reliable method for cases with anterior TM perforation and inadequate anterior remnant. Objectives Chronic otitis media surgery is one of the most common procedures in otology. Anterior tympanic membrane (TM) perforation with inadequate anterior remnant is associated with higher rates of graft failure. It was the goal of this series to evaluate the anatomical and functional outcomes of a modified underlay myringoplasty technique-the anterior pull-through method. Materials and methods In a retrospective clinical study, 13 patients with anterior TM perforations with inadequate anterior remnants underwent tympanoplasty with anterior pull-through technique. The anterior tip of the temporalis fascia was pulled through and secured in a short incision lateral to the anterior part of the annulus. Data on graft take rate, pre-operative, and post-operative hearing status were analyzed. Results A graft success rate of 84.6% (11 out of 13) was achieved, without lateralization, blunting, atelectasia, or epithelial pearls. The air-bone gap was 21.5 ± 6.8 dB before intervention and 11.75 ± 5.7 dB after surgery (p = 0.003). PMID:26988908

  12. Evolution of anterior segment reconstruction after live donor adult liver transplantation: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Pomposelli, James J; Akoad, Mohamed; Khwaja, Khalid; Lewis, W D; Cheah, Yee L; Verbesey, Jennifer; Jenkins, Roger L; Pomfret, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the best method for venous outflow reconstruction after live donor liver transplantation using right lobe grafts. Some authors advocate routine inclusion of the middle hepatic vein with the graft, whereas others favor a more selective approach. In this report, we examine the evolution of our decision making and technique of selective anterior venous segment reconstruction during live donor adult liver transplantation performed in 226 recipients. We have developed a simplified back-bench procedure using sequential-composite anastomosis using various vascular conduits with syndactylization to the right hepatic vein creating a single large-outflow anastomosis in the recipient. Conduits used include iliac artery or vein allograft, recanalized umbilical vein, cryopreserved iliac artery allograft, and 6-mm synthetic expanded polytetrafluoroethylene vascular graft. This technique can be performed quickly, safely, and under cold storage conditions and results in excellent outcome while minimizing donor risk. PMID:21980936

  13. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Jeffrey; Bedi, Asheesh; Altchek, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common surgical procedures, with more than 200,000 ACL tears occurring annually. Although primary ACL reconstruction is a successful operation, success rates still range from 75% to 97%. Consequently, several thousand revision ACL reconstructions are performed annually and are unfortunately associated with inferior clinical outcomes when compared with primary reconstructions. Evidence Acquisition: Data were obtained from peer-reviewed literature through a search of the PubMed database (1988-2013) as well as from textbook chapters and surgical technique papers. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: The clinical outcomes after revision ACL reconstruction are largely based on level IV case series. Much of the existing literature is heterogenous with regard to patient populations, primary and revision surgical techniques, concomitant ligamentous injuries, and additional procedures performed at the time of the revision, which limits generalizability. Nevertheless, there is a general consensus that the outcomes for revision ACL reconstruction are inferior to primary reconstruction. Conclusion: Excellent results can be achieved with regard to graft stability, return to play, and functional knee instability but are generally inferior to primary ACL reconstruction. A staged approach with autograft reconstruction is recommended in any circumstance in which a single-stage approach results in suboptimal graft selection, tunnel position, graft fixation, or biological milieu for tendon-bone healing. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): Good results may still be achieved with regard to graft stability, return to play, and functional knee instability, but results are generally inferior to primary ACL reconstruction: Level B. PMID:25364483

  14. Differences in distribution of modified basins and ducks relative to roadside transects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Sklebar, H.T.; Buhl, T.K.

    2003-01-01

    Wetland basins in the Prairie Pothole Region of the U.S. are commonly modified by excavation (e.g., roadside ditches, stock dugouts), partial drainage, and diking. The authors used data collected on thirty-eight 40-km2 plots in North Dakota to examine the distribution of modified basins relative to roadside transects and their use by five species of dabbling ducks in 1995. Semipermanent basins had greater use by mallards and northern pintails when they were partially drained than when they were excavated or unmodified; pintails also had greater use of partially drained seasonal basins. Duck numbers determined from standard 400-m-wide roadside transects do not appear to be biased relative to the larger landscape; however, pond counts derived from such transects were biased. Correlations of duck numbers to pond counts that exclude ditches or temporary basins would poorly reflect the response of ducks to available water.

  15. Hepatitis C virus. A review.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, E.

    1991-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus has been shown to be responsible for most cases of posttransfusion hepatitis, as well as for sporadic non-A, non-B viral hepatitis. Hepatitis C virus has also been implicated in the development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma, autoimmune hepatitis, and fulminant viral hepatitis. Although the role of the parenteral transmission of hepatitis C virus is well established, its route of transmission in cases of sporadic infection remains unclear. Sexual transmission is suspected but not confirmed. Recent work regarding treatment has shown interferon alfa to be effective, but the discontinuation of therapy is associated with a 50% relapse rate. PMID:1656611

  16. DOM along the Continuum from River to Reservoir: a Comparison of Freshwater and Saline Transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minor, E. C.; Stephens, B.

    2009-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays key roles in aquatic ecosystems: as an organic carbon (energy) link between terrestrial and aquatic systems, a food source for biota, a reactant in photochemical reactions, and a sunscreen/competitor for light for aquatic organisms. The composition as well as the concentration of aquatic DOM is believed to determine DOM's efficacy in these roles. The transport and alteration of DOM in river/estuarine systems are significant processes in determining the concentration and composition of DOM in the receiving lake or ocean system (especially in productive and economically important coastal regions). Therefore this study provides a preliminary comparison of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, DOM optical properties, and chemical composition of high molecular weight DOM (HMW DOM) on two river-to-receiving-basin transects, one freshwater (St. Louis River/Lake Superior, Minnesota, USA) and the other with a salinity gradient (Elizabeth River/lower Chesapeake Bay/coastal Atlantic, Virginia, USA). Both transects share optical property ranges and general downstream trends toward lower DOC concentrations, less aromaticity, and lower molecular weight DOM, however, there is a stronger downstream decrease in DOC concentration in the saline transect. In HMW DOM, there is more retention of carboxylic signals downstream in the freshwater transect, relative to a downstream shift toward more proteinaceous material in the saline transect. These observed DOM differences most likely result from variations in biological activity, photochemistry, and ionic strength in the two transects. Ionic strength effects include in situ processes (e.g. flocculation) and interactions affecting DOM isolation and analysis.

  17. Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Plating

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Plating Broward Health Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 17, 2011 I'm Dr. Matthew Moore, head of the Spine Care Center here at North Broward Medical Center. And ...

  18. Secondary anterior crocodile shagreen of Vogt.

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, R C; Bron, A J

    1975-01-01

    The clincopathological features and pathogenesis of secondary mosaic degeneration of the cornea (anterior crocodile shagreen of Vogt) are described. The structural basis for the normal anterior corneal mosaic pattern seems to lie in the particular arrangement of many prominent collagen lamellae of the anterior stroma that thake an oblique course to gain insertion into Bowman's layer. Since, at normal intraocular pressure, Bowman's layer is under tension, when viewed from the anterior surface the cornea appears smooth. By releasing the tension, however, a reproducible polygonal ridge pattern becomes manifest. It is suggested that a prolonged phthisical state of the eye is one condition wherein the mosaic pattern may become permanent and that, as a secondary event, this is followed by irregular calcification of Bowman's layer which particularly involves the ridges projecting into the epithelium. Biomicroscopically these ridges corresponded to the branching reticular arrangement of the mosaic opacities. Images PMID:1079137

  19. Hip replacement by a minimal anterior approach.

    PubMed

    Paillard, P

    2007-08-01

    The mini-incision anterior approach in total hip replacement is not new, but uses a shorter incision than the traditional Hueter approach, typically only 6-8 cm in length. Despite its size, the single anterior incision allows good exposure. It is very atraumatic, preserves muscles and tendons, and allows the patient early mobilisation and fast postoperative recovery. Although, a special table (e.g., a Judet table) and specific tools (e.g., a curved reamer) are needed to perform hip replacement via the mini-anterior approach, any kind of hip prosthesis (cemented or uncemented) can be implanted. As there is a significant learning curve in mastering the mini-incision anterior approach, surgeons are advised to start with a longer incision and then to decrease its length with increasing experience. PMID:17657491

  20. Inverted liver with suprahepatic, anteriorly displaced gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Hibbs, Harold; Ahmad, Usman

    2010-01-01

    A suprahepatic, anteriorly displaced gallbladder in association with an inverted liver is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. We report the clinical and radiologic findings associated with a 78-year-old woman presenting with shortness of breath, desaturation, hypercapnia and hypoxemia. An abnormal chest radiograph demonstrated right hemi-diaphragmatic elevation consistent with a possible eventration. Subsequent imaging by computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an inverted liver with an anteriorly displaced, suprahepatic gallbladder. PMID:20666167

  1. Erlotinib-related bilateral anterior uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Kashif; Kumar, Indu; Usman-Saeed, Muniba; Usman Saeed, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 68-year-old woman with secondary adenocarcinoma of the lungs from an unknown primary. Erlotinib was started which produced symptoms suggestive of uveitis. Erlotinib was stopped and restarted a month later at a lower dose, which resulted in severe bilateral anterior uveitis. The uveitis settled after stopping erlotinib and treatment with topical steroids and cycloplegics. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of erlotinib-related anterior uveitis. PMID:22694887

  2. Modelling agricultural suitability along soil transects under current conditions and improved scenario of soil factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Elmabod, Sameh K.; Jordán, Antonio; Fleskens, Luuk; van der Ploeg, Martine; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Anaya-Romero, María; van der Salm, Renée J.; De la Rosa, Diego

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural land suitability analysis and improvement of soils by addressing major limitations may be a strategy for climate change adaptation. This study aims to investigate the influence of topography and variability of soil factors on the suitability of 12 annual, semiannual and perennial Mediterranean crops in the province of Seville (southern Spain). In order to represent the variability in elevation, lithology and soil, two latitudinal and longitudinal (S-N and W-E) soil transects (TA and TB) were considered including 63 representative points at regular 4 km intervals. These points were represented by 41 soil profiles from the SDBm soil database -Seville. Almagra model, a component of the agro-ecological decision support system MicroLEIS, was used to assess soil suitability. Results were grouped into five soil suitability classes: S1-optimum, S2-high, S3-moderate, S4-marginal and S5-not suitable. Each class was divided in subclasses according to the main soil limiting factors: depth (p), texture (t), drainage (d), carbonate content (c), salinity (s), sodium saturation (a), and the degree of development of the soil profile (g). This research also aimed to maximize soil potential by improving limiting factors d, c, s and a after soil restoration. Therefore, management techniques were also considered as possible scenarios in this study. The results of the evaluation showed that soil suitability ranged between S1 and S5p - S5s along of the transects. In the northern extreme of transect TA, high content of gravels and coarse texture are limiting factors (soils are classified as S4t) In contrast, the limiting factor in the eastern extreme of transect TB is the shallow useful depth (S5p subclass). The absence of calcium carbonate becomes a limiting factor in some parts of TA. In contrast, the excessive content of calcium carbonate appeared to be a limiting factor for crops in some intermediate points of TB transect. For both transects, soil salinity is the main

  3. Hyperspectral data analysis for estimation of foliar biochemical content along the Oregon transect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee F.; Peterson, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project completed a data acquisition phase. Data were acquired with several airborne imaging spectrometers. Included were the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) aboard the ER-2, the Advanced Solidstate Array Spectrometer (ASAS) aboard the C-130, and the Fluorescence Line Imager (FLI) and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI), both aboard light aircraft. In addition, Spectron visible and near-infrared data were acquired in transects across study areas from a low-altitude ultralight craft. Sunphotometer data were taken approximately coincident with each overflight for atmospheric correction of the aircraft data.

  4. Anterior capsular defect with acute anterior subcapsular cataract in herpetic keratouveitis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Tarun; Sharma, Namrata; Arora, Supriya; Titiyal, Jeewan S

    2014-01-01

    A 20-year-old man presented with a recurrent episode of herpetic keratouveitis in his right eye. The patient was treated with oral acyclovir and topical steroids. One week later the patient reported a sudden diminution of vision. Slitlamp biomicroscopy revealed the presence of a central anterior capsular defect and anterior subcapsular cataract. Dosage of steroids was temporarily increased and progression of cataract monitored. Subsequently, the anterior chamber reaction decreased and steroids were tapered. PMID:25228677

  5. Anterior Eye Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, David; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong

    The development of corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology has advanced rapidly in recently years. The scan geometry and imaging wavelength are both important choices to make in designing anterior segment OCT systems. Rectangular scan geometry offers the least image distortion and is now used in most anterior OCT systems. The wavelength of OCT light source affects resolution and penetration. An optimal choice of the OCT imaging wavelength (840, 1,050, or 1,310 nm) depends on the application of interest. Newer generation Fourier-domain OCT technology can provide scan speed 100-1000 times faster than the time-domain technology. Various commercial anterior OCT systems are available on the market. A wide spectrum of diagnostic and surgical applications using anterior segment OCT had been investigated, including mapping of corneal and epithelial thicknesses, keratoconus screening, measuring corneal refractive power, corneal surgery planning and evaluation in LASIK, intracorneal ring implantation, assessment of angle closure glaucoma, anterior chamber biometry and intraocular lens implants, intraocular lens power calculation, and eye bank donor cornea screening.

  6. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of Contents For ... condition is called chronic hepatitis. Hepatitis A and E do not cause chronic hepatitis. Hepatitis viruses B, ...

  7. Viral hepatitis and hepatitis B antigen: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Krugman, Saul

    1974-01-01

    Recent advances in hepatitis research have shed new light on the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology and prevention of type B hepatitis infection. The so-called ‘Dane’ particle is probably the complete hepatitis B virion; its outer coat is the hepatitis B (Australia) antigen (HB Ag) and its inner core is an immunologically distinct particle. Subtypes of HB Ag (a, d, y, w and r) are useful indices for epidemiological surveys. Concepts of epidemiology have changed: type B hepatitis is transmissible by contact as well as by inoculation. The presence of HB Ag in blood is indicative of the presence of hepatitis B virus. Tests to detect antigen and use of voluntary blood donors have played a major role in the decreased incidence of post transfusion hepatitis. A special hepatitis B gammaglobulin preparation and a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine have proved to be effective in preliminary studies. PMID:4219230

  8. Hepatitis A FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... 185°F (85°C), kill the virus, although freezing temperatures do not. Symptoms Does Hepatitis A cause ... food, such as drinking beverages (with or without ice) of unknown purity, eating uncooked shellfish, and eating ...

  9. Hepatitis B - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... kissing, coughing, or sneezing. Breast-feeding by a mother with hepatitis B is safe if the child is treated properly at the time of birth. Teenagers who are not vaccinated can get HBV during unprotected sex or drug use.

  10. Hepatitis B - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests detect liver damage and the risk for liver cancer from chronic hepatitis B: Albumin level Liver function tests Prothrombin time Liver biopsy Abdominal ultrasound Liver cancer tumor markers such as alpha fetoprotein The provider ...