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Sample records for anterior hepatic transection

  1. Anterior Hepatic Transection for Caudate Lobectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chaib, Eleazar; Ribeiro, Marcelo A F; de Souza, Yngrid Ellyn Dias Maciel; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto C

    2009-01-01

    Resection of the caudate lobe (segment I- dorsal sector, segment IX- right paracaval region, or both) is often technically difficult due to the lobe’s location deep in the hepatic parenchyma and because it is adjacent to the major hepatic vessels (e.g., the left and middle hepatic veins). A literature search was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE for the terms “caudate lobectomy” and “anterior hepatic transection” (AHT) covering 1992 to 2007. AHT was used in 110 caudate lobectomies that are discussed in this review. Isolated caudate lobectomy was performed on 28 (25.4%) patients, with 11 case (11%) associated with hepatectomy, while 1 (0.9%) was associated with anterior segmentectomy. Complete caudate lobectomy was performed on 82 (74.5%) patients. Hepatocellular carcinoma was observed in 106 (96.3%) patients, while 1 (0.9%) had hemangioma and 3 (2.7%) had metastatic caudate tumors. AHT was used in 108 (98.1%) caudate resections, while AHT associated with a right-sided approach was performed in 2 (1.8%) cases. AHT is recommended for tumors located in the paracaval portion of the caudate lobe (segment IX). AHT is usually a safe and potentially curative surgical option. PMID:19936187

  2. Utility of the Gyrus open forceps in hepatic parenchymal transection

    PubMed Central

    Porembka, Matthew R; Doyle, M B Majella; Hamilton, Nicholas A; Simon, Peter O; Strasberg, Steven M; Linehan, David C; Hawkins, William G

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate if the Gyrus open forceps is a safe and efficient tool for hepatic parenchymal transection. Background: Blood loss during hepatic transection remains a significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality associated with liver surgery. Various electrosurgical devices have been engineered to reduce blood loss. The Gyrus open forceps is a bipolar cautery device which has recently been introduced into hepatic surgery. Methods: We conducted a single-institution, retrospective review of all liver resections performed from November 2005 through November 2007. Patients undergoing resection of at least two liver segments where the Gyrus was the primary method of transection were included. Patient charts were reviewed; clinicopathological data were collected. Results: Of the 215 open liver resections performed during the study period, 47 patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean patient age was 61 years; 34% were female. The majority required resection for malignant disease (94%); frequent indications included colorectal metastasis (66%), hepatocellular carcinoma (6%) and cholangiocarcinoma (4%). Right hemihepatectomy (49%), left hemihepatectomy (13%) and right trisectionectomy (13%) were the most frequently performed procedures. A total of 26 patients (55%) underwent a major ancillary procedure concurrently. There were no operative mortalities. Median operative time was 220 min (range 97–398 min). Inflow occlusion was required in nine patients (19%) for a median time of 12 min (range 3–30 min). Median total estimated blood loss was 400 ml (range 10–2000 ml) and 10 patients (21%) required perioperative transfusion. All patients had macroscopically negative margins. Median length of stay was 8 days. Two patients (4%) had clinically significant bile leak. The 30-day postoperative mortality was zero. Conclusions: Use of the Gyrus open forceps appears to be a safe and efficient manner of hepatic parenchymal transection which allows

  3. Open hepatic parenchymal transection using ultrasonic dissection and bipolar coagulation.

    PubMed

    Lesurtel, Mickael; Belghiti, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Liver transection is the most challenging part of liver resection due to the risk of massive blood loss which is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality, as well as reduced long-term survival after resection of malignancies. Among the devices used for open parenchyma transection, ultrasonic dissection with bipolar cautery forceps is one of the most widely used technique worldwide. We identified four retrospective comparative studies and three randomized controlled trials dealing with the efficacy of ultrasonic dissector (UD) compared with other techniques including the historical clamp crushing technique. UD is associated with similar blood loss and slower resection time compared with water-jet or clamp crushing technique. However, it seems to be more precise in dissecting vessels. Its use does not impact on morbidity and hospital stay compared with other techniques. From an economic point of view, UD is the most expensive technique and may be a disadvantage for low centre volume. UD with bipolar cautery is one of the safest and the most efficient device for liver transection, even if its superiority over the clamp crushing technique has not been well established. It is considered as a standard technique for liver transection. PMID:18773097

  4. Open hepatic parenchymal transection using ultrasonic dissection and bipolar coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Lesurtel, Mickael

    2008-01-01

    Liver transection is the most challenging part of liver resection due to the risk of massive blood loss which is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality, as well as reduced long-term survival after resection of malignancies. Among the devices used for open parenchyma transection, ultrasonic dissection with bipolar cautery forceps is one of the most widely used technique worldwide. We identified four retrospective comparative studies and three randomized controlled trials dealing with the efficacy of ultrasonic dissector (UD) compared with other techniques including the historical clamp crushing technique. UD is associated with similar blood loss and slower resection time compared with water-jet or clamp crushing technique. However, it seems to be more precise in dissecting vessels. Its use does not impact on morbidity and hospital stay compared with other techniques. From an economic point of view, UD is the most expensive technique and may be a disadvantage for low centre volume. UD with bipolar cautery is one of the safest and the most efficient device for liver transection, even if its superiority over the clamp crushing technique has not been well established. It is considered as a standard technique for liver transection. PMID:18773097

  5. Function of transected or avulsed rectus muscles following recovery using an anterior orbitotomy approach

    PubMed Central

    Pineles, Stacy L.; Laursen, Jessica; Goldberg, Robert A.; Demer, Joseph L.; Velez, Federico G.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the function of muscles retrieved from a retrobulbar location using an anterior orbitotomy approach and to identify the prognostic factors favoring a good outcome. METHODS The records of all patients undergoing anterior orbitotomy for the retrieval of a transected or avulsed muscle in a retrobulbar location were reviewed. Ocular motility, before and after retrieval (with ductions scaled from −4 to +4), was evaluated. RESULTS Record review identified 11 patients who had suffered trauma to 12 muscles (5 inferior, 6 medial, and 1 lateral rectus muscle). Ductions improved from −4 ± 0.4 preoperatively to −2.7 ± 0.9 postoperatively (P = 0.002); mean primary position deviation improved from 34Δ ± 14Δ-15Δ ± 9Δ (P < 0.001), and mean deviation in the field of action improved from 47Δ ± 20Δ-20Δ ± 22Δ (P = 0.02). Ductions improved by at least two units in three patients, all of whom had medial rectus trauma. Single binocular vision in primary gaze was achieved in 6 patients. Patients with medial rectus muscle injury and patients injured by sinus surgery had the lowest likelihood of recovering single binocular vision. CONCLUSIONS Our results are similar to historical series in which muscles were not retrieved and transpositions performed; however, muscle retrieval avoids risks associated with transposition surgeries such as anterior segment ischemia. Muscle recovery via the anterior orbitotomy approach may be reasonable to consider in those cases with a reasonable possibility of having active force generation postoperatively. PMID:22835914

  6. A clinical comparative analysis of crush/clamp, stapler, and dissecting sealer hepatic transection methods1

    PubMed Central

    Earl, T. Mark; Chari, Ravi S.; Gorden, D. Lee; Merchant, Nipun B.; Wright, J. Kelly; Feurer, Irene D.; Pinson, C. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Several methods for hepatic parenchymal division exist. The primary aim was to assess differences in postoperative bile leaks, operative blood loss, and margin status between three transection methods: crush/clamp (CC), stapler (SP), or dissecting sealer (DS). Methods. A single institution, retrospective cohort study was performed on data collected over a three-year period in patients undergoing elective liver resection using the CC, SP, or DS. Patients were excluded if multiple methods of transection were used or for intraoperative death. The association of bile leak with transection type was assessed. A logistic regression model was tested to assess if blood loss was associated with the covariates of transection method, use of portal inflow occlusion, extent of liver resection, and other concurrent major operations. Results. Analyses included 141 patients. The stapler method was quicker than the other methods (p=0.01). The risk of postoperative bile leak was no different between CC, SP, and DS transection methods (p=0.23). There was no difference in mean blood loss or transfusions; however, hepatectomies performed with DS were associated with an increased risk of blood loss ≥1000 mL compared to CC (p=0.04). There were no differences in mean surgical margin between the three methods. Conclusion. The risk of bile leaks was not different between the three methods. While mean blood loss was similar, hepatectomy performed with the DS was associated with an increased risk of having operative blood loss ≥1000 mL compared to CC. Margins were equal by all methods. The stapler method was quicker. PMID:18982146

  7. Comparison of harmonic scalpel versus conventional knot tying for transection of short hepatic veins at liver transplantation: prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Olmez, A; Karabulut, K; Aydin, C; Kayaalp, C; Yilmaz, S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare harmonic scalpel for short hepatic vein transection with conventional ligation during recipient hepatectomy with caval preservation. Sixteen patients undergoing elective living donor liver transplantation were randomized into 2 groups. We recorded number, diameter, and location of each short hepatic vein, procedure time, central venous pressure, and degree of liver failure (Child-Pugh and Model for End stage Liver Disease scores). As an end point, we observed the intraoperative and postoperative bleeding rates of the transected veins. We transected 144 veins of mean diameter of 2.6 ± 1.8 mm (range, 1-12 mm). Mean number of short hepatic veins in each person was 9 (range, 5-16). Harmonic scalpel was safe for veins with a diameter ≤ 2 mm; these veins were more prone to bleeding with conventional ligation. Bleeding rate was higher after ligation of veins in the upper half than the lower half of the cava (37% vs 21%; P = .04). Both total and per vessel procedure time did not differ between the groups. No postoperative bleeding complications occurred. Transection of veins with a diameter ≤ 2 mm by harmonic scalpel was as safe as conventional ligation. Harmonic scalpel transection of small hepatic veins (≤ 2 mm) can be even safer than conventional control by knot tying, particularly in narrow areas. PMID:22841252

  8. Right hepatectomy with extra-hepatic vascular division prior to transection: intention-to-treat analysis of a standardized policy

    PubMed Central

    Boleslawski, Emmanuel; Decanter, Gauthier; Truant, Stéphanie; Bouras, Ahmed Fouad; Sulaberidze, Lasha; Oberlin, Olivier; Pruvot, François-René

    2012-01-01

    Background Right hepatectomy (RH) is the most common type of major hepatectomy and can be achieved without portal triad clamping (PTC) in non-cirrhotic liver. The present study reviews our standardized policy of performing RH without systematic PTC. Methods One hundred and eighty-one consecutive RH were performed in non-cirrhotic patients, with division of the right afferent and efferent blood vessels prior to transection, without systematically using PTC. Prospectively collected data were analysed, focusing on the following endpoints: need for salvage PTC, ischaemic time, blood loss and post-operative outcome. Results Extra-hepatic division of the right hepatic vessels was feasible in all patients, but was ineffective in 48 patients (26.5%) who required salvage PTC during transection. In those patients, the median ischaemic time was 20 min. The median blood loss was 500 ml (50–3000). Six patients (3.3%) experienced post-operative liver failure. Overall morbidity, severe morbidity and mortality were 42%, 12.1% and 1.6%, respectively, with peri-operative transfusion rate (16.6%) being the only factor associated with morbidity. Discussion By performing RH with extra-hepatic vascular division prior to transection, PTC can be safely avoided in the majority of patients. PMID:22954006

  9. Combined Effect of Bilateral Ovariectomy and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection With Medial Meniscectomy on the Development of Osteoarthritis Model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the combined effect of bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) with medial meniscectomy (MM) on the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Twenty female 15-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Five rats in each group underwent bilateral OVX (OVX group), bilateral ACLT with MM (ACLT with MM group), bilateral OVX plus ACLT with MM (OVX plus ACLT with MM group), and sham surgery (SHAM group). All the rats were subjected to treadmill running for 4 weeks. The behavioral evaluation for induction of OA used the number of rears method, and this was conducted at 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-surgery. Bone mineral density (BMD) was calculated with micro-computerized tomography images and the modified Mankin's scoring was used for the histological changes. Results The number of rears in the OVX plus ACLT with MM group decreased gradually and more rapidly in the ACLT with MM group. Histologically, the OVX plus ACLT with MM group had a significantly higher modified Mankin's score than the OVX group (p=0.008) and the SHAM group (p=0.008). BMDs of the OVX plus ACLT with MM group were significantly lower than the SHAM group (p=0.002), and the ACLT with MM group (p=0.003). Conclusion We found that bilateral OVX plus ACLT with MM induced definite OA change in terms of histology and BMD compared to bilateral OVX and ACLT with MM alone. Therefore, OVX and ACLT with MM was an appropriate degenerative OA rat model. PMID:27606264

  10. 24R,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Protects against Articular Cartilage Damage following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Boyan, Barbara D; Hyzy, Sharon L; Pan, Qingfen; Scott, Kayla M; Coutts, Richard D; Healey, Robert; Schwartz, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) in humans is associated with low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]. In vitamin D replete rats, radiolabeled 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3] accumulates in articular cartilage following injection of [3H]-25(OH)D3. Previously, we showed that 24R,25(OH)2D3 blocks chondrocyte apoptosis via phospholipase D and p53, suggesting a role for 24R,25(OH)2D3 in maintaining cartilage health. We examined the ability of 24R,25(OH)2D3 to prevent degenerative changes in articular cartilage in an OA-like environment and the potential mechanisms involved. In vitro, rat articular chondrocytes were treated with IL-1β with and without 24R,25(OH)2D3 or 1α,25(OH)2D3. 24R,25(OH)2D3 but not 1α,25(OH)2D3 blocked the effects of IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner, and its effect was partially mediated through the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. In vivo, unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transections were performed in immunocompetent rats followed by intra-articular injections of 24R,25(OH)2D3 or vehicle (t = 0, 7, 14, 21 days). Tissues were harvested on day 28. Joints treated with vehicle had changes typical of OA whereas joints treated with 24R,25(OH)2D3 had less articular cartilage damage and levels of inflammatory mediators. These results indicate that 24R,25(OH)2D3 protects against OA, and suggest that it may be a therapeutic approach for preventing trauma-induced osteoarthritis. PMID:27575371

  11. Two-Surgeon Technique for Hepatic Parenchymal Transection of the Noncirrhotic Liver Using Saline-Linked Cautery and Ultrasonic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, Thomas A.; Zorzi, Daria; Abdalla, Eddie K.; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze our experience with saline-linked cautery in hepatic surgery. Summary Background Data: Safe and efficient hepatic parenchymal transection is predicated on the ability to simultaneously address 2 tasks: parenchymal dissection and hemostasis. To date, no single instrument has been designed that addresses both of these tasks. Saline-linked cautery is now widely used in liver surgery and is reported to decrease blood loss during liver transection, but data on its exact benefits are lacking. Methods: From a single institution, prospective liver surgery database, we identified 32 consecutive patients with noncirrhotic livers who underwent resection for primary or metastatic disease using a 2-surgeon technique with saline-linked cautery and ultrasonic dissection (SLC+UD) from December 2002 to January 2004. From the same database, we identified a contemporary and matched set of 32 patients who underwent liver resection with similar indications using ultrasonic dissection alone (UD alone). Operative and anesthetic variables were retrospectively analyzed to identify differences between the 2 groups. Results: The 2 groups were equivalent in terms of age, gender, tumor histology, tumor number, and tumor size. The UD+SLC group had a decreased duration of inflow occlusion (20 minutes versus 30 minutes, P = 0.01), blood loss (150 mL versus 250 mL, P = 0.034), and operative time (187 minutes versus 211 minutes, P = 0.027). Postoperative liver function and complication rates were similar in each group. Conclusions: The 2-surgeon technique for liver parenchymal transection using SLC and UD in noncirrhotic livers is safe and may provide advantages over other techniques. PMID:16041206

  12. Intra-articular injection of a nutritive mixture solution protects articular cartilage from osteoarthritic progression induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection in mature rabbits: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoo-Sin; Lim, Si-Woong; Lee, Il-Hoon; Lee, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jong-Sung; Han, Jin Soo

    2007-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that disrupts the collagenous matrix of articular cartilage and is difficult to cure because articular cartilage is a nonvascular tissue. Treatment of OA has targeted macromolecular substitutes for cartilage components, such as hyaluronic acid or genetically engineered materials. However, the goal of the present study was to examine whether intra-articular injection of the elementary nutrients restores the matrix of arthritic knee joints in mature animals. A nutritive mixture solution (NMS) was composed of elementary nutrients such as glucose or dextrose, amino acids and ascorbic acid. It was administered five times (at weeks 6, 8, 10, 13 and 16) into the unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transected knee joints of mature New Zealand White rabbits, and the effect of NMS injection was compared with that of normal saline. OA progression was histopathologically evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining, by the Mankin grading method and by scanning electron microscopy at week 19. NMS injection decreased progressive erosion of articular cartilage overall compared with injection of normal saline (P < 0.01), and nms joints exhibited no differences relative to normal cartilage that had not undergone transection of the anterior cruciate ligament, as assessed using the mankin grading method. Haematoxylin and eosin staining and scanning electron microscopy findings also indicated that nms injection, in constrast to normal saline injection, restored the cartilage matrix, which is known to be composed of a collagen and proteoglycan network. thus, nms injection is a potent treatment that significantly retards oa progression, which in turn prevents progressive destruction of joints and functional loss in mature animals. PMID:17257416

  13. Efficacy test of Polycan, a beta-glucan originated from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001, on anterior cruciate ligament transection and partial medial meniscectomy-induced-osteoarthritis rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo-Wan; Cho, Hyung-Rae; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2012-02-01

    The object of this study was to assess the efficacy of Polycan from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001, which is composed mostly of beta-1,3-1,6-glucan, on osteoarthritis (OA)-induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection and partial medial meniscectomy (ACLT&PMM). Three different dosages of Polycan (85, 42.5, and 21.25 mg/kg) were orally administered once a day for 84 days to male rats a week after ACLT&PMM surgery. Changes in the circumference and maximum extension angle of each knee, and in cartilage histopathology were assessed using Mankin scores 12 weeks after Polycan administration. In addition, cartilage proliferation was evaluated using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). As the result of ACLT&PMM, classic OA was induced with increases in maximum extension angles, edematous knees changes, and capsule thickness, as well as decreases in chondrocyte proliferation, cartilages degenerative changes, and loss of articular cartilage. However, these changes (except for capsule thickness) were markedly inhibited in all Polycan- and diclofenac sodium-treated groups compared with OA control. Although diclofenac sodium did not influence BrdU uptake, BrdU-immunoreactive cells were increased with all dosages of Polycan, which means that Polycan treatment induced proliferation of chondrocytes in the surface articular cartilage of the tibia and femur. The results obtained in this study suggest that 84 days of continuous oral treatment of three different dosages of Polycan led to lesser degrees of articular stiffness and histological cartilage damage compared with OA controls 91 days after OA inducement, suggesting that the optimal Polycan dosage to treat OA is 42.5 mg/kg based on the present study. PMID:22370362

  14. A new osteophyte segmentation algorithm using partial shape model and its applications to rabbit femur anterior cruciate ligament transection via micro-CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Saha, P K; Liang, G; Elkins, J M; Coimbra, A; Duong, L T; Williams, D S; Sonka, M

    2011-08-01

    Osteophyte is an additional bony growth on a normal bone surface limiting or stopping motion at a deteriorating joint. Detection and quantification of osteophytes from CT images is helpful in assessing disease status as well as treatment and surgery planning. However, it is difficult to distinguish between osteophytes and healthy bones using simple thresholding or edge/texture features due to the similarity of their material composition. In this paper, we present a new method primarily based active shape model (ASM) to solve this problem and evaluate its application to anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) rabbit femur model via CT imaging. The common idea behind most ASM based segmentation methods is to first build a parametric shape model from a training dataset and apply the model to find a shape instance in a target image. A common challenge with such approaches is that a diseased bone shape is significantly altered at regions with osteophyte deposition misguiding an ASM method and eventually leading to suboptimum segmentations. This difficulty is overcome using a new partial ASM method that uses bone shape over healthy regions and extrapolates it over the diseased region according to the underlying shape model. Finally, osteophytes are segmented by subtracting partial-ASM derived shape from the overall diseased shape. Also, a new semi-automatic method is presented in this paper for efficiently building a 3D shape model for an anatomic region using manual reference of a few anatomically defined fiducial landmarks that are highly reproducible on individuals. Accuracy of the method has been examined on simulated phantoms while reproducibility and sensitivity have been evaluated on CT images of 2-, 4- and 8-week post-ACLT and sham-treated rabbit femurs. Experimental results have shown that the method is highly accurate ( R2 = 0.99), reproducible (ICC = 0.97), and sensitive in detecting disease progression (p-values: 0.065,0.001 and < 0.001 for 2- vs. 4, 4

  15. Bilateral simultaneous anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, an extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis C cured with direct acting antivirals.

    PubMed

    Prud'homme, Sylvie; Nevens, Frederik; Casteels, Ingele

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with a bilateral optic anterior ischemic neuropathy as an extrahepatic complication of a chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection. The patient presented with a bilateral visual acuity loss and bilateral optic disc oedema. The optic neuropathy was associated with a sudden increase in the viral HCV load after a recent liver transplantation. The stop of the calcineurin inhibitor had no effect on the course of the optic neuropathy. Visual improvement and normalization of HCV viraemia occurred after treatment with sofosbuvir and daclatasvir, which are direct acting antivirals. PMID:27625964

  16. Bilateral simultaneous anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, an extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis C cured with direct acting antivirals

    PubMed Central

    Prud’homme, Sylvie; Nevens, Frederik; Casteels, Ingele

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with a bilateral optic anterior ischemic neuropathy as an extrahepatic complication of a chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection. The patient presented with a bilateral visual acuity loss and bilateral optic disc oedema. The optic neuropathy was associated with a sudden increase in the viral HCV load after a recent liver transplantation. The stop of the calcineurin inhibitor had no effect on the course of the optic neuropathy. Visual improvement and normalization of HCV viraemia occurred after treatment with sofosbuvir and daclatasvir, which are direct acting antivirals. PMID:27625964

  17. A New Osteophyte Segmentation Algorithm Using the Partial Shape Model and Its Applications to Rabbit Femur Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection via Micro-CT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liang, G.; Elkins, J. M.; Coimbra, A.; Duong, L. T.; Williams, D. S.; Sonka, M.

    2015-01-01

    Osteophyte is an additional bony growth on a normal bone surface limiting or stopping motion at a deteriorating joint. Detection and quantification of osteophytes from computed tomography (CT) images is helpful in assessing disease status as well as treatment and surgery planning. However, it is difficult to distinguish between osteophytes and healthy bones using simple thresholding or edge/texture features due to the similarity of their material composition. In this paper, we present a new method primarily based on the active shape model (ASM) to solve this problem and evaluate its application to the anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT) rabbit femur model via micro-CT imaging. The common idea behind most ASM-based segmentation methods is to first build a parametric shape model from a training dataset and then apply the model to find a shape instance in a target image. A common challenge with such approaches is that a diseased bone shape is significantly altered at regions with osteophyte deposition misguiding an ASM method and eventually leading to suboptimum segmentations. This difficulty is overcome using a new partial-ASM method that uses bone shape over healthy regions and extrapolates it over the diseased region according to the underlying shape model. Finally, osteophytes are segmented by subtracting partial-ASM-derived shape from the overall diseased shape. Also, a new semiautomatic method is presented in this paper for efficiently building a 3-D shape model for an anatomic region using manual reference of a few anatomically defined fiducial landmarks that are highly reproducible on individuals. Accuracy of the method has been examined on simulated phantoms while reproducibility and sensitivity have been evaluated on micro-CT images of 2-, 4- and 8-week post-ACLT and sham-treated rabbit femurs. Experimental results have shown that the method is highly accurate (R2 = 0.99), reproducible (ICC = 0.97), and sensitive in detecting disease progression (p

  18. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Kids > Hepatitis Print A A A ... an important digestive liquid called bile . What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation (say: in-fluh-MAY- ...

  19. Intraoperative assessment of hepatic venous congestion with direct clamping of the hepatic vein trunk for living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, S; Lee, S G; Kim, K H; Park, K M; Lee, Y J; Ahn, C S; Moon, D B; Ha, T Y; Cho, S H; Oh, K B

    2004-06-01

    We devised a hepatic vein clamping method to assess the amount of hepatic venous congestion (HVC) before liver transection. From February 2003 to May 2003, this method was applied to 5 of 58 living donor livers especially to assess donor safety. The left portal vein and proper hepatic artery as well as the middle hepatic vein (MHV)-left hepatic vein (LHV) trunk were clamped simultaneously to assess the HVC in the remnant right lobe before performing extended left lobectomy. As three donors demonstrated the extent of the HVC equivalent to about 40% of the right lobe volume (RLV), their operations proceeded according to the preoperative plan. The territory of HVC after liver transection was the same as that observed with direct clamping of the hepatic vein. However, one donor showed massive HVC more than 50% of RLV and the operative plan was adjusted to harvest only the left lobe without the MHV trunk for donor safety. To assess the HVC in the remnant left lobe, the isolated LHV trunk was occluded after clamping the donor's proper hepatic artery. The whole left lobe except for a small area at the anterior portion of the medial segment became discolored on LHV clamping: the opposite demarcation appeared on MHV clamping. The amount of HVC was so small that we harvested the right lobe with the MHV trunk. All donors and recipients recovered uneventfully. We believe that this direct clamping method makes the assessment of HVC feasible before parenchymal transection of a donor liver. PMID:15251358

  20. Angiographic Assessment of the Right Hepatic Artery for Encasement by Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Comparison Between Antero-Posterior and Right Anterior Oblique Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Hiroyoshi; Iwata, Ryoko; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2001-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of right anterior oblique (RAO) arteriography for evaluating encasement of the right hepatic artery (RHA) by hilar cholangiocarcinoma.Methods: Celiac arteriography was performed in both the antero-posterior (AP) and RAO projection in ten patients with cholangiocarcinoma. The lengths of the arteries between the bifurcation of the anterior and posterior branch of the liver and the following points were measured: (a) the bifurcation of the left and right hepatic artery (AP-LR), (b) the bifurcation of the proper hepatic artery and the gastroduodenal artery (AP-PG). Additionally, image quality in investigating the invasion of the RHA was evaluated.Results: On the AP images, the average lengths of AP-LR and AP-PG were 24.5 {+-} 5.1 mm and 30.0 {+-} 4.9 mm, respectively. On RAO images, the lengths were 28.2 {+-} 4.6 mm and 32.7 {+-} 4.8 mm, respectively. Every length was different between the two projections (p < 0.01). In 6 of 10 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma, images in RAO projections were superior to AP images for evaluation of encasement.Conclusion: We conclude that angiography obtained in the RAO projection yields images that are superior to those obtained in the conventional AP projection for assessment of RHA encasement.

  1. Opportunistic use of a Foley catheter to provide a common electrocautery with a water-irrigating channel for hepatic parenchymal transection.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuzo; Yoshioka, Masato; Watanabe, Go; Uchinami, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    High-tech surgical energy devices that are used during a single surgery have increased in number and the expense for such disposable units is by no means negligible. We developed a handmade water-irrigating monopolar electrocautery using a Foley catheter to perform liver parenchymal transection. A commonly used 20-24 Fr Foley catheter was cut at a length of about 8 cm. The shaft of the 5 mm ball electrode measuring 13.5 cm in length was then inlaid into the urine drainage channel. The target tissues were cauterized without making an eschar, thereby preventing the adhesion of the electrode to the tissues. A ball electrode with our handmade water irrigation sheath can be made in only a few minutes at a very low cost, using common medical supplies and yielding satisfactory effects comparable to the use of specialized high-tech devices. PMID:25801851

  2. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been associated with drinking contaminated water. Hepatitis Viruses Type Transmission Prognosis A Fecal-oral (stool to ... risk for severe disease. Others A variety of viruses can affect the liver Signs and Symptoms Hepatitis ...

  3. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... be serious. Some can lead to scarring, called cirrhosis, or to liver cancer. Sometimes hepatitis goes away by itself. If it does not, it can be treated with drugs. Sometimes hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Vaccines can help prevent some viral forms.

  4. Comments on transect methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.L.

    1980-02-01

    One of the outcomes of the recent spate of attention to environmental problems is the realization that we do not have suitable methods to census non-game species. Since marking is expensive and time-consuming, investigators have tended to look for methods that involve only visual techniques. One of the leading candidates thus becomes the line transect method. The purpose here is to briefly describe some of the available transect methods, and to comment on some aspects that may be of particular interest and importance.

  5. Ariel's transecting valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This highest-resolution Voyager 2 view of Ariel's terminator shows a complex array of transecting valleys with super-imposed impact craters. Voyager obtained this clear-filter, narrow-angle view from a distance of 130,000 kilometers (80,000 miles) and with a resolution of about 2.4 km (1.5 mi). Particularly striking to Voyager scientists is the fact that the faults that bound the linear valleys are not visible where they transect one another across the valleys. Apparently these valleys were filled with deposits sometime after they were formed by tectonic processes, leaving them flat and smooth. Sinuous rilles (trenches) later formed, probably by some flow process. Some type of fluid flow may well have been involved in their evolution. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  6. Non-transecting bulbar urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Andrich, Daniela E.; Mundy, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    Excision and end-to-end anastomosis (EPA) has been the preferred urethroplasty technique for short bulbar strictures and is associated with an excellent functional outcome. Driven by concerns over the potential morbidity associated with dividing the urethra, therefore compromising spongiosal blood flow, as well as spongiofibrosis being superficial in the majority of non-traumatic bulbar strictures, the non-transecting technique for bulbar urethroplasty has been developed with the aim of achieving the same success as EPA without the morbidity associated with transection. This manuscript highlights the fundamental principles underlying the ongoing debate—transection or non-transection of the strictured bulbar urethra? The potential advantages of avoiding dividing the corpus spongiosum of the urethra are discussed. The non-transecting anastomotic procedure together with its various modifications are decribed in detail. Our experience with this technique is presented. Non-transecting excision of spongiofibrosis with preservation of well vascularised underlying spongiosum provides an excellent alternative to dividing the urethra during urethroplasty for short non-traumatic proximal bulbar strictures. PMID:26816808

  7. Harness Traction Technique (HARNESS): Novel Method for Controlling the Transection Plane During Laparoscopic Hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Itano, Osamu; Oshima, Go; Kitago, Minoru; Suzuki, Keiichi; Hayatsu, Shigeo; Shinoda, Masahiro; Abe, Yuta; Hibi, Taizo; Yagi, Hiroshi; Ikoma, Naruhiko; Aiko, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-08-01

    We present our experience using a novel method for controlling the transection plane, which we termed as the Harness Traction Technique (HARNESS) and evaluate its usefulness. From May 2009 to March 2012, laparoscopic hepatectomies using HARNESS were performed on 35 patients. After the superficial hepatic parenchyma on the line was transected at 1 to 2 cm depth, 5 mm tape was placed along the groove of the line and tied to prevent it from slipping off. Tape was tied and pulled using a forceps toward the best direction for minimizing the bleeding, moving the transection point to the appropriate position and creating good tension for parenchymal transection at the transection point. There were no conversions to laparotomy or intraoperative complications. HARNESS is useful for controlling the dissection line during laparoscopic hepatectomy, leading to precise and safe laparoscopic liver parenchymal dissection. PMID:26121541

  8. Transect workshop held in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazangi, Muawia

    A workshop on the progress of the Global Geoscience Transects (GGT) project in the Middle East and Africa (see maps) was held January 15-17 in Cairo, Egypt. (Transect plans in the region have been described in Eos, 69, p. 124). It was jointly organized and funded by the Egyptian National Committee of Geodesy and Geophysics and the International Lithosphere Program coordinating Committee CC-7 of GGT. A. Ashour of Cairo University, Egypt, chaired the workshop; the general secretary was S. Riad of Assiut University, Egypt, who was responsible for most of the organization, scheduling and implementation of the workshop.

  9. How Far Can We Go with Laparoscopic Liver Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma? Laparoscopic Sectionectomy of the Liver Combined with the Resection of the Major Hepatic Vein Main Trunk

    PubMed Central

    Morise, Zenichi; Kawabe, Norihiko; Tomishige, Hirokazu; Nagata, Hidetoshi; Kawase, Jin; Arakawa, Satoshi; Isetani, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Although the reports of laparoscopic major liver resection are increasing, hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) close to the liver hilum and/or major hepatic veins are still considered contraindications. There is virtually no report of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) for HCC which involves the main trunk of major hepatic veins. We present our method for the procedure. We experienced 6 cases: 3 right anterior, 2 left medial, and 1 right posterior extended sectionectomies with major hepatic vein resection; tumor sizes are within 40–75 (median: 60) mm. The operating time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay are within 341–603 (median: 434) min, 100–750 (300) ml, and 8–44 (18) days. There was no mortality and 1 patient developed postoperative pleural effusion. For these procedures, we propose that the steps listed below are useful, taking advantages of the laparoscopy-specific view. (1) The Glissonian pedicle of the section is encircled and clamped. (2) Liver transection on the ischemic line is performed in the caudal to cranial direction. (3) During transection, the clamped Glissonian pedicle and the peripheral part of hepatic vein are divided. (4) The root of hepatic vein is divided in the good view from caudal and dorsal direction. PMID:26448949

  10. Estimation of fractal dimensions from transect data

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1994-04-01

    Fractals are a useful tool for analyzing the topology of objects such as coral reefs, forest canopies, and landscapes. Transects are often studied in these contexts, and fractal dimensions computed from them. An open question is how representative a single transect is. Transects may also be used to estimate the dimensionality of a surface. Again the question of representativeness of the transect arises. These two issues are related. This note qualifies the conditions under which transect data may be considered to be representative or may be extrapolated, based on both theoretical and empirical results.

  11. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-ke; Yang, Juan-mei; Huang, Yi-bo; Ren, Dong-dong; Chi, Fang-lu

    2015-01-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds. PMID:26199619

  12. Traumatic transection of the lateral rectus muscle with chorioretinitis sclopetaria.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Kelly; Verity, David; Ali, Nadeem

    2015-01-01

    A man, aged 67 years, sustained monocular trauma to the left eye while gardening, presenting with light perception, complete absence of abduction, and chorioretinitis sclopetaria. At surgery, the lateral rectus was found to be transected at the equator of the globe, with an area of locally abraded sclera. A few posterior muscle fibers were identified and sutured to the residual anterior fibers. With a partial improvement of the esodeviation, after a further 6 months he proceeded to lateral transposition of the superior and inferior recti to healthy sclera 4 mm from the limbus, with adjunctive medial rectus botulinum toxin. Six months later, the angle of primary deviation remained stable at 4 prism diopters base out with improved abduction. Vision in the eye remained reduced at 20/200 (with eccentric fixation) due to macular changes secondary to the sclopetaria. In conclusion, this case describes a rare example of complete traumatic transection of the lateral rectus with chorioretinitis sclopetaria, due to orbital injury. With appropriate surgery, the angle of deviation can be considerably improved despite complete muscle transection and scleral injury. PMID:25790075

  13. Geoscientists will meet to organize transects project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Global Geosciences Transects (GGT) project is a new activity of the International Lithosphere Program (ILP). The objective of GGT is to compile a series of 100 km-wide crustal transects across major structures in all continents.The transects will be similar to those being produced by the North American Continent- Ocean Transects Program under the coordination of Robert C. Speed (Northwestern University, Evanston, 111.), except that they will include continental interiors and paleostructures (e.g., Precambrian sutures, rifts) as well as continental margins and active tectonic zones

  14. Global geoscience transects in the Arab region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazangi, Mauwia

    The Global Geoscience Transects (GGT) project is one of the most recent initiatives of the International Lithosphere Program (ILP). The GGT project is represented by ILP Coordinating Committee 7 (CC7), which is coordinated by J . Monger (Geological Survey of Canada, Vancouver). M. Barazangi (Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.) is responsible for the coordination of the Middle East and North Africa region, which includes most of the Arab countries.The main objective of the GGT project is to strengthen and broaden international cooperation mainly through active participation of Earth scientists in constructing geological and geophysical transects, especially cross sections. The transects will be at least to Moho depth and will contain as much detail as transects of geological structures mapped on Earth's surface. The transects are being selected by the participating geoscientists to traverse all continents and, as much as possible, to form a continuous grid across political boundaries. Members of CC7 act as regional coordinators to help the local Earth scientists to initiate and implement GGT objectives. The implementation phase has to a large extent been standardized to follow clear guidelines that were developed by CC7 members. These guidelines are based on a modified and expanded version of the recent highly successful Continent-Ocean Transect project of the Geological Society of America.

  15. Iatrogenic oesophageal transection during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed Nasir; Al-Saif, Osama Habib

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has been hailed as an easy and safe procedure when compared with other bariatric operations. However, it may be associated with well-recognised early complications such as leaks and bleeding, as well as late ones such as stenosis and weight regain. Iatrogenic complete oesophageal transection has never been reported before as a complication. We report a case of complete oesophageal transection during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy that was not recognised intraoperatively. The repair of this iatrogenic injury was staged, with the final stage carried out some 3 months after the initial procedure. This case report highlights the possible occurrence of complete oesophageal transection during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and suggests steps to avoid and correct such complications. PMID:24591379

  16. Phacoemulsification in anterior megalophthalmos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Graham A; Hann, Joshua V; Braga-Mele, Rosa

    2006-07-01

    This case outlines the phacoemulsification technique used to overcome the challenge of the hyperdeep anterior chamber, weak zonules, abnormal anterior capsule, and large capsular bag. Key steps included trypan blue staining of the anterior capsule, a large capsulorhexis, prolapse of the nucleus into the anterior chamber with phacoemulsification anterior to the capsulorhexis, and a posterior chamber-placed iris-clip intraocular lens. Successful visual rehabilitation is achievable in these anatomically challenging eyes. PMID:16857490

  17. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » For Veterans and the Public Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... the Public Veterans and Public Home How is Hepatitis C Treated? Find the facts about the newest ...

  18. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with hepatitis? How does a pregnant woman pass hepatitis B virus to her baby? If I have hepatitis B, what does my baby need so that she ... Can I breastfeed my baby if I have hepatitis B? More information on viral hepatitis What is hepatitis? ...

  19. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint

    PubMed Central

    Go, Seung Je; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck

    2016-01-01

    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury. PMID:27478816

  20. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint.

    PubMed

    Go, Seung Je; Sul, Young Hoon; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck

    2016-08-01

    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury. PMID:27478816

  1. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cystocele Anterior vaginal wall repair (surgical treatment of urinary incontinence) - series References Lentz GM. Anatomic defects of the ... 72. Read More Anterior Inflatable artificial sphincter Stress urinary incontinence Urinary catheters Urinary incontinence - injectable implant Urinary incontinence - ...

  2. ACL/MCL transection affects knee ligament insertion distance of healing and intact ligaments during gait in the Ovine model.

    PubMed

    Tapper, Janet E; Funakoshi, Yusei; Hariu, Mitsuhiro; Marchuk, Linda; Thornton, Gail M; Ronsky, Janet L; Zernicke, Ron; Shrive, Nigel G; Frank, Cyril B

    2009-08-25

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of combined transection of the anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments on the intact and healing ligaments in the ovine stifle joint. In vivo 3D stifle joint kinematics were measured in eight sheep during treadmill walking (accuracy: 0.4+/-0.4mm, 0.4+/-0.4 degrees ). Kinematics were measured with the joint intact and at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after either surgical ligament transection (n=5) or sham surgery without transection (n=3). After sacrifice at 20 weeks, the 3D subject-specific bone and ligament geometry were digitized, and the 3D distances between insertions (DBI) of ligaments during the dynamic in vivo motion were calculated. Anterior cruciate ligament/medial collateral ligament (ACL/MCL) transection resulted in changes in the DBI of not only the transected ACL, but also the intact lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), while the DBI of the transected MCL was not significantly changed. Increases in the maximal ACL DBI (2 week: +4.2mm, 20 week: +5.7mm) caused increases in the range of ACL DBI (2 week: 3.6mm, 20 week: +3.8mm) and the ACL apparent strain (2 week: +18.9%, 20 week: +24.0%). Decreases in the minimal PCL DBI (2 week: -3.2mm, 20 week: -4.3mm) resulted in increases in the range of PCL DBI (2 week: +2.7mm, 20 week: +3.2mm). Decreases in the maximal LCL DBI (2 week: -1.0mm, 20 week: -2.0mm) caused decreased LCL apparent strain (2 week: -3.4%, 20 week: -6.9%). Changes in the mechanical environment of these ligaments may play a significant role in the biological changes observed in these ligaments. PMID:19643414

  3. Transection of Radioactive Seeds in Breast Specimens.

    PubMed

    Gilcrease, Michael Z; Dogan, Basak E; Black, Dalliah M; Contreras, Alejandro; Dryden, Mark J; Jimenez, Sandra M

    2016-10-01

    Radioactive seed localization is a new procedure for localizing breast lesions that has several advantages over the standard wire-localization procedure. It is reported to be safe for both patients and medical personnel. Although it is theoretically possible to transect the titanium-encapsulated seed while processing the breast specimen in the pathology laboratory, the likelihood of such an event is thought to be exceedingly low. In fact, there are no previous reports of such an event in the literature to date. We recently encountered 2 cases in which a radioactive seed was inadvertently transected while slicing a breast specimen at the grossing bench. In this report, we describe each case and offer recommendations for minimizing radioactive exposure to personnel and for preventing radioactive contamination of laboratory equipment. PMID:27627744

  4. Bombing Target Identification from Limited Transect Data

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Barry L.; Hathaway, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; McKenna, Sean A.

    2006-08-07

    A series of sensor data combined with geostatistical techniques were used to determine likely target areas for a historic military aerial bombing range. Primary data consisted of magnetic anomaly information from limited magnetometer transects across the site. Secondary data included airborne LIDAR, orthophotography, and other general site characterization information. Identification of likely target areas relied primarily upon kriging estimates of magnetic anomaly densities across the site. Secondary information, such as impact crater locations, was used to refine the boundary delineations.

  5. Transmed Transect VIII: from Laurussia to Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, R. A.; Mart, Y.; Okay, A.; Robertson, A.; Stovba, S.; Khriachtchevskaia, O.

    2003-04-01

    TransMed transect VIII crosses the easternmost Mediterranean Sea. Some 2600 km long, it runs from Laurussia in the north (Ukrainian Shield) to Gondwana in the south (Arabian Shield). The Late Palaeozoic aged intracratonic Dniepr-Donets rift basin lies near the northern end of the transect and the modern intracratonic Red Sea rift lies at the southern end. Intervening tectonic units, north to south, include the Scythian Platform and Crimean Orogen in Ukraine; the Black Sea; the Pontides, Kirsehir Massif, and Taurides in Turkey; Cyprus with the Troodos complex; the Levant Basin and distal parts of the Nile Delta in the eastern Mediterranean; and the Sinai in Egypt. Deep structure, including crustal thickness and affinity, is poorly known along much of the transect. Although all available crustal scale seismic data have been considered, much of the deeper parts of the transect are inferred from the exposed geology and how this can be modelled in terms of regional paleotectonics and are, accordingly, speculative. Palaeozoic and younger sediments of the Scythian Platform overlie basement that is surmised to be younger than the adjoining Archean Ukrainian Shield. The whole of the crust of the Crimean Orogen, underlying thrust nappes emplaced during the early Mesozoic, is speculated to comprise an accretionary complex of mainly Triassic age that is correlated with the Sakarya Zone of northern Turkey. The Black Sea is a back-arc rift basin that opened in Late Cretacous-Tertiary times but the margins of the Black Sea intersected by the transect are not conjugate. The Pontide margin of the Black Sea, in northern Turkey, is formed by the Istanbul Zone, with Proterozoic-aged basement correlative with Moesian crust found in southern Romania and Bulgaria. The Kirsehir Massif is made up of Cretaceous metamorphic and granitic rocks, and represents the deeper parts of a magmatic arc. The Taurides form a south-vergent thrust-stack involving Palaeozoic to Eocene sediments. The

  6. Successful case of pancreaticoduodenectomy with resection of the hepatic arteries preserving a single aberrant hepatic artery for a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ichida, Akihiko; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Akahane, Masaaki; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Kaneko, Junichi; Aoki, Taku; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-03-01

    A 65-year-old male with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting with a duodenal ulcer was referred to our department. The tumor involved the common hepatic artery, gastroduodenal artery, left hepatic artery and the right posterior hepatic artery, but not the right anterior hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery. The hepatic arteries, except the aberrant right anterior hepatic artery, were embolized using coils 18 days before the surgery. The patient underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy with resection of the tumor-encased hepatic arteries, while preserving the aberrant artery. The patient was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 13 with no ischemic complications. A histopathological examination revealed a grade 2 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor according to the classification of the World Health Organization, and the surgical margin was negative. The patient developed hepatic metastases 16 months after surgery; hence, hepatic resection was performed. The present surgical strategy is applicable in patients with relatively low-grade pancreatic malignancies involving major hepatic arteries. PMID:24477525

  7. Hepatic Resection Using a Water Jet Dissector

    PubMed Central

    Stain, S. C.; Guastella, T.; Maddern, G. J.; Blumgart, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity in major hepatic resection is often related to hemorrhage. A high pressure, high velocity water jet has been developed and has been utilized to assist in hepatic parenchymal transection. Sixty-seven major hepatic resections were performed for solid hepatic tumors. The tissue fracture technique was used in 51 patients (76%), and the water jet dissector was used predominantly in 16 patients (24%). The extent of hepatic resection using each technique was similar. The results showed no difference in operative duration (p = .499). The mean estimated blood loss using the water jet was 1386 ml, and tissue fracture technique 2450 ml (p = .217). Transfusion requirements were less in the water jet group (mean 2.0 units) compared to the tissue fracture group (mean 5.2 units); (p = .023). Results obtained with the new water dissector are encouraging. The preliminary results suggest that blood loss may be diminished. PMID:8387808

  8. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... or past infection, or immunity to hepatitis A Hepatitis B tests: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), you have ...

  9. Hepatitis C and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems : Hepatitis C Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis C What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B . Hepatitis C and HIV About 25% of people living ...

  10. Hepatitis B and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems : Hepatitis B Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis B What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis B and HIV About 10% of people living ...

  11. Hepatitis Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by viruses. They include hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. To diagnose hepatitis, your health care provider will ask you about your medical history and symptoms, do a physical exam, and order blood tests. There are blood tests for each type of ...

  12. [Isolated anterior cervical hypertrichosis].

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, B; Cabanillas, M; de las Heras, C; Cacharrón, J M

    2009-01-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis was described by Trattner and coworkers in 1991. It consists of a of hair at the anterior cervical level just above the laryngeal prominence. To date, only 28 cases of anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Although it is normally an isolated finding, it may be associated with mental retardation, hallux valgus, retinal disorders, other hair disorders, facial dysmorphism, or sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman who presented with this condition as an isolated finding. PMID:19268113

  13. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... infected with the hepatitis B virus, can I breastfeed? • If I am infected with the hepatitis B ... infected with the hepatitis C virus, can I breastfeed? • Glossary What are hepatitis B and hepatitis C ...

  14. Intubated, ventilating patients with complete tracheal transection: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Bowley, Douglas M. G.; Plani, Frank; Murillo, Dennis; Smith, Martin; Degiannis, Elias

    2003-01-01

    Tracheal transection is a rare injury after blunt trauma. The presence of complete tracheal transection in the intubated, ventilating patient is even more rare and constitutes a major diagnostic challenge. The liberal use of computed tomography (CT) scans as an adjunct to endoscopy is paramount. PMID:12855026

  15. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... There are different tests for hepatitis A and B. A positive test is ... may mean: You currently have a hepatitis infection. This may ...

  16. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    MedlinePlus

    HEPATITIS C & INCARCERATION What is hepatitis? “Hepatitis” means inflammation or swelling of the liver. The liver is an important ... viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They are all different from each other and ...

  17. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  18. Hepatic ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatic ischemia is a condition in which the liver does not get enough blood or oxygen, causing injury to ... pressure from any condition can lead to hepatic ischemia. Such conditions may include: Abnormal heart rhythms Dehydration ...

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that ... medical care is an important factor in staying as healthy as possible. The American Liver Foundation is ...

  20. Hepatitis D

    MedlinePlus

    ... if the hepatitis B virus is also present. Transmission Hepatitis D can be found in the blood, ... other body fluids of people who are infected. Transmission happens when infected body fluid enters another person’s ...

  1. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Lupoid hepatitis; Chronic acute liver disease ... This form of hepatitis is an autoimmune disease . The body's immune system cannot tell the difference between healthy body tissue and harmful, outside ...

  2. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 507 Hepatitis C WHAT IS HEPATITIS C? HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED? ... treatment may be less likely to work. Hep C treatment is less effective for coinfected people. Cure ...

  3. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  4. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000279.htm Hepatitis B To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the ...

  5. Correction of bias in belt transect studies of immotile objects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Pospahala, R.S.

    1970-01-01

    Unless a correction is made, population estimates derived from a sample of belt transects will be biased if a fraction of, the individuals on the sample transects are not counted. An approach, useful for correcting this bias when sampling immotile populations using transects of a fixed width, is presented. The method assumes that a searcher's ability to find objects near the center of the transect is nearly perfect. The method utilizes a mathematical equation, estimated from the data, to represent the searcher's inability to find all objects at increasing distances from the center of the transect. An example of the analysis of data, formation of the equation, and application is presented using waterfowl nesting data collected in Colorado.

  6. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  7. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  8. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations ​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Español Hepatitis A Page Content On this page: What is ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is hepatitis A? Hepatitis * A is a virus , or infection, ...

  9. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations ​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Autoimmune Hepatitis Page Content On this page: What is autoimmune ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is autoimmune hepatitis? Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic—or long lasting— ...

  10. Complete Brachial Artery Transection following closed Posterior Elbow Dislocation: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    C, JayanthKumar B; Sampath, Deepak; N, Hanumantha Reddy; Motukuru, Vishnu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vascular injury associated withclosed posterior elbow dislocations is rare and it usually occurs along with open dislocation, anterior dislocation, penetrating injuries, dislocations associated with fracture. We report such a case of closed posterior elbow dislocation with complete brachial artery rupture. Case Report: A 58 years old lady sustained posterior dislocation of right elbow following a fall at home. She presented three days later with complaints of severe pain, swelling around the right elbow and numbness of fingers following a closed reduction done elsewhere. Computed graft angiography showed complete transection of brachialartery. Patient was treated with thrombectomy, right great saphenous vein graft interposition repair of brachial artery and forearm fasciotomy. Conclusion: Vascular injuries associated with posterior elbow dislocation are very rare, but high index of suspicion of arterial injury need to be thought off and repeated vascular examination during pre and post reduction stage should be done to prevent complications. PMID:27299092

  11. Transection Speed and Impact on Perioperative Inflammatory Response – A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Stapler Hepatectomy and CUSA Resection

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Christoph; Klaus, Daniel A.; Tudor, Bianca; Fleischmann, Edith; Wekerle, Thomas; Roth, Georg; Bodingbauer, Martin; Kaczirek, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background Parenchymal transection represents a crucial step during liver surgery and many different techniques have been described so far. Stapler resection is supposed to be faster than CUSA resection. However, whether speed impacts on the inflammatory response in patients undergoing liver resection (LR) remains unclear. Materials and Methods This is a randomized controlled trial including 40 patients undergoing anatomical LR. Primary endpoint was transection speed (cm2/min). Secondary endpoints included the perioperative change of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, overall surgery duration, length of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality. Results Mean transection speed was significantly higher in patients undergoing stapler hepatectomy compared to CUSA resection (CUSA: 1 (0.4) cm2/min vs. Stapler: 10.8 (6.1) cm2/min; p<0.0001). Analyzing the impact of surgery duration on inflammatory response revealed a significant correlation between IL-6 levels measured at the end of surgery and the overall length of surgery (p<0.0001, r = 0.6188). Patients undergoing CUSA LR had significantly higher increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6) after parenchymal transection compared to patients with stapler hepatectomy in the portal and hepatic veins, respectively (p = 0.028; p = 0.044). C-reactive protein levels on the first post-operative day were significantly lower in the stapler cohort (p = 0.010). There was a trend towards a reduced overall surgery time in patients with stapler LR, especially in the subgroup of patients undergoing minor hepatectomies (p = 0.020). Conclusions Liver resection using staplers is fast, safe and suggests a diminished inflammatory response probably due to a decreased parenchymal transection time. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01785212 PMID:26452162

  12. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  13. Hepatitis Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  14. Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjeet Kumar; Ansari, Ms

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum (CAUD) may be found all along the anterior urethra and may present itself at any age, from infant to adult. Most children with this condition present with difficulty in initiating micturition, dribbling of urine, poor urinary stream, or urinary tract infection. A careful history will reveal that these children never had a good urinary stream since birth, and the telltale sign is a cystic swelling of the penile urethra. In this paper, we present two cases of CAUD that were managed by excision of the diverticulum with primary repair. PMID:26328174

  15. Correlation of Tc-99m GSA hepatic studies with biopsies in patients with chronic active hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Tomiguchi, S; Kira, T; Oyama, Y; Nabeshima, M; Nakashima, R; Tsuji, A; Kojima, A; Takahashi, M; Yoshimatsu, S; Sagara, K

    1995-08-01

    To determine whether scintigraphic findings of Tc-99m DTPA-galactosyl-HSA (GSA) correspond to histopathologic findings, Tc-99m GSA hepatic scintigraphy and biopsy were compared in 65 patients with chronic active hepatitis. After injecting 185 MBq of Tc-99m GSA, anterior images were obtained at 5 minutes and 15 minutes. Scintigrams were classified into three grades according to the extent of visualization of the cardiac blood pool on 5 minute and 15 minute images. Biopsies were subjectively graded for findings of necrosis and fibrosis. Scintigraphic grades on 5 minute images were correlated with hepatic necrosis and fibrosis and those on 15-minute images with hepatic fibrosis. Scintigraphic abnormalities of Tc-99m GSA correlated well with histopathologic abnormalities, especially with hepatic fibrosis and necrosis in patients with chronic active hepatitis. PMID:7586877

  16. Stable isotope differences among the Lake Michigan 2015 CSMI transects

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the Lake Michigan 2015 Cooperative Science and Monitoring Initiative (CSMI), eight transects situated near tributaries that present a gradient of phosphorus loads were sampled from nearshore to offshore during May, July, and September. Our objective was to evaluate associa...

  17. [Toxic anterior segment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cornut, P-L; Chiquet, C

    2011-01-01

    Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) is a general term used to describe acute, sterile postoperative inflammation due to a non-infectious substance that accidentally enters the anterior segment at the time of surgery and mimics infectious endophthalmitis. TASS most commonly occurs acutely following anterior segment surgery, typically 12-72h after cataract extraction. Anterior segment inflammation is usually quite severe with hypopyon. Endothelial cell damage is common, resulting in diffuse corneal edema. No bacterium is isolated from ocular samples. The causes of TASS are numerous and difficult to isolate. Any device or substance used during the surgery or in the immediate postoperative period may be implicated. The major known causes include: preservatives in ophthalmic solutions, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices, bacterial endotoxin, and intraocular lens-induced inflammation. Clinical features of infectious and non-infectious inflammation are initially indistinguishable and TASS is usually diagnosed and treated as acute endophthalmitis. It usually improves with local steroid treatment but may result in chronic elevation of intraocular pressure or irreversible corneal edema due to permanent damage of trabecular meshwork or endothelial cells. PMID:21176994

  18. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis B?Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus. ...

  19. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is found in ...

  20. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  1. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases. These include: Graves disease Inflammatory bowel disease Rheumatoid arthritis Scleroderma Sjogren syndrome Systemic lupus erythematosus Thyroiditis Type 1 diabetes Ulcerative colitis Autoimmune hepatitis may occur in family ...

  2. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Hepatitis B HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) Measles Meningococcal Disease Mumps Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Pneumococcal Disease Rubella (German Measles) Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Tetanus (Lockjaw) Professional Resources Adult ...

  3. Persistence of the nasotrigeminal reflex after pontomedullary transection.

    PubMed

    Panneton, W Michael; Gan, Qi; Sun, D Wei

    2012-03-15

    Most behaviors have numerous components based on reflexes, but the neural circuits driving most reflexes rarely are documented. The nasotrigeminal reflex induced by stimulating the nasal mucosa causes an apnea, a bradycardia, and variable changes in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). In this study we tested the nasotrigeminal reflex after transecting the brainstem at the pontomedullary junction. The nasal mucosae of anesthetized rats were stimulated with ammonia vapors and their brainstems then were transected. Complete transections alone induced an increase in resting heart rate (HR; p<0.001) and MABP (p<0.001), but no significant change in ventilation. However, the responses to nasal stimulation after transection were similar to those seen prior to transection. HR still dropped significantly (p<0.001), duration of apnea remained the same, as did changes in MABP. Results from rats whose transection were incomplete are discussed. These data implicate that the neuronal circuitry driving the nasotrigeminal reflex, and indirectly the diving response, is intrinsic to the medulla and spinal cord. PMID:22154693

  4. COAST: Cascadia Open-Access Seismic Transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, W.; Johnson, H. P.; Kent, G.; Keranen, K. M.; Tobin, H. J.; Trehu, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Cascadia margin is the site of active subduction, where the Juan de Fuca plate subducts under the North American plate at a rate of ~35 mm/yr. This system is of great scientific and societal interest, as it is capable of very large (Mw~9) earthquakes, creates volcanic hazards in the Cascades, and hosts periodic episodic tremor and slip (ETS) episodes. Despite evidence that the system has generated large megathrust earthquakes, limited seismicity creates large uncertainties in the position, structure, and physical state of the plate boundary. The COAST (Cascadia Open-Access Seismic Transects) project conducted an open-access, open-participation 2D seismic survey of the Cascadia subduction margin off Grays Harbor, WA, that will provide benchmark seismic images to address key scientific issues regarding the location, physical state, fluid budget, and associated methane systems of the subducting plate boundary and overlying crust. We collected seismic reflection, multibeam bathymetric, sidescan sonar, gravity, and magnetic data on the Cascadia subduction margin from the R/V Langseth in July 2012 in a high-priority GeoPRISMS corridor off Grays Harbor, Washington. The cruise was open-participation, with an organized shipboard education and training program, and the data are open-access, with immediate, full release to the community of all geophysical data. Project goals include (1) determining the location of the offshore plate boundary, (2) constraining sediment subduction and plate boundary roughness, (3) estimating pore fluid pathways, (4) determining controls on methane distribution, and (5) imaging compressional and extensional structures that may pose geohazards on the Cascadia margin. Initial observations include the following: (1) The Pleistocene accretionary wedge is well imaged and shows landward-vergent thrust faulting throughout our survey area. An outboard series of ramp-and-thrust structures gives way to a region characterized by folds that separate

  5. Establishment of a rat model for osteoarthritis resulting from anterior cruciate ligament rupture and its significance

    PubMed Central

    OUYANG, XIAO; WANG, JIAN; HONG, SHI DONG; XIN, FENG; WANG, LIN; YANG, XIAO WEI; WANG, JING RONG; WANG, LI MING; WEI, BO; WANG, QING; CUI, WEI DING

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of a model concerned with osteoarthritis resulting from the anterior cruciate ligament rupture of rats and investigate the associated mechanism, as well as provide a theoretical basis for clinical treatment of the disease. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into two groups of 20 rats each and the anterior cruciate ligament transaction model and knee joint brake model were successfully established. Two rats in the anterior cruciate ligament transection group (10%) and 3 rats in the knee joint brake group (15.0%) died. The survival rate of the two groups was not statistically significant (χ2<0.001, P=1.000). Swelling of the knee joint and synovium of rats in the two experimental groups was aggravated. The Mankin score was significantly higher in the anterior cruciate ligament transection group than that in the experimental group and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). By contrast, no significant difference was observed for osteoarthritis severity for the two experimental groups (P>0.05). Analysis of the subgroups showed that the proportion of the anterior cruciate ligament in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the knee joint brake group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). By contrast, the difference was not statistically significant in the comparison of the medium and early proportion (P>0.05). The content of protein polysaccharide and II collagen fiber in the experimental group of the anterior cruciate ligament transection was lower than that of the knee joint brake group, and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Thus the mechanism of osteoarthritis may be associated with the decrease in the content of protein and II collagen fibers. PMID:26668592

  6. Anterior mandibular ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhandarwar, Ajay H.; Bakhshi, Girish D.; Borisa, Ashok D.; Wagh, Amol; Kapoor, Rajat; Kori, Channabasappa G.

    2012-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic tumor. These are usually asymptomatic until a large size is attained. Ameloblastoma has tendency to spread locally and has a high recurrence rate. Majority of ameloblastomas (80%) arise from the mandible. Ameloblastoma arising from anterior mandibular region (symphysis-menti) is rare. Very few cases of midline anterior ameloblastomas are reported in the literature. They often require wide local excision. Reconstruction of mandible in these cases is challenging. We present a case of mandibular ameloblastoma arising from symphysis-menti. Patient underwent wide surgical excision of the tumor followed by immediate reconstruction using free fibular vascular flap, stabilized with titanium reconstructive plates. A brief case report ands review of literature is presented. PMID:24765429

  7. Anterior urethral stricture review

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Marshall J.

    2013-01-01

    Male anterior urethral stricture disease is a commonly encountered condition that presents to many urologists. According to a National Practice Survey of Board Certified Urologist in the United States most urologists treat on average 6-20 urethral strictures yearly. Many of those same urologists surveyed treat with repeated dilation or internal urethrotomy, despite continual recurrence of the urethral stricture. In point of fact, the urethroplasty despite its high success rate, is underutilized by many practicing urologists. Roughly half of practicing urologist do not perform urethroplasty in the United States. Clearly, the reconstructive ladder for urethral stricture management that was previously described in the literature may no longer apply in the modern era. The following article reviews the etiology, diagnosis, management and comparisons of treatment options for anterior urethral strictures. PMID:26816721

  8. Anterior perineal sinus.

    PubMed

    Oliver, G C; Rubin, R J; Salvati, E P; Eisenstat, T E; Lott, J

    1991-09-01

    Each year we treat several patients with an anterior perineal sinus tract. They do not conform to commonly encountered perineal problems such as pilonidal disease, epidermal cysts, hidradenitis, fistulous abscess, or inflammatory bowel disease. In an effort to improve understanding of the problem and its clinical significance, we reviewed our practice records for the period from 1968 through 1988. Fifty-six patients underwent surgery for an anterior perineal sinus tract. In 31 patients, the clinical and pathologic condition defied classical diagnostic categorization. We have termed these lesions "anterior perineal sinuses." Their clinical characteristics, treatment, and pathologic assessment from the body of this report. Male predominance (87 percent) and midlife presentation (average age, 44 years) characterized this group. Local symptoms were present from several weeks to several years prior to treatment. Local anesthesia (74 percent) and limited surgery (100 percent) resulted in complete healing in all patients (average, 7 weeks). A 15 percent recurrence rate was noted. The pathologic evaluation demonstrated acute and chronic dermal and subcutaneous inflammation. The etiology of this process remains uncertain. Its predominance along the median raphe suggests a congenital midline inclusion disorder. PMID:1914743

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bleibel, Wissam; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis affect hundreds of millions of patients all over the world. The majority of patients with cirrhosis will eventually develop complications related to portal hypertension. One of these recurrent and difficult to treat complications is hepatic encephalopathy. Studies have indicated that overt hepatic encephalopathy affects 30 to 45% of patients with cirrhosis and a higher percentage may be affected by minimal degree of encephalopathy. All of these factors add to the impact of hepatic encephalopathy on the healthcare system and presents a major challenge to the gastroenterologist, hospitalist and primary care physician. PMID:23006457

  10. Tibialis Anterior Tendon Transfer.

    PubMed

    Mulhern, Jennifer L; Protzman, Nicole M; Brigido, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    Tendon transfer procedures are used commonly for the correction of soft tissue imbalances and instabilities. The complete transfer and the split transfer of the tibialis anterior tendon are well-accepted methods for the treatment of idiopathic equinovarus deformity in children and adults. Throughout the literature, complete and split transfer have been shown to yield significant improvements in ankle and foot range of motion and muscle function. At present, there is insufficient evidence to recommend one procedure over the other, although the split procedure has been advocated for consistently achieving inversion to eversion muscle balance without overcorrection. PMID:26590723

  11. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Change Plan Wallet card for patients to record their alcohol use over a 4-week period as a way to monitor and reduce their drinking behavior. Glossary Definitions of terms commonly used with viral hepatitis and ...

  12. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . 2014;161(1):58-66. PMID 24863637 ... Development Conference Statement: Management of hepatitis B. Ann Intern Med . 2009;150:104-10. PMID: 19124811 www. ...

  13. The Superficial Precoagulation, Sealing, and Transection Method: A “Bloodless” and “Ecofriendly” Laparoscopic Liver Transection Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ikoma, Naruhiko; Takei, Hidehiro; Oshima, Go; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Minimizing blood loss is an important aspect of laparoscopic liver resection. Liver transection is the most challenging part of liver resection, but no standard method is available for this step at present. Herein, we have introduced the superficial precoagulation, sealing, and transection (SPST) method, a potentially “bloodless” and “ecofriendly” laparoscopic liver transection technique involving reusable devices: the VIO soft-coagulation system; VIO BiClamp (bipolar electrosurgical coagulation); Olympus SonoSurg (ultrasonic surgical system); and CUSA (ultrasonic aspirator). Furthermore, we have reported the short-term outcomes of laparoscopic liver transection with the SPST method. Methods: The study included 14 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic partial liver resection with the SPST method at a single institution between August 2008 and June 2010. Results: The median operative time was 201 minutes (range, 97 to 332 min) and the median blood loss was 5 mL (range, 5 to 250 mL). There was no requirement for blood transfusion, no intraoperative complications, and no cases of conversion to open laparotomy. There were no liver transection-related complications such as postoperative bile leakage, bleeding, or infection. All surgical margins were negative, with a mean margin of 4.6 mm, and no local recurrence was observed at an average follow-up of 37.6 months. Conclusions: The SPST method is a simple, efficient, and cost-effective surgical technique for laparoscopic liver resection. It is associated with low intraoperative blood loss and good short-term outcomes. We recommend that the SPST method should be used as a standard technique for laparoscopic liver transection (Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/SLE/A103). PMID:24752166

  14. Hepatitis B Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 10 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  15. Hepatitis C - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus (HCV). Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis A and hepatitis B . ... Elisofon SA, Jonas MMF. Viral hepatitis in children. In: Boyer TD, Manns MP, Sanyal AJ, eds. Zakim & Boyer's Hepatology: A Textbook of Liver Disease. 6th ed. ...

  16. Hepatitis A FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis A FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  17. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis D virus ... Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is found only in people who carry the hepatitis B virus. HDV may make liver ... B virus but who never had symptoms. Hepatitis D infects about 15 million people worldwide. It occurs ...

  18. Hepatitis C FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  19. Hepatitis B FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  20. Hepatitis A Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis A Testing Share this page: Was this page ... HAV-Ab total; Anti-HAV Formal name: Viral Hepatitis A Antibody Related tests: Hepatitis B Testing ; Hepatitis ...

  1. Uveitis (acute anterior)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Anterior uveitis is rare, with an annual incidence of 12/100,000 population, although it is more common in Finland (annual incidence of 23/100,000), probably because of genetic factors, such as high frequency of HLA–B27 in the population. It is often self-limiting, but can, in some cases, lead to complications such as posterior synechiae, cataract, glaucoma, and chronic uveitis. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of anti-inflammatory eye drops on acute anterior uveitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found six systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: corticosteroids, mydriatics, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug eye drops. PMID:21736765

  2. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... Stomach ache Nausea Diarrhea No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will ...

  3. Management of low velocity gunshot wounds to the anterior urethra: the role of primary repair versus urinary diversion alone.

    PubMed

    Husmann, D A; Boone, T B; Wilson, W T

    1993-07-01

    The management of partial transection of the anterior urethra following penetrating penile injuries is controversial. Optional therapeutic techniques range from a primary sutured reapproximation to urinary diversion alone. We recently managed 17 low velocity gunshot wounds to the external genitalia in which the missile traversed the penile corpus cavernosum, and was associated with less than 40% transection of the corpus spongiosum and anterior urethra. Nine patients were managed with suprapubic diversion, skin débridement and corporeal closure along with placement of a urethral catheter. Eight patients were managed by suprapubic diversion, débridement, closure of the corporeal bodies and a primary sutured reapproximation of the anterior urethra. Urethral strictures developed in 7 patients (78%) managed by a suprapubic tube and urethral stenting during an average followup of 20 months (range 18 to 24). In contrast, 1 patient (12%) managed by a sutured urethral approximation had a urethral stricture during an average followup of 20 months (range 18 to 30, p < 0.01). Our data support a significantly better prognosis for partial transection of the anterior urethra secondary to low velocity gunshot wounds if managed by aggressive wound débridement, corporeal repair, placement of a suprapubic catheter and primary repair of the urethra. PMID:8510278

  4. Bioengineered anterior cruciate ligament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, Gregory (Inventor); Kaplan, David (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor); Martin, Ivan (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament ex vivo. The method comprises seeding pluripotent stem cells in a three dimensional matrix, anchoring the seeded matrix by attachment to two anchors, and culturing the cells within the matrix under conditions appropriate for cell growth and regeneration, while subjecting the matrix to one or more mechanical forces via movement of one or both of the attached anchors. Bone marrow stromal cells are preferably used as the pluripotent cells in the method. Suitable matrix materials are materials to which cells can adhere, such as a gel made from collagen type I. Suitable anchor materials are materials to which the matrix can attach, such as Goinopra coral and also demineralized bone. Optimally, the mechanical forces to which the matrix is subjected mimic mechanical stimuli experienced by an anterior cruciate ligament in vivo. This is accomplished by delivering the appropriate combination of tension, compression, torsion, and shear, to the matrix. The bioengineered ligament which is produced by this method is characterized by a cellular orientation and/or matrix crimp pattern in the direction of the applied mechanical forces, and also by the production of collagen type I, collagen type III, and fibronectin proteins along the axis of mechanical load produced by the mechanical forces. Optimally, the ligament produced has fiber bundles which are arranged into a helical organization. The method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament can be adapted to produce a wide range of tissue types ex vivo by adapting the anchor size and attachment sites to reflect the size of the specific type of tissue to be produced, and also adapting the specific combination of forces applied, to mimic the mechanical stimuli experienced in vivo by the specific type of tissue to be produced. The methods of the present invention can be further modified to incorporate other stimuli experienced in vivo by the

  5. A hierarchical modeling framework for multiple observer transect surveys.

    PubMed

    Conn, Paul B; Laake, Jeffrey L; Johnson, Devin S

    2012-01-01

    Ecologists often use multiple observer transect surveys to census animal populations. In addition to animal counts, these surveys produce sequences of detections and non-detections for each observer. When combined with additional data (i.e. covariates such as distance from the transect line), these sequences provide the additional information to estimate absolute abundance when detectability on the transect line is less than one. Although existing analysis approaches for such data have proven extremely useful, they have some limitations. For instance, it is difficult to extrapolate from observed areas to unobserved areas unless a rigorous sampling design is adhered to; it is also difficult to share information across spatial and temporal domains or to accommodate habitat-abundance relationships. In this paper, we introduce a hierarchical modeling framework for multiple observer line transects that removes these limitations. In particular, abundance intensities can be modeled as a function of habitat covariates, making it easier to extrapolate to unsampled areas. Our approach relies on a complete data representation of the state space, where unobserved animals and their covariates are modeled using a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Observer detections are modeled via a bivariate normal distribution on the probit scale, with dependence induced by a distance-dependent correlation parameter. We illustrate performance of our approach with simulated data and on a known population of golf tees. In both cases, we show that our hierarchical modeling approach yields accurate inference about abundance and related parameters. In addition, we obtain accurate inference about population-level covariates (e.g. group size). We recommend that ecologists consider using hierarchical models when analyzing multiple-observer transect data, especially when it is difficult to rigorously follow pre-specified sampling designs. We provide a new R package, hierarchical

  6. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  7. Anterior hip pain.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, J W

    1999-10-15

    Anterior hip pain is a common complaint with many possible causes. Apophyseal avulsion and slipped capital femoral epiphysis should not be overlooked in adolescents. Muscle and tendon strains are common in adults. Subsequent to accurate diagnosis, strains should improve with rest and directed conservative treatment. Osteoarthritis, which is diagnosed radiographically, generally occurs in middle-aged and older adults. Arthritis in younger adults should prompt consideration of an inflammatory cause. A possible femoral neck stress fracture should be evaluated urgently to prevent the potentially significant complications associated with displacement. Patients with osteitis pubis should be educated about the natural history of the condition and should undergo physical therapy to correct abnormal pelvic mechanics. "Sports hernias," nerve entrapments and labral pathologic conditions should be considered in athletic adults with characteristic presentations and chronic symptoms. Surgical intervention may allow resumption of pain-free athletic activity. PMID:10537384

  8. Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bharti; Kumar Dharma, Vijay; Chawla, Sumit; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Following acute infection, 20% of people eliminate the virus over weeks or months and are often asymptomatic. The remaining 80% of people will develop chronic disease, of which approximately 20% will eventually develop liver cirrhosis and 1–5% will develop liver cancer. About 150 million people are chronically infected with HCV, and more than 350 000 people die every year from hepatitis C related liver diseases. The economic cost of hepatitis C is significant both to the individual and to the society. In the United States the average lifetime cost of the disease was estimated at $33 407 USD with the cost of a liver transplant approximately $200 000 USD. PEG-IFN and ribavirin treatment is also expensive and, at an average cost of approximately GB £7000 in the UK for a treatment course, is unaffordable in developing countries. Hepatitis C, not only brings down the quality of the life of individuals but also affect progress of the nation by adding financial burden. If we prevent the disease from occurring or find a perfect cure of the disease, in form of a prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine, it will be a boon to not only to the individual but to the nation as a whole. PMID:24165512

  9. Hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Juan; Mínguez, Beatriz

    2008-02-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a severe complication of cirrhosis that is related to the effects of ammonia. Analysis of interorgan ammonia trafficking has identified an important role of skeletal muscle in ammonia removal and has highlighted the importance of the nutritional status. Ammonia causes neurotransmitter abnormalities and induces injury to astrocytes that is partially mediated by oxidative stress. These disturbances lead to astrocyte swelling and brain edema, which appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurological manifestations. Inflammatory mediators worsen brain disturbances. New methods for assessing hepatic encephalopathy include clinical scales, neuropsychological tests, imaging of portal-systemic circulation, and magnetic resonance of the brain. Reappraisal of current therapy indicates the need for performing placebo-controlled trials and the lack of evidence for administering diets with restricted protein content. Liver transplant should be considered in selected patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Future prospects include new drugs that decrease plasma ammonia, measures to reduce brain edema, and liver-support devices. PMID:18293278

  10. [Hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Juan; Mur, Rafael Esteban

    2014-07-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (EH) is a severe complication of hepatic cirrhosis that is characterized by multiple neuropsychiatric manifestations. EH is usually triggered by a precipitating factor and occurs in patients with severely impaired hepatic function. Minimal EH is characterized by minor cognitive impairments that are difficult to specify but represent a risk for the patients. The primary pathophysiological mechanism of EH is considered to be an increase in blood ammonia with an impairment in the patency of the blood-brainbarrier and its metabolism to glutamine in astrocytes. The diagnosis is clinical and neuroimaging techniques can be complementary. The diagnosis of minimal EH requires specific neurocognitive tests. The clinical evaluation should be directed towards identifying the trigger. Nonabsorbable disaccharides and rifaximin constitute the treatment of choice, along with prophylaxis for new episodes. PMID:25087716

  11. [Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: case report].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Gutiérrez, Mario H; Sánchez-Corona, José; García-Ortiz, José E; Castañeda-Cisneros, Gema; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Nory O; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; García-Cruz, Diana

    2016-10-01

    The non-syndromic anterior cervical hypertrichosis (OMIM N° 600457) is a genetic disorder characterized by a patch of hair at the level of the laryngeal prominence. We present a 12-year-old boy with anterior cervical hypertrichosis and mild generalized hypertrichosis. He has no neurological, ophthalmological or skeletal anomalies. The clinical follow up is 10 years. PMID:27606653

  12. Case of pituitary stalk transection syndrome ascertained after breech delivery.

    PubMed

    Fukuta, Kaori; Hidaka, Takao; Ono, Yosuke; Kochi, Keiko; Yasoshima, Kuniaki; Arai, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Pituitary stalk transection syndrome (PSTS) is a rare complication that can accompany breech delivery. Early diagnosis of this syndrome is difficult, and it may cause a serious delay in the diagnosis. We present a case of PSTS ascertained after breech delivery. A 20-year-old woman presented with primary amenorrhea. The patient was born by breech delivery and had a history of treatment for pituitary dwarfism. Her laboratory findings showed pituitary hypothyroidism, and hormone replacement therapy was initiated. At 28 years old, she became pregnant and had a normal delivery at 38 weeks' gestation. One year after delivery, her thyroid hormone level changed. Laboratory test showed adrenocortical insufficiency, and magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland showed transection of the pituitary stalk and development of an ectopic posterior lobe. These findings were compatible with PSTS. When a patient who has been born by breech delivery presents with symptoms of pituitary deficiency, PSTS should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26631915

  13. Methodology for Augmenting Existing Paths with Additional Parallel Transects

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, John E.

    2013-09-30

    Visual Sample Plan (VSP) is sample planning software that is used, among other purposes, to plan transect sampling paths to detect areas that were potentially used for munition training. This module was developed for application on a large site where existing roads and trails were to be used as primary sampling paths. Gap areas between these primary paths needed to found and covered with parallel transect paths. These gap areas represent areas on the site that are more than a specified distance from a primary path. These added parallel paths needed to optionally be connected together into a single path—the shortest path possible. The paths also needed to optionally be attached to existing primary paths, again with the shortest possible path. Finally, the process must be repeatable and predictable so that the same inputs (primary paths, specified distance, and path options) will result in the same set of new paths every time. This methodology was developed to meet those specifications.

  14. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Low-grade fever Nausea and vomiting Pale or clay-colored stools Yellow skin (jaundice) ... The virus does not remain in the body after the infection is gone. Most people with hepatitis A recover within 3 months. Nearly all people get better within 6 months. There ...

  15. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider will closely monitor and manage any side effects that may occur, as high doses of prednisone are often prescribed to treat autoimmune hepatitis. Immune system suppressors. Medications that suppress the immune system prevent the body from making autoantibodies and block the immune reaction ...

  16. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician ... Body Hepatitis means “inflammation of the liver.” This inflammation can be caused by a wide variety of toxins, drugs, and metabolic diseases, as well as infection. There ...

  17. Co-incidence of acute appendicitis and appendiceal transection after blunt abdominal trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Moslemi, Sam; Forootan, Hamid Reza; Tahamtan, Maryam

    2013-12-01

    A 13-year-old boy with a history of bicycle handlebar injury to the left side of his abdomen was brought to the Emergency Department of our center. On admission, his vital signs were stable and abdominal examination revealed ecchymosis and tenderness of the injured areas. Mild to moderate free fluid and two small foci of free air in the anterior aspect of the abdomen, in favor of pneumoperitoneum, were detected in abdominopelvic sonography and CT-scan, respectively. In less than 6 hours, the patient developed generalized peritonitis. Therefore, exploratory laparotomy was promptly performed, which revealed appendiceal transection and rupture of the small bowel mesentery. Appendectomy and small bowel mesoplasty were done, with pathological diagnosis of acute appendicitis and periappendicitis. After surgery, the patient had a non-complicated hospital course. This rare case highlights the significance of the early management of appendiceal traumatic injuries in order to prevent further complicated events, especially in patients who are much more exposed to this risk due to their traumatic background. PMID:24293790

  18. Anterior radical debridement and anterior instrumentation in tuberculosis spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Benli, I Teoman; Acaroğlu, Emre; Akalin, Serdar; Kiş, Mahmut; Duman, Evrim; Un, Ahmet

    2003-04-01

    The conventional procedure in the treatment of vertebral tuberculosis is drainage of the abscess, curettage of the devitalized vertebra and application of an antituberculous chemotherapy regimen. Posterior instrumentation results are encouraging in the prevention or treatment of late kyphosis; however, a second-stage operation is needed. Recently, posterolateral or transpedicular drainage without anterior drainage or posterior instrumentation following anterior drainage in the same session has become the preferred treatment, in order that kyphotic deformity can be avoided. Information on the use of anterior instrumentation along with radical debridement and fusion is scarce. This study reports on the surgical results of 63 patients with Pott's disease who underwent anterior radical debridement with anterior fusion and anterior instrumentation (23 patients with Z-plate and 40 patients with CDH system). Average age at the time of operation was 46.8+/-13.4 years. Average duration of follow-up was 50.9+/-12.9 months. Local kyphosis was measured preoperatively, postoperatively and at the last follow-up visit as the angle between the upper and lower end plates of the collapsed vertebrae. Vertebral collapse, destruction, cold abscess, and canal compromise were assessed on magnetic resonance (MR) images. It was observed that the addition of anterior instrumentation increased the rate of correction of the kyphotic deformity (79.7+/-20.1%), and was effective in maintaining it, with an average loss of 1.1 degrees +/-1.7 degrees. Of the 25 patients (39.7%) with neurological symptoms, 20 (80%) had full and 4 (16%) partial recoveries. There were very few intraoperative and postoperative complications (major vessel complication: 3.2%; secondary non-specific infection: 3.2%). Disease reactivation was not seen with the employment of an aggressive chemotherapy regimen. It was concluded that anterior instrumentation is a safe and effective method in the treatment of tuberculosis

  19. The North American Monsoon GPS TRANSECT Experiment 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D. K.; Bennett, R. A.; Perez, O. R.; Minjarez, C.; Serra, Y. L.; Quintanar, A.; Alatorre, L.; Granados, A.; Vazquez, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    The need for meteorology observations in Northwest Mexico strongly motivated the North American Monsoon GPS TRANSECT Experiment 2013; however, the goals of this experiment are much broader. The GNSS/GPS technique for providing water vapor measurements has now been used for almost two decades, particularly for validation, observational studies and forecasting. These studies suggest the technique provides total column water vapor with high accuracy and with a high degree of stability over time making it very useful for many research applications over a variety of time scales. The Experiment has two principal scientific aims: (1) to address basic science questions regarding the role of water vapor fluxes in the SMO in initiating deep convection and growth into MCSs by utilizing a novel measurement technique. (2) to improve NAM operational forecasts through PWV data assimilation Broader impacts of the experiment also include strengthening the international long-term collaborative efforts between Mexico and the US focusing on the climate and meteorology of Northwest Mexico and the Southwest US. 10 GPS meteorological stations in addition to 7 existing Suominet sites (http://www.suominet.ucar.edu/) . were arranged in 3 specific transects, each with a particular observational goal. To cover the highest reaches of the SMO, a transect from Bahía de Kino to Chihuahua City was constructed providing the opportunity to evaluate convective initiation and the diurnal cycle of precipitable water vapor fields over complex terrain. The second transect along the Gulf of California (GoC) coastal plains was motivated by the need to capture of low-level moisture "gulf surges" propagating up the GoC in addition to other tropical disturbances. The third transect, Los Mochis to Badiraguato, captures the strong precipitation gradient between the GoC and the foothills of Sinaloa. We present initial results on the diurnal cycle of precipitable water vapor as a function of elevation for both

  20. Anterior Knee Pain (Chondromalacia Patellae).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrick, James G.

    1989-01-01

    This article presents a pragmatic approach to the definition, diagnosis, and management of anterior knee pain. Symptoms and treatment are described. Emphasis is on active involvement of the patient in the rehabilitation exercise program. (IAH)

  1. Anterior Repair with Processed Dermis

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Anterior Repair with Axis® Tutoplast® Processed Dermis and Digitex® - Performed by Dr. Manish Patel Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2016 BroadcastMed, Inc. ...

  2. [Hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Jacques, Jérémie; Carrier, Paul; Debette-Gratien, Marilyne; Sobesky, Rodolphe; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a severe complication of liver cirrhosis and is an important therapeutic challenge, with a social and economic issue. If, now, the pathophysiology is not totally understood (main role of ammonia, but a better understanding of cerebral mechanisms), the clinical presentation is well-known. Some treatments are useful (disaccharides, treatment of the trigger) but their efficiency is limited. Nevertheless, the emergence of new treatments, such as non-absorbable antibiotics (rifaximin essentially), is an interesting therapeutic tool. PMID:26597584

  3. Drug-induced hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  4. Hepatitis A - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... have the virus and do not practice good hygiene. Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis B ... where diapers are changed to ensure that proper hygiene is followed. If your child gets hepatitis A, ...

  5. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  6. Preventing hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  7. What Is Hepatitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Know hepatitis - Act now Event notice Key ...

  8. Collagen-omental graft in experimental spinal cord transection.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, J C; Goldsmith, H S

    1990-01-01

    Spinal cord transection was induced in 3 groups of cats. The gap was surgically reconstructed using a collagen matrix bridge (Group COL), collagen matrix + pedicled omentum graft (Group COM), or gelfoam (Group GEF). After a variable observation period, animals underwent distal cord horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) injections, somatosensory evoked potentials recordings and polarographic measurement of local spinal cord blood flow (1SCBF) using the hydrogen clearance technique. The cord tissue was removed for histologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Results showed retrograde HRP labelling of proximal segmental cord neurons and somatosensory evoked potentials were present in group COM but not in COL or GEF treated animals. Local SCBF was 66% and 87% higher in COM than COL or GEF animals respectively but this increase could be reversed if flow from the pedicled omentum was clamped-off. Histologic examination of cord tissue after 45 days revealed the presence of catecholaminergic axons distal to the transection site in COM but not COL or GEF groups. Moreover, after 90 days, the rate and density of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-IR) axons was 10-fold higher in COM than COL group and this was accompanied by a proportionate increase in the vascular density between the two groups. GEF treated animals showed no regeneration of transected fibers and poor blood flow pattern. These findings indicate that the placement of a pedicled omentum on a collagen matrix bridge results in near restoration of normal SCBF to the reconstructed cord region and is associated with marked regeneration of axons below the lesion site. PMID:2336984

  9. Enzyme activities along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Knoltsch, Anna; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Takriti, Mounir; Richter, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and thus carbon and nutrient cycling in soils is mediated by the activity of extracellular enzymes. The specific activities of these enzymes and their ratios to each other represent the link between the composition of soil organic matter and the nutrient demand of the microbial community. Depending on the difference between microbial nutrient demand and substrate availability, extracellular enzymes can enhance or slow down different nutrient cycles in the soil. We investigated activities of six extracellular enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, leucine-amino-peptidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitotriosidase, phosphatase and phenoloxidase) in the topsoil organic horizon, topsoil mineral horizon and subsoil horizon in seven ecosystems along a 1,500 km-long North-South transect in Western Siberia. The transect included sites in the southern tundra, northern taiga, middle taiga, southern taiga, forest-steppe (in forested patches as well as in adjacent meadows) and Steppe. We found that enzyme patterns varied stronger with soil depth than between ecosystems. Differences between horizons were mainly based on the increasing ratio of oxidative enzymes to hydrolytic enzymes. Differences between sites were more pronounced in topsoil than in subsoil mineral horizons, but did not reflect the north-south transect and the related gradients in temperature and precipitation. The observed differences between sites in topsoil horizons might therefore result from differences in vegetation rather than climatic factors. The decreasing variability in the enzyme pattern with depth might also indicate that the composition of soil organic matter becomes more similar with soil depth, most likely by an increasing proportion of microbial remains compared to plant derived constituents of SOM. This also indicates, that SOM becomes less divers the more it is processed by soil microorganisms. Our findings highlight the importance of soil depth on enzyme

  10. Penetrating intracranial gunshot wound transecting the right transverse sinus

    PubMed Central

    Beaty, Narlin Bennet; Diaz, Cara; Crandall, Kenneth; Sansur, Charles

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old man sustained a gunshot wound to the posterior head. Imaging demonstrated a transection of the right transverse sinus, a retained bullet fragment and significant cerebellar oedema. The patient emergently underwent suboccipital decompression associated with brisk bleeding from the transverse sinus. Reported examples of surgical management of cerebral venous sinuses include: packing, grafting, patching and ligation. Our patient had a codominant transverse sinus and underwent successful unilateral ligation. His postoperative course was uneventful, however, he did require a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. He was subsequently discharged to rehab with a favourable outcome. PMID:22987903

  11. Postherniotomy dysejaculation: successful treatment with mesh removal and nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Aasvang, E K; Kehlet, H

    2008-12-01

    Dysejaculation following groin hernia repair can occur in about 1-2% of patients, resulting in impairment of sexual function. We report a case of chronic postherniotomy dysejaculation treated with transection of the ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves and decompression of vas deferens that was embedded and twisted in shrunken mesh and scar tissue. At three months follow-up, there was reduced overall pain and no dysejaculation, and quantitative sensory testing showed reversal of sensory abnormalities, except for sensory loss, compared with preoperative values. PMID:18437287

  12. A 700 km long crustal transect across northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Gallart, Josep; Díaz, Jordi; Gil, Alba; Harnafi, Mimoun; Ouraini, Fadila; Ayarza, Puy; Teixell, Antonio; Arboleya, Maria Luisa; Palomeras, Imma; Levander, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Two controlled-source wide angle seismic reflection experiments have been acquired recently (2010 and 2011) in northern Africa across Morocco. A lithospheric scale transect can be constructed by joining both data sets. Hence, an approximately 700 km-long seismic velocity cross section can be derived. From south-to-north the transect goes from the Sahara Platform, south of Merzouga, to Tanger in the north. The first experiment, SIMA, aimed to constrain the crustal structure across the Atlas Mountains. The Rif, the orogenic belt located just south of the coast of Alboran Sea, was the target of the second experiment, RIFSIS. In both cases 900 recording instruments (TEXANS) from the IRIS-PASSCAL instrument center were used to record the acoustic energy generated by explosion shots. In both experiments the shots consisted of 1 TM of explosives fired in ~30 m deep boreholes. Although the data quality varies from shot to shot, key seismic phases as Pg, PmP, Pn, and a few intra-crustal arrivals have been identified to constrain the velocity-depth structure along the whole transect. Forward modelling of the seismic reflection/refraction phases reveals a crust consisting of 3 layers in average. The Moho topography shows from south to north a relatively moderate crustal root beneath the High Atlas, which can reach 40-42 km depth. The crust is thicker beneath the Rif where the Moho is imaged as an asymmetric feature that locally defines a crustal root reaching depths of 50 km and suggesting a crustal imbrication. P wave velocities are rather low in the crust and upper mantle. First arrivals/reflections tomography supports the forward modelling results. Low fold wide-angle stacks obtained by using hyperbolic move-out reveals the geometry of the Moho along the entire transect. Beneath the Atlas, the moderate crustal root inferred is not isostatically consistent with the high surface elevations, hence supporting the idea of a 'mantle plume' as main contributor to the Atlas

  13. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, viral hepatitis, and liver cancer make liver disease one of the 10 leading ... disease are decreasing, those for viral hepatitis and liver cancer are on the rise, both in the U.S. ...

  14. Anatomical versus Non-Anatomical Single Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Cadaveric Study of Comparison of Knee Stability

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hong-Chul; Yoon, Yong-Cheol; Wang, Joon-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the initial stability of anatomical and non-anatomical single bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to determine which would better restore intact knee kinematics. Our hypothesis was that the initial stability of anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction would be superior to that of non-anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction. Methods Anterior tibial translation (ATT) and internal rotation of the tibia were measured with a computer navigation system in seven pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric knees under two testing conditions (manual maximum anterior force, and a manual maximum anterior force combined with an internal rotational force). Tests were performed at 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees of flexion with the ACL intact, the ACL transected, and after reconstruction of one side of a pair with either anatomical or non-anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction. Results Under manual maximal anterior force, both reconstruction techniques showed no significant difference of ATT when compared to ACL intact knee state at 30° of knee flexion (p > 0.05). Under the combined anterior and internal rotatory force, non-anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction showed significant difference of ATT compared to those in ACL intact group (p < 0.05). In contrast, central anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction showed no significant difference of ATT compared to those in ACL intact group (p > 0.05). Internal rotation of the tibia showed no significant difference in the ACL intact, the ACL transected, non-anatomical reconstructed and anatomical reconstructed knees. Conclusions Anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction restored the initial stability closer to the native ACL under combined anterior and internal rotational forces when compared to non-anatomical ACL single bundle reconstruction. PMID:23205233

  15. The effect of animal movement on line transect estimates of abundance.

    PubMed

    Glennie, Richard; Buckland, Stephen T; Thomas, Len

    2015-01-01

    Line transect sampling is a distance sampling method for estimating the abundance of wild animal populations. One key assumption of this method is that all animals are detected at their initial location. Animal movement independent of the transect and observer can thus cause substantial bias. We present an analytic expression for this bias when detection within the transect is certain (strip transect sampling) and use simulation to quantify bias when detection falls off with distance from the line (line transect sampling). We also explore the non-linear relationship between bias, detection, and animal movement by varying detectability and movement type. We consider animals that move in randomly orientated straight lines, which provides an upper bound on bias, and animals that are constrained to a home range of random radius. We find that bias is reduced when animal movement is constrained, and bias is considerably smaller in line transect sampling than strip transect sampling provided that mean animal speed is less than observer speed. By contrast, when mean animal speed exceeds observer speed the bias in line transect sampling becomes comparable with, and may exceed, that of strip transect sampling. Bias from independent animal movement is reduced by the observer searching further perpendicular to the transect, searching a shorter distance ahead and by ignoring animals that may overtake the observer from behind. However, when animals move in response to the observer, the standard practice of searching further ahead should continue as the bias from responsive movement is often greater than that from independent movement. PMID:25799206

  16. Anterior Orbit and Adnexal Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Al Hussain, Hailah; Edward, Deepak P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe six cases of anterior orbital and adnexal amyloidosis and to report on proteomic analysis to characterize the nature of amyloid in archived biopsies in two cases. Materials and Methods: The clinical features, radiological findings, pathology, and outcome of six patients with anterior orbit and adnexal amyloidosis were retrieved from the medical records. The biochemical nature of the amyloid was determined using liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy archived paraffin-embedded tissue in two cases. Results: Of the six cases, three had unilateral localized anterior orbit and lacrimal gland involvement. Four of the six patients were female with an average duration of 12.8 years from the time of onset to presentation eyelid infiltration by amyloid caused ptosis in five cases. CT scan in patients with lacrimal gland involvement (n = 3) demonstrated calcified deformable anterior orbital masses and on pathological exmaintionamyloid and calcific deposits replaced the lacrimal gland acini. Ptosis repair was performed in three patients with good outcomes. One patient required repeated debulking of the mass and one patient had recurrenct disease. Proteomic analysis revealed polyclonal IgG-associated amyloid deposition in one patient and AL kappa amyloid in the second patient. Conclusion: Amyloidosis of the anterior orbit and lacrimal gland can present with a wide spectrum of findings with good outcomes after surgical excision. The nature of amyloid material can be precisely determined in archival pathology blocks using diagnostic proteomic analysis. PMID:24014979

  17. Use of Aortic Endograft for Repair of Intraoperative Iliocaval Injury during Anterior Spine Exposure.

    PubMed

    Chou, Elizabeth L; Colvard, Benjamin D; Lee, Jason T

    2016-02-01

    Vascular injury during anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a well-documented occurrence. Most vascular injuries continue to be managed with direct open repair. We report the outcome of a 61-year-old woman who experienced inferior vena cava and left common iliac vein injury during a difficult exposure for multilevel ALIF. The distal cava and common iliac vein were repaired with a Gore Excluder cuff and limb. The endovascular repair permitted control of the injury without more morbid maneuvers such as iliac artery transection. Thus endovascular repair of intraoperative caval injury is a valuable option in emergent situations with low morbidity and good durability. PMID:26597236

  18. Bilateral Traumatic Globe Luxation with Optic Nerve Transection

    PubMed Central

    Tok, Levent; Tok, Ozlem Yalcin; Argun, Tugba Cakmak; Yilmaz, Omer; Gunes, Alime; Unlu, Elif Nisa; Sezer, Sezgin; Ibisoglu, Seda; Argun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to document clinical findings and management of a patient with bilateral globe luxation and optic nerve transection. Materials and Methods A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with bilateral traumatic globe luxation following a motor vehicle accident. Results Visual acuity testing showed no light perception. The right pupil was dilated and bilaterally did not react to light. The globes were bilaterally intact. A computed tomography scan revealed Le Fort type II fractures, bilateral optic nerve transection and disruption of all extraocular muscles. The globes of the patient were bilaterally reduced into the orbit. However, the patient developed phthisis bulbi in the right eye at month 3. Conclusion Globe luxation presents a dramatic clinical picture, and may lead to the development of severe complications due to the concomitance of complete optic nerve dissection and multiple traumas. Even if the luxated globe is repositioned into the orbit, there is still an increased risk of the development of phthisis due to ischemia. PMID:25606034

  19. Multiple subpial transection: a review of 21 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Sawhney, I M; Robertson, I J; Polkey, C E; Binnie, C D; Elwes, R D

    1995-01-01

    Multiple subpial transection (MST) is a novel technique in surgery for epilepsy, employed in patients where some or all of the epileptogenic zone cannot be resected because it lies in a vital cortical area. Twenty one patients subjected to MST were reviewed. Eighteen patients had medically intractable epilepsy and three patients had Landau-Kleffner syndrome. Their ages ranged from 6 to 47 (mean 15-9) and duration of epilepsy ranged from 0.33 to 42 (mean 8.6) years. Preoperative MRI showed focal abnormalities in eight cases. Detailed electrophysiological examination was carried out on all patients. Brain resection was performed in addition to MST in 12 patients. A further six patients underwent brain biopsy. Three patients with Landau-Kleffner syndrome were subjected neither to resection nor to biopsy. Histopathological examination showed Rasmussen's syndrome in six patients, cortical dysplasia in six, cerebral tumour in one, and non-specific changes in five. Multiple subpial transection was carried out mainly in precentral and postcentral regions. Eighteen patients have been followed up for one to five years, and three for 10 months. The three patients with Landau-Kleffner syndrome were mute before operation and have shown substantial recovery of speech. Of the other 18, 11 showed a worthwhile decrease in seizure frequency. None of the patients developed chronic neurological deficits attributable to MST. It is concluded that MST leads to worthwhile seizure control without major neurological deficit in patients who would otherwise be inoperable. PMID:7897419

  20. Radon and ammonia transects across the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Semprini, L.; Kruger, P.

    1981-01-01

    Radon and ammonia transects, conducted at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, involve measurement of concentration gradients at wells along lines of structural significance in the reservoir. Analysis of four transects showed radon concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 3.60 nCi/kg and ammonia concentrations from 17.6 to 59.3 mg/l. The data showed the lower concentrations in wells of lowest enthalpy fluid and the higher concentrations in wells of highest enthalpy fluid. Linear correlation analysis of the radon-enthalpy data indicated a strong relationship, with a marked influence by the two-phase conditions of the produced fluid. It appears that after phase separation in the reservoir, radon achieves radioactive equilibrium between fluid and rock, suggesting that the phase separation occurs well within the reservoir. A two-phase mixing model based on radon-enthalpy relations allows estimation of the fluid phase temperatures in the reservoir. Correlations of ammonia concentration with fluid enthalpy suggests an equilibrium partitioning model in which enrichment of ammonia correlates with higher enthalpy vapor.

  1. Protect Yourself from Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop yellowish eyes and skin. All the hepatitis viruses can cause acute, or short-term, hepatitis. Some can also cause chronic hepatitis, in which the infection lasts a long time, sometimes for your whole life. Chronic hepatitis can eventually lead to scarring of ...

  2. Hepatic osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Angelo; Verardo, Alberto; Di Pascoli, Marco; Giannini, Sandro; Bolognesi, Massimo

    2014-09-01

    Metabolic disturbances of bone are frequent in patients with chronic liver disease. The prevalence of osteoporosis among patients with advanced chronic liver disease is reported between 12% and 55%; it is higher in primary biliary cirrhosis. All patients with advanced liver disease should be screened for osteoporosis with a densitometry, especially if the etiology is cholestatic and in the presence of other risk factors. Clinical relevance of hepatic osteodystrophy increases after liver transplantation. After liver transplant, a rapid loss of bone mineral density can be detected in the first 6 months, followed by stabilization and slight improvement of the values. At the time of transplantation, bone density values are very important prognostic factors. Therapy of hepatic osteodystrophy is based primarily on the control of risk factors: cessation of tobacco and alcohol assumption, reduction of caffeine ingestion, exercise, supplementation of calcium and vitamin D, limitation of drugs such as loop diuretics, corticosteroids, cholestyramine. Bisphosphonates have been proposed for the therapy of osteoporosis in patients with liver disease, particularly after liver transplantation. The possible side effects of oral administration of bisphosphonates, such as the occurrence of esophageal ulcerations, are of particular concern in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension, due to the risk of gastrointestinal hemorrhage from ruptured esophageal varices, although this risk is probably overestimated. PMID:25568651

  3. [Hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Festi, Davide; Marasco, Giovanni; Ravaioli, Federico; Colecchia, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common complication of liver cirrhosis and it can manifest with a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities of varying severity, acuity and time course with important clinical implications. According to recent guidelines, HE has been classified into different types, depending on the severity of hepatic dysfunction, the presence of porto-systemic shunts and the number of previous episodes or persistent manifestations. From a clinical point of view, HE can be recognized as unimpaired, covert (that deals with minimal and grade 1 according to the grading of mental state), and overt (that is categorized from grade 2 to grade 4). Different and only partially known pathogenic mechanisms have been identified, comprising ammonia, inflammatory cytokines, benzodiazepine-like compounds and manganese deposition. Different therapeutic strategies are available for treating HE, in particular the overt HE, since covert HE needs to be managed case by case. Recognition and treatment of precipitating factors represent fundamental part of the management. The more effective treatments, which can be performed separately or combined, are represented by non-absorbable disaccharides (lactulose and lactitol) and the topic antibiotic rifaximin; other possible therapies, mainly used in patients non responders to previous treatments, are represented by branched chain amino acids and metabolic ammonia scavengers. PMID:27571468

  4. Image-guided ureteral reconstruction using rendezvous technique for complex ureteric transection after gunshot injuries.

    PubMed

    Arabi, Mohammad; Mat'hami, Abdulaziz; Said, Mohammad T; Bulbul, Muhammad; Haddad, Maurice; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    2016-01-01

    Management of complex ureteric transection poses a significant clinical challenge, particularly after gunshot injuries due to marked distortion of anatomy and associated tissue loss. We report two cases of total ureteric transection due to gunshot injury successfully repaired using fluoroscopy-guided rendezvous procedure and double J stent placement. This minimally invasive approach may offer a safe and effective technique to repair complete ureteral transection and obviate the need for complex surgical procedures. PMID:26955601

  5. Image-guided ureteral reconstruction using rendezvous technique for complex ureteric transection after gunshot injuries

    PubMed Central

    Arabi, Mohammad; Mat’hami, Abdulaziz; Said, Mohammad T.; Bulbul, Muhammad; Haddad, Maurice; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    2016-01-01

    Management of complex ureteric transection poses a significant clinical challenge, particularly after gunshot injuries due to marked distortion of anatomy and associated tissue loss. We report two cases of total ureteric transection due to gunshot injury successfully repaired using fluoroscopy-guided rendezvous procedure and double J stent placement. This minimally invasive approach may offer a safe and effective technique to repair complete ureteral transection and obviate the need for complex surgical procedures. PMID:26955601

  6. Vertebral Artery Transection in Nonpenetrating Trauma: A Series of 4 Patients.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Ezekiel; Lehnert, Bruce; McNeeley, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injury is a common and potentially devastating consequence of nonpenetrating trauma to the head and neck. The degree of injury ranges from minimal intimal disruption to complete transection with free extravasation. Although blunt carotid transection has been well characterized in clinical reports and radiologic studies, the computed tomographic angiography (CTA) features of blunt vertebral artery transection have not been well described. We report a series of 4 patients presenting to our level I trauma center with blunt vertebral artery transection, with an emphasis on their CTA imaging findings at presentation and their respective clinical courses. A brief review of the pertinent literature is provided. PMID:26122415

  7. Prevention of Cartilage Degeneration and Gait Asymmetry by Lubricin Tribosupplementation in the Rat Following ACL Transection

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Gregory D.; Elsaid, Khaled A.; Kelly, Karen A.; Anderson, Scott C.; Zhang, Ling; Teeple, Erin; Waller, Kimberly; Fleming, Braden C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether cartilage degeneration is prevented or minimized in an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rat model following a single dose-escalated intra-articular injection of lubricin derived from human synoviocytes in culture (HSL). Methods Unilateral ACL transection (ACLT) of the right hindlimb was performed in Lewis rats (N = 56). Control animals underwent a capsulotomy alone leaving the ACL intact (N = 11). Intra-articular injections (50μl/injection) of PBS (N = 14) and HSL (N = 14; 1600μg/ml) were performed on day 7 post-surgery. Animals were euthanized on day 70 post-surgery. Histological specimens were immunoprobed for lubricin, and sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Urinary CTX-II (uCTX-II) levels were measured on day 35 and 70 post-surgery. Hindlimb maximum applied force was determined using a variable resistor walkway to monitor quadruped gait asymmetries. Results Increased immunostaining for lubricin in the superficial zone and on the surface of cartilage was observed in lubricin-treated and control animals but not the PBS-treated nor the untreated ACLT animals. On post-operative day 35 and 70, uCTXII levels of HSL-treated animals were lower than corresponding untreated and PBS-treated (p=0.005; p<0.001 respectively) animals. ACLT animals treated with HSL and control animals distributed their weight equally between hindlimbs compared to PBS treated or untreated animals (p<0.01). Conclusion A single intra-articular injection of concentrated lubricin, following ACLT, reduced collagen type II degradation and improved weight bearing in the affected joint. This study supports the practice of tribosupplementation with lubricin in retarding cartilage degeneration and possibly the development of post-traumatic OA. PMID:22127873

  8. Duodenal Transection without Pancreatic Injury following Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bankar, Sanket Subhash; Gosavi, Vikas S.; Hamid, Mohd.

    2014-01-01

    With the inventions of faster cars and even more faster motorbikes there is a worldwide increase in road traffic accidents, which has increased the incidence of blunt abdominal trauma but still duodenal injury following a blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon and can pose a formidable challenge to the surgeon and failure to manage it properly can result in devastating results. It may typically occur in isolation or with pancreatic injury. Here, we report a case of an isolated transection of the third part of the duodenum with normal pancreas following a blunt abdominal trauma. The initial clinical changes in isolated duodenal injury may be extremely subtle before life-threatening, peritonitis develops. Hence, a high index of suspicion, on the basis of mechanism of injury and physical examination is the key in early detection of duodenal injury especially in a rural hospital like ours where the facilities for computed tomography scan are not available. PMID:25598947

  9. Duodenal Transection without Pancreatic Injury following Blunt Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Bankar, Sanket Subhash; Gosavi, Vikas S; Hamid, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    With the inventions of faster cars and even more faster motorbikes there is a worldwide increase in road traffic accidents, which has increased the incidence of blunt abdominal trauma but still duodenal injury following a blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon and can pose a formidable challenge to the surgeon and failure to manage it properly can result in devastating results. It may typically occur in isolation or with pancreatic injury. Here, we report a case of an isolated transection of the third part of the duodenum with normal pancreas following a blunt abdominal trauma. The initial clinical changes in isolated duodenal injury may be extremely subtle before life-threatening, peritonitis develops. Hence, a high index of suspicion, on the basis of mechanism of injury and physical examination is the key in early detection of duodenal injury especially in a rural hospital like ours where the facilities for computed tomography scan are not available. PMID:25598947

  10. Mathematical models for nonparametric inferences from line transect data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, K.P.; Anderson, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    A general mathematical theory of line transects is develoepd which supplies a framework for nonparametric density estimation based on either right angle or sighting distances. The probability of observing a point given its right angle distance (y) from the line is generalized to an arbitrary function g(y). Given only that g(O) = 1, it is shown there are nonparametric approaches to density estimation using the observed right angle distances. The model is then generalized to include sighting distances (r). Let f(y/r) be the conditional distribution of right angle distance given sighting distance. It is shown that nonparametric estimation based only on sighting distances requires we know the transformation of r given by f(O/r).

  11. Viral hepatitis: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Satsangi, Sandeep; Chawla, Yogesh K

    2016-07-01

    Viral hepatitis is a cause for major health care burden in India and is now equated as a threat comparable to the "big three" communicable diseases - HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Hepatitis A virus and Hepatitis E virus are predominantly enterically transmitted pathogens and are responsible to cause both sporadic infections and epidemics of acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus are predominantly spread via parenteral route and are notorious to cause chronic hepatitis which can lead to grave complications including cirrhosis of liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Around 400 million people all over the world suffer from chronic hepatitis and the Asia-Pacific region constitutes the epicentre of this epidemic. The present article would aim to cover the basic virologic aspects of these viruses and highlight the present scenario of viral hepatitis in India. PMID:27546957

  12. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  13. Hepatitis B Blood Tests: FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working on ... people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 10 Other Languages . Resource Video See More ...

  14. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  15. Anterior spinal cord syndrome of unknown etiology

    PubMed Central

    Klakeel, Merrine; Thompson, Justin; McDonald, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A spinal cord injury encompasses a physical insult to the spinal cord. In the case of anterior spinal cord syndrome, the insult is a vascular lesion at the anterior spinal artery. We present the cases of two 13-year-old boys with anterior spinal cord syndrome, along with a review of the anatomy and vasculature of the spinal cord and an explanation of how a lesion in the cord corresponds to anterior spinal cord syndrome. PMID:25552812

  16. Comparison of line transects and point counts for monitoring spring migration in forested wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Elliott, A.B.

    2000-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of 400-m line transects and sets of three point counts at detecting avian richness and abundance in bottomland hardwood forests and intensively managed cottonwood (Populus deltoides) plantations within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. We detected more species and more individuals on line transects than on three point counts during 218 paired surveys conducted between 24 March and 3 June, 1996 and 1997. Line transects also yielded more birds per unit of time, even though point counts yielded higher estimates of relative bird density. In structurally more-complex bottomland hardwood forests, we detected more species and individuals on line transects, but in more-open cottonwood plantations, transects surpassed point counts only at detecting species within 50 m of the observer. Species richness and total abundance of Nearctic-Neotropical migrants and temperate migrants were greater on line transects within bottomland hardwood forests. Within cottonwood plantations, however, only species richness of Nearctic-Neotropical migrants and total abundance of temperate migrants were greater on line transects. Because we compared survey techniques using the same observer, within the same forest stand on a given day, we assumed that the technique yielding greater estimates of avian species richness and total abundance per unit of effort is superior. Thus, for monitoring migration within hardwood forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, we recommend using line transects instead of point counts.

  17. Demonstration of Pelvic Anatomy by Modified Midline Transection that Maintains Intact Internal Pelvic Organs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Hanno; Saito, Toshiyuki; Herrmann, Gudrun; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Hammer, Niels; Sandrock, Mara; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    Gross dissection for demonstrating anatomy of the human pelvis has traditionally involved one of two approaches, each with advantages and disadvantages. Classic hemisection in the median plane through the pelvic ring transects the visceral organs but maintains two symmetric pelvic halves. An alternative paramedial transection compromises one side…

  18. 38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3... Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a veteran within 35 days of termination of active military service, it...

  19. Anatomical and functional recovery following spinal cord transection in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, I; Oppenheim, R W; O'Brien, M; Shneiderman, A

    1990-09-01

    Following complete transection of the thoracic spinal cord at various times during embryonic development, chick embryos and posthatched animals exhibited various degrees of anatomical and functional recovery depending upon the age of injury. Transection on embryonic day 2 (E2), when neurogenesis is still occurring and before descending or ascending fiber tracts have formed, produced no noticeable behavioral or anatomical deficits. Embryos hatched on their own and were behaviorally indistinguishable from control hatchlings. Similar results were found following transection on E5, an age when neurogenesis is complete and when ascending and descending fiber tracts have begun to project through the thoracic region. Within 48 h following injury on E5, large numbers of nerve fibers were observed growing across the site of transection. By E8, injections of horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) administered caudal to the lesion, retrogradely labelled rostral spinal and brainstem neurons. Embryos transected on E5 were able to hatch and could stand and locomote posthatching in a manner that was indistinguishable from controls. Following spinal cord transections on E10, anatomical recovery of the spinal cord at the site of injury was not quite as complete as after E5 transection. Nonetheless, anatomical continuity was restored at the site of injury, axons projected across this region, and rostral spinal and brainstem neurons could be retrogradely labelled following HRP injections administered caudal to the lesion. At least part of this anatomical recovery may be mediated by the regeneration or regrowth of lesioned axons. Although none of the embryos transected on E10 that survived to hatching were able to hatch on their own, because several sham-operated embryos were also unable to hatch, we do not attribute this deficit to the spinal transection. When E10-transected embryos were aided in escaping from the shell, they were able to support their own weight, could stand, and locomote

  20. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    PubMed

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  1. Hepatic abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, S.; Langer, V.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic abscesses are potentially lethal diseases if early diagnosis and treatment are not instituted. They are prevalent all over the globe and pyogenic abscesses are predominant over amoebic. With better control of intra abdominal and systemic infections by a spectrum of antibiotics, aetiology of pyogenic abscesses are secondary to interventions and diseases in the biliary tree to a large extent today. The common organisms isolated are the Gram negative group. Amoebic abscesses continue to plague some regions of the world where hygiene and sanitation are questionable. Over the years, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis have evolved remarkably. Imaging modalities like ultrasonography and CT scan have become the cornerstone of diagnosis. The absence of ionizing radiation makes MRI an attractive alternative in patients who require multiple follow up scans. Serological testing in amoebic abscesses has become more reliable. Though antibiotics have remained the principal modality of management, percutaneous drainage of abscesses have vastly improved the chances of cure and bring down the morbidity drastically in pyogenic abscesses. Amoebic abscesses respond well to medical treatment with nitroimidazoles, and minimally invasive surgical drainage is an option in cases where open surgery is indicated. PMID:24532886

  2. Hepatitis B Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... IgM; anti-HBe; Hepatitis B e Antibody; HBV DNA Formal name: Hepatitis B Virus Testing Related tests: ... produced by the virus, and others detect viral DNA . The main uses for HBV tests include: To ...

  3. Hepatitis Foundation International

    MedlinePlus

    ... partner – it's your best friend. Welcome. The Hepatitis Foundation International (HFI) is a 501 (c) 3 non- ... and cures is your participation in the Hepatitis Foundation International Registry. Whether you are affected, a caregiver, ...

  4. Hepatitis A - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... hepatitis A. Children can get hepatitis A at day care center from other children or from child care ... treatment with immunoglobulin therapy. If your child attends day care: Make sure the children and staff at the ...

  5. Hepatitis C (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs ...

  6. Hepatitis E Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Sébastien; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Kamar, Nassim; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Although most hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are asymptomatic, some can be severe, causing fulminant hepatitis and extra-hepatic manifestations, including neurological and kidney injuries. Chronic HEV infections may also occur in immunocompromised patients. This review describes how our understanding of the pathogenesis of HEV infection has progressed in recent years. PMID:27527210

  7. Treating hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Karmen

    2014-10-01

    (1) New treatments for hepatitis C are curing more people than before. (2) Baby boomers make up an estimated 75 percent of all cases of hepatitis C. (3) Medicare and some insurance plans cover screening for hepatitis C as a preventive service without a copayment. PMID:25514812

  8. Hepatitis E Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lhomme, Sébastien; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Kamar, Nassim; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Although most hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are asymptomatic, some can be severe, causing fulminant hepatitis and extra-hepatic manifestations, including neurological and kidney injuries. Chronic HEV infections may also occur in immunocompromised patients. This review describes how our understanding of the pathogenesis of HEV infection has progressed in recent years. PMID:27527210

  9. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis B (HBV) Print A A A Text Size ... Prevented? How Is It Treated? What Is It? Hepatitis (pronounced: hep-uh-TIE-tiss) is a disease ...

  10. Structural transect across Ventua basin and western Transverse Ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Namson, J.S.

    1987-05-01

    A retrodeformable cross section that integrates surface and subsurface data across the Ventura basin and western Transverse Ranges illustrates the structural style and evolution of Oligocene to Holocene age structures. Three deformational events are recognized: Oligocene to early Miocene compression, late Miocene through Pliocene normal faulting, and Pleistocene to Holocene compression. Oligocene to early Miocene compression caused uplift and formation of a large antiform north of the Santa Ynez fault in the central part of the range. This antiform is interpreted to be a ramp-related fold associated with movement on a southwest-verging blind thrust fault. Late Miocene through Pliocene age normal faulting along the Oak Ridge fault formed the southern boundary of the Ventura basin. The basin formed by simple block rotation along the normal fault and was filled by up to 6 km of Pliocene and Pleistocene clastic sediment. During Pleistocene to Holocene compression, the Ventura basin and western Transverse Ranges were deformed by both north- and south-verging thrust faults and related folds. The Ventura Avenue anticline is interpreted to be the result of imbricate thrust faulting in the Rincon and Monterey formations. Along the Oak Ridge trend, thrust-related folds rotated and reactivated the late Miocene and Pliocene age normal faults. A restoration of the regional transect documents 34% or 35 km of shortening by thrusting and folding during the Pleistocene to Holocene phase of compression.

  11. Factors controlling floc settling velocity along a longitudinal estuarine transect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, A.J.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    A 147 km longitudinal transect of flocculated cohesive sediment properties in San Francisco Bay (SFB) was conducted on June 17th, 2008. Our aim was to determine the factors that control floc settling velocity along the longitudinal axis of the estuary. The INSSEV-LF video system was used to measure floc diameters and settling velocities at 30 stations at a distance of 0.7 m above the estuary bed. Floc sizes (D) ranged from 22 μm to 639 μm and settling velocities (Ws) ranged between 0.04 mm·s− 1 and 15.8 mm·s− 1 during the longitudinal transect. Nearbed turbulent shear stresses throughout the transect duration were within the 0.2–0.5 Pa range which typically stimulates flocculation growth. The individual D–Ws–floc density plots suggest the suspended sediments encountered throughout SFB were composed of both muddy cohesive sediment and mixed sediments flocs. Mass-weighted population mean settling velocity (Wsmass) ranged from 0.5 mm·s− 1 to 10 mm·s− 1. The macrofloc and microfloc (demarcation at 160 μm) sub-populations demonstrated parameterised settling velocities which spanned nearly double the range of the sample mean settling velocities (Wsmean). The macroflocs tended to dominate the suspended mass (up to 77% of the ambient suspended solid concentration; SSC) from San Pablo Bay to Carquinez Strait (the vicinity of the turbidity maximum zone). Microfloc mass was particularly significant (typically 60–100% of the SSC) in the northern section of South Bay and most of Central Bay. The transect took eleven hours to complete and was not fully synoptic. During slack tide, larger and faster settling flocs deposited, accounting for most of the longitudinal variability. The best single predictor of settling velocity was water velocity 39 min prior to sampling, not suspended-sediment concentration or salinity. Resuspension and settling lags are likely responsible for the lagged response of settling velocity to water velocity. The distribution of

  12. Transcriptome profiling of the rat retina after optic nerve transection

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Masayuki; Tanaka, Yuji; Omodaka, Kazuko; Nishiguchi, Koji M.; Nakamura, Orie; Tsuda, Satoru; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases characterized by alterations in the contour of the optic nerve head (ONH), with corresponding visual field defects and progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). This progressive RGC death is considered to originate in axonal injury caused by compression of the axon bundles in the ONH. However, the molecular pathomechanisms of axonal injury-induced RGC death are not yet well understood. Here, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to examine transcriptome changes in rat retinas 2 days after optic nerve transection (ONT), and then used computational techniques to predict the resulting alterations in the transcriptional regulatory network. RNA-seq revealed 267 differentially expressed genes after ONT, 218 of which were annotated and 49 unannotated. We also identified differentially expressed transcripts, including potentially novel isoforms. An in silico pathway analysis predicted that CREB1 was the most significant upstream regulator. Thus, this study identified genes and pathways that may be involved in the pathomechanisms of axonal injury. We believe that our data should serve as a valuable resource to understand the molecular processes that define axonal injury-driven RGC death and to discover novel therapeutic targets for glaucoma. PMID:27353354

  13. Circum-Arctic lithospheric transects from onshore to offshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pease, V.; Coakley, B.; Faleide, J. I.; Jokat, W.; Miller, E. L.; Stephenson, R.; Meisling, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the evolution of the lithosphere over time involves the integration and interpretation of geological and geophysical data, combined with good knowledge of the physical processes at work in the lithosphere giving rise to past and present structures. Tectonic activity related to the rifting process created the present-day structure of today's Arctic basins and bathymetric highs, and in the process modified older structures and architecture of the crust and lithosphere. The correlation of circum-Arctic terranes and orogens help to not only reconstruct paleogeography but to also define the role and determine the nature of the lithospheric processes that were active in the complex tectonic evolution of the Arctic. CALE (Circum Arctic Lithosphere Evolution), an international and multidisciplinary effort involving c. 35 geologists and geophysicists from ten different countries working to link the onshore and offshore regions across the circum-Arctic region, is a scientific network in it's last year of a 5-year program. Sedimentary cover and crust to mantle cross-sections from onshore to offshore have been created integrating the latest scientific knowledge and data sets available for the Arctic. The project's principal Arctic transects include: Ellesmere-Canada Basin, Pacific Ocean-Lomonosov Ridge through the Bering Strait, across the Laptev Sea rift to the DeLong Islands, Barents and Kara regions across Timan-Pechora and Taimyr. These sections, the culmination of the CALE project, and their principle findings will be presented for the first time with discussion of outstanding issues yet to be resolved.

  14. The effect of brain transection on the response to forced submergence in ducks.

    PubMed

    Gabbott, G R; Jones, D R

    1991-10-01

    The effect of brain transection at two levels on cardiovascular responses to forced submergence has been investigated in ducks. Compared with intact ducks, neither decerebration nor brain stem transection at the rostral mesencephalic (RM) level had any effect on development of diving bradycardia, or heart rate at the end of two-min dives. Arterial blood pressure was maintained in brain transected ducks as well as in intact ducks. Furthermore, end-dive arterial blood gases and pH were also similar in intact and brain transected ducks confirming that the oxygen sparing cardiovascular adjustments, involving a massive increase in total peripheral resistance, were unimpaired by brain transection. In this respect, ducks with RM transections tolerated four-min dives. However, the increase in post-dive VE seen in intact and decerebrated ducks was prevented by RM transection. We conclude that control of the circulatory response to diving resides in the lower brainstem, is reflexogenic in nature, and does not depend on the cognitive perception of 'fearful' stimuli. PMID:1753065

  15. Impediments to eye transplantation: ocular viability following optic-nerve transection or enucleation

    PubMed Central

    Ellenberg, D; Shi, J; Jain, S; Chang, J-H; Ripps, H; Brady, S; Melhem, E R; Lakkis, F; Adamis, A; Chen, D-F; Ellis-Behnke, R; Langer, R S; Strittmatter, S M; Azar, D T

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance of ocular viability is one of the major impediments to successful whole-eye transplantation. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of the current literature to help guide future studies in order to overcome this hurdle. A systematic multistage review of published literature was performed. Three specific questions were addressed: (1) Is recovery of visual function following eye transplantation greater in cold-blooded vertebrates when compared with mammals? (2) Is outer retina function following enucleation and reperfusion improved compared with enucleation alone? (3) Following optic-nerve transection, is there a correlation between retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and either time after transection or proximity of the transection to the globe? In a majority of the studies performed in the literature, recovery of visual function can occur after whole-eye transplantation in cold-blooded vertebrates. Following enucleation (and reperfusion), outer retinal function is maintained from 4 to 9 h. RGC survival following optic-nerve transection is inversely related to both the time since transection and the proximity of transection to the globe. Lastly, neurotrophins can increase RGC survival following optic-nerve transection. This review of the literature suggests that the use of a donor eye is feasible for whole-eye transplantation. PMID:19286686

  16. A Rare Case of Complete Stent Fracture, Coronary Arterial Transection, and Pseudoaneurysm Formation Induced by Repeated Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Fumiaki; Kanemoto, Masashi; Yamada, Jutaro; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Tsuboi, Hidetoshi; Fujii, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a rare asymptomatic case of complete stent fracture, coronary arterial transection, and pseudoaneurysm formation in response to repeated stenting. The proximal and distal ends of transected coronary artery were closed, and distal bypass was performed. Coronary arterial transection can occur in patients with repeated stenting as a long-term adverse event. PMID:26543650

  17. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  18. Line transect estimation of population size: the exponential case with grouped data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, K.P.; Crain, B.R.

    1979-01-01

    Gates, Marshall, and Olson (1968) investigated the line transect method of estimating grouse population densities in the case where sighting probabilities are exponential. This work is followed by a simulation study in Gates (1969). A general overview of line transect analysis is presented by Burnham and Anderson (1976). These articles all deal with the ungrouped data case. In the present article, an analysis of line transect data is formulated under the Gates framework of exponential sighting probabilities and in the context of grouped data.

  19. Integration of potential-field and digital geologic data for two North American geoscience transects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Two North American contributions to the Global Geoscience Transects Program, the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine transect and the Great Lakes portion of the United States-Canadian Border transect, are among the first to produce digital geology in a form that can be combined with gridded gravity and aeromagnetic data. Maps of shaded relief and color-composite bandpass-filtered potential-field data combined with overlays of digitized geologic contacts and faults reveal significant new geologic information, including the relative thickness of plutons, the structure of poorly exposed or concealed magnetic units, and possible evidence for mineralized ground. -from Author

  20. Differences in distribution of modified basins and ducks relative to roadside transects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Sklebar, H.T.; Buhl, T.K.

    2003-01-01

    Wetland basins in the Prairie Pothole Region of the U.S. are commonly modified by excavation (e.g., roadside ditches, stock dugouts), partial drainage (ditching), and diking. Differences in the distribution of modified wetlands may affect the predictive accuracy of waterfowl survey data if such wetlands are not distributed randomly in the landscape and if waterfowl are not distributed equally among them. We used data collected on thirty-eight 40-km2 plots in North Dakota to examine the distribution of modified basins relative to roadside transects and their use by five species of dabbling ducks in 1995. The 800-m-wide transects were subdivided into an inner 400-m transect, centered on the road, and the remaining outer transect area. We compared the distribution of modified and natural wetland basins among three sample areas: 1) the inner 400-m wide roadside transect area, 2) the outer transect area, and 3) the remaining area within the 40-km2 plot that was outside of the transects (outer plot). Duck use was compared between the two transect areas. The plots contained 20,582 basins, of which 88.5% were unmodified, 7.5% were excavated, 3.7% were partially drained, and 0.2% were diked. Nearly all excavated temporary (89%) and seasonal (90%) basins occurred in the inner transect area, reflecting the high proportion of basins that would be defined as roadside ditches. Excavated semipermanent basins were more evenly distributed among the outer plot and two transect widths; these basins often were dugouts but also included roadside ditches. Partially drained and diked basins also were fairly evenly distributed among the three sample areas. Semipermanent basins had greater use by mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintails (A. acuta) when they were partially drained than when they were excavated or unmodified; pintails also had greater use of partially drained seasonal basins. Use of wetland basins by gadwall (A. strepera), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and

  1. Hepatitis: protecting BMETs & CEs.

    PubMed

    Baker, S A

    1994-01-01

    Hepatitis is the primary occupational hazard for healthcare workers. Not until the 1970s were hepatitis viruses isolated and identified as types A and B. In the late 1970s, hepatitis D was discovered as a major cause of fulminant hepatitis. Soon, it was evident that another type was also at work. Because testing was only available for types A and B, the new category was referred to as non-A, non-B. In the 1980s, scientists identified two more viruses from this non-A, non-B group, namely hepatitis E and hepatitis C. These five types of hepatitis have different modes of transmission. The fecal-to-oral route is the mode of transmission for hepatitis types A and E. But, types B and D are bloodborne pathogens. With the advent of a safe vaccine for hepatitis B, this category is declining. To date, hepatitis C appears to have multiple routes of transmission, with half the cases being posttransfusion. In the United States, 85,000 people per year develop chronic hepatitis C, which ultimately leads to severe liver damage. This paper addresses each of the five viruses that have been grouped by routes of transmission, prevention techniques for BMETs and CEs, and statistics of reported cases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) over the last 20 years. PMID:10139739

  2. Overview of the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, David L.; Waring, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    The Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project is a study of ecosystem functions in coniferous forests using the methods of computer modeling, experimental and theoretical remote sensing, and ecological field and laboratory techniques. The study is focused on predicting the major fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water, and the factors that dynamically regulate them. The OTTER project was conceived to test two major questions: (1) Can a generalized ecosystem simulation model, designed to use mainly parameters available from remote sensing, predict the functioning of forests across an environmentally variable region? and (2) To what extent can the variables required by this model be derived from remotely sensed data? The scientific objectives and scope of the project demanded that a coordinated effort be made to link ground measurements with remote sensing and modeling requirements. OTTER was selected as a focus for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-sponsored Multi-sensor Aircraft Campaign (MAC; combining NASA aircraft and sensors with those of others) on the basis of experience gained in past ecosystem studies and remote-sensing projects, and the importance of the OTTER objectives to NASA's long-range science goals and plans. Having several independent approaches available, both on the ground and from various remote-sensing platforms, proved valuable in estimating and validating many of the critical variables. This experience and cross comparison should help simplify future studies of a similar nature. Edited data sets from the OTTER project are now available to the scientific community on optical disks or via on-line data banks at NASA (Washington, D.C., USA) and Oregon State University (Corvallis, Oregon, USA).

  3. Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Alaskan Lakes Along a Latitudinal Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cruz, K. C.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Anthony, P.; Thalasso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Karla Martinez-Cruz* **, Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui*, Katey M. Walter Anthony*, Peter Anthony*, and Frederic Thalasso**. * Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska. ** Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Cinvestav, Mexico city, D. F., Mexico. Methane (CH4) is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide and water vapor. Boreal lakes play an important role in the current global warming by contributing as much as 6% of global atmospheric CH4 sources annually. On the other hand, aerobic methane oxidation (methanotrophy) in lake water is a fundamental process in global methane cycling that reduces the amount of CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Several environmental factors affect aerobic methane oxidation in the water column both directly and indirectly, including concentration of CH4 and O2, temperature and carbon budgets of lakes. We analyzed the potential of aerobic methane oxidation (PMO) rates in incubations of water collected from 30 Alaskan lakes along a north-south transect during winter and summer 2011. Our findings showed an effect of CH4 and O2 concentrations, temperature and yedoma thawing permafrost on PMO activity in the lake water. The highest PMO rates were observed in summer by lakes situated on thawing yedoma permafrost, most of them located in the interior of Alaska. We also estimated that 60-80% of all CH4 produced in Alaskan lakes could be taken up by methanotrophs in the lake water column, showing the significant influence of aerobic methane oxidation of boreal lakes to the global CH4 budget.

  4. A basin redox transect at the dawn of animal life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, Erik A.; Halverson, Galen P.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Macdonald, Francis A.; Johnston, David T.

    2013-06-01

    Multiple eukaryotic clades make their first appearance in the fossil record between ~810 and 715 Ma. Molecular clock studies suggest that the origin of animal multicellularity may have been part of this broader eukaryotic radiation. Animals require oxygen to fuel their metabolism, and low oxygen levels have been hypothesized to account for the temporal lag between metazoan origins and the Cambrian radiation of large, ecologically diverse animals. Here, paleoredox conditions were investigated in the Fifteenmile Group, Ogilvie Mountains, Yukon, Canada, which hosts an 811 Ma ash horizon and spans the temporal window that captures the inferred origin and early evolution of animals. Iron-based redox proxies, redox-sensitive trace elements, organic carbon percentages and pyrite sulfur isotopes were analyzed in seven stratigraphic sections along two parallel basin transects. These data suggest that for this basin, oxygenated shelf waters overlay generally anoxic deeper waters. The anoxic water column was dominantly ferruginous, but brief periods of euxinia likely occurred. These oscillations coincide with changes in total organic carbon, suggesting euxinia was primarily driven by increased organic carbon loading. Overall, these data are consistent with proposed quantitative constraints on Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen being greater than 1% of modern levels, but less than present levels. Comparing these oxygen levels against the likely oxygen requirements of the earliest animals, both theoretical considerations and the ecology of modern oxygen-deficient settings suggest that the inferred oxygen levels in the mixed layer would not have been prohibitive to the presence of sponges, eumetazoans or bilaterians. Thus the evolution of the earliest animals was probably not limited by the low absolute oxygen levels that may have characterized Neoproterozoic oceans, although these inferred levels would constrain animals to very small sizes and low metabolic rates.

  5. Vegetation and Soil Responses to Fertilization Along the Kalahari Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Caylor, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Ries, L.; Okin, G.; Swap, R.; Shugart, H.; Scanlon, T.; Macko, S.

    2006-12-01

    To better understand how soil nutrients and soil moisture interactively control vegetation dynamics in savanna ecosystems, a large-scale stable isotope fertilization experiment was conducted using four study sites with different mean annual precipitation (MAP), along the Kalahari Transect (KT). KT in southern Africa traverses a dramatic aridity gradient (from 200 mm to more than 1000 mm MAP, through the Republic of South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Zambia), on relatively homogenous soils (deep Kalahari sands). The experimental design consisted of a randomized block design with four 21 m x 13 m plots at each site. Each plot was divided into four 10 m x 6 m subplots with a 1 m buffer zone between each subplot. Four treatments (N addition, P addition, N+P addition and control) were randomly applied to the subplots. The N and N+P additions were enriched with 15N to a signature of 10.3 ‰. Grass foliar 15N was significantly higher in the N and N+P addition than in the control or P-addition during following growing season. The differences disappeared in the second growing season. Soil 15N and soil surface CO2 fluxes were not different between treatments in both seasons for all four locations. Herbaceous biomass responses to fertilization were different in different locations. Significantly higher biomass was observed in N+P addition in driest site and in P addition in wetter site. The 15N results provide evidence of N uptake limitation and we also see evidence of productivity limitation. These results suggest that there is a complex feedback between soil and vegetation in savanna ecosystems.

  6. Artificial ultra-fine aerosol tracers for highway transect studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Thomas A.; Barnes, David E.; Wuest, Leann; Gribble, David; Buscho, David; Miller, Roger S.; De la Croix, Camille

    2016-07-01

    The persistent evidence of health impacts of roadway aerosols requires extensive information for urban planning to avoid putting populations at risk, especially in-fill projects. The required information must cover both highway aerosol sources as well as transport into residential areas under a variety of roadway configurations, traffic conditions, downwind vegetation, and meteorology. Such studies are difficult and expensive to do, but were easier in the past when there was a robust fine aerosol tracer uniquely tied to traffic - lead. In this report we propose and test a modern alternative, highway safety flare aerosols. Roadway safety flares on vehicles in traffic can provide very fine and ultra-fine aerosols of unique composition that can be detected quantitatively far downwind of roadways due to a lack of upwind interferences. The collection method uses inexpensive portable aerosol collection hardware and x-ray analysis protocols. The time required for each transect is typically 1 h. Side by side tests showed precision at ± 4%. We have evaluated this technique both by aerosol removal in vegetation in a wind tunnel and by tracking aerosols downwind of freeways as a function of season, highway configuration and vegetation coverage. The results show that sound walls for at-grade freeways cause freeway pollution to extend much farther downwind than standard models predict. The elevated or fill section freeway on a berm projected essentially undiluted roadway aerosols at distances well beyond 325 m, deep into residential neighborhoods. Canopy vegetation with roughly 70% cover reduced very fine and ultra-fine aerosols by up to a factor of 2 at distances up to 200 m downwind.

  7. Stereopsis after anterior temporal lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Decramer, Thomas; van Loon, Johannes; Goffin, Jan; Van Paesschen, Wim; Janssen, Peter; Theys, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Brain areas critical for stereopsis have been investigated in non-human primates but are largely unknown in the human brain. Microelectrode recordings and functional MRI (fMRI) studies in monkeys have shown that in monkeys the inferior temporal cortex is critically involved in 3D shape categorization. Furthermore, some human fMRI studies similarly suggest an involvement of visual areas in the temporal lobe in depth perception. We aimed to investigate the role of the human anterior temporal neocortex in stereopsis by assessing stereoscopic depth perception before and after anterior temporal lobectomy. Eighteen epilepsy surgery patients were tested, pre- and postoperatively, in 3 different depth discrimination tasks. Sensitivity for local and global disparity was tested in a near-far discrimination task and sensitivity for 3D curvature was assessed in a convex-concave discrimination task, where 3D shapes were presented at different positions in depth. We found no evidence that temporal lobe epilepsy surgery has a significant effect on stereopsis. In contrast with earlier findings, we conclude that local as well as global stereopsis is maintained after unilateral resection of the temporal pole in epilepsy surgery patients. Our findings, together with previous studies, suggest that in humans more posterior visual regions underlie depth perception. PMID:27344239

  8. Incidental Anterior Cruciate Ligament Calcification: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hisami; Fischer, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The calcification of knee ligaments is a finding noted only in a handful of case reports. The finding of an anterior cruciate ligament calcification has been reported once in the literature. Comparable studies involving the posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and an ossicle within the anterior cruciate ligament are likewise discussed in reports of symptomatic patients. We report a case of incidentally discovered anterior cruciate ligament calcification. We discuss the likely etiology and clinical implications of this finding. PMID:27200163

  9. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  10. [Endovascular repair for an acute traumatic aortic transection: a case report].

    PubMed

    Sanioğlu, Soner; Sahin, Sinan; Aydoğan, Hakki; Barutça, Hakan; Eren, Ergin

    2012-03-01

    A thirty-eight-year-old male patient who suffered from 10th and 11th thoracal vertebrae fractures, paraplegia and acute traumatic aortic transection because of accidental fall was referred to our hospital. Open surgical repair carried a very high risk due to severe coexisting injuries. Transection was treated with 30x100 mm Valiant thoracic endograft, which was deployed just distal to the ostium of the left carotid artery. The patient was transferred to the neurosurgery clinic for treatment of paraplegia after an uneventful recovery. Endovascular repair of acute transection confers substantial advantages in mortality and morbidity compared to surgical repair. However, the long-term durability of thoracic endografts remains unknown. If the long-term results are as satisfactory as the promising mid-term results, this technique may become the gold standard approach for the treatment of acute transection. PMID:22792827

  11. Hepatic encephalopathy: a review.

    PubMed

    Lizardi-Cervera, Javier; Almeda, Paloma; Guevara, Luis; Uribe, Misael

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complication that presents in as many as 28% of patients with cirrhosis, and reported up to ten years after the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Commonly, it is observed in patients with severe hepatic failure and is characterized by neuropsychiatric manifestations that can range in severity from a mild alteration in mental state to a coma; additionally, some neuromuscular symptoms can be observed. This complication of either acute or chronic hepatic disease is the result of a diminished hepatic reservoir and inability to detoxify some toxins that originate in the bowel. Today, the role of astrocytes, specifically the Alzheimer type II cells, is known to be very important in the pathogenesis of the hepatic encephalopathy, and will be reviewed later. In conclusion, the objectives of this review are: To understand the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, To recognize the precipitating factors, as well as preventive measures for the development of the hepatic encephalopathy, To describe the new classification of hepatic encephalopathy and its clinical implications, To recognize the clinical manifestations and stages of the disease, To understand the main diagnostic tests used to detect the hepatic encephalopathy, To describe the main therapeutic treatments of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:15115963

  12. Effects of vestibular nerve transection on the calcium incorporation of fish otoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anken, Ralf H.; Edelmann, Elke; Rahmann, Hinrich

    2001-08-01

    Previous investigations revealed that the growth of fish inner ear otoliths (otolith size and calcium-incorporation) depends on the amplitude and the direction of gravity, suggesting the existence of a (negative) feedback mechanism. In search for the regulating unit, the vestibular nerve was transected unilaterally in neonate swordtail fish ( Xiphophorus helleri) which were subsequently incubated in the calcium-tracer alizarin-complexone. Calcium incorporation ceased on the transected head sides, indicating that calcium uptake is neurally regulated.

  13. Variability of land degradation along topographic transects in two Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh; Anaya-Romero, María; Phillips, Jonathan D.; Jordán, Antonio; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; de la Rosa, Diego

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of topography, soil factors and climate conditions on land degradation along topographic transects in two Mediterranean areas: Seville (southern Spain) and El-Fayoum (northern Egypt). Elevation and slope gradient information from both study sites were obtained from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, processed using ENVI 4.7. Additionally, topographic transects were developed using ArcGIS 10 software. To represent the highest variability in elevation, lithology, soil and land use in each site, one representative topographic transect from El-Fayoum and two topographic transects from Seville were selected. Soil characteristics along each of the topographic transect were obtained by mapping land surveying and laboratory analyses data. MicroLEIS DSS (Pantanal and Raizal submodels) was used to assess soil contamination with phosphorus, nitrogen, heavy metals and pesticides and water erosion vulnerability along the topographic transects for each study site using soil data, including depth, texture, drainage, carbonate content, salinity, sodium saturation, organic matter content and acidity (pH). Additionally, monthly average values of climate variables (mean temperature, maximum and minimum rainfall and number of rainy days) have been used. The results obtained by Raizal and Pantanal models suggest that lower elevation areas from transects show low vulnerability classes in both degradation processes (water erosion and soil contamination), when compared to uplands. The variation of climate conditions and soil factors along the Seville and El-Fayoum transects were responsible for the observed variability in both soil degradation processes (erosion and contamination). Key words: MicroLEIS DSS, soil degradation, soil factors, topography, DEM

  14. A parametric generalization of the Hayne estimator for line transect sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.

    1979-01-01

    The Hayne model for line transect sampling is generalized by using an elliptical (rather than circular) flushing model for animal detection. By assuming the ration of major and minor axes lengths is constant for all animals, a model results which allows estimation of population density based directly upon sighting distances and sighting angles. The derived estimator of animal density is a generalization of the Hayne estimator for line transect sampling.

  15. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. From Hollywood's "Walk of Stars" to Main Street, USA, people from all walks ... that includes many well-known names: Legendary television star Larry Hagman was diagnosed with advanced hepatitis C ...

  16. Biomechanical Characterization of a Model of Noninvasive, Traumatic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Maerz, Tristan; Kurdziel, Michael D; Davidson, Abigail A; Baker, Kevin C; Anderson, Kyle; Matthew, Howard W T

    2015-10-01

    The onset of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) remains prevalent following traumatic joint injury such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, and animal models are important for studying the pathomechanisms of PTOA. Noninvasive ACL injury using the tibial compression model in the rat has not been characterized, and it may represent a more clinically relevant model than the common surgical ACL transection model. This study employed four loading profiles to induce ACL injury, in which motion capture analysis was performed, followed by quantitative joint laxity testing. High-speed, high-displacement loading repeatedly induces complete ACL injury, which causes significant increases in anterior-posterior and varus laxity. No loading protocol induced valgus laxity. Tibial internal rotation and anterior subluxation occurs up to the point of ACL failure, after which the tibia rotates externally as it subluxes over the femoral condyles. High displacement was more determinative of ACL injury compared to high speed. Low-speed protocols induced ACL avulsion from the femoral footprint whereas high-speed protocols caused either midsubstance rupture, avulsion, or a combination injury of avulsion and midsubstance rupture. This repeatable, noninvasive ACL injury protocol can be utilized in studies assessing PTOA or ACL reconstruction in the rat. PMID:25777293

  17. Swimming behaviour and calcium incorporation into inner ear otoliths of fish after vestibular nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, E; Anken, R H; Rahmann, H

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations on neonate swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) revealed that otolithic calcium incorporation (visualized using the calcium tracer alizarin complexone) and thus otolith growth had ceased after nerve transection, supporting a hypothesis according to which the gravity-dependent otolith growth is regulated neuronally. Subsequent investigations on larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) yielded contrasting results, repeatedly depending on the particular batch of cichlids investigated. Like most neonate swordtails, Type I cichlids revealed a stop of calcium incorporation after unilateral vestibular nerve transection. Their behaviour after transection was normal, and the otolithic calcium incorporation in controls of the same batch was symmetric. In Type II cichlids, however, vestibular nerve transection had no effect on otolithic calcium incorporation. They behaved kinetotically after transection (this kind of kinetosis was qualitatively similar to the swimming behaviour exhibited by larval cichlids during microgravity in the course of parabolic aircraft flights). The otolithic calcium incorporation in control animals was asymmetric. These results show that the effects of vestibular nerve transection as well as the efficacy of the mechanism, which regulates otolith growth/otolithic calcium incorporation, are--depending on the particular batch of animals--genetically predispositioned. In conclusion, the regulation of otolithic calcium incorporation is guided neuronally, in part via the vestibular nerve and, in part, via a further pathway, which remains to be addressed in the course of future investigations. PMID:15803634

  18. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound accelerates nerve regeneration following inferior alveolar nerve transection in rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mai; Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Shinoda, Masamichi; Iwata, Koichi; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury, which is frequently caused by orofacial surgery or trauma, induces sensory loss in orofacial regions innervated by the IAN. However, no effective treatment for orofacial sensory loss currently exists. We determined whether sensory loss in facial skin above the mental foramen following IAN transection was recovered by exposure of the transected IAN to low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS). Inferior alveolar nerve transection (IANX) was performed in 7-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. On day 7 after IANX, the effect of daily LIPUS (from day 0) on the transected IAN, in terms of sensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the facial skin above the mental foramen, was examined. Moreover, the number of trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the facial skin above the mental foramen of rats with IANX treated daily with LIPUS was counted using the retrograde neurotracing technique. Daily exposure of the transected IAN to LIPUS significantly promoted recovery of the head-withdrawal threshold in response to mechanical stimulation of the facial skin above the mental foramen, and the number of TG neurons innervating the facial skin above mental foramen was significantly increased in rats with IANX treated daily with LIPUS compared with sham or LIPUS-unexposed rats. Daily treatment of stumps of the transected IAN with LIPUS facilitated morphological and functional regeneration, suggesting that LIPUS is an effective and novel therapy for IAN injury. PMID:27058986

  19. Swimming behaviour and calcium incorporation into inner ear otoliths of fish after vestibular nerve transection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, E.; Anken, R. H.; Rahmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations on neonate swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) revealed that otolithic calcium incorporation (visualized using the calcium tracer alizarin complexone) and thus otolith growth had ceased after nerve transection, supporting a hypothesis according to which the gravity-dependent otolith growth is regulated neuronally. Subsequent investigations on larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) yielded contrasting results, repeatedly depending on the particular batch of cichlids investigated. Like most neonate swordtails, Type I cichlids revealed a stop of calcium incorporation after unilateral vestibular nerve transection. Their behaviour after transection was normal, and the otolithic calcium incorporation in controls of the same batch was symmetric. In Type II cichlids, however, vestibular nerve transection had no effect on otolithic calcium incorporation. They behaved kinetotically after transection (this kind of kinetosis was qualitatively similar to the swimming behaviour exhibited by larval cichlids during microgravity in the course of parabolic aircraft flights). The otolithic calcium incorporation in control animals was asymmetric. These results show that the effects of vestibular nerve transection as well as the efficacy of the mechanism, which regulates otolith growth/otolithic calcium incorporation, are - depending on the particular batch of animals - genetically predispositioned. In conclusion, the regulation of otolithic calcium incorporation is guided neuronally, in part via the vestibular nerve and, in part, via a further pathway, which remains to be addressed in the course of future investigations.

  20. Swimming Behavior and Calcium Incorporation into inner Ear Otoliths of Fish after vestibular Nerve Transection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, E.; Anken, R.; Rahmann, H.

    Previous investigations on neonate swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) revealed that otolithic calcium incorporation (visualized using the calcium-tracer alizarin- complexone) and thus otolith growth had ceased after nerve transection, supporting a hypothesis according to which the gravity-dependent otolith growth is regulated neuronally. Subsequent investigations on larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) yielded contrasting results, repeatedly depending on the particular batch of cichlids investigated: Like neonate swordtails, type I cichlids revealed a stop of calcium incorporation after unilateral vestibular nerve transection. Their behaviour after transection was normal and the otolithic calcium incorporation in controls of the same batch was symmetrical. In type II cichlids, however, vestibular nerve transection had no effect on otolithic calcium incorporation. They behaved kinetotically after transection (this kind of kinetosis was qualitatively similar to the swimming behaviour exhibited by larval cichlids during microgravity in the course of parabolic aircraft flights). The otolithic calcium incorporation in control animals was asymmetrical. These results stongly suggest that the effects of vestibular nerve transection as well as the efficacy of the mechanism, which regulates otolith growth/otolithic calcium incorporation, are - depending on the particular batch of animals - genetically predispositioned. Thus, it is assumed that the mechanisms regulating otolith growth and equlibibrium differ in the two types of cichlid fish. This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) e.V. (FKZ: 50 WB 9997).

  1. Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Murawski, Christopher D.; Wolf, Megan R.; Araki, Daisuke; Muller, Bart; Tashman, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is common procedure performed by orthopedic surgeons, particularly in association with sports-related injuries. Whereas traditional reconstruction techniques used a single bundle graft that was typically placed in a non-anatomic position, a renewed interest in anatomy has facilitated the popularization of anatomic reconstruction techniques. Recently, a focus has been placed on individualizing ACL surgery based on each patient’s native anatomical characteristics (e.g., insertion site size, notch size, and shape), thereby dictating the ultimate procedure of choice. As subjective outcome measurements have demonstrated varying outcomes with respect to single- versus double-bundle ACL reconstruction, investigators have turned to more objective techniques, such as in vivo kinematics, as a means of evaluating joint motion and cartilage contact mechanics. Further investigation in this area may yield important information with regard to the potential progression to osteoarthritis after ACL reconstruction, including factors affecting or preventing it. PMID:26069663

  2. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  3. Hepatitis B in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tram T

    2016-06-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is estimated to affect >350 million people worldwide and represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality related to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV remains an important source of incident cases of HBV. Current barriers to eradication of incident HBV infections via MTCT include underutilization of immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccination and hepatitis B immune globulin in certain endemic regions as well as failure of immunoprophylaxis. PMID:27190321

  4. Inferior mesenteric vein serves as an alternative guide for transection of the pancreatic body during pancreaticoduodenectomy with concomitant vascular resection: a comparative study evaluating perioperative outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tumors of the pancreatic head often involve the superior mesenteric and portal veins. The purpose of this study was to assess perioperative outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) with concomitant vascular resection using the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) as a guide for transection of the pancreatic body (Whipple at IMV, WATIMV). Methods One hundred thirty-seven patients had segmental vein resection during PD between January 2006 and June 2013. Depending on whether the standard approach of creating a tunnel anterior to the mesenterico-portal vein (MPV) axis was achieved for pancreatic transection, patients were subjected to a standard PD with vein resection procedure (s-PD + VR, n = 75) or a modified procedure (m-PD + VR, n = 62). Within the m-PD + VR group, 28 patients underwent the WATIMV procedure, while 34 patients underwent the usual procedure of transection, or ‘central pancreatectomy’ (c-PD + VR). Results The volume of intraoperative blood loss and the blood transfusion requirements were significantly greater, and the venous wall invasion and neural invasion frequency were significantly higher in the m-PD + VR group compared with the s-PD + VR group. There were no significant differences in the length of hospitalization, postoperative morbidity, and grades of complications between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression identified intraoperative blood transfusion (P = 0.004) and vascular invasion (P = 0.008) as the predictors of postoperative morbidity. Further stratification of the entire cohort of 62 (45%) patients who underwent m-PD + VR showed a higher rate of negative resection margins (96.4%) in the WATIMV group compared with the c-PD + VR group (76.5%) (P = 0.06). The volume of intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.013), and intraoperative blood transfusion requirements (P = 0.07) were significantly greater in the c-PD + VR group compared with the WATIMV group

  5. Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    HEPATITIS C Information on Testing & Diagnosis What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent ...

  6. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: a sporadic case

    PubMed Central

    Bostan, Sezen; Yaşar, Şirin; Serdar, Zehra Aşiran; Gizlenti, Sevda

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis is a very rare form of primary localized hypertrichosis. It consists of a tuft of terminal hair on the anterior neck just above the laryngeal prominence. The etiology is still unknown. In this article, we reported a 15-year-old female patient who presented to our clinic with a complaint of hypertrichosis on the anterior aspect of the neck for the last five years. Her past medical history revealed no pathology except for vesicoureteral reflux. On the basis of clinical presentation, our patient was diagnosed with anterior cervical hypertrichosis and she was considered to be a sporadic case due to lack of other similar cases in familial history. To date, 33 patients with anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis can be associated with other abnormalities, but it frequently presents as an isolated defect (70%). The association of vesicoureteral reflux and anterior cervical hypertrichosis which was observed in our patient might be coincidental. So far, no case of anterior cervical hypertrichosis associated with vesicoureteral reflux has been reported in the literature. PMID:27103865

  7. Giant Cavernous Haemangioma of the Anterior Mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Seyda Ors; Samancılar, Ozgur; Usluer, Ozan; Acar, Tuba; Yener, Ali Galip

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas of the anterior mediastinum is rare. We present a case of a 56-year-old male patient with a giant cavernous hemangioma of the anterior mediastinum, 18 cm in diameters, approached by left posterolateral thoracotomy. To the best of our knowledge, such a unique case has not been previously presented in the literature. PMID:26644773

  8. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: a sporadic case.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Sezen; Yaşar, Şirin; Serdar, Zehra Aşiran; Gizlenti, Sevda

    2016-03-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis is a very rare form of primary localized hypertrichosis. It consists of a tuft of terminal hair on the anterior neck just above the laryngeal prominence. The etiology is still unknown. In this article, we reported a 15-year-old female patient who presented to our clinic with a complaint of hypertrichosis on the anterior aspect of the neck for the last five years. Her past medical history revealed no pathology except for vesicoureteral reflux. On the basis of clinical presentation, our patient was diagnosed with anterior cervical hypertrichosis and she was considered to be a sporadic case due to lack of other similar cases in familial history. To date, 33 patients with anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis can be associated with other abnormalities, but it frequently presents as an isolated defect (70%). The association of vesicoureteral reflux and anterior cervical hypertrichosis which was observed in our patient might be coincidental. So far, no case of anterior cervical hypertrichosis associated with vesicoureteral reflux has been reported in the literature. PMID:27103865

  9. Determining Optimal Location and Numbers of Sample Transects for Characterization of UXO Sites

    SciTech Connect

    BILISOLY, ROGER L.; MCKENNA, SEAN A.

    2003-01-01

    Previous work on sample design has been focused on constructing designs for samples taken at point locations. Significantly less work has been done on sample design for data collected along transects. A review of approaches to point and transect sampling design shows that transects can be considered as a sequential set of point samples. Any two sampling designs can be compared through using each one to predict the value of the quantity being measured on a fixed reference grid. The quality of a design is quantified in two ways: computing either the sum or the product of the eigenvalues of the variance matrix of the prediction error. An important aspect of this analysis is that the reduction of the mean prediction error variance (MPEV) can be calculated for any proposed sample design, including one with straight and/or meandering transects, prior to taking those samples. This reduction in variance can be used as a ''stopping rule'' to determine when enough transect sampling has been completed on the site. Two approaches for the optimization of the transect locations are presented. The first minimizes the sum of the eigenvalues of the predictive error, and the second minimizes the product of these eigenvalues. Simulated annealing is used to identify transect locations that meet either of these objectives. This algorithm is applied to a hypothetical site to determine the optimal locations of two iterations of meandering transects given a previously existing straight transect. The MPEV calculation is also used on both a hypothetical site and on data collected at the Isleta Pueblo to evaluate its potential as a stopping rule. Results show that three or four rounds of systematic sampling with straight parallel transects covering 30 percent or less of the site, can reduce the initial MPEV by as much as 90 percent. The amount of reduction in MPEV can be used as a stopping rule, but the relationship between MPEV and the results of excavation versus no

  10. [Treatment for hepatic osteodystrophy].

    PubMed

    Kaji, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Chronic liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis, are caused by various pathogenesis, such as viral hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune hepatitis and steatohepatitis. There have not been enough clinical evidence about the treatment of hepatic osteodystrophy at the present time. Several reports suggested that bisphosphonates, such as alendronate, are effective for an increase in bone mineral density in patients with chronic liver disease. Vitamin D treatment might be useful for the frequent prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the pathogenesis of hepatic oseodystrophy. The use of estrogens will be limited for the risk of liver dysfunction and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26503875

  11. Anterior capsulotomy using the CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barak, Adiel; Ma-Naim, Tova; Rosner, Mordechai; Eyal, Ophir; Belkin, Michael

    1998-06-01

    Continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) is the preferred technique for removal of the anterior capsule during cataract surgery due to this technique assuring accurate centration of the intraocular lens. During modern cataract surgery, especially with small or foldable intra ocular lenses, centration of the lens is obligatory. Radial tears at the margin of an anterior capsulotomy may be associated with the exit of at least one loop of an intraocular lens out of the capsular bag ('pea pod' effect) and its subsequent decentration. The anterior capsule is more likely to ream intact if the continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) technique is used. Although manual capsulorhexis is an ideal anterior capsulectomy technique for adults, many ophthalmologists are still uncomfortable with it and find it difficult to perform, especially in complicated cases such as these done behind small pupil, cataract extraction in children and pseudoexfoliation syndrome. We have developed a technique using a CO2 laser system for safe anterior capsulotomy and tested it in animal eyes.

  12. Atraumatic Anterior Dislocation of the Hip Joint

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuru, Tadahiko; Morita, Yasuyuki; Murata, Yasuaki; Itou, Junya; Morita, Yuji; Munakata, Yutaro; Kato, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Dislocation of the hip joint in adults is usually caused by high-energy trauma such as road traffic accidents or falls from heights. Posterior dislocation is observed in most cases. However, atraumatic anterior dislocation of the hip joint is extremely rare. We present a case of atraumatic anterior dislocation of the hip joint that was induced by an activity of daily living. The possible causes of this dislocation were anterior capsule insufficiency due to developmental dysplasia of the hip, posterior pelvic tilt following thoracolumbar kyphosis due to vertebral fracture, and acetabular anterior coverage changes by postural factor. Acetabular anterior coverage changes in the sagittal plane were measured using a tomosynthesis imaging system. This system was useful for elucidation of the dislocation mechanism in the present case. PMID:26819791

  13. Anterior Shoulder Instability with Concomitant Superior Labrum from Anterior to Posterior (SLAP) Lesion Compared to Anterior Instability without SLAP Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Durban, Claire Marie C.; Kim, Je Kyun; Kim, Sae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with combined anterior instability and superior labrum from anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions, and to analyze the effect of concomitant SLAP repair on surgical outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent arthroscopic stabilization for anterior shoulder instability between January 2004 and March 2013. A total of 120 patients were available for at least 1-year follow-up. Forty-four patients with reparable concomitant detached SLAP lesions (group I) underwent combined SLAP and anterior stabilization, and 76 patients without SLAP lesions (group II) underwent anterior stabilization alone. Patient characteristics, preoperative and postoperative pain scores, Rowe scores, and shoulder ranges of motion were compared between the 2 groups. Results Patients in group I had higher incidences of high-energy trauma (p = 0.03), worse preoperative pain visual analogue scale (VAS) (p = 0.02), and Rowe scores (p = 0.04). The postoperative pain VAS and Rowe scores improved equally in both groups without significant differences. Limitation in postoperative range of motion was similar between the groups (all p-value > 0.05). Conclusions Anterior instability with SLAP lesion may not be related to frequent episodes of dislocation but rather to a high-energy trauma. SLAP fixation with anterior stabilization procedures did not lead to poor functional outcomes if appropriate surgical techniques were followed. PMID:27247742

  14. Trends in flood peaks' magnitude and seasonality in European transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantini, Elena; Mallucci, Stefano; Allamano, Paola; Claps, Pierluigi; Laio, Francesco; Viglione, Alberto; Hall, Julia; Blöschl, Günter

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade floods seems to have lashed more and more European population, so that more accurate studies concerning flood events tendencies are needed. We present a work in which trends in flood peaks' magnitude and seasonality (in time and space) are analyzed at the European scale: in total 2055 and 4340 stations respectively for magnitude and seasonality are considered along transect lines including entire nations, ranging typically from north to south of Europe. The work is part of the ERC Project "Deciphering River Flood Change". Trend analysis of flood magnitudes is applied to time series longer than 40 years. We find that there is a cluster of stations with negative trends in flood magnitude around the alpine and perialpine area. Positive trends are more frequent in the valleys of the mid Europe. We also use quantile regressions to investigate the behaviour of the highest quantiles, corresponding to floods with the highest return period. The original database is further divided into four classes based on station elevation; the group of catchments between 500 and 1000 m a.s.l. has the most positive trends for the large quantiles. The analysis is further developed by considering the coefficient of variation in 10-years time windows covering the data; the possible presence of trends in the CV is investigated. The obtained results show that there is a global prevalence of positive trend in the CVs, in particular for stations between 500 and 1000 m a.s.l., demonstrating a tendency toward the increase of very large (and possibly very small) annual maxima. To better discriminate the above results we used quantile regressions, able to highlight the trend behaviour of the highest quantiles computed on flood time series, Moreover, the database is divided into four classes based on station elevation. Results show that the group of catchments between 500 and 1000 m a.s.l. has definite and positive trends for the large quantiles. A different branch of this study

  15. Dissolved Ti in the US GEOTRACES Atlantic Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, R. W.; Moran, S.; Kelly, R. P.; Kelley, K. A.; Graham, D.

    2012-12-01

    data for dissolved Ti in the open Atlantic. Croot's values and our values both agree well with Orians' original analyses, which not only confirms our respective analytical approaches but also suggests that the GEOTRACES rosette system, small parts of which contain Ti, does not contaminate seawater samples for Ti. We also present data from the 2011 GEOTRACES station taken at BATS in the western Atlantic and at Station 11 from the 2010 GEOTRACES transect in the eastern Atlantic. Our profile to 2000 m (= 213 pM) is similar to that of Orians et al. (1990) to the same depth, but extends deeper to 3597 m. Unlike the deep Pacific profile of Orians et al. (1990) from Station PAPA, which extends to 3860 m and reaches a maximum of 263 pM at that depth, our BATS profile is essentially invariant with depth below 2000 m. We observe a similar deepwater distribution at Station 11, which shows an increase from 60 pM near the surface to a maximum of 180 pM at 700 m, followed perhaps by a slight decrease to 130 pM at 3300 m depth.

  16. A transect of Tertiary central volcanoes across northwest Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, B. T.; Duncan, R. A.; Carley, T. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Skagi-Snaefellsnes rift zone (SSRZ) was the focus of rifting in Iceland from ~15-7 Ma. We report on a transect of central volcanoes and isolated exposures of silicic rocks erupted from the SSRZ in northwest Iceland. The youngest system investigated is an epizonal intrusive series, gabbro to granite, at the northern end of Vididalsfjall, near the axis of the SSRZ. The granite yields an Ar/Ar plateau age of 7.03 × 0.07 Ma (all dates ×2σ), and SHRIMP 206Pb/238U zircon analysis gives an age of 6.79 × 0.35 Ma (n=15). This represents the final silicic activity in the northern SSRZ prior to abandonment at this latitude. Just east of the SSRZ is a central volcano exposed in Vatnsdalsfjall, Langadalsfjall, and Laxardalsfjoll, informally termed the southern Skagi central volcano. Ar/Ar ages for intermediate to silicic rocks in this system include a 7.62 × 0.32 Ma dacite, 7.80 × 0.07 Ma andesite, and a 7.82 × 0.04 Ma rhyolite. The rhyolite was also dated by SHRIMP zircon analysis yielding an age of 7.62 × 0.29 Ma (n=19). The Arnes central volcano is exposed on the northeastern tip of the West Fjords peninsula, east of the SSRZ. Based on correlation with nearby dated paleomagnetic surveys the age is ~12 Ma. The Hrafnfjordur central volcano further west in the West Fjords may be the oldest central volcano exposed on land in Iceland. A SHRIMP zircon age for the main dacite lava is 14.16 × 0.40 Ma (n=14). The three central volcanoes feature nearly continuous compositional spectra from basalt to a high-silica dacite or rhyolite. Extensive rhyolites occur in southern Skagi and Arnes, but with 2/3 of the system mapped, there are no true rhyolites at Hrafnfjordur; the most extensive silicic unit is a dacite lava (65-70 wt.% SiO2). Variation in Zr vs. SiO2 seems to implicate a cryptic high-silica low-Zr rhyolite magma as an end-member of mixing for some andesites at Hrafnfjordur, but Zr/Ti disproves this. The origin of most of the silicic magmas is likely by crustal

  17. The contribution of each anterior cruciate ligament bundle to the Lachman test: a cadaver investigation.

    PubMed

    Christel, P S; Akgun, U; Yasar, T; Karahan, M; Demirel, B

    2012-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of a partial tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is still subject to debate. Little is known about the contribution of each ACL bundle during the Lachman test. We investigated this using six fresh-frozen cadaveric lower limbs. Screws were placed in the femora and tibiae as fixed landmarks for digitisation of the bone positions. The femur was secured horizontally in a clamp. A metal hook was screwed to the tibial tubercle and used to apply a load of 150 N directed anteroposteriorly to the tibia to simulate the Lachman test. The knees then received constant axial compression and 3D knee kinematic data were collected by digitising the screw head positions in 30° flexion under each test condition. Measurements of tibial translation and rotation were made, first with the ACL intact, then after sequential cutting of the ACL bundles, and finally after complete division of the ACL. Two-way analysis of variance analysis was performed. During the Lachman test, in all knees and in all test conditions, lateral tibial translation exceeded that on the medial side. With an intact ACL, both anterior and lateral tibial landmarks translated significantly more than those on the medial side (p < 0.001). With sequential division of the ACL bundles, selective cutting of the posterolateral bundle (PLB) did not increase translation of any landmark compared with when the ACL remained intact. Cutting the anteromedial bundle (AMB) resulted in an increased anterior translation of all landmarks. Compared to the intact ACL, when the ACL was fully transected a significant increase in anterior translation of all landmarks occurred (p < 0.001). However, anterior tibial translation was almost identical after AMB or complete ACL division. We found that the AMB confers its most significant contribution to tibial translation during the Lachman test, whereas the PLB has a negligible effect on anterior translation. Section of the PLB had a greater effect on increasing

  18. Erythropoietic and hepatic porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Gross, U; Hoffmann, G F; Doss, M O

    2000-11-01

    Porphyrias are divided into erythropoietic and hepatic manifestations. Erythropoietic porphyrias are characterized by cutaneous symptoms and appear in early childhood. Erythropoietic protoporphyria is complicated by cholestatic liver cirrhosis and progressive hepatic failure in 10%, of patients. Acute hepatic porphyrias (delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency porphyria, acute intermittent porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria and variegate porphyria) are characterized by variable extrahepatic gastrointestinal, neurological-psychiatric and cardiovascular manifestations requiring early diagnosis to avoid life-threatening complications. Acute hepatic porphyrias are pharmacogenetic and molecular regulatory diseases (without porphyrin accumulation) mainly induced by drugs, sex hormones, fasting or alcohol. The disease process depends on the derepression of hepatic delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthase following haem depletion. In contrast to the acute porphyrias, nonacute, chronic hepatic porphyrias such as porphyria cutanea tarda are porphyrin accumulation disorders leading to cutaneous symptoms associated with liver disease, especially caused by alcohol or viral hepatitis. Alcohol, oestrogens, haemodialysis, hepatitis C and AIDS are triggering factors. Porphyria cutanea tarda is the most common porphyria, followed by acute intermittent porphyria and erythropoietic protoporphyria. The molecular genetics of the porphyrias is very heterogenous. Nearly every family has its own mutation. The mutations identified account for the corresponding enzymatic deficiencies, which may remain clinically silent throughout life. Thus, the recognition of the overt disorder with extrahepatic manifestations depends on the demonstration of biochemical abnormalities due to these primary defects and compensatory hepatic overexpression of hepatic delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthase in the acute porphyrias. Consequently, haem precursors are synthesized in excess. The increased

  19. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rick W.; Haas, Amanda K.; Anderson, Joy; Calabrese, Gary; Cavanaugh, John; Hewett, Timothy E.; Lorring, Dawn; McKenzie, Christopher; Preston, Emily; Williams, Glenn; Amendola, Annunziato

    2015-01-01

    Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction rehabilitation has evolved over the past 20 years. This evolution has been driven by a variety of level 1 and level 2 studies. Evidence Acquisition: The MOON Group is a collection of orthopaedic surgeons who have developed a prospective longitudinal cohort of the ACL reconstruction patients. To standardize the management of these patients, we developed, in conjunction with our physical therapy committee, an evidence-based rehabilitation guideline. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Results: This review was based on 2 systematic reviews of level 1 and level 2 studies. Recently, the guideline was updated by a new review. Continuous passive motion did not improve ultimate motion. Early weightbearing decreases patellofemoral pain. Postoperative rehabilitative bracing did not improve swelling, pain range of motion, or safety. Open chain quadriceps activity can begin at 6 weeks. Conclusion: High-level evidence exists to determine appropriate ACL rehabilitation guidelines. Utilizing this protocol follows the best available evidence. PMID:26131301

  20. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... people at risk for contracting hepatitis. But frequent hand washing and good hygiene practices can reduce this risk. All kids in ... to prevent viral hepatitis you should: Follow good hygiene and avoid crowded, ... their hands thoroughly after using the toilet and before eating. ...

  1. Hepatitis and activity

    PubMed Central

    Krikler, Dennis M.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of physical activity during an attack of infectious hepatitis are discussed. There is no evidence that activity during convalescence produces any ill-effects. On the other hand, strenuous physical activity in the acute stage may be dangerous, possibly because hepatic blood-flow is reduced. PMID:5560143

  2. Environment, vegetation and greenness (NDVI) along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D. A.; Epstein, H. E.; Raynolds, M. K.; Kuss, P.; Kopecky, M. A.; Frost, G. V.; Daniëls, F. J. A.; Leibman, M. O.; Moskalenko, N. G.; Matyshak, G. V.; Khitun, O. V.; Khomutov, A. V.; Forbes, B. C.; Bhatt, U. S.; Kade, A. N.; Vonlanthen, C. M.; Tichý, L.

    2012-03-01

    Satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; an index of vegetation greenness and photosynthetic capacity) indicate that tundra environments are generally greening and becoming more productive as climates warm in the Arctic. The greening, however, varies and is even negative in some parts of the Arctic. To help interpret the space-based observations, the International Polar Year (IPY) Greening of the Arctic project conducted ground-based surveys along two >1500 km transects that span all five Arctic bioclimate subzones. Here we summarize the climate, soil, vegetation, biomass, and spectral information collected from the North America Arctic transect (NAAT), which has a more continental climate, and the Eurasia Arctic transect (EAT), which has a more oceanic climate. The transects have broadly similar summer temperature regimes and overall vegetation physiognomy, but strong differences in precipitation, especially winter precipitation, soil texture and pH, disturbance regimes, and plant species composition and structure. The results indicate that summer warmth and NDVI increased more strongly along the more continental transect.

  3. The longitudinal epineural incision and complete nerve transection method for modeling sciatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xing-long; Wang, Pei; Sun, Bo; Liu, Shi-bo; Gao, Yun-feng; He, Xin-ze; Yu, Chang-yu

    2015-01-01

    Injury severity, operative technique and nerve regeneration are important factors to consider when constructing a model of peripheral nerve injury. Here, we present a novel peripheral nerve injury model and compare it with the complete sciatic nerve transection method. In the experimental group, under a microscope, a 3-mm longitudinal incision was made in the epineurium of the sciatic nerve to reveal the nerve fibers, which were then transected. The small, longitudinal incision in the epineurium was then sutured closed, requiring no stump anastomosis. In the control group, the sciatic nerve was completely transected, and the epineurium was repaired by anastomosis. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, Wallerian degeneration was observed in both groups. In the experimental group, at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, distinct medullary nerve fibers and axons were observed in the injured sciatic nerve. Regular, dense myelin sheaths were visible, as well as some scarring. By 12 weeks, the myelin sheaths were normal and intact, and a tight lamellar structure was observed. Functionally, limb movement and nerve conduction recovered in the injured region between 4 and 12 weeks. The present results demonstrate that longitudinal epineural incision with nerve transection can stably replicate a model of Sunderland grade IV peripheral nerve injury. Compared with the complete sciatic nerve transection model, our method reduced the difficulties of micromanipulation and surgery time, and resulted in good stump restoration, nerve regeneration, and functional recovery. PMID:26692866

  4. Full spinal cord regeneration after total transection is not possible due to entropy change.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, P; Sokal, P

    2016-09-01

    Transected spinal cord regeneration is a main challenge of regenerative medicine. The mainstream of research is focused on the promotion of spinal axons growth, which is strongly inhibited in mammals. Assuming that the inhibition of the axonal growth may be ever overcome, the complexity of neural reconnections may be the second serious stand to overcome. Peripheral nerve axons regeneration seem to form a random pattern of their targets reconnections. The hypothesis is that due to the laws of entropy or irreversible information loss the full spinal cord restoration after the transection is not possible. The hypothesis is discussed based on several assumptions. Simplifying the dissertation spinal cord is represented by 2millions of pyramidal axons. After the transection each of these axons has to make a growth and reconnect with exactly matching targets below the transection, in the same number. Axons are guided by neurotrophic factors and afterwards reconnected with neuroplasticity mechanisms. Assuming random reconnections, there are 2,000,000! permutations [Formula: see text] , therefore the chance of ideally random but correct reconnection of pyramidal axons with adequate targets is 1/2,000,000!. Apart from pyramidal axons, there are other axons, like extrapyramidal, sensory and associative. Empirical data and analysis of neurotrophic factors and organogenesis mechanisms may seem to slightly contradict the hypothesis, but strictly adhering to the second law of thermodynamics and entropy laws the full restoration of the transected cord may never be possible. PMID:27515203

  5. A Brain-Machine-Muscle Interface for Restoring Hindlimb Locomotion after Complete Spinal Transection in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Monzurul; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zicong; Li, Yan; He, Jufang

    2014-01-01

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) is a neuroprosthetic device that can restore motor function of individuals with paralysis. Although the feasibility of BMI control of upper-limb neuroprostheses has been demonstrated, a BMI for the restoration of lower-limb motor functions has not yet been developed. The objective of this study was to determine if gait-related information can be captured from neural activity recorded from the primary motor cortex of rats, and if this neural information can be used to stimulate paralysed hindlimb muscles after complete spinal cord transection. Neural activity was recorded from the hindlimb area of the primary motor cortex of six female Sprague Dawley rats during treadmill locomotion before and after mid-thoracic transection. Before spinal transection there was a strong association between neural activity and the step cycle. This association decreased after spinal transection. However, the locomotive state (standing vs. walking) could still be successfully decoded from neural recordings made after spinal transection. A novel BMI device was developed that processed this neural information in real-time and used it to control electrical stimulation of paralysed hindlimb muscles. This system was able to elicit hindlimb muscle contractions that mimicked forelimb stepping. We propose this lower-limb BMI as a future neuroprosthesis for human paraplegics. PMID:25084446

  6. Sealing frequency of B104 cells declines exponentially with decreasing transection distance from the axon hillock.

    PubMed

    McGill, Christopher H; Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, Solomon Raju; Poon, Andrew D; Mikesh, Michelle; Bittner, George D

    2016-05-01

    Transection of nerve axons (axotomy) leads to rapid (Wallerian) degeneration of the distal portion of the severed axon whereas the proximal portion and the soma often survive. Clinicians and neuroscientists have known for decades that somal survival is less likely for cells transected nearer to the soma, compared to further from the soma. Calcium ion (Ca(2+)) influx at the cut axonal end increases somal Ca(2+) concentration, which subsequently activates apoptosis and other pathways that lead to cell death. The same Ca(2+) influx activates parallel pathways that seal the plasmalemma, reduce Ca(2+) influx, and thereby enable the soma to survive. In this study, we have examined the ability of transected B104 axons to seal, as measured by uptake or exclusion of fluorescent dye, and quantified the relationship between sealing frequency and transection distance from the axon hillock. We report that sealing frequency is maximal at about 150μm (μm) from the axon hillock and decreases exponentially with decreasing transection distance with a space constant of about 40μm. We also report that after Ca(2+) influx is initiated, the curve of sealing frequency versus time is well-fit by a one-phase, rising exponential model having a time constant of several milliseconds that is longer nearer to, versus further from, the axon hillock. These results could account for the increased frequency of cell death for axotomies nearer to, versus farther from, the soma of many types of neurons. PMID:26851541

  7. [Update chronic viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Ziegenhagen, D J

    2016-03-01

    More than 500,000 people in Germany have chronic viral hepatitis. The interferon-based treatments formerly used in hepatitis B have been widely replaced by life-long oral medication with nucleoside or nucleotide analogues. Treatment for chronic hepatitis C has been improved substantially by the development of new and very expensive drug combinations. Up to 90% of patients can now be cured with certainty, and one to two years after successful treatment there is no relevant risk of recurrence. These individuals expect to receive insurance cover under appropriate conditions. Vaccination programmes are very efficient at decreasing the incidence of hepatitis B, but no vaccine against hepatitis C is likely to become available in the next decade. PMID:27111951

  8. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  9. Hepatitis E in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Lhomme, Sebastien; Izopet, Jacques; Kamar, Nassim

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has a worldwide distribution and is known to cause acute and fulminant hepatitis. However, over the last few years, it has been shown to also cause chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in immunosuppressed patients, especially solid-organ-transplant patients. In immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients, HEV is also associated with extra-hepatic manifestations, such as neurological symptoms and kidney injury. Unfortunately, a diagnostic assay for HEV infection is still not available in all countries. Reduction of immunosuppression is the first-line therapeutic option for organ-transplant patients with chronic hepatitis. In addition, ribavirin is highly efficient at treating chronic HEV infection. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding HEV diagnosis, its natural history, clinical manifestations, and treatments in patients with a solid-organ transplant. PMID:26838163

  10. Mini-open anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Gandhoke, Gurpreet S; Ricks, Christian; Tempel, Zachary; Zuckerbraun, Brian; Hamilton, D Kojo; Okonkwo, David O; Kanter, Adam S

    2016-07-01

    In deformity surgery, anterior lumbar interbody fusion provides excellent biomechanical support, creates a broad surface area for arthrodesis, and induces lordosis in the lower lumbar spine. Preoperative MRI, plain radiographs, and, when available, CT scan should be carefully assessed for sacral slope as it relates to pubic symphysis, position of the great vessels (especially at L4/5), disc space height, or contraindication to an anterior approach. This video demonstrates the steps in an anterior surgical procedure with minimal open exposure. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/r3bC4_vu1hQ . PMID:27364424

  11. How I do it: Anterior pull-through tympanoplasty for anterior eardrum perforations.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jeffrey P; Wong, Yu-Tung; Yang, Tzong-Hann; Miller, Mia

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions This technique is offered as a convenient and reliable method for cases with anterior TM perforation and inadequate anterior remnant. Objectives Chronic otitis media surgery is one of the most common procedures in otology. Anterior tympanic membrane (TM) perforation with inadequate anterior remnant is associated with higher rates of graft failure. It was the goal of this series to evaluate the anatomical and functional outcomes of a modified underlay myringoplasty technique-the anterior pull-through method. Materials and methods In a retrospective clinical study, 13 patients with anterior TM perforations with inadequate anterior remnants underwent tympanoplasty with anterior pull-through technique. The anterior tip of the temporalis fascia was pulled through and secured in a short incision lateral to the anterior part of the annulus. Data on graft take rate, pre-operative, and post-operative hearing status were analyzed. Results A graft success rate of 84.6% (11 out of 13) was achieved, without lateralization, blunting, atelectasia, or epithelial pearls. The air-bone gap was 21.5 ± 6.8 dB before intervention and 11.75 ± 5.7 dB after surgery (p = 0.003). PMID:26988908

  12. Evolution of anterior segment reconstruction after live donor adult liver transplantation: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Pomposelli, James J; Akoad, Mohamed; Khwaja, Khalid; Lewis, W D; Cheah, Yee L; Verbesey, Jennifer; Jenkins, Roger L; Pomfret, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the best method for venous outflow reconstruction after live donor liver transplantation using right lobe grafts. Some authors advocate routine inclusion of the middle hepatic vein with the graft, whereas others favor a more selective approach. In this report, we examine the evolution of our decision making and technique of selective anterior venous segment reconstruction during live donor adult liver transplantation performed in 226 recipients. We have developed a simplified back-bench procedure using sequential-composite anastomosis using various vascular conduits with syndactylization to the right hepatic vein creating a single large-outflow anastomosis in the recipient. Conduits used include iliac artery or vein allograft, recanalized umbilical vein, cryopreserved iliac artery allograft, and 6-mm synthetic expanded polytetrafluoroethylene vascular graft. This technique can be performed quickly, safely, and under cold storage conditions and results in excellent outcome while minimizing donor risk. PMID:21980936

  13. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Jeffrey; Bedi, Asheesh; Altchek, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common surgical procedures, with more than 200,000 ACL tears occurring annually. Although primary ACL reconstruction is a successful operation, success rates still range from 75% to 97%. Consequently, several thousand revision ACL reconstructions are performed annually and are unfortunately associated with inferior clinical outcomes when compared with primary reconstructions. Evidence Acquisition: Data were obtained from peer-reviewed literature through a search of the PubMed database (1988-2013) as well as from textbook chapters and surgical technique papers. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: The clinical outcomes after revision ACL reconstruction are largely based on level IV case series. Much of the existing literature is heterogenous with regard to patient populations, primary and revision surgical techniques, concomitant ligamentous injuries, and additional procedures performed at the time of the revision, which limits generalizability. Nevertheless, there is a general consensus that the outcomes for revision ACL reconstruction are inferior to primary reconstruction. Conclusion: Excellent results can be achieved with regard to graft stability, return to play, and functional knee instability but are generally inferior to primary ACL reconstruction. A staged approach with autograft reconstruction is recommended in any circumstance in which a single-stage approach results in suboptimal graft selection, tunnel position, graft fixation, or biological milieu for tendon-bone healing. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): Good results may still be achieved with regard to graft stability, return to play, and functional knee instability, but results are generally inferior to primary ACL reconstruction: Level B. PMID:25364483

  14. Differences in distribution of modified basins and ducks relative to roadside transects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Sklebar, H.T.; Buhl, T.K.

    2003-01-01

    Wetland basins in the Prairie Pothole Region of the U.S. are commonly modified by excavation (e.g., roadside ditches, stock dugouts), partial drainage, and diking. The authors used data collected on thirty-eight 40-km2 plots in North Dakota to examine the distribution of modified basins relative to roadside transects and their use by five species of dabbling ducks in 1995. Semipermanent basins had greater use by mallards and northern pintails when they were partially drained than when they were excavated or unmodified; pintails also had greater use of partially drained seasonal basins. Duck numbers determined from standard 400-m-wide roadside transects do not appear to be biased relative to the larger landscape; however, pond counts derived from such transects were biased. Correlations of duck numbers to pond counts that exclude ditches or temporary basins would poorly reflect the response of ducks to available water.

  15. Hepatitis C virus. A review.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, E.

    1991-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus has been shown to be responsible for most cases of posttransfusion hepatitis, as well as for sporadic non-A, non-B viral hepatitis. Hepatitis C virus has also been implicated in the development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma, autoimmune hepatitis, and fulminant viral hepatitis. Although the role of the parenteral transmission of hepatitis C virus is well established, its route of transmission in cases of sporadic infection remains unclear. Sexual transmission is suspected but not confirmed. Recent work regarding treatment has shown interferon alfa to be effective, but the discontinuation of therapy is associated with a 50% relapse rate. PMID:1656611

  16. DOM along the Continuum from River to Reservoir: a Comparison of Freshwater and Saline Transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minor, E. C.; Stephens, B.

    2009-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays key roles in aquatic ecosystems: as an organic carbon (energy) link between terrestrial and aquatic systems, a food source for biota, a reactant in photochemical reactions, and a sunscreen/competitor for light for aquatic organisms. The composition as well as the concentration of aquatic DOM is believed to determine DOM's efficacy in these roles. The transport and alteration of DOM in river/estuarine systems are significant processes in determining the concentration and composition of DOM in the receiving lake or ocean system (especially in productive and economically important coastal regions). Therefore this study provides a preliminary comparison of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, DOM optical properties, and chemical composition of high molecular weight DOM (HMW DOM) on two river-to-receiving-basin transects, one freshwater (St. Louis River/Lake Superior, Minnesota, USA) and the other with a salinity gradient (Elizabeth River/lower Chesapeake Bay/coastal Atlantic, Virginia, USA). Both transects share optical property ranges and general downstream trends toward lower DOC concentrations, less aromaticity, and lower molecular weight DOM, however, there is a stronger downstream decrease in DOC concentration in the saline transect. In HMW DOM, there is more retention of carboxylic signals downstream in the freshwater transect, relative to a downstream shift toward more proteinaceous material in the saline transect. These observed DOM differences most likely result from variations in biological activity, photochemistry, and ionic strength in the two transects. Ionic strength effects include in situ processes (e.g. flocculation) and interactions affecting DOM isolation and analysis.

  17. Hip replacement by a minimal anterior approach.

    PubMed

    Paillard, P

    2007-08-01

    The mini-incision anterior approach in total hip replacement is not new, but uses a shorter incision than the traditional Hueter approach, typically only 6-8 cm in length. Despite its size, the single anterior incision allows good exposure. It is very atraumatic, preserves muscles and tendons, and allows the patient early mobilisation and fast postoperative recovery. Although, a special table (e.g., a Judet table) and specific tools (e.g., a curved reamer) are needed to perform hip replacement via the mini-anterior approach, any kind of hip prosthesis (cemented or uncemented) can be implanted. As there is a significant learning curve in mastering the mini-incision anterior approach, surgeons are advised to start with a longer incision and then to decrease its length with increasing experience. PMID:17657491

  18. Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Plating

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Plating Broward Health Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 17, 2011 I'm Dr. Matthew Moore, head of the Spine Care Center here at North Broward Medical Center. And ...

  19. Secondary anterior crocodile shagreen of Vogt.

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, R C; Bron, A J

    1975-01-01

    The clincopathological features and pathogenesis of secondary mosaic degeneration of the cornea (anterior crocodile shagreen of Vogt) are described. The structural basis for the normal anterior corneal mosaic pattern seems to lie in the particular arrangement of many prominent collagen lamellae of the anterior stroma that thake an oblique course to gain insertion into Bowman's layer. Since, at normal intraocular pressure, Bowman's layer is under tension, when viewed from the anterior surface the cornea appears smooth. By releasing the tension, however, a reproducible polygonal ridge pattern becomes manifest. It is suggested that a prolonged phthisical state of the eye is one condition wherein the mosaic pattern may become permanent and that, as a secondary event, this is followed by irregular calcification of Bowman's layer which particularly involves the ridges projecting into the epithelium. Biomicroscopically these ridges corresponded to the branching reticular arrangement of the mosaic opacities. Images PMID:1079137

  20. Hyperspectral data analysis for estimation of foliar biochemical content along the Oregon transect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee F.; Peterson, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project completed a data acquisition phase. Data were acquired with several airborne imaging spectrometers. Included were the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) aboard the ER-2, the Advanced Solidstate Array Spectrometer (ASAS) aboard the C-130, and the Fluorescence Line Imager (FLI) and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI), both aboard light aircraft. In addition, Spectron visible and near-infrared data were acquired in transects across study areas from a low-altitude ultralight craft. Sunphotometer data were taken approximately coincident with each overflight for atmospheric correction of the aircraft data.

  1. Modelling agricultural suitability along soil transects under current conditions and improved scenario of soil factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Elmabod, Sameh K.; Jordán, Antonio; Fleskens, Luuk; van der Ploeg, Martine; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Anaya-Romero, María; van der Salm, Renée J.; De la Rosa, Diego

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural land suitability analysis and improvement of soils by addressing major limitations may be a strategy for climate change adaptation. This study aims to investigate the influence of topography and variability of soil factors on the suitability of 12 annual, semiannual and perennial Mediterranean crops in the province of Seville (southern Spain). In order to represent the variability in elevation, lithology and soil, two latitudinal and longitudinal (S-N and W-E) soil transects (TA and TB) were considered including 63 representative points at regular 4 km intervals. These points were represented by 41 soil profiles from the SDBm soil database -Seville. Almagra model, a component of the agro-ecological decision support system MicroLEIS, was used to assess soil suitability. Results were grouped into five soil suitability classes: S1-optimum, S2-high, S3-moderate, S4-marginal and S5-not suitable. Each class was divided in subclasses according to the main soil limiting factors: depth (p), texture (t), drainage (d), carbonate content (c), salinity (s), sodium saturation (a), and the degree of development of the soil profile (g). This research also aimed to maximize soil potential by improving limiting factors d, c, s and a after soil restoration. Therefore, management techniques were also considered as possible scenarios in this study. The results of the evaluation showed that soil suitability ranged between S1 and S5p - S5s along of the transects. In the northern extreme of transect TA, high content of gravels and coarse texture are limiting factors (soils are classified as S4t) In contrast, the limiting factor in the eastern extreme of transect TB is the shallow useful depth (S5p subclass). The absence of calcium carbonate becomes a limiting factor in some parts of TA. In contrast, the excessive content of calcium carbonate appeared to be a limiting factor for crops in some intermediate points of TB transect. For both transects, soil salinity is the main

  2. Inverted liver with suprahepatic, anteriorly displaced gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Hibbs, Harold; Ahmad, Usman

    2010-01-01

    A suprahepatic, anteriorly displaced gallbladder in association with an inverted liver is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. We report the clinical and radiologic findings associated with a 78-year-old woman presenting with shortness of breath, desaturation, hypercapnia and hypoxemia. An abnormal chest radiograph demonstrated right hemi-diaphragmatic elevation consistent with a possible eventration. Subsequent imaging by computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an inverted liver with an anteriorly displaced, suprahepatic gallbladder. PMID:20666167

  3. Erlotinib-related bilateral anterior uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Kashif; Kumar, Indu; Usman-Saeed, Muniba; Usman Saeed, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 68-year-old woman with secondary adenocarcinoma of the lungs from an unknown primary. Erlotinib was started which produced symptoms suggestive of uveitis. Erlotinib was stopped and restarted a month later at a lower dose, which resulted in severe bilateral anterior uveitis. The uveitis settled after stopping erlotinib and treatment with topical steroids and cycloplegics. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of erlotinib-related anterior uveitis. PMID:22694887

  4. Anterior capsular defect with acute anterior subcapsular cataract in herpetic keratouveitis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Tarun; Sharma, Namrata; Arora, Supriya; Titiyal, Jeewan S

    2014-01-01

    A 20-year-old man presented with a recurrent episode of herpetic keratouveitis in his right eye. The patient was treated with oral acyclovir and topical steroids. One week later the patient reported a sudden diminution of vision. Slitlamp biomicroscopy revealed the presence of a central anterior capsular defect and anterior subcapsular cataract. Dosage of steroids was temporarily increased and progression of cataract monitored. Subsequently, the anterior chamber reaction decreased and steroids were tapered. PMID:25228677

  5. Anterior Eye Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, David; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong

    The development of corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology has advanced rapidly in recently years. The scan geometry and imaging wavelength are both important choices to make in designing anterior segment OCT systems. Rectangular scan geometry offers the least image distortion and is now used in most anterior OCT systems. The wavelength of OCT light source affects resolution and penetration. An optimal choice of the OCT imaging wavelength (840, 1,050, or 1,310 nm) depends on the application of interest. Newer generation Fourier-domain OCT technology can provide scan speed 100-1000 times faster than the time-domain technology. Various commercial anterior OCT systems are available on the market. A wide spectrum of diagnostic and surgical applications using anterior segment OCT had been investigated, including mapping of corneal and epithelial thicknesses, keratoconus screening, measuring corneal refractive power, corneal surgery planning and evaluation in LASIK, intracorneal ring implantation, assessment of angle closure glaucoma, anterior chamber biometry and intraocular lens implants, intraocular lens power calculation, and eye bank donor cornea screening.

  6. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of Contents For ... condition is called chronic hepatitis. Hepatitis A and E do not cause chronic hepatitis. Hepatitis viruses B, ...

  7. Viral hepatitis and hepatitis B antigen: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Krugman, Saul

    1974-01-01

    Recent advances in hepatitis research have shed new light on the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology and prevention of type B hepatitis infection. The so-called ‘Dane’ particle is probably the complete hepatitis B virion; its outer coat is the hepatitis B (Australia) antigen (HB Ag) and its inner core is an immunologically distinct particle. Subtypes of HB Ag (a, d, y, w and r) are useful indices for epidemiological surveys. Concepts of epidemiology have changed: type B hepatitis is transmissible by contact as well as by inoculation. The presence of HB Ag in blood is indicative of the presence of hepatitis B virus. Tests to detect antigen and use of voluntary blood donors have played a major role in the decreased incidence of post transfusion hepatitis. A special hepatitis B gammaglobulin preparation and a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine have proved to be effective in preliminary studies. PMID:4219230

  8. Drug-induced hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are a common cause of liver inflammation. These ... problem. However, if you took high doses of acetaminophen , treatment should be started as soon as possible ...

  9. Hepatitis C and sex.

    PubMed

    Page, Emma E; Nelson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    An outbreak of acute hepatitis C among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the last decade has been shown to be sexually transmitted. Initially recreational drug use, in particular drug injection, was not prevalent among those becoming infected with hepatitis C. However more recently chemsex (the use of drugs to enhance sexual experience) and its associated drugs, which are not uncommonly injected, have become more frequently reported among those diagnosed with hepatitis C. It is hoped that the widespread -introduction of direct-acting antivirals and upscaling of numbers treated may have a positive impact on this epidemic. However their introduction may negatively impact on the perceived risk of acquiring hepatitis C and in conjunction with the introduction of HIV transmission prevention strategies may result in increased transmissions and spread to the HIV-negative MSM population. PMID:27037392

  10. Hepatitis C - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... chap 358. Jhaveri R. Hepatitis C virus. In: Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ, eds. Feigin and Cherry's Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  11. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    MedlinePlus

    ... About the Division of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  12. [Patient education of hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Boyer, Dominique; Faillebin, Françoise; de la Brière, Aice

    2013-11-01

    The therapeutic education of patients with hepatitis C helps to improve their health and quality of life. The aim is to encourage compliance with the treatment and the fight against side effects, through to the patient's recovery. PMID:24409616

  13. Hepatitis B - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... kissing, coughing, or sneezing. Breast-feeding by a mother with hepatitis B is safe if the child is treated properly at the time of birth. Teenagers who are not vaccinated can get HBV during unprotected sex or drug use.

  14. Hepatitis B - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests detect liver damage and the risk for liver cancer from chronic hepatitis B: Albumin level Liver function tests Prothrombin time Liver biopsy Abdominal ultrasound Liver cancer tumor markers such as alpha fetoprotein The provider ...

  15. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevalent among blacks as among whites. Viral Hepatitis Transmission People can be infected with the three most ... risk for HAV. • • New data suggest that sexual transmission of HCV among MSM with HIV occurs more ...

  16. Hepatitis A FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... 185°F (85°C), kill the virus, although freezing temperatures do not. Symptoms Does Hepatitis A cause ... food, such as drinking beverages (with or without ice) of unknown purity, eating uncooked shellfish, and eating ...

  17. Chemoembolization of hepatic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Carin F; Brown, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of primary and secondary hepatic malignancies with transarterial chemoembolization represents an essential component of interventional oncology. This article discusses patient selection, procedure technique, results, and complications associated with transarterial chemoembolization. PMID:18668189

  18. Imaging of hepatic infections.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D J; Hanbidge, A E; O'Malley, M E

    2006-09-01

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented. PMID:16905380

  19. Human hereditary hepatic porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Nordmann, Yves; Puy, Hervé

    2002-11-01

    The human hereditary hepatic porphyrias are diseases due to marked deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Porphyrias can be classified as either hepatic or erythroid, depending on the major production site of porphyrins or their precursors. The pathogenesis of inherited hepatic porphyrias has now been defined at the molecular level. Some gene carriers are vulnerable to a range of exogenous and endogenous factors, which may trigger neuropsychiatric and/or cutaneous symptoms. Early diagnosis is of prime importance since it makes way for counselling. In this article we present an overview of recent advances on hepatic porphyrias: 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency porphyria, acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), hereditary coproporphyria (HC), and variegate porphyria (VP). PMID:12367763

  20. Hepatitis D Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John M

    2015-11-01

    This work reviews specific related aspects of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) reproduction, including virion structure, the RNA genome, the mode of genome replication, the delta antigens, and the assembly of HDV using the envelope proteins of its helper virus, hepatitis B virus (HBV). These topics are considered with perspectives ranging from a history of discovery through to still-unsolved problems. HDV evolution, virus entry, and associated pathogenic potential and treatment of infections are considered in other articles in this collection. PMID:26525452

  1. Nonparametric estimation of population density for line transect sampling using FOURIER series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crain, B.R.; Burnham, K.P.; Anderson, D.R.; Lake, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    A nonparametric, robust density estimation method is explored for the analysis of right-angle distances from a transect line to the objects sighted. The method is based on the FOURIER series expansion of a probability density function over an interval. With only mild assumptions, a general population density estimator of wide applicability is obtained.

  2. Variability in surface moisture content along a hillslope transect: Rattlesnake Hill, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Rudnicki, J. W.; Rodell, M.

    1998-09-01

    Surface soil moisture content exhibits a high degree of spatial and temporal variability. The purpose of this study was (a) to characterize variations in moisture content in the 0-5 cm surface soil layer along a hillslope transect by means of intensive sampling in both space and time; and (b) to make inferences regarding the environmental factors that influence this variability. Over a period of seven months, soil moisture content was measured (gravimetric method) on a near-daily basis at 10 m intervals along a 200 m downslope transect at the Rattlesnake Hill field site in Austin, Texas. Results indicate that significant variability in soil moisture content exists along the length of the transect; that variability decreases with decreasing transectmean moisture content as the hillslope dries down following rain events; and that the dominant influences on moisture content variability are dependent upon the moisture conditions on the hillslope. While topographic and soil attributes operate jointly to redistribute soil water following storm events, under wet conditions, variability in surface moisture content is most strongly influenced by porosity and hydraulic conductivity, and under dry conditions, correlations are strongest to relative elevation, aspect and clay content. Consequently, the dominant influence on soil moisture variability gradually changes from soil heterogeneity to joint control by topographic and soil properties as the transect dries following significant rain events.

  3. Digitization of a geologic map for the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine global geoscience transect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Bruce E.; Stewart, David B.

    1990-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine was digitized and combined with digital geologic data for Quebec and the Gulf of Maine for the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine Geologic Transect Project. This map is being combined with digital geophysical data to produce three-dimensional depictions of the subsurface geology and to produce cross sections of the Earth's crust. It is an essential component of a transect that stretches from the craton near Quebec City, Quebec, to the Atlantic Ocean Basin south of Georges Bank. The transect is part of the Global Geosciences Transect Project of the International Lithosphere Program. The Digital Line Graph format is used for storage of the digitized data. A coding scheme similar to that used for base category planimetric data was developed to assign numeric codes to the digitized geologic data. These codes were used to assign attributes to polygon and line features to describe rock type, age, name, tectonic setting of original deposition, mineralogy, and composition of igneous plutonic rocks, as well as faults and other linear features. The digital geologic data can be readily edited, rescaled, and reprojected. The attribute codes allow generalization and selective retrieval of the geologic features. The codes allow assignment of map colors based on age, lithology, or other attribute. The Digital Line Graph format is a general transfer format that is supported by many software vendors and is easily transferred between systems.

  4. Probable errors in width distributions of sea ice leads measured along a transect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, J.; Peckham, S.

    1991-01-01

    The degree of error expected in the measurement of widths of sea ice leads along a single transect are examined in a probabilistic sense under assumed orientation and width distributions, where both isotropic and anisotropic lead orientations are examined. Methods are developed for estimating the distribution of 'actual' widths (measured perpendicular to the local lead orientation) knowing the 'apparent' width distribution (measured along the transect), and vice versa. The distribution of errors, defined as the difference between the actual and apparent lead width, can be estimated from the two width distributions, and all moments of this distribution can be determined. The problem is illustrated with Landsat imagery and the procedure is applied to a submarine sonar transect. Results are determined for a range of geometries, and indicate the importance of orientation information if data sampled along a transect are to be used for the description of lead geometries. While the application here is to sea ice leads, the methodology can be applied to measurements of any linear feature.

  5. Estimating Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) abundance: Crab pots and dive transects compared

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taggart, S.J.; O'Clair, C. E.; Shirley, T.C.; Mondragon, J.

    2004-01-01

    Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) were sampled with commercial pots and counted by scuba divers on benthic transects at eight sites near Glacier Bay, Alaska. Catch per unit of effort (CPUE) from pots was compared to the density estimates from dives to evaluate the bias and power of the two techniques. Yearly sampling was conducted in two seasons: April and September, from 1992 to 2000. Male CPUE estimates from pots were significantly lower in April than in the following September; a step-wise regression demonstrated that season accounted for more of the variation in male CPUE than did temperature. In both April and September, pot sampling was significantly biased against females. When females were categorized as ovigerous and nonovigerous, it was clear that ovigerous females accounted for the majority of the bias because pots were not biased against nonovigerous females. We compared the power of pots and dive transects in detecting trends in populations and found that pots had much higher power than dive transects. Despite their low power, the dive transects were very useful for detecting bias in our pot sampling and in identifying the optimal times of year to sample so that pot bias could be avoided.

  6. How-To-Do-It: A Transect Study of a Barrier Beach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a field trip activity to measure changes in elevation across the dunes of a barrier beach, measure wind velocity along the transect line, and observe the distribution of ground cover in the study area. Discusses equipment, materials, procedures and follow-up activities for each study. (CW)

  7. A northern Cordilleran ocean-continent transect: Sitka Sound, Alaska, to Atlin Lake, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, D.A.; Karl, S.M.; Barnes, D.F.; Jachens, R.C.; Ford, A.B.; Horner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The 155 km wide, 310 km long Sitka Sound - Atlin Lake continent-ocean transect includes almost all the geologic, geophysical, and geotectonic elements of the Canadian Cordillera. It crosses the Chugach, Wrangellia, Alexander, Stikine, and Cache Creek terranes, the Gravina and Laberge overlap assemblages, intrusive and metamorphic belts, and neotectonic faults that bound major blocks. -from Authors

  8. Latitudinal transects in the southeastern Pacific Ocean reveal a diverse but patchy distribution of phycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Trefault, N; Krock, B; Delherbe, N; Cembella, A; Vásquez, M

    2011-10-01

    Phycotoxin distribution and abundance was determined during an oceanographic expedition along a latitudinal transect of 27° extent in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from the fjords of Tierra del Fuego Island to offshore Copiapó in the Atacama region along the Chilean coast. Plankton samples were harvested at regular intervals during the entire cruise and later analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for domoic acid (DA) and lipophilic toxins. Although no evident toxic algal bloom was encountered during this transect, several phycotoxin analogues from distinct toxin groups were detected. These phycotoxins included DA, the pectenotoxins PTX-2, PTX-2sa and PTX-11, dinophystoxin-1 (DTX-1) and gymnodimine (GYM), which is the first report of this latter toxin in the southeast Pacific. A region-specific and rather disjunct distribution of GYM, DA and DTX-1 was observed, whereas PTX-2, PTX-2sa and PTX-11 were more widely distributed over almost the entire transect. This work represents the first assessment of lipophilic toxins through a wide latitudinal transect of the southeastern Pacific, revealing a patchy distribution of several phycotoxins and pointing out the specific geographical distribution of the putative toxigenic organisms. PMID:21839106

  9. Investigating frontal variability from repeated glider transects in the Ligurian Current (North West Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piterbarg, L.; Taillandier, V.; Griffa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mesoscale variability of the Ligurian Current (North Western Mediterranean Sea) is studied using glider data from a repeated cross-frontal transect. The Ligurian Current is characterized by a complex time variability, with propagation velocities that can be compared to those of the glider. As a consequence, time variability can appear as folded into space variability in the glider data through the mechanism of Doppler smearing. In this paper, we provide a general framework to illustrate the effects of spatial and temporal variability and introduce a simple methodology to at least partially unfold the uncertainty. We capitalize on the fact that the glider repeatedly covers the transect, and we build time series of isopycnal depth at fixed points using nonlinear interpolation in time and spatial smoothing. Estimates of the isopycnal space patterns are obtained at various times, and a function fitting is used when appropriate allowing to describe the frontal time variability through a few descriptive parameters. Results show a mesoscale signal with scales consistent with what is known in the literature, and characterized by a cross-shore oscillation of the front between approximately 15 and 50 km offshore. The frontal oscillation is quite smooth during the first four transects with propagation speed significantly lower than the glider (≈ 8 km/day), so that the deconvolution method is robust. Local wind also appears to play a role. During the last two transects, instead, the system undergoes dramatic changes with time scales of the order of a day, so that the deconvolution is more problematic.

  10. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. PMID:25962882

  11. Delta hepatitis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, M; Dimitrakakis, M; Tan, D S

    1986-06-01

    Sera from one hundred and fifty nine Malaysian individuals were screened for the prevalence of delta markers. These included 15 HBsAg positive homosexuals, 16 acute hepatitis B cases, 9 chronic hepatitis B patients, 13 healthy HBsAg carriers and 106 intravenous (i.v.) drug abusers, of whom 27 were positive for HBsAg only and the rest were anti-HBc IgG positive but HBsAg negative. The prevalence of delta markers in the homosexuals was found to be 6.7%, in the HBsAg positive drug abusers 17.8%, in acute hepatitis B cases 12.5%. No evidence of delta infection was detected in healthy HBsAg carriers, chronic hepatitis B cases and HBsAg negative i.v. drug abusers. With reference to i.v. drug abusers, the prevalence of delta markers was higher in Malays (23%) than in Chinese (7%) although the latter had a higher HBsAg carrier rate. Although the HBsAg carrier rate in the homosexuals was high, their delta prevalence rate was low as compared to drug abusers. In Malaysia, as in other non-endemic regions, hepatitis delta virus transmission appeared to occur mainly via the parenteral and sexual routes. This is the first time in Malaysia that a reservoir of delta infection has been demonstrated in certain groups of the population at high risk for hepatitis B. PMID:3787309

  12. Complete transection of the urethra and corpora cavernosa: a complication after laparoscopic repair (TEP) of an inguinal hernia.

    PubMed

    Rehme, C; Rübben, H; Heß, J

    2016-06-01

    Complete transection of both corpora cavernosa and the urethra is a very rare condition in urology. We report the case of a 59-year-old man with complete transection of the corpora cavernosa and the urethra during a laparoscopic repair of a recurrent inguinal hernia. PMID:25943096

  13. Evaluation of radio-tracking and strip transect methods for determining foraging ranges of Black-Legged Kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostrand, W.D.; Drew, G.S.; Suryan, R.M.; McDonald, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    We compared strip transect and radio-tracking methods of determining foraging range of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). The mean distance birds were observed from their colony determined by radio-tracking was significantly greater than the mean value calculated from strip transects. We determined that this difference was due to two sources of bias: (1) as distance from the colony increased, the area of available habitat also increased resulting in decreasing bird densities (bird spreading). Consequently, the probability of detecting birds during transect surveys also would decrease as distance from the colony increased, and (2) the maximum distance birds were observed from the colony during radio-tracking exceeded the extent of the strip transect survey. We compared the observed number of birds seen on the strip transect survey to the predictions of a model of the decreasing probability of detection due to bird spreading. Strip transect data were significantly different from modeled data; however, the field data were consistently equal to or below the model predictions, indicating a general conformity to the concept of declining detection at increasing distance. We conclude that radio-tracking data gave a more representative indication of foraging distances than did strip transect sampling. Previous studies of seabirds that have used strip transect sampling without accounting for bird spreading or the effects of study-area limitations probably underestimated foraging range.

  14. Warfare-related secondary anterior cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Rasouli, Hamid Reza; Ebrahimi, Azin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cranial bone defects secondary to global war cranial defects pose a unique reconstructive challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of alloplastic reconstructions of cranial bone with titanium mesh and fat graft after warfare-related cranial trauma. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five patients at the plastic and reconstructive surgery ward of our hospital underwent anterior cranioplasty with titanium mesh with or without fat grafts from lower abdominal wall. Inclusion criteria were anterior cranial bone defect due to warfare injuries, the mean age of these patients was 31 years (range, 23–48 years). Ninety-five percent were male, and 5% were female. Average follow-up was 12 months. Fat grafts were used to help obliterate endocranial dead spaces. Results: Twenty-five patients (71%) had more than 0.5 cm dead space under cranial defects, and we used fat graft under the titanium mesh. The majority groups of patients (80%) were injured as a result of previous explosive device blasts with or without neurosurgical procedures in the past. The average patient age was 31 years, and 95% of patients were male. The mean anterior cranial defect size was 6 cm × 8 cm, and there were no wound infection or flap necrosis after operations. Conclusion: We recommend this procedure (titanium mesh with or without fat graft) for warfare injured cranial defects in secondary anterior cranial reconstructions. Fat grafts eliminates dead space and reduce secondary complications. PMID:27563609

  15. Spontaneous healing of retroperitoneal chylous leakage following anterior lumbar spinal surgery: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Su, I-Chang

    2007-01-01

    Cisterna chyli is prone to injury in any retroperitoneal surgery. However, retroperitoneal chylous leakage is a rare complication after anterior spinal surgery. To the best of our knowledge, only ten cases have been reported in the English literature. We present a case of a 49-year-old man who had lumbar metastasis and associated radiculopathy. He had transient retroperitoneal chylous leakage after anterior tumor decompression, interbody bony fusion, and instrumental fixation from L2 to L4. The leakage stopped spontaneously after we temporarily clamped the drain tube. Intraperitoneal ascites accumulation developed thereafter due to nutritional loss and impaired hepatic reserves. We gathered ten reported cases of chylous leak after anterior thoracolumbar or lumbar spinal surgery, and categorized all these cases into two groups, depending on the integrity of diaphragm. Six patients received anterior spinal surgery without diaphragm splitting. Postoperative chylous leak stopped after conservative treatment. Another five cases received diaphragm splitting in the interim of anterior spinal surgery. Chylous leakage stopped spontaneously in four patients. The remaining one had a chylothorax secondary to postop chyloretroperitoneum. It was resolved only after surgical intervention. In view of these cases, all the chylous leakage could be spontaneously closed without complications, except for one who had a secondary chylothorax and required thoracic duct ligation and chemopleurodesis. We conclude that intraoperative diaphragm splitting or incision does not increase the risk of secondary chylothorax if it was closed tightly at the end of the surgery and the chest tube drainage properly done. PMID:17273839

  16. The Anterior Branch of the Left Inferior Phrenic Artery Arising from the Right Inferior Phrenic Artery: An Angiographic and CT Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hieda, Masashi Toyota, Naoyuki; Kakizawa, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Masaki; Horiguchi, Jun; Ito, Katsuhide

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the frequency and anatomical pattern of the anterior branch of the left inferior phrenic artery (LIPA) arising from the right inferior phrenic artery (RIPA). Angiography of the RIPA for patients (n = 140) with hepatic malignancy was retrospectively reviewed. The frequency at which the anterior branch of the LIPA arose from the RIPA was 14.3% (20 of 140 patients [pts]). Among the three branches that may arise from the RIPA in these cases (the anterior branch of the LIPA and the anterior and posterior branches of the RIPA), the anterior branch of the LIPA was the first branch of the RIPA in 9 of 20 pts (45%), and the posterior branch of the RIPA in 11 of 20 pts (55%). The anterior branch of the LIPA ran along the ventral side of the esophagus or stomach and supplied the esophagogastric region and dome of the left diaphragm in all cases. In conclusion, the anterior branch of the LIPA arises from the RIPA at a comparatively high frequency. In embolization of the RIPA, to effectively treat and avoid possible complications, interventionalists should be aware of this potential variant anatomy.

  17. Traumatic graft dehiscence after anterior lamellar keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Prasher, Pawan; Muftuoglu, Orkun; Mootha, V Vinod

    2009-02-01

    A 64-year-old man underwent anterior lamellar keratoplasty using the Melles technique for corneal scar secondary to healed bacterial keratitis in the left eye. Two months postoperatively, the patient presented with blurry vision in the left eye after a fall in the bathroom. The uncorrected visual acuity was 20/400 in the left eye, and the external examination showed periorbital swelling with ecchymosis. Slit-lamp examination revealed an absent graft, a circular crater in the center, and a fragment of suture on the temporal edge of the crater. The Seidel test was negative, and there was no sign of infection. The anterior segment optical coherence tomography showed intact residual stroma with slight forward protrusion. The patient underwent repeat anterior lamellar corneal transplantation with improvement in uncorrected visual acuity of 20/100 and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 20/70 in the left eye 3 months postoperatively. PMID:19158577

  18. Anterior eye development and ocular mesenchyme

    PubMed Central

    Cvekl, Aleš; Tamm, Ernst R.

    2007-01-01

    Summary During development of the anterior eye segment, cells that originate from the surface epithelium or the neuroepithelium need to interact with mesenchymal cells, which predominantly originate from the neural crest. Failures of proper interaction result in a complex of developmental disorders such Peters’ anomaly, Axenfeld-Rieger’s syndrome or aniridia. Here we review the role of transcription factors that have been identified to be involved in the coordination of anterior eye development. Among these factors is PAX6, which is active in both epithelial and mesenchymal cells during ocular development, albeit at different doses and times. We propose that PAX6 is a key element that synchronizes the complex interaction of cell types of different origin, which are all needed for proper morphogenesis of the anterior eye. We discuss several molecular mechanisms that might explain the effects of haploinsufficiency of PAX6 and other transcription factors, and the broad variation of the resulting phenotypes. PMID:15057935

  19. [Arthroscopic tightening of the anterior cruciate ligament].

    PubMed

    Charrois, O; Cheyrou, E; Remi, J; Panarella, L; Jouve, F; Beaufils, P

    2008-02-01

    We present here the preliminary results obtained with arthroscopic tightening of the anterior cruciate ligament. Six patients underwent the technique. Four had had prior ligamentoplasty, two had sequelae of tibial spine fractures. Laxity persisted in all cases. The transplant or the ligament were continuous and insertion points were well-positioned. The procedure consisted in using a trephine to bore the tibial bone at the "foot" of the ligament or transplant in order to tighten the ligament. There was no evidence of instability after the arthroscopic tightening procedure. Mean pre- and postoperative differential anterior drawer values were successively 9.2 and 3.9 mm. For native or reconstructed anterior cruciate ligaments, which are continuous and well-positioned but not loose, arthroscopic tightening spares the need for ligament transplant and appears to be free of specific morbidity. PMID:18342033

  20. BILATERAL ANTERIOR GLENOHUMERAL DISLOCATION: CLINICAL CASE

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luís Pires; Sousa, Cristina Varino; Rodrigues, Elisa; Alpoim, Bruno; Leal, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral anterior glenohumeral dislocation is a rare occurrence. We present a case of bilateral anterior glenohumeral dislocation caused by a fall. The interest in publishing this case is that this is a clinical rarity with few cases reported in the literature. An 89-year-old female patient was brought to the emergency department after a fall, complaining of intense pain in both shoulders and inability to move them. Objective examination showed clinical signs giving the suspicion of bilateral anterior glenohumeral dislocation, which was confirmed by x-ray imaging. Both dislocations were successfully reduced in the emergency department using the modified Milch technique. When a synchronous and symmetrical force has acted on both shoulders and these are painful with significant functional limitation, the suspicion of bilateral glenohumeral dislocation is a differential diagnosis to be considered, even though it is rare. PMID:27047826

  1. West margin of North America — a synthesis of recent seismic transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuis, Gary S.

    1998-03-01

    A comparison of the deep structure along nine recent transects of the west margin of North America shows many important similarities and differences. Common tectonic elements identified in the deep structure along these transects include actively subducting oceanic crust, accreted oceanic/arc (or oceanic-like) lithosphere of Mesozoic through Cenozoic ages, Cenozoic accretionary prisms, Mesozoic accretionary prisms, backstops to the Mesozoic prisms, and undivided lower crust. Not all of these elements are present along all transects. In this study, nine transects, including four crossing subduction zones and five crossing transform faults, are plotted at the same scale and vertical exaggeration (V.E. 1 : 1), using the above scheme for identifying tectonic elements. The four subduction-zone transects contain actively subducting oceanic crust, Cenozoic accretionary prisms, and bodies of basaltic rocks accreted in the Cenozoic, including remnants of a large, oceanic plateau in the Oregon and Vancouver Island transects. Rocks of age and composition (Eocene basalt) similar to the oceanic plateau are currently subducting in southern Alaska, where they are doubled up on top of Pacific oceanic crust and have apparently created a giant asperity, or impediment to subduction. Most of the subduction-zone transects also contain Mesozoic accretionary prisms, and two of them, Vancouver Island and Alaska, also contain thick, tectonically underplated bodies of late Mesozoic/early Cenozoic oceanic lithosphere, interpreted as fragments of the extinct Kula plate. In the upper crust, most of the five transform-fault transects (all in California) reflect: (1) tectonic wedging of a Mesozoic accretionary prism into a backstop, which includes Mesozoic/early Cenozoic forearc rocks and Mesozoic ophiolitic/arc basement rocks; and (2) shuffling of the subduction margin of California by strike-slip faulting. In the lower crust, they may reflect migration of the Mendocino triple junction

  2. A new osteophyte segmentation method with applications to an anterior cruciate ligament transection rabbit femur model via micro-CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, G.; Elkins, J. M.; Coimbra, A.; Duong, L. T.; Williams, D. S.; Sonka, M.; Saha, P. K.

    2010-03-01

    Osteophyte is an additional bony growth on a normal bone surface limiting or stopping motion in a deteriorating joint. Detection and quantification of osteophytes from CT images is helpful in assessing disease status as well as treatment and surgery planning. However, it is difficult to segment osteophytes from healthy bones using simple thresholding or edge/texture features in CT imaging. Here, we present a new method, based on active shape model (ASM), to solve this problem and evaluate its application to ex vivo μCT images in an ACLT rabbit femur model. The common idea behind most ASM based segmentation methods is to first build a parametric shape model from a training dataset and during application, find a shape instance from the model that optimally fits to target image. However, it poses a fundamental difficulty for the current application because a diseased bone shape is significantly altered at regions with osteophyte deposition misguiding an ASM method that eventually leads to suboptimum segmentation results. Here, we introduce a new partial ASM method that uses bone shape over healthy regions and extrapolate its shape over diseased region following the underlying shape model. Once the healthy bone region is detected, osteophyte is segmented by subtracting partial-ASM derived shape from the overall diseased shape. Also, a new semi-automatic method is presented in this paper for efficiently building a 3D shape model for rabbit femur. The method has been applied to μCT images of 2-, 4-, and 8-week post ACLT and sham-treated rabbit femurs and results of reproducibility and sensitivity analyses of the new osteophyte segmentation method are presented.

  3. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... common types of viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. While all three types of ... new Hepatitis A cases and 20% of new Hepatitis B cases occur in gay or bisexual men. Gay ...

  4. Pregnancy with autoimmune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Braga, António Costa; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Braga, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to review our experience with gestations in autoimmune hepatitis patients. Background: There are only limited data describing pregnancy in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Patients and methods: Retrospective analysis of pregnancies with autoimmune hepatitis followed in Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Portugal in the last ten years. Results: We reported nine pregnancies in seven patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Two patients had documented liver cirrhosis prior to the pregnancy. In this study, 66.7% of patients were treated with azathioprine and 88.9% with prednisolone. Clinical improvements were observed in 11.1% of pregnancies and 22.2% exacerbations were diagnosed. There were six live births and two preterm deliveries (preterm delivery rate of 33%). We also report three first trimester miscarriages (early gestation miscarriage rate of 33%). There were no neonatal or maternal deaths. Conclusion: The favorable obstetric outcome is a realistic expectation in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Tight monitoring and control of asymptomatic and unpredictable exacerbations, which are unrelated to the severity of the underlying disease, are essential to the prognosis of the current pregnancy. PMID:27458515

  5. Hepatic hemangioma -review-

    PubMed Central

    Bajenaru, N; Balaban, V; Săvulescu, F; Campeanu, I; Patrascu, T

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic hemangiomas are benign tumors of the liver consisting of clusters of blood-filled cavities, lined by endothelial cells, fed by the hepatic artery. The vast majority of HH are asymptomatic, most often being discovered incidentally during imaging investigations for various unrelated pathologies. Typical hemangiomas, the so-called capillary hemangiomas, range from a few mm to 3 cm, do not increase in size over time and therefore are unlikely to generate future symptomatology. Small (mm-3 cm) and medium (3 cm-10 cm) hemangiomas are well-defined lesions, requiring no active treatment beside regular follow-ups. However, the so-called giant liver hemangiomas, of up to 10 cm (most commonly) and even 20+ cm in size (according to occasional reports) can, and usually will develop symptoms and complications that require prompt surgical intervention or other kind of therapy. HH belong to the class of hepatic “incidentalomas”, so-called because they are diagnosed incidentally, on imaging studies performed as routine examinations or for other reasons than the evaluation of a possible liver mass. Less than half of HH present with overt clinical symptoms, consisting, most often, of upper abdominal pain (this is usually the case for large lesions, which cause the distension of Glisson’s capsule). Hepatic hemangiomas require a careful diagnosis to differentiate from other focal hepatic lesions, co-occurring diagnoses are also possible. PMID:26361504

  6. Primary hepatic angiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, P; Bhadana, U; Singh, R A K; Ahuja, A

    2015-09-01

    Primary hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare, aggressive tumor; composed of spindle or pleomorphic cells that line, or grow into, the lumina of pre-existing vascular spaces like sinusoids and terminal hepatic venules; with only about 200 cases diagnosed annually worldwide but it is the most common primary malignant mesenchymal tumor of the liver in adults and accounts for 2% of all primary hepatic malignancies. HAS occurs in association with known chemical carcinogens, but 75% of the tumors have no known etiology. Patients present with vague symptoms like abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue or an abdominal mass. Hepatic angiosarcoma is usually multicentric and involves both lobes, entire liver may also found to be involved. CD31 is the most reliable marker. These tumors lack specific features on imaging, so, pathological diagnosis is necessary. There are no established treatment guidelines because of low frequency and aggressive nature of tumor, chemotherapy is only palliative, liver resection is indicated for solitary mass and liver transplant is contraindicated. The aim of this article is to comprehensively review all the available literature and to present detailed information and an update on primary hepatic angiosarcoma. PMID:26008857

  7. Results of trench perpendicular wide angle seismic transects across the Manila subduction zone offshore southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, D. H.; McIntosh, K. D.; Van Avendonk, H. J.

    2011-12-01

    Multi-channel seismic reflection and wide-angle seismic data collected in 2009 aboard the R/V Marcus Langseth as part of the TAIGER program delineate the crustal structure of the Manila subduction zone in the northern South China Sea. As part of that project, we recorded marine seismic data using a deployment of ocean-bottom-seismometers (OBS) from the U.S. instrument pool and National Taiwan Ocean University. The region between northern Luzon and southern Taiwan evolves from oceanic subduction to incipient arc-continent collision. This presentation focuses on results of 2 offshore transects across the Manila subduction zone offshore southern Taiwan. Our goal here is to document the transition from pure oceanic subuction in the south to incipient arc-continent collision in the north, an understanding of which is integral for future geodynamic modeling of the advanced arc-continent collision in the north. The northern transect, line T2 is located at 21.4° N and used 30 OBSs. Line T1 was located at 20.5° N and used 27 OBSs across the Manila subduction zone. Data quality is extremely variable due to the local geology and quality of seafloor coupling at each instrument. Preliminary travel-time tomography of transect T2 shows a 10-15 km thick Eurasian crust with crustal velocities of 5-7.5 km/sec entering the Manila trench suggesting thinned continental crust, serpentinized upper mantle, or both in this region. The model shows the accretionary prism to be cored by high velocity material (6-7 km/sec) that may be the result of accretion of crustal material from the subducting Eurasian slab. We also observe asymmetric crustal thickening beneath the Gagua Ridge that is potentially a result of failed subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate westward along the Gagua Ridge. The wide-angle data is complimented by MCS reflection data to constrain sediment thickness, top of the crystalline basement, and moho. Preliminary work is in progress with transect T1 which will be

  8. Soil hydraulic properties of topsoil along two elevation transects affected by soil erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikodem, Antonin; Kodesova, Radka; Jaksik, Ondrej; Jirku, Veronika; Fer, Miroslav; Klement, Ales; Zigova, Anna

    2013-04-01

    This study is focused on the comparison of soil hydraulic properties of topsoil that is affected by erosion processes. Studied area is characterized by a relatively flat upper part, a tributary valley in the middle and a colluvial fan at the bottom. Haplic Chernozem reminded at the flat upper part of the area. Regosols were formed at steep parts of the valley. Colluvial Chernozem and Colluvial soils were formed at the bottom parts of the valley and at the bottom part of the studied field. Two transects and five sampling sites along each one were selected. The soil-water retention curves measured on the undisturbed 100-cm3 soil samples taken after the tillage and sowing of winter wheat (October 2010) were highly variable and no differences between sampling sites within the each transect were detected. Variability of soil-water retention curves obtained on soil samples taken after the wheat harvest (August 2011) considerably deceased. The parts of the retention curves, which characterized the soil matrix, were very similar. The main differences between the soil-water retention curves were found in parts, which corresponded to larger capillary pores. The fractions of the large capillary pores (and also saturated soil water-contents) were larger after the harvest (soil structure reestablishment) than that after the tillage and sawing (soil structure disturbance). Greater amount of capillary pores was observed in soils with better developed soil structure documented on the micromorphological images. The saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ks) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities (K) for the pressure head of -2 cm of topsoil were also measured after the wheat harvest using Guelph permeameter and Minidisk tensiometer, respectively. The highest Ks values were obtained at the steepest parts of the elevation transects, that have been the most eroded. The Ks values at the bottom parts decreased due to the sedimentation processes of eroded soil particles. The change of the

  9. Acute hepatic failure in children.

    PubMed Central

    Riely, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Many diseases may present as acute hepatic failure in the pediatric age group, including viral hepatitis A and B, adverse drug reactions, both toxic and "hepatitic," and inherited metabolic disorders such as tyrosinemia, alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency, and Wilson's disease. Management is primarily supportive, with care taken to anticipate the known complications of hepatic failure. Few "curative" therapies are known, although attempts at stimulating hepatic regeneration may be helpful. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:6433587

  10. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and swelling of the liver. You should take steps to ... All children should get the hepatitis B vaccine. Babies should get a ... B vaccine at birth. They should have all three shots in ...

  11. Anterior subtalar dislocation with comminuted fracture of the anterior calcaneal process.

    PubMed

    Hui, Siu Hung Kenneth; Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-01-01

    Anterior subtalar dislocation is a very rare injury. We report a case of an 81-year-old woman who had her right foot injured during a motor vehicle accident. Radiographs showed anterior subtalar dislocation with comminuted fracture of the anterior calcaneal process. The dislocation was closely reduced and protected by a short leg cast. One year postinjury, the patient had only mild pain when walking on uneven ground. There was mild tenderness over the lateral heel. Subtalar motion was mildly painful. There was no pain with ankle motion. PMID:26887882

  12. Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery for Degenerative Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    SUGAWARA, Taku

    Anterior cervical spine surgery is an established surgical intervention for cervical degenerative disease and high success rate with excellent long-term outcomes have been reported. However, indications of surgical procedures for certain conditions are still controversial and severe complications to cause neurological dysfunction or deaths may occur. This review is focused mainly on five widely performed procedures by anterior approach for cervical degenerative disease; anterior cervical discectomy, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion, anterior cervical foraminotomy, and arthroplasty. Indications, procedures, outcomes, and complications of these surgeries are discussed. PMID:26119899

  13. Balanitis xerotica obliterans involving anterior urethra.

    PubMed

    Herschorn, S; Colapinto, V

    1979-12-01

    Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) is known to affect the urethral meatus, glans, and prepuce. We describe a case of biopsy-proved BXO that involves not only the usual areas but the anterior urethra as well. Of added interest is the subsequent development of squamous cell carcinoma in the fossa navicularis. The literature is reviewed. PMID:516213

  14. Performing an Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Kurd, Mark F; Millhouse, Paul W; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Hilibrand, Alan S

    2016-06-01

    An anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is one of the most common procedures performed in spine surgery. It allows for a direct decompression of the spinal cord and the neural foramen. When performed properly, the results of this procedure are some of the best in spine surgery. PMID:27187618

  15. A rare case of anterior chamber dirofilariasis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipankar; Das, Kalyan; Islam, Saidul; Bhattacharjee, Kasturi; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Das, Shrutanjoy Mohan; Deka, Apurba

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of anterior chamber live dirofilariasis presenting as anterior uveitis. A 60-year-old man presented with dimness of vision in the right eye for 1 month. Vision recorded was 6/18 P, N 18 in the right eye. Slit lamp examination of the right eye revealed anterior uveitis with a moving nemathelminthes. The worm was removed live from the anterior chamber under local anesthesia with assisted methyl cellulose delivery and post-operatively, the worm was examined directly under light microscope. Morphometric measurement showed length of the worm was 6.061 mm. A thin, pale, slender worm was diagnosed as immature female Dirofilaria repens and was documented completely. Patient had made an excellent recovery of vision and intraocular inflammation after the surgical removal of the worm. Intraocular infection of dirofilaria is a rare presentation and successful surgical removal of the worm resulted in complete recovery of uveitis and visual status in the affected eye. PMID:25709276

  16. Two cases of isolated anterior cervical hypertrichosis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Swapna; Antaya, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Two unrelated Hispanic females, ages 4 and 3 years, respectively, each presented with a solitary patch of excessive terminal hair growth in the midline of the neck. This rare form of congenital localized hypertrichosis, known as anterior cervical hypertrichosis, is reported here as an isolated defect with no other underlying abnormalities. PMID:20796240

  17. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kagmeni, G; Cheuteu, R; Bilong, Y; Wiedemann, P

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  18. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kagmeni, G.; Cheuteu, R.; Bilong, Y.; Wiedemann, P.

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  19. Comparative analysis of visual censuses using different width strip-transects for a fish assemblage in a seagrass bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horinouchi, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yohei; Sano, Mitsuhiko

    2005-10-01

    Fish counts obtained from visual censuses using strip-transects of different transect widths (i.e., 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 m) in a seagrass ( Zostera marina) bed at Moroiso Bay, Miura Peninsula, Japan, were compared. The different width transects provided similar estimates of mean species numbers of the cryptic fish, while the estimate of non-cryptic species number increased in the wider transects and the narrowest transects provided the lowest total species numbers in most cases. In all cases, 0.5 and 1.0 m wide transects provided very similar fish density estimates. Compared with narrower transects, 1.5 and 2.0 m wide transects provided significantly lower cryptic-species densities, resulting in lower estimates of total fish density. This suggests that fishes, cryptic or otherwise, were seldom overlooked by the observer when they were within a 0.5 m range in the seagrass bed. Although the mean species numbers obtained from the seine were higher than those from the visual censuses in most cases, which may be due to the great differences in a coverage area of a replicate, all of the species collected by the seine were also recorded by the visual censuses. The seine provided lower density estimates of benthic or fast-swimming species, compared with the visual census with 1.0 m wide transects. With carefully designed visual census strategies, not only cryptic species, but also bottom-dwellers and fast-swimmers in the seagrass bed can be evaluated well.

  20. Preserving lung after traumatic transection of left lower lobe bronchus from bullet injury.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad Shoaib; Mishwani, A H; Oparka, J; Buchan, K

    2015-06-01

    A 22-year-old soldier was shot in the left chest by a bullet from close range. He was found to have a left haemothorax and remained shocked despite aggressive resuscitation. Due to difficult terrain and night time movement restrictions, there were limitations to the transfer of patient. So he was attended at a peripheral hospital. At emergency thoracotomy, three segmental arteries to left upper lobe were ligated and haemostasis was secured. The level of transection of left lower lobe bronchus was identified to be below the origin of the apical segmental bronchus. The lower lobe bronchus was successfully re-attached and followed up with a daily bronchoscopic clearance of distal airway. The patient made a full recovery. Anastomosis of left lower lobe bronchus after traumatic transection is a viable option for preserving an amputated lobe, in trauma settings, provided haemostatic control has been adequately achieved. PMID:24515083

  1. [A case report of emergency surgical repair of traumatic transection of thoracic descending aorta].

    PubMed

    Noguchi, K; Sudo, K; Kodama, J; Unno, T; Hayashi, N; Tadokoro, M; Kokubo, J; Ikeda, K; Mizuno, A; Tanaka, H

    1991-10-01

    The injury to the thoracic aorta caused by blunt chest trauma is often fatal. This case is 22-year-old male suffering from transection of the thoracic descending aorta caused by traffic accident. He was transported to our emergency room by an ambulance 15 minutes after the accident. Hundred fifty minutes after arrival to the hospital, we were rush to bring him to the operation theater suspecting serious injury of the thoracic organs in association with left hemothorax. The left standard thoracotomy disclosed the injury of the thoracic descending aorta. Simple cross clamp was applied to the thoracic descending aorta distal to the left subclavian artery for 20 minutes. Completely transected aorta was reapproximated using monofilament 3-0 polypropylene sutures with running manner. He tolerated the procedure well without any complication. His postoperative course was uneventful. He was followed up at the orthopedic department for associated hip fracture thereafter. PMID:1942696

  2. Comparison of deep structure along three transects of the western North American continental margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, G.S.; Clowes, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Similarities in geology and potential field data that have in the past been noted among the regions of southern Alaska, southern Vancouver Island, and central California are now seen to be accompanied by similarities in deep crustal structure. A number of tectonic elements have been identified in the deep structure along transects in these three regions, although not all elements are present along each transect. These elements are A) an actively subducting oceanic plate and B) an overriding continental plate that consists of 1) a Cenozoic accretionary prism, 2) a Mesozoic accretionary prism, 3) a backstop to the Mesozoic prism, 4) a tectonically underplated body of oceanic rocks, and 5) a crustal root. -from Authors

  3. Sulfur isotopic composition of surface snow along a latitudinal transect in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Ryu; Masaka, Kosuke; Fukui, Kotaro; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Motoyama, Hideaki

    2016-06-01

    The sulfur stable isotopic values (δ34S) of sulfate aerosols can be used to assess oxidation pathways and contributions from various sources, such as marine biogenic sulfur, volcanoes, and sea salt. However, because of a lack of observations, the spatial distribution of δ34S values in Antarctic sulfate aerosols remains unclear. Here we present the first sulfur isotopic values from surface snow samples along a latitudinal transect in eastern Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. The δ34S values of sulfate showed remarkably uniform values, in the range of 14.8-16.9‰, and no significant decrease toward the inland part of the transect was noted. These results suggest that net isotopic fractionation during long-range transport is insignificant. Thus, the δ34S values can be used to infer source contributions. The δ34S values suggest that marine biogenic sulfur is the dominant source of sulfate aerosols, with a fractional contribution of 84 ± 16%.

  4. Metagenomic analysis of lacustrine viral diversity along a latitudinal transect of the Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Aguirre de Cárcer, Daniel; López-Bueno, Alberto; Alonso-Lobo, Juan M; Quesada, Antonio; Alcamí, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Environmental viruses constitute the most abundant biological entities on earth, and harbor an enormous genetic diversity. While their strong influence on the ecosystem is widely acknowledged, current knowledge about their diversity and distribution remains limited. Here we present the metagenomic study of viral communities from freshwater bodies located along a transect of the Antarctic Peninsula. These ecosystems were chosen on the basis of environmental and biogeographical variation. The results obtained indicate that the virus assemblages were diverse, and that the larger fraction represented viruses with no close relatives in the databases. Comparisons to existing metaviromes showed that the communities studied were dissimilar to other freshwater viromes including those from the Arctic. Finally, we observed no indication of there being a reduction in either viral richness or diversity estimates with increasing latitude along the studied transect, further adding to the controversy regarding the possible existence of latitudinal gradients of diversity in the microbial world. PMID:27059864

  5. Functional Regeneration Following Spinal Transection Demonstrated in the Isolated Spinal Cord of the Larval Sea Lamprey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A. H.; Mackler, S. A.; Selzer, M. E.

    1986-04-01

    Axons in the larval sea lamprey can regenerate across the site of a spinal cord transection and form functioning synapses with some of their normal target neurons. The animals recover normal-appearing locomotion, but whether the regenerating axons and their synaptic connections are capable of playing a functional role during this behavior is unknown. To test this, ``fictive'' swimming was induced in the isolated spinal cord by the addition of D-glutamate to the bathing solution. Ventral root discharges of segments above and below a healed transection showed a high degree of phase-locking. This strongly suggests that the behavioral recovery is mediated by regenerated functional synaptic connections subserving intersegmental coordination of the central pattern generator for locomotion.

  6. Evaluation of line transect sampling based on remotely sensed data from underwater video

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, R.A.; Anderson, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    We used underwater video in conjunction with the line transect method and a Fourier series estimator to make 13 independent estimates of the density of known populations of bricks lying on the bottom in shallows of Lake Huron. The pooled estimate of density (95.5 bricks per hectare) was close to the true density (89.8 per hectare), and there was no evidence of bias. Confidence intervals for the individual estimates included the true density 85% of the time instead of the nominal 95%. Our results suggest that reliable estimates of the density of objects on a lake bed can be obtained by the use of remote sensing and line transect sampling theory.

  7. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east–west from Virginia to California, and north–south from northern Manitoba to the US–Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba–North Dakota segment of the north–south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  8. A log-linear model approach to estimation of population size using the line-transect sampling method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, K.P.; Crain, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    The technique of estimating wildlife population size and density using the belt or line-transect sampling method has been used in many past projects, such as the estimation of density of waterfowl nestling sites in marshes, and is being used currently in such areas as the assessment of Pacific porpoise stocks in regions of tuna fishing activity. A mathematical framework for line-transect methodology has only emerged in the last 5 yr. In the present article, we extend this mathematical framework to a line-transect estimator based upon a log-linear model approach.

  9. An assessment of natural biotransformation of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents at an aquifer plume transect.

    PubMed

    Skubal, K L; Barcelona, M J; Adriaens, P

    2001-05-01

    Field biogeochemical characterization and laboratory microcosm studies were performed to assess the potential for future biotransformation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene in a plume containing petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents at the former Wurtsmith Air Force Base in Oscoda, MI. In situ terminal electron accepting processes (TEAPs), contaminant composition and microbial phylogeny were studied at a plume transect 100 m downgradient of the source. The presence of reduced electron acceptors, relevant microbial communities, and elevated dissolved methane and carbon dioxide concentrations at the transect, as well as downgradient accumulation of BTEX metabolites and dechlorination products, indicated that past or current reductive dechlorination at the transect was likely driven by BTEX biodegradation in the methanogenic zone. However, TCE and toluene mineralization in sediment-groundwater microcosms without added electron acceptors did not exceed 5% during 300 days of incubation and was nearly invariant with original sediment TEAP, even following amendments of nitrogen and phosphorus. Mineralization rates were on the order of 0.0015-0.03 mumol/g day. After 8 months, microcosms showed evidence of methanogenesis, but CH4 and CO2 production arose from the degradation of contaminants other than toluene. Cis-dichloroethylene was observed in only one methanogenic microcosm after more than 500 days. It appears likely that spatially and temporally dynamic redox zonation at the plume transect will prevent future sustained reductive dehalogenation of highly chlorinated solvents, for during the course of a year, the predominant TEAP at the highly contaminated water table shifted from methanogenesis to iron- and sulfate-reduction. It is recommended that biotransformation studies combine considerations of long-term, spatially relevant changes in redox zonation with laboratory-scale studies of electron donor utilization and cometabolic substrate transformation

  10. Benthic Foraminifera along a depth transect in western Bahrain: seasonal variations and environmental assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Arslan; Kaminski, Michael; Tawabini, Bassam; Ramadan, Khalid Al; Babalola, Lamidi; Frontalini, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    We surveyed living benthic foraminifera in a depth transect off western Bahrain (Arabian Gulf) with the aim of understanding the seasonal population dynamics and environmental parameters. In winter, the population was found to be highest due to the large number of rotaliids, followed by miliolids. In each season, the population was found to increase along the depth transect due to the higher number of juveniles. A strong correlation is observed between foraminiferal population and sediment grain size - the juveniles are most abundant on coarser-sandy substrate. The population decreases in the spring and is lowest in the summer. Finally, the living population recovered again in the autumn with increasing juveniles/adult ratios along the depth transect. Results of species consistency and relative abundance showed that Ammonia was consistent from the shallowest to the deepest station, whereas miliolids started appearing in the deeper stations. The average numbers of Elphidium and Peneroplis also increased along the depth transect. Another seasonal effect is that juveniles of Ammonia tepida are found during each season reflecting its reproduction throughout the year, whereas Brizalina pacifica was only found during spring and autumn. The study of environmental parameters reveals that the site is subjected to eutrophication i.e. nitrates and sulfates, however, pollution by heavy metals and hydrocarbons is not significant. An assessment of 63 heavy metals in sediment samples showed that none of the metals had concentrations higher than the internationally accepted norms, which is further confirmed by values of the Foraminiferal Deformities Index of less than 2%. Likewise, no hydrocarbons were detected in the water or sediment samples. Therefore, it is concluded that the site in Bahrain is not yet adversely affected by human development, and therefore can provide baseline information for future comparison and assessment of foraminiferal assemblages in contaminated zones

  11. Multiple subpial cortical transections for the control of intractable epilepsy in exquisite cortex.

    PubMed

    Dogali, M; Devinsky, O; Luciano, D; Perrine, K; Beric, A

    1993-01-01

    In 5 cases suffering from intractable seizures and ictal onset in exquisite (primary somatosensory or language related) cortex, surgical therapy has been done consisting wholly or in part of multiple subpial transections. In two cases with involvement of the primary somatosensory cortex, good seizure control without detectable neurological deficit was achieved. In the other three cases with involvement of the language cortex, deficits were minimal and cleared with time. Patients became seizure-free. PMID:8109292

  12. Exploring the Biotic Pump Hypothesis along Non-linear Transects in Tropical South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, R.; Bettin, D. M.; Salazar, J. F.; Villegas, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Forests might actively transport atmospheric moisture from the oceans, according to the biotic pump of atmospheric moisture (BiPAM) hypothesis. The BiPAM hypothesis appears to be supported by the fact that precipitation drops exponentially with distance from ocean along non-forested land transects, but not on their forested counterparts. Yet researchers have discussed the difficulty in defining proper transects for BiPAM studies. Previous studies calculate precipitation gradients either along linear transects maximizing distance to the ocean, or along polylines following specific atmospheric pathways (e.g., aerial rivers). In this study we analyzed precipitation gradients along curvilinear streamlines of wind in tropical South America. Wind streamlines were computed using long-term quarterly averages of meridional and zonal wind components from the ERA-Interim and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. Total precipitation along streamlines was obtained from four data sources: TRMM, UDEL, ERA-Interim, and NCEP/NCAR. Precipitation on land versus distance from the ocean was analyzed along selected streamlines for each data source. As predicted by BiPAM, precipitation gradients did not decrease exponentially along streamlines in the vicinity of the Amazon forest, but dropped rapidly as distance from the forest increased. Remarkably, precipitation along streamlines in some areas outside the Amazon forest did not decrease exponentially either. This was possibly owing to convergence of moisture conveyed by low level jets (LLJs) in those areas (e.g., streamlines driven by the Caribbean and CHOCO jets on the Pacific coast of Colombia). Significantly, BiPAM held true even along long transects displaying strong sinuosity. In fact, the general conclusions of previous studies remain valid. Yet effects of LLJs on precipitation gradients need to be thoroughly considered in future BiPAM studies.

  13. Field trials of line transect methods applied to estimation of desert tortoise abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, David R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Thomas, L. E. N.; Corn, Paul Stephen; Medica, Philip A.; Marlow, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    We examine the degree to which field observers can meet the assumptions underlying line transect sampling to monitor populations of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii). We present the results of 2 field trials using artificial tortoise models in 3 size classes. The trials were conducted on 2 occasions on an area south of Las Vegas, Nevada, where the density of the test population was known. In the first trials, conducted largely by experienced biologists who had been involved in tortoise surveys for many years, the density of adult tortoise models was well estimated (-3.9% bias), while the bias was higher (-20%) for subadult tortoise models. The bias for combined data was -12.0%. The bias was largely attributed to the failure to detect all tortoise models on or near the transect centerline. The second trials were conducted with a group of largely inexperienced student volunteers and used somewhat different searching methods, and the results were similar to the first trials. Estimated combined density of subadult and adult tortoise models had a negative bias (-7.3%), again attributable to failure to detect some models on or near the centerline. Experience in desert tortoise biology, either comparing the first and second trials or in the second trial with 2 experienced biologists versus 16 novices, did not have an apparent effect on the quality of the data or the accuracy of the estimates. Observer training, specific to line transect sampling, and field testing are important components of a reliable survey. Line transect sampling represents a viable method for large-scale monitoring of populations of desert tortoise; however, field protocol must be improved to assure the key assumptions are met.

  14. Nitrifier distribution in across channel transects of the Cape Fear Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, R.; Lax, S.; Song, B.; O'Mullan, G. D.

    2013-05-01

    Nitrification, a microbially mediated process involving the two-step oxidization of ammonia to nitrite and then nitrate, is important for understanding the fate of nutrient pollution in coastal ecosystems and provides a linkage to microbial pathways resulting in gaseous nitrogen loss to the atmosphere. This study investigated the diversity and species composition of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and archaea (AOA) in across channel sampling transects of Cape Fear Estuary of North Carolina. DNA was extracted from sediments and the ammonia monooxygenase (amo) genes were amplified, cloned and sequenced. AOA were found to have higher diversity and more widespread distribution than AOB in the estuary. Across channel sediment transects in high salinity regions of the lower estuary revealed nearly uniform distribution of ammonia oxidizers at the level of genera. AOB were dominated by gene sequences mostly similar to Nitrosospira, while all AOA sequences were most similar to Nitrosopumilus. In contrast, sediment samples from across channel transects in the mid and upper estuary were found to have more complex populations of both AOA and AOB suggesting smaller scale spatial heterogeneity that resulted in more complex nitrifier communities. These patterns of nitrifier diversity may be important to interpreting the rates and stability of ammonia oxidation within in the Cape Fear Estuary.

  15. Effective therapy of transected quadriceps muscle in rat: Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    PubMed

    Staresinic, Mario; Petrovic, Igor; Novinscak, Tomislav; Jukic, Ivana; Pevec, Damira; Suknaic, Slaven; Kokic, Neven; Batelja, Lovorka; Brcic, Luka; Boban-Blagaic, Alenka; Zoric, Zdenka; Ivanovic, Domagoj; Ajduk, Marko; Sebecic, Bozidar; Patrlj, Leonardo; Sosa, Tomislav; Buljat, Gojko; Anic, Tomislav; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2006-05-01

    We report complete transection of major muscle and the systemic peptide treatment that induces healing of quadriceps muscle promptly and then maintains the healing with functional restoration. Initially, stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736 Pliva, Croatia; in trials for inflammatory bowel disease; wound treatment; no toxicity reported; effective alone without carrier) also superiorly accelerates the healing of transected Achilles tendon. Regularly, quadriceps muscle completely transected transversely 1.0 cm proximal to patella presents a definitive defect that cannot be compensated in rat. BPC 157 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg/kg) is given intraperitoneally, once daily; the first application 30 min posttransection, the final 24 h before sacrifice. It consistently improves muscle healing throughout the whole 72-day period. Improved are: (i) biomechanic (load of failure increased); (ii) function (walking recovery and extensor postural thrust/motor function index returned toward normal healthy values); (iii) microscopy/immunochemistry [i.e., mostly muscle fibers connect muscle segments; absent gap; significant desmin positivity for ongoing regeneration of muscle; larger myofibril diameters on both sides, distal and proximal (normal healthy rat-values reached)]; (iv) macroscopic presentation (stumps connected; subsequently, atrophy markedly attenuated; finally, presentation close to normal noninjured muscle, no postsurgery leg contracture). Thus, posttransection healing-consistently improved-may suggest this peptide therapeutic application in muscle disorders. PMID:16609979

  16. Abundance estimation of long-diving animals using line transect methods.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Hiroshi; Minamikawa, Shingo; Skaug, Hans J; Kishiro, Toshiya

    2012-06-01

    Line transect sampling is one of the most widely used methods for estimating the size of wild animal populations. An assumption in standard line transect sampling is that all the animals on the trackline are detected without fail. This assumption tends to be violated for marine mammals with surfacing/diving behaviors. The detection probability on the trackline is estimated using duplicate sightings from double-platform line transect methods. The double-platform methods, however, are insufficient to estimate the abundance of long-diving animals because these animals can be completely missed while the observers pass. We developed a more flexible hazard probability model that incorporates information on surfacing/diving patterns obtained from telemetry data. The model is based on a stochastic point process and is statistically tractable. A simulation study showed that the new model provides near-unbiased abundance estimates, whereas the traditional hazard rate and hazard probability models produce considerably biased estimates. As an illustration, we applied the model to data on the Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii) in the western North Pacific. PMID:21992225

  17. Decoding hindlimb movement for a brain machine interface after a complete spinal transection.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Anitha; Flint, Robert D; Knudsen, Eric; Moxon, Karen A

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypical locomotor movements can be made without input from the brain after a complete spinal transection. However, the restoration of functional gait requires descending modulation of spinal circuits to independently control the movement of each limb. To evaluate whether a brain-machine interface (BMI) could be used to regain conscious control over the hindlimb, rats were trained to press a pedal and the encoding of hindlimb movement was assessed using a BMI paradigm. Off-line, information encoded by neurons in the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex was assessed. Next neural population functions, or weighted representations of the neuronal activity, were used to replace the hindlimb movement as a trigger for reward in real-time (on-line decoding) in three conditions: while the animal could still press the pedal, after the pedal was removed and after a complete spinal transection. A novel representation of the motor program was learned when the animals used neural control to achieve water reward (e.g. more information was conveyed faster). After complete spinal transection, the ability of these neurons to convey information was reduced by more than 40%. However, this BMI representation was relearned over time despite a persistent reduction in the neuronal firing rate during the task. Therefore, neural control is a general feature of the motor cortex, not restricted to forelimb movements, and can be regained after spinal injury. PMID:23300606

  18. Links between viruses and prokaryotes throughout the water column along a North Atlantic latitudinal transect.

    PubMed

    De Corte, Daniele; Sintes, Eva; Yokokawa, Taichi; Reinthaler, Thomas; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2012-08-01

    Viruses are an abundant, diverse and dynamic component of marine ecosystems and have a key role in the biogeochemical processes of the ocean by controlling prokaryotic and phytoplankton abundance and diversity. However, most of the studies on virus-prokaryote interactions in marine environments have been performed in nearshore waters. To assess potential variations in the relation between viruses and prokaryotes in different oceanographic provinces, we determined viral and prokaryotic abundance and production throughout the water column along a latitudinal transect in the North Atlantic. Depth-related trends in prokaryotic and viral abundance (both decreasing by one order of magnitude from epi- to abyssopelagic waters), and prokaryotic production (decreasing by three orders of magnitude) were observed along the latitudinal transect. The virus-to-prokaryote ratio (VPR) increased from ~19 in epipelagic to ~53 in the bathy- and abyssopelagic waters. Although the lytic viral production decreased significantly with depth, the lysogenic viral production did not vary with depth. In bathypelagic waters, pronounced differences in prokaryotic and viral abundance were found among different oceanic provinces with lower leucine incorporation rates and higher VPRs in the North Atlantic Gyre province than in the provinces further north and south. The percentage of lysogeny increased from subpolar regions toward the more oligotrophic lower latitudes. Based on the observed trends over this latitudinal transect, we conclude that the viral-host interactions significantly change among different oceanic provinces in response to changes in the biotic and abiotic variables. PMID:22258100

  19. Occupational hepatic disorders in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Ryoul; Kim, Tae Woo

    2010-12-01

    Occupational hepatic disorders are classified into toxic hepatitis, viral hepatitis, and chemical-induced malignancy in Korea. Toxic hepatitis cases were reported in workers who were exposed to dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, or trichloroethylene. Pre-placement medical examination and regular follow-up are necessary to prevent the development of toxic hepatitis. Viral hepatitis was chiefly reported among health care workers such as doctors, nurses and clinical pathology technicians who could easily be exposed to blood. Preventive measures for these groups therefore include vaccination and serum monitoring programs. Hepatic angiosarcoma caused by vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) exposure is a very well known occupational disease and it has not been officially reported in Korea yet. Some cases of hepatocellular carcinoma were legally approved for compensation as an occupational disease largely by overwork and stress, but not supported by enough scientific evidence. Effort to find the evidence of its causal relationship is needed. PMID:21258588

  20. Current approach in diagnosis and management of anterior uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rupesh V; Murthy, Somasheila; Sangwan, Virender; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2010-01-01

    Uveitis is composed of a diverse group of disease entities, which in total has been estimated to cause approximately 10% of blindness. Uveitis is broadly classified into anterior, intermediate, posterior and panuveitis based on the anatomical involvement of the eye. Anterior uveitis is, however, the commonest form of uveitis with varying incidences reported in worldwide literature. Anterior uveitis can be very benign to present with but often can lead to severe morbidity if not treated appropriately. The present article will assist ophthalmologists in accurately diagnosing anterior uveitis, improving the quality of care rendered to patients with anterior uveitis, minimizing the adverse effects of anterior uveitis, developing a decision-making strategy for management of patients at risk of permanent visual loss from anterior uveitis, informing and educating patients and other healthcare practitioners about the visual complications, risk factors, and treatment options associated with anterior uveitis. PMID:20029142

  1. Magnetopause Transects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnerup, B. U. O; Guo, M.

    1996-01-01

    A novel method is described for reconstruction of two-dimensional current-layer structures from measurements taken by a single spacecraft traversing the layer. In its present form, the method is applicable only to 2D magnetohydrostatic structures that are passively convected past the observing spacecraft. It is tested on a magnetopause crossing of the tangential-discontinuity type by the spacecraft AMPTE/IRM. The magnetic structures recovered include a magnetic island located between two X-type nulls as well as a magnetic 'worm hole' through which a bundle of weak magnetic flux appears to connect the magnetosphere and the magnetosheath.

  2. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... The hepatitis B vaccination is a non-infectious, vaccine prepared from recombinant yeast cultures, rather than human blood or plasma. There is no risk of contamination from other bloodborne pathogens nor is there any ... from the vaccine. The vaccine must be administered according to the ...

  3. The transect method: a novel approach to on-farm welfare assessment of commercial turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Marchewka, Joanna; Estevez, Inma; Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Ferrante, Valentina; Makagon, Maja M.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, no animal-based protocol for on-farm welfare assessment of commercial turkeys is available. The birds’ size and flighty nature make obtaining a representative sample using traditional methods difficult. The transect walks (TW) approach provides a potential alternative for on-farm assessments of turkey welfare. We compared the TW approach with a traditional method, and data collected as the birds were moved out of the house during the load out process (L). Ten commercial 19- to 20-week-old Hybrid turkey flocks were evaluated (1 flock/house/farm). Half of the flocks were housed on farms deemed as “faring well” by the company, the other half were on “suboptimal” farms. Each house was subdivided longitudinally into 4 transects. Two observers walked the transects in random order, recording the total number of birds per transect that were immobile; lame; aggressive towards a mate; interacting with humans; with visible head, vent, or back wounds; engaging in mounting behaviors; small; featherless; dirty; sick; terminal; or dead. Flocks were re-evaluated on the same day using the individual sampling method (S), where randomly selected birds were scored as they took 10 steps. Flocks were re-assessed within 48 h of the transect evaluation, as birds were funneled out of the house during load out. Using ANOVAs we determined the effects of observers, method, management, and their interactions on proportions of turkeys per house within each category. Outcome parameters were not affected by management (P > 0.05 for all) or observer (P > 0.05 for most), but an assessment method effect was detected (P < 0.05). S differed from the 2 other methods (P < 0.05) for most parameters except aggression towards a mate, back wounds, dirty, sick, and vent wounds. Differences were not detected between data collected using TW and during L, except for dead (P = 0.0007) and immobile (P = 0.007). Results suggest that the TW method is a promising tool for on-farm turkey welfare

  4. Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative risk factors for anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic low anterior resection with double stapling technique anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Kenji; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Anastomotic leakage (AL) is one of the most devastating complications after rectal cancer surgery. The double stapling technique has greatly facilitated intestinal reconstruction especially for anastomosis after low anterior resection (LAR). Risk factor analyses for AL after open LAR have been widely reported. However, a few studies have analyzed the risk factors for AL after laparoscopic LAR. Laparoscopic rectal surgery provides an excellent operative field in a narrow pelvic space, and enables total mesorectal excision surgery and preservation of the autonomic nervous system with greater precision. However, rectal transection using a laparoscopic linear stapler is relatively difficult compared with open surgery because of the width and limited performance of the linear stapler. Moreover, laparoscopic LAR exhibits a different postoperative course compared with open LAR, which suggests that the risk factors for AL after laparoscopic LAR may also differ from those after open LAR. In this review, we will discuss the risk factors for AL after laparoscopic LAR. PMID:27433085

  5. Extracellular matrix-blood composite injection reduces post-traumatic osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Proffen, Benedikt L; Sieker, Jakob T; Murray, Martha M; Akelman, Matthew R; Chin, Kaitlyn E; Perrone, Gabriel S; Patel, Tarpit K; Fleming, Braden C

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if an injection of a novel extracellular matrix scaffold and blood composite (EMBC) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury would have a mitigating effect on post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) development in rat knees. Lewis rats underwent unilateral ACL transection and were divided into three groups as follows: (1) no further treatment (ACLT; n = 10); (2) an intra-articular injection of EMBC on day 0 (INJ0; n = 11); and (3) an intra-articular injection of EMBC on day 14 (INJ14; n = 11). Ten additional animals received capsulotomy only (n = 10, SHAM group). The OARSI histology scoring of the tibial cartilage and micro-CT of the tibial epiphysis were performed after 35 days. The ratio of intact/treated hind limb forces during gait was determined using a variable resistor walkway. The OARSI cartilage degradation sum score and total degeneration width were significantly greater in the ACLT group when compared to the INJ0 (p = 0.031, and p = 0.005) and INJ14 (p = 0.022 and p = 0.04) group. Weight bearing on the operated limb only decreased significantly in the ACLT group (p = 0.048). In the rat ACL transection model, early or delayed injection of EMBC ameliorated the significant decrease in weight bearing and cartilage degradation seen in knees subjected to ACL transection without injection. The results indicate that the injection of EMBC may slow the process of PTOA following ACL injury and may provide a promising treatment for PTOA. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:995-1003, 2016. PMID:26629963

  6. Anterior Insular Cortex and Emotional Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaosi; Hof, Patrick R.; Friston, Karl J.; Fan, Jin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the foundation for a role of the human anterior insular cortex (AIC) in emotional awareness, defined as the conscious experience of emotions. We first introduce the neuroanatomical features of AIC and existing findings on emotional awareness. Using empathy, the awareness and understanding of other people’s emotional states, as a test case, we then present evidence to demonstrate: 1) AIC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated as revealed by a meta-analysis, 2) AIC is functionally dissociable from ACC, 3) AIC integrates stimulus-driven and top-down information, and 4) AIC is necessary for emotional awareness. We propose a model in which AIC serves two major functions: integrating bottom-up interoceptive signals with top-down predictions to generate a current awareness state and providing descending predictions to visceral systems that provide a point of reference for autonomic reflexes. We argue that AIC is critical and necessary for emotional awareness. PMID:23749500

  7. Anterior insular cortex and emotional awareness.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaosi; Hof, Patrick R; Friston, Karl J; Fan, Jin

    2013-10-15

    This paper reviews the foundation for a role of the human anterior insular cortex (AIC) in emotional awareness, defined as the conscious experience of emotions. We first introduce the neuroanatomical features of AIC and existing findings on emotional awareness. Using empathy, the awareness and understanding of other people's emotional states, as a test case, we then present evidence to demonstrate: 1) AIC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated as revealed by a meta-analysis, 2) AIC is functionally dissociable from ACC, 3) AIC integrates stimulus-driven and top-down information, and 4) AIC is necessary for emotional awareness. We propose a model in which AIC serves two major functions: integrating bottom-up interoceptive signals with top-down predictions to generate a current awareness state and providing descending predictions to visceral systems that provide a point of reference for autonomic reflexes. We argue that AIC is critical and necessary for emotional awareness. PMID:23749500

  8. Flap Coverage of Anterior Abdominal Wall Defects

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Justin M.; Broyles, Justin M.; Baumann, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of complex defects of the anterior abdomen is both challenging and technically demanding for reconstructive surgeons. Advancements in the use of pedicle and free tissue transfer along with the use of bioprosthetic and synthetic meshes have provided for novel approaches to these complex defects. Accordingly, detailed knowledge of abdominal wall and lower extremity anatomy in combination with insight into the design, implementation, and limitations of various flaps is essential to solve these complex clinical problems. Although these defects can be attributed to a myriad of etiologic factors, the objectives in abdominal wall reconstruction are consistent and include the restoration of abdominal wall integrity, protection of intraabdominal viscera, and the prevention of herniation. In this article, the authors review pertinent anatomy and the various local, regional, and distant flaps that can be utilized in the reconstruction of these complex clinical cases of the anterior abdomen. PMID:23372457

  9. Cataract Surgery in Anterior Megalophthalmos: A Review

    PubMed Central

    GALVIS, Virgilio; TELLO, Alejandro; M. RANGEL, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Anterior megalophthalmos is characterized by megalocornea associated with a very broad anterior chamber and ciliary ring elongation. It is also called X-linked megalocornea. It is accompanied by early development of cataracts, zonular anomalies, and, rarely, vitreoretinal disorders. Subluxation of a cataract can occur in cataract surgery because of zonular weakness. In addition, in most patients, standard intraocular lens (IOL) decentration is a risk because of the enlarged sulcus and capsular bag. These unique circumstances make cataract surgery challenging. To date, several approaches have been developed. Implantation of a retropupillary iris-claw aphakic intraocular lens may be a good option because it is easier than suturing the IOL and can have better and more stable anatomic and visual outcomes, compared to other techniques. PMID:27350950

  10. Anterior mediastinal presentation of a giant angiomyolipoma.

    PubMed

    Amir, Afzal M I; Zeebregts, Clark J; Mulder, H Jan

    2004-12-01

    Angiomyolipomas are benign, solitary, noninvasive lesions that most often arise in the kidney. Extrarenal manifestations of these tumors include the skin, oropharynx, the abdominal wall, retroperitoneum, gastrointestinal tract, heart, lung, liver, uterus, penis, and spinal cord. We report a patient with a giant angiomyolipoma located in the anterior mediastinum. We believe this is the seventh reported case of mediastinal angiomyolipoma and the largest reported by size. It is the second reported lesion to arise in the anterior mediastinum. Distinction from other pulmonary or thoracic masses relies on the appreciation of the unique and characteristic histologic features of these mediastinal angiomyolipomas. We conclude that, although rare, angiomyolipoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a mediastinal tumor. PMID:15561061

  11. Risk of hepatitis B transmission after amniocentesis in chronic hepatitis B carriers.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, J M; Ramus, R; Jackson, G; Sercely, B; Wendel, G D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the risk of perinatal transmission of HBV in chronic carriers who undergo amniocentesis. METHODS: This was a prospective, longitudinal study from 1990 to 1995 of women who were HBV carriers and underwent amniocentesis. The infants of these women were followed from birth to one year of age. Maternal data examined included HBV antigen and antibody status, liver function tests (LFTs) and the amniocentesis report. RESULTS: Twenty-eight women were identified. Two of 28 neonates were stillborn unrelated to hepatitis. Five infants were lost to follow-up leaving 21 mother-child pairs to evaluate. All 21 women were chronic HBV carriers at the time of amniocentesis for delivery. No mother had abnormal LFTs, and only one of 21 women was positive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). Thirteen amniocenteses were for advanced maternal age, and four were for abnormal maternal serum alphafetoprotein (MSAFP) screening. None of the amniocenteses were recorded as bloody, and the placenta was anterior in 6 of 21 procedures. None of the 21 infants (95% CI: 0-16.8%) were positive for HbsAg during the first month of life or at 12 months of age. All infants received HBV vaccine and HBIG immunoprophylaxis. CONCLUSION: The risk of transmission of HBV to the fetus after amniocentesis in women who are HBV carriers is low. Immunoprophylaxis in these infants was successful. PMID:10598917

  12. Use of the transect method in satellite survey missions with application to the infrared astronomical satellite /IRAS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, W. I.; Lundy, S. A.; Ling, H. Y.; Stroberg, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    The coverage of the celestial sphere or the surface of the earth with a narrow-field instrument onboard a satellite can be described by a set of swaths on the sphere. A transect is a curve on this sphere constructed to sample the coverage. At each point on the transect the number of times that the field-of-view of the instrument has passed over the point is recorded. This information is conveniently displayed as an integer-valued histogram over the length of the transect. The effectiveness of the transect method for a particular observing plan and the best placement of the transects depends upon the structure of the set of observations. Survey missions are usually characterized by a somewhat parallel alignment of the instrument swaths. Using autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions among the histograms the structure of a survey has been analyzed into two components, and each is illustrated by a simple mathematical model. The complex, all-sky survey to be performed by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) is synthesized in some detail utilizing the objectives and constraints of that mission. It is seen that this survey possesses the components predicted by the simple models and this information is useful in characterizing the properties of the IRAS survey and the placement of the transects as a function of celestial latitude and certain structural properties of the coverage.

  13. Comparison between surgical and standing percutaneous contact Nd:YAG laser periosteal transection for potential treatment of equine limb deformities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Lloyd P.; Baines, Steven J.; Meuten, Donald J.; Stefanacci, J.

    1994-09-01

    Medial and lateral aspects of both radiuses were subjected to periosteal transection of nine healthy equine foals. One site per foal was subjected to surgical periosteal transection and elevation under general anesthesia. The remaining three sites of each foal after injection of a local anesthetic received Nd:YAG contact percutaneous periosteal transection. All radiuses were evaluated radiographically prior to periosteal transection and immediately prior to euthanasia. Foals were euthanized at 3 days, 31 to 34 days, and 67 days post-periosteal transection and gross postmortem and histologic examination performed on each site. Radiographically, periosteal proliferation occurred at all the conventional surgery sites and a majority of the percutaneous laser sites by 30 days post-treatment and was present at 67 days. No limb angulations were noted to occur in any of the foals. The conclusion of the study was that Nd:YAG percutaneous laser periosteal transection was successful in producing periosteal obliteration but with a different histologic appearance than that produced by conventional surgery.

  14. Anorgasmia in anterior spinal cord syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Berić, A; Light, J K

    1993-01-01

    Three male and two female patients with anorgasmia and dissociated sensory loss due to an anterior spinal cord syndrome are described. Clinical, neurophysiological and quantitative sensory evaluation revealed preservation of the large fibre dorsal column functions from the lumbosacral segments with concomitant severe dysfunction or absence of the small fibre neospinothalamic mediated functions. These findings indicate a role for the spinothalamic system in orgasm. PMID:8505649

  15. Anorgasmia in anterior spinal cord syndrome.

    PubMed

    Berić, A; Light, J K

    1993-05-01

    Three male and two female patients with anorgasmia and dissociated sensory loss due to an anterior spinal cord syndrome are described. Clinical, neurophysiological and quantitative sensory evaluation revealed preservation of the large fibre dorsal column functions from the lumbosacral segments with concomitant severe dysfunction or absence of the small fibre neospinothalamic mediated functions. These findings indicate a role for the spinothalamic system in orgasm. PMID:8505649

  16. The Anterior Approach for Total Hip Replacement.

    PubMed

    Hochfelder, Jason P; Davidovitch, Roy I

    2016-03-01

    The anterior approach for total hip replacements has recently gained popularity. Some authors report faster recoveries and decreased dislocation rated with no increased risk of complications. However others claim no difference in outcomes when compared to other approaches yet an increase in complication rates. This paper provides a brief history of the approach, discusses various indications and contraindications, preoperative considerations, surgical techniques, and postoperative protocols. PMID:26977549

  17. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Thienpont, Bernard; Vermeesch, Joris; Devriendt, Koen

    2006-07-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis or hairy throat is a rare dysmorphic sign described in a total of 19 patients so far. The association with a number of additional features has been reported, including mental retardation. We report on another patient with this condition who also had moderate mental retardation, mildly dysmorphic facial features, obesity, hypermetropia and additional hair anomalies (low dorsal hair line on the neck, lumbosacral hypertrichosis). Karyotype and array comparative genomic hybridization analysis at 1 Mb resolution were normal. PMID:16760744

  18. Glandular Odontogenic Cyst of the Anterior Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Srinivasa Pathapati; Reddy, Sridhar Padala; Ananthnag, Jakkula

    2015-01-01

    Context: Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare cyst occurring in the middle-age people with mandibular anterior as the common site of occurrence. Case Report: We report a case of massive GOC in a 65-year-old female with an emphasis on its clinical course, histological features, and treatment modalities. Conclusion: The aggressiveness and recurrences of GOC warrants clinicians for the careful examination, treatment, and long-term follow-up. PMID:25789251

  19. Cervical vertebral fusion with anterior meningocele

    PubMed Central

    Chavredakis, Emmanuel; Carter, David; Bhojak, Manesh; Jenkinson, Michael D; Clark, Simon R

    2015-01-01

    We present the first described case of cervical vertebral fusion associated with anterior meningocele and syringomyelia. A 45-year-old woman presented with minor trauma, and plain cervical spine radiographs highlighted a congenital deformity of the cervical vertebral bodies. She had a normal neurological examination; however, further imaging revealed a meningocele and syringomyelia. This case highlights the importance of thorough imaging investigation when presented with a congenital deformity in order to detect and prevent development of degenerative spinal cord pathologies. PMID:25923673

  20. Dengue causing fulminant hepatitis in a hepatitis B virus carrier.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, M P; Giri, S; Sharma, V; Roy, U; Gharsangi, K

    2011-01-01

    Dengue is an acute febrile illness resulting from infection by a flavivirus transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. It is characterized by bleeding manifestations and a plasma leak syndrome. Hepatic involvement in the form of elevation in transaminases is common. However, acute hepatic failure is uncommon. It is not known how the presence of an underlying chronic hepatitis or liver disease affects the likelihood of severity of hepatitis from dengue. The present report is of a 33-year-old man, a carrier of hepatitis B virus, who presented with fever, altered sensorium, thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathy. He was diagnosed to have developed acute hepatic failure due to dengue. The patient improved with supportive measures. PMID:21422600

  1. Anterior segment dysgenesis in mosaic Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, I; Haigh, P; Clayton-Smith, J; Clayton, P; Price, D; Ridgway, A; Donnai, D

    1997-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Females with Turner syndrome commonly exhibit ophthalmological abnormalities, although there is little information in the literature documenting findings specific to Turner syndrome mosaics. Ophthalmic findings are described in four patients with mosaic Turner syndrome. All had anterior chamber abnormalities and all four had karyotypic abnormalities with a 45, X cell line. The possible relation between the karyotypic and the phenotypic findings in these patients is discussed.
METHODS—Four girls with mosaic Turner syndrome underwent a full ophthalmological assessment, including examination under anaesthesia where indicated.
RESULTS—Three of the four patients presented with congenital glaucoma. Two had the karyotype 45, X/46, X, idic(Y) and one a 45, X/47, XXX karyotype. The remaining child had a Rieger malformation of the iris and the karyotype 45, X/46, X, r(X).
CONCLUSIONS—These findings suggest that Turner syndrome mosaicism (where there are two abnormal cell lines) is associated with anterior segment dysgenesis. The findings in these four patients are compared with those seen in other mosaic phenotypes and it is postulated that the presence of two or more genetically different cell lines may have an adverse effect on anterior segment development.

 PMID:9349149

  2. The thoracic anterior spinal cord adhesion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, T R; Dineen, R; White, B; Jaspan, T

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study included a series of middle-aged male and female patients who presented with chronic anterior hemicord dysfunction progressing to paraplegia. Imaging of anterior thoracic cord displacement by either a dural adhesion or a dural defect with associated cord herniation is presented. Methods This is a retrospective review of cases referred to a tertiary neuroscience centre over a 19-year period. Imaging series were classified by two experienced neuroradiologists against several criteria and correlated with clinical examination and/or findings at surgery. Results 16 cases were available for full review. Nine were considered to represent adhesions (four confirmed surgically) and four to represent true herniation (three confirmed surgically). In the three remaining cases the diagnosis was radiologically uncertain. Conclusion The authors propose “thoracic anterior spinal cord adhesion syndrome” as a novel term to describe this patient cohort and suggest appropriate clinicoradiological features for diagnosis. Several possible aetiologies are also suggested, with disc rupture and inflammation followed by disc resorption and dural pocket formation being a possible mechanism predisposing to herniation at the extreme end of a clinicopathological spectrum. PMID:22665931

  3. Hepatitis E in India.

    PubMed

    Tomar, B S

    1998-01-01

    Institute of Pediatric Gastroenterology is superspecialised referral institute for all Pediatric Gastroenterological diseases from all over the country and for adjoining countries. We have our data and experience on 10,500 cases of proven Hepatitis E (HEV) in Pediatric population. HEV is non-enveloped 27-30 nm diameter RNA virus, prototype for alpha-like supergroup of positive stranded RNA virus. Indian HEV strain has 97% nucleotide and 98% amino acid sequence identity with Chinese strains but much diversity with Mexican strain. More than 70% acute hepatitis occurring in Pediatric population in this subcontinent are caused by HEV and 80% of these are sporadic. 90% cases were enterically transmitted, spread primarily by fecally contaminated drinking water (70%) and by food (20%), in 9.5% case spread probably was because of person to person and household contact. We could demonstrate HEV in urine, respiratory secretions. Interestingly we found HEV in insects like Flies, Cockroaches, and also in engorged Bedbugs and in Mosquitoes, apart from briefly boiled Mussels, and partially cooked cockles. Maternal-neonatal transmission could be seen if mother had HEV infection in third trimester of pregnancy. In 5 cases we could demonstrate HEV in breast milk. By studying on 10 volunteers, 40% have anicteric form only accompanied by anorexia, epigastric pain. HEV appeared in serum before the icteric phase. Shedding of virus in stool starts before the icteric phase and continued during the high levels of abnormal ALT. Hepatitis IgG anti-HEV persist up to 4 years. In 5 cases we could establish Transfusion associated Hepatitis (TAH). No chronicity could be documented. 5% cases had fulminant viral Hepatitis (FVH)/Sub fulminant viral Hepatitis (SVH), alpha-interferon (IFN) has been proved beneficial in these cases, further use of intravenous PGEl could also be beneficial. Inadequate chlorination of drinking water was an important additional factor for causing epidemics. A free

  4. [Hepatitis C in Spain].

    PubMed

    Bruguera, Miguel; Forns, Xavier

    2006-06-17

    Spain has a medium endemicity of hepatitic C infection among central Europe countries and Italy. Prevalence of anti-HCV varies among regions and it ranges from 1.6 to 2.6%, which means that there may be between 480,000 and 760,000 people infected with hepatitis C virus in Spain. The prevalence is very low in people under 20 years of age and it increases from age 30 years. Prisoners and drug addicts have the highest infectious rates, between 40 and 98%. Some populations of immigrants also have a high prevalence of HCV infection, especially people from Asia and sub-Saharan countries, whereas people from Latin America have rates lower than those in the autochtones population. Spanish people with chronic hepatitis C were mainly infected via blood transfusions, IV drug use, or during some medical and surgical hospitalization. The reduction in the use of IV drugs and the programs of needle sharing, as well as the eradication of post-transfusional hepatitis, have led to a progressive reduction in the incidence of new infections (from 6.8 per 100,000 in-habitants in 1997 to 2.3 in 2003). Preliminary data suggest that an important rate of new hepatitis C cases owe to nosocomial transmission. Transmission is almost exclusively vertical in children. In spite of a two-third reduction of incident cases of hepatitis C in Spain in last few years, it is foreseeable that the number of patients with advanced HCV liver disease attended in the health-care system will increase in forthcoming years. This is due to the fact that many, still undiagnosed patients will be likely recognized for the first time as a result of some complication of the disease. All efforts to increase the screening of hidden cases of hepatitis C in primary health-care centers, allowing a prompt treatment before an advanced stage, will have a beneficial impact both in economic and social terms. PMID:16828003

  5. Functional Outcomes of Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Tibialis Anterior Allograft

    PubMed Central

    Başar, Selda; Büyükafşar, Enes; Hazar, Zeynep; Ataoğlu, Baybars; Kanatlı, Ulunay

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Allografts have potential advantages in primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), including the absence of donor site morbidity, shorter operative times, improved cosmesis, and easier rehabilitation. There is limited and conflicting outcome data for ACLR with tibialis anterior allograft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of ACLR with tibialis anterior allograft. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients underwent ACLR using with tibialis anterior allograft between 2005 and 2013. Totally 12 patients who were performed suspensory fixation technique were included in this study (range: 25-43 years). Exclusion criteria included double bundle, bone tendon bone technique and revision surgery. Clinical outcomes were measured by subject part of International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm scores. Results: A significant increase was reported in all the clinical scores. In particular, the IKDC-subjective score increased from a basal value of 45.5±12.7 to 84.3±5.50 at the 12 months' evaluation (p<0.05). The Lysholm score revealed a significant improvement from 49.7±14.2 to 83.5±20.5 at the 12 months' evaluation (p<0.05). Conclusion: ACLR with tibialis anterior allograft is an effective treatment for correcting loss of function and increasing quality of life.

  6. Gas hydrate drilling transect across northern Cascadia margin - IODP Expedition 311

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riedel, M.; Collett, T.; Malone, M.J.; Collett, T.S.; Mitchell, M.; Guerin, G.; Akiba, F.; Blanc-Valleron, M.; Ellis, M.; Hashimoto, Y.; Heuer, V.; Higashi, Y.; Holland, M.; Jackson, P.D.; Kaneko, M.; Kastner, M.; Kim, J.-H.; Kitajima, H.; Long, P.E.; Malinverno, A.; Myers, Gwen E.; Palekar, L.D.; Pohlman, J.; Schultheiss, P.; Teichert, B.; Torres, M.E.; Trehu, A.M.; Wang, Jingyuan; Worthmann, U.G.; Yoshioka, H.

    2009-01-01

    A transect of four sites (U1325, U1326, U1327 and U1329) across the northern Cascadia margin was established during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 311 to study the occurrence and formation of gas hydrate in accretionary complexes. In addition to the transect sites, a fifth site (U1328) was established at a cold vent with active fluid flow. The four transect sites represent different typical geological environments of gas hydrate occurrence across the northern Cascadia margin from the earliest occurrence on the westernmost first accreted ridge (Site U1326) to the eastward limit of the gas hydrate occurrence in shallower water (Site U1329). Expedition 311 complements previous gas hydrate studies along the Cascadia accretionary complex, especially ODP Leg 146 and Leg 204 by extending the aperture of the transect sampled and introducing new tools to systematically quantify the gas hydrate content of the sediments. Among the most significant findings of the expedition was the occurrence of up to 20 m thick sand-rich turbidite intervals with gas hydrate concentrations locally exceeding 50% of the pore space at Sites U1326 and U1327. Moreover, these anomalous gas hydrate intervals occur at unexpectedly shallow depths of 50-120 metres below seafloor, which is the opposite of what was expected from previous models of gas hydrate formation in accretionary complexes, where gas hydrate was predicted to be more concentrated near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone just above the bottom-simulating reflector. Gas hydrate appears to be mainly concentrated in turbidite sand layers. During Expedition 311, the visual correlation of gas hydrate with sand layers was clearly and repeatedly documented, strongly supporting the importance of grain size in controlling gas hydrate occurrence. The results from the transect sites provide evidence for a structurally complex, lithology-controlled gas hydrate environment on the northern Cascadia margin. Local shallow

  7. Deformation in the Bolivian Subandes: a reconstruction of geologic structures along two transects across the Andean Front in Southern Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadeen, Xennephone; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Bolivian Subandes is a highly tectonically active region in the Andes since deformation began approx. 10 Ma ago. The study area is located in the Southern Bolivian Subandes southwest of Santa Cruz. Observations were taken along two transects with each being around 100 km long. They stretch from the Subandes-Interandean boundary into the Chaco Plain. The northern transect extends from Abapó in the Chaco Plain and it continues west near Vallegrande and ends just west of Pucara near La Higuera. The southern transect initiates near Charagua in the Chaco Plain. Then it continues west through Villa Vaca Guzmán and ends around 25 km west of Monteagudo. Structural and stratigraphic data were collected along the two transects. The locations of major geologic structures such as thrust faults, anticlines and synclines were mapped. The map along with the data from the two cross sections was then used to generate a 3D model of the Subandean fold and thrust belt between Abapó and Monteagudo. The cross sections were than restored to quantify the amount of shortening that had occurred over the past 10 million years. The southern transect has undergone 65 km of shortening while 50 to 80 km of shortening have transpired along the less constrain northern transect. The estimated rate of deformation averages at 8 mm/yr. The timing of deformation may differ between the two transects. Deformation may have initiated earlier or undergone at a faster rate in the northern transect than in the southern transect. It is also possible that the decollement is shallower in the western portion of the northern transect. We observe that the east propagating anticlines verge to the west. This may be due to the anticlines being cut by exposed or blind thrust faults and then rotated counterclockwise. They rotate while piggybacking on younger thrust faults that developed and propagate to the east of the anticlines. We postulate deformation continues to propagate eastward into the Chaco

  8. Microbial nitrogen dynamics in organic and mineral soil horizons along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Knoltsch, Anna; Takriti, Mounir; Mooshammer, Maria; Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Alves, Ricardo J Eloy; Gittel, Antje; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Richter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil N availability is constrained by the breakdown of N-containing polymers such as proteins to oligopeptides and amino acids that can be taken up by plants and microorganisms. Excess N is released from microbial cells as ammonium (N mineralization), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification. According to stoichiometric theory, N mineralization and nitrification are expected to increase in relation to protein depolymerization with decreasing N limitation, and thus from higher to lower latitudes and from topsoils to subsoils. To test these hypotheses, we compared gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification (determined using 15N pool dilution assays) in organic topsoil, mineral topsoil, and mineral subsoil of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia, from tundra (67°N) to steppe (54°N). The investigated ecosystems differed strongly in N transformation rates, with highest protein depolymerization and N mineralization rates in middle and southern taiga. All N transformation rates decreased with soil depth following the decrease in organic matter content. Related to protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification were significantly higher in mineral than in organic horizons, supporting a decrease in microbial N limitation with depth. In contrast, we did not find indications for a decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate ecosystems along the transect. Our findings thus challenge the perception of ubiquitous N limitation at high latitudes, but suggest a transition from N to C limitation of microorganisms with soil depth, even in high-latitude systems such as tundra and boreal forest. Key Points We compared soil N dynamics of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transectShifts in N dynamics suggest a decrease in microbial N limitation with depthWe found no decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate zones PMID:26693204

  9. Bird Radar Validation in the Field by Time-Referencing Line-Transect Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Dokter, Adriaan M.; Baptist, Martin J.; Ens, Bruno J.; Krijgsveld, Karen L.; van Loon, E. Emiel

    2013-01-01

    Track-while-scan bird radars are widely used in ornithological studies, but often the precise detection capabilities of these systems are unknown. Quantification of radar performance is essential to avoid observational biases, which requires practical methods for validating a radar’s detection capability in specific field settings. In this study a method to quantify the detection capability of a bird radar is presented, as well a demonstration of this method in a case study. By time-referencing line-transect surveys, visually identified birds were automatically linked to individual tracks using their transect crossing time. Detection probabilities were determined as the fraction of the total set of visual observations that could be linked to radar tracks. To avoid ambiguities in assigning radar tracks to visual observations, the observer’s accuracy in determining a bird’s transect crossing time was taken into account. The accuracy was determined by examining the effect of a time lag applied to the visual observations on the number of matches found with radar tracks. Effects of flight altitude, distance, surface substrate and species size on the detection probability by the radar were quantified in a marine intertidal study area. Detection probability varied strongly with all these factors, as well as species-specific flight behaviour. The effective detection range for single birds flying at low altitude for an X-band marine radar based system was estimated at ∼1.5 km. Within this range the fraction of individual flying birds that were detected by the radar was 0.50±0.06 with a detection bias towards higher flight altitudes, larger birds and high tide situations. Besides radar validation, which we consider essential when quantification of bird numbers is important, our method of linking radar tracks to ground-truthed field observations can facilitate species-specific studies using surveillance radars. The methodology may prove equally useful for optimising

  10. Selective sparing of later-born ganglion cells after neonatal transection of the infraorbital nerve.

    PubMed

    White, F A; Chiaia, N L; McCann, P; Enfiejian, H L; MacDonald, G J; Bennett-Clarke, C A; Rhoades, R W

    1993-05-01

    A combination of [3H]thymidine labelling and retrograde tracing with either horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or true blue (TB) was used to determine whether V primary afferent neurons born on different embryonic (E) days were differentially susceptible to neonatal transection of the infraorbital nerve (ION). In one experiment, rat fetuses were exposed to [3H]thymidine on E-8.5, 9.5, 10.5, 11.5, 12.5, 13.5, 14.5, or 15.5, the left infraorbital nerve (ION) was transected on the day of birth, and both the regenerate and intact IONs were labelled with HRP when the animals reached adulthood. The percentage of HRP labelled cells that were also heavily labelled by [3H]thymidine was calculated for both the intact ganglion and that ipsilateral to the damaged nerve for each animal. A consistently higher percentage of double labelled cells on the lesioned rather than on the intact side for a given E-day was taken as an indication that cells born on the day in question had an increased probability of survival relative to the entire population of V ganglion cells that contributed axons to the ION. Cells born late in gestation on E-12.5 through 14.5 were significantly more likely than early born (E-9.5 through 11.5) cells to survive neonatal axotomy. In a second experiment, fetuses were exposed to [3H]thymidine on either E-9.5, E-10.5, or E-14.5, the vibrissa pads on both sides of the face were injected with TB within 6 hours of birth, and the ION was transected 6-8 hours later.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8509500

  11. Vertical Rectus Muscles Transposition in Large Exotropia with Medial Rectus Muscle Transection Following Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoonae A.; Rah, Sang Hoon; Kim, Myung Mi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of transposition procedures on the vertical rectus muscle (VRM) in the patients who underwent a medial rectus muscle (MR) transection after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Methods In 4 patients with exotropia (XT) and a lack of adduction after ESS, orbital CT or MRI revealed a complete transection of the midportion of the MR. Full-tendon VRM transposition was performed within 3 months after injury (early surgery) in 2 patients with 40Δ XT. Two patients with 70Δ and 85Δ XT underwent an X-type augmented Hümmelsheim procedure, which involved pulling each half-tendon and crossing it through the undersurface of the severed MR to the other end of the MR insertion, concurrently with an ipsilateral lateral rectus (LR) recession 11 months and 36 months after ESS, respectively. The adduction deficits were divided into -1 through to -8. The patients were followed up for more than than 1.5 years. Results Postoperatively, 3 patients showed orthophoria and no diplopia in the primary position. The adduction deficits improved to -3.5 or -4. One patient who underwent an X-type augmented Hümmelsheim procedure showed a residual XT of 25Δ. Conclusions VRM transposition is effective in correcting a large XT secondary to a MR transection after ESS. When a longstanding large-angle XT with severe contracture of the ipsilateral LR and massive scarring of the adjacent tissues is present, the X-type augmented Hümmelsheim procedure coupled with an ipsilateral LR recession had an augmenting effect. PMID:18612228

  12. Ideal width of transects for monitoring source-related categories of plastics on beaches.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Maria Christina B; Santos, Paulo J P; Costa, Monica F

    2006-08-01

    Although there is a consensus on the necessity of monitoring solid wastes pollution on beaches, the methods applied vary widely. Therefore, creating, testing and recommending a method that not only allows comparisons of places and periods, but also the detection of source signals, will be important to reach the objectives of the source-prevention principle. This will also allow the optimisation of time, resources, and processing of samples and data. A classification of the items found into specific categories was made according to their most probable source/use (fisheries, food packaging, hazardous, sewage/personal hygiene, beach user, general home). This study tested different widths of sampling transects to be used in the detection of plastics contamination on beaches, until all the categories were significantly represented. Each transect had its total width (50m) sub-divided into eight intervals of 0-2.5m; 2.5-5m; 5-10m; 10-15m; 15-20m; 20-30m; 30-40m; and 40-50m. The accumulated number of categories in the 50m (up to 2.5m; up to 5m and so on) was used to determine the minimal width necessary to qualitatively characterize the area regarding plastics contamination. The diversity of the categories was directly related to the area of the sampling transect. These results indicate that a significant increase in the number of categories in the first intervals tend to stabilize from 15-20m onwards. PMID:16797600

  13. Minocycline mechanism of neuroprotection involves the Bcl-2 gene family in optic nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Levkovitch-Verbin, Hani; Waserzoog, Yael; Vander, Shelly; Makarovsky, Daria; Ilia, Piven

    2014-10-01

    The second-generation tetracycline, minocycline, has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective therapeutic benefits in many neurodegenerative diseases including experimental glaucoma and optic nerve transection (ONT). This study investigated the mechanism underlying minocycline neuroprotection in a model of ONT. ONT was applied unilaterally in 36 Wistar rat eyes. The rats were randomly divided into a minocycline (22 mg/kg/d) treatment group and a saline treatment group (control). Treatment (minocycline or saline) was given by intraperitoneal injections initiated 3 d before ONT and continued daily until the end of the experiment. The involvement of pro-apoptotic, pro-survival and inflammatory pathways was analyzed by quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction at 4 h and 3 d after the transection in both treatment groups. The involvement of Bcl-2 protein was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We found that Minocycline significantly increased the expression of the antiapoptotic gene bcl-2 4 h after transection (n = 8, p = 0.008) and decreased the expression of Bax at the same time point (n = 8, p = 0.03). Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα), Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP1) and Gadd45α were significantly upregulated in the retinas of eyes with ONTs compared to control (n = 10 for each gene, p = 0.02, p = 0.03, p = 0.04, respectively) but this effect was unaffected by minocycline. This study further support that the mechanism underlying minocycline neuroprotection involves the Bcl-2 gene family, suggesting that minocycline has antiapoptotic properties that support its value as a promising neuroprotective drug. PMID:24410139

  14. Rainfall regime changes and trends in Botswana Kalahari Transect's late summer precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mphale, K. M.; Dash, S. K.; Adedoyin, A.; Panda, S. K.

    2014-04-01

    Sixty-year-long January-March (JFM) rainfall data from four (4) stations along the Kalahari Transect were analyzed for long-term trends and abrupt changes in rainfall regimes. On average, JFM rainfall accounts for more than 50 % of annual rainfall in the region. Mann-Kendall trend test has shown an insignificant heterogeneous trend in the seasonal rainfall of -1.097, 0.029, -0.407, and -1.327 mm/year for Maun, Ghanzi, Tsabong, and Tshane, respectively. An abrupt change in rainfall regimes in these areas was investigated and was found to occur in the year 1982 for all stations. The change is related to large-scale atmospheric circulations. Analysis of large-scale atmospheric circulations before 1982 over the region has shown the formation of a tropical low pressure convective system over the Kalahari Transect. The tropical system shifted eastward after 1982 to be centered over southeastern southern Africa with a significant reduction in rainfall over the Kalahari. A direct impact of this is the livestock-induced overgrazing which has lead to excessive removal of palatable herbaceous species thereby giving woody species, such as Accacia mellifera and Grewia flava, a competitive edge for dominance in the ecosystems. Seed production of A. mellifera depends on rainfall; therefore, abrupt changes in rainfall regimes impact livelihood and eco-tourism industry. The correlation studies between rainfall anomalies and NINO3.4 indices show a reduction in the influence of El-Niño Southern Oscillation on the Kalahari Transect rainfall after 1982.

  15. Intradermal Hepatitis B Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ruddock, David G.S.; Dickson, Annie

    1992-01-01

    Intramuscular administration of hepatitis B (HB) vaccine is safe and efficacious, but its cost has limited its availability. In this pilot study, 49 of 56 participants who received 2 μg of intradermal (ID) HB vaccine (one tenth the intramuscular dose) at the beginning of administration, at 1 month, and at 6 months developed protective levels of antibody to HB surface antigen. Although questions remain, the cost savings of this technique make it worth considering. PMID:21229118

  16. Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Arthur

    2016-09-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of hepatitis C virus, focusing on transmission, prevention, screening, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers. PMID:27595226

  17. Genetics Home Reference: congenital hepatic fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions congenital hepatic fibrosis congenital hepatic fibrosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Congenital hepatic fibrosis is a disease of the liver that is ...

  18. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    MedlinePlus

    Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused ...

  19. Medical restraints to anterior-posterior motion of the knee.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, D; Levy, I M; Sheskier, S; Torzilli, P A; Warren, R F

    1984-07-01

    We investigated the motion of cadaver knees before and after section of the medial structures and anterior cruciate ligament. The knees were tested using a 5-degrees-of-freedom in vitro knee-testing apparatus that measured anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, and axial displacement as well as internal-external and valgus-varus rotation. The flexion angle could be varied but was fixed for each individual test. A 125-newton anterior-posterior force was applied perpendicular to the tibial shaft and the resulting motion of the knee was measured. In five knees the anterior cruciate ligament was cut first, followed by progressive cuts of the structures on the medial side (superficial medial collateral ligament, deep medial ligament, oblique fibers of the superficial medial ligament, and the posteromedial part of the capsule). Conversely, in five knees the medial structures were progressively cut first, followed by section of the anterior cruciate ligament. Tests were performed after each cut. With an intact anterior cruciate ligament, progressive cutting of the medial side had no effect on anterior and posterior displacements. When section of the medial structures followed cutting of the anterior cruciate ligament, anterior displacement exceeded that seen after isolated section of the anterior cruciate ligament. The anterior and posterior load-tests were repeated with the tibia fixed in 5 degrees of internal and 5 degrees of external rotation. Fixed external rotation had no effect on anterior and posterior displacements. Fixed internal rotation significantly decreased anterior displacement only when both the anterior cruciate ligament and the medial structures were cut.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6736094

  20. Hepatitis E Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Harry R.; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. An improved understanding of the natural history of HEV infection has been achieved within the last decade. Several reservoirs and transmission modes have been identified. Hepatitis E is an underdiagnosed disease, in part due to the use of serological assays with low sensitivity. However, diagnostic tools, including nucleic acid-based tests, have been improved. The epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E differ between developing and developed countries. HEV infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, but in developed countries it causes chronic infection with rapidly progressive cirrhosis in organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancy requiring chemotherapy, and individuals with HIV. HEV also causes extrahepatic manifestations, including a number of neurological syndromes and renal injury. Acute infection usually requires no treatment, but chronic infection should be treated by reducing immunosuppression in transplant patients and/or the use of antiviral therapy. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge about the virus itself, as well as the epidemiology, diagnostics, natural history, and management of HEV infection in developing and developed countries. PMID:24396139

  1. Some comments on Anderson and Pospahala's correction of bias in line transect sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, K.P.; Chain, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    ANDERSON and POSPAHALA (1970) investigated the estimation of wildlife population size using the belt or line transect sampling method and devised a correction for bias, thus leading to an estimator with interesting characteristics. This work was given a uniform mathematical framework in BURNHAM and ANDERSON (1976). In this paper we show that the ANDERSON-POSPAHALA estimator is optimal in the sense of being the (unique) best linear unbiased estimator within the class of estimators which are linear combinations of cell frequencies, provided certain assumptions are met.

  2. A process flood typology along an Alpine transect: analysis based on observations and modelling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoccatelli, Davide; Parajka, Juraj; Gaál, Ladislav; Blöschl, Günter; Borga, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the effects of climate changes on river floods requires a better understanding of the control of climate variability on flood regimes. The aim of this work is to identify the process types of causative mechanisms of floods along a longitudinal Alpine transect spanning 200 km from Verona in Italy to lower Germany. The investigation is focused on the analysis of the statistical properties of the various flood typologies, their spatial organization and their relation with the topography of the transect. Along the transect, 34 basins were selected following criteria of basin size (between 50 and 500 km2), amount of hydrometeorological data available and impact of hydraulic structures on runoff regime. Around 20 years of hourly data of discharge, precipitation and temperature were collected for each basin. The three most intense floods occurred each year are considered in the work. Precipitation and temperature follow a sharp gradient across the transect, with both precipitation and temperature low around the main alpine ridge. Four flood types are considered: long-rain floods, flash floods, rain-on-snow floods, and snowmelt floods. For the classification we use a combination of a number of process indicators, including the timing of the floods, storm duration, rainfall depths, snowmelt contribution to runoff, initial catchment state and runoff response dynamics, using a procedure similar to what described in Merz and Blöschl (2003). The indicators for flood classification are derived based on either observed discharge data and model results. Comparison between the two derived flood classifications allows one to analyse the viability of using a model approach to build flood typologies in basins characterized by varying data availability. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by imposing step changes to the precipitation and temperature pattern. The resulting distribution of flood types gives an insight on the possible change in floods

  3. Fish inner ear otoliths stop calcium incorporation after vestibular nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Anken, R H; Edelmann, E; Rahmann, H

    2000-09-11

    Previous investigations revealed that the growth of fish inner ear otoliths (otolith size and calcium incorporation) depends on the amplitude and the direction of gravity, suggesting the existence of a (negative) feedback mechanism. In a search for the regulating unit, the vestibular nerve was unilaterally transected in neonatal swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) which were subsequently incubated in the calcium-tracer alizarin-complexone. Calcium incorporation and thus otolith growth ceased on the operated head sides, indicating that the brain is significantly involved in regulating otolith growth. PMID:11006979

  4. Near complete aortic transection and its successful repair using a novel cardiopulmonary bypass technique.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dania Aijaz; Shah, Adil Aijaz; Shah, Syed Jawad; Khan, Muhammad Naseer; Fatimi, Saulat Hasnain

    2015-09-01

    The case of a 38-year old female, victim of a road traffic accident who presented with a near complete aortic transection is presented. An emergent repair employing cardiopulmonary bypass was attempted in the operating room. Anticipating a high-risk of compromise to cerebral perfusion from air micro-emboli, the bypass was attempted with an innovative approach involving the successful cannulation of the pulmonary artery and descending aorta. The patient survived and was found to be doing well on subsequent post-operative visits. PMID:26338761

  5. An anterior signaling center patterns and sizes the anterior neuroectoderm of the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Range, Ryan C; Wei, Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Anterior signaling centers help specify and pattern the early anterior neuroectoderm (ANE) in many deuterostomes. In sea urchin the ANE is restricted to the anterior of the late blastula stage embryo, where it forms a simple neural territory comprising several types of neurons as well as the apical tuft. Here, we show that during early development, the sea urchin ANE territory separates into inner and outer regulatory domains that express the cardinal ANE transcriptional regulators FoxQ2 and Six3, respectively. FoxQ2 drives this patterning process, which is required to eliminate six3 expression from the inner domain and activate the expression of Dkk3 and sFRP1/5, two secreted Wnt modulators. Dkk3 and low expression levels of sFRP1/5 act additively to potentiate the Wnt/JNK signaling pathway governing the positioning of the ANE territory around the anterior pole, whereas high expression levels of sFRP1/5 antagonize Wnt/JNK signaling. sFRP1/5 and Dkk3 levels are rigidly maintained via autorepressive and cross-repressive interactions with Wnt signaling components and additional ANE transcription factors. Together, these data support a model in which FoxQ2 initiates an anterior patterning center that implements correct size and positions of ANE structures. Comparisons of functional and expression studies in sea urchin, hemichordate and chordate embryos reveal striking similarities among deuterostome ANE regulatory networks and the molecular mechanism that positions and defines ANE borders. These data strongly support the idea that the sea urchin embryo uses an ancient anterior patterning system that was present in the common ambulacrarian/chordate ancestor. PMID:26952978

  6. Spinal transection induces widespread proliferation of cells along the length of the spinal cord in a weakly electric fish

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Antiño R.; Smith, G. Troy

    2013-01-01

    The ability to regenerate spinal cord tissue after tail amputation has been well studied in several species of teleost fish. The present study examined proliferation and survival of cells following complete spinal cord transection rather than tail amputation in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. To quantify cell proliferation along the length of the spinal cord, fish were given a single bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) injection immediately after spinal transection or sham surgery. Spinal transection significantly increased the density of BrdU+ cells along the entire length of the spinal cord at 1 day post transection (dpt), and most newly generated cells survived up to 14 dpt. To examine longer term survival of the newly proliferated cells, BrdU was injected for 5 days after the surgery, and fish were sacrificed 14 or 30 dpt. Spinal transection significantly increased proliferation and/or survival, as indicated by an elevated density of BrdU+ cells in the spinal cords of spinally transected compared to sham-operated and intact fish. At 14 dpt, BrdU+ cells were abundant at all levels of the spinal cord. By 30 dpt, the density of BrdU+ cells decreased at all levels of the spinal cord except at the tip of the tail. Thus, newly generated cells in the caudal-most segment of the spinal cord survived longer than those in more rostral segments. Our findings indicate that spinal cord transection stimulates widespread cellular proliferation; however, there were regional differences in the survival of the newly generated cells. PMID:23147638

  7. Contrasting pH buffering patterns in neutral-alkaline soils along a 3600 km transect in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W. T.; Nelson, P. N.; Li, M.-H.; Cai, J. P.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Zhang, Y. G.; Yang, S.; Wang, R. Z.; Wang, Z. W.; Wu, Y. N.; Han, X. G.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Soil pH buffering capacity (pHBC) plays a crucial role in predicting acidification rates, yet its large-scale patterns and controls are poorly understood, especially for neutral-alkaline soils. Here, we evaluated the spatial patterns and drivers of pHBC along a 3600 km long transect (1900 km sub-transect with carbonate-containing soils and 1700 km sub-transect with non-carbonate-containing soils) across northern China. Soil pHBC was greater in the carbonate-containing soils than in the non-carbonate-containing soils. Acid addition decreased soil pH in the non-carbonate-containing soils more markedly than in the carbonate-containing soils. Within the carbonate soil sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC), carbonate content and exchangeable sodium (Na) concentration, but negatively correlated with initial pH and clay content, and not correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Within the non-carbonate sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively related to initial pH, clay content, CEC and exchangeable Na concentration, but not related to SOC content. Carbonate content was the primary determinant of pHBC in the carbonate-containing soils and CEC was the main determinant of buffering capacity in the non-carbonate-containing soils. Along the transect, soil pHBC was different in regions with different aridity index. Soil pHBC was positively related to aridity index and carbonate content across the carbonate-containing soil sub-transect. Our results indicated that mechanisms controlling pHBC differ among neutral-alkaline soils of northern China, especially between carbonate- and non-carbonate-containing soils. This understanding should be incorporated into the acidification risk assessment and landscape management in a changing world.

  8. Radioembolization of hepatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 (90Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy is

  9. Radioembolization of hepatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 ((90)Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy

  10. Injury to the Anterior Tibial Artery during Bicortical Tibial Drilling in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Bum; Lim, Jin Woo; Seo, Jeong Gook

    2016-01-01

    Many complications have been reported during or after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, including infection, bleeding, tibial tunnel widening, arthrofibrosis, and graft failure. However, arterial injury has been rarely reported. This paper reports a case of an anterior tibial arterial injury during bicortical tibial drilling in arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, associated with an asymptomatic occlusion of the popliteal artery. The patient had a vague pain which led to delayed diagnosis of compartment syndrome and delayed treatment with fasciotomy. All surgeons should be aware of these rare but critical complications because the results may be disastrous like muscle necrosis as in this case. PMID:26929808

  11. Injury to the Anterior Tibial Artery during Bicortical Tibial Drilling in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Bum; Lim, Jin Woo; Seo, Jeong Gook; Ha, Jeong Ku

    2016-03-01

    Many complications have been reported during or after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, including infection, bleeding, tibial tunnel widening, arthrofibrosis, and graft failure. However, arterial injury has been rarely reported. This paper reports a case of an anterior tibial arterial injury during bicortical tibial drilling in arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, associated with an asymptomatic occlusion of the popliteal artery. The patient had a vague pain which led to delayed diagnosis of compartment syndrome and delayed treatment with fasciotomy. All surgeons should be aware of these rare but critical complications because the results may be disastrous like muscle necrosis as in this case. PMID:26929808

  12. Knee imaging after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M B; Silva, J J; Homsi, C; Stump, X M; Lecouvet, F E

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of reconstructions of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are performed every year, due to both the increasing occurrence of sport related injuries and the development of diagnostic and surgical techniques. The most used surgical procedure for the torn ACL reconstruction is the use of autogenous material, most often the patellar and semitendinosus tendons. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and spiral-CT performed after arthrography with multiplanar reconstructions are the imaging methods of choice for post-operative evaluation of ACL ligamentoplasty. This paper provides a brief bibliographic and more extensive pictorial review of the normal evolution and possible complications after ACL repair. PMID:11817479

  13. Ultrasound of the male anterior urethra

    PubMed Central

    Shaida, N; Berman, L H

    2012-01-01

    Imaging of the anterior male urethra has traditionally been performed by fluoroscopic contrast urethrography. While providing easily interpretable images, this technique has a number of disadvantages associated with it. An alternative approach is to use ultrasound to assess the lumen of the urethra and the periurethral tissues. Here we describe the development of urethral ultrasound and the ascending and descending urethral ultrasound techniques employed in our institution with reference to commonly and uncommonly encountered pathologies. We also identify common pitfalls and how to avoid them. PMID:22674713

  14. [Perineal urethrostomy in complex anterior urethral stricture].

    PubMed

    Barbagli, G

    2010-06-01

    Staged urethroplasty is a well-known procedure for urethral reconstruction that had already been described by Russell in 1914 and was later popularized by Johanson, Turner-Warwick, Blandy, and Schreiter. It lends itself to the treatment of complex anterior urethral stricture in combination with lichen sclerosus, failed correction of hypospadias, fistula, via falsa, abscess, carcinoma, or previously unsuccessful urethroplasty. Perineal urethrostomy can be performed as a temporary or definitive measure. Some patients even decline further urethral reconstruction because they perceive subjective satisfaction after perineal urethrostomy that was originally intended to be temporary. PMID:20544335

  15. Sensitivity of phytoplankton distributions to vertical mixing along a North Atlantic transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn-Woernle, L.; Dijkstra, H. A.; Van der Woerd, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    Using in situ data of upper ocean vertical mixing along a transect in the North Atlantic and a one-dimensional phytoplankton growth model, we study the sensitivity of the surface phytoplankton concentration to vertical mixing distributions. The study is divided into two parts. In the first part, the model is calibrated to the observations. The optical model parameters are determined from measurements of the light attenuation. The biological parameters are calibrated to three different reference stations with observed vertical profiles of the chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration and the nutrient concentration. In the second part, the sensitivity of the three model calibrations to the vertical mixing is studied. Therefore measured vertical mixing profiles are applied to the model. These mixing profiles are based on the measurements along the transect and are treated as a set of possible mixing situations of the North Atlantic. Results show that shifts in vertical mixing are able to induce a transition from an upper chlorophyll maximum to a deep one and vice versa. Furthermore, a clear correlation between the surface phytoplankton concentration and the mixing induced nutrient flux is found for nutrient-limited cases. This may open up the possibility to extract characteristics of vertical mixing from satellite ocean colour data using data-assimilation methods.

  16. Concentration and State Dependent Reductions in Corn Oil Intakes after Glossopharyngeal Nerve Transections in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Foo, H.; Norgren, R.N.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicate a role for the glossopharyngeal nerve (GL) in the detection of dietary fats. The present experiments examined the effects of bilateral glossopharyngeal nerve transections (GLx) on the intake of low (4.8%), moderate (16%), and full-fat (100%) corn oil in non-deprived, food-deprived, and water-deprived rats. The rats had access to oils, 0.3 M sucrose, and water in a gustometer that measured number of licks and latency to the first lick during brief access trials. The behavioral measures were used as indices of the amount consumed and the motivation to ingest, respectively. After baseline intakes had stabilized, the rats received GLx or sham transections (Sham), and were then re-tested. Pre and post-surgery responses were compared to determine the impact of GLx on intake and the motivation to ingest. In non-deprived rats, GLx reduced the intake of 4.8% and 16% oils and decreased the motivation to ingest these oils. In food-deprived rats, GLx prevented increases in the ingestion of 4.8% and 16% oils and in the motivation to ingest these oils. In water-deprived rats, GLx reduced the intake of 100% oil and produced a general decrease in the motivation to consume low, moderate, and full-fat emulsions. These results indicate that GL is partially involved in corn oil intake and suggest an interactive effect of oil concentration with homeostatic state. PMID:24534178

  17. Synchrotron-Generated Microbeam Sensorimotor Cortex Transections Induce Seizure Control without Disruption of Neurological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Romanelli, Pantaleo; Fardone, Erminia; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Prezado, Yolanda; Requardt, Herwig; Le Duc, Geraldine; Nemoz, Christian; Anschel, David J.; Spiga, Jenny; Bravin, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron-generated X-ray microplanar beams (microbeams) are characterized by the ability to deliver extremely high doses of radiation to spatially restricted volumes of tissue. Minimal dose spreading outside the beam path provides an exceptional degree of protection from radio-induced damage to the neurons and glia adjacent to the microscopic slices of tissue irradiated. The preservation of cortical architecture following high-dose microbeam irradiation and the ability to induce non-invasively the equivalent of a surgical cut over the cortex is of great interest for the development of novel experimental models in neurobiology and new treatment avenues for a variety of brain disorders. Microbeams (size 100 µm/600 µm, center-to-center distance of 400 µm/1200 µm, peak entrance doses of 360-240 Gy/150-100 Gy) delivered to the sensorimotor cortex of six 2-month-old naïve rats generated histologically evident cortical transections, without modifying motor behavior and weight gain up to 7 months. Microbeam transections of the sensorimotor cortex dramatically reduced convulsive seizure duration in a further group of 12 rats receiving local infusion of kainic acid. No subsequent neurological deficit was associated with the treatment. These data provide a novel tool to study the functions of the cortex and pave the way for the development of new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy and other neurological diseases. PMID:23341950

  18. The diversity of cyanomyovirus populations along a North–South Atlantic Ocean transect

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Eleanor; Mann, Nicholas H; Joint, Ian; Sambles, Christine; Mühling, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Viruses that infect the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus have the potential to impact the growth, productivity, diversity and abundance of their hosts. In this study, changes in the microdiversity of cyanomyoviruses were investigated in 10 environmental samples taken along a North–South Atlantic Ocean transect using a myoviral-specific PCR-sequencing approach. Phylogenetic analyses of 630 viral g20 clones from this study, with 786 published g20 sequences, revealed that myoviral populations in the Atlantic Ocean had higher diversity than previously reported, with several novel putative g20 clades. Some of these clades were detected throughout the Atlantic Ocean. Multivariate statistical analyses did not reveal any significant correlations between myoviral diversity and environmental parameters, although myoviral diversity appeared to be lowest in samples collected from the north and south of the transect where Prochlorococcus diversity was also lowest. The results were correlated to the abundance and diversity of the co-occurring Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations, but revealed no significant correlations to either of the two potential host genera. This study provides evidence that cyanophages have extremely high and variable diversity and are distributed over large areas of the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:21633395

  19. Crustal composition of the Møre Margin and compilation of a conjugate Atlantic margin transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvarven, Trond; Mjelde, Rolf; Hjelstuen, Berit Oline; Faleide, Jan Inge; Thybo, Hans; Flueh, Ernst R.; Murai, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The inner part of the volcanic, passive Møre Margin, mid-Norway, expresses an unusual abrupt thinning from high onshore topography with a thick crust to an offshore basin with thin crystalline crust. Previous P-wave modeling of wide-angle seismic data revealed the presence of a high-velocity (7.7-8.0 km/s) body in the lower crust in this transitional region. These velocities are too high to be readily interpreted as Early Cenozoic intrusions, a model often invoked to explain lower crustal high-velocity bodies in the region. We present a Vp/Vs model, derived from the modeling of wide-angle seismic data, acquired by use of Ocean Bottom Seismograph horizontal components. The modeling suggests dominantly felsic composition of the crust. An average Vp/Vs value for the lower crustal body is modeled at 1.77, which is compatible with a mixture of continental blocks and Caledonian eclogites. The results are compiled with earlier results into a transect extending from onshore Norway to onshore Greenland. Back-stripping of the transect to Early Cenozoic indicates asymmetric conjugate magmatism related to the continental break-up. Further back-stripping to the time when most of the Caledonian mountain range had collapsed indicates that the thinning during the first phase of extension was about 25% higher for proto Norway than proto Greenland.

  20. 2D density model of the Chinese continental lithosphere along a NW-SE transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimonová, Barbora; Bielik, Miroslav; Dérerová, Jana

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a 2D density model along a transect from NW to SE China. The model was first constructed by the transformation of seismic velocity to density, revealed by previous deep seismic soundings (DSS) investigations in China. Then, the 2D density model was updated using the GM-SYS software by fitting the computed to the observed gravity data. Based on the density distribution of anomalous layers we divided the Chinese continental crust along the transect into three regions: north-western, central and south-eastern. The first one includes the Junggar Basin, Tianshan and Tarim Basin. The second part consists of the Qilian Orogen, the Qaidam Basin and the Songpan Ganzi Basin. The third region is represented by the Yangtze and the Cathaysia blocks. The low velocity body (vp =5.2 - 6.2 km/s) at the junction of the North-western and Central parts at a depth between 21 - 31 km, which was discovered out by DSS, was also confirmed by our 2D density modelling.

  1. Panax notoginseng saponins improve recovery after spinal cord transection by upregulating neurotrophic factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Li, Yu; Li, Xuan-Peng; Li, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Saponins extracted from Panax notoginseng are neuroprotective, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. In the present study, we established a rat model of thoracic (T10) spinal cord transection, and injected Panax notoginseng saponins (100 mg/kg) or saline 30 minutes after injury. Locomotor functions were assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale from 1 to 30 days after injury, and immunohistochemistry was carried out in the ventral horn of the spinal cord at 1 and 7 days to determine expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Our results show that at 7-30 days post injury, the BBB score was higher in rats treated with Panax notoginseng saponins than in those that received saline. Furthermore, at 7 days, more NGF- and BDNF-immunoreactive neurons were observed in the ventral horn of the spinal cord of rats that had received Panax notoginseng saponins than in those that received saline. These results indicate that Panax notoginseng saponins caused an upregulation of NGF and BDNF in rats with spinal cord transection, and improved hindlimb motor function. PMID:26487862

  2. Chemical element concentrations in four lichens on a transect entering Voyageurs National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    A three factor transect study was conducted to test the hypothesis that chemical elements from air emissions in the vicinity of International Falls, Minnesota could not be detected in lichens along a 24 km transect reaching into Voyageurs National Park. It was hypothesized that element concentrations in lichens would decline exponentially downwind and would reach background values at a distance before the park boundary. Four species (Cladina rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Hypogymnia physodes, and Parmelia sulcata) were sampled at ten sites for 3 years and 17 chemical elements were measured. The most notable result was a curvilinear geographic trend for many elements, which decreased from International Falls and then increased towards the park. This trend was significant for many anthropogenic elements, including S, Hg, Cd, and Cr, and for all four species. This type of distribution pattern has been observed in Hypogymnia physodes in other studies downwind of a steel mill and an oil refinery. Cladina, a ground-dwelling lichen, generally had lower tissue concentrations of the elements than the three epiphytic species. Tissue concentrations over the 3 years of sampling declined an average of 12%. Sufficient evidence exists to conclude that lichen tissue element concentrations in the vicinity of International Falls may be related to local air emissions, and that an exponential decline of element concentrations downwind of the sources does not apply to this situation.

  3. Kinematic and thermal evolution of the Moroccan rifted continental margin: Doukkala-High Atlas transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouiza, M.; Bertotti, G.; Hafid, M.; Cloetingh, S.

    2010-10-01

    The Atlantic passive margin of Morocco developed during Mesozoic times in association with the opening of the Central Atlantic and the Alpine Tethys. Extensional basins formed along the future continental margin and in the Atlas rift system. In Alpine times, this system was inverted to form the High and Middle Atlas fold-and-thrust belts. To provide a quantitative kinematic analysis of the evolution of the rifted margin, we present a crustal section crossing the Atlantic margin in the region of the Doukkala Basin, the Meseta and the Atlas system. We construct a post-rift upper crustal section compensating for Tertiary to present vertical movements and horizontal deformations, and we conduct numerical modeling to test quantitative relations between amounts and distribution of thinning and related vertical movements. Rifting along the transect began in the Late Triassic and ended with the appearance of oceanic crust at 175 Ma. Subsidence, possibly related to crustal thinning, continued in the Atlas rift in the Middle Jurassic. The numerical models confirm that the margin experienced a polyphase rifting history. The lithosphere along the transect preserved some strength throughout rifting with the Effective Elastic Thickness corresponding to an isotherm of 450°C. A mid-crustal level of necking of 15 km characterized the pre-rift lithosphere.

  4. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Reactivation in the Biologic Era

    PubMed Central

    Bojito-Marrero, Lizza; Pyrsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) reactivation may occur after the use of biologic agents. During the last decade, utilization of biologics has changed the fate of many treated for cancer, autoimmune and connective tissue disease, maintenance of transplanted organs, and the prevention of graft-versus-host disease among others. HBV reactivation has been reported in up to 50% of HBV carriers undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, and there is emerging data pointing towards an increased risk for HCV reactivation. If reactivation of HBV and HCV occurs, the spectrum of clinical manifestations can range from asymptomatic hepatitis flares to hepatic decompensation, fulminant hepatic failure, and death. Therefore, identifying patients at risk and early diagnosis are imperative to decrease significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this article is to review the pathophysiology of the reactivation of HBV and HCV infection in patients receiving biologic therapies and the approaches used to diagnose, prevent, and treat HBV and HCV reactivation. PMID:26355300

  5. Pulsed electrical stimulation protects neurons in the dorsal root and anterior horn of the spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Bao-an; Zi, Jin-hua; Wu, Li-sheng; Zhang, Cun-hua; Chen, Yun-zhen

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on peripheral nerve injury have focused on repair at the site of injury, but very few have examined the effects of repair strategies on the more proximal neuronal cell bodies. In this study, an approximately 10-mm-long nerve segment from the ischial tuberosity in the rat was transected and its proximal and distal ends were inverted and sutured. The spinal cord was subjected to pulsed electrical stimulation at T10 and L3, at a current of 6.5 mA and a stimulation frequency of 15 Hz, 15 minutes per session, twice a day for 56 days. After pulsed electrical stimulation, the number of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion and anterior horn was increased in rats with sciatic nerve injury. The number of myelinated nerve fibers was increased in the sciatic nerve. The ultrastructure of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord was noticeably improved. Conduction velocity of the sciatic nerve was also increased. These results show that pulsed electrical stimulation protects sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia as well as motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury, and that it promotes the regeneration of peripheral nerve fibers. PMID:26692864

  6. Pulsed electrical stimulation protects neurons in the dorsal root and anterior horn of the spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Pei, Bao-An; Zi, Jin-Hua; Wu, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Cun-Hua; Chen, Yun-Zhen

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on peripheral nerve injury have focused on repair at the site of injury, but very few have examined the effects of repair strategies on the more proximal neuronal cell bodies. In this study, an approximately 10-mm-long nerve segment from the ischial tuberosity in the rat was transected and its proximal and distal ends were inverted and sutured. The spinal cord was subjected to pulsed electrical stimulation at T10 and L3, at a current of 6.5 mA and a stimulation frequency of 15 Hz, 15 minutes per session, twice a day for 56 days. After pulsed electrical stimulation, the number of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion and anterior horn was increased in rats with sciatic nerve injury. The number of myelinated nerve fibers was increased in the sciatic nerve. The ultrastructure of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord was noticeably improved. Conduction velocity of the sciatic nerve was also increased. These results show that pulsed electrical stimulation protects sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia as well as motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury, and that it promotes the regeneration of peripheral nerve fibers. PMID:26692864

  7. [The gas-squirt dissection of hepatic parenchyma. Estimation of efficacy and safety of the method in experiment].

    PubMed

    Skoryĭ, D I

    2010-05-01

    The method of dividing of the parenchymatous organs tissues was elaborated, consisting of a working milieu (carbon acid) delivery under the pressure on the operated organ surface, exceeding its durability, permitting to isolate the vessels from parenchyma before their division and than to clip and ligate them precisely with subsequent their transection, and using, if necessary, various methods of the definitive hemostasis achievement. The method was applied in 32 rabbits and 5 pigs while hepatic resection performance. The main indices of its functioning does not differ from such of ultrasonic dissection, the method is secure, permitting to recommend it for clinical application. PMID:20623982

  8. Anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of patients with anterior scleritis.

    PubMed

    Levison, Ashleigh L; Lowder, Careen Y; Baynes, Kimberly M; Kaiser, Peter K; Srivastava, Sunil K

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the findings seen on anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with anterior scleritis and determine the feasibility of using SD-OCT to image and grade the degree of scleral inflammation and monitor response to treatment. All patients underwent slit lamp examination by a uveitis specialist, and the degree of scleral inflammation was recorded. Spectral domain OCT imaging was then performed of the conjunctiva and scleral tissue using a standardized acquisition protocol. The scans were graded and compared to clinical findings. Twenty-eight patients with anterior scleritis and ten patients without ocular disease were included in the study. Seventeen of the scleritis patients were followed longitudinally. Common findings on SD-OCT in patients with active scleritis included changes in hyporeflectivity within the sclera, nodules, and visible vessels within the sclera. There was significant variation in findings on SD-OCT within each clinical grade of active scleritis. These changes on SD-OCT improved with treatment and clinical improvement. SD-OCT imaging provided various objective measures that could be used in the future to grade inflammatory activity in patients with anterior scleritis. Longitudinal imaging of patients with active scleritis demonstrated that SD-OCT may have great utility in monitoring response to treatment. PMID:26597942

  9. INFLUENCE OF ANTERIOR PAIN ON RESULTS FROM ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Wilson; Santos, Claudinei; Ferracini, Antonio Marcos; Dejour, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of residual pain on functional outcomes two years after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and compare the types of graft used during the procedure (patellar vs. flexor). Method: A retrospective epidemiological study on 129 ACL reconstructions with a mean follow-up of 28 months was conducted. The presence, intensity and location of the anterior pain were investigated. Pain provocation tests were conducted, sensitivity was analyzed and functional scores were applied (IKDC, femoropatellar and SF-36), comparing the results with the type of graft used. Results: Anterior pain was present in 28% of patients with a mean intensity of 2.9 in 10. When pain was present, the functional scores decreased significantly. Abnormalities of knee sensitivity and gait occurred frequently with use of the patellar tendon, but there was no statistical difference regarding the presence of pain. Conclusion: The presence of anterior pain in ACL reconstructions, even if minimal, has a deleterious effect on the final outcome over the medium term. Because of the influence of graft harvesting on the presence of abnormalities of knee sensitivity and gait, choosing the graft should take into account the patient's professional and sports activities. PMID:27026984

  10. The mouse olfactory peduncle. 2.The anterior limb of the anterior commissure

    PubMed Central

    Brunjes, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The central core of the olfactory peduncle [the tissue connecting the olfactory bulb (OB) to the forebrain] includes a white matter tract that extends caudally to the anterior commissure (AC). The purpose of the present study was to examine this “anterior limb of the anterior commissure” (ALAC) to determine if the axons that progress through it segregate on the basis of their point of origin, neurotransmitter type, size, or shape. While local differences in axon density were observed in the ALAC, they were not consistent between samples of the anterior and posterior peduncle, and no other compartmentalization within the tract was observed. The innervation of the caudal olfactory peduncle by neuromodulatory fibers was examined to determine if they enter the region via the ALAC. Cholinergic fibers (CHAT) densely filled the peduncle, followed in order by serotonergic, noradrenergic, histaminergic, and orexinergic processes. Differences in the distribution of the fibers were noted for each system. While each axon type could be observed in the ALAC, it is probable that they enter the peduncle though several routes. Data for axon caliber in the ALAC was compared to information previously collected on the peduncle's other white matter region, the lateral olfactory tract (LOT). Axons in the ALAC were smaller, suggesting that the olfactory system is organized with a fast system for distributing incoming sensory information and a more economical, distributed system for subsequent processing. PMID:23355812

  11. Anterior debridement and bone grafting of spinal tuberculosis with one-stage instrumentation anteriorly or posteriorly

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Xiao Feng; Hou, Tie Sheng; Ma, Hui; Chen, Zhi Ming

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, 40 cases (average age 38, range 16–65 years) of spinal tuberculosis were treated with anterior debridement and iliac bone graft with one-stage anterior or posterior instrumentation in our unit. All patients received at least 2 weeks of regular antituberculous chemotherapy before surgery. We followed up all patients for 12–48 months (mean 22 months). Local symptoms of all patients were relieved significantly 1–3 weeks postoperatively; 23 of 25 cases (92%) with neurogical deficit had excellent or good clinical results. Erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR) returned from 51 mm/h to 32 mm/h (average) two weeks postoperatively. Kyphosis degrees were corrected by a mean of 16°. Fusion rate of the grafting bone was 72.5% one year postoperatively and 90% two years postoperatively. Severe complications did not occur. We therefore believe that patients undergoing anterior debridement and iliac bone grafting with one-stage anterior or posterior instrumentation achieve satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcomes. PMID:17061127

  12. Anterior vitrectomy and partial capsulectomy via anterior approach to treat chronic postoperative endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Güler, Mete; Yılmaz, Turgut

    2013-01-01

    AIM To describe the results of vitrectomy and partial capsulectomy via anterior approach surgical technique in treatment of chronic postoperative endophthalmitis (CPE). METHODS Clinical records of 9 patients treated for CPE between 2006 and 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. All of these patients were treated with vitrectomy and partial capsulectomy via anterior approach. RESULTS Six of 9 patients were male. The average patients' age was (60±8.1) years. The average period between cataract extraction and onset of signs and symptoms was (3.6±1.3) weeks. The average presenting visual acuity was 0.3±0.1 and the average final post operative visual acuity was 0.7±0.2. The mean follow-up period was (28.1±8.9) weeks. In all patients, the inflammation subsided after surgery. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that anterior vitrectomy and partial capsulectomy via anterior approach may be considered as potentially useful and relatively less invasive technique to treat CPE. PMID:23550103

  13. Hepatitis E Infections, Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Adamopoulos, Jim; Carter, Karen; Kelly, Heath

    2005-01-01

    In the first half of 2004, acute hepatitis E virus infections diagnosed in Victoria, Australia, increased 7-fold. Of the interviewed patients with highly reactive serologic results, 90% reported recent clinically compatible illness and overseas travel. The increase is compared with a background of exposure in countries in which hepatitis E is endemic. PMID:15757573

  14. Hepatitis virus vaccines: present status.

    PubMed Central

    Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade there has been extraordinary progress toward the development of vaccines for the prevention of type A and type B hepatitis. The successful propagation of hepatitis A virus in cell culture in 1979 was followed by the preparation of experimental live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines that have been shown to induce antibody in marmosets and chimpanzees and protect immunized marmosets against challenge with hepatitis A virus. The first human immunization trials will begin in mid-1982. An inactivated hepatitis B vaccine that was licensed in the United States in November 1981 has been shown to be safe, immunogenic, and effective. When this vaccine becomes available for use in July 1982, it will be recommended for persons who are considered to be at increased risk of contracting hepatitis B infection. Future generations of hepatitis B vaccines may be prepared from hepatitis B surface antigen derived from DNA recombinant technology or by in vitro synthesis of HBs Ag determinants by chemical means. PMID:6295013

  15. Anatomy of Hepatic Resectional Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael C; D'Angelica, Michael I

    2016-04-01

    Liver anatomy can be variable, and understanding of anatomic variations is crucial to performing hepatic resections, particularly parenchymal-sparing resections. Anatomic knowledge is a critical prerequisite for effective hepatic resection with minimal blood loss, parenchymal preservation, and optimal oncologic outcome. Each anatomic resection has pitfalls, about which the operating surgeon should be aware and comfortable managing intraoperatively. PMID:27017858

  16. Hepatitis E: Epidemiology and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Teshale, Eyasu H; Hu, Dale J

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis E is caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), the major etiologic agent of enterically transmitted non-A hepatitis worldwide. HEV is responsible for major outbreaks of acute hepatitis in developing countries, especially in many parts of Africa and Asia. The HEV is a spherical, non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus that is approximately 32 nm to 34 nm in diameter and is the only member in the family Hepeviridae and genus Hepevirus. There are four distinct genotypes of HEV (genotypes 1-4). While genotype 1 is predominantly associated with large epidemics in developing countries, genotype 3 has recently emerged as a significant pathogen in developed countries. The clinical manifestations and the laboratory abnormalities of hepatitis E are not distinguishable from that caused by other hepatitis viruses. However, high mortality among pregnant women particularly during the third trimester distinguishes HEV from other causes of acute viral hepatitis. Specific etiologic diagnosis among infected cases can be made by serological testing or detection of viral nucleic acid by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Although there are vaccine candidates that had been shown to be safe and efficacious in clinical trials, none are approved currently for use. There is no specific therapy for acute hepatitis E as treatment remains supportive. PMID:22216368

  17. Lesion-negative anterior cingulate epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lacuey, Nuria; Davila, Javier Chapa; Zonjy, Bilal; Amina, Shahram; Couce, Marta; Turnbull, John; Miller, Jonathan; Lüders, Hans; Lhatoo, Samden D

    2015-06-01

    MRI-negative anterior cingulate epilepsy is a rare entity. Herein, we describe a case of MRI and functional imaging-negative intractable frontal lobe epilepsy in which, initially, secondary bilateral synchrony of surface and intracranial EEG and non-lateralizing semiology rendered identification of the epileptogenic zone difficult. A staged bilateral stereotactic EEG exploration revealed a very focal, putative ictal onset zone in the right anterior cingulate gyrus, as evidenced by interictal and ictal high-frequency oscillations (at 250Hz) and induction of seizures from the same electrode contacts by 50-Hz low-intensity cortical stimulation. This was subsequently confirmed by ILAE class 1 outcome following resection of the ictal onset and irritative zones. Histopathological examination revealed focal cortical dysplasia type 1b (ILAE Commission, 2011) as the cause of epilepsy. The importance of anatomo-electro-clinical correlation is illustrated in this case in which semiological and electrophysiological features pointed to the anatomical localization of a challenging, MRI-negative epilepsy. PMID:26056053

  18. Geometry of anterior open bite correction.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Zachary R; Susarla, Srinivas M; Lawler, Matthew E; Choudhri, Asim F; Peacock, Zachary S

    2015-05-01

    Correction of anterior open bite is a frequently encountered and challenging problem for the craniomaxillofacial surgeon and orthodontist. Accurate clinical evaluation, including cephalometric assessment, is paramount for establishing the diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan. The purposes of this technical note were to discuss the basic geometric principles involved in the surgical correction of skeletal anterior open bites and to offer a simple mathematical model for predicting the amount of posterior maxillary impaction with concomitant mandibular rotation required to establish an adequate overbite. Using standard geometric principles, a mathematical model was created to demonstrate the relationship between the magnitude of the open bite and the magnitude of the rotational movements required for correction. This model was then validated using a clinical case. In summary, the amount of open bite closure for a given amount of posterior maxillary impaction depends on anatomic variables, which can be obtained from a lateral cephalogram. The clinical implication of this relationship is as follows: patients with small mandibles and steep mandibular occlusal planes will require greater amounts of posterior impaction. PMID:25950521

  19. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  20. Treatment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries.

    PubMed

    Sanders, James O; Brown, Gregory A; Murray, Jayson; Pezold, Ryan; Sevarino, Kaitlyn S

    2016-08-01

    The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons has developed the Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) document Treatment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries. Evidence-based information, in conjunction with the clinical expertise of physicians, was used to develop the criteria to improve patient care and obtain the best outcomes while considering the subtleties and distinctions necessary in making clinical decisions. The AUC clinical patient scenarios were derived from patient indications that generally accompany an anterior cruciate ligament injury, as well as from current evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and supporting literature. The 56 patient scenarios and 8 treatments were developed by the Writing Panel, a group of clinicians who are specialists in this AUC topic. Lastly, a separate, multidisciplinary Voting Panel (made up of specialists and nonspecialists) rated the appropriateness of treatment of each patient scenario using a 9-point scale to designate a treatment as Appropriate (median rating, 7 to 9), May Be Appropriate (median rating, 4 to 6), or Rarely Appropriate (median rating, 1 to 3). PMID:27355285

  1. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  2. Anterior eye protection with orbital neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    The administration of adequate doses of radiation to tumors involving the orbit and surrounding facial structures and sinuses is often complicated by the need to protect the sensitive ocular components, the lens and cornea. A technique has been devised that uses four photon beam fields and an optional electron field to treat the contents of both orbits and adjacent sinuses with effective, reproducible protection of cornea and lens. Essential features include: alignment of the corneal surfaces with the central plane of rotation of the treatment machine, use of a narrow eye block across the entire beam to shield a strip equal to the width of the cornea, positioned symmetrically across the central plane of rotation, fine alignment of the eye block with both corneal surfaces by altering pedestal angle, treatment with paired, wedged, anterior oblique fields to encompass desired orbital and sinus volumes with additional blocking placed as needed, and complementary, lateral strip fields using collimators set to eye block thickness to equalize dose in the posterior orbit shielded by the strip eye block. A similar anterior electron beam strip field may be added to boost the medial orbit and ethmoid regions covered by the eye block. Bite block head immobilization and easy, direct daily visualization of block position assures eye protection for each treatment and provides substantial reduction in dose to the cornea, lens and iris. Additional blocking may be incorporated to provide partial lacrimal and parotid sparing.

  3. Meta-Analysis Comparing Zero-Profile Spacer and Anterior Plate in Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Teng; Liang, Baobao; Xu, Junkui; Zhou, Jun; Lv, Hongjun; Qin, Jie; Cai, Xuan; Huang, Sihua; Li, Haopeng; Wang, Dong; He, Xijing

    2015-01-01

    Background Anterior plate fusion is an effective procedure for the treatment of cervical spinal diseases but is accompanied by a high incidence of postoperative dysphagia. A zero profile (Zero-P) spacer is increasingly being used to reduce postoperative dysphagia and other potential complications associated with surgical intervention. Studies comparing the Zero-P spacer and anterior plate have reported conflicting results. Methodology A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the safety, efficacy, radiological outcomes and complications associated with the use of a Zero-P spacer versus an anterior plate in anterior cervical spine fusion for the treatment of cervical spinal disease. We comprehensively searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and other databases and performed a meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective or retrospective comparative studies assessing the two techniques. Results Ten studies enrolling 719 cervical spondylosis patients were included. The pooled data showed significant differences in the operation time [SMD = –0.58 (95% CI = −0.77 to 0.40, p < 0.01)] and blood loss [SMD = −0.40, 95% CI (−0.59 to –0.21), p < 0.01] between the two groups. Compared to the anterior plate group, the Zero-P group exhibited a significantly improved JOA score and reduced NDI and VAS. However, anterior plate fusion had greater postoperative segmental and cervical Cobb’s angles than the Zero-P group at the last follow-up. The fusion rate in the two groups was similar. More importantly, the Zero-P group had a lower incidence of earlier and later postoperative dysphagia. Conclusions Compared to anterior plate fusion, Zero-P is a safer and effective procedure, with a similar fusion rate and lower incidence of earlier and later postoperative dysphagia. However, the results of this meta-analysis should be accepted with caution due to the limitations of the study. Further evaluation and large-sample RCTs are required to

  4. An in vivo comparison of anterior tibial translation and strain in the anteromedial band of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Fleming, B C; Beynnon, B D; Nichols, C E; Johnson, R J; Pope, M H

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this in vivo study was to determine if strain in the anteromedial band (AMB) of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) may be predicted by an external measurement of anterior tibial-femoral translation. A Hall effect strain transducer was implanted on the AMB of five human subjects with normal intact ACLs. AMB strain was then measured during anterior shear loading of the tibia relative to the femur, with the knee flexed to 30 and 90 degrees, simulating the loads applied in the Lachman and anterior drawer tests, respectively. The Knee Signature System, a commercially available arthrometer, was used to simultaneously measure anterior tibial translation relative to the femur. The resulting AMB strains and translations during anterior shear loading of the tibia with respect to the femur at 30 and 90 degrees were compared using a regression analysis to determine if AMB strain could be predicted from a measure of anterior tibiofemoral translation at either flexion angle. AMB strain at 150 N anterior shear load at 30 degrees flexion (3.0%) was significantly greater than that at 150 N anterior shear load at 90 degrees flexion (0.9%). During anterior shear loading at 30 degrees flexion, AMB strain correlated with anterior tibial translation (r2 = 0.59). However, there was no significant correlation between AMB strain and anterior tibial translation for anterior shear loading at 90 degrees flexion (r2 = 0.002). Therefore, AMB strain was not accurately predicted from an external measurement of tibial displacement at 90 degrees in this experiment. PMID:8423168

  5. [Hepatitis in dogs; a review].

    PubMed

    Rothuizen, J; van den Ingh, T S

    1998-04-15

    As with most liver diseases, the symptoms of hepatitis in dogs are nearly always aspecific: the dogs eat less, are apathetic, sometimes have polyuria/polydipsia, and sometimes have diarrhoea. Hepatoencephalopathy and ascites only occur with these symptoms in very advanced stages of chronic hepatitis. Only a part of the dogs have jaundice. Because of these aspecific symptoms, the diagnosis hepatitis is often not taken into consideration, even though the presence of a liver disease can be easily detected by measuring plasma concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and bile acids, one or both of which are elevated. The diagnosis is confirmed by histological examination of a liver biopsy sample. The most common forms of hepatitis are non-specific reactive hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis. Non-specific reactive hepatitis is a reaction against endotoxin as a result of sepsis or an increased gastrointestinal absorption. Treatment is directed to the primary process. Leptospirosis also causes non-specific reactive hepatitis, but then renal insufficiency is the most prominent feature. The diagnosis is made not on the basis of a liver biopsy but on the basis of increased IgM titres against Leptospira. Immediate treatment with antibiotics and infusions at the first signs (jaundice and uraemia) can save the animal's life. Acute hepatitis can develop as a result of infection, toxins, or liver hypoxia. There is no specific treatment, but adequate recovery often occurs with supportive treatment. Corticosteroids are contraindicated. Chronic hepatitis, which can lead to cirrhosis, is the most common form of hepatitis. It is an autoimmune inflammatory reaction that is usually caused by a virus infection but sometimes by poisoning (intoxication). Long treatment with prednisolone or azathioprine is usually successful, but early recognition of the disease increases the likelihood of success. Nowadays, chronic hepatitis due to hepatic copper accumulation in Beddlington

  6. Auto immune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    van Gerven, Nicole Mf; de Boer, Ynto S; Mulder, Chris Jj; van Nieuwkerk, Carin Mj; Bouma, Gerd

    2016-05-21

    To provide an update of the latest trends in epidemiology, clinical course, diagnostics, complications and treatment of auto immune hepatitis (AIH). A search of the MEDLINE database was performed using the search terms: "auto immune hepatitis", "clinical presentation", "symptoms", "signs", "diagnosis", "auto antibodies", "laboratory values", "serology", "histopathology", "histology", "genetics", "HLA genes", "non-HLA genes", "environment", "epidemiology", "prevalence", "incidence", "demographics", "complications", "HCC", "PBC", "PSC", "corticosteroid", "therapy", "treatment", "alternative treatment". English-language full-text articles and abstracts were considered. Articles included reviews, meta-analysis, prospective retrospective studies. No publication date restrictions were applied. AIH is an immune meditated progressive inflammatory liver disease that predominantly affects middle-aged females but may affect people of all ages. The clinical spectrum of AIH is wide, ranging from absent or mild symptoms to fulminant hepatic failure. The aetiology of AIH is still unknown, but is believed to occur as the consequence of an aberrant immune response towards an un-known trigger in a genetically susceptible host. In the absence of a gold standard, diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical, biochemical and histopathological criteria. Immunosuppressive treatment has been the cornerstone of treatment since the earliest description of the disease in 1950 by Waldenström. Such treatment is often successful at inducing remission and generally leads to normal life expectancy. Nevertheless, there remain significant areas of unmet aetiological a clinical needs including fundamental insight in disease pathogenesis, optimal therapy, duration of treatment and treatment alternatives in those patients unresponsive to standard treatment regimens. PMID:27217697

  7. Anterior segment imaging in glaucoma: An updated review

    PubMed Central

    Maslin, Jessica S; Barkana, Yaniv; Dorairaj, Syril K

    2015-01-01

    Anterior segment imaging allows for an objective method of visualizing the anterior segment angle. Two of the most commonly used devices for anterior segment imaging include the anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and the ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). AS-OCT technology has several types, including time-domain, swept-source, and spectral-domain-based configurations. We performed a literature search on PubMed for articles containing the text “anterior segment OCT,” “ultrasound biomicroscopy,” and “anterior segment imaging” since 2004, with some pertinent references before 2004 included for completeness. This review compares the advantages and disadvantages of AS-OCT and UBM, and summarizes the most recent literature regarding the importance of these devices in glaucoma diagnosis and management. These devices not only aid in visualization of the angle, but also have important postsurgical applications in bleb and tube imaging. PMID:26576519

  8. Microanatomy of the perforators of the anterior communicating artery complex.

    PubMed

    Camuscu, H; Dujovny, M; Abd el-Bary, T; Beristain, X; Viñas, F C

    1997-12-01

    We describe the microanatomy of the perforating arteries arising from the anterior communicating artery complex (5 mm distal of the anterior cerebral artery, the anterior communicating artery, and 5 mm proximal of the distal anterior cerebral artery). Thirteen unfixed human brains were used in this study. The origin and number of perforators are described, as is the site of brain penetration, and results are correlated with previous studies. The hemodynamics of blood flow in relation to the formation of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm and different surgical approaches are mentioned. The neuropsychological outcome after aneurysm clipping with regards to the pattern of blood supply from the anterior cerebral artery complex is also discussed. PMID:9427956

  9. New perspectives on hepatitis E.

    PubMed

    Hyams, Kenneth C

    2002-08-01

    The infectious agent causing epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis was identified in 1983 from a human challenge experiment. The novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) subsequently was cloned in 1990 and the genome sequenced. HEV transmission is highly endemic in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Fecal contamination of drinking water is the most common mode of spread. Although usually asymptomatic, HEV infection can cause fulminant hepatitis. Recent studies indicate that hepatitis E may be a zoonotic disease, with pigs and possibly rats serving as reservoirs for human infection. A recombinant HEV vaccine is currently in phase III clinical trials. The characterization of the major types of viral hepatitis during the last 20 years illustrates how modern genetic technology has revolutionized research in infectious diseases. Within less than two decades of the discovery of HEV, its epidemiology has been described, serologic tests have been developed, and a candidate vaccine has been evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:12149176

  10. Successful anterior fusion following posterior cervical fusion for revision of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion pseudarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Elder, Benjamin D; Sankey, Eric W; Theodros, Debebe; Bydon, Mohamad; Rory Goodwin, C; Lo, Sheng-Fu; Kosztowski, Thomas A; Belzberg, Allen J; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Sciubba, Daniel M; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Bydon, Ali; Witham, Timothy F

    2016-02-01

    Pseudarthrosis occurs after approximately 2-20% of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedures; it is unclear if posterior or anterior revision should be pursued. In this study, we retrospectively evaluate the outcomes in 22 patients with pseudarthrosis following ACDF and revision via posterior cervical fusion (PCF). Baseline demographics, preoperative symptoms, operative data, time to fusion failure, symptoms of pseudarthrosis, and revision method were assessed. Fusion outcome and clinical outcome were determined at last follow-up (LFU). Thirteen females (59%) and 9 (41%) males experienced pseudarthrosis at a median of 11 (range: 3-151)months after ACDF. Median age at index surgery was 51 (range: 33-67)years. All patients with pseudarthrosis presented with progressive neck pain, with median visual analog scale (VAS) score of 8 (range: 0-10), and/or myeloradiculopathy. Patients with pseudarthrosis <12 months compared to >12 months after index surgery were older (p=0.013), had more frequent preoperative neurological deficits (p=0.064), and lower baseline VAS scores (p=0.006). Fusion was successful after PCF in all patients, with median time to fusion of 10 (range: 2-14)months. Eighteen patients fused both anteriorly and posteriorly, two patients fused anteriorly only, and two patients fused posteriorly only. Median VAS neck score at LFU significantly improved from the time of pseudarthrosis (p=0.012). While uncommon, pseudarthrosis may occur after ACDF. All patients achieved successful fusion after subsequent posterior cervical fusion, with 91% fusing a previous anterior pseudarthrosis after posterior stabilization. Neck pain significantly improved by LFU in the majority of patients in this study. PMID:26482460

  11. Review of 31 cases of anterior thoracolumbar fixation with the anterior thoracolumbar locking plate system.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J A; Bowen, S; Branch, C L; Meredith, J W

    1999-07-15

    Anterior fixation devices for the thoracolumbar spine have gained wide acceptance as viable alternatives to long-segment posterior fixation in cases of thoracolumbar spine trauma. This review was undertaken to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Synthes anterior thoracolumbar locking plate (ATLP) system. Over a 3-year period, 31 patients with unstable traumatic fractures of the thoracolumbar spine underwent corpectomy, placement of a structural bone graft, and anterior fixation in which the Synthes ATLP system was used. Long-term follow-up data were obtained in 29 patients. Two patients were lost to follow up, one at 4 months and the other at 1 year. In the remaining patients, the average length of follow up was 20 months. In all patients radiographic evidence of solid bone fusion was demonstrated on follow-up plain x-ray films, and there were no signs or symptoms of pseudarthrosis. No patient suffered neurological deterioration as a result of surgery, and there was relatively little morbidity associated with this plating system. To date, none of the patients in this study has developed any delayed complications related to the fixation device. In one patient, who had sustained a severe flexion injury, loosening of the anterior fixation device occurred, and the patient developed progressive kyphosis, which required a posterior stabilization procedure. These results appear slightly better than those obtained in published studies in which other anterior plating systems were used, indicating that this system is safe and effective in the treatment of unstable fractures of the thoracolumbar spine. PMID:16918232

  12. Hepatic visceral larva migrans

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Yadav, Rohtas; Dhaulakhandi, Dhara Ballabh

    2013-01-01

    Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is a systemic manifestation of migration of second stage larvae of nematodes through the tissue of human viscera. It is not uncommon but is underdiagnosed in developing countries. The liver is the most common organ to be involved due to its portal venous blood supply. The imaging findings are subtle and differentiation from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), metastases, cystic mesenchymal hamartoma and granulomatous diseases is difficult. This case report highlights the imaging features of hepatic lesions of VLM along with clinical and laboratory data which help in clinching the diagnosis. PMID:23853189

  13. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis: Therapy.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Paulina K; Lucey, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) causes great morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Advances in therapy have proven difficult. In part, this reflects challenges in diagnosis, including the distinction between AH and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Liver biopsy is the best method to clarify the cause in circumstances whereby conflicting clinical data confound the diagnosis. All treatment of AH begins with abstinence from alcohol. All patients with AH should be given sufficient nutrition. Prednisolone has become the principal agent for treating patients with severe AH. PMID:27373613

  14. Healing of the goat anterior cruciate ligament after a new suture repair technique and bioscaffold treatment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, D Tan; Geel, Jurre; Schulze, Martin; Raschke, Michael J; Woo, Savio L-Y; van Dijk, C Niek; Blankevoort, Leendert

    2013-10-01

    Primary suture repair of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has been used clinically in an attempt to heal the ruptured ACL. The results, however, were not satisfactory, which in retrospect can be attributed to the used suturing technique and the suboptimal healing conditions. These constraining conditions can be improved by introducing a new suturing technique and by using small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a bioscaffold. It is hypothesized that the suturing technique keep the torn ends together and that SIS enhance and promote the healing of the ACL. The goat was used as the study model. In the Suture group, the left ACL was transected and suture repaired with a new locking suture repair technique (n=5) allowing approximation and fixation under tension. The Suture-SIS group underwent the same procedure with the addition of SIS (n=5). The right ACL served as control. After 12 weeks of healing, anterior-posterior translation and in situ force of the healing ACL were measured, followed by the measurement of the cross-sectional area and structural stiffness. Routine histology was performed on tissue samples. Gross morphology showed that the healing ACL was continuous with collagenous tissue in both groups. The cross-sectional area of the Suture and the Suture-SIS group was 35% and 50% of the intact control, respectively. The anterior-posterior translations at different flexion angles were statistically not different between the Suture group and the Suture-SIS group. Only the in situ force at 30° in the Suture-SIS group was higher than in the Suture group. Tensile tests showed that the stiffness for the Suture group was not different from the Suture-SIS group (31.1±8.1 N/mm vs. 41.9±18.0 N/mm [p>0.05]). Histology showed longitudinally aligned collagen fibers from origo to insertion. More fibroblasts were present in the healing tissue than in the control intact tissue. The study demonstrated the proof of concept of ACL repair in a goat model with a new suture

  15. Anterior mitral annulus caseoma: as benign as posterior counterparts?

    PubMed

    Mazzucco, Alessandro; Abbasciano, Riccardo; Onorati, Francesco; Brognoli, Gabriele; Fanti, Diego; Gottin, Leonardo; Faggian, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Mitral annular caseoma is a common incidental finding involving the posterior annulus. It has an innocent nature, with the exception of its endocarditic degeneration and/or a stenotic functional effect when exophytic. We report an exceptionally rare isolated anterior mitral annular caseoma involving also the anterior mitral leaflet and affecting its physiologic systolic movement, thus resulting in a restricting anterior leaflet motion responsible for mitral insufficiency. The case was successfully treated by complex mitral valve repair. PMID:26522681

  16. Cross-continental comparison of the functional composition and carbon allocation of two altitudinal forest transects in Ecuador and Rwanda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauters, Marijn; Bruneel, Stijn; Demol, Miro; Taveirne, Cys; Van Der Heyden, Dries; Boeckx, Pascal; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Cizungu, Landry; Verbeeck, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forests are key actors in the global carbon cycle. Predicting future responses of these forests to global change is challenging, but important for global climate models. However, our current understanding of such responses is limited, due to the complexity of forest ecosystems and the slow dynamics that inherently form these systems. Our understanding of ecosystem ecology and functioning could greatly benefit from experimental setups including strong environmental gradients in the tropics, as found on altitudinal transects. We setup two such transects in both South-America and Africa, focussing on shifts in carbon allocation, forest structure and functional composition. By a cross-continental comparison of both transects, we will gain insight in how different or alike both tropical forests biomes are in their responses, and how universal the observed adaption mechanisms are.

  17. Transcriptome response to infraorbital nerve transection in the gonadally intact male rat barrel cortex: RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Orczyk, John J; Sethia, Rishabh; Doster, Dominique; Garraghty, Preston E

    2016-01-01

    The effects of infraorbital nerve (ION) transection on gene expression in the adult male rat barrel cortex were investigated using RNA sequencing. After a 24-hour survival duration, 98 genes were differentially regulated by ION transection. Differentially expressed genes suggest changes in neuronal activity, excitability, and morphology. The production of mRNA for neurotrophins, including brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BNDF), was decreased following ION transection. Several potassium channels showed decreased mRNA production, whereas a sodium channel (Na(V)β4) associated with burst firing showed increased mRNA production. The results may have important implications for phantom-limb pain and complex regional pain syndrome. Future experiments should determine the extent to which changes in RNA result in changes in protein expression, in addition to utilizing laser capture microdissection techniques to differentiate between neuronal and glial cells. PMID:26109564

  18. Expanding biological data standards development processes for US IOOS: visual line transect observing community for mammal, bird, and turtle data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fornwall, M.; Gisiner, R.; Simmons, S. E.; Moustahfid, Hassan; Canonico, G.; Halpin, P.; Goldstein, P.; Fitch, R.; Weise, M.; Cyr, N.; Palka, D.; Price, J.; Collins, D.

    2012-01-01

    The US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) has recently adopted standards for biological core variables in collaboration with the US Geological Survey/Ocean Biogeographic Information System (USGS/OBIS-USA) and other federal and non-federal partners. In this Community White Paper (CWP) we provide a process to bring into IOOS a rich new source of biological observing data, visual line transect surveys, and to establish quality data standards for visual line transect observations, an important source of at-sea bird, turtle and marine mammal observation data. The processes developed through this exercise will be useful for other similar biogeographic observing efforts, such as passive acoustic point and line transect observations, tagged animal data, and mark-recapture (photo-identification) methods. Furthermore, we suggest that the processes developed through this exercise will serve as a catalyst for broadening involvement by the larger marine biological data community within the goals and processes of IOOS.

  19. Save or sacrifice the internal mammary pedicle during anterior mediastinotomy?

    PubMed

    Apostolakis, Efstratios; Papakonstantinou, Nikolaos A; Chlapoutakis, Serafeim; Prokakis, Christos

    2014-07-01

    Ligation and dissection of internal mammary vessels is the most under-estimated complication of anterior mediastinotomy. However, patients requiring anterior mediastinotomy may experience long survival that makes the development of ischemic heart disease throughout their life possible. Therefore, the un-judicial sacrifice of the internal mammary pedicle may deprive them from the benefit to have their internal mammary artery used as a graft in order to successfully bypass severe left anterior descending artery stenoses. We recommend the preservation of the internal mammary pedicle during anterior mediastinotomy, which should be a common message among our colleagues from the beginning of their training. PMID:24987471

  20. Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria along Meadow-to-Forest Transects in the Oregon Cascade Mountains†

    PubMed Central

    Mintie, A. T.; Heichen, R. S.; Cromack, Jr., K.; Myrold, D. D.; Bottomley, P. J.

    2003-01-01

    Although nitrification has been well studied in coniferous forests of Western North America, communities of NH3-oxidizing bacteria in these forests have not been characterized. Studies were conducted along meadow-to-forest transects at two sites (Lookout and Carpenter) in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest, located in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Soil samples taken at 10- or 20-m intervals along the transects showed that several soil properties, including net nitrogen mineralization and nitrification potential rates changed significantly between vegetation zones. Nonetheless, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the PCR-amplified NH3 monooxygenase subunit A gene (amoA) showed the same DNA fragments (TaqI [283 bp], CfoI [66 bp], and AluI [392 bp]) to dominate ≥45 of 47 soil samples recovered from both sites. Two fragments (491-bp AluI [AluI491] and CfoI135) were found more frequently in meadow and transition zone soil samples than in forest samples at both sites. At the Lookout site the combination AluI491-CfoI135 was found primarily in meadow samples expressing the highest N mineralization rates. Four unique amoA sequences were identified among 15 isolates recovered into pure culture from various transect locations. Six isolates possessed the most common T-RFLP amoA fingerprint of the soil samples (TaqI283-AluI392-CfoI66), and their amoA sequences shared 99.8% similarity with a cultured species, Nitrosospira sp. strain Ka4 (cluster 4). The other three amoA sequences were most similar to sequences of Nitrosospira sp. strain Nsp1 and Nitrosospira briensis (cluster 3). 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis confirmed the affiliation of these isolates with Nitrosospira clusters 3 and 4. Two amoA clone sequences matched T-RFLP fingerprints found in soil, but they were not found among the isolates. PMID:12788707

  1. Involvement of medullary GABAergic system in extraterritorial neuropathic pain mechanisms associated with inferior alveolar nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Nakaya, Yuka; Imamura, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Shinoda, Masamichi; Kita, Kozue; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2015-05-01

    In order to determine if the functional changes in the GABAergic system in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) are involved in the mechanisms underlying extraterritorial neuropathic pain in the orofacial region following inferior alveolar nerve transection (IANX), mechanical noxious behavior, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) immunohistochemistry and single neuronal activity were analyzed in vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-VenusA rats expressing fluorescent protein and the VGAT in Vc neurons. The number of VGAT-VenusA positive neurons was significantly reduced in IANX rats than naive and sham rats at 7days after nerve transection. The number of VGAT-VenusA positive pERK-immunoreactive (IR) cells was significantly increased in IANX rats at 21days after IAN transection compared with naive and sham rats. The background activity and mechanical-evoked responses of Vc nociceptive neurons were significantly depressed after intrathecal application of the GABA receptor agonist muscimol in sham rats but not in IANX rats. Furthermore, the expression of potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) in the Vc was significantly reduced in IANX rats compared with sham rats. The head-withdrawal threshold (HWT) to mechanical stimulation of the whisker pad skin was significantly decreased in IANX rats compared with sham rats on days 7 and 21 after IANX. The significant reduction of the HWT and significant increase in the number of VGAT-VenusA negative pERK-IR cells were observed in KCC2 blocker R-DIOA-injected rats compared with vehicle-injected rats on day 21 after sham treatment. These findings revealed that GABAergic Vc neurons might be reduced in their number at the early period after IANX and the functional changes might occur in GABAergic neurons from inhibitory to excitatory at the late period after IANX, suggesting that the neuroplastic changes occur in the GABAergic neuronal network in the Vc due to morphological and functional changes at

  2. A Wide-Angle Seismic Reflection Transect across the Moroccan Atlas (SIMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, R.; Harnafi, M.; Teixell, A.; Gallart, J.; Levander, A.; Ayarza, P.; Kchikach, A.; Amrhar, M.; Charroud, M.

    2010-12-01

    The plate boundary between Africa and Europe is a diffuse feature that includes a very young intra-continental Cenozoic orogenic belt, the Atlas Orogen. The Atlas is characterized by a topographic relief which can reach 4000 m; less than 20% shortening has been reported by geologic studies. The small amount of shortening does not explain the high topographic relief. Furthermore, potential field geophysical studies and previous low resolution refraction experiments report a maximum crustal thickness of 40 km. These suggesting that the orogen is out of isostatic equilibrium and that asthenospheric upwelling is needed to support the mountain load. A 700 km long deep seismic wide-angle reflection transect has been acquired by an international team to constrain the crustal thickness, topography of the Moho and the seismic velocity structure. The north-south oriented transect extends from the Sahara Desert south of Merzouga near the Algeria border, to Ceuta at the Gibraltar arc (on the north coast of Morocco) crossing the High and Middle Atlas and the Rif mountain ranges. Seismic energy released at 6 shot points generated by detonating approximately, 1 TM of explosives was recorded by ~ 900 Reftek-125a (TEXAN) seismic recorders from the IRIS-PASSCAL pool. The seismic stations were deployed with an average station spacing of 650-750 m. The 6 shot points were located within the southern part of the transect with a shot spacing of ~60-70 km. The preliminary analysis of this high resolution data reveals: a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio; and interpreted PmP reflected phase which samples the crust mantle boundary. SIMA is one component of the PICASSO research initiative. This multinational research programme that includes a series of multi-disciplinary geophysical projects (The Spanish TopoIberia and Siberia Projects; the US-Spanish-Irish PICASSO project, with participation from Germany and France). These studies are designed to develop new understanding of the

  3. Line Transect Surveys Underdetect Terrestrial Mammals: Implications for the Sustainability of Subsistence Hunting.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, José M V; Levi, Taal; Oliveira, Luiz F B; Luzar, Jeffrey B; Overman, Han; Read, Jane M; Silvius, Kirsten M

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of Neotropical game species must take into account the livelihood and food security needs of local human populations. Hunting management decisions should therefore rely on abundance and distribution data that are as representative as possible of true population sizes and dynamics. We simultaneously applied a commonly used encounter-based method and an infrequently used sign-based method to estimate hunted vertebrate abundance in a 48,000-km2 indigenous landscape in southern Guyana. Diurnal direct encounter data collected during three years along 216, four-kilometer -long transects consistently under-detected many diurnal and nocturnal mammal species readily detected through sign. Of 32 species analyzed, 31 were detected by both methods; however, encounters did not detect one and under-detected another 12 of the most heavily hunted species relative to sign, while sign under-detected 12 never or rarely collected species relative to encounters. The six most important game animals in the region, all ungulates, were not encountered at 11-40% of village and control sites or on 29-72% of transects where they were detected by sign. Using the sign methodology, we find that tapirs, one of the terrestrial vertebrates considered most sensitive to overexploitation, are present at many sites where they were never visually detected during distance sampling. We find that this is true for many other species as well. These high rates of under-detection suggest that behavioral changes in hunted populations may affect apparent occurrence and abundance of these populations. Accumulation curves (detection of species on transects) were much steeper for sign for 12 of 16 hunted species than for encounters, but that pattern was reversed for 12 of 16 species unhunted in our area. We conclude that collection of sign data is an efficient and effective method of monitoring hunted vertebrate populations that complements encounter and camera-trapping methods in areas impacted by

  4. Line Transect Surveys Underdetect Terrestrial Mammals: Implications for the Sustainability of Subsistence Hunting

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Taal; Oliveira, Luiz F. B.; Luzar, Jeffrey B.; Overman, Han; Read, Jane M.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of Neotropical game species must take into account the livelihood and food security needs of local human populations. Hunting management decisions should therefore rely on abundance and distribution data that are as representative as possible of true population sizes and dynamics. We simultaneously applied a commonly used encounter-based method and an infrequently used sign-based method to estimate hunted vertebrate abundance in a 48,000-km2 indigenous landscape in southern Guyana. Diurnal direct encounter data collected during three years along 216, four-kilometer -long transects consistently under-detected many diurnal and nocturnal mammal species readily detected through sign. Of 32 species analyzed, 31 were detected by both methods; however, encounters did not detect one and under-detected another 12 of the most heavily hunted species relative to sign, while sign under-detected 12 never or rarely collected species relative to encounters. The six most important game animals in the region, all ungulates, were not encountered at 11–40% of village and control sites or on 29–72% of transects where they were detected by sign. Using the sign methodology, we find that tapirs, one of the terrestrial vertebrates considered most sensitive to overexploitation, are present at many sites where they were never visually detected during distance sampling. We find that this is true for many other species as well. These high rates of under-detection suggest that behavioral changes in hunted populations may affect apparent occurrence and abundance of these populations. Accumulation curves (detection of species on transects) were much steeper for sign for 12 of 16 hunted species than for encounters, but that pattern was reversed for 12 of 16 species unhunted in our area. We conclude that collection of sign data is an efficient and effective method of monitoring hunted vertebrate populations that complements encounter and camera-trapping methods in areas impacted by

  5. Charactering Spatial Variability of Soil Properties Measured on a Transect by Multifractal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz González, A.; Valcarcel Armesto, M.; Dafonte Dafonte, J.; Mirás Avalos, J. M.; da Silva Días, R.; Marinho, M. A.; de Abreu, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    Spatial variability of soils in landscapes has been studied in different ways, for example in terms of soil survey reliability, soil development and erosive processes. Due to the advent of site-specific management in the 1990s, there is now an increasing interest in measuring the amount of soil variability within a field. Methods for assessing spatial variability also include use of transect techniques to sample soil sequences. On the other hand, over the past few decades fractal and multifractal models have been applied in the evaluation of the spatial variability of soil attributes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the spatial variability of general soil properties and extractable nutrients measured along a transect by means of multifractal analysis. The field work was conducted at the experimental farm of CIAM located in Mabegondo, A Coruña, Spain on a gently slope. The soil was loamy textured. Soil samples were taken at 66 points located 0.8 m apart along a transect of 52 m. Samples were analyzed for pH, organic matter content (OM), exchangeable K, Mg and Ca, exchangeable H+Al, and DTPA extractable Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. In addition, sum of bases (SB), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and percent base saturation (V) were calculated from exchangeable cations. For all the studied statistical moments the logarithm of the normalized measures varied linearly (r2 > 0.87) with the logarithm of the measurement scale, meaning that the distribution of the measure could be considered as a fractal. The scaling properties of the soil properties studied were further characterized to determine if the scaling types was monofractal or multifractal. To this effect selected indices were calculated from the generalized dimension function, Dq. So for a distribution with a monofractal tendency values of the correlation dimension D2 and the entropy dimension, D1, become similar to the capacity dimension, D0, however D0 >D1 > D2 if the distribution has a tendency to

  6. Upper Cretaceous molluscan record along a transect from Virden, New Mexico, to Del Rio, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cobban, W.A.; Hook, S.C.; McKinney, K.C.

    2008-01-01

    Updated age assignments and new collections of molluscan fossils from lower Cenomanian through upper Campanian strata in Texas permit a much refined biostratigraphic correlation with the rocks of New Mexico and the Western Interior. Generic names of many Late Cretaceous ammonites and inoceramid bivalves from Texas are updated to permit this correlation. Strata correlated in the west-to-east transect include the lower Cenomanian Beartooth Quartzite and Sarten Sandstone of southwest New Mexico, and the Eagle Mountains Formation, Del Rio Clay, Buda Limestone, and. basal beds of the Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations of the Texas-Mexico border area. Middle Cenomanian strata are lacking in southwestern New Mexico but are present in the lower parts of the Chispa Summit and Boquillas Formations in southwest Texas. Upper Cenomanian and lower Turonian rocks are present at many localities in New Mexico and Texas in the Mancos Shale and Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations. Middle Turonian and younger rocks seem to be entirely nonmarine in southwestern New Mexico, but they are marine in the Rio Grande area in the Chispa. Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations. The upper part of the Chispa Summit and Boquillas contain late Turonian fossils. Rocks of Coniacian and Santonian age are present high in the Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations, and in the lower part of the Austin. The San Carlos, Aguja, Pen, and Austin Formations contain fossils of Campanian age. Fossils representing at least 38 Upper Cretaceous ammonite zones are present along the transect. Collections made in recent years in southwestern New Mexico and at Sierra de Cristo Rey just west of downtown El Paso, Texas, have been well treated and do not need revision. Taxonomic names and zonations published in the pre-1970 literature on the Rio Grande area of Texas have been updated. New fossil collections from the Big Bend National Park, Texas, allow for a much refined correlation

  7. Contrasting pH buffering patterns in neutral-alkaline soils along a 3600 km transect in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W.; Nelson, P. N.; Li, M.-H.; Cai, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Shan, Y.; Wang, R.; Han, X.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Soil pH buffering capacity (pHBC) plays a crucial role in predicting acidification rates, yet its large-scale patterns and controls are poorly understood, especially for neutral-alkaline soils. Here, we evaluated the spatial patterns and drivers of pHBC along a 3600 km long transect (1900 km sub-transect with carbonate containing soils and 1700 km sub-transect with non-carbonate containing soils) across northern China. Soil pHBC was greater in the carbonate containing soils than in the non-carbonate containing soils. Acid addition decreased soil pH in the non-carbonate containing soils more markedly than in the carbonate containing soils. Within the carbonate soil sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC), carbonate content and exchangeable sodium (Na) concentration, but negatively correlated with initial pH and clay content, and not correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Within the non-carbonate sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively related to initial pH, clay content, CEC and exchangeable Na concentration, but not related to SOC content. Carbonate content was the primary determinant of pHBC in the carbonate containing soils and CEC was the main determinant of buffering capacity in the non-carbonate containing soils. Soil pHBC was positively related to aridity index and carbonate content across the carbonate containing soil sub-transect. Our results indicated that mechanisms controlling pHBC differ among neutral-alkaline soils of northern China, especially between carbonate and non-carbonate containing soils, leading to different rates, risks, and impacts of acidification. This understanding should be incorporated into the acidification risk assessment and landscape management in a changing world.

  8. Delta hepatitis: another concern for dentistry.

    PubMed

    Cottone, J A

    1986-01-01

    Delta hepatitis is a defective virus dependent on hepatitis B virus for replication and transmission. Delta hepatitis infection is becoming more prevalent in the United States, especially in parenteral drug abusers; several outbreaks have occurred. Infection control procedures and the hepatitis B vaccine can protect the dental staff from infection and transmission. PMID:3455994

  9. Understanding hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Yim, C K

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects over 170 million people worldwide and is a common cause for liver transplantation in Canada. The prevalence of HCV infection in the dialysis population is estimated to be 20% to 50%. Today, intravenous drug use remains the most common route of transmission. The risk of acquiring HCV infection in patients on long-term hemodialysis is expected to decrease because of the screening of blood products for HCV. The diagnostic tests for hepatitis C include anti-HCV, HCV RNA, serum ALT levels, and liver biopsy. Liver biopsy is the definitive diagnostic procedure. Of patients acutely infected with the virus 50% to 85% will become carriers. HCV infection progresses slowly and the minority of patients develop cirrhosis over 20 years. The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma is increased once cirrhosis is present. The current standard of treatment that employs interferon and ribavirin has its limitations and is not indicated for many patients groups, such as patients on long-term hemodialysis. Interferon monotherapy is possible but is poorly tolerated by patients on dialysis. Patient and family education, as well as counselling, are important in that patients infected with HCV should be partners with health care providers in the management of their disease. PMID:11785189

  10. Chronic Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tram T.; Martin, Paul

    2001-12-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) accounts for 40% of cases of chronic liver disease in the United States and is now the most common indication for liver transplantation. Estimates suggest that 4 million people (1.8%) of the American population are or have been infected with HCV. Currently, the treatment of choice for patients with chronic HCV infection is recombinant interferon alfa with ribavirin. Pegylated interferons are a promising new development, and in combination with ribavirin, they will rapidly become the standard of care. The goals of therapy are to slow disease progression, improve hepatic histology, reduce infectivity, and reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Sustained virologic response, which generally implies the absence of viremia for 6 months or more following completion of therapy, is increasingly being regarded as a cure, with evidence of slowing or even regression of fibrosis on follow-up liver biopsy. A number of factors have been shown to be predictive of a sustained response, including viral genotype other than 1, low serum HCV RNA levels, absence of cirrhosis, younger age, female gender, and shorter duration of infection. Disease severity as assessed by liver biopsy, comorbidities, and possible contraindications to therapy should be weighed in the decision to begin treatment. Counseling patients regarding transmission, natural history, and drug and alcohol abstinence also should be included in management. Close monitoring should be done during treatment for side effects of interferon, including depression and bone marrow suppression. Hemolytic anemia is the major side effect of ribavirin. PMID:11696276

  11. Primary hepatic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Padhan, Rajesh Kumar; Das, Prasenjit; Shalimar

    2015-01-01

    Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder confined to the liver without evidence of involvement of spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow or other lymphoid structures. This is in contrast to Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) that often involves the liver as a secondary manifestation. PHL is a rare disease and constitutes 0.016% of all cases of NHL. PHL typically occurs in middle aged men, and usually the chief presenting symptoms are non specific which includes right upper quadrant pain, B symptoms like fever and weight loss and constitutional symptoms. Most frequent physical finding is hepatomegaly which occurs in 75% of patients. Jaundice is rare and present only in less than 5% of patients. Majority of PHL originates from B cells. The blood investigations and imaging findings are nonspecific. Histopathology is essential and confirms the diagnosis. Treatment modalities include combination of surgical resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The prognosis without therapy is grim. The prognosis and management of PHL is different from hepatocellular carcinoma or metastatic disease, hence it is essential to differentiate it from these diseases. The purpose of this review is to emphasize the importance of accurate diagnosis before implementing therapeutic plan for any hepatic space occupying lesion in liver. PMID:26591949

  12. Vegetation biomass, leaf area index, and NDVI patterns and relationships along two latitudinal transects in arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.; Raynolds, M. K.; Kelley, A. M.; Jia, G.; Ping, C.; Michaelson, G.; Leibman, M. O.; Kaarlejärvi, E.; Khomutov, A.; Kuss, P.; Moskalenko, N.; Orekhov, P.; Matyshak, G.; Forbes, B. C.; Yu, Q.

    2009-12-01

    Analyses of vegetation properties along climatic gradients provide first order approximations as to how vegetation might respond to a temporally dynamic climate. Until recently, no systematic study of tundra vegetation had been conducted along bioclimatic transects that represent the full latitudinal extent of the arctic tundra biome. Since 1999, we have been collecting data on arctic tundra vegetation and soil properties along two such transects, the North American Arctic Transect (NAAT) and the Yamal Arctic Transect (YAT). The NAAT spans the arctic tundra from the Low Arctic of the North Slope of Alaska to the polar desert of Cape Isachsen on Ellef Ringnes Island in the Canadian Archipelago. The Yamal Arctic Transect located in northwest Siberia, Russia, presently ranges from the forest-tundra transition at Nadym to the High Arctic tundra on Belyy Ostrov off the north coast of the Yamal Peninsula. The summer warmth indices (SWI - sum of mean monthly temperatures greater than 0°C) range from approximately 40 °C months to 3 °C months from south to north. For largely zonal sites along these transects, we systematically collected leaf area index (LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI - PSII hand-held spectro-radiometer), and vegetation biomass (clip harvests). Site-averaged LAI ranges from 1.08 to 0 along the transects, yet can be highly variable at the landscape scale. Site-averaged NDVI ranges from 0.67 to 0.26 along the transects, and is less variable than LAI at the landscape scale. Total aboveground live biomass ranges from approximately 700 g m-2 to < 50 g m-2 along the NAAT, and from approximately 1100 g m-2 to < 400 g m-2 along the YAT (not including tree biomass at Nadym). LAI and NDVI are highly correlated logarithmically (r = 0.80) for the entire dataset. LAI is significantly related to total aboveground (live plus dead) vascular plant biomass, although there is some variability in the data (r = 0.63). NDVI is

  13. Accounting for subgroup structure in line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Hawaiian waters.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Amanda L; Forney, Karin A; Oleson, Erin M; Barlow, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters) of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ): an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (n = 5) and NWHI (n = 1) false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (n = 5,000) of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawai'i pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV = 0.66; 95% CI = 479-5,030) and 552 (CV = 1.09; 95% CI = 97

  14. Crustal transects across the Rif domains in North Morocco, from the RIFSIS seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil de la Iglesia, A.; Gallart, J.; Diaz Cusi, J.; Carbonell, R.; Levander, A.; Palomeras, I.; Harnafi, M.

    2013-12-01

    In October 2011, two 300 km-long NS and EW wide-angle seismic transects were carried out in N Morocco, across main domains of Rif cordillera, in a joint effort from Spanish-Moroccan-USA scientists. Main goal of the RIFSIS survey was to achieve, for the first time, detailed crustal velocity-depth models on the southern flank of the Gibraltar Arc System. This asymmetric, arcuated system surrounding the Alboran Sea and composed by the Betic ranges on the N and the Rif cordillera on the S has undergone a complex tectonic evolution since Miocene times. Different types of evolutionary models have been proposed in the last decades, poorly constrained by the available geophysical results, specially on the southern flank, where crustal depths around 30 km have been proposed from inversion modeling of potential field datasets, in contrast with greater values up to 40 km depths and significant lateral variations from RF analysis. In the RIFSIS survey, almost 1000 Texans stations were deployed along the two profiles and 3 shots of 1 T were detonated along each one. The NS transect was extended northwards in Spain by a 75 km long segment in the Betics, and southwards it connects with an analogous profile recorded in 2010 across the Atlas Mountains (SIMA project), hence providing a 700 km long continuous seismic transect sampling the different tectonic domains. The high density of recording stations allows building up of vertical seismic sections focused on the Moho PmP reflections that reveal important variations along this transect. An extensive analysis based on travel time forward modeling has also been performed and main results are presented here. The interpreted crustal structure differentiates two sedimentary layers on top of the basement, inferred from the observed first arrivals at short offsets, followed by upper, mid and lower crustal levels constrained by reflected phases visible in the record sections. The bottom of the crust is well defined from PmP phases

  15. Pollen-rain-vegetation relationships along a forest-savanna transect in southeastern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Vincens; Dubois; Guillet; Achoundong; Buchet; Kamgang Kabeyene Beyala V; de Namur C; Riera

    2000-07-01

    Modern soil and litter samples from southeastern Cameroon, collected along a continuous forest-savanna transect were analysed for pollen content to define modern pollen-vegetation relationships. The pollen results, completed and compared with botanical inventories, leaf area index and basal area measurements performed in the same area, clearly registered the physiognomy, the main floristic composition and floral richness of the two sampled ecosystems. Distortions were observed between sampled vegetations and their pollen rain, related to important differences in pollen production and dispersal of plant species: this is a general feature in many tropical regions. The pollen data in the area studied reflected well the recent transgression of forest versus savanna. This permitted us to define inside the forest ecosystem more successional vegetation communities than the botanical surveys allowed. PMID:10930605

  16. Mathematical models for non-parametric inferences from line transect data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, K.P.; Anderson, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    A general mathematical theory of line transects is developed which supplies a framework for nonparametric density estimation based on either right angle or sighting distances. The probability of observing a point given its right angle distance (y) from the line is generalized to an arbitrary function g(y). Given only that g(0) = 1, it is shown there are nonparametric approaches to density estimation using the observed right angle distances. The model is then generalized to include sighting distances (r). Let f(y I r) be the conditional distribution of right angle distance given sighting distance. It is shown that nonparametric estimation based only on sighting distances requires we know the transformation of r given by f(0 I r).

  17. Manganese flux from continental margin sediments in a transect through the oxygen minimum

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.S. Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Inst., Pacific Grove, CA ); Berelson, W.M.; Iams, H.D.; Kilgore, T.E. ); Coale, K.H.; Coley, T.L.; Elrod, V.A.; Fairey, W.R.; Nowicki, J.L. )

    1992-08-28

    The flux of manganese from continental margin sediments to the ocean was measured with a free-vehicle, benthic flux chamber in a transect across the continental shelf and upper slope of the California margin. The highest fluxes were observed on the shallow continental shelf. Manganese flux decreased linearly with bottom water oxygen concentration, and the lowest flux occurred in the oxygen minimum zone (at a depth of 600 to 1,000 meters). Although the flux of manganese from continental shelf sediments can account for the elevated concentrations observed in shallow, coastal waters, the flux from sediments that intersect the oxygen minimum cannot produce the subsurface concentration maximum of dissolved manganese that is observed in the Pacific Ocean.

  18. Indigenous and Invasive Fruit Fly Diversity along an Altitudinal Transect in Eastern Central Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Geurts, Katrien; Mwatawala, Maulid; De Meyer, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The relative abundance of indigenous and invasive frugivorous fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) was evaluated spatially and temporally along an altitudinal transect between 581–1650 m in the Uluguru Mountains near Morogoro, Tanzania. The polyphagous invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and the indigenous fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch show a similar temporal pattern, but are largely separated spatially, with B. invadens being abundant at lower elevation and C. rosa predominant at higher elevation. The polyphagous indigenous C. cosyra (Walker) coincides with B. invadens but shows an inverse temporal pattern. The cucurbit feeders B. cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus bivittatus (Bigot) show a similar temporal pattern, but the former is restricted to lower elevations. Host availability and climatic differences seem to be the determining factors to explain the differences in occurrence and abundance in time and space. PMID:22935017

  19. Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory

    PubMed Central

    Gamba, Cristina; Jones, Eppie R.; Teasdale, Matthew D.; McLaughlin, Russell L.; Gonzalez-Fortes, Gloria; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Domboróczki, László; Kővári, Ivett; Pap, Ildikó; Anders, Alexandra; Whittle, Alasdair; Dani, János; Raczky, Pál; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Hofreiter, Michael; Bradley, Daniel G; Pinhasi, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The Great Hungarian Plain was a crossroads of cultural transformations that have shaped European prehistory. Here we analyse a 5,000-year transect of human genomes, sampled from petrous bones giving consistently excellent endogenous DNA yields, from 13 Hungarian Neolithic, Copper, Bronze and Iron Age burials including two to high (~22 × ) and seven to ~1 × coverage, to investigate the impact of these on Europe’s genetic landscape. These data suggest genomic shifts with the advent of the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, with interleaved periods of genome stability. The earliest Neolithic context genome shows a European hunter-gatherer genetic signature and a restricted ancestral population size, suggesting direct contact between cultures after the arrival of the first farmers into Europe. The latest, Iron Age, sample reveals an eastern genomic influence concordant with introduced Steppe burial rites. We observe transition towards lighter pigmentation and surprisingly, no Neolithic presence of lactase persistence. PMID:25334030

  20. An ultrastructural study on the reactive oligodendrocytes, myeloclasts, and myelophages in transected dog spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Chang, L W; Kao, C C

    1980-01-01

    As early as 1 to 3 hr after cord transection, proliferation of many reactive oligodendrocytes was observed. Bundles of microfilaments and microtubules were observed in those cells that sent out long, complex pseudopodlike processes near the area of injury. These reactive oligodendrocytes may be comparable to Vaughn's multipotential glia cells. Between 1 day and 1 wk, hypertrophy of the oligodendrocytes was observed. These hypertrophied oligodendrocytes also became hyperactive and infiltrated into the axons within the myelin sheath. These infiltrating hyperactive oligodendrocytes had a scanty fibrillary cytoplasm and are believed to correspond to Jakob's "myeloclasts". The infiltration of macrophages into the nerve fibers and myelin sheaths was also observed. These macrophages were found to be very active in phagocytosis and removal of degenerated debris within the nerve fiber and are believed to represent the "myelophages" described by Jakob in 1913. PMID:6107880

  1. Image processing methods to elucidate spatial characteristics of retinal microglia after optic nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yudong; Peng, Bo; Wang, Shuihua; Liang, Yu-Xiang; Yang, Jiquan; So, Kwok-Fai; Yuan, Ti-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are the mononuclear phagocytes with various functions in the central nervous system, and the morphologies of microglia imply the different stages and functions. In optical nerve transection model of the retina, the retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells induces microglial activations to a unique morphology termed rod microglia. A few studies described the rod microglia in the cortex and retina; however, the spatial characteristic of rod microglia is not fully understood. In this study, we built a mathematical model to characterize the spatial trait of rod microglia. In addition, we developed a Matlab-based image processing pipeline that consists of log enhancement, image segmentation, mathematical morphology based cell detection, area calculation and angle analysis. This computer program provides researchers a powerful tool to quickly analyze the spatial trait of rod microglia. PMID:26888347

  2. Image processing methods to elucidate spatial characteristics of retinal microglia after optic nerve transection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yudong; Peng, Bo; Wang, Shuihua; Liang, Yu-Xiang; Yang, Jiquan; So, Kwok-Fai; Yuan, Ti-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are the mononuclear phagocytes with various functions in the central nervous system, and the morphologies of microglia imply the different stages and functions. In optical nerve transection model of the retina, the retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells induces microglial activations to a unique morphology termed rod microglia. A few studies described the rod microglia in the cortex and retina; however, the spatial characteristic of rod microglia is not fully understood. In this study, we built a mathematical model to characterize the spatial trait of rod microglia. In addition, we developed a Matlab-based image processing pipeline that consists of log enhancement, image segmentation, mathematical morphology based cell detection, area calculation and angle analysis. This computer program provides researchers a powerful tool to quickly analyze the spatial trait of rod microglia. PMID:26888347

  3. Simulated likelihood methods for complex double-platform line transect surveys.

    PubMed

    Schweder, T; Skaug, H J; Langaas, M; Dimakos, X K

    1999-09-01

    The conventional line transect approach of estimating effective search width from the perpendicular distance distribution is inappropriate in certain types of surveys, e.g., when an unknown fraction of the animals on the track line is detected, the animals can be observed only at discrete points in time, there are errors in positional measurements, and covariate heterogeneity exists in detectability. For such situations a hazard probability framework for independent observer surveys is developed. The likelihood of the data, including observed positions of both initial and subsequent observations of animals, is established under the assumption of no measurement errors. To account for measurement errors and possibly other complexities, this likelihood is modified by a function estimated from extensive simulations. This general method of simulated likelihood is explained and the methodology applied to data from a double-platform survey of minke whales in the northeastern Atlantic in 1995. PMID:11314993

  4. Missed diagnosis of complete urethral transection after sling: the case for translabial ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Rogo-Gupta, Lisa; Le, Ngoc-Bich; Raz, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    Patients with complications of urethral sling placement for stress urinary incontinence are often treated for recurrent symptoms for years after initial reassuring evaluation. Translabial ultrasound is a noninvasive modality with minimal risks that can clearly diagnose urethral mesh complications. We present a 47-year-old premenopausal woman referred for treatment of urethral stricture and diverticulum 8 years after mesh sling placement. The diagnosis was made at an outside institution by voiding cystourethrogram and cystoscopy. However, translabial ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of complete urethral transection, and the patient underwent a complex urethral reconstruction. Ultrasound should be used to evaluate patients with a history of urethral sling and persistent lower urinary tract symptoms. Referral to a center with advanced pelvic reconstruction services may be required. PMID:22453271

  5. Hydrogeochemistry of the northern Barbados accretionary complex transect: Ocean Drilling Project leg 110

    SciTech Connect

    Gieskes, J.M. ); Vrolijk, P. ); Blanc, G. )

    1990-06-10

    Detailed studies of the major element geochemistry, oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of pore fluids, and the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of dissolved strontium have made it possible to unravel physical and chemical processes that affect the pore fluid chemistry in a transect of drill holes across the northern Barbados accretionary complex. These processes include (1) alteration of volcanic ash buried in the Pleisticene-Pliocene sediment column; (2) alteration of underlying basalts of layer 2 of the oceanic crust; (3) movement of fluids from deep in the accretionary complex along fault zones (particularly the decollement) and minor permeable layers; these fluids from deeper in the complex are characterized by low chloride concentrations and increased {sup {delta}18}O(H{sub 2}O) values, presumably as a result of dehydration of smectite interlayers; and (4) mixing processes involving the migrating fluids cause incongruities in the geochemical anomalies of these fluids.

  6. High-speed measurement of an air transect's temperature shift heated by laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, WenYu; Jiang, ZongFu; Xi, Fengjie; Li, Qiang; Xie, Wenke

    2005-02-01

    Laser beam heat the air on the optic path, Beam-deflection optical tomography is a non-intrusive method to measure the 2-dimension temperature distribution in the transect. By means of linear Hartmann Sensor at the rate of 27kHz, the optic path was heated by a 2.7μm HF laser, continuous and high time resolution gradients of optic phase were obtained. the result of analysing and calculation showed the temperament shift in the heated beam path was not higher than 50K when the HF laser power was 9W. The experiment showed that it is a practical non-intrusive temperature shift measurement method for a small area aero-optical medium.

  7. Paleoclimate reconstruction along the Pole-Equator-Pole transect of the Americas (PEP 1)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markgraf, Vera; Baumgartner, T.R.; Bradbury, J.P.; Diaz, Henry F.; Dunbar, R.B.; Luckman, B.H.; Seltzer, G.O.; Swetnam, T.W.; Villalba, R.

    2000-01-01

    Examples are presented of inter-hemispheric comparison of instrumental climate and paleoclimate proxy records from the Americas for different temporal scales. Despite a certain symmetry of seasonal precipitation patterns along the PEP I transect, decadal variability of winter precipitation shows different characteristics in terms of amplitude and frequency in both the last 100 and last 1000 years. Such differences in variability are also seen in a comparison of time series of different El Nino/Southern Oscillation proxy records from North and South America, however, these differences do not appear to affect the spatial correlation with Pacific sea surface temperature patterns. Local and regional differences in response to climate change are even more pronounced for records with lower temporal resolution, and inter-hemispheric synchroneity may or may not be indicative of the same forcing. This aspect is illustrated in an inter-hemispheric comparison of the last 1000 years of glacier variability, and of the full- and lateglacial lake level history.

  8. Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory.

    PubMed

    Gamba, Cristina; Jones, Eppie R; Teasdale, Matthew D; McLaughlin, Russell L; Gonzalez-Fortes, Gloria; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Domboróczki, László; Kővári, Ivett; Pap, Ildikó; Anders, Alexandra; Whittle, Alasdair; Dani, János; Raczky, Pál; Higham, Thomas F G; Hofreiter, Michael; Bradley, Daniel G; Pinhasi, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The Great Hungarian Plain was a crossroads of cultural transformations that have shaped European prehistory. Here we analyse a 5,000-year transect of human genomes, sampled from petrous bones giving consistently excellent endogenous DNA yields, from 13 Hungarian Neolithic, Copper, Bronze and Iron Age burials including two to high (~22 × ) and seven to ~1 × coverage, to investigate the impact of these on Europe's genetic landscape. These data suggest genomic shifts with the advent of the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, with interleaved periods of genome stability. The earliest Neolithic context genome shows a European hunter-gatherer genetic signature and a restricted ancestral population size, suggesting direct contact between cultures after the arrival of the first farmers into Europe. The latest, Iron Age, sample reveals an eastern genomic influence concordant with introduced Steppe burial rites. We observe transition towards lighter pigmentation and surprisingly, no Neolithic presence of lactase persistence. PMID:25334030

  9. Combined operative technique with anterior surgical approach and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical lobectomy for anterior superior sulcus tumours.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yuhei; Chen, Fengshi; Aoyama, Akihiro; Sato, Toshihiko; Date, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been widely used, but surgical resections of superior sulcus tumours remain challenging because of their anatomical location. For such cases, less-invasive procedures, such as the anterior transcervical-thoracic and transmanubrial approaches, have been widely performed because of their excellent visualization of the subclavian vessels. Recently, a combined operative technique with an anterior surgical approach and VATS for anterior superior sulcus tumours has been introduced. Herein, we report three cases of anterior superior sulcus tumours successfully resected by surgical approaches combined with a VATS-based lobectomy. In all cases, operability was confirmed by VATS, and upper lobectomies with hilar and mediastinal lymph node dissections were performed. Subsequently, dissections of the anterior inlet of the tumours were performed using the transmanubrial approach in two patients and the anterior trans-cervical-thoracic approach in one patient. Both approaches provided excellent access to the anterior inlet of the tumour and exposure of the subclavian vessels, resulting in radical resection of the tumour with concomitant resection of the surrounding anatomical structures, including the chest wall and vessels. In conclusion, VATS lobectomy combined with the anterior surgical approach might be an excellent procedure for the resection of anterior superior sulcus tumours. PMID:25028075

  10. Infections in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Stucken, Charlton; Garras, David N.; Shaner, Julie L.; Cohen, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a safe, common, and effective method of restoring stability to the knee after injury, but evolving techniques of reconstruction carry inherent risk. Infection after ACL reconstruction, while rare, carries a high morbidity, potentially resulting in a poor clinical outcome. Evidence Acquisition: Data were obtained from previously published peer-reviewed literature through a search of the entire PubMed database (up to December 2012) as well as from textbook chapters. Results: Treatment with culture-specific antibiotics and debridement with graft retention is recommended as initial treatment, but with persistent infection, consideration should be given to graft removal. Graft type likely has no effect on infection rates. Conclusion: The early diagnosis of infection and appropriate treatment are necessary to avoid the complications of articular cartilage damage and arthrofibrosis. PMID:24427432

  11. Alternaria keratitis after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Naik, Mekhla; Mohd Shahbaaz; Sheth, Jay; Sunderamoorthy, S K

    2014-01-01

    To describe a case of Alternaria keratitis in a 30-year-old male patient who presented with bilateral vascularised central corneal opacity and underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) in the left eye. Patient was treated for recurrent epithelial defect with a bandage contact lens in the follow-up visits after DALK. Subsequently, patient presented with pigmented fungal keratitis, which on culture examination of the corneal scrapping demonstrated Alternaria species. Patient had to undergo a repeat DALK as the keratitis did not resolve with medical therapy alone. Patient did not have a recurrence for 11 months following the regraft. This case report highlights the importance of considering the Alternaria species as a possibile cause of non-resolving fungal keratitis after DALK. PMID:24669155

  12. [Treatment of anterior hypospadias. Place of balanoplasty].

    PubMed

    Juskiewenski, S; Vaysse, P; Guitard, J; Moscovici, J

    1983-01-01

    Authors report their experience of the treatment of anterior hypospadias which represent more than 71% of these cases operated all along the eight past years. The different aspects of these malformation are emphasized. For the majority of these cases the correction of the malformation may be obtained by a simple balanoplasty which gives the gland a normal form and height though directing the meatus forward; the redundant foreskin is excised and the penile skin torsion is corrected aligning the median raphe; a deficit of the ventral skin case be filled in with preputial flaps. This technic was used in fifty of the reported cases with very good results both functionally and cosmetically. This procedure is comparable to the technic described by J.W. Duckett and called Magpi for meatal advancement and glanduloplasty incorporated. The results reported here corroborate the good results already published. PMID:6850956

  13. Foreign body embedded in anterior chamber angle.

    PubMed

    Graffi, Shmuel; Tiosano, Beatrice; Ben Cnaan, Ran; Bahir, Jonathan; Naftali, Modi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. We present a case of a metallic foreign body embedded in the anterior chamber angle. After standing in close proximity to a construction worker breaking a tile, a 26-year-old woman using soft contact lens for the correction of mild myopia presented to emergency department for evaluation of a foreign body sensation of her right eye. Methods and Results. Diagnosis was confirmed by gonioscopic examination and a noncontrast CT scan of head and orbits. The foreign body was removed by an external approach without utilizing a magnet. The patient's final outcome was favorable. Discussion. The above is a rare clinical situation, which is impossible to detect on slit-lamp examination without a gonioscopic view. Proper imaging and a specific management are mandatory in order to achieve favorable outcome. PMID:23091762

  14. Anterior cruciate ligament rupture and osteoarthritis progression.

    PubMed

    Wong, James Min-Leong; Khan, Tanvir; Jayadev, Chethan S; Khan, Wasim; Johnstone, David

    2012-01-01

    Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) rupture is a common sporting injury that frequently affects young, athletic patients. Apart from the functional problems of instability, patients with ACL deficient knees also develop osteoarthritis. Although this is frequently cited as an indication for ACL reconstruction, the relationship between ACL rupture, reconstruction and the instigation and progression of articular cartilage degenerative change is controversial.The purpose of this paper is to review the published literature with regards ACL rupture and the multifactorial causes for osteoarthritis progression, and whether or not this is slowed or stopped by ACL reconstruction.There is no evidence in the published literature to support the view that ACL reconstruction prevents osteoarthritis, although it may prevent further meniscal damage. It must be recognised that this conclusion is based on the current literature which has substantial methodological limitations. PMID:22896777

  15. Multiple signals in anterior cingulate cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kolling, N; Behrens, TEJ; Wittmann, MK; Rushworth, MFS

    2016-01-01

    Activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been linked both to commitment to a course of action, even when it is associated with costs, and to exploring or searching for alternative courses of action. Here we review evidence that this is due to the presence of multiple signals in ACC reflecting the updating of beliefs and internal models of the environment and encoding aspects of choice value, including the average value of choices afforded by the environment (‘search value’). We contrast this evidence with the influential view that ACC activity is better described as reflecting task difficulty. A consideration of cortical neural network properties explains why ACC may carry such signals and also exhibit sensitivity to task difficulty. PMID:26774693

  16. Patellotibial contusions in anterior cruciate ligament tears.

    PubMed

    Wissman, Robert D; England, Eric; Mehta, Kaushal; Nepute, Joshua; Von Fischer, Nathaniel; Apgar, Josh; Javadi, Ariyan

    2014-02-01

    Bone contusions are an important ancillary finding of many knee injuries. Not only are they a source of pain, they may suggest a mechanism of injury or a specific derangement of the knee joint. We have encountered a small number of patients being evaluated for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears with unexplained patellar and tibial edema at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We present three individuals with contusions of the inferior patella with a corresponding contusion of the anteromedial tibial plateau. Internal derangements in these patients were similar to other individuals with acute ACL tears, however osseous contusions were more widespread. In conclusion, patellotibial contusions are rare and may indicate an injury with forces greater than usually encountered in most ACL tears. A careful search for uncommon associated injuries is prudent in these high-energy knee injuries. PMID:24037484

  17. Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy for Anterior Knee Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bonasia, Davide; Rosso, Federica; Cottino, Umberto; Governale, Giorgio; Cherubini, Valeria; Dettoni, Federico; Bruzzone, Matteo; Rossi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mid-term radiological and clinical outcomes of tibial tubercle osteotomy in patients affected by anterior knee pain. In addition, prognostic factors correlated with the outcomes were evaluated. Methods: The patients treated with tibial tubercle osteotomy (anteromedialization) for anterior knee pain between 2002 and 2014 were included. Exclusion criteria: 1) previous knee surgeries; 2) different procedures to treat anterior knee pain; 3) history of patellar dislocation, 4) Rheumatic conditions. Different variables were collected, as shown in. The patients were prospectively evaluated using the WOMAC short form and Kujala scores. An objective evaluation was performed looking for different potential risk factors and using part of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Radiological evaluation was performed, including the congruence angle, the grade of osteoarthritis (Kellegren-Lawrence) and the patellar tilt angle. Three main outcomes were identified. The multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation between the variables and a worse outcome. Results: 72 cases were included in the study (9 bilateral). 72.2% of the cases were female, and the average age was 42,2 years (SD15,9). The average BMI was 24.4 kg/m2 (SD5,2). In 70.8% of patients a lateral release was associated to the tibial tubercle osteotomy. 77.8% of patients were evaluated clinically, the remaining, who were unable to come for the visits, were interviewed and the subjective scores were administered by phone. The average follow-up was 68.4 months (SD35.5).In 62.5% of cases a valgus lower limb alignment was detected, with 25% and 39.3% of patients having respectively an increased femoral antiversion and foot pronation. Post-operatively there was a statistical significant improvement in all the scores. No differences in the pre-operative and post-operative congruence angle or patellar tilt were detected (p>0.05). All

  18. Hepatic fibrosis in Kabuki syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Valerio; Marcellini, Matilde; Devito, Rita; Capolino, Rossella; Viola, Laura; Digilio, M Cristina

    2004-01-15

    Kabuki (Niikawa-Kuroki) syndrome (KS) is characterized by a distinctive face, mental retardation, growth deficiency, skeletal anomalies, dermatoglyphic abnormalities, palatal anomalies, congenital heart defects, and urogenital malformations. Congenital hepatic abnormalities have been sporadically described in patients with KS from the literature, consisting of extrahepatic biliary atresia, neonatal sclerosing cholangitis, and severe neonatal jaundice. We report here on an additional patient with a congenital abnormality of the liver consisting of hepatic fibrosis. To our knowledge, idiopathic congenital hepatic fibrosis has not been reported in KS. Thus, our observation expands the spectrum of liver malformations found in KS with the inclusion of hepatic fibrosis and supports the evidence that hepatic abnormalities may not be uncommon in KS. Clinician should be advised to search for the specific facial anomalies of KS in patients with syndromic congenital hepatic diseases, and KS should be added to the list of previously recognized multiple congenital anomaly syndromes with hepatic involvement. Due to the frequent association with congenital heart malformations, KS should be considered in the evaluation of patients with neonatal liver disease and cardiac malformation. Due to the expression patterns of Notch genes, involvement of the Notch signaling pathway in the development of heart and liver anomalies in KS should be considered. PMID:14699623

  19. Hepatitis D and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Zaigham; Abbas, Minaam; Abbas, Sarim; Shazi, Lubna

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective circular shape single stranded HDV RNA virus with two types of viral proteins, small and large hepatitis D antigens, surrounded by hepatitis B surface antigen. Superinfection with HDV in chronic hepatitis B is associated with a more threatening form of liver disease leading to rapid progression to cirrhosis. In spite of some controversy in the epidemiological studies, HDV infection does increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV) monoinfection. Hepatic decompensation, rather than development of HCC, is the first usual clinical endpoint during the course of HDV infection. Oxidative stress as a result of severe necroinflammation may progress to HCC. The large hepatitis D antigen is a regulator of various cellular functions and an activator of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. Another proposed epigenetic mechanism by which HCC may form is the aberrant silencing of tumor suppressor genes by DNA Methyltransferases. HDV antigens have also been associated with increased histone H3 acetylation of the clusterin promoter. This enhances the expression of clusterin in infected cells, increasing cell survival potential. Any contribution of HBV DNA integration with chromosomes of infected hepatocytes is not clear at this stage. The targeted inhibition of STAT3 and cyclophilin, and augmentation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ have a potential therapeutic role in HCC. PMID:25914778

  20. Hepatitis B immunization in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, M H; Goldstein, M A

    1995-10-01

    This article reviews the epidemiology of hepatitis B in the United States, previous vaccination strategy, and reasons for its failure and issues leading to the recommendation to vaccinate all adolescents. A review of specific hepatitis B virus risk behaviors of adolescents and barriers to vaccinating adolescents is covered. Strategies that favor successful completion of the immunization series are also examined. Hepatitis B infection is an important public health concern for adolescents. The previous vaccine strategy to immunize only individuals though to be at high risk was unsuccessful, especially because providers of care could not identify these individuals. Furthermore, many individuals thought not to be at high risk for infection were exposed through contacts which could not be identified. Challenges to immunization of adolescents include logistical issues, patient education, cost of the vaccine, and patient compliance. Several of these issues can be addressed by a school-based hepatitis B immunization program. The body of evidence and national policy is rapidly changing to support the recommendation that all adolescents receive the hepatitis B immunization series. The series would be most effective if administered during the middle-school years. A universal adolescent hepatitis B vaccination program would result in the most immediate health benefits and acceleration toward the eradication of hepatitis B in the United States. PMID:8580124

  1. Development of the human anterior urethra.

    PubMed

    Altemus, A R; Hutchins, G M

    1991-10-01

    To further our understanding of the development of the anterior urethra a series of 38 normal human fetuses ranging from the end of the embryonic period proper to the third trimester of gestation were studied. Tissues prepared as serial histological sections were examined and appropriate specimens were reconstructed. The formation of the bulbar and spongy urethra occurred by proliferation of mesenchyme underlying the epithelium of the urethral folds, causing the creation of a tubular urethra by epithelial fusion in the ventral midline. The tubular urethra becomes invested by mesenchyme, the future corpus spongiosum. This process of fusion of the urethral folds extends to the glans penis. At this period of development the glans contains the urethral plate, a lamina of epithelium lacking a lumen. The mechanism of the subsequent connection of the spongy urethra to the canalized urethral plate has been the point of controversy. Our observations support the idea that 3 processes must act in synchrony to produce successful completion of the anterior urethra: 1) the prepuce forms by overgrowing the glans due to proliferation of the penile skin and subcutaneous tissues, and in so doing it continues the progression of closure of the urethral folds into the glans and forms the frenulum by its fusion on the ventral aspect, 2) the mesenchyme surrounding the prolongation of the urethra fuses with the mesenchyme of the glans, which before this time had existed as a mesenchymal structure distinct from the corpus spongiosum or corpus cavernosum and 3) the epithelium of the urethral plate within the glans, which underlies the epithelial tag, becomes canalized and develops continuity with the lumen of the spongy urethra. PMID:1895427

  2. Anterior Cingulate epilepsy: mechanisms and modulation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Pang; Shyu, Bai-Chuang

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder, about 1% population worldwide suffered from this disease. In 1989, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classified anterior cingulate epilepsy as a form of frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). FLE is the second most common type of epilepsy. Previous clinical studies showed that FLE account an important cause in refractory epilepsy, therefore to find alternative approach to modulate FLE is very important. Basic research using animal models and brain slice have revealed some insights on the epileptogenesis and modulation of seizure in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Interneurons play an important role in the synchronization of cingulate epilepsy. Research has shown that the epileptogenesis of seizure originated from mesial frontal lobe might be caused by a selective increase in nicotine-evoked γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition, because the application of the GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin inhibited epileptic discharges. Gap junctions are also involved in the regulation of cingulate epilepsy. Previous studies have shown that the application of gap junction blockers could attenuate ACC seizures, while gap junction opener could enhance them in an in vitro preparation. μ-Opioid receptors have been shown to be involved in the epileptic synchronization mechanism in ACC seizures in a brain slice preparation. Application of the μ-opioid agonist DAMGO significantly abolished the ictal discharges in a 4-aminopyridine induced electrographic seizure model in ACC. Basic research has also found that thalamic modulation has an inhibitory effect on ACC seizures. Studies have shown that the medial thalamus may be a target for deep brain stimulation to cure ACC seizures. PMID:24427123

  3. Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect and continental evolution involving subduction underplating and synchronous foreland thrusting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, G.S.; Moore, T.E.; Plafker, G.; Brocher, T.M.; Fisher, M.A.; Mooney, W.D.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Page, R.A.; Beaudoin, B.C.; Christensen, N.I.; Levander, A.R.; Lutter, W.J.; Saltus, R.W.; Ruppert, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure and tectonic evolution of the North American continent in Alaska, where the continent has grown through magmatism, accretion, and tectonic underplating. In the 1980s and early 1990s, we conducted a geological and geophysical investigation, known as the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT), along a 1350-km-long corridor from the Aleutian Trench to the Arctic coast. The most distinctive crustal structures and the deepest Moho along the transect are located near the Pacific and Arctic margins. Near the Pacific margin, we infer a stack of tectonically underplated oceanic layers interpreted as remnants of the extinct Kula (or Resurrection) plate. Continental Moho just north of this underplated stack is more than 55 km deep. Near the Arctic margin, the Brooks Range is underlain by large-scale duplex structures that overlie a tectonic wedge of North Slope crust and mantle. There, the Moho has been depressed to nearly 50 km depth. In contrast, the Moho of central Alaska is on average 32 km deep. In the Paleogene, tectonic underplating of Kula (or Resurrection) plate fragments overlapped in time with duplexing in the Brooks Range. Possible tectonic models linking these two regions include flat-slab subduction and an orogenic-float model. In the Neogene, the tectonics of the accreting Yakutat terrane have differed across a newly interpreted tear in the subducting Pacific oceanic lithosphere. East of the tear, Pacific oceanic lithosphere subducts steeply and alone beneath the Wrangell volcanoes, because the overlying Yakutat terrane has been left behind as underplated rocks beneath the rising St. Elias Range, in the coastal region. West of the tear, the Yakutat terrane and Pacific oceanic lithosphere subduct together at a gentle angle, and this thickened package inhibits volcanism. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  4. Lateral and Seasonal Trends of Saharan Dust Deposition along a Transect over the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Does, M.; Korte, L.; Munday, C. I.; Brummer, G. J. A.; Stuut, J. B. W.

    2015-12-01

    Every year, an estimated 140 million tons of Saharan dust are deposited in the Atlantic Ocean, which can have several direct and indirect effects on global and regional climate. For example, dust can scatter and absorb incoming and reflected solar radiation, transport nutrients and pathogens, and act as mineral ballast particles in the ocean. In order to constrain the relations between atmospheric dust and climate, submarine sediment traps at five stations along a transect across the Atlantic Ocean at 12°N were deployed, at 1200m and 3500m water depth. Samples of seven of these sediment traps, that sampled from October 2012 to November 2013, have been analyzed on particle size and dust flux. The size of the dust particles is important because it can have an effect on the positive or negative radiation balance in the atmosphere. Small particles in the high atmosphere can reflect incoming radiation and therefore potentially have a cooling effect on climate. Large particles in the lower atmosphere have the opposite effect by absorbing reflected radiation from the Earth's surface. Mineral dust also affects carbon export to the deep ocean by providing mineral ballast for organic particles, and the size of the dust particles directly relates to the downward transport velocity. Here I will present the measured grain-size distributions of first-year samples from seven sediment traps recovered from the 12°N-latitude transect as well as dust flux data. The data show seasonal variations, with finer grained dust particles during winter and spring, and coarser grained particles during summer and fall. Also a fining trend of the grain sizes of the dust particles from source (Africa) to sink (Caribbean) is observed, which is expected due to intuitive relationships between size and transport distance. The observed size of the dust particles at large distances from their source is much larger than previously assumed and applied in climate models. See: www.nioz.nl/dust

  5. Global Coverage of Cetacean Line-Transect Surveys: Status Quo, Data Gaps and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kaschner, Kristin; Quick, Nicola J.; Jewell, Rebecca; Williams, Rob; Harris, Catriona M.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of abundance, trends and distribution of cetacean populations is needed to inform marine conservation efforts, ecosystem models and spatial planning. We compiled a geo-spatial database of published data on cetacean abundance from dedicated visual line-transect surveys and encoded >1100 abundance estimates for 47 species from 430 surveys conducted worldwide from 1975–2005. Our subsequent analyses revealed large spatial, temporal and taxonomic variability and gaps in survey coverage. With the exception of Antarctic waters, survey coverage was biased toward the northern hemisphere, especially US and northern European waters. Overall, <25% of the world's ocean surface was surveyed and only 6% had been covered frequently enough (≥5 times) to allow trend estimation. Almost half the global survey effort, defined as total area (km2) covered by all survey study areas across time, was concentrated in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Neither the number of surveys conducted nor the survey effort had increased in recent years. Across species, an average of 10% of a species' predicted range had been covered by at least one survey, but there was considerable variation among species. With the exception of three delphinid species, <1% of all species' ranges had been covered frequently enough for trend analysis. Sperm whales emerged from our analyses as a relatively data-rich species. This is a notoriously difficult species to survey visually, and we use this as an example to illustrate the challenges of using available data from line-transect surveys for the detection of trends or for spatial planning. We propose field and analytical methods to fill in data gaps to improve cetacean conservation efforts. PMID:22984461

  6. Lithospheric conductivity along the GGT/SVEKA transect in the Fennoscandian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti, I.; Korja, T.; Petersen, L. B.

    2003-04-01

    LITHOSPHERIC CONDUCTIVITY ALONG THE GGT/SVEKA TRANSECT IN THE FENNOSCANDIAN SHIELD I. Lahti (1), T. Korja (1), L. Pedersen (2) and BEAR Working Group (1) Department of Geophysics, University of Oulu, Finland (2) Department of Earth Sciences, University of Uppsala, Sweden toivo.korja@oulu.fi The GGT/SVEKA transect traverses the main tectonic units in the central part of the Fennoscandian Shield in NE-SW direction. These units are the Archaean Karelian Province in the northeast and several Palaeoproterozoic arc complexes in the Svecofennian Domain in the southwest. Since 1985 over 150 magnetotelluric (MT) soundings of which 140 are short period and 10 long period soundings have been made in the survey area. We have performed several 2-D Occam inversions of the MT data using the REBOCC code (Siripunvaraporn and Egbert, 2000) to generate smooth conductivity models for the survey area. The best fitting model with the RMS error below 3.0% is obtained by using the determinant of impedance tensor as the inverted parameter. Highly conductive dipping conductors at both sides of the boundary zone between the arc complexes in southern and central Finland are seen in the final model. Both conductors represent borders of major crustal segments possibly indicating two subductions in the research area. In contrast, only minor conductivity variations are seen at the lithological boundary between the Karelian and Svecofennian domains in central Finland whereas a southwestward dipping conductor beneath the Palaeoproterozoic Kainuu Belt is revealed. The conductor suggests the presence of Palaeoproterozoic graphite bearing sedimentary rocks beneath the Archaean rocks of the Iisalmi complex. Lower crustal conductor is absent to NE from the Kainuu Belt while the conductor is present in the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Domain to southwest from the Kainuu Belt. Thus, the main conductivity boundary between the Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic lithosphere is located beneath the Kainuu Belt

  7. Biogeochemistry differences along lineal transect from glacier to Elephant Point coast in Antarctic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Guzman, Adrián; Otero, Xosé Luis; Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Pérez-Alberti, Augusto

    2015-04-01

    The main aim of this work is studying the biogeochemistry changes occurred in the soil since glacier front until Elephant Point coast, at Shetland Islands, in Antarctic. For that, it picked up 20 samples from 10 different points. Sampling has followed a lineal transect since coast to glacier, going across 5 marine terraces, the morrenic area and going through col to reach glacier front. The terrace samples 2, 3, 4 and 5 show bryophyte vegetation forms covering a wide part of the surface however vegetation is almost nonexistent in the rest of the sampling points. The particle size, pH (pHw and pHKCl), electrical conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total Fe (TFe), Fe and Al associated with organic matter (soluble in sodium pyrophosphate, Cp), amorphous oxyhydroxides-Fe (extracted with ammonium oxalate, FeO), crystalline oxyhydroxides-Fe (extracted with sodium dithionite, FeD), bioavailable plant nutrients (soluble in Mehlich 3 extractant) and clay mineralogy were analyzed. Results obtained show the importance of the alive organism in the weathering of minerals and the contribution of these to form a more evolved soil. There are also important differences at the different zones of the lineal transect due to predominant geomorphologic forces performing in each type of area. On the third hand, current global climate change is causing glacier backward movement; this allows increasing vegetal cover and growing superior vegetation forms. In this way edaphic processes will increase and with them a leaching of nutrients which able to participate positively on closest seas, rivers and lakes.

  8. Geology of a Transect Across a Mesoproterozoic Anorthosite - Granite Batholith, Nain, Northern Labrador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, J.

    2004-05-01

    A five year research project at Memorial University, supported by VBN/INCO and NSERC, is studying the geology of a transect across the Nain Plutonic Suite to better understand the geological setting of the Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co deposit. This study is based on new geological mapping at a scale of 1:20 000, completed between 1999-2003 by Furlong, Gaskill, Goddard, Rawlings-Hinchey, Myers, Tettelaar, Voordouw and Wright. The talk outlines the regional geology determined by this collective study in a transect 80 km long and 40 km wide. The Nain Plutonic Suite forms a batholith comprising numerous plutons, dykes and sheets of anorthosite, leuconorite, leucotroctolite, troctolite, ferrodiorite, monzonite and granite. The batholith is 70 km wide and over 200 km long and was emplaced from 1360 to 1290 Ma along a 1860 Ma suture between two Archean continents. Within the Nain Plutonic Suite, pluton and dyke emplacement was associated with intermittent extension and transcurrent movements on east-west and NNW-SSE faults. During successive emplacement, older structures tended to be reactivated by younger intrusions. The same kinds of magmas were intruded intermittently throughout the development of the batholith. In many cases, intrusion was accompanied by fragmentation of the adjacent wall and roof rocks, and probably involved cauldron subsidence. Anorthosite and granite form large tabular plutons whereas composite ferrodiorite-monzonite intrusions mostly form arcuate dykes, small circular plutons, or narrow remnants in the margins of large anorthosite plutons. Relatively small amounts of troctolite mainly form sheet-like bodies. There is an overall longitudinal asymmetry to the batholith with rapakivi granite predominant in the west and anorthosite in the east. The anorthosite is further spatially divided into older, partly deformed and recrystallized anorthosite and leuconorite in the west and north, and younger, undeformed and unrecrystallized anorthosite and

  9. A Novel Animal Model of Partial Optic Nerve Transection Established Using an Optic Nerve Quantitative Amputator

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Li, Ying; He, Yan; Liang, Hong-Sheng; Liu, En-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Background Research into retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration and neuroprotection after optic nerve injury has received considerable attention and the establishment of simple and effective animal models is of critical importance for future progress. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, the optic nerves of Wistar rats were semi-transected selectively with a novel optic nerve quantitative amputator. The variation in RGC density was observed with retro-labeled fluorogold at different time points after nerve injury. The densities of surviving RGCs in the experimental eyes at different time points were 1113.69±188.83 RGC/mm2 (the survival rate was 63.81% compared with the contralateral eye of the same animal) 1 week post surgery; 748.22±134.75 /mm2 (46.16% survival rate) 2 weeks post surgery; 505.03±118.67 /mm2 (30.52% survival rate) 4 weeks post surgery; 436.86±76.36 /mm2 (24.01% survival rate) 8 weeks post surgery; and 378.20±66.74 /mm2 (20.30% survival rate) 12 weeks post surgery. Simultaneously, we also measured the axonal distribution of optic nerve fibers; the latency and amplitude of pattern visual evoke potentials (P-VEP); and the variation in pupil diameter response to pupillary light reflex. All of these observations and profiles were consistent with post injury variation characteristics of the optic nerve. These results indicate that we effectively simulated the pathological process of primary and secondary injury after optic nerve injury. Conclusions/Significance The present quantitative transection optic nerve injury model has increased reproducibility, effectiveness and uniformity. This model is an ideal animal model to provide a foundation for researching new treatments for nerve repair after optic nerve and/or central nerve injury. PMID:22973439

  10. Microbial nitrogen dynamics in organic and mineral soil horizons along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Knoltsch, Anna; Takriti, Mounir; Mooshammer, Maria; Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Alves, Ricardo J. Eloy; Gittel, Antje; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Richter, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Soil N availability is constrained by the breakdown of N-containing polymers such as proteins to oligopeptides and amino acids that can be taken up by plants and microorganisms. Excess N is released from microbial cells as ammonium (N mineralization), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification. According to stoichiometric theory, N mineralization and nitrification are expected to increase in relation to protein depolymerization with decreasing N limitation, and thus from higher to lower latitudes and from topsoils to subsoils. To test these hypotheses, we compared gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification (determined using 15N pool dilution assays) in organic topsoil, mineral topsoil, and mineral subsoil of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia, from tundra (67°N) to steppe (54°N). The investigated ecosystems differed strongly in N transformation rates, with highest protein depolymerization and N mineralization rates in middle and southern taiga. All N transformation rates decreased with soil depth following the decrease in organic matter content. Related to protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification were significantly higher in mineral than in organic horizons, supporting a decrease in microbial N limitation with depth. In contrast, we did not find indications for a decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate ecosystems along the transect. Our findings thus challenge the perception of ubiquitous N limitation at high latitudes, but suggest a transition from N to C limitation of microorganisms with soil depth, even in high-latitude systems such as tundra and boreal forest.

  11. What is a habitable environment? -answers from observations of a global transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre; de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Onofri, Silvano; Ott, Sieglinde

    Extremophiles are specialists which colonise special niches in these extreme environments due to there adaptation capacities attained during the evolution of life. Some examples of ex-tremophiles and their potential to deal with harsh conditions as well as the characterisation of their niches will be presented. Based on observations and results obtained in the 10th German Antarctic North Victoria Land Expedition (GANOVEX X) in the area of the Transantarctic Mountains led by the German Geosciences and Resource Research Society (BGR) and during an environment characterisation campaign of the European Alps and the Spanish Mountains "Sierra de Gredos" supported by the German Ministry of Economy and Technology (BMWi) a global transect from temperate Alpine regions to Mediterranean mountains and Polar Mountain regions can be analysed. Due to a summary of these results we are able to compare different strategies of colonisation in different habitats of the global mountain transect by cosmopolitan and endemic species as there are, the colonisation of rocks, fissures, cracks, polygon forming substrates, permafrost and glaciers. Data of UV B-, PAR-and IR-radiation measurements, humidity and temperature as well as the activity of microorganisms are accomplishing with more details the habitat characterisation and may give relevant information on probably niches for life on other planets as e.g. the planet Mars and may give answers on the question what is a habitable environment. These results will also form the basis of a series of new space experiments on satellites or on the International Space Station (ISS) and furthermore may lead to progress in probes-and rover-development for particular "hardly" accessible terrains.

  12. Acetyl salicylic acid locally enhances functional recovery after sciatic nerve transection in rat.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Amini, Keyvan; Abdollahi-Pirbazari, Mehdi; Yousefi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Local effect of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) on peripheral nerve regeneration was studied using a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Forty-five male healthy White Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15), randomly: Sham-operation (SHAM), control (SIL), and ASA-treated (SIL/ASA) groups. In SHAM group after anesthesia left sciatic nerve was exposed through a gluteal muscle incision and after homeostasis the muscle was sutured. In SIL group the left sciatic nerve was exposed the same way and transected proximal to tibio-peroneal bifurcation leaving a 10-mm gap. Proximal and distal stumps were each inserted into a silicone tube and filled with 10 μl phosphate buffered solution. In SIL/ASA group defect was bridged using a silicone tube filled with 10 μl acetyl salisylic acid (0.1 mg/ml). Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of five animals each and were studied 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. Data were analyzed statistically by factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Bonferroni test for pair-wise comparisons. Functional study confirmed faster and better recovery of regenerated axons in SIL/ASA than in SIL group (p < 0.05). Gastrocnemius muscle mass in SIL/ASA was significantly more than in SIL group. Morphometric indices of regenerated fibers showed that the number and diameter of the myelinated fibers in SIL/ASA were significantly higher than in control group. In immuohistochemistry, location of reactions to S-100 in SIL/ASA was clearly more positive than in SIL group. Response to local treatment of ASA demonstrates that it influences and improves functional recovery of peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:24140781

  13. Nitrogen fixation in sediments along a depth transect through the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gier, J.; Sommer, S.; Löscher, C. R.; Dale, A. W.; Schmitz, R. A.; Treude, T.

    2015-09-01

    Benthic nitrogen (N2) fixation and sulfate reduction (SR) were investigated in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Sediment samples, retrieved by a multiple corer were taken at six stations (70-1025 m) along a depth transect at 12° S, covering anoxic and hypoxic bottom water conditions. Benthic N2 fixation was detected at all sites, with high rates measured in OMZ mid-waters between the 70 and 253 m and lowest N2 fixation rates below 253 m down to 1025 m water depth. SR rates were decreasing with increasing water depth, with highest rates at the shallow site. Benthic N2 fixation depth profiles largely overlapped with SR depth profiles, suggesting that both processes are coupled. The potential of N2 fixation by SR bacteria was verified by the molecular analysis of nifH genes. Detected nifH sequences clustered with SR bacteria that have been demonstrated to fix N2 in other benthic environments. Depth-integrated rates of N2 fixation and SR showed no direct correlation along the 12° S transect, suggesting that the benthic diazotrophs in the Peruvian OMZ are being controlled by additional various environmental factors. The organic matter availability and the presence of sulfide appear to be major drivers for benthic diazotrophy. It was further found that N2 fixation was not inhibited by high ammonium concentrations. N2 fixation rates in OMZ sediments were similar to rates measured in other organic-rich sediments. Overall, this work improves our knowledge on N sources in marine sediments and contributes to a better understanding of N cycling in OMZ sediments.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aerosols over the central Himalayas along two south-north transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pengfei; Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico K.; Zhang, Qianggong

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of the transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) to the Himalayas remains limited. Concentrations of PAHs were therefore measured in total suspended particles (TSP) from six sites along two south-north transects across the central Himalayas. Spatially, the annual average TSP and PAH (especially 5- and 6-ring) concentrations were found to decrease noticeably along both transects. The dry deposition fluxes had similar distribution pattern with the ambient PAH levels. Moreover, annual TSP and PAH concentrations exhibited a logarithmic decreasing pattern with increasing elevation especially in the non-monsoon seasons (TSP: y=-57.3lnx+552, R2=0.952; PAHs: y=-26.8lnx+229, R2=0.948). The TSP and PAH concentrations showed a clear seasonal variation, with the minimum concentrations around the mid-monsoon season and the maximum concentrations in winter season at Lumbini and Pokhara. While at other remote sites these pollutants were slightly higher during the non-monsoon season than those in the monsoon season. The diagnostic ratio suggested that atmospheric PAHs from the Nepal sites were mainly associated with emission of biomass, coal burning and petroleum combustion. A similar composition pattern was found between the two sides of the Himalayas, suggesting that the northern side of the Himalayas may be affected by anthropogenic emissions from the IGP due to long-range transportation as well as the unique mountain/valley breeze system which bring pollution from the IGP into Tibet across the high Himalayas.

  15. The vegetation coverage dynamic coupling with climatic factors in Northeast China Transect.

    PubMed

    Nie, Qin; Xu, Jianhua; Ji, Minhe; Cao, Lei; Yang, Yang; Hong, Yulian

    2012-09-01

    Based on SPOT-VGT images and meteorological data, this paper applied an integrated method to investigate the vegetation dynamic and its response to climate factors during 1998-2008 in Northeast China Transect, one of 15 ecological transects listed in the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme. The main findings are as follows: (1) The NDVI time series presented nonlinear patterns that vary with timescales. The series fluctuated greatly at the smallest timescale (20 days), showing no salient trend, whereas a trend manifested itself more and more with the increase of time scale and finally stabilized at the 320-day scale. Little difference was found between vegetation types about the NDVI periodicity, as they occurred on either a 280-day or a 290-day cycle. (2) NDVI exhibited a significant correlation with temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours. Overall, the correlation between NDVI and temperature was the highest, followed by precipitation, sunshine hours, and relative humidity. For different vegetation types, the correlations between NDVI and climate variables diversified, increasing from desert steppe to typical steppe, meadow steppe, and forest. (3) The periodicity of temperature and precipitation occurred in either a 280-day or 290-day cycle, which was approximately coincident with that of NDVI. This further supported the significant relationship between NDVI and these two climate factors. (4) At all the time scales under examination, NDVI and temperature and precipitation are significantly, positively correlated, especially at the 160-day scale, which can be regarded as the most suitable time scale for investigating the responses of vegetation dynamics to climate factors at most stations. PMID:22722619

  16. Aplastica Anemia And Viral Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cudillo, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (aAA) is a severe and rare disease, characterized by hematopoietic bone marrow failure and peripheral cytopenia. The pathophysiology is immune mediated in most cases, activated T1 lymphocytes have been identified as effector cells. The disease can be successfully treated with combined immunosuppressive therapy or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAA) is a syndrome of bone marrow failure following the development of acute seronegative hepatitis. HAA syndrome most often affects young males who presented severe pancytopenia two to three months after an episode of acute hepatitis. The clinical course of hepatitis is more frequently benign but a fulminant severe course is also described. The bone marrow failure can be explosive and severe and it is usually fatal if untreated, no correlations have been observed between severity of hepatitis and AA. In none of the studies a specific virus could be identified and most cases are seronegative for known hepatitis viruses. The clinical characteristics and response to immunotherapy indicate a central role for immune-mediated mechanism in the pathogenesis of HAA. The initial target organ of the immune response is the liver as suggested by the time interval between hepatitis and the onset of bone marrow failure. Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis. Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic and blood lymphocytes with T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia. PMID:21415960

  17. Treating hepatitis C - what's new?

    PubMed

    Thompson, Alex J; Holmes, Jacinta A

    2015-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis C infection causes cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, and is the most common indication for liver transplantation. Hepatitis C is curable and complications can be prevented. Until recently, treatment regimens involved peginterferon alfa. Although effective, their widespread use is limited by treatment-related toxicity. A number of direct-acting drugs for hepatitis C, such as sofosbuvir, have recently been developed and target multiple steps in the viral life cycle. These drugs are used in combination in interferon-free regimens. Short courses are highly effective with minimal toxicity. PMID:26843711

  18. [Molecular diagnosis of hepatitis C and hepatitis B infection].

    PubMed

    Zidovec Lepej, Snjezana; Dusek, Davorka; Budimir, Jelena; Vince, Adriana

    2009-12-01

    Molecular methods are a well-established part of routine diagnostic work-up in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Confirmation of active viral replication in infected patients is based on detection and/or quantification of viral genome in serum by molecular assays. Diagnostic algorithm for hepatitis C includes detection and/or quantification of HCV RNA in serum of infected patients and HCV genotyping. Diagnostic work-up in patients with hepatitis B includes quantification of HBV DNA in serum, HBV genotyping, and determination of resistance to nucleoside and nucleotide analogues. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the standard recommended molecular method for quantification of HCV RNA and HBV DNA in clinical samples. Due to superior sensitivity, real-time PCR assays can provide both qualitative detection of viral genome and quantification. Molecular diagnosis of HCV and HBV infections in clinical laboratories should be limited to certified standardized assays. PMID:20198893

  19. Complement levels in acute infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kosmidis, J. C.; Leader-Williams, Lesley K.

    1972-01-01

    The level of the third component of complement was measured in serial specimens of serum taken from thirty-one patients with acute viral hepatitis. Fourteen of the thirty-one patients were positive for the hepatitis-associated antigen. A characteristic fluctuation was observed in twenty-nine of the thirty-one patients. This consisted of an initial fall of the level of C3, followed by an increase to a higher than normal level and then a gradual return to normal. No difference was observed between the patients who were positive and those who were negative for the hepatitis-associated antigen. These results support the view that immune complexes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute viral hepatitis. PMID:4624985

  20. Hepatology after Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Fitz, J Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The ∼90% probability of curing individual patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)using direct-acting antivirals represents one of the most dramatic medical success stories of the modern era, and the journey from viral discovery to treatment occurred over just ∼25 years. The realities of the global burden of disease (2-3% of the world's population is infected), limited access to care and cost of treatment mean that HCV will continue to be a major problem for the next 25 years. But what if HCV (and hepatitis B) could be eradicated? Since liver transplantation and HCV management have been the mainstays of academic hepatology practice, where do we go from here? Unfortunately, we are in an era where the incidence and prevalence of liver diseases around the globe is increasing, and death from complications of cirrhosis is now among the top 10 causes in most countries; so hepatologists are expected to play a major role in the future. Despite remarkable progress, success at the population level is limited by the resource-intensive nature of caring for patients with end-stage disease. Accordingly, the major advances in the next decade are likely to focus on (i) the earlier identification of individuals and populations at higher risk for liver diseases, and (ii) initiation in high-risk populations of specific strategies for early detection and treatment of fibrosis, cancer and cirrhosis. The answers will lie in large part in the further exploration of the human genome in carefully phenotyped patients. Risk variants in the PNPLA3 gene represent the best example to date. The risk variants are common and are enriched in certain populations around the globe; and individuals that possess risk variants are more likely to have liver injury from fatty liver disease (even as children), alcohol and viral hepatitis. Further, those with liver injury are more likely to progress to cirrhosis and hepatoma. Similarly, in those with established liver disease, use of biomarkers and other

  1. Hepatitis B vaccination.

    PubMed

    Romanò, Luisa; Paladini, Sara; Galli, Cristina; Raimondo, Giovanni; Pollicino, Teresa; Zanetti, Alessandro R

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus is a worldwide leading cause of acute and chronic liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Effective vaccines have been available since the early '80s and vaccination has proved highly successful in reducing the disease burden, the development of the carrier state and the HB-related morbidity and mortality in the countries where vaccination has been implemented.   Neutralizing (protective) antibodies (anti-HBs) induced by vaccination are targeted largely towards the amino acid hydrophilic region, referred to as the common a determinant which is present on the outer protein coat or surface antigen (HBsAg), spanning amino acids 124-149. This provides protection against all HBV genotypes (from A to H) and is responsible for the broad immunity afforded by hepatitis B vaccination. Thus, alterations of residues within this region of the surface antigen may determine conformational changes that can allow replication of the mutated HBV in vaccinated people. An important mutation in the surface antigen region was identified in Italy some 25 years ago in infants born to HBsAg carrier mothers who developed breakthrough infections despite having received HBIG and vaccine at birth. This virus had a point mutation from guanosine to adenosine at nucleotide position 587, resulting in aa substitution from glycine (G) to arginine (R) at position 145 in the a determinant. Since the G145R substitution alters the projecting loop (aa 139-147) of the a determinant, the neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccination are no longer able to recognize the mutated epitope. Beside G145R, other S-gene mutations potentially able to evade neutralizing anti-HBs and infect vaccinated people have been described worldwide. In addition, the emergence of Pol mutants associated with resistance to treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues can select viruses with crucial changes in the overlapping S-gene, potentially able to alter the S protein immunoreactivity. Thus

  2. The hepatic-arterial/portal-venous scintiangiogram in alcoholic hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.; Sakimura, I.; Siegel, M.E.; Harley, H.; Lee, K.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to identify abnormalities in the hepatic-arterial/portal-venous scintiangiogram (SA) in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). SA's were performed in 35 patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), 8; acute alcoholic hepatitis superimposed on cirrhosis (A/C), 14; and cirrhosis (C), 13. Posterior flows were done with a bolus of 10 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid with computer time-activity curves over the liver and left kidney. Curves were analyzed for per cent of hepatic arterial (HA) and portal venous contribution using the slope ratio method. Hepatic arterialization was estimated from the angle of the HA component of the curve. Reversal of the relative contribution of the hepatic and portal components of total flow were seen in all groups. Although quite severe in AH, the degree of reversal could not be used to differentiate among the groups. The average HA angle in AAH was 48.3 +- 8.1, in A/C 41.5 +- 10.6, and in C 30.4 +- 12.1. In reviewing the data of only those in the acute clinical phase of AH and not the recovery phase (1 AAH, 3 A/C) and those without other causes of alteration in hepatic arterialization (1 hepatoma, 1 portalcaval shunt, 6 renal failure), the average HA angle in AAH was 50.1 +- 6.6, 45.4 +- 8.2 in A/C, and 23.2 +- 4.2 in C. In 6 with renal failure (2 C, 2AAH, 2 A/C) the HA angle ws 52.7 +- 5.7. In all cases cirrhosis could be differentiated from both A/C (P=.05) and AAH (P<.01) using the HA angle. In absence of renal failure, portal shunt, or hepatoma, P was <.01 in both comparisons.

  3. Prospective Evaluation of Ultrasonic Surgical Dissectors in Hepatic Resection: A Cooperative Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Millat, Bertrand; Hay, Jean-Marie; Descottes, Bernard; Fagniez, Pierre-Louis

    1992-01-01

    Blood loss is the major cause of postoperative mortality and morbidity associated with hepatic resection. A prospective multicenter study was conducted to determine if ultrasonic dissectors (USD) were useful in hepatic resection and could reduce this hemorrhagic risk. Forty-seven hepatic resections were performed in 42 consecutive patients during a two month period in 11 public, surgical centers. Twenty-one patients had primary or secondary malignancies, six had benign tumors, two had biliary cysts, one had cholangiocarcinoma, one had Caroli’s disease, and 11 had hydatid cysts of the liver. Two different USD devices were evaluated (CUSA System-Lasersonics and NIIC-DX 101 T). The hepatic resections tested included a wide range of procedures. Each surgeon had the possibility of choosing between the USD and his own usual technique for each operative step and according to local conditions. The average volume of blood infused, irrespective of the underlying pathology or the procedure performed, was 1.0 L (range 0-4.8 L). Fourteen patients required no transfusions. No operative or immediate postoperative deaths were recorded. Five major complications, all unrelated to the use of the USD, developed in three patients. Access to intra and extraparenchymal arterial and venous tributaries and particularly the control of the hepatic veins were facilitated by USD. While transection of hepatic parenchyma was neither easier nor faster than with conventional techniques, it was found to be less hemorrhagic. Overall appraisal was expressed on an analog scale; the USD was found to be helpful or very helpful in 75 percent of all resections. With regard to the pathology being treated, total or partial excision of hydatid cysts was greatly enhanced by the use of the USD while this benefit was not found for wedge resections of other hepatic lesions. With regard to user friendliness and maintenance, the NIIC-DX 101 T device was preferred. We conclude that the USD facilitates formal

  4. Return to Play Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ryan C; Hulstyn, Michael J; Fleming, Braden C; Owens, Brett D; Fadale, Paul D

    2016-10-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions are commonly performed in an attempt to return an athlete to sports activities. Accelerated rehabilitation has made recovery for surgery more predictable and shortened the timeline for return to play. Despite success with and advancements in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions, some athletes still fail to return to play. PMID:27543405

  5. Anterior chamber cholesterolosis in a patient with retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bryan K; Say, Emil Anthony T; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia; Lee, Thomas C; Kim, Jonathan W

    2016-01-01

    Anterior chamber cholesterolosis is a rare phenomenon typically associated with non-neoplastic conditions such as hyphema or Coats disease; it has never been reported to be associated with intraocular malignancy. We report a case of anterior chamber cholesterolosis presenting in the setting of retinoblastoma and discuss clinical features relevant for its differentiation from Coats disease. PMID:27330481

  6. Reduced Anterior Cingulate Cortex Glutamatergic Concentrations in Childhood Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirza, Yousha; Tang, Jennifer; Russell, Aileen; Banerjee, S. Preeya; Bhandari, Rashmi; Ivey, Jennifer; Rose, Michelle; Moore, Gregory J.; Rosenberg, David R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine in vivo glutamatergic neurochemical alterations in the anterior cingulate cortex of children with major depressive disorder (MDD). Method: Single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic ([.sup.1]H-MRS) examinations of the anterior cingulate cortex were conducted in 13 psychotropic-naive children and adolescents with MDD…

  7. Anterior chamber cholesterolosis in a patient with retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Bryan K.; Say, Emil Anthony T.; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia; Lee, Thomas C.; Kim, Jonathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Anterior chamber cholesterolosis is a rare phenomenon typically associated with non-neoplastic conditions such as hyphema or Coats disease; it has never been reported to be associated with intraocular malignancy. We report a case of anterior chamber cholesterolosis presenting in the setting of retinoblastoma and discuss clinical features relevant for its differentiation from Coats disease. PMID:27330481

  8. Anterior Tibial Translation in Collegiate Athletes with Normal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in anterior tibial translation (ATT) among sports, sex, and leg dominance in collegiate athletes with normal anterior cruciate ligament integrity. Design and Setting: Subjects from various athletic teams were measured for ATT in right and left knees. Subjects: Sixty subjects were measured for ATT with a KT-1000 knee arthrometer. Measurements: Statistical analyses were computed for each sex and included a 2 × 3 × 4 mixed-factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) for anterior cruciate ligament displacement, right and left sides, and force and sport. A 2 × 2 × 3 mixed-factorial ANOVA was computed to compare means for sex and force. A 2 × 3 mixed-factorial ANOVA was computed to compare sex differences across 3 forces. Results: For males and females, no significant interactions were found among leg, force, and sport for mean ATT, for leg and sport or leg and force, or for translation values between dominant and nondominant legs. Males had a significant interaction for force and sport, and a significant difference was found for side of body, since the right side had less translation than the left side. Females had greater ATT than males at all forces. Conclusions: Sex differences exist for ATT, and differences in ATT exist among sports for both sexes. Differences between the right and left sides of the body should be expected when making comparisons of ligamentous laxity. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 5. PMID:16558565

  9. Temporal and spatial requirements for Nodal-induced anterior mesendoderm and mesoderm in anterior neurulation.

    PubMed

    Gonsar, Ngawang; Coughlin, Alicia; Clay-Wright, Jessica A; Borg, Bethanie R; Kindt, Lexy M; Liang, Jennifer O

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish with defective Nodal signaling have a phenotype analogous to the fatal human birth defect anencephaly, which is caused by an open anterior neural tube. Previous work in our laboratory found that anterior open neural tube phenotypes in Nodal signaling mutants were caused by lack of mesendodermal/mesodermal tissues. Defects in these mutants are already apparent at neural plate stage, before the neuroepithelium starts to fold into a tube. Consistent with this, we found that the requirement for Nodal signaling maps to mid-late blastula stages. This timing correlates with the timing of prechordal plate mesendoderm and anterior mesoderm induction, suggesting these tissues act to promote neurulation. To further identify tissues important for neurulation, we took advantage of the variable phenotypes in Nodal signaling-deficient sqt mutant and Lefty1-overexpressing embryos. Statistical analysis indicated a strong, positive correlation between a closed neural tube and presence of several mesendoderm/mesoderm-derived tissues (hatching glands, cephalic paraxial mesoderm, notochord, and head muscles). However, the neural tube was closed in a subset of embryos that lacked any one of these tissues. This suggests that several types of Nodal-induced mesendodermal/mesodermal precursors are competent to promote neurulation. PMID:26528772

  10. [Large distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm associated with azygos anterior cerebral artery: case report].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y; Kawamata, T; Matsumoto, H; Kunii, N; Matsumoto, K

    1998-10-01

    A 51-year-old woman presented with a distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm (DACAA) manifesting as severe headache and monoparesis of the left lower limb. Computed tomography revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage in the interhemispheric fissure, bilateral sylvian fissures, and basal cistern, and a hematoma in the supracallosal region. Angiography showed a large aneurysm (23 x 18 mm) located on the distal end of the azygos anterior cerebral artery (azygos ACA) at the supracallosal portion. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the hematoma as a mixed intensity mass, compressing the corpus callosum downward, and the aneurysm as a flow void anterior to the hematoma. Unilateral frontoparietal parasagittal craniotomy was performed with a horse-shoe shaped incision. The aneurysm was clipped via the interhemispheric approach, and the hematoma was aspirated. Postoperative angiography showed disappearance of the aneurysm and intact azygos ACA. The patient was discharged with mild monoparesis, paresthesia of the left lower limb and diagnostic dyspraxia. DACAA almost always arises at or near the genu of the corpus callosum and is often associated with vascular anomaly. In the literature, 22 of 26 cases of large and giant DACAA were located at or near the genu, but only 3 cases, including ours, in the supracallosal area. 11 cases were associated with azygos ACA. Therefore, hemodynamic stress caused by vascular anomaly may be involved in the formation of large or giant DACAA in contrast with cases of normal DACAA. PMID:9789300

  11. [Prevention of hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Morillas, Rosa M; Sala, Marga; Planas, Ramon

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent complication of cirrhosis which, in addition to producing a great social impact, deteriorates the quality of life of patients and is considered a sign of advanced liver disease and therefore a clinical indication for liver transplant evaluation. Patients who have had episodes of HE have a high risk of recurrence. Thus, after the HE episode resolves, it is recommended: control and prevention of precipitating factors (gastrointestinal bleeding, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, use of diuretics with caution, avoid nervous system depressant medications), continued administration of non-absorbable disaccharides such as lactulose or lactitol, few or non-absorbable antibiotics such as rifaximin and assess the need for a liver transplant as the presence of a HE episode carries a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. PMID:24480288

  12. Auto immune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    van Gerven, Nicole MF; de Boer, Ynto S; Mulder, Chris JJ; van Nieuwkerk, Carin MJ; Bouma, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    To provide an update of the latest trends in epidemiology, clinical course, diagnostics, complications and treatment of auto immune hepatitis (AIH). A search of the MEDLINE database was performed using the search terms: “auto immune hepatitis”, “clinical presentation”, “symptoms”, “signs”, “diagnosis”, “auto antibodies”, “laboratory values”, “serology”, “histopathology”, “histology”, “genetics”, “HLA genes”, “non-HLA genes”, “environment”, “epidemiology”, “prevalence”, “incidence”, “demographics”, “complications”, “HCC”, “PBC”, “PSC”, “corticosteroid”, “therapy”, “treatment”, “alternative treatment”. English-language full-text articles and abstracts were considered. Articles included reviews, meta-analysis, prospective retrospective studies. No publication date restrictions were applied. AIH is an immune meditated progressive inflammatory liver disease that predominantly affects middle-aged females but may affect people of all ages. The clinical spectrum of AIH is wide, ranging from absent or mild symptoms to fulminant hepatic failure. The aetiology of AIH is still unknown, but is believed to occur as the consequence of an aberrant immune response towards an un-known trigger in a genetically susceptible host. In the absence of a gold standard, diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical, biochemical and histopathological criteria. Immunosuppressive treatment has been the cornerstone of treatment since the earliest description of the disease in 1950 by Waldenström. Such treatment is often successful at inducing remission and generally leads to normal life expectancy. Nevertheless, there remain significant areas of unmet aetiological a clinical needs including fundamental insight in disease pathogenesis, optimal therapy, duration of treatment and treatment alternatives in those patients unresponsive to standard treatment regimens. PMID:27217697

  13. Method for measuring anterior chamber volume by image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Gaoshou; Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Ruichang; Wang, Bingsong; Wang, Ningli

    2007-12-01

    Anterior chamber volume (ACV) is very important for an oculist to make rational pathological diagnosis as to patients who have some optic diseases such as glaucoma and etc., yet it is always difficult to be measured accurately. In this paper, a method is devised to measure anterior chamber volumes based on JPEG-formatted image files that have been transformed from medical images using the anterior-chamber optical coherence tomographer (AC-OCT) and corresponding image-processing software. The corresponding algorithms for image analysis and ACV calculation are implemented in VC++ and a series of anterior chamber images of typical patients are analyzed, while anterior chamber volumes are calculated and are verified that they are in accord with clinical observation. It shows that the measurement method is effective and feasible and it has potential to improve accuracy of ACV calculation. Meanwhile, some measures should be taken to simplify the handcraft preprocess working as to images.

  14. The Point Count Transect Method for Estimates of Biodiversity on Coral Reefs: Improving the Sampling of Rare Species.

    PubMed

    Roberts, T Edward; Bridge, Thomas C; Caley, M Julian; Baird, Andrew H

    2016-01-01

    Understanding patterns in species richness and diversity over environmental gradients (such as altitude and depth) is an enduring component of ecology. As most biological communities feature few common and many rare species, quantifying the presence and abundance of rare species is a crucial requirement for analysis of these patterns. Coral reefs present specific challenges for data collection, with limitations on time and site accessibility making efficiency crucial. Many commonly used methods, such as line intercept transects (LIT), are poorly suited to questions requiring the detection of rare events or species. Here, an alternative method for surveying reef-building corals is presented; the point count transect (PCT). The PCT consists of a count of coral colonies at a series of sample stations, located at regular intervals along a transect. In contrast the LIT records the proportion of each species occurring under a transect tape of a given length. The same site was surveyed using PCT and LIT to compare species richness estimates between the methods. The total number of species increased faster per individual sampled and unit of time invested using PCT. Furthermore, 41 of the 44 additional species recorded by the PCT occurred ≤ 3 times, demonstrating the increased capacity of PCT to detect rare species. PCT provides a more accurate estimate of local-scale species richness than the LIT, and is an efficient alternative method for surveying reef corals to address questions associated with alpha-diversity, and rare or incidental events. PMID:27011368

  15. Annual and seasonal temperature variance along an inter-tidal sediment transect in Yaquina bay, Oregon, 1999 - 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment temperature was measured using submersible Onset TidbiT® recording thermistor thermometers at eelgrass (Zostera marina, Z. japonica) mid-rhizome root depth (~5 cm) at 6 stations on a transect from ~MLLW (mean lower low water) at the channel edge to near MHHW (mean higher...

  16. Topographic, bioclimatic, and vegetation characteristics of three ecoregion classification systems in North America: Comparisons along continent-wide transects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.S.; Shafer, S.L.; Anderson, K.H.; Strickland, L.E.; Pelltier, R.T.; Bartlein, P.J.; Kerwin, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Ecoregion classification systems are increasingly used for policy and management decisions, particularly among conservation and natural resource managers. A number of ecoregion classification systems are currently available, with each system defining ecoregions using different classification methods and different types of data. As a result, each classification system describes a unique set of ecoregions. To help potential users choose the most appropriate ecoregion system for their particular application, we used three latitudinal transects across North America to compare the boundaries and environmental characteristics of three ecoregion classification systems [Ku??chler, World Wildlife Fund (WWF), and Bailey]. A variety of variables were used to evaluate the three systems, including woody plant species richness, normalized difference in vegetation index (NDVI), and bioclimatic variables (e.g., mean temperature of the coldest month) along each transect. Our results are dominated by geographic patterns in temperature, which are generally aligned north-south, and in moisture, which are generally aligned east-west. In the west, the dramatic changes in physiography, climate, and vegetation impose stronger controls on ecoregion boundaries than in the east. The Ku??chler system has the greatest number of ecoregions on all three transects, but does not necessarily have the highest degree of internal consistency within its ecoregions with regard to the bioclimatic and species richness data. In general, the WWF system appears to track climatic and floristic variables the best of the three systems, but not in all regions on all transects. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  17. FIMBRIA-FORNIX TRANSECTIONS DISRUPT THE ONTOGENY OF DELAYED ALTERNATION BUT NOT POSITION DISCRIMINATION IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Experiment 1, Long-Evans rat pups received fimbria-fornix transections or sham surgery on postnatal day 10 (PND10) and were then trained on PND23 to perform either a discrete-trials delayed alternation or a simple position discrimination (position habit) in a T-maze. at pups i...

  18. ANNUAL CYCLE OF PERIPHYTON, ZOOPLANKTON, AND WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS ALONG A 5 STATION TRANSECT OF ESCAMBIA BAY, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton, zooplankton and water quality parameters were monitored monthly along a 5-station transect in Escambia Bay (Pensacola, FL) from fall 1999 to fall 2000. To provide insight into nutrient processing in Escambia Bay and effects of grazers on phytoplankton community st...

  19. The Point Count Transect Method for Estimates of Biodiversity on Coral Reefs: Improving the Sampling of Rare Species

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, T. Edward; Bridge, Thomas C.; Caley, M. Julian; Baird, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding patterns in species richness and diversity over environmental gradients (such as altitude and depth) is an enduring component of ecology. As most biological communities feature few common and many rare species, quantifying the presence and abundance of rare species is a crucial requirement for analysis of these patterns. Coral reefs present specific challenges for data collection, with limitations on time and site accessibility making efficiency crucial. Many commonly used methods, such as line intercept transects (LIT), are poorly suited to questions requiring the detection of rare events or species. Here, an alternative method for surveying reef-building corals is presented; the point count transect (PCT). The PCT consists of a count of coral colonies at a series of sample stations, located at regular intervals along a transect. In contrast the LIT records the proportion of each species occurring under a transect tape of a given length. The same site was surveyed using PCT and LIT to compare species richness estimates between the methods. The total number of species increased faster per individual sampled and unit of time invested using PCT. Furthermore, 41 of the 44 additional species recorded by the PCT occurred ≤ 3 times, demonstrating the increased capacity of PCT to detect rare species. PCT provides a more accurate estimate of local-scale species richness than the LIT, and is an efficient alternative method for surveying reef corals to address questions associated with alpha-diversity, and rare or incidental events. PMID:27011368

  20. Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... are poor sanitary conditions or where good personal hygiene is not observed. Most hepatitis A viral infections ... person who doesn’t wash his or her hands after using the bathroom and then handles food ...