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Sample records for anterior tibial post

  1. [Post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the anterior tibial artery secondary to tibial shaft fracture. Case report].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Salazar, J; Tovar-López, J; Hernández-Rodríguez, G; De la Concha-Ureta, H

    2016-01-01

    Arterial pseudoaneurysm of the lower limb is an infrequent entity, particularly in the infrapopliteal segment. It is commonly associated to vascular repairs or follows a localized arterial lesion, a fracture or a surgical procedure. There is little information in Mexico about this entity in cases involving the anterior tibial artery, and secondary to trauma and osteosynthesis. Given that sudden bleeding due to rupture of the pseudoaneurysm is a possible catastrophic outcome for the viability of the segment, it is important to timely detect and diagnose the pseudoaneurysm. Treatment indications contained in the international literature are controversial. Solution-oriented approaches may be either surgical or endovascular. Current reports show that the best treatment option is an autologous saphenous vein graft, which maintains blood flow and minimizes the risk of peripheral ischemia. The purpose of this paper is to report the case of a patient who sustained the above mentioned complication and provide a literature review. This topic should be further investigated, as this condition may go unnoticed in a large number of cases, given that its symptoms are silent. PMID:27627775

  2. Contact stress analysis of the anterior tibial post in bi-cruciate stabilized and mobile-bearing posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty designs.

    PubMed

    Kuwashima, Umito; Hamai, Satoshi; Okazaki, Ken; Ikebe, Satoru; Higaki, Hidehiko; Mizu-Uchi, Hideki; Akasaki, Yukio; Murakami, Koji; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2016-07-01

    In posterior-stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA), unexpected wear and fracture of the tibial post due to anterior post impingement have been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the contact stress on the anterior aspect of the tibial post in four contemporary TKA designs. We evaluated one bi-cruciate stabilized design (Journey II) and three mobile-bearing PS designs (Vanguard RP, PFC Sigma RP, and NexGen LPS Mobile). The contact conditions at the anterior aspect of the tibial post were determined upon application of a posterior force of 100N to individual implants. Each measurement was sequentially performed five times, and the data were compared within and across designs using analysis of variance and a post-hoc test. The contact stress of the Journey II and Vanguard RP was less than the compressive yield stress for polyethylene (10MPa) at all tested flexion angles and degrees of rotation. The PFC Sigma RP did not show anterior tibial post impingement under any experimental conditions. The NexGen LPS Mobile demonstrated bilateral edge loading at the anterior tibial post and exceeded 10MPa of contact stress in some test conditions. Thus, the differences among implants in terms of the dimensions of the femoral anterior cam or intercondylar notch and the anterior aspect of the tibial post in the axial and sagittal planes led to significant differences in contact conditions. The present study helps the surgeon to be more aware that various contact conditions of the anterior aspect of the tibial post can occur in individual TKA designs. PMID:26999701

  3. Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy for Anterior Knee Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bonasia, Davide; Rosso, Federica; Cottino, Umberto; Governale, Giorgio; Cherubini, Valeria; Dettoni, Federico; Bruzzone, Matteo; Rossi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mid-term radiological and clinical outcomes of tibial tubercle osteotomy in patients affected by anterior knee pain. In addition, prognostic factors correlated with the outcomes were evaluated. Methods: The patients treated with tibial tubercle osteotomy (anteromedialization) for anterior knee pain between 2002 and 2014 were included. Exclusion criteria: 1) previous knee surgeries; 2) different procedures to treat anterior knee pain; 3) history of patellar dislocation, 4) Rheumatic conditions. Different variables were collected, as shown in. The patients were prospectively evaluated using the WOMAC short form and Kujala scores. An objective evaluation was performed looking for different potential risk factors and using part of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Radiological evaluation was performed, including the congruence angle, the grade of osteoarthritis (Kellegren-Lawrence) and the patellar tilt angle. Three main outcomes were identified. The multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation between the variables and a worse outcome. Results: 72 cases were included in the study (9 bilateral). 72.2% of the cases were female, and the average age was 42,2 years (SD15,9). The average BMI was 24.4 kg/m2 (SD5,2). In 70.8% of patients a lateral release was associated to the tibial tubercle osteotomy. 77.8% of patients were evaluated clinically, the remaining, who were unable to come for the visits, were interviewed and the subjective scores were administered by phone. The average follow-up was 68.4 months (SD35.5).In 62.5% of cases a valgus lower limb alignment was detected, with 25% and 39.3% of patients having respectively an increased femoral antiversion and foot pronation. Post-operatively there was a statistical significant improvement in all the scores. No differences in the pre-operative and post-operative congruence angle or patellar tilt were detected (p>0.05). All

  4. Injury to the Anterior Tibial Artery during Bicortical Tibial Drilling in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Bum; Lim, Jin Woo; Seo, Jeong Gook

    2016-01-01

    Many complications have been reported during or after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, including infection, bleeding, tibial tunnel widening, arthrofibrosis, and graft failure. However, arterial injury has been rarely reported. This paper reports a case of an anterior tibial arterial injury during bicortical tibial drilling in arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, associated with an asymptomatic occlusion of the popliteal artery. The patient had a vague pain which led to delayed diagnosis of compartment syndrome and delayed treatment with fasciotomy. All surgeons should be aware of these rare but critical complications because the results may be disastrous like muscle necrosis as in this case. PMID:26929808

  5. Injury to the Anterior Tibial Artery during Bicortical Tibial Drilling in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Bum; Lim, Jin Woo; Seo, Jeong Gook; Ha, Jeong Ku

    2016-03-01

    Many complications have been reported during or after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, including infection, bleeding, tibial tunnel widening, arthrofibrosis, and graft failure. However, arterial injury has been rarely reported. This paper reports a case of an anterior tibial arterial injury during bicortical tibial drilling in arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, associated with an asymptomatic occlusion of the popliteal artery. The patient had a vague pain which led to delayed diagnosis of compartment syndrome and delayed treatment with fasciotomy. All surgeons should be aware of these rare but critical complications because the results may be disastrous like muscle necrosis as in this case. PMID:26929808

  6. Anterior tibial artery perforator plus flaps for reconstruction of post-burn flexion contractures of the knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, S.; Bandyopadhyay, T.; Saha, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background. Post-burn flexion contractures of the knee may arise even with adequate treatment of the burn injury. After release of the contracture, most of these defects require flap coverage. Here we describe the application of the perforator plus flap concept in the management of these contractures. Method. Between December 2010 and December 2011 five female and two male patients with knee contractures were operated on using a perforator plus flap from the anterior tibia artery perforator. In one patient both sides were operated on and the rest had unilateral surgeries. All patients had mature scars and the aetiology was thermal burn injury. All these contractures were categorized as Category 4 and Level 3 by the ICIDH guidelines with an average contracture angle of 87.5 degrees. The flap was raised after release of the defect and a Doppler study located the perforator below the fibular head. The base of the flap was kept intact at all times. The flap was then transposed towards the defect and inset in a tensionless manner. Results. All flaps survived well with marginal necrosis in only one flap, providing stable coverage to the knee joint. The average residual contracture was around 10 degrees and the average range of flexion was 10-120 degrees. Conclusion. The perforator plus flap can be an excellent choice in defects over the posterior aspect of the knee where important neurovascular structures and tendons are exposed. Level of evidence: Level IV. PMID:23233827

  7. Fracture of a polyethylene tibial post in a Scorpio posterior-stabilized knee prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hong Chul; Bae, Ji Hoon; Hwang, Jin Ho; Kim, Seung Joo; Yoon, Ji Yeol

    2009-06-01

    We report the case of a polyethylene tibial post fracture in a 72-year-old woman 14 months after a Scorpio posterior-stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty. The polyethylene wear was found around the fracture site of the post, especially over the anterior aspect of the post base. The failure mechanism of the post fracture in the present case was anterior impingement with excessive wear over the base of the anterior aspect of the tibial post, which became a stress-riser of post and cam articulation. This is the first report of a polyethylene tibial post fracture of a Scorpio PS prosthesis. PMID:19885065

  8. Injury to the anterior tibial system during percutaneous plating of a proximal tibial fracture.

    PubMed

    Gary, Joshua L; Sciadini, Marcus F

    2012-07-01

    Minimally invasive osteosynthesis of proximal tibial fractures has grown in popularity in recent years. This article describes a patient with a Schatzker type VI proximal tibial fracture (AO/OTA type 41.C3) and previous compartment syndrome treated with definitive fixation 8 weeks after initial injury with a precontoured proximal tibial plate and a distal targeting device. Brisk bleeding occurred during percutaneous insertion of a cortical screw at the midshaft of the tibia. Surgical exploration revealed sidewall tearing of the anterior tibial artery and vein, which were clipped at the screw insertion site. After the bleeding was controlled, the patient had a strong palpable posterior tibial pulse with no palpable dorsalis pedis pulse, and the foot remained well perfused. Function of the deep peroneal nerve was normal postoperatively. Previous concerns regarding the percutaneous treatment of proximal tibial fractures have focused on the risks of damage to the superficial peroneal nerve from distal screws. Based on cadaveric studies, percutaneously and laterally based screw placement in the distal tibial metaphysis threatens injury to the anterior tibial system. However, with alterations to the normal anatomy caused by severe trauma, previously described safe zones may be changed and neurovascular structures may be exposed to risk in locations that were previously thought safe. PMID:22784915

  9. Rotational alignment of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty: the anterior tibial cortex is a reliable landmark

    PubMed Central

    BALDINI, ANDREA; INDELLI, PIER FRANCESCO; DE LUCA, LAPO; MARIANI, PIERPAOLO CERULLI; MARCUCCI, MASSIMILIANO

    2013-01-01

    Purpose to compare the anterior tibial surface curvature, the Akagi’s line and the medial third of the tibial tubercle in order to assess which is the most reliable landmark for correct tibial component rotational positioning in total knee arthroplasty. Methods three independent investigators reviewed 124 knee MRI scans. The most suitable tibial baseplate tracing for the Nexgen Total Knee System (Zimmer, Warsaw, USA) was superimposed on the scan matching the anterior tibial cortex with the anterior aspect of the baseplate. The rotation of the tibial baseplate tracing was calculated with respect to the transepicondylar axis (TEA), the medial third of the tibial tubercle line, Akagi’s line and the femoral posterior condylar axis (PCA). Customized software was created and used for analysis of the MRI datasets. The reliability of each measurement was then calculated by using the intraclass correlation coefficient for interobserver agreement. Results observer agreement on the position of the Akagi’s line was within 3° in 64% of the cases and within 5° in 85% of the cases. Agreement on the position of the medial third of the tibial tubercle was within 3° in 29% of the cases and within 5° in 70% of the cases. Agreement on the localization of the anterior tibial surface curvature was within 3° in 89% of the cases and within 5° in 99% of the cases. Component alignment along the anterior cortex guaranteed full matching ± 3° with the epicondylar axis in 75% of the knees. Conclusions the anterior tibial surface curvature was found to be a more reliable and more easily identifiable landmark for correct tibial component alignment than either Akagi’s line or the medial third of the tibialtubercle. Level of evidence level III, retrospective cohort study. PMID:25606527

  10. The use of intra-operative fluoroscopy for tibial tunnel placement in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, A. W.; Dwyer, A. J.; Govindaswamy, R.; Lankester, B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to assess the use of intra-operative fluoroscopy in the assessment of the position of the tibial tunnel during reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Methods Between January and June 2009 a total of 31 arthroscopic hamstring ACL reconstructions were performed. Intra-operative fluoroscopy was introduced (when available) to verify the position of the guidewire before tunnel reaming. It was only available for use in 20 cases, due to other demands on the radiology department. The tourniquet times were compared between the two groups and all cases where radiological images lead to re-positioning of the guide wire were recorded. The secondary outcome involved assessing the tibial interference screw position measured on post-operative radiographs and comparing with the known tunnel position as shown on intra-operative fluoroscopic images. Results Of the 20 patients treated with fluoroscopy, the imaging led to repositioning of the tibial guide wire before reaming in three (15%). The mean tourniquet time with intra-operative fluoroscopy was 56 minutes (44 to 70) compared with 51 minutes (42 to 67) for the operations performed without. Six patients (30%) had post-operative screw positions that were > 5% more posterior than the known position of the tibial tunnel. Conclusion Intra-operative fluoroscopy can be effectively used to improve the accuracy of tibial tunnel positions with minimal increase in tourniquet time. This study also demonstrates the potential inaccuracy associated with plain radiological assessment of tunnel position. PMID:23610653

  11. Fracture of the polyethylene tibial post in a NexGen posterior-stabilized knee prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Chen, Wei-Ming; Huang, Ching-Kuei; Chiang, Chao-Ching; Chen, Tain-Hsiung

    2004-12-01

    We reported a case of fracture of a polyethylene tibial post in a 44-year-old woman after 3 years of NexGen posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN). Burnishing and delamination of the polyethylene was found around the breakage site of the post, especially over the anterior aspect of the post base. It indicated that the possible failure mechanism was the repeated anterior impingement between the metal femoral cam and polyethylene tibial post. After replacement of the broken insert, the patient obtained complete relief of previous symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first report of post breakage of a NexGen posterior-stabilized knee prosthesis. PMID:15586342

  12. An in vivo comparison of anterior tibial translation and strain in the anteromedial band of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Fleming, B C; Beynnon, B D; Nichols, C E; Johnson, R J; Pope, M H

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this in vivo study was to determine if strain in the anteromedial band (AMB) of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) may be predicted by an external measurement of anterior tibial-femoral translation. A Hall effect strain transducer was implanted on the AMB of five human subjects with normal intact ACLs. AMB strain was then measured during anterior shear loading of the tibia relative to the femur, with the knee flexed to 30 and 90 degrees, simulating the loads applied in the Lachman and anterior drawer tests, respectively. The Knee Signature System, a commercially available arthrometer, was used to simultaneously measure anterior tibial translation relative to the femur. The resulting AMB strains and translations during anterior shear loading of the tibia with respect to the femur at 30 and 90 degrees were compared using a regression analysis to determine if AMB strain could be predicted from a measure of anterior tibiofemoral translation at either flexion angle. AMB strain at 150 N anterior shear load at 30 degrees flexion (3.0%) was significantly greater than that at 150 N anterior shear load at 90 degrees flexion (0.9%). During anterior shear loading at 30 degrees flexion, AMB strain correlated with anterior tibial translation (r2 = 0.59). However, there was no significant correlation between AMB strain and anterior tibial translation for anterior shear loading at 90 degrees flexion (r2 = 0.002). Therefore, AMB strain was not accurately predicted from an external measurement of tibial displacement at 90 degrees in this experiment. PMID:8423168

  13. Applying Cross-Pin System in Both Femoral and Tibial Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Hamstring Tendons

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wei; Liu, Yujie; Xue, Jing; Li, Haifeng; Wang, Junliang; Qu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Use of the RigidFix Cross Pin System (DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA) is a popular technique for femoral fixation of grafts in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). However, tibial fixation is still limited to the use of interference screws and post fixation, and few surgeons apply the femoral RigidFix system in tibial fixation. Meanwhile, tunnel enlargement is still a problem that affects the outcome of ACLR with hamstring grafts. We have used the femoral RigidFix system in femoral and tibial fixation. The rod top of the guide frame should be placed under the level of the subchondral bone at the proximal end of the tibial tunnel to ensure that the pins will not be inserted into the joint. The pins are inserted through the center of the lateral tibia. Using our technique, the fixation points of the femur and tibia are close to the anterior cruciate ligament insertions, and full contact of the graft with the tunnel wall can be accomplished. On the basis of our preliminary observations and investigation, we are optimistic about the prospect of performing ACLR using the RigidFix system in femoral and tibial fixation. PMID:26697293

  14. Anterior Tibial Translation in Collegiate Athletes with Normal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in anterior tibial translation (ATT) among sports, sex, and leg dominance in collegiate athletes with normal anterior cruciate ligament integrity. Design and Setting: Subjects from various athletic teams were measured for ATT in right and left knees. Subjects: Sixty subjects were measured for ATT with a KT-1000 knee arthrometer. Measurements: Statistical analyses were computed for each sex and included a 2 × 3 × 4 mixed-factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) for anterior cruciate ligament displacement, right and left sides, and force and sport. A 2 × 2 × 3 mixed-factorial ANOVA was computed to compare means for sex and force. A 2 × 3 mixed-factorial ANOVA was computed to compare sex differences across 3 forces. Results: For males and females, no significant interactions were found among leg, force, and sport for mean ATT, for leg and sport or leg and force, or for translation values between dominant and nondominant legs. Males had a significant interaction for force and sport, and a significant difference was found for side of body, since the right side had less translation than the left side. Females had greater ATT than males at all forces. Conclusions: Sex differences exist for ATT, and differences in ATT exist among sports for both sexes. Differences between the right and left sides of the body should be expected when making comparisons of ligamentous laxity. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 5. PMID:16558565

  15. Atypical presentation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: involvement of the anterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Bou, Steven; Day, Carly

    2014-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare condition that should be suspected in a young patient with exertional lower extremity pain. We report the case of an 18-year-old female volleyball player with bilateral exertional lower extremity pain who had been previously diagnosed with tendinitis and periostitis. Diagnostic studies showed entrapment of the left popliteal artery and the left anterior tibial artery. To our knowledge, there has only been 1 previous report of anterior tibial artery involvement in PAES. PMID:24880061

  16. Tibialis Anterior Tendon Transfer for Posterior Tibial Tendon Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ramanujam, Crystal L; Stapleton, John J; Zgonis, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Cobb procedure is useful for addressing stage 2 posterior tibial tendon dysfunction and is often accompanied by a medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy and/or lateral column lengthening. The Cobb procedure can also be combined with selected medial column arthrodesis and realignment osteotomies along with equinus correction when indicated. PMID:26590721

  17. Biomechanical analysis on transverse tibial fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions☆

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Edmar Stieven; Mendes, Mariane Henseler Damaceno; Claudino, Stephanie; Baracho, Filipe; Borges, Paulo César; da Cunha, Luiz Antonio Munhoz

    2015-01-01

    Objective To verify whether the combination of tibial cross pin fixation and femoral screw fixation presents biomechanical advantages when compared to femoral cross pin fixation and tibial screw fixation for the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Methods Thirty-eight porcine knees and bovine extensor digitorum tendons were used as the graft materials. The tests were performed in three groups: (1) standard, used fourteen knees, and the grafts were fixated with the combination of femoral cross pin and a tibial screw; (2) inverted, used fourteen knees with an inverted combination of tibial cross pin and a femoral screw; (3) control, ten control tests performed with intact ACL. After the grafts fixation, all the knees were subjected to tensile testing to determine yield strength and ultimate strength. Results There was no statistically significant difference in survival techniques in regard to strength, yield load and tension. There was a higher survival compared in the standard curves of yield stress (p < 0.05). Conclusion There is no biomechanical advantage, observed in animal models testing, in the combination of tibial cross pin fixation and femoral screw when compared to femoral cross pin fixation and tibial screw. PMID:26229913

  18. A Case of Nonunion Avulsion Fracture of the Anterior Tibial Eminence

    PubMed Central

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Avulsion fracture of the anterior tibial eminence is an uncommon injury. If bone union does not occur, knee extension will be limited by impingement of the avulsed fragment and knee instability will be induced by dysfunction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). This report describes a 55-year-old woman who experienced an avulsion fracture of the right anterior tibial eminence during recreational skiing. Sixteen months later, she presented at our hospital with limitation of right knee extension. Plain radiography showed nonunion of the avulsion fracture region, and arthroscopy showed that the avulsed fragment impinged the femoral intercondylar notch during knee extension. The anterior region of the bony fragment was debrided arthroscopically until the knee could be extended completely. There was no subsequent instability, and the patient was able to climb a mountain 6 months after surgery. These findings indicate that arthroscopic debridement of an avulsed fragment for nonunion of an avulsion fracture of the anterior tibial eminence is a minimally invasive and effective treatment for middle-aged and elderly patients with a low level of sports activity. PMID:27119035

  19. Relationship between static anterior laxity using the KT-1000 and dynamic tibial rotation during motion in patients with anatomical anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sato, Koji; Maeda, Akira; Takano, Yoshio; Matsuse, Hiroo; Ida, Hirofumi; Shiba, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) plays an important role in controlling knee joint stability, not only by limiting tibial anterior translation but also by controlling knee axial rotation. The aim of ACL reconstruction is to reduce excessive anterior joint laxity, hoping to restore normal tibiofemoral kinematics including knee axial rotation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between static anterior instability and tibial rotation during several activities in an anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knee. Seven patients with unilateral ACL injury performed plain walking, running, landing and side step cutting tasks after ACL reconstruction with a mean follow-up of 14 months. The kinematic data for the 4 motions was measured using a motion analysis system and the point cluster technique. The evaluation period was defined to be from the first contact to removal of the tested leg from the ground. Maximum tibial internal rotation during tasks was calculated using the point cluster technique (PCT). Passive anterior tibial translation was measured using a KT-1000 arthrometer. Regression analysis was used to determine the correlation of the maximum internal rotation with the side-to-side difference of static anterior tibial translation measured using a KT-1000 arthrometer. During side step cutting maneuvers, maximum tibial internal rotation significantly showed negative correlation with static anterior tibial translation (p<0.05, r=0.83). The anterior laxity contributed to the normal knee rotation kinematics. The normal anterior tibial translation obtained by ACL reconstruction is thought to be the key factor in successful restoration of normal knee kinematics. PMID:23925154

  20. Tibial Tunnel Cyst Formation after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using a Non-Bioabsorbable Interference Screw

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Yogesh V.; Phaltankar, Padmanabh M.; Charalambous, Charalambos P.

    2015-01-01

    Tibial cyst formation following the use of bioabsorbable interference screws in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is well-described; however, cyst formation after the use of metallic interference screws is not well-documented. We describe a case of osteolytic lesion of the proximal tibia presenting to us 20 years after ACL reconstruction using an autologous bone-tendon-bone graft. The original graft fixation technique was interference fixation with a metal screw in the tibial and femoral tunnels. A two-stage revision reconstruction of the ACL was undertaken with curettage and bone grafting of the tibial lesion in the first stage and reconstruction using a four-strand hamstring tendon in the second stage. The patient recovered satisfactorily with complete healing of the cyst and returned to pre-injury level of activities. We have reviewed case reports and case series that describe the aetiology of intra-osseous cyst formation following ACL reconstruction. PMID:26673117

  1. Tibial Tunnel Cyst Formation after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using a Non-Bioabsorbable Interference Screw.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Yogesh V; Bhaskar, Deepu; Phaltankar, Padmanabh M; Charalambous, Charalambos P

    2015-12-01

    Tibial cyst formation following the use of bioabsorbable interference screws in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is well-described; however, cyst formation after the use of metallic interference screws is not well-documented. We describe a case of osteolytic lesion of the proximal tibia presenting to us 20 years after ACL reconstruction using an autologous bone-tendon-bone graft. The original graft fixation technique was interference fixation with a metal screw in the tibial and femoral tunnels. A two-stage revision reconstruction of the ACL was undertaken with curettage and bone grafting of the tibial lesion in the first stage and reconstruction using a four-strand hamstring tendon in the second stage. The patient recovered satisfactorily with complete healing of the cyst and returned to pre-injury level of activities. We have reviewed case reports and case series that describe the aetiology of intra-osseous cyst formation following ACL reconstruction. PMID:26673117

  2. Bilateral Medial Tibial Plateau Fracture after Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Chul Hyun; Lee, Kyung Jae; Jeon, Jong Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are rare, and only isolated cases have been reported. The authors describe a case of bilateral medial tibial plateau fracture following a minor motorcycle accident in a patient who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction in the past. Two years and four months before the accident, the patient underwent an arthroscopically assisted ACL reconstruction using double-bundle technique on his left knee at a hospital. He had the same surgery using single-bundle technique on his right knee about eight months ago at another hospital. The fractures in his both involved knees occurred through the tibial tunnel and required open reduction with internal fixation. At three weeks after fixation, a second-look arthroscopy revealed intact ACLs in both knees. At five months follow-up, he was able to walk without instability on physical examination. Follow-up radiographs of the patient showed callus formations with healed fractures. PMID:26060613

  3. Osgood Schlatter lesion: histologic features of slipped anterior tibial tubercle.

    PubMed

    Falciglia, F; Giordano, M; Aulisa, A G; Poggiaroni, A; Guzzanti, V

    2011-01-01

    No study reports the histological features of the various zone of the anterior tubercle of the tibia in the different stages of the Osgood-Schlatter (O-S) lesion. For this reason we carried on an histological study. Specimens were taken from 13 patients with O-S lesion prior to surgery. In 4 cases in the apophyseal stage lesions were present in an altered fibrocartilage anterior to the ossification centre. In 9 cases in the epiphyseal stage varying degrees of reparative tissues were observed in the bed of the fragment of the secondary ossification centre. In 3 of them a zone of lesion was observed within the fibrocartilage anterior to the ossification centre. These results suggest that the slippage of the patellar tendon insertion may be progressive and caused by pathological fibrocartilage. PMID:21669134

  4. Two Cases of Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture Combined with a Posterolateral Tibial Plateau Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Liangjun; Wu, Haobo; Yan, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    Background. The combined occurrence of ACL rupture with a posterolateral tibial plateau fracture has not yet been reported. Two cases of such injuries have been treated in our department for the past three years. Findings. The two patients both suffered injuries from traffic accidents. The radiological examinations showed a ruptured ACL with fracture of the posterolateral tibial plateau. Reconstruction of the ACL was performed via a standard anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction technique with autologous tendon by arthroscopy. A posterolateral tibia plateau approach was used to reduce and fix the fractured area with the aid of lag screws. After a one-year follow-up, the two patients recovered well and physical examinations showed full knee range of motion with no evidence of ACL instability. Conclusions. The cause of this type injury of ACL rupture with a posterolateral tibial plateau fracture was thought to be by a violent internal tibial rotation/anterior tibial translation without any valgus or varus knee force mechanism during the accident. Satisfactory clinical results were achieved with a standard anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction by arthroscopy and ORIF for the posterolateral plateau fracture. Both patients reported excellent knee function and fracture healing. PMID:26236518

  5. Effect of Femoral Tunnel Placement for Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament on Tibial Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Ristanis, Stavros; Stergiou, Nicholas; Siarava, Eleftheria; Ntoulia, Aikaterini; Mitsionis, Grigorios; Georgoulis, Anastasios D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rotational knee movement after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament has been difficult to quantify. The purpose of this study was to identify in vivo whether a more horizontal placement of the femoral tunnel (in the ten o'clock position rather than in the eleven o'clock position) can restore rotational kinematics, during highly demanding dynamic activities, in a knee in which a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft had been used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament. Methods: We evaluated ten patients in whom a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft had been used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament with the femoral tunnel in the eleven o'clock position, ten patients who had had the same procedure with the femoral tunnel in the ten o'clock position, and ten healthy controls. Kinematic data were collected while the subjects (1) descended from a stairway, made foot contact, and then pivoted 90° on the landing lower limb and (2) jumped from a platform, landed with both feet on the ground, and pivoted 90° on the right or left lower limb. The dependent variable that we examined was tibial rotation during pivoting. Results: The results demonstrated that reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with the femoral tunnel in either the ten or the eleven o'clock position successfully restored anterior tibial translation. However, both techniques resulted in tibial rotation values, during the dynamic activities evaluated, that were significantly larger than those in the intact contralateral lower limbs and those in the healthy controls. Tibial rotation did not differ significantly between the two reconstruction groups or between the healthy controls and the intact contralateral lower limbs. However, we noticed that positioning the tunnel at ten o'clock resulted in slightly decreased rotation values that may have clinical relevance but not statistical significance. Conclusions: Regardless of which of the two tested positions was utilized to

  6. Retrograde Proximal Anterior Tibial Artery Access for Treating Femoropopliteal Segment Occlusion: A Novel Approach.

    PubMed

    Affonso, Breno Boueri; Golghetto Domingos, Fernanda Uchiyama; da Motta Leal Filho, Joaquim Maurício; Maciel, Macello José Sampaio; Cavalcante, Rafael Noronha; Bortolini, Edgar; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar

    2016-05-01

    Some challenges have been detected when there are long and complex lesions of femoropopliteal arterial occlusive disease, even with descriptions of the retrograde pedal approaches. The aim of this article is to describe the retrograde proximal anterior tibial artery access for treatment of femoropopliteal segment occlusion when antegrade recanalization failed (retrograde recanalization and rearranging the system into an antegrade position). Technical and clinical success was achieved in 100% of 4 cases, with an improvement of at least 2 Rutherford classes. Minor complication, small hematoma in an anterior compartment of the limb, occurred in 1 patient. No sign of compartmental syndrome was observed. PMID:26902943

  7. Endovascular treatment of anterior tibial artery pseudoaneurysm following locking compression plating of the tibia.

    PubMed

    van Hensbroek, P Boele; Ponsen, K J; Reekers, J A; Goslings, J C

    2007-04-01

    Less invasive surgery and interventional radiology are relatively new techniques. This case report describes a patient with a distal tibial fracture that was stabilized using minimally invasive osteosynthesis consisting of a precontoured metaphyseal Locking Compression Plate (LCP). Postoperative radiographs showed good alignment of the bone, and the initial postoperative course was uneventful. At the sixth-week follow-up visit after surgery, the patient presented with a pulsating and tender mass on the lower leg that was palpable subcutaneously. Arteriography showed a pseudoaneurysm of the anterior tibial artery. At the same procedure an endovascular stent was placed, thereby excluding the pseudoaneurysm from the main circulation while keeping the vessel lumen patent. At the time of the last visit, 6 months after the operation, the patient was fully weightbearing with normal function of the ankle but with a nonhealing fracture on the x-ray. The dorsalis pedis pulse was equally strong as on the right side. Endovascular treatment with a covered stent proved to be an effective treatment for the described posttraumatic pseudoaneurysm of the anterior tibial artery. This case illustrates a risk of less invasive fracture surgery and at the same time underlines the value of a multidisciplinary approach to complications in trauma surgery. PMID:17414557

  8. Iatrogenic posterior tibial nerve division during a combined anterior ankle arthroscopy with an additional posterolateral portal.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Jabar, Hani B; Bhamra, Jagmeet; Quick, Tom J; Fox, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ankle arthroscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic technique in the management of ankle disorders. Nowadays ankle arthroscopy provides good to excellent results (up to 90%) in the treatment of certain intra-articular disorders. Due to the superficial location of ankle joint and the abundance of overlying neurovascular structures, complications reported in ankle arthroscopy are greater than those reported in other joints. We present the first reported case of a complete division of the posterior tibial nerve during an anterior ankle arthroscopy combined with an additional posterolateral portal. This was due to a poorly controlled use of the arthroscopic instruments. PMID:27197613

  9. Iatrogenic posterior tibial nerve division during a combined anterior ankle arthroscopy with an additional posterolateral portal

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Jabar, Hani B; Bhamra, Jagmeet; Quick, Tom J; Fox, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ankle arthroscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic technique in the management of ankle disorders. Nowadays ankle arthroscopy provides good to excellent results (up to 90%) in the treatment of certain intra-articular disorders. Due to the superficial location of ankle joint and the abundance of overlying neurovascular structures, complications reported in ankle arthroscopy are greater than those reported in other joints. We present the first reported case of a complete division of the posterior tibial nerve during an anterior ankle arthroscopy combined with an additional posterolateral portal. This was due to a poorly controlled use of the arthroscopic instruments. PMID:27197613

  10. Anterior Tibial Artery Pseudoaneurysm following Ankle Arthroscopy in a Hemophiliac Patient.

    PubMed

    Chamseddin, Khalil H; Kirkwood, Melissa L

    2016-07-01

    Arthroscopy of the foot and ankle is a common orthopedic procedure with low complication rates. Arterial injuries from these procedures are an even more rare subset of the complications. Hemophilia A is a genetic disorder of aberrant coagulation, which leads to increased risk of bleeding even after minor trauma. We present the second case of anterior tibial artery pseudoaneurysm formation secondary to ankle arthroscopy in a hemophiliac patient and suggest that these individuals are at higher risk for developing complications associated with arterial injury. Furthermore, potential risk factors include port placement, anatomic variation of the vessels, and nature of the arthroscopic procedure. We recommend steps to prevent complications in hemophiliac patients. PMID:27174350

  11. The Lateral Meniscus as a Guide to Anatomical Tibial Tunnel Placement During Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, A.M.; Tillotson, L.; Schranz, P.J.; Mandalia, V.I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to show, on an MRI scan, that the posterior border of the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus (AHLM) could guide tibial tunnel position in the sagittal plane and provide anatomical graft position. Method: One hundred MRI scans were analysed with normal cruciate ligaments and no evidence of meniscal injury. We measured the distance between the posterior border of the AHLM and the midpoint of the ACL by superimposing sagittal images. Results: The mean distance between the posterior border of the AHLM and the ACL midpoint was -0.1mm (i.e. 0.1mm posterior to the ACL midpoint). The range was 5mm to -4.6mm. The median value was 0.0mm. 95% confidence interval was from -0.5 to 0.3mm. A normal, parametric distribution was observed and Intra- and inter-observer variability showed significant correlation (p<0.05) using Pearsons Correlation test (intra-observer) and Interclass correlation (inter-observer). Conclusion: Using the posterior border of the AHLM is a reproducible and anatomical marker for the midpoint of the ACL footprint in the majority of cases. It can be used intra-operatively as a guide for tibial tunnel insertion and graft placement allowing anatomical reconstruction. There will inevitably be some anatomical variation. Pre-operative MRI assessment of the relationship between AHLM and ACL footprint is advised to improve surgical planning. Level of Evidence: Level 4. PMID:26962379

  12. Arthroscopic treatment for tibial "Peel off" tears in anterior cruciate ligament-case report.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin Hwan; Han, Kye Young; Yu, In Sang; Koh, Kyoung Hwan

    2013-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury was very common, and its reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic surgeries. A standard treatment option for ACL complete rupture in active young patients is debridement of remnant tissue and reconstruction with various types of tendon graft. However, "A tibial peel off tear" of ACL without bony avulsion can be treated using preservation of original ACL and trans-osseous pullout suture repair. The IKDC subjective score was 90, the objective score was A, and the Lysholm score was 95 at 24 months after surgery. KT-2000 arthrometer showed 2 mm side-to-side difference. Pivot shift test and Lachman test were negative, and there was no limitation in range of motion. Patient returned to full activities including sports and satisfied with the surgical results. In the postoperative MRI at 6 months after the surgery, the continuity of ACL was well maintained without any Cyclops lesion. We believe that trans-osseous pullout suture repair could be included as an alternative method in this "tibial peel off" type ACL injury instead of the usual removal of remnant tissue and reconstruction with a graft. PMID:23412240

  13. Repair of lacerated anterior tibial tendon with acellular tissue graft augmentation.

    PubMed

    DiDomenico, Lawrence A; Blasko, Gregory A; Cane, Laurence; Cross, Davina J

    2012-01-01

    In the present case report, we describe the surgical repair of a complete laceration of the anterior tibial tendon using acellular human dermal tissue matrix. A 17-year-old, elite league hockey player was injured in the locker room when a teammate still clad in ice skates stepped on his bare left foot. After evaluation at a local emergency department, the patient presented to our office the next day for additional evaluation. It was determined that surgery would be performed using acellular tissue graft augmentation, followed by physical therapy. Within 7 weeks of the injury, the athlete returned to his original level of activity. At 3 years of follow-up, he was playing Division 1 hockey at the university level. We believe that augmentation of the tendon repair with the grafting material enhanced the tendon tensile strength and promoted ingrowth through vascular channels. This, combined with the patient's dedication to physical therapy, led to excellent recovery in less time than anticipated. PMID:22762944

  14. Double-concave deformity of the polyethylene tibial post in posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Niki, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Hideo; Yoshimine, Fumihiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Suda, Yasunori; Banks, Scott A

    2010-04-01

    This report describes a unique case of bilateral total knee arthroplasty necessitating revision of the polyethylene insert, which showed prominent marks on the tibial post resulting from repeated seiza-style sitting. The patient presented 7 years postoperatively with knee pain and flexion disturbance due to continuous joint effusion persisting for more than 4 months. Proliferating synovia throughout the joint revealed reactive synovitis to polyethylene particles. The retrieved polyethylene inserts displayed double-concave deformity of the tibial post with burnishing and creep in tibiofemoral articulation. The damage pattern of retrieved polyethylene inserts reflected the data from tibiofemoral contact location obtained using a shape-matching technique in the early postoperative phase. This case provides an example of damage to the polyethylene tibial post caused by a floor-sitting lifestyle and the potential clinical sequelae. PMID:19261434

  15. Post damage in contemporary posterior-stabilized tibial inserts: influence of implant design and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Medel, Francisco J; Kurtz, Steven M; Sharkey, Peter F; Austin, Matthew S; Klein, Gregg R; Cohen, Alexis R; Patel, Hina; Goldberg, Victor M; Kraay, Matthew J; Rimnac, Clare M

    2011-06-01

    The mechanisms of damage at the polyethylene post in 3 contemporary tibial insert designs were evaluated and compared with a historical standard (Insall-Burstein II; Zimmer, Warsaw, Ind). One hundred five gamma sterilized posterior-stabilized tibial inserts were revised after an average of 4.7 years (0.05-13.6 years). Retrievals were classified according to their designs: Insall-Burstein II (n = 28); PFC (Johnson & Johnson, Raynham, Mass; n = 30); NexGen (Zimmer; n = 32); and Scorpio (Stryker Orthopaedics, Mahwah, NJ; n = 15). Reasons for revision and patient details were available. Surface damage scoring and photogrammetry were performed on all the retrieved tibial inserts. Oxidation analysis was carried out for traceable historical, gamma air-sterilized and conventional, gamma inert-sterilized tibial inserts (n = 61) with the use of infrared spectroscopy. The posts for all 3 contemporary designs exhibited damage similar to the historical controls. Articular, post, and backside damage scores significantly increased with implantation time. Post damage was insensitive to design and patient factors but was exacerbated by oxidation. An association between damage at the post and articular surface was also confirmed. Logistic models suggested an interaction between post damage, backside surface damage, and implant loosening. PMID:21575793

  16. Laser-guided placement of the tibial guide in the transtibial technique for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiaki; Takeda, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Seiji; Yamamoto, Haruyasu

    2009-02-01

    In anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, it is important to determine the location and direction of the femoral bone tunnel when using the transtibial technique. Accurately identifying the anatomic location at which to make the femoral bone tunnel for double-bundle ACL reconstruction is not a straightforward procedure. We describe a new method in which the centrum of the femoral tunnel is marked with an awl and a laser beam-guided technique is used to place the tibial pin. This procedure allows us to mark the desired location of the femoral tunnel before drilling the tibial bone tunnel when using the transtibial technique. This is the first report of a laser-guided technique used in arthroscopic surgery. We used a laser beam to determine the location of the femoral tunnel--the anatomic site needed to perform the intra-articular drilling in the tibia. In this technique, a laser pointer is set at the tibial guide, which reflects the laser beam and illuminates the point where the femoral bone tunnel should be made. Our method offers an easy and accurate way to reconfirm the tibial placement before drilling. PMID:19171283

  17. Fluoroscopic Analysis of Tibial Translation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Knees With and Without Bracing During Forward Lunge

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Maryam; Farahmand, Farzam; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim; Golestanha, Seyed Ali; Rezaeian, Tahmineh; Shirvani Broujeni, Shahram; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Esfandiarpour, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite several studies with different methods, the effect of functional knee braces on knee joint kinematics is not clear. Direct visualization of joint components through medical imaging modalities may provide the clinicians with more useful information. Objectives: In this study, for the first time in the literature, video fluoroscopy was used to investigate the effect of knee bracing on the sagittal plane kinematics of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured patients. Patients and Methods: For twelve male unilateral ACL deficient subjects, the anterior tibial translation was measured during lunge exercise in non-braced and braced conditions. Fluoroscopic images were acquired from the subjects using a digital fluoroscopy system with a rate of 10 fps. The image of each frame was scaled using a calibration coin and analyzed in AutoCAD environment. The angle between the two lines, tangent to the posterior cortexes of the femoral and tibial shafts was measured as the flexion angle. For the fluoroscopic images associated with 0°, 15°, 30°, 45° and 60° knee flexion angles, the relative anterior-posterior configuration of the tibiofemoral joint was assessed by measuring the position of landmarks on the tibia and femur. Results: Results indicated that the overall anterior translations of the tibia during the eccentric (down) and concentric (up) phases of lunge exercise were 10.4 ± 1.7 mm and 9.0 ± 2.2 mm for non-braced, and 10.1 ± 3.4 mm and 7.4 ± 2.5 mm, for braced conditions, respectively. The difference of the tibial anterior-posterior translation behaviors of the braced and non-braced knees was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Fluoroscopic imaging provides an effective tool to measure the dynamic behavior of the knee joint in the sagittal plane and within the limitations of this study, the pure mechanical stabilizing effect of functional knee bracing is not sufficient to control the anterior tibial translation of the ACL deficient

  18. Pseudoaneurysm of anterior tibial artery following a diaphyseal fracture of the tibia mimicking a malignant bone tumor.

    PubMed

    Sautet, Pierre; Choufani, Elie; Petit, Philippe; Launay, Franck; Jouve, Jean-Luc; Pesenti, Sébastien

    2016-09-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the lower limb are rare and frequently iatrogenics complications. Closed traumas are likely to generate lesions of the arterial wall, which generally become symptomatic at a later stage. The diagnosis of such vascular lesion is difficult because the symptomatology and the onset can be delayed. We herein report the case of a 15-year-old patient in whom the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm of the anterior tibial artery was made 5 months after a non-displaced closed fracture of the tibial shaft. The radiographs were evocative of a malignant bone tumor. The study of vessels by a contrast-enhanced CT-scan enabled us to diagnose the pseudoaneurysm. Before the occurrence of late onset swelling, a history of trauma must be sought, even old. PMID:27447879

  19. Load Sharing Among Collateral Ligaments, Articular Surfaces, and the Tibial Post in Constrained Condylar Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaonan; Malik, Aamer; Bartel, Donald L; Wright, Timothy M; Padgett, Douglas E

    2016-08-01

    The normal knee joint maintains stable motion during activities of daily living. After total knee arthroplasty (TKA), stability is achieved by the conformity of the bearing surfaces of the implant components, ligaments, and constraint structures incorporated in the implant design. The large, rectangular tibial post in constrained condylar knee (CCK) arthroplasty, often used in revision surgery, provides added stability, but increases susceptibility to polyethylene wear as it contacts the intercondylar box on the femoral component. We examined coronal plane stability to understand the relative contributions of the mechanisms that act to stabilize the CCK knee under varus-valgus loading, namely, load distribution between the medial and lateral condyles, contact of the tibial post with the femoral intercondylar box, and elongation of the collateral ligaments. A robot testing system was used to determine the joint stability in human cadaveric knees as described by the moment versus angular rotation behavior under varus-valgus moments at 0 deg, 30 deg, and 90 deg of flexion. The angular rotation of the CCK knee in response to the physiological moments was limited to ≤1.5 deg. The primary stabilizing mechanism was the redistribution of the contact force on the bearing surfaces. Contact between the tibial post and the femoral box provided a secondary stabilizing mechanism after lift-off of a condyle had occurred. Collateral ligaments provide limited stability because little ligament elongation occurred under such small angular rotations. Compressive loads applied across the knee joint, such as would occur with the application of muscle forces, enhanced the ability of the bearing surfaces to provide resisting internal varus-valgus moment and, thus, reduced the exposure of the tibial post to the external varus-valgus loads. Our results suggest that the CCK stability can be refined by considering both the geometry of the bearing surfaces and the contacting geometry

  20. The in vivo assessment of tibial motion in the transverse plane in anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knees.

    PubMed

    Nordt, W E; Lotfi, P; Plotkin, E; Williamson, B

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-one knees with acutely injured anterior cruciate ligaments were reconstructed with patellar tendon autografts. Eight of the knees had concomitant medial ligament injuries that were not addressed surgically. Follow-up evaluation (average, 25 months) included computed tomography measurements to analyze transverse-plane laxity in both translation and rotation. These measurements were performed with the patient's leg in a load cell device that stabilizes the distal femur and applies known anterior translational force to the proximal tibia at approximately 20 degrees of flexion. A torque apparatus was used to apply internal and external rotational torque to the leg. Images of the tibial plateau in neutral, internal, and external rotation were performed, with and without an anterior translational force. Both knees of each patient were tested and categorized as group I (anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed) or group II (uninjured). Translation as measured by computed tomography averaged 1 mm side-to-side difference. Internal rotation averaged 8.7 degrees in group I knees and 10.8 degrees in group II knees. External rotation averaged 9.1 degrees in group I knees and 7.4 degrees in group II knees. The eight knees with concomitant medial ligament injuries were analyzed separately; external rotation without anterior load in group I was 9.5 degrees, compared with 5 degrees in group II. This difference was significant (P < 0.01). PMID:10496578

  1. Effects of denervation, immobilization and cachexia on fibre size in the anterior tibial muscle of the rat.

    PubMed

    Lindboe, C F; Presthus, J

    1985-01-01

    The effects of denervation, immobilization and cachexia on the size of the various histochemical fibre types were studied in the anterior tibial muscle of male Wistar rats aged 60-100 days. Denervation was induced by unilateral sectioning of the sciatic nerve, immobilization by a plaster cast on one hindlimb and cachexia by restriction of food intake. In the anterior tibial muscle of the normal rat, three fibre types can be identified by myofibrillar ATPase stain after alkaline preincubation. These fibres were called dark (D-fibres), intermediate (I-fibres) and light fibres (L-fibres), respectively. The I-fibres correspond to the fast-twitch type 2 fibres and the L-fibres to the slow-twitch type 1 fibres. The D-fibres have intermediate characteristics, but they probably belong to the type 2 group. The three fibre types reacted differently to denervation, immobilization and cachexia. Denervation caused progressive atrophy of the D- and I-fibres and almost no change of the L-fibres. Immobilization caused minor reduction in size of the D- and I-fibres during the first days and no change thereafter, whereas the L-fibres showed transitory hypertrophy. Cachexia, on the other hand, resulted in progressive atrophy of all three fibre types but a predominant affection of the D- and I-fibres. The different susceptibilities of the various fibre types suggest different mechanisms for atrophy of muscle in these three conditions. PMID:3158148

  2. Suspensory Anterior Tibial Fixation in the Anatomic Transtibial Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Elazab, Ashraf; Lee, Yong Seuk; Kang, Seo Goo

    2016-01-01

    The transtibial technique is the most relevant among many surgical techniques for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and many types of fixation devices are used for tibial fixation according to the technique and the length of the graft. However, bone density in the fixation areas should be taken into consideration when choosing the fixation device to achieve rigid and stable fixation. However, density is not a substantial issue for anteromedial cortical fixation using a cortical suspension device. We describe tibial fixation with a TightRope RT (Arthrex, Naples, FL), which is a cortical suspension device, in anatomic transtibial posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. PMID:27073781

  3. Effect of physiotherapy on the strength of tibial internal rotator muscles in males after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR)

    PubMed Central

    Czamara, Andrzej; Szuba, Łukasz; Krzemińska, Aleksandra; Tomaszewski, Wiesław; Wilk-Frańczuk, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of physiotherapy on the strength of muscles responsible for tibial internal rotation (IR) in male patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) using autografts of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles (STGR). Material/Methods Fifty-nine males were examined. The first group consisted of 19 patients subjected to 4-stage physiotherapy following ACLR. The second group consisted of 20 males without knee injuries. The third group consisted of 20 males who had not undergone systematic physiotherapy within the last 12 months following lower limb injuries. Moments of maximal strength (MMS), isometric torque (IT), and peak torque (PT) were measured under static and isokinetic conditions using the Humac Norm System. In the first group, IT measurements were performed during the 13th and 21st week of physiotherapy, while PT measurements were performed during the 16th and 21st weeks of physiotherapy following ACLR. In the control groups (II and III) the measurements were performed once. Results In the first group, the IT (13 weeks) and PT (16 weeks) values of internal tibial rotator muscles, obtained from the operated extremities were significantly lower than the values obtained from the uninvolved knees and the control group results. During the 21st week of physiotherapy, the results obtained for IT and PT in patients after ACLR were similar to the values obtained from the uninvolved knees and the results of the second group subjects. Conclusions The 21-week physiotherapy in ACLR patients favorably affected the PT values of tibial rotator muscles of the operated knees. In the third group, the IT values did not indicate a complete improvement after 12 months without systematic physiotherapy. PMID:21873950

  4. An Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Technique With 4-Strand Semitendinosus Grafts, Using Outside-In Tibial Tunnel Drilling and Suspensory Fixation Devices.

    PubMed

    Colombet, Philippe; Graveleau, Nicolas

    2015-10-01

    We describe an anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a 4-strand semitendinosus graft fixed with 2 Pullup adjustable suspensory fixation systems (SBM, Lourdes, France). Outside-in full tibial tunnel drilling represents a secure option for length management of the graft. The preferred graft choice is a 4-strand semitendinosus autologous graft. A special technique is used to stitch the graft with a figure-of-8 stitch to load the 4 strands. The Pullup adjustable loop is equipped with 2 buttons of different sizes: a small button for the standard Pullup system on the femoral side and a large button for the Pullup XL system on the tibial side. With this method, graft tension is equally distributed among the 4 strands and the graft cannot bottom out in the tibial tunnel in case of inadequate graft length. PMID:26697313

  5. An Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Technique With 4-Strand Semitendinosus Grafts, Using Outside-In Tibial Tunnel Drilling and Suspensory Fixation Devices

    PubMed Central

    Colombet, Philippe; Graveleau, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We describe an anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a 4-strand semitendinosus graft fixed with 2 Pullup adjustable suspensory fixation systems (SBM, Lourdes, France). Outside-in full tibial tunnel drilling represents a secure option for length management of the graft. The preferred graft choice is a 4-strand semitendinosus autologous graft. A special technique is used to stitch the graft with a figure-of-8 stitch to load the 4 strands. The Pullup adjustable loop is equipped with 2 buttons of different sizes: a small button for the standard Pullup system on the femoral side and a large button for the Pullup XL system on the tibial side. With this method, graft tension is equally distributed among the 4 strands and the graft cannot bottom out in the tibial tunnel in case of inadequate graft length. PMID:26697313

  6. A security evaluation of the Rigid-fix crosses pin system used for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in tibial fixation site

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Huaqiang; Wang, Jian; Fu, Yangpan; Dong, Huixiang; Wang, Jianxiong; Tang, Cong; Huang, Changming; Shi, Zhanjun

    2014-01-01

    Our study aims to evaluate the safeness and feasibility that Rigid-fix cross pin system was used for hamstring graft anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the tibial fixation site. In this study, eleven adult conservative cadaver knees were performed using the Rigid-fix Cross Pin device in the tibial fixation site for modeling the ACL reconstruction. The guide rod top was put through the tibial tunnel at the three horizontal positions: equal pace to articular facet (group A), the plane 5 mm below articular facet (group B), and the plane 10 mm below articular facet (group C). We gave four rotation positions to the cross-pin guide: 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° slope, referring to the parallel line of the posterior border of tibial plateau. We recorded the iatrogenic damages incidence, in the four different slope angle in the three groups, and then compare the incidence using Chi-Square test. Our results suggested that the incidence of chondral injury of tibial plateau in group B and group C was significantly lower compared to group A (χ 2 A-B = 27.077, χ 2 A-C 45.517, P = 0.000); However, there was no significant difference for the incidence penetrating the medial condyle of tibial plateau among the three groups (χ 2 = 5.733, P = 0.057); The highest incidence of injuring ligamentum transversum is in group A with 72.7%, especially at the 60° slope angle. In summary, our study suggested that in order to achieve the satisfactory clinical effect for the Rigid-fix system used in the tibia end fixation of ACL reconstruction surgery, the guide rod top should be put at the 5 mm below articular facet with a slope that parallel to the tibial medial plane at 30°-60° slope angle. PMID:25550991

  7. Prevalence and influence of tibial tunnel widening after isolated anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using patella-bone-tendon-bone-graft: long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Struewer, Johannes; Efe, Turgay; Frangen, Thomas Manfred; Schwarting, Tim; Buecking, Benjamin; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Schüttler, Karl Friedrich; Ziring, Ewgeni

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate incidence, degree and impact of tibial tunnel widening (TW) on patient-reported long-term clinical outcome, knee joint stability and prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) after isolated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. On average, 13.5 years after ACL reconstruction via patella-bone-tendon-bone autograft, 73 patients have been re-evaluated. Inclusion criteria consisted of an isolated anterior cruciate ligament rupture and reconstruction, a minimum of 10-year follow-up and no previous anterior cruciate ligament repair or associated intra-articular lesions. Clinical evaluation was performed via the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score and the Tegner and Lysholm scores. Instrumental anterior laxity testing was carried out with the KT-1000™ arthrometer. The degree of degenerative changes and the prevalence of osteoarthritis were assessed with the Kellgren-Lawrence score. Tibial tunnel enlargement was radiographically evaluated on both antero-posterior and lateral views under establishment of 4 degrees of tibial tunnel widening by measuring the actual tunnel diameters in mm on the sclerotic margins of the inserted tunnels on 3 different points (T1-T3). Afterwards, a conversion of the absolute values in mm into a 4 staged ratio, based on the comparison to the results of the initial drill-width, should provide a better quantification and statistical analysis. Evaluation was performed postoperatively as well as on 2 year follow-up and 13 years after ACL reconstruction. Minimum follow-up was 10 years. 75% of patients were graded A or B according to IKDC score. The mean Lysholm score was 90.2±4.8 (25-100). Radiological assessment on long-term follow-up showed in 45% a grade I, in 24% a grade II, in 17% a grade III and in additional 12% a grade IV enlargement of the tibial tunnel. No evident progression of TW was found in comparison to the 2 year results. Radiological evaluation revealed

  8. Effect of Fatigue on Hamstring Reflex Responses and Posterior-Anterior Tibial Translation in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Wassermann, Franziska; Bruhn, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture ranks among the most common injuries in sports. The incidence of ACL injuries is considerably higher in females than in males and the underlying mechanisms are still under debate. Furthermore, it has been suggested that muscle fatigue can be a risk factor for ACL injuries. We investigated gender differences in hamstring reflex responses and posterior-anterior tibial translation (TT) before and after fatiguing exercise. We assessed the isolated movement of the tibia relative to the femur in the sagittal plane as a consequence of mechanically induced TT in standing subjects. The muscle activity of the hamstrings was evaluated. Furthermore, isometric maximum voluntary torque (iMVT) and rate of torque development (RTD) of the hamstrings (H) and quadriceps (Q) were measured and the MVT H/Q as well as the RTD H/Q ratios were calculated. After fatigue, reflex onset latencies were enhanced in women. A reduction of reflex responses associated with an increased TT was observed in females. Men showed no differences in these parameters. Correlation analysis revealed no significant associations between parameters for TT and MVT H/Q as well as RTD H/Q. The results of the present study revealed that the fatigue protocol used in this study altered the latency and magnitude of reflex responses of the hamstrings as well as TT in women. These changes were not found in men. Based on our results, it is conceivable that the fatigue-induced decrease in neuromuscular function with a corresponding increase in TT probably contributes to the higher incidence of ACL injuries in women. PMID:23573178

  9. Relationship between Mucoid Degeneration of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Posterior Tibial Slope in Patients with Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Hye-Yong; Jung, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to analyze the relationship between posterior tibial slope (PTS) and mucoid degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in patients with total knee arthroplasty. Materials and Methods Four hundred and twenty-four patients (24 males and 400 females; 636 knees) who received total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis were included. Their mean age was 68.9 years (range, 48 to 88 years). The patients were classified into three groups according to the status of ACL; normal ACL group (group I), mucoid degeneration of ACL group (group II) and ruptured or absent ACL group (group III). Plain lateral radiographs were used to measure the PTS and the values were compared among groups. Results There were no significant differences with regard to gender, age and left-to-right side ratio among groups (p>0.05). The mean PTS was 9.9° (range, 0.6° to 20.1°) in group I (161 knees), 10.8° (range, 0.2° to 21.8°) in group II (342 knees) and 12.3° (range, 2° to 22.2°) in group III (133 knees), which showed significant differences (p<0.001). Conclusions The patients with mucoid degeneration of the ACL and those with ruptured or absent ACL had greater PTS than those with normal ACL. These findings suggest that an increased PTS may be one of the causative factors for mucoid degeneration of the ACL. PMID:26955611

  10. Total Knee Arthroplasty for Post-Traumatic Proximal Tibial Bone Defect: Three Cases Report

    PubMed Central

    Tigani, D; Dallari, D; Coppola, C; Ben Ayad, R; Sabbioni, G; Fosco, M

    2011-01-01

    Bone stock deficiency in primary as well as in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) represents a difficult problem to surgeon with regard to maintaining proper alignment of the implant components and in establishing a stable bone-implant interface. Different surgical procedures are available in these situations, for instances the use of bone cement, prosthetic augments, custom implant, and wire mesh with morsellized bone grafting and structural bone allograft. Structural allograft offers a numerous advantages as easy remodeling and felling cavitary or segmental defects, excellent biocompatibility, bone stock restoration and potential for ligamentous reattachment. In this article we report a short term result of three cases affected by severe segmental medial post/traumatic tibial plateau defect in arthritic knee, for which massive structural allograft reconstruction and primary total knee replacement were carried. The heights of the bone defect were between 27-33 mm and with moderate medio-lateral knee instability. Pre-operative AKS score in three cases was 30, 34 and 51 points consecutively and improved at the last follow-up to 83, 78 and 85 consecutively. No acute or chronic complication was observed. Last radiological exam referred no signs of prosthetic loosening, no secondary resorption of bone graft and well integrated graft to host bone. These results achieved in our similar three cases have confirmed that the structural bone allograft is a successful biological material to restore hemi-condylar segmental tibial bone defect when total knee replacement is indicated. PMID:21584202

  11. Group-level variations in motor representation areas of thenar and anterior tibial muscles: Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Eini; Julkunen, Petro; Säisänen, Laura; Vanninen, Ritva; Karjalainen, Pasi; Könönen, Mervi

    2010-08-01

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to stimulate functional cortical areas at precise anatomical location to induce measurable responses. The stimulation has commonly been focused on anatomically predefined motor areas: TMS of that area elicits a measurable muscle response, the motor evoked potential. In clinical pathologies, however, the well-known homunculus somatotopy theory may not be straightforward, and the representation area of the muscle is not fixed. Traditionally, the anatomical locations of TMS stimulations have not been reported at the group level in standard space. This study describes a methodology for group-level analysis by investigating the normal representation areas of thenar and anterior tibial muscle in the primary motor cortex. The optimal representation area for these muscles was mapped in 59 healthy right-handed subjects using navigated TMS. The coordinates of the optimal stimulation sites were then normalized into standard space to determine the representation areas of these muscles at the group-level in healthy subjects. Furthermore, 95% confidence interval ellipsoids were fitted into the optimal stimulation site clusters to define the variation between subjects in optimal stimulation sites. The variation was found to be highest in the anteroposterior direction along the superior margin of the precentral gyrus. These results provide important normative information for clinical studies assessing changes in the functional cortical areas because of plasticity of the brain. Furthermore, it is proposed that the presented methodology to study TMS locations at the group level on standard space will be a suitable tool for research purposes in population studies. PMID:20082330

  12. A multi-scale structural study of the porcine anterior cruciate ligament tibial enthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Thambyah, Ashvin; Broom, Neil D

    2014-01-01

    Like the human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), the porcine ACL also has a double bundle structure and several biomechanical studies using this model have been carried out to show the differential effect of these two bundles on macro-level knee joint function. It is hypothesised that if the different bundles of the porcine ACL are mechanically distinct in function, then a multi-scale anatomical characterisation of their individual enthesis will also reveal significant differences in structure between the bundles. Twenty-two porcine knee joints were cleared of their musculature to expose the intact ACL following which ligament–bone samples were obtained. The samples were fixed in formalin followed by decalcification with formic acid. Thin sections containing the ligament insertion into the tibia were then obtained by cryosectioning and analysed using differential interference contrast (DIC) optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At the micro-level, the anteromedial (AM) bundle insertion at the tibia displayed a significant deep-rooted interdigitation into bone, while for the posterolateral (PL) bundle the fibre insertions were less distributed and more focal. Three sub-types of enthesis were identified in the ACL and related to (i) bundle type, (ii) positional aspect within the insertion, and (iii) specific bundle function. At the nano-level the fibrils of the AM bundle were significantly larger than those in the PL bundle. The modes by which the AM and PL fibrils merged with the bone matrix fibrils were significantly different. A biomechanical interpretation of the data suggests that the porcine ACL enthesis is a specialized, functionally graded structural continuum, adapted at the micro-to-nano scales to serve joint function at the macro level. PMID:24697495

  13. Effect of Posterior Tibial Slope on Flexion and Anterior-Posterior Tibial Translation in Posterior Cruciate-Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Andrew W; Wood, Addison R; Kosmopoulos, Victor; Sanchez, Hugo B; Wagner, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    Reduced posterior tibial slope (PTS) and posterior tibiofemoral translation (PTFT) in posterior cruciate-retaining (PCR) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may result in suboptimal flexion. We evaluated the relationship between PTS, PTFT, and total knee flexion after PCR TKA in a cadaveric model. We performed a balanced PCR TKA using 9 transfemoral cadaver specimens and changed postoperative PTS in 1° increments. We measured maximal flexion and relative PTFT at maximal flexion. We determined significant changes in flexion and PTFT as a function of PTS. Findings showed an average increase in flexion of 2.3° and average PTFT increase of 1mm per degree of PTS increase when increasing PTS from 1° to 4° (P<.05). Small initial increases in PTS appear to significantly increase knee flexion and PTFT. PMID:26476469

  14. Post-doffing residual limb fluid volume change in people with trans-tibial amputation

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Joan E; Harrison, Daniel S; Cagle, John C; Myers, Timothy R; Ciol, Marcia A; Allyn, Katheryn J

    2014-01-01

    Background Residual limb volume may change after doffing, affecting the limb shape measured and used as a starting point for socket design. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare residual limb fluid volume changes after doffing for different test configurations. Study Design The study was a repeated measures experimental design with three conditions (Sit, Liner, and Walk). Methods Residual limb fluid volume on 30 people with trans-tibial amputation was measured using bioimpedance analysis. Three tests were conducted – Sit: sit for 10 minutes, remove the prosthesis, socks and liner, sit for 10 minutes; Liner: sit for 10 minutes, remove the prosthesis and socks but not the liner, sit for 10 minutes; Walk: conduct sit, stand and walk activities for 30 minutes, remove the prosthesis, socks and liner, sit for 10 minutes. Results The percentage fluid volume increase after doffing was significantly higher for Walk (2.8%) than for Sit (1.8%) (p = 0.03). The time to achieve a maximum or stable fluid volume was shorter for Liner (4.3 min) than for Sit (6.6 min) (p = 0.03). Conclusions Activity before doffing intensified the post-doffing limb fluid volume increase. Maintaining a liner after doffing caused limb fluid volume to stabilize faster than removing the liner. PMID:22588848

  15. Effects of Anterior-Posterior Constraint on Injury Patterns in the Human Knee During Tibial-Femoral Joint Loading from Axial Forces through the Tibia.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, V M; Sevensma, E T; Kitagawa, M; Haut, R C

    2001-11-01

    According to the National Accident Sampling System (NASS), 10% of all automobile accident injuries involve the knee. These injuries involve bone fracture and/or "soft tissue" injury. Previous investigators have determined the tibial-femoral (TF) joint failure load for an experimentally constrained human knee at 90 degrees flexion. In these experiments bone fractures have been documented. During TF joint compression, however, anterior motion of the tibia has been noted by others. It was therefore the objectives of this study to document effects of flexion angle and anterior-posterior joint constraint on the nature and severity of knee injury during TF compression loading via axial loads in the tibia. The effect of flexion angle was examined using 10 unconstrained human knees from 5 cadavers aged 73.2+/-9.4 years. The tibial-femoral joint was loaded in compression as a result of axial loading along the tibia using a servo-hydraulic testing machine until gross failure with the knee flexed 60 degrees or 120 degrees . Pressure sensitive film measured the distribution of internal TF joint loads. Both 60 degrees and 120 degrees flexed preparations failed by rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) at 4.6+/-1.2 kN, and the internal joint loads were significantly higher (2.6+/-1.5 kN) on the medial versus the lateral (0.4+/-0.5 kN) aspect of the tibial plateau. The effect of anterior-posterior (AP) constraint of the femur along the longitudinal axis of the femur was investigated in a second series of tests using the same TF joint loading protocol on 6 pairs of human joints (74.3+/-10.5 years) flexed at 90 degrees . The primary mode of failure for the AP constrained joints was fracture of bone via the femoral condyle at a maximum load of 9.2+/-2.6 kN. The mode of failure for unconstrained joints was primarily due to rupture of the ACL at a maximum load of 5.8+/-2.9 kN. Again, the pressure film indicated an unequal internal TF load distribution for the unconstrained

  16. Influence of screw length and diameter on tibial strain energy density distribution after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jie; Kuang, Guan-Ming; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Niu, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2014-04-01

    Postoperative tunnel enlargement has been frequently reported after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Interference screw, as a surgical implant in ACL reconstruction, may influence natural loading transmission and contribute to tunnel enlargement. The aims of this study are (1) to quantify the alteration of strain energy den sity (SED) distribution after the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction; and (2) to characterize the influence of screw length and diameter on the degree of the SED alteration. A validated finite element model of human knee joint was used. The screw length ranging from 20 to 30mm with screw diameter ranging from 7 to 9 mm were investigated. In the post-operative knee, the SED increased steeply at the extra-articular tunnel aperture under compressive and complex loadings, whereas the SED decreased beneath the screw shaft and nearby the intra-articular tunnel aperture. Increasing the screw length could lower the SED deprivation in the proximal part of the bone tunnel; whereas increasing either screw length or diameter could aggravate the SED deprivation in the distal part of the bone tunnel. Decreasing the elastic modulus of the screw could lower the bone SED deprivation around the screw. In consideration of both graft stability and SED alteration, a biodegradable interference screw with a long length is recommended, which could provide a beneficial mechanical environment at the distal part of the tunnel, and meanwhile decrease the bone-graft motion and synovial fluid propagation at the proximal part of the tunnel. These findings together with the clinical and histological factors could help to improve surgical outcome, and serve as a preliminary knowledge for the following study of biodegradable interference screw. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Extracellular matrix-blood composite injection reduces post-traumatic osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Proffen, Benedikt L; Sieker, Jakob T; Murray, Martha M; Akelman, Matthew R; Chin, Kaitlyn E; Perrone, Gabriel S; Patel, Tarpit K; Fleming, Braden C

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if an injection of a novel extracellular matrix scaffold and blood composite (EMBC) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury would have a mitigating effect on post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) development in rat knees. Lewis rats underwent unilateral ACL transection and were divided into three groups as follows: (1) no further treatment (ACLT; n = 10); (2) an intra-articular injection of EMBC on day 0 (INJ0; n = 11); and (3) an intra-articular injection of EMBC on day 14 (INJ14; n = 11). Ten additional animals received capsulotomy only (n = 10, SHAM group). The OARSI histology scoring of the tibial cartilage and micro-CT of the tibial epiphysis were performed after 35 days. The ratio of intact/treated hind limb forces during gait was determined using a variable resistor walkway. The OARSI cartilage degradation sum score and total degeneration width were significantly greater in the ACLT group when compared to the INJ0 (p = 0.031, and p = 0.005) and INJ14 (p = 0.022 and p = 0.04) group. Weight bearing on the operated limb only decreased significantly in the ACLT group (p = 0.048). In the rat ACL transection model, early or delayed injection of EMBC ameliorated the significant decrease in weight bearing and cartilage degradation seen in knees subjected to ACL transection without injection. The results indicate that the injection of EMBC may slow the process of PTOA following ACL injury and may provide a promising treatment for PTOA. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:995-1003, 2016. PMID:26629963

  18. Modified intracanal post for severely mutilated primary anterior teeth

    PubMed Central

    Rallan, Mandeep; Rallan, Neelakshi Singh; Navit, Pragati; Malhotra, Garima

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood caries leads to early damage, discolouration and gross destruction of the maxillary anterior teeth. This leads to difficulty in speech, decreased masticatory efficiency, development of abnormal tongue thrust and subsequent malocclusion, psychological problems and problem with self-esteem, if aesthetics are compromised. Thus, restoration of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth is often considered as a special challenge, especially in an emotionally immature child. This case documents the restoration of severely mutilated incisors in a patient with early childhood caries. PMID:23605834

  19. Dynamic simulation of tibial tuberosity realignment: model evaluation.

    PubMed

    Purevsuren, Tserenchimed; Elias, John J; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate a dynamic multibody model developed to characterize the influence of tibial tuberosity realignment procedures on patellofemoral motion and loading. Computational models were created to represent four knees previously tested at 40°, 60°, and 80° of flexion with the tibial tuberosity in a lateral, medial and anteromedial positions. The experimentally loaded muscles, major ligaments of the knee, and patellar tendon were represented. A repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc testing was performed at each flexion angle to compare data between the three positions of the tibial tuberosity. Significant experimental trends for decreased patella flexion due to tuberosity anteriorization and a decrease in the lateral contact force due to tuberosity medialization were reproduced computationally. The dynamic multibody modeling technique will allow simulation of function for symptomatic knees to identify optimal surgical treatment methods based on parameters related to knee pathology and pre-operative kinematics. PMID:25025488

  20. Short-term effects of thermotherapy for spasticity on tibial nerve F-waves in post-stroke patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Shuji; Kawahira, Kazumi; Etoh, Seiji; Ikeda, Satoshi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2006-03-01

    Thermotherapy is generally considered appropriate for post-stroke patients with spasticity, yet its acute antispastic effects have not been comprehensively investigated. F-wave parameters have been used to demonstrate changes in motor neuron excitability in spasticity and pharmacological antispastic therapy. The present study aimed to confirm the efficacy of thermotherapy for spasticity by evaluating alterations in F-wave parameters in ten male post-stroke patients with spastic hemiparesis (mean age: 49.0±15.0 years) and ten healthy male controls (mean age: 48.7±4.4 years). The subjects were immersed in water at 41°C for 10 min. Recordings were made over the abductor hallucis muscle, and antidromic stimulation was performed on the tibial nerve at the ankle. Twenty F-waves were recorded before, immediately after, and 30 min following thermotherapy for each subject. F-wave amplitude and F-wave/M-response ratio were determined. Changes in body temperature and surface-skin temperature were monitored simultaneously. The mean and maximum values of both F-wave parameters were higher on the affected side before thermotherapy. In the post-stroke patients, the mean and maximum values of both parameters were significantly reduced after thermotherapy ( P<0.01). Hence, the antispastic effects of thermotherapy were indicated by decreased F-wave parameters. Body temperature was significantly increased both immediately after and 30 min after thermotherapy in all subjects. This appeared to play an important role in decreased spasticity. Surface-skin temperature increased immediately after thermotherapy in both groups and returned to baseline 30 min later. These findings demonstrate that thermotherapy is an effective nonpharmacological antispastic treatment that might facilitate stroke rehabilitation.

  1. Correction of post-traumatic anterior open bite by injection of botulinum toxin type A into the anterior belly of the digastric muscle: case report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Tae; Kim, Seong-Gon; Park, Young-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Post-traumatic anterior open bite can occur as a result of broken balance among the masticatory muscles. The superior hyoid muscle group retracts the mandible downward and contributes to the anterior open bite. Denervation of the digastric muscle by injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) can reduce the power of the digastric muscle and help to resolve the post-traumatic anterior open bite. A patient with a bilateral angle fracture had an anterior open bite even after undergoing three operations under general anesthesia and rubber traction. Although the open bite showed some improvement by the repeated operation, the occlusion was still unstable six weeks after the initial treatment. To eliminate the residual anterior open bite, BTX-A was injected into the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. Following injection of BTX-A, the anterior open bite showed immediate improvement. Complication and relapse were not observed during follow-up. Long-standing post-traumatic open bite could be successfully corrected by injection of BTX-A into the anterior belly of the digastric muscle without complication. PMID:24471041

  2. Comparison of femoral and tibial pullout forces in bone-patellar tendon-bone anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions with a new interference fixation device.

    PubMed

    Seitz, H; Vécsei, V; Menth-Chiari, W A; Pichl, W; Wielke, B; Marlovits, S

    1999-03-01

    Interference screws have become the standard method for fixing bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) grafts. To avoid the inherent pitfalls and complications of interference screws, a 28-mm long and from 5 to 7 mm spreadable metal bolt with nontapping threads was developed for this study. The technical applicability and biomechanical characteristics of this new BPTB interference fixation device were investigated by dissection or tensile testing of 48 cadaveric knee specimens from young donors. No problems occurred with respect to bone plug anchoring during insertion of the spreading bolts. The clinically important linear load was 920+/-283 N for the femoral and 635+/-247 N for the tibial fixation site. Bone plug pullout was the mode of failure in all specimens. The results of this study indicate that the spreading bolt is a reasonable alternative to interference screws. PMID:10210075

  3. Polyethylene fiber-reinforced composite resin used as a short post in severely decayed primary anterior teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, Sule; Tunc, Emine Sen; Tuloglu, Nuray

    2009-05-01

    The case report presented here is of a 4-year-old girl with severely decayed maxillary anterior teeth. After root canal treatment, the primary maxillary central and lateral incisors were reinforced using polyethylene fiber-reinforced composite resin short posts and restored using celluloid strip crowns. The technique described here offers a simple and effective method for restoring severely decayed primary anterior teeth that reestablishes function, shape, and esthetics. PMID:19272811

  4. Chronic Bilateral Tibial Stress Fractures with Valgus Treated with Bilateral Intramedullary Nailing: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Steven K; Archdeacon, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stress fractures are overuse injuries most commonly seen in athletes, military recruits, and individuals with endocrine abnormalities. It has been demonstrated that chronic cases of anterior tibial stress fractures refractory to conservative management respond well to intramedullary nailing. To our knowledge, only one report has been published concerning patients with bilateral tibial stress fractures treated with bilateral intramedullary nailing. All patients in the series were high-level athletes. We present the case of a non-athletic patient with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures and associated deformity successfully treated with bilateral intramedullary nails. Case Report: A 23-year-old Caucasian female full-time student presented with chronic bilateral shin pain for approximately five years. She had failed an extensive regimen of conservative management. She was diagnosed with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures based on history, physical examination, and radiologic findings. She subsequently underwent sequential intramedullary nailing of her tibiae. Both tibiae were in valgus alignment; however, this did not preclude nail placement. The nails deformed upon insertion into the sclerotic canals to conform to the deformation. Post operatively the tibiae united and patient was relieved of her symptoms. Conclusion: Bilateral intramedullary nailing of chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures should be considered as a treatment option for all patients, not just high-level athletes, who fail a trial of conservative management. Additionally, mild to moderate tibial malalignment does not necessarily preclude tibial nailing as the smaller nails placed in sclerotic canals will likely deform on insertion and conform to the canal. PMID:27298944

  5. Superficial Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty (SALK) for Trauma-induced Post Refractive Surgery Corneal Opacity

    PubMed Central

    Ganger, Anita; Tandon, Radhika; Vanathi, M.; Sagar, Pardeep

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of post laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), nebulomacular corneal opacity following a trauma induced flap dehiscence and was managed with superficial anterior lamellar keratoplasty (SALK). Case Report: A 32-year-old female underwent LASIK 2.5 years back, with a postoperative unaided visual acuity (VA) of 6/6 in both eyes. She was involved in a road traffic accident and sustained blunt trauma to the right eye 5 months before. At the time of presentation, the VA was 1/60 in the right eye. Slit lamp examination revealed flap dehiscence, stromal scar and descemet folds in that eye. There was a small macular scar in the parafoveal area due to a resolved Berlin's edema. SALK was performed in the affected eye. Unaided VA of 6/36 was noted on post- operative day 1. After 4 weeks of SALK surgery, best corrected VA was 6/24. Conclusion: This case highlights that flap adhesions are not very strong even years after LASIK and SALK may be an effective treatment option for post refractive surgery corneal opacities. PMID:27621794

  6. A post-discharge functional outcome measure for lower limb amputees: test-retest reliability with trans-tibial amputees.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, B G; Sockalingam, S; Treweek, S P; Condie, M E

    2002-08-01

    There are approximately 700 lower limb amputations performed throughout Scotland each year. A national system of survey and analysis conducted by the Scottish Physiotherapy Amputee Research Group (SPARG) provides information on these patients up until discharge from hospital. However, there has been no method of collecting long-term functional and prosthetic use information following discharge. The Functional Measure for Amputees (FMA) has, therefore, been developed from the Prosthetic Profile of the Amputee (PPA) questionnaire, designed by Gauthier-Gagnon and colleagues in Canada (Grisé et al, 1993). Modifications to the PPA were carried out to make it more appropriate for the Scottish amputee population; these changes were approved by the original authors. The test-retest reliability of the 14-question FMA was assessed using a repeat postal questionnaire study. One hundred and thirty-three (133) from a possible 390 trans-tibial amputees were returned. Comparing sociodemographic and clinical variables between consenters and non-consenters showed no evidence to support sample bias. Continuous data items on the FMA analysed using an intraclass correlation coefficient showed ICC values of 0.74, 0.85, 0.96 and 0.64. Categorical data items analysed using percentage agreements showed reliability of over 70% for seven items, between 40% and 70% for three items and between 20% and 40% for the remaining three items. The FMA questionnaire was found to be reliable on the majority of its questions and moderately reliable on the remaining questions during successive follow-up postal administrations. PMID:12227445

  7. Survival of Composite Resin Restorations of severely Decayed Primary Anterior Teeth retained by Glass Fiber Posts or Reversed-orientated Metal Posts

    PubMed Central

    Ranjkesh, Bahram; Lovschall, Henrik; Erfanparast, Leila; Jafarabadi, Mohammad A; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi; Isidor, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the survival of composite resin restorations retained by glass fiber posts or reversed-orientated (upside-down) metal posts in severely decayed primary anterior teeth after 6, 12, and 18 months. Materials and methods: A total of forty-four 3- to 5-year-old children with bilateral severely decayed primary maxillary canines were included. Patients were treated under general anesthesia. After pulpectomy, an intracanal post was seated in the primary maxillary canine on each side: either a glass fiber post or a metallic post in reversed orientation and teeth restored with light-cured composite. Survival rate of each technique was evaluated at predetermined follow-ups and data were analyzed with McNemar’s test (α = 0.05). Results: The difference in survival of restorations retained by two types of posts was not statistically significant in clinical and radiographical evaluations after 6, 12, and 18 months. The survival rate of reversed-orientated metal and glass fiber posts after 18 months was 81.1 and 67.6% respectively (p = 0.14). Conclusion: Reversed-orientated metal post did not show lower clinical survival compared with glass fiber posts in 18-month follow-up. Hence, reversed-orientated metal post can be considered as a potential method to obtain retention for composite restorations in severely decayed primary anterior teeth. How to cite this article: Vafaei A, Ranjkesh B, L0vschall H, Erfanparast L, Jafarabadi MA, Oskouei SG, Isidor F. Survival of Composite Resin Restorations of severely Decayed Primary Anterior Teeth retained by Glass Fiber Posts or Reversed-orientated Metal Posts. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):109-113. PMID:27365929

  8. Treatment of post-traumatic myositis ossificans of the anterior thigh with extracorporeal shock wave therapy

    PubMed Central

    Torrance, David Allen; deGraauw, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Objective This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of a novel approach to the treatment of post-traumatic myositis ossificans with extracorporeal shockwave therapy in an elite athlete. Clinical Features A 20 year-old male semi-professional rugby player presented with progressive pain and loss of range of motion after sustaining a severe, right quadriceps contusion nine weeks earlier. The differential diagnosis of myositis ossificans was suspected and confirmed on radiographic examination. Intervention and Outcome A two week treatment protocol was undertaken consisting of three sessions of extracorporeal shockwave therapy and an unsupervised exercise program consisting of active and passive range of motion, gradual strengthening and balance exercises. The patient experienced appreciable improvements in pain and range of motion in two weeks and was able to participate in sport specific activity four weeks after presentation. Summary This case illustrates the successful conservative management of post-traumatic myositis ossificans of the anterior thigh with extracorporeal shockwave therapy and a primarily unsupervised graded exercise program within a condensed treatment time frame of 2 weeks. PMID:22131560

  9. Post-Learning Infusion of Anisomycin into the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Impairs Instrumental Acquisition through an Effect on Reinforcer Valuation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonkman, Sietse; Everitt, Barry J.

    2009-01-01

    The integrity of the rodent anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is essential for various aspects of instrumental behavior, but it is not clear if the ACC is important for the acquisition of a simple instrumental response. Here, it was demonstrated that post-session infusions of anisomycin into the rat ACC completely prevented the acquisition of…

  10. Tibial nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... a loss of movement or sensation in the foot from damage to the tibial nerve. ... Tibial nerve dysfunction is an unusual form of peripheral ... the calf and foot muscles. A problem in function with a single ...

  11. Placement of tibial intraosseous infusion devices.

    PubMed

    Harcke, H Theodore; Crawley, Geoffrey; Mabry, Robert; Mazuchowski, Edward

    2011-07-01

    Post-mortem preautopsy multidetector computed tomography was used to assess the placement of tibial intraosseous infusion needles in 52 cases of battlefield trauma deaths for which medical intervention included the use of the technique. In 58 (95%) of 61 needles, the tip was positioned in medullary bone. All 3 (5%) unsuccessful placements were in the left leg, and the needle was not directed perpendicular to the medial tibial cortex as recommended. Considering the nature of military trauma and the environmental conditions under which care is rendered, military medical personnel appear to be highly successful in the placement of tibial intraosseous infusion needles. PMID:22128726

  12. Assessing post-anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction ambulation using wireless wearable integrated sensors.

    PubMed

    Arosha Senanayake, S M N; Ahmed Malik, Owais; Mohammad Iskandar, Pg; Zaheer, Dansih

    2013-11-01

    Abstract A hardware/software co-design for assessing post-Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction ambulation is presented. The knee kinematics and neuromuscular data during walking (2-6 km h(-1)) have been acquired using wireless wearable motion and electromyography (EMG) sensors, respectively. These signals were integrated by superimposition and mixed signals processing techniques in order to provide visual analyses of bio-signals and identification of the recovery progress of subjects. Monitoring overlapped signals simultaneously helps in detecting variability and correlation of knee joint dynamics and muscles activities for an individual subject as well as for a group. The recovery stages of subjects have been identified based on combined features (knee flexion/extension and EMG signals) using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The proposed system has been validated for 28 test subjects (healthy and ACL-reconstructed). Results of ANFIS showed that the ambulation data can be used to distinguish subjects at different levels of recuperation after ACL reconstruction. PMID:24117351

  13. Glass Fibre-Reinforced Composite Post and Core Used in Decayed Primary Anterior Teeth: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Leena; Passi, Sidhi

    2011-01-01

    Aesthetic requirement of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth in the case of early childhood caries has been a challenge to pediatric dentist. Among restorative treatment options, prefabricated crown and biological and resin composite restoration either by means of direct or indirect technique are mentioned in the literature. This paper presents the clinical sequence of rehabilitation of maxillary anterior primary teeth. Endodontic treatment was followed by the placement of a glass fibre-reinforced composite resin post. The crown reconstruction was done with composite restoration. Resin glass fibre post has best properties in elasticity, translucency, adaptability, tenaciousness, and resistance to traction and to impact. Along with ease of application, fiber can be used as an alternative to traditionally used materials in the management of early childhood caries. PMID:22567447

  14. Fracture resistance of three different posts in restoration of severely damaged primary anterior teeth: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Seraj, Bahman; Ghadimi, Sara; Estaki, Zohreh; Fatemi, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Restoration of anterior primary teeth with severe caries lesion is a big challenge. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of three types of post, including composite resin, customized quartz fiber and prefabricated glass fiber in restoration of severely damaged primary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human primary maxillary incisors were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1: Customized quartz fiber post, Group 2: Composite post and Group 3: Prefabricated glass fiber post. Due to the effect of bonded area on the fracture resistance, the bonded surface of each sample was measured 1 mm above cementoenamel junction. An increasing force was subjected with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min by a universal testing machine until fracture occurred, and the failure mode was assessed afterwards. Data were analyzed using One-way analysis of variance and Kruskal–Wallis tests. The level of significance was considered at P < 0.05. Results: The mean fracture resistance values of three groups were 343.28 N, 278.70 N and 284.76 N, respectively. Although customized quartz fiber post showed the greatest fracture resistance, statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between groups (P = 0.21). The mean fracture strength values of three groups were 12.82 N/mm–2, 11.93 N/mm–2 and 11.31 N/mm–2, respectively; however, the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.72). Favorable failure mode was more frequent in all groups (P = 0.12). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that all three types of studied posts can be successfully used to restore badly destructed primary anterior teeth. PMID:26286271

  15. Air entry into the anterior chamber post intravitreal injection of Eylea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Sing; Sikandar, Munir; Jackson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    An 84-year-old man had air entry into the anterior chamber following intravitreal injection. The air bubble was reabsorbed over time without any complications. No further problems occurred with subsequent intravitreal injections. PMID:27440854

  16. Unclassified tibial hemimelia.

    PubMed

    Senthil, Vishnu; Kottamttavide, Imthias V; Shah, Hitesh

    2016-01-01

    Tibial hemimelia (congenital longitudinal deficiency of the tibia) is rare (1 in 1 000 000). There are several classifications in the literature. We report an unclassified case of tibial hemimelia. A 6-year-old girl presented with shortening of the right lower limb, with a small rudimentary foot (presence of all toes) and hyper lax ankle. Quadriceps function was excellent. Radiograph showed a partial tibia and fibula in synostosis. The Jones and Kalamachi type 2 classifications both mention similar tibial anomalies; however, the fibula is normal in both varieties. The present variety can be considered as a variant of type 2 tibial hemimelia. PMID:27277586

  17. Stress fracture of the mid-tibial shaft.

    PubMed

    Orava, S; Hulkko, A

    1984-02-01

    In a series of 151 tibial stress fractures in athletes and joggers, seven were located at the mid-third of the diaphysis. The diagnosis was made radiographically several months after the onset of symptoms; a transverse fissure line or gap was noted in the middle of the hypertrophied anterior tibial cortex. Histologic examination of a biopsy of the fracture line showed features resembling pseudoarthrosis. All the patients returned to physical activities. PMID:6702426

  18. Bilateral atraumatic tibial tubercle avulsion fractures: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Khoriati, Al-Achraf; Guo, Shigong; Thakrar, Raj; Deol, Rupinderbir S; Shah, Khalil Y

    2015-04-01

    An avulsion fracture of the tibial tubercle is an uncommon injury, comprising less than 1% of all physeal injuries. The occurrence of such injuries bilaterally is even rarer. We report a case of bilateral atraumatic tibial tubercle avulsion fractures and its presentation, mechanism of injury, surgical management, post-operative rehabilitation and implications for clinical practice. A 17-year-old healthy male presented to the emergency department with severe pain on the anterior aspect of both knees and was unable to walk, having been brought in by ambulance after hearing a crack whilst jogging. On examination, there was significant swelling of both knees which were held in extension. On both sides there was a prominent deformity on the region of the tibial tubercle with a palpable gap, although no open skin wound. He was unable to actively move either knee joint. No neurovascular deficit was present. Plain radiographs revealed bilateral tibial tubercle avulsion fractures. Gentle manipulation was performed in the emergency department to the fragments in order to remove the tension from the skin. The fragments were reduced and fixed surgically with 4mm cannulated screws in an anterior to posterior direction. Both limbs were placed in temporary casts in 20 degrees of flexion. Postoperatively, the patient was kept non-weight bearing for four weeks then placed into a range of motion brace and movement commenced. Full weight bearing was permitted at the one month stage and he was advised to avoid any sporting activity until the 8 week stage and contact sports until the 10 week stage. Full movement of both joints was regained and the patient returned to full sporting activity in the absence of symptoms. This case emphasises the need for a high degree of vigilance when faced with such a presentation and a low threshold for further investigation and surgical intervention. PMID:25638599

  19. Retentive strength of different intracanal posts in restorations of anterior primary teeth: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Abbaszadeh, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the retentive strength and failure mode of undercut composite post, glass fiber post and polyethylene fiber post luted with flowable composite resin and resin-cement. Materials and Methods Coronal parts of 120 primary canine teeth were sectioned and specimens were treated endodontically. The teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 20). Prepared root canals received intracanal retainers with a short composite post, undercut composite post, glass fiber post luted with flowable resin or resin-cement, and polyethylene fiber post luted with flowable resin or resin-cement. After crown reconstruction, samples were tested for retentive strength and failure mode. Statistical analysis was done with one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p < 0.05). Results There were statistically significant differences between groups (p = 0.001). Mean bond strength in the undercut group was significantly greater than in the short composite post (p = 0.030), and the glass fiber post (p = 0.001) and the polyethylene fiber post group luted with resin-cement (p = 0.008). However, the differences between the undercut group and the groups with flowable composite as the luting agent were not significant (p = 0.068, p = 0.557). Adhesive failure was more frequent in the fiber post groups. Conclusions Although the composite post with undercutting showed the greatest resistance to dislodgement, fiber posts cemented with flowable composite resin provided acceptable results in terms of retentive strength and fracture mode. PMID:24303356

  20. Single bundle anterior cruciate reconstruction does not restore normal knee kinematics at six months: an upright MRI study.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, J A; Sutherland, A G; Smith, F W

    2011-10-01

    Abnormal knee kinematics following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament may exist despite an apparent resolution of tibial laxity and functional benefit. We performed upright, weight-bearing MR scans of both knees in the sagittal plane at different angles of flexion to determine the kinematics of the knee following unilateral reconstruction (n = 12). The uninjured knee acted as a control. Scans were performed pre-operatively and at three and six months post-operatively. Anteroposterior tibial laxity was determined using an arthrometer and patient function by validated questionnaires before and after reconstruction. In all the knees with deficient anterior cruciate ligaments, the tibial plateau was displaced anteriorly and internally rotated relative to the femur when compared with the control contralateral knee, particularly in extension and early flexion (mean lateral compartment displacement: extension 7.9 mm (sd 4.8), p = 0.002 and 30° flexion 5.1 mm (sd 3.6), p = 0.004). In all ten patients underwent post-operative scans. Reconstruction reduced the subluxation of the lateral tibial plateau at three months, with resolution of anterior displacement in early flexion, but not in extension (p = 0.015). At six months, the reconstructed knee again showed anterior subluxation in both the lateral (mean: extension 4.2 mm (sd 4.2), p = 0.021 and 30° flexion 3.2 mm (sd 3.3), p = 0.024) and medial compartments (extension, p = 0.049). Our results show that despite improvement in laxity and functional benefit, abnormal knee kinematics remain at six months and actually deteriorate from three to six months following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. PMID:21969431

  1. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Purnajyoti; McLean, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome and medial tibial stress syndrome are uncommon conditions that affect long-distance runners or players involved in team sports that require extensive running. We report 2 cases of bilateral chronic exertional compartment syndrome, with medial tibial stress syndrome in identical twins diagnosed with the use of a Kodiag monitor (B. Braun Medical, Sheffield, United Kingdom) fulfilling the modified diagnostic criteria for chronic exertional compartment syndrome as described by Pedowitz et al, which includes: (1) pre-exercise compartment pressure level >15 mm Hg; (2) 1 minute post-exercise pressure >30 mm Hg; and (3) 5 minutes post-exercise pressure >20 mm Hg in the presence of clinical features. Both patients were treated with bilateral anterior fasciotomies through minimal incision and deep posterior fasciotomies with tibial periosteal stripping performed through longer anteromedial incisions under direct vision followed by intensive physiotherapy resulting in complete symptomatic recovery. The etiology of chronic exertional compartment syndrome is not fully understood, but it is postulated abnormal increases in intramuscular pressure during exercise impair local perfusion, causing ischemic muscle pain. No familial predisposition has been reported to date. However, some authors have found that no significant difference exists in the relative perfusion, in patients, diagnosed with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Magnetic resonance images of affected compartments have indicated that the pain is not due to ischemia, but rather from a disproportionate oxygen supply versus demand. We believe this is the first report of chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins, raising the question of whether there is a genetic predisposition to the causation of these conditions. PMID:21667913

  2. Immediate loading of single post-extractive implants in the anterior maxilla: 12-month results from a multicenter clinical study.

    PubMed

    Grandi, Tommaso; Garuti, Giovanna; Samarani, Rawad; Guazzi, Paolo; Forabosco, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate survival and peri-implant bone levels of single, immediately loaded post-extractive implants in the anterior maxilla 12 months after implant placement. Thirty-six consecutive patients from 3 study centers were included in the study. The concerned sites were upper premolars, canines, and incisors. For each patient the following data were recorded: reason for tooth extraction, bone quality, implant size, and final insertion torque. Implants were placed using a flapless technique and immediately loaded with a nonoccluding temporary restoration. Final restorations were provided 4 months later. Peri-implant bone resorption was evaluated radiographically after 6 and 12 months. The average final insertion torque was 70.55 Ncm. One implant inserted in D3 quality bone with a 35-Ncm seating torque was lost. All other implants had a final insertion torque ranging between 50 and 80 Ncm. The average peri-implant bone loss was 0.437 and 0.507 mm at 6 and 12 months, respectively. All the sites maintained excellent papillae and peri-implant soft-tissue conditions. The resulting 1-year success rate was 97.2%. Immediate nonfunctional loading of single post-extractive implants in the anterior maxilla is a predictable treatment. And it seems that achieving high insertion torques by placing self-tapping/self-condensing implants in an underprepared osteotomy is favorable. PMID:21905885

  3. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... when the posterior tibial tendon becomes inflamed or torn. As a result, the tendon may not be ... repetitive use. Once the tendon becomes inflamed or torn, the arch will slowly fall (collapse) over time. ...

  4. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complications Potential problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related to the procedure. Frequently Asked Questions If proximal tibial bone graft is taken from my knee, will this prevent me from being able to ...

  5. A pregnant patient with fetal distress with severe post burn contracture of anterior trunk and perineum: A surgeon's nightmare!

    PubMed Central

    Vathulya, Madhubari; Joshi, Meenakshi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A case report of a pregnant lady in the third trimester, presenting in the emergency with absent fetal movements is being described. A multi-speciality expertise was involved and a full term female baby was delivered. Presentation: The patient presented in a Government hospital, Dehradun, India. At the time of presentation the fetal heart sounds were absent and subsequently the severe post-burn deformity involving the anterior trunk, perineum and thighs were discovered. Management: Immediately a multi-speciality approach involving the plastic, obstetrics and pediatrics field were called for and an emergency caesarean with simultaneous contracture release with split skin grafts were performed after optimizing the patient for surgery. Conclusion: This is one of the first case reports reporting this rare combination of post burn contracture of trunk and perineum with fetal distress requiring emergency caesarean section along with release of abdominal and perineal post-burn contracture. This case interestingly reinforces that in such complicated cases a systematic and a combined multi-speciality approach still holds the key to patient's treatment even in district hospitals. PMID:25593442

  6. High tibial osteotomy in the ACL-deficient knee with medial compartment osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Herman, Benjamin V; Giffin, J Robert

    2016-09-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) has traditionally been used to treat varus gonarthrosis in younger, active patients. Varus malalignment increases the risk of progression of medial compartment osteoarthritis and an HTO can be performed to realign the mechanical axis of the lower limb towards the lateral compartment, thereby decreasing contact pressures in the medial compartment. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency may lead to post-traumatic arthritis due to altered joint loading and associated injuries to the menisci and articular cartilage. Understanding the importance of posterior tibial slope and its role in sagittal knee stability has led to the development of biplane osteotomies designed to flatten the posterior tibial slope in the ACL deficient knee. Altering the alignment in both the sagittal and coronal planes helps improve stability as well as alter the load in the medial compartment. Detailed history, physical exam and radiographic analysis guide treatment decisions in this high demand patient population. Lateral closing wedge (LCW) and medial opening wedge (MOW) HTOs have been performed and their potential advantages and disadvantages have been well described. Given the triangular shape of the proximal tibia, it is imperative that the surgeon pay close attention to the geometry of the osteotomy "gap" when performing MOW HTO to avoid inadvertently increasing the posterior tibial slope. Simultaneous ACL reconstruction may require technique modifications depending on the type of HTO and ACL graft chosen. With appropriate patient selection and good surgical technique, it is reasonable to expect patients to return to activities of daily living and recreational sports without debilitating pain or instability. PMID:27358200

  7. Anterior cruciate ligament- specialized post-operative return-to-sports (ACL-SPORTS) training: a randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is standard practice for athletes that wish to return to high-level activities; however functional outcomes after ACLR are poor. Quadriceps strength weakness, abnormal movement patterns and below normal knee function is reported in the months and years after ACLR. Second ACL injuries are common with even worse outcomes than primary ACLR. Modifiable limb-to-limb asymmetries have been identified in individuals who re-injure after primary ACLR, suggesting a neuromuscular training program is needed to improve post-operative outcomes. Pre-operative perturbation training, a neuromuscular training program, has been successful at improving limb symmetry prior to surgery, though benefits are not lasting after surgery. Implementing perturbation training after surgery may be successful in addressing post-operative deficits that contribute to poor functional outcomes and second ACL injury risk. Methods/Design 80 athletes that have undergone a unilateral ACLR and wish to return to level 1 or 2 activities will be recruited for this study and randomized to one of two treatment groups. A standard care group will receive prevention exercises, quadriceps strengthening and agility exercises, while the perturbation group will receive the same exercise program with the addition of perturbation training. The primary outcomes measures will include gait biomechanics, clinical and functional measures, and knee joint loading. Return to sport rates, return to pre-injury level of activity rates, and second injury rates will be secondary measures. Discussion The results of this ACL-Specialized Post-Operative Return To Sports (ACL-SPORTS) Training program will help clinicians to better determine an effective post-operative treatment program that will improve modifiable impairments that influence outcomes after ACLR. Trial registration Randomized Control Trial NIH 5R01AR048212-07. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01773317 PMID:23522373

  8. The Effect of Malrotation of Tibial Component of Total Knee Arthroplasty on Tibial Insert during High Flexion Using a Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Todo, Mitsugu

    2014-01-01

    One of the most common errors of total knee arthroplasty procedure is a malrotation of tibial component. The stress on tibial insert is closely related to polyethylene failure. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of malrotation of tibial component for the stress on tibial insert during high flexion using a finite element analysis. We used Stryker NRG PS for analysis. Three different initial conditions of tibial component including normal, 15° internal malrotation, and 15° external malrotation were analyzed. The tibial insert made from ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene was assumed to be elastic-plastic while femoral and tibial metal components were assumed to be rigid. Four nonlinear springs attached to tibial component represented soft tissues around the knee. Vertical load was applied to femoral component which rotated from 0° to 135° while horizontal load along the anterior posterior axis was applied to tibial component during flexion. Maximum equivalent stresses on the surface were analyzed. Internal malrotation caused the highest stress which arose up to 160% of normal position. External malrotation also caused higher stress. Implanting prosthesis in correct position is important for reducing the risk of abnormal wear and failure. PMID:24895658

  9. Outcome of modified Bristow-Laterjet procedure in post-traumatic recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation in young population.

    PubMed

    Sakeb, N; Islam, M A; Jannat, S N

    2015-01-01

    Anterior shoulder dislocation (ASD) is a common injury of young population which may progress to recurrent episodes. The treatment is initially conservative but surgery is indicated when it fails. Out of more than 150 techniques, modified Bristow-Latarjet procedure has become most favorable even to arthroscopic techniques. We have intended to retrospectively assess the outcome of it in post-traumatic recurrent ASD of young non-athletes, performed at our different private settings between January 2007 and July 2012; which included 15 male patients of 20-39 years with minimum 2 years follow up. Clinical, functional, radiological and overall outcome status were evaluated. There was significant improvement of shoulder stability (p<0.05, chi-square test) despite significant deterioration (p<0.05, paired t-test) of external rotation (21.67°±00.61° loss). The patient self assessed pain and instability had highly significant (p<0.001, paired t-test) and all components of activities of daily living (except above shoulder weight carrying and overhead throwing) had significant improvement (p<0.05, paired t-test). Despite of intra-operative difficulties, radiological transplant errors (33.33%) and post-operative complications (06.67%), overall satisfactory outcome (86.67%) had been significant (p<0.05, chi-square test). PMID:25725671

  10. Treatment of tibial eminence fractures with arthroscopic suture fixation technique: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yanhao; Huang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Yanjie; Wang, Zhanchao

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The present study aims to investigate the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic suture fixation in treating tibial eminence fracture with a retrospective study design of two years’ follow-up. Methods: A total of 33 patients with imaging evidence of tibial eminence avulsion fractures who underwent arthroscopic surgery between 2008 and 2012 were included in this study. The inclusion criteria for the study were a displaced tibial eminence avulsion fracture and anterior knee instability of grade II or higher inskeletally mature patients. These patients were treated with arthroscopic suture fixation and followed with a mean period of 24 months. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were obtained 3 months postoperatively to assess fracture healing. At 24 months after surgery, all patients were evaluated by an independent orthopaedic professor with clinical examination like anteroposterior laxity (Lachman-Noulis and anterior drawer tests) and Rolimeter knee tester (Aircast, Vista, CA). Knee range of motion was evaluated actively and passively with a goniometer. Knee function was evaluated by the Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores. Knee radiographs in standing anteroposterior, standing lateral, and Merchant views were examined for alignment, joint space narrowing, and degenerative knee changes. Results: No major complication like infection, deep venous thrombosis, or neurovascular deficit happened peri-operatively. At the final follow-up, there were no symptoms of instability and no clinical signs of ACL deficiency. Radiographs showed that all fractures healed 3 months post-operative, but at the last follow-up, there was one person with degenerative changes like joint space narrowing in radiographs. Anterior translation of the tibia was 0.47 mm on average (0 to 2.5 mm) compared with the uninjured side. Range-of-motion measurement showed a mean extension deficit of 1.5° (0° to 5°) and a mean flexion deficit of 2.7° (0° to 10

  11. Modified arthroscopic suture fixation of a displaced tibial eminence fracture.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Ronald A; Murphy, Kevin P; Machen, M Shaun; Kuklo, Timothy R

    2003-02-01

    This study describes a new arthroscopic method using a whip-stitch technique for treating a displaced type III tibial eminence fracture. A 12-year-old girl who sustained a displaced type III tibial eminence fracture was treated with arthroscopic fixation using the Arthrosew disposable suture device (Surgical Dynamics, Norwalk, CT) to place a whip stitch into the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The Arthrex ACL guide (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to reduce the avulsed tibial spine fragment. Sutures were then passed through the tibial tunnel and secured over a bony bridge with the knee in 20 degrees of flexion. At 9 months, the patient has a full range of motion with normal Lachman and anterior drawer testing, and she has returned to competitive basketball. Radiographs show complete fracture healing. KT-1000 and isokinetic testing at 9-month follow-up show only minimal side-to-side differences. The Arthrosew device provides a significant advantage in the treatment of type III and IV fractures of the tibial eminence by obtaining arthroscopic fixation within the substance of the ACL, thus obviating arthrotomy and hardware placement. This technique also restores the proper length and tension to the ACL, and provides a simplified, reproducible method of treatment for this injury. PMID:12579135

  12. Cartilage Pressure Distributions Provide a Footprint to Define Female Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Quatman, Carmen E.; Kiapour, Ali; Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Demetropoulos, Constantine K.; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bone bruises located on the lateral femoral condyle and posterolateral tibia are commonly associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and may contribute to the high risk for knee osteoarthritis after ACL injury. The resultant footprint (location) of a bone bruise after ACL injury provides evidence of the inciting injury mechanism. Purpose/Hypothesis (1) To analyze tibial and femoral articular cartilage pressure distributions during normal landing and injury simulations, and (2) to evaluate ACL strains for conditions that lead to articular cartilage pressure distributions similar to bone bruise patterns associated with ACL injury. The hypothesis was that combined knee abduction and anterior tibial translation injury simulations would demonstrate peak articular cartilage pressure distributions in the lateral femoral condyle and posterolateral tibia. The corollary hypothesis was that combined knee abduction and anterior tibial translation injury conditions would result in the highest ACL strains. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods Prospective biomechanical data from athletes who subsequently suffered ACL injuries after testing (n = 9) and uninjured teammates (n = 390) were used as baseline input data for finite element model comparisons. Results Peak articular pressures that occurred on the posterolateral tibia and lateral femoral condyle were demonstrated for injury conditions that had a baseline knee abduction angle of 5°. Combined planar injury conditions of abduction/anterior tibial translation, anterior tibial translation/internal tibial rotation, or anterior tibial translation/external tibial rotation or isolated anterior tibial translation, external tibial rotation, or internal tibial rotation resulted in peak pressures in the posterolateral tibia and lateral femur. The highest ACL strains occurred during the combined abduction/anterior tibial translation condition in the group that had a baseline knee abduction angle

  13. High Tibial Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Seong Joon

    2012-01-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a widely performed procedure to treat medial knee arthrosis. In general, published studies on HTO report good long-term results with a correct patient selection and a precise surgical technique. The ideal candidate for an HTO is a middle aged patient (60 to 65 years of age), with isolated medial osteoarthritis, with good range of motion and without ligamentous instability. Some issues that need resolution remain; these include the choice between opening and closing wedge tibial osteotomy, the graft selection in opening wedge osteotomies, the type of fixation, the comparison with unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and whether HTO significantly affects a subsequent total joint replacement. Precise indication, preoperative planning, and operative technique selection are essential to achieve good results. PMID:22708105

  14. Fracture of the anteromedial tibial plateau associated with posterolateral complex injury: case study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Xavier; Minguell, Joan; Cortina, Josep; Castellet, Enric; Carrera, Lluís; Nardi, Joan; Cáceres, Enric

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of anteromedial tibial plateau compression fracture following hyperextension and forced varus of the knee, resulting in an anterior bone fragment large enough to require osteosynthesis. This uncommon lesion was associated with posterolateral complex injury, diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while both cruciate ligaments were preserved. After proceeding with tibial plateau osteosynthesis, a peroneal tendon allograft was used for supplementation repair of the lateral collateral ligament and biceps tendon in a single surgical intervention. Tibial plateau fractures are often associated with soft-tissue involvement, mainly of the anterior cruciate ligament and external meniscus. Posterolateral complex injuries also occur with a mechanism of forced varus and hyperextension. These lesions require an accurate diagnosis to avoid future knee instability; moreover, adequate treatment in the acute phase provides a better functional outcome. Physicians should suspect associated posterolateral complex injury when an anteromedial tibial plateau fracture is diagnosed. MRI allows adequate diagnosis and permits surgical treatment in one procedure. PMID:23288728

  15. Tibial hemimelia and femoral bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Ugras, Ali Akin; Sungur, Ibrahim; Akyildiz, Mustafa Fehmi; Ercin, Ersin

    2010-02-01

    Femoral bifurcation and tibial agenesis are rare anomalies and have been described in both the Gollop-Wolfgang complex and tibial agenesis-ectrodactyly syndrome. This article presents a case of Gollop-Wolfgang complex without hand ectrodactyly. Tibial agenesis-ectrodactyly syndrome and Gollop-Wolfgang complex are variants of tibial field defect, which includes distal femoral duplication, tibial aplasia, oligo-ectrodactylous toe defects, and preaxial polydactyly, occasionally associated with hand ectrodactyly.This article describes the case of a patient with bilateral tibial hemimelia and left femoral bifurcation. The proximal tibial anlage had not been identified in the patient's left leg. After failed fibular transfer procedure, the knee was disarticulated. The other leg was treated with tibiofibular synostosis and centralization of fibula to os calcis. At 7-year follow-up, the patient ambulates with an above-knee prosthesis and uses an orthopedic boot for ankle stability.In patients with a congenital absence of the tibia, accurate diagnosis is of the utmost importance in planning future treatment. In the absence of proximal tibial anlage, especially in patients with femoral bifurcation, the knee should be disarticulated. Tibiofibular synostosis is a good choice in the presence of a proximal tibial anlage and good quadriceps function. PMID:20192156

  16. Tibial tuberosity advancement in 65 canine stifles.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, D E; Miller, J M; Ober, C P; Lanz, O I; Martin, R A; Shires, P K

    2006-01-01

    The tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) procedure was developed to treat dogs with cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifles. A retrospective, descriptive study was performed on 57 dogs that underwent unilateral or bilateral TTA. Medical records were reviewed and pre-, postoperative and follow-up radiographs were evaluated for patellar ligament-tibial plateau angle (alpha), distance of the tibial tuberosity advancement and progression of degenerative joint disease. A questionnaire was sent to all owners to obtain their assessment of the procedural outcome. Sixty-five stifles in 57 dogs received a TTA. Mean age was 5.2 +/- 2.5 years while mean weight was 39.7 +/- 11.9 kg. Eighteen breeds were represented with Labrador retrievers and mixed breeds predominating. The mean duration of lameness prior to surgery was 6.2 +/- 6.7 months, with a median lameness score of 3/4. Fifty-nine percent of cases encountered complications, the majority of which were minor. Major post-operative complications were uncommon but consisted of implant failure, tibial crest displacement and medial meniscal tears. The mean radiographic preoperative angle alpha was 100 degrees, while the postoperative was 95.5 degrees. Mean osteoarthrosis scores were significantly different between preoperative and follow-up radiographs with 67% of cases showing radiographic progression. Seventy percent of owners responded to the survey with overall outcome considered good to excellent in 90%. Activity level was improved in 90% of responses. TTA subjectively appears to be a useful alternative in the management of cranial cruciate ligament disease. Few severe complications were encountered. Good clinical outcome and owner satisfaction was reported with the procedure in this set of cases. PMID:17143394

  17. Biomechanical Characterization of a Model of Noninvasive, Traumatic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Maerz, Tristan; Kurdziel, Michael D; Davidson, Abigail A; Baker, Kevin C; Anderson, Kyle; Matthew, Howard W T

    2015-10-01

    The onset of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) remains prevalent following traumatic joint injury such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, and animal models are important for studying the pathomechanisms of PTOA. Noninvasive ACL injury using the tibial compression model in the rat has not been characterized, and it may represent a more clinically relevant model than the common surgical ACL transection model. This study employed four loading profiles to induce ACL injury, in which motion capture analysis was performed, followed by quantitative joint laxity testing. High-speed, high-displacement loading repeatedly induces complete ACL injury, which causes significant increases in anterior-posterior and varus laxity. No loading protocol induced valgus laxity. Tibial internal rotation and anterior subluxation occurs up to the point of ACL failure, after which the tibia rotates externally as it subluxes over the femoral condyles. High displacement was more determinative of ACL injury compared to high speed. Low-speed protocols induced ACL avulsion from the femoral footprint whereas high-speed protocols caused either midsubstance rupture, avulsion, or a combination injury of avulsion and midsubstance rupture. This repeatable, noninvasive ACL injury protocol can be utilized in studies assessing PTOA or ACL reconstruction in the rat. PMID:25777293

  18. Comparative Evaluation of the Reinforcing Effect of Different Post Systems in the Restoration of Endodontically Treated Human Anterior Teeth at Two Different Lengths of Post Space Preparation- An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Sahil; Jindal, Ritu; Gupta, Kanika; Mahajan, Sandeep; Garg, Sunidhi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Comparative evaluation of the reinforcing effect of different post systems in the restoration of endodontically treated human anterior teeth at two different lengths of post space preparation- an in vitro study Materials and Methods: 135 extracted human incisors were endodontically treated, out of which 120 teeth were decoronated 2mm above the cementoenamel junction and divided into four experimental groups based on the post system to be used: Glass fiber post (GFP) and stainless steel post (SSP), titanium post (TTP), cast metal post (CMP). Each group was divided into two sub-groups according to the length of post space preparation: 5mm and 10mm. All the samples were restored with metal crowns. The fracture resistance was measured by applying loads at an angle of 135º to the long axis of teeth in an instron universal testing machine. Fracture mode was analyzed for all the samples. Results from the four test groups were compared and analysed using one-way ANOVA test and the Post-hoc Bonferroni test to demonstrate differences between pairs of groups. Results: The results revealed that SSP group at 10mm post space length showed the significantly (“P-value< 0.05”) highest fracture resistance (793.7787 N). Decrease in post length resulted in the decrease in fracture resistance in all the groups reduced to values even lesser than the control (437.8733N). Conclusion: The different post systems used in the study were able to reinforce endodontically treated teeth only at 10mm post space length. PMID:23724211

  19. Finite element analysis to study the effects of using CAD/CAM glass-fiber post system in a severely damaged anterior tooth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aijie; Feng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yanli; Liu, Ruoyu; Shao, Longquan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the stress distribution of a severely damaged maxillary anterior tooth restored with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) glass-fiber post system. Twelve models were fabricated with different alveolar bone levels and cervical dentin wall thicknesses and studied using a two-dimensional finite element method. A force of 100 N was applied to the lingual surface of the crown at 45 degrees, and the maximum von Mises stress was calculated. A higher stress level was observed in the dentin than in the post and crown. With the reduction of dentin thickness, the maximum von Mises stress in the dentin increased slightly to a peak at a thickness of 1.5 mm, followed by a slight decrease at a thickness of 1.0 mm. However, the relative ratio (RR) values did not show a large difference (RR > 80%). Meanwhile, a large difference in RR values was observed with a change in bone level (RR < 80%). When using a CAD/CAM glass-fiber post system, the maximal von Mises stress was significantly affected by the bone level, rather than by the dentin thickness. Moreover, this system may be applied to the treatment of a maxillary anterior tooth with a bone level of only 2/3. PMID:26406043

  20. Tibial loading after UKA: evaluation of tibial slope, resection depth, medial shift and component rotation.

    PubMed

    Small, Scott R; Berend, Michael E; Rogge, Renee D; Archer, Derek B; Kingman, Amanda L; Ritter, Merrill A

    2013-10-01

    With increased precision in alignment offered by new generations of instrumentation and customized guides, this study was designed to establish a biomechanically-based target alignment for the balance of tibial loading in order to diminish the likelihood of pain and subsidence related to mechanical overload post-UKA. Sixty composite tibias were implanted with Oxford UKA tibial components with varied sagittal slope, resection depth, rotation and medial shift using patient matched instrumentation. Digital image correlation and strain gage analysis was conducted in static loading to evaluate strain distribution as a result of component alignment. In this model, minimal distal resection and most lateral positioning, neutral component rotation, and 3° of slope (from mechanical axis) exhibited the most balanced strain response to loading following UKA. PMID:23518429

  1. Anteroposterior positioning of the tibial component and its effect on the mechanics of patellofemoral contact.

    PubMed

    Didden, K; Luyckx, T; Bellemans, J; Labey, L; Innocenti, B; Vandenneucker, H

    2010-10-01

    The biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint can become disturbed during total knee replacement by alterations induced by the position and shape of the different prosthetic components. The role of the patella and femoral trochlea has been well studied. We have examined the effect of anterior or posterior positioning of the tibial component on the mechanisms of patellofemoral contact in total knee replacement. The hypothesis was that placing the tibial component more posteriorly would reduce patellofemoral contact stress while providing a more efficient lever arm during extension of the knee. We studied five different positions of the tibial component using a six degrees of freedom dynamic knee simulator system based on the Oxford rig, while simulating an active knee squat under physiological loading conditions. The patellofemoral contact force decreased at a mean of 2.2% for every millimetre of posterior translation of the tibial component. Anterior positions of the tibial component were associated with elevation of the patellofemoral joint pressure, which was particularly marked in flexion > 90°. From our results we believe that more posterior positioning of the tibial component in total knee replacement would be beneficial to the patellofemoral joint. PMID:20884990

  2. TIBIAL PLATEAU FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Mauricio Kfuri; Fogagnolo, Fabrício; Bitar, Rogério Carneiro; Freitas, Rafael Lara; Salim, Rodrigo; Jansen Paccola, Cleber Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are joint lesions that require anatomical reduction of joint surface and functional restoration of mechanical axis of a lower limb. Patient profile, soft tissue conditions, presence of associated injuries and the available infrastructure for the treatment all contribute to the decision making about the best treatment for these fractures. High-energy fractures are usually approached in a staged manner respecting the principle of damage control, and are primarily targeted to maintain limb alignment while the resolution unfavorable soft tissue conditions is pending. Low-energy trauma can be managed on a singlestage basis, provided soft tissues are not an adverse factor, with open reduction and internal fixation. Stable fixation and early painless joint movement are related to a better prognosis. New developments as locked plates, bone replacements, intraoperative 3D imaging are promising and will certainly contribute for less invasive procedures and better outcomes. PMID:27077054

  3. A case of post-upper lobectomy empyema treated by serratus anterior muscle and pedicled latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps plombage via open-window thoracostomy.

    PubMed

    Kitami, Akihiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Suzuki, Shuichi; Noriyoshi, Sumiya

    2004-06-01

    A 62-year-old male was admitted to our hospital for operation for Aspergillus empyema with a fungus ball in the right upper lobe. We performed a right upper lobectomy and decortication of the middle and lower lobes through a standard posterolateral thoracotomy with dissection of the latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscles, in October 2000. Twenty-one days postoperatively (POD), he developed an empyema and a bronchopleural fistula. We performed open-window thoracostomy through the axilla with removal of the third and fourth ribs at 41 POD, and sterilized the open drainage cavity in the out-patient clinic 11 months after discharge. Although the condition of the bronchopleural fistulas was not improved, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was found in the purulent discharge, the discharge decreased. Finally, a pedicled latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous and serratus anterior muscle flap plombage was performed 11 months after initial operation. The patient is now well and works as a driver 21 months after discharge. We conclude that muscle flaps of the pedicled latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscles can be useful for plombage of the cavity in cases of post-standard thoracotomy. PMID:15312015

  4. [Arthroscopic tightening of the anterior cruciate ligament].

    PubMed

    Charrois, O; Cheyrou, E; Remi, J; Panarella, L; Jouve, F; Beaufils, P

    2008-02-01

    We present here the preliminary results obtained with arthroscopic tightening of the anterior cruciate ligament. Six patients underwent the technique. Four had had prior ligamentoplasty, two had sequelae of tibial spine fractures. Laxity persisted in all cases. The transplant or the ligament were continuous and insertion points were well-positioned. The procedure consisted in using a trephine to bore the tibial bone at the "foot" of the ligament or transplant in order to tighten the ligament. There was no evidence of instability after the arthroscopic tightening procedure. Mean pre- and postoperative differential anterior drawer values were successively 9.2 and 3.9 mm. For native or reconstructed anterior cruciate ligaments, which are continuous and well-positioned but not loose, arthroscopic tightening spares the need for ligament transplant and appears to be free of specific morbidity. PMID:18342033

  5. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2015-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures. PMID:27026999

  6. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options. PMID:22341017

  7. Inside-Out Antegrade Tibial Tunnel Drilling Through the Posterolateral Portal Using a Flexible Reamer in Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Stuart, Joseph J.; Choi, J.H. James; Toth, Alison P.; Moorman, Claude T.; Taylor, Dean C.

    2015-01-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction using the transtibial drilling or arthroscopic tibial-inlay technique has a risk of injury to the popliteal neurovascular bundle because a pin is drilled anterior to posterior. Intraoperative fluoroscopy is used to decrease the risk of neurovascular injury. In addition, graft passage in the transtibial technique may be problematic because of a sharp turn when placing the graft into the tibial tunnel, which may damage graft fibers. In the surgical technique described in this report, the posteromedial portal is used for visualization and the posterolateral portal is used for debridement of the PCL tibial footprint and the synovial fold closest to the PCL. A curved guide is placed from the posterolateral portal to the tibial footprint, and a flexible pin is drilled across the tibia. The tibial tunnel is then created using a flexible reamer under direct visualization up to the desired length, and a graft can be positioned in the tibial tunnel through the posterolateral portal. This technique has the potential advantages of decreasing the risk of injury to the popliteal neurovascular bundle (use of anteriorly directed, inside-out drilling), avoiding a sharp turn during graft passage, and allowing accurate and anatomic tibial tunnel placement without intraoperative fluoroscopy. PMID:26900551

  8. Inside-Out Antegrade Tibial Tunnel Drilling Through the Posterolateral Portal Using a Flexible Reamer in Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Stuart, Joseph J; Choi, J H James; Toth, Alison P; Moorman, Claude T; Taylor, Dean C

    2015-10-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction using the transtibial drilling or arthroscopic tibial-inlay technique has a risk of injury to the popliteal neurovascular bundle because a pin is drilled anterior to posterior. Intraoperative fluoroscopy is used to decrease the risk of neurovascular injury. In addition, graft passage in the transtibial technique may be problematic because of a sharp turn when placing the graft into the tibial tunnel, which may damage graft fibers. In the surgical technique described in this report, the posteromedial portal is used for visualization and the posterolateral portal is used for debridement of the PCL tibial footprint and the synovial fold closest to the PCL. A curved guide is placed from the posterolateral portal to the tibial footprint, and a flexible pin is drilled across the tibia. The tibial tunnel is then created using a flexible reamer under direct visualization up to the desired length, and a graft can be positioned in the tibial tunnel through the posterolateral portal. This technique has the potential advantages of decreasing the risk of injury to the popliteal neurovascular bundle (use of anteriorly directed, inside-out drilling), avoiding a sharp turn during graft passage, and allowing accurate and anatomic tibial tunnel placement without intraoperative fluoroscopy. PMID:26900551

  9. Genetics Home Reference: tibial muscular dystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names for This Condition tardive tibial muscular dystrophy TMD Udd distal myopathy Udd-Markesbery muscular dystrophy Udd ... titin may cause more severe tibial muscular dystrophy (TMD). Neuromuscul Disord. 2008 Dec;18(12):922-8. ...

  10. Accessory articulation of elongated anterior transverse process: a rare anatomical variant of the cervical spine depicted with CT and post-processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Bilreiro, C; Saraiva, J; Duarte Silva, L; Brito, J; Grande, P

    2016-03-01

    There are several described anatomical variants of the cervical spine, ranging from common to extremely rare, which may have different clinical implications. We present the case of an extremely rare anatomical variant of the cervical spine, in a symptomatic patient, consisting of a unilateral accessory articulation between the 5th and 6th cervical vertebrae, due to elongated anterior transverse processes. Our search found only three cases in the English literature describing similar findings to the case here reported. Our case is, to our knowledge, the first report of this anatomical variant imaged with computed tomography including post-processing images (volume rendering technology and multiplanar reformations), which contribute greatly to a better understanding and depiction of the anatomical variant. PMID:26251024

  11. Management of aseptic tibial nonunion.

    PubMed

    Hak, David J

    2011-09-01

    Tibial nonunion remains a significant clinical challenge despite advances in surgical management. New techniques to help manage tibial nonunion include extracorporeal shock wave therapy and percutaneous application of bone marrow aspirate. Management strategies vary based on the type of nonunion: aseptic or infected, and atrophic or hypertrophic. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy has been shown to be as effective as surgical management in patients with stable hypertrophic nonunion. New fixation options include locked plates and intramedullary compression nails. Novel methods of external fixation have been developed for bone graft harvest from the intramedullary canal. Several biologic adjuncts also are available, including bone marrow aspirates, stem cells, and bone morphogenetic protein. PMID:21885702

  12. Resin composite restoration in primary anterior teeth using short-post technique and strip crowns: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; De Benedetto, Monique Saveriano; del Conte Zardetto, Cristina Giovannetti; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla; Correa, Maria Salete Nahás Pires

    2004-10-01

    A case report describing a technique for the restoration of endodontically treated primary maxillary incisors with resin composite short posts and celluloid strip crowns in a 3-year-old boy is presented. The technique offers the advantages of using one restorative material, improving esthetics, and reducing chairtime and costs. PMID:15470991

  13. Preoperative opioid strength may not affect outcomes of anterior cervical procedures: a post hoc analysis of 2 prospective, randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Michael P.; Anderson, Paul A.; Sasso, Rick C.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Object The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between preoperative opioid strength and outcomes of anterior cervical decompressive surgery. Methods A retrospective cohort of 1004 patients enrolled in 1 of 2 investigational device exemption studies comparing cervical total disc arthroplasty (TDA) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for single-level cervical disease causing radiculopathy or myelopathy was selected. At a preoperative visit, opioid use data, Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores, 36-ltem Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores, and numeric rating scale scores for neck and arm pain were collected. Patients were divided into strong (oxycodone/morphine/meperidine), weak (codeine/propoxyphene/ hydrocodone), and opioid-naïve groups. Preoperative and postoperative (24 months) outcomes scores were compared within and between groups using the paired t-test and ANCOVA, respectively. Results Patients were categorized as follows: 226 strong, 762 weak, and 16 opioid naïve. The strong and weak groups were similar with respect to age, sex, race, marital status, education level, Worker's Compensation status, litigation status, and alcohol use. At 24-month follow-up, no differences in change in arm or neck pain scores (arm: strong –52.3, weak –50.6, naïve –54.0, p = 0.244; neck: strong –52.7, weak –50.8, naïve –44.6, p = 0.355); NDI scores (strong –36.0, weak –33.3, naïve –32.3, p = 0.181); or SF-36 Physical Component Summary scores (strong: 14.1, weak 13.3, naïve 21.7, p = 0.317) were present. Using a 15-point improvement in NDI to determine success, the authors found no between-groups difference in success rates (strong 80.6%, weak 82.7%, naïve 73.3%, p = 0.134). No difference existed between treatment arms (TDA vs ACDF) for any outcome at any time point. Conclusions Preoperative opioid strength did not adversely affect outcomes in this analysis. Careful patient selection can yield good results in this patient

  14. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACFAS | Información en Español Advanced Search Home » Foot & Ankle Conditions » Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD) Text Size ... the arch, and an inward rolling of the ankle. As the condition progresses, the symptoms will change. ...

  15. Detached Anterior Horn of the Medial Meniscus Mimicking a Parameniscal Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Fukuta, Shoji; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Hamada, Daisuke; Goto, Tomohiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a detached anterior horn of the medial meniscus with anterior knee pain. Preoperative magnetic resonance images of the knee were initially interpreted as a parameniscal cyst. Arthroscopic examination revealed subluxation of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus due to detachment from its anterior tibial insertion. Arthroscopic fixation with a suture anchor was successful and the cystic lesion was no longer visible on postoperative images. PMID:26550510

  16. Safety and efficacy of Intraurethral Mitomycin C Hydrogel for prevention of post-traumatic anterior urethral stricture recurrence after internal urethrotomy

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Mahmoudreza; Derakhshandeh, Katayoun; Karimian, Babak; Fasihi, Mahtab

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of intraurethral Mitomycin C (MMC) hydrogel for prevention of post-traumatic anterior urethral stricture recurrence after internal urethrotomy. Methods: A thermoresponsive hydrogel base consisting of 0.8 mg MMC with 1cc water and propylene glycol to PF-127 poloxamer was used in theater. 40 male patients with short, non-obliterated, urethral stricture were randomized into 2 groups: control and MMC. After internal urethrotomy, the MMC group patients received the MMC-Hydrogel while the others were just catheterized. Both groups had their catheters for at least 1 week. After surgery, they were followed up by means of medical history and physical examination, monitoring voiding patterns and retrograde urethrogram at 1 month, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. Results: 40 male patients between 14 to 89 years old (Mean = 54.15) underwent internal urethrotomy. The average age for the control and MMC group was 54.55±21.25 and 53.75±24.75 respectively. In a comparison of age between the two groups, they were matched (P=0.574). Stricture length was 10.7±5.9 and 9.55±4.15 mm for the control and MMC group respectively. There were no statistically meaningful differences between the two groups (P=0.485). Fifteen patients had a history of one previous internal urethrotomy which in a comparison between the two groups meant there was no meaningful difference (P = 0.327). During postoperative follow up, total urethral stricture recurrence happened in 12 patients: 10 patients (50%) in control group and 2 patients (10%) in MMC group. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). There were no significant complications associated with the MMC injection in our patients. Conclusions: Based on our results, MMC Hydrogel may have an anti-fibrotic action preventing post-traumatic anterior urethral stricture recurrence with no side effects on pre-urethral tissue. Due to our study limitations, our follow up time and the

  17. Anatomic femorotibial changes associated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Jennifer A.; Allen, David A.; Bergman, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    This prospective study evaluated anatomic femorotibial changes utilizing the relationship between the intercondylar notch and the intercondylar eminence following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). We hypothesized that TPLO results in anatomic alteration of the femorotibial joint. Pre- and post-operative computed tomography (CT) scans of cranial cruciate deficient stifle joints treated with TPLO were performed on 25 client-owned dogs. Computed tomography scans were performed at 3 different stifle angles: extension, 135° walking angle, and 90° of flexion. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy did not result in a significant medial or lateral shift of the intercondylar eminence relative to the intercondylar notch. There was a significant cranial shift of the intercondylar eminence with the stifle in extension following TPLO. In addition, TPLO resulted in a significantly narrowed femorotibial joint space. The biomechanical effects of TPLO and medial meniscal release need to be further defined. PMID:26345618

  18. Anatomic femorotibial changes associated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Jennifer A; Allen, David A; Bergman, Philip J

    2015-09-01

    This prospective study evaluated anatomic femorotibial changes utilizing the relationship between the intercondylar notch and the intercondylar eminence following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). We hypothesized that TPLO results in anatomic alteration of the femorotibial joint. Pre- and post-operative computed tomography (CT) scans of cranial cruciate deficient stifle joints treated with TPLO were performed on 25 client-owned dogs. Computed tomography scans were performed at 3 different stifle angles: extension, 135° walking angle, and 90° of flexion. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy did not result in a significant medial or lateral shift of the intercondylar eminence relative to the intercondylar notch. There was a significant cranial shift of the intercondylar eminence with the stifle in extension following TPLO. In addition, TPLO resulted in a significantly narrowed femorotibial joint space. The biomechanical effects of TPLO and medial meniscal release need to be further defined. PMID:26345618

  19. Effect of Wedge Insertion Angle on Posterior Tibial Slope in Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Matsumoto, Kazu; Ogawa, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Kentaro; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a well-established surgery for medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) wherein the lower extremity is realigned to shift the load distribution from the medial compartment of the knee to the lateral compartment. However, this surgery is known to affect the posterior tibial slope angle (PTSA), which could lead to abnormal knee kinematics and instability, and eventually to knee OA. Although PTSA control is as important as coronal realignment, few appropriate measurements for this parameter have been reported. The placement of a wedge spacer might have an effect on PTSA. Purpose: To elucidate the relationship between the PTSA and the direction of insertion of a wedge spacer. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: This study assessed 43 knees from 34 patients who underwent medial opening wedge HTO for knee OA. Pre- and postoperative lateral radiographs of the knee as well as postoperative computed tomography scans were performed to evaluate the relationship among PTSA, wedge insertion angle (WIA), and opening gap ratio (distance of the anterior opening gap/distance of the posterior opening gap at the osteotomy site). Results: The PTSA significantly increased from 9.0° ± 2.8° preoperatively to 13.2° ± 4.1° postoperatively (P < .001), resulting in a mean ΔPTSA of 4.7° ± 4.5°. The mean opening gap ratio was 0.86 ± 0.11, and the mean WIA was 25.9° ± 8.4°. The WIA and opening gap ratio were both highly correlated with ΔPTSA (r = 0.71 and 0.72, respectively), implying that a smaller WIA or smaller gap ratio leads to less increase in posterior slope. Conclusion: The direction of wedge insertion is highly correlated with PTSA increase, which suggests that the PTSA can be controlled for by adjusting the direction of wedge insertion during surgery. Clinical Relevance: Study results suggest that it is possible to adjust the PTSA by controlling the WIA during surgery. Proper

  20. Backside wear of Miller-Galante I and Insall-Burstein II tibial inserts.

    PubMed

    Taki, Naoya; Goldberg, Victor M; Kraay, Matthew J; Rimnac, Clare M

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if there was a difference in the amount, type, and location of backside wear in the Miller-Galante I and Insall-Burstein II PE tibial inserts. A secondary objective was to determine if backside wear damage in these two designs was a function of clinical factors (patient height, weight, gender, age, and length of time of implantation), shelf life of the PE tibial insert, and tibial component thickness. Backside wear damage was assessed on 24 Miller-Galante I and 11 Insall-Burstein II tibial inserts (implantation time, 0.5-12.4 years). For both groups combined, implantation time was positively correlated to wear damage and to PE peg height into screw holes. The Miller-Galante I group had significantly larger PE pegs than the Insall-Burstein II group. The Miller-Galante I group had significantly more burnishing and larger PE pegs posteriorly than anteriorly. There was no correlation between insert shelf life before initial surgery and backside wear. The thinner the component, the larger the total damage scores in the Miller-Galante I group. This study supports the hypothesis that backside wear of PE tibial inserts may be influenced by design and component thickness and by clinical factors. PMID:15534543

  1. Reduction and fixation of the avulsion fracture of the tibial eminence using mini-open technique.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiong-Wei; Hu, Xiao-Peng; Jin, Chen; Zhu, Tong; Ding, Yong; Dai, Li-Yang

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this prospective study is to present and evaluate a new technique using suture anchors for the treatment of the avulsion fractures of the tibial eminence. Twenty-three consecutive patients with the displaced avulsion fracture of the tibial attachment of anterior cruciate ligament were treated using mini-open technique with suture anchors between 2005 and 2008. According to the classification of Meyers and McKeever, there were 5 type II, 13 type III, and 5 type IV fractures. The median follow-up period was 18 months (range, 12-32 months). The patient assessment included Lysholm score, Tegner score, IKDC score, and radiographic evaluation. The median Lysholm score improved from 32 (range, 28-48) preoperatively to 98 (range, 85-100) postoperatively. The median preoperative Tegner score was 3 (range, 2-5), and the median postoperative Tegner score was 7 (range, 5-9). The global IKDC objective score was normal (A) in 21 knees and nearly normal (B) in 2 knees. At final follow-up, the Lachman test and anterior drawer test were negative. The results showed that mini-open reduction and fixation of avulsion fracture of the tibial eminence with suture anchors have achieved satisfactory results. We suggest the use of this technique for treating avulsion fractures of the tibial eminence. PMID:20127313

  2. Tibial Tuberosity Avulsion Fracture and Open Proximal Tibial Fracture in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Ping; Hao, Qing-Hai; Lin, Feng; Wang, Ming-Ming; Hao, Yue-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A displaced tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture associated with an open extra-articular proximal tibial diaphyseal fracture is an uncommon fracture pattern. This case report describes the successful management of such a fracture pattern in a 45-year old male using an open reduction and lag screw fixation of the tuberosity with a minimally invasive reduction and plate fixation of the proximal tibial diaphyseal fracture. A literature search was done to determine the expected clinical outcome of this fracture pattern. This is the first reported adult case of an avulsion fractures of the tibial tuberosity associated with an open proximal tibial diaphyseal fracture successfully treated by an anatomical reduction and fixation of the avulsion fracture of the tibial tuberosity combined with minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis of the proximal tibial diaphyseal fractures. PMID:26426669

  3. Clinical Instability of the Knee and Functional Differences Following Tibial Plateau Fractures Versus Distal Femoral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Birjandinejad, Ali; Moradi, Ali; Fathi Choghadeh, Maysam; Rezazadeh, Jafar; Omidi-Kashani, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fractures of the knee account for about 6% of all trauma admissions. While its management is mostly focused on fracture treatment, it is not the only factor that defines the final outcome. Objectives: This study aimed to study objective and subjective outcomes after proximal tibial versus distal femoral fractures in terms of knee instability and health-related quality of life. Patients and Methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional, cohort study was carried out on 80 patients with either isolated proximal tibial (n = 42) or distal femoral (n = 38) fractures, who underwent open reduction and internal fixation. All the fractures were classified based on the Schatzker and AO classification for tibial plateau and distal femoral fractures, respectively. The patients were followed and examined by an orthopedic knee surgeon for clinical assessment of knee instability. In their last follow-up visit, these patients completed a Lysholm knee score and the short-form (SF) 36 health survey. Results: Among the 42 tibial plateau fractures, 25% were classified as Schatzker type 2. Of the 38 distal femoral fractures, we did not find any type B1 or B3 fractures. The overall prevalence of anterior and posterior instability was 42% and 20%, respectively. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) and Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) injuries were detected clinically in 50% and 28%, respectively. The incidence rates of ligament injuries in tibial plateau fractures were as follows: Anterior Collateral Ligament (ACL) 26%, Posterior Collateral Ligament (PCL) 7%, MCL 24%, and LCL 14%. Medial collateral ligament injury was the most common in the Schatzker type 2 (50% of the injuries). Distal femoral fractures were associated with ACL injury in 16%, PCL in 13%, MCL in 26% and LCL in 14%. However, final knee range of motion (ROM) and function (Lysholm score) were not associated with fracture location. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups, except for

  4. Genu Recurvatum after Tibial Tuberosity Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Senthil T.; Parikh, Shital N.

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial tuberosity are infrequent injuries that occur during adolescence. Displaced tibial tuberosity fractures are typically treated with open reduction and internal fixation. Since these fractures occur at or near skeletal maturity, growth disturbances are not seen. This paper presents a case, the first report to our knowledge, of genu recurvatum deformity after open reduction and internal fixation of a tibial tuberosity fracture. A successful treatment plan of tibial tuberosity osteotomy with proximal tibial opening wedge osteotomy was used for the correction of genu recurvatum deformity and to maintain appropriate patellar height. At eighteen-month followup, the deformity remains corrected with satisfactory functional results. This case highlights the importance of recognition of potential complications of fracture management in adolescence. PMID:23710399

  5. Dual locked plating of unstable bicondylar tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Ufuk; Parmaksizoglu, Atilla Sancar

    2015-07-01

    The operative treatment of displaced bicondylar tibial plateau fractures is challenging. The displaced condyles must be reduced, depressed plateaus must be elevated and adequately supported and early rehabilitation must be encouraged in order to obtain good clinical results. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with dual locked plates using raft screws with MIPO technique and autologous bone grafting. We hypothesized that in this group of patients dual locked plating reduces the complication rates by avoiding loss of reduction due to the accomplished rigid fixation. Twenty-two consecutive patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures (AO Type C) were included in this study. The mean follow up was 26 months. Bone healing was achieved in all patients with 3 cases of superficial and 1 case of deep infection. Secondary loss of reduction, secondary loss of alignment, early post-traumatic arthritis were not observed in this study. The Lysholm knee score showed an average of 80.5 points (range: 61.5-90) at the final follow up assessment. Optimal fixation of the fracture with dual locked plating which allows immediate motion and partial weight bearing may be an alternative concept to prevent secondary loss of reduction to obtain a good clinical outcome. PMID:26021666

  6. Spatial localization and distribution of the TMS-related 'hotspot' of the tibialis anterior muscle representation in the healthy and post-stroke motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anjali; Tahara-Eckl, Lenore; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2016-08-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a type of noninvasive brain stimulation used to study corticomotor excitability of the intact and injured brain. Identification of muscle representations in the motor cortex is typically done using a procedure called 'hotspotting', which involves establishing the optimal location on the scalp that evokes a maximum TMS response with minimum stimulator intensity. The purpose of this study was to report the hotspot locations for the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle representation in the motor cortex of healthy and post stroke individuals. A retrospective data analyses from 42 stroke participants and 32 healthy participants was conducted for reporting TMS hotspot locations and their spatial patterns. Single pulse TMS, using a 110mm double cone coil, was used to identify the motor representation of the TA. The hotspot locations were represented as x and y-distances from the vertex for each participant. The mediolateral extent of the loci from the vertex (x-coordinate) and anteroposterior extent of the loci from the vertex (y-coordinate) was reported for each hemisphere: non-lesioned (XNLes, YNLes), lesioned (XLes, YLes) and healthy (XH, YH). We found that the mean hotspot loci for TA muscle from the vertex were approximately: 1.29cm lateral and 0.55cm posterior in the non-lesioned hemisphere, 1.25cm lateral and 0.5cm posterior in the lesioned hemisphere and 1.6cm lateral and 0.8cm posterior in the healthy brain. There was no significant difference in the x- and y-coordinates between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres. However, the locations of the XNLes (p=0.01) and XLes (p=0.004) were significantly different from XH. The YNLes and YLes showed no significant differences from YH loci. Analyses of spatial clustering patterns using the Moran's I index showed a negative autocorrelation in stroke participants (NLes: Moran's I=-0.09, p<0.001; Les: Moran's I=-0.14, p=0.002), and a positive autocorrelation in healthy participants

  7. Cartilage fibrillation on the lateral tibial plateau in Liverpool necropsies.

    PubMed Central

    Meachim, G

    1976-01-01

    A study has been made of the state at necropsy of the hyaline articular cartilage of the left tibial plateaux, with particular reference to the lateral plateau, in 47 adult white Europeans (24 men; 23 women) aged 21-88 years. The surface morphology and topographical distribution of the lesions is described for the bare area of the lateral plateau and its meniscus-covered segments, and quantitative point-counting data are presented for the amount, according to age, of overt fibrillation on the bare area. A variety of cartilage lesions was encountered: macroscopically apparent ' parallel linear' minimal fibrillation; other patterns of minimal fibrillation; 'ravines'; overt fibrillation; localized incomplete defects of the cartilage; and full-thickness cartilage loss with bone exposure. Sites of superficial fraying and splitting of the hyaline articular cartilage are a normal finding on adult human tibial plateaux. Especially in younger adults, such sites are often accompanied by large areas of cartilage surface which are still intact. On the lateral plateau, the bare area and the meniscus-covered posterior segment are more susceptible to overt fibrillation than are the meniscus-covered lateral and anterior segments. In contrast to the findings in other synovial joints, the peripheral rim of the upper tibial cartilage sheet is not particularly susceptible to overt fibrillation. Tangential extension of the changes on the lateral plateau leads to widespread involvement of the bare area and the meniscus-covered posterior segment in older subjects. However, vertical progression of the changes, sufficient to give full-thickness cartilage loss with tibio-femoral bone exposure, was seen in only a minority of persons aged over 80 years. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:946428

  8. Assessment of tibial rotation and meniscal movement using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective This work aimed to assess tibial rotations, meniscal movements, and morphological changes during knee flexion and extension using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Thirty volunteers with healthy knees were examined using kinematic MRI. The knees were imaged in the transverse plane with flexion and extension angles from 0° to 40° and 40° to 0°, respectively. The tibial interior and exterior rotation angles were measured, and the meniscal movement range, height change, and side movements were detected. Results The tibia rotated internally (11.55° ± 3.20°) during knee flexion and rotated externally (11.40° ± 3.0°) during knee extension. No significant differences were observed between the internal and external tibial rotation angles (P > 0.05), between males and females (P > 0.05), or between the left and right knee joints (P > 0.05). The tibial rotation angle with a flexion angle of 0° to 24° differed significantly from that with a flexion angle of 24° to 40° (P < 0.01). With knee flexion, the medial and lateral menisci moved backward and the height of the meniscus increased. The movement range was greater in the anterior horn than in the posterior horn and greater in the lateral meniscus than in the medial meniscus (P < 0.01). During backward movements of the menisci, the distance between the anterior and posterior horns decreased, with the decrease more apparent in the lateral meniscus (P < 0.01). The side movements of the medial and lateral menisci were not obvious, and a smaller movement range was found than that of the forward and backward movements. Conclusion Knee flexion and extension facilitated internal and external tibial rotations, which may be related to the ligament and joint capsule structure and femoral condyle geometry. PMID:25142267

  9. Results of Arthroscopic Bankart Lesion Repair in Patients with Post-Traumatic Anterior Instability of the Shoulder and a Non-Engaging Hill-Sachs Lesion with a Suture Anchor after a Minimum of 6-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Szyluk, Karol; Jasiński, Andrzej; Widuchowski, Wojciech; Mielnik, Michał; Koczy, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    Background Shoulder instability is an important clinical problem. Arthroscopic surgery is an established treatment modality in shoulder instability, but it continues to be associated with a high rate of recurrences and complications. The purpose of the study was to analyze late outcomes of arthroscopic repair of Bankart lesions in patients with post-traumatic anterior shoulder instability and non-engaging Hill-Sachs lesion, with special focus on the incidence and causes of recurrences and complications. Material/Methods We investigated 92 patients (92 shoulders) who underwent surgery on account of post-traumatic anterior shoulder instability. The duration of follow-up ranged from 6 to 12.5 years (mean: 8.2 years). All patients were operated on in the lateral decubitus position using FASTak 2.8-mm suture anchors (FASTak, Arthrex, Naples, Florida). Treatment outcomes were evaluated using the Rowe and University of California at Los Angeles rating system (UCLA). Results According to Rowe scores, there were 71 (81.5%) excellent, 12 (12.6%) good, 5 (5.3%) satisfactory, and 2 (2.1%) poor results. Rowe scores improved in a statistically significant manner (p=0.00) post-surgery, to a mean of 90 (range: 25–100). Treatment outcomes measured as UCLA scores improved in a statistically significant manner (p=0.00), reaching post-operative levels of 12–35 (mean: 33.5). There were 9 recurrences, 1 case of axillary nerve praxia, and 1 case of anchor loosening. Conclusions With rigorous criteria for qualifying patients for surgery, arthroscopic treatment of post-traumatic anterior shoulder instability produces good outcomes and low recurrence and complication rates irrespective of the number of previous dislocations, age, or sex. PMID:26256225

  10. Computed tomography for femoral and tibial torsion in children with clubfoot.

    PubMed

    Cuevas de Alba, C; Guille, J T; Bowen, J R; Harcke, H T

    1998-08-01

    Forty-seven children with 70 clubfeet had computed tomography studies performed to determine the degree of femoral, tibial, and total limb torsion in both lower limbs. The total limb torsion angle (angle between the axis of the femoral neck and the axis of the ankle), which describes the relationship between femoral and tibial torsion, was used to evaluate the whole rotational deformity of the lower limb. The children were between the ages of 2 and 10 years (mean, 5 years) at the time of the computed tomography study. The mean femoral torsion was 25 degrees in the limbs with a clubfoot and 23 degrees in the contralateral limbs of patients with a unilateral clubfoot. The mean tibial torsion was 25 degrees in the limbs with a clubfoot and 24 degrees in the contralateral limb of patients with a unilateral clubfoot. The authors observed decreases of anterior femoral torsion corresponding to increases in age, consistent with the observations made by other authors of studies of children without clubfoot. External tibial torsion increased with age, with similar values in limbs with and without clubfoot. Ten limbs (nine with clubfoot, one without clubfoot) had femoral torsion greater than the means plus one standard deviation and 12 limbs (eight with clubfoot, four without clubfoot) had tibial torsion less than the means minus one standard deviation. The authors found four limbs (all with clubfoot) in three patients with lower than the mean minus one standard deviation of the total limb torsion angle (intoeing). Overall, there was no appreciable difference in the amount of femoral or tibial torsion in limbs with and without a clubfoot. PMID:9728175

  11. A proposal for a new tibial guide system for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Pacagnan, André Valente; Loyola, Hugo Alexandre Guimarães; Cohen, Moisés; Camanho, Gilberto Luís; Forgas, Andrea

    2007-07-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is always a challenge to the orthopaedic surgeon. It is difficult when the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is intact. We propose a new guide system through the posteromedial portal, avoiding ACL damage. The arthroscope is inserted anteromedially (30 degrees), and anterolateral portals are used for instruments to confirm the diagnosis and inspect the joint to search for and treat associated lesions that may appear eventually. The posteromedial portal is located posterior to the collateral medial ligament superficially, adjacent to a portion of the posteromedial femoral condyle, which is located 1 cm proximal to the posteromedial tibial plate (where a skin marker must be used before insufflation of the knee). Our system is designed with an articular end in the form of a rasp, which helps prepare the area of the posterior tibia to be stripped before the tibial tunnel is drilled while being protected by the drill guide; this simplifies the preparation and creation of the tibial tunnel via a single device, which can be done with a 30 degrees arthroscope but is easier with a 70 degree arthroscope. The guide system through the posteromedial portal is used to determine a fixed 40 degrees angle of approach to the tibia in the anteroposterior direction to drill the tibial tunnel; this approach is particularly helpful in the presence of an intact ACL. The graft into the femoral tunnel is fixed with a bioabsorbable interference screw whose size must fit the graft and the tunnel walls. Before tibial graft fixation, it is necessary to reduce the posterior drawer. In the tibia the bundle corresponding to the anterolateral portion is tensioned and fixed under flexion, followed by the posteromedial portion in extension, by means of a Bottom Fix system (Smith & Nephew, Mayfield, MA) placed near the exit of the tibial tunnel. PMID:17637420

  12. Distal tibial physeal bridge: a complication from a tension band plate and screw construct. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Oda, Jon E; Thacker, Mihir M

    2013-05-01

    We report on a case of a tension band plate and screw construct (Eight Plate) used over the anterior distal tibia in an 9-year-old girl in an attempt to induce recurvatum of the ankle joint to correct a recalcitrant equinus deformity. With growth of the distal tibial physis, the epiphyseal screw was drawn through the physis into the distal tibial metaphysis, resulting in the creation of a transphyseal bony bar. Caution should be exercised when attempting temporary hemiepiphyseodesis using a plate and screw construct in small epiphyses or in an osteopenic bone. PMID:22158054

  13. Patellotibial contusions in anterior cruciate ligament tears.

    PubMed

    Wissman, Robert D; England, Eric; Mehta, Kaushal; Nepute, Joshua; Von Fischer, Nathaniel; Apgar, Josh; Javadi, Ariyan

    2014-02-01

    Bone contusions are an important ancillary finding of many knee injuries. Not only are they a source of pain, they may suggest a mechanism of injury or a specific derangement of the knee joint. We have encountered a small number of patients being evaluated for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears with unexplained patellar and tibial edema at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We present three individuals with contusions of the inferior patella with a corresponding contusion of the anteromedial tibial plateau. Internal derangements in these patients were similar to other individuals with acute ACL tears, however osseous contusions were more widespread. In conclusion, patellotibial contusions are rare and may indicate an injury with forces greater than usually encountered in most ACL tears. A careful search for uncommon associated injuries is prudent in these high-energy knee injuries. PMID:24037484

  14. Shape optimization of tibial prosthesis components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    NASA technology and optimal design methodologies originally developed for the optimization of composite structures (engine blades) are adapted and applied to the optimization of orthopaedic knee implants. A method is developed enabling the shape tailoring of the tibial components of a total knee replacement implant for optimal interaction within the environment of the tibia. The shape of the implant components are optimized such that the stresses in the bone are favorably controlled to minimize bone degradation, to improve the mechanical integrity of the implant/interface/bone system, and to prevent failures of the implant components. A pilot tailoring system is developed and the feasibility of the concept is demonstrated and evaluated. The methodology and evolution of the existing aerospace technology from which this pilot optimization code was developed is also presented and discussed. Both symmetric and unsymmetric in-plane loading conditions are investigated. The results of the optimization process indicate a trend toward wider and tapered posts as well as thicker backing trays. Unique component geometries were obtained for the different load cases.

  15. Tibial hemimelia associated with GLI3 truncation.

    PubMed

    Deimling, Steven; Sotiropoulos, Chris; Lau, Kimberly; Chaudhry, Sonia; Sturgeon, Kendra; Kelley, Simon; Narayanan, Unni; Howard, Andrew; Hui, Chi-Chung; Hopyan, Sevan

    2016-05-01

    Tibial hemimelia is a rare, debilitating and often sporadic congenital deficiency. In syndromic cases, mutations of a Sonic hedgehog (SHH) enhancer have been identified. Here we describe an ~5 kb deletion within the SHH repressor GLI3 in two patients with bilateral tibial hemimelia. This deletion results in a truncated GLI3 protein that lacks a DNA-binding domain and cannot repress hedgehog signaling. These findings strengthen the concept that tibial hemimelia arises because of failure to restrict SHH activity to the posterior aspect of the limb bud. PMID:26791356

  16. Atypical tibial tuberosity fracture in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Jalgaonkar, Azal A; Dachepalli, Sunil; Al-Wattar, Zaid; Rao, Sudhir; Kochhar, Tony

    2011-06-01

    Avulsion fractures of the tibial tuberosity are typically sustained by adolescent males during sporting activities. Tibial tuberosity avulsions with simultaneous proximal tibial epiphyseal fractures are rare injuries. We present an unusual case of Ogden type IIIA avulsion fracture of tibial tuberosity with a Salter Harris type IV posterior fracture of proximal tibial epiphysis in a 13-year-old boy. We believe that the patient sustained the tibial tuberosity avulsion during the take-off phase of a jump while playing basketball due to sudden violent contraction of the quadriceps as the knee was extending. This was then followed by the posterior Salter Harris type IV fracture of proximal tibial physis as he landed on his leg with enormous forces passing through the knee. Although standard radiographs were helpful in diagnosing the complex fracture pattern, precise configuration was only established by computed tomography (CT) scan. The scan also excluded well-recognized concomitant injuries including ligament and meniscal injuries. Unlike other reported cases, our patient did not have compartment syndrome. Anatomic reduction and stabilization with a partially threaded transepiphyseal cannulated screw and a metaphyseal screw followed by early mobilization ensured an excellent recovery by the patient.Our case highlights the importance of vigilance and a high index of suspicion for coexisting fractures or soft tissue injuries when treating avulsion fractures of tibial tuberosity. A CT scan is justified in such patients to recognize complex fracture configurations, and surgical treatment should be directed appropriately to both the fractures followed by early rehabilitation. Patients with such injuries warrant close monitoring for compartment syndrome during the perioperative period. PMID:21667912

  17. Use of Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire and the Short Form-36 among Tibial Fracture Patients was Redundant

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores among patients undergoing operative management of tibial fractures. Study Design and Setting Between July 2000 and September 2005, we enrolled 1319 skeletally mature patients with open or closed fractures of the tibial shaft that were managed with intramedullary nailing. Patients were asked to complete the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment and Short Form-36 at discharge and 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. Results Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were highly correlated at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. The difference in mean standardized change scores for the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary, from 3 to 12 months post-surgical fixation, was not statistically significant. Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were able to discriminate between healed and non-healed tibial fractures at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgery. Conclusion In patients with tibial shaft fractures, the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index offered no important advantages over the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary score. These results, along with the usefulness of the Short Form-36 for comparing populations, recommends the Short Form-36 for assessing physical function in studies of patients with tibial fractures. PMID:19364637

  18. Adult tibial eminence fracture fixation: arthroscopic procedure using K-wire folded fixation.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Nicolas; Jeunet, Laurent; Obert, Laurent; Dejour, David

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a new and simple technique for arthroscopic fixation of tibial intercondylar eminence avulsion fractures using folded surgical pin. This technique allows reduction and fixation of the bone fragment without using special equipment. After standard arthroscopic procedure to explore the knee and to remove fracture debris and blood clot, the bone block is reduced and advanced with the spike of the anterior cruciate ligament tibial drill guide. A 1.8-mm K-wire is drilled through the guide from the proximal tibia into the reduced fragment. It is bent on its end into the joint with a strong needle case. The K-wire is then pulled back until good fragment compression to the tibia appears with the wire starting unbending. Next, the other side is bent on the anterior tibial cortex and cut. This arthroscopic fixation allows elastic compression fragment stabilization that authorizes early weight bearing and rehabilitation programs. The material is extracted by traction after 6 months. PMID:17235617

  19. Patient function after a posterior stabilizing total knee arthroplasty: cam-post engagement and knee kinematics.

    PubMed

    Suggs, Jeremy F; Hanson, George R; Park, Sang Eun; Moynihan, Angela L; Li, Guoan

    2008-03-01

    Even though posterior substituting total knee arthroplasty has been widely used in surgery, how the cam-post mechanism (posterior substituting mechanism) affects knee joint kinematics and function in patients is not known. The objective of the present study was to investigate posterior femoral translation, internal tibial rotation, tibiofemoral contact, and cam-post engagement of total knee arthroplasty patients during in vivo weight-bearing flexion. Twenty-four knees with a PS TKA were investigated while performing a single leg weight-bearing lunge from full extension to maximum flexion as images were recorded using a dual fluoroscopic system. The in vivo knee position at each targeted flexion angle was reproduced using 3D TKA models and the fluoroscopic images. The kinematics of the knee was measured from the series of the total knee arthroplasty models. The cam-post engagement was determined when the surface model of the femoral cam overlapped with that of the tibial post. The mean maximum flexion angle for all the subjects was 112.5 +/- 13.1 degrees . The mean flexion angle where cam-post engagement was observed was 91.1 +/- 10.9 degrees . The femur moved anteriorly from 0 degrees to 30 degrees and posteriorly through the rest of the flexion range. The internal tibial rotation increased approximately 6 degrees from full extension to 90 degrees of flexion and decreased slightly with further flexion. Both the medial and lateral contact point moved posteriorly from 0 degrees to 30 degrees , remained relatively constant from 30 degrees to 90 degrees , and then moved further posterior from 90 degrees to maximum flexion. The in vivo cam-post engagement corresponded to increased posterior translation and reduced internal tibial rotation at high flexion of the posterior substituting total knee arthroplasty. The initial cam-post engagement was also mildly correlated with the maximum flexion angle of the knee (R = 0.51, p = 0.019). A later cam-post engagement might

  20. Pseudoaneurysm of the Posterior Tibial Artery After Posterior Tibial Tendon Transfer.

    PubMed

    Elabdi, Monsef; Roukhsi, Redouane; Tijani, Youssef; Chtata, Hassan; Jaafar, Abdeloihab

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the posterior tibial artery is an uncommon condition that, left untreated, can lead to hemorrhage, thrombosis, or emboli. We present the case of a 54-year-old male who developed pseudoaneurysm of the posterior tibial artery 4 months after undergoing tibialis posterior tendon transfer for management of peroneal nerve palsy, which had developed as a complication of hip arthroplasty. PMID:26972754

  1. What Strains the Anterior Cruciate Ligament During a Pivot Landing?

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Youkeun K.; Lipps, David B.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Wojtys, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The relative contributions of an axial tibial torque and frontal plane moment to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain during pivot landings are unknown. Hypothesis The peak normalized relative strain in the anteromedial (AM) bundle of the ACL is affected by the direction of the axial tibial torque but not by the direction of the frontal plane moment applied concurrently during a simulated jump landing. Study Design Controlled and descriptive laboratory studies. Methods Fifteen adult male knees with pretensioned knee muscle-tendon unit forces were loaded under a simulated pivot landing test. Compression, flexion moment, internal or external tibial torque, and knee varus or valgus moment were simultaneously applied to the distal tibia while recording the 3D knee loads and tibiofemoral kinematics. The AM-ACL relative strain was measured using a 3-mm differential variable reluctance transducer. The results were analyzed using nonparametric Wilcoxon signed–rank tests. A 3D dynamic biomechanical knee model was developed using ADAMS and validated to help interpret the experimental results. Results The mean (SD) peak AM-ACL relative strain was 192% greater (P <.001) under the internal tibial torque combined with a knee varus or valgus moment (7.0% [3.9%] and 7.0% [4.1%], respectively) than under external tibial torque with the same moments (2.4% [2.5%] and 2.4% [3.2%], respectively). The knee valgus moment augmented the AM-ACL strain due to the slope of the tibial plateau inducing mechanical coupling (ie, internal tibial rotation and knee valgus moment); this augmentation occurred before medial knee joint space opening. Conclusion An internal tibial torque combined with a knee valgus moment is the worst-case ACL loading condition. However, it is the internal tibial torque that primarily causes large ACL strain. Clinical Relevance Limiting the maximum coefficient of friction between the shoe and playing surface should limit the peak internal tibial torque

  2. Kinematic analysis of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua-Wei; Ni, Ming; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Chai, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Gang; Chen, Ji-Ying; Liu, Yu-Liang; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aims to retain normal knee kinematics after knee replacement surgeries by reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament during total knee arthroplasty. Method: We use computational simulation tools to establish four dynamic knee models, including normal knee model, posterior cruciate ligament retaining knee model, posterior cruciate ligament substituting knee model, and anterior cruciate ligament reconstructing knee model. Our proposed method utilizes magnetic resonance images to reconstruct solid bones and attachments of ligaments, and assemble femoral and tibial components according representative literatures and operational specifications. Dynamic data of axial tibial rotation and femoral translation from full-extension to 135 were measured for analyzing the motion of knee models. Findings: The computational simulation results show that comparing with the posterior cruciate ligament retained knee model and the posterior cruciate ligament substituted knee model, reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament improves the posterior movement of the lateral condyle, medial condyle and tibial internal rotation through a full range of flexion. The maximum posterior translations of the lateral condyle, medial condyle and tibial internal rotation of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knee are 15.3 mm, 4.6 mm and 20.6 at 135 of flexion. Interpretation: Reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty has been approved to be an more efficient way of maintaining normal knee kinematics comparing to posterior cruciate ligament retained and posterior cruciate ligament substituted total knee arthroplasty. PMID:27347334

  3. The anterior cruciate ligament-lateral meniscus complex: A histological study.

    PubMed

    Furumatsu, Takayuki; Kodama, Yuya; Maehara, Ami; Miyazawa, Shinichi; Fujii, Masataka; Tanaka, Takaaki; Inoue, Hiroto; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2016-03-01

    The anterior root of the lateral meniscus (LM) dives underneath the tibial attachment of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Although the distinct role of meniscal attachments has been investigated, the relationship between the LM anterior insertion (LMAI) and ACL tibial insertion (ACLTI) remains unclear. This study histologically analyzed the LMAI and ACLTI. Samples were divided into four regions in an anterior-to-posterior direction. Histological measurements of these insertion sites were performed using safranin O-stained coronal sections. Distribution and signal densities of type I and II collagen were quantified. The ACLTI and LMAI formed the ACL-LM complex via fiber connections. The anterior part of the ACLTI had a widespread attachment composed of dense fibers. Attachment fibers of the LMAI became dense and wide gradually at the middle-to-posterior region. The ACL-LM transition zone (ALTZ) was observed between the LMAI and the lateral border of the ACLTI at the middle part of the ACL tibial footprint. Type II collagen density of the LMAI was higher than that of the ACLTI and ALTZ. Our results can help create an accurate tibial bone tunnel within the dense ACL attachment during ACL reconstruction surgery. PMID:26631325

  4. Topography of human ankle joint: focused on posterior tibial artery and tibial nerve.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deog-Im; Kim, Yi-Suk; Han, Seung-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Most of foot pain occurs by the entrapment of the tibial nerve and its branches. Some studies have reported the location of the tibial nerve; however, textbooks and researches have not described the posterior tibial artery and the relationship between the tibal nerve and the posterior tibial artery in detail. The purpose of this study was to analyze the location of neurovascular structures and bifurcations of the nerve and artery in the ankle region based on the anatomical landmarks. Ninety feet of embalmed human cadavers were examined. All measurements were evaluated based on a reference line. Neurovascular structures were classified based on the relationship between the tibial nerve and the posterior tibial artery. The bifurcation of arteries and nerves were expressed by X- and Y-coordinates. Based on the reference line, 9 measurements were examined. The most common type I (55.6%), was the posterior tibial artery located medial to the tibial nerve. Neurovascular structures were located less than 50% of the distance between M and C from M at the reference line. The bifurcation of the posterior tibial artery was 41% in X-coordinate, -38% in Y-coordinate, and that of the tibial nerve was 48%, and -10%, respectively. Thirteen measurements and classification showed statistically significant differences between both sexes (P<0.05). It is determined the average position of neurovascular structures in the human ankle region and recorded the differences between the sexes and amongst the populations. These results would be helpful for the diagnosis and treatment of foot pain. PMID:26140224

  5. Do microfractures improve high tibial osteotomy outcome?

    PubMed

    Pascale, Walter; Luraghi, Simone; Perico, Laura; Pascale, Valerio

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if microfractures improve the outcome of high tibial osteotomy in patients with medial compartmental osteoarthritis in genu varum. Forty patients presenting with Outerbridge grade III and IV chondropathies on the femoral and/or the tibial joint surface underwent high tibial osteotomy with Puddu plates (Arthrex, Inc, Naples, Florida) for primary medial compartment osteoarthritis in genu varum at our institution. Patients were randomly assigned to either the high tibial osteotomy plus microfractures group (A; n=20) or the high tibial osteotomy alone group (B; n=20). Final assessment was conducted 5 years postoperatively, including clinical response measured by the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Lysholm score, and patient satisfaction score. All patients were blinded to the treatment received and followed the same rehabilitation protocol. A statistically significant improvement between pre- and postoperative values was observed for Lysholm and IKDC scores in both groups, without any statistically significant difference between them. Regarding the satisfaction score, there were no differences between the 2 groups in terms of preoperative self-assessment (P>.05), whereas postoperative subjective satisfaction at 5-year follow-up was significantly higher in group A than in group B (P=.0036).Our study results provide further evidence that medial tibial osteotomy is an effective surgical option for treating a varus knee associated with medial degenerative arthritis in patients wishing to continue accustomed levels of physical activity. In particular, patient satisfaction was higher among those who underwent the combined treatment involving high tibial osteotomy to correct femorotibial angle and microfractures. PMID:21717984

  6. COMPLICATIONS OF THE SCREW/WASHER TIBIAL FIXATION TECHNIQUE FOR KNEE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Alexandre; Roveda, Gilberto; Valin, Márcio Rangel; Almeida, Nayvaldo Couto de; Sartor, Vanderlei; Alves, Soraya Melina

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the presence of pain at the site of the surgical incision and the need to remove the tibial fixation screw in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, in relation to sex and body mass index (BMI). Methods: A group of 265 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction with ipsilateral flexor tendon grafts from the thigh in which the tibial fixation technique consisted of using a cortical screw and metal washer, between July 2000 and November 2007, were evaluated. Results: 176 patients were evaluated for an average of 33.3 ± 19.5 months; median of 29.5 months; IIQ: 17-45 months; minimum of 8 and maximum of 87 months. There was no statistical difference regarding complaints of pain at the site of the screw (p = 0.272) and the need to remove the tibial screw (p = 0.633) between sexes. There was no statistical difference regarding complaints of pain at the site of the screw (p = 0.08) and the need to remove the tibial screw (p = 0.379) according to BMI. Conclusion: The pain complaint rate at the screw site from the screw and metal washer method used for tibial fixation in ACL reconstruction was of the order of 25%, and the screw had to be removed in 10.8% of the cases. There was no predominance of pain complaints at the surgical wound between the sexes. There was a greater tendency to complain about pain among patients with BMI < 25. There was no predominance of screw and washer removal between the sexes or between individuals with different BMIs. PMID:27022587

  7. Effects of in vitro wear of machined and molded UHMWPE tibial inserts on TKR kinematics.

    PubMed

    Benson, L C; DesJardins, J D; LaBerge, M

    2001-01-01

    The effect of manufacturing process on the wear and mechanical performance of a total knee replacement (TKR) design was investigated with the use of a force-controlled knee joint simulator. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) tibial inserts processed by direct compression molding from 1900H resin were compared to UHMWPE tibial inserts machined from a compression-molded sheet of GUR 1050. Both sets of components had the same posterior-cruciate-retaining geometry, and were identically aligned with cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy femoral components. Wear tests were conducted at a frequency of 1 Hz for 4 million cycles with the use of a standard walking cycle pattern. Implant kinematics, including anterior-posterior (AP) displacement and internal-external (IE) rotation in response to applied loads were monitored. Gravimetric wear, surface roughness, and surface morphology were used to characterize the wear process of the UHMWPE inserts. Results showed that the molded UHMWPE inserts exhibited less gravimetric wear over time than the machined inserts of the same design. Both the machined and molded components exhibited scratching, pitting, and burnishing over their wear areas. The AP displacement distance per cycle of the molded tibial inserts decreased over the course of testing, resulting in a shorter total testing displacement for this group compared to machined tibial inserts. Although AP displacement distance per cycle for machined tibial inserts did not change significantly over the course of testing, their position relative to the femoral components shifted posteriorly over time, resulting in an elongated wear track. PMID:11505423

  8. Medical restraints to anterior-posterior motion of the knee.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, D; Levy, I M; Sheskier, S; Torzilli, P A; Warren, R F

    1984-07-01

    We investigated the motion of cadaver knees before and after section of the medial structures and anterior cruciate ligament. The knees were tested using a 5-degrees-of-freedom in vitro knee-testing apparatus that measured anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, and axial displacement as well as internal-external and valgus-varus rotation. The flexion angle could be varied but was fixed for each individual test. A 125-newton anterior-posterior force was applied perpendicular to the tibial shaft and the resulting motion of the knee was measured. In five knees the anterior cruciate ligament was cut first, followed by progressive cuts of the structures on the medial side (superficial medial collateral ligament, deep medial ligament, oblique fibers of the superficial medial ligament, and the posteromedial part of the capsule). Conversely, in five knees the medial structures were progressively cut first, followed by section of the anterior cruciate ligament. Tests were performed after each cut. With an intact anterior cruciate ligament, progressive cutting of the medial side had no effect on anterior and posterior displacements. When section of the medial structures followed cutting of the anterior cruciate ligament, anterior displacement exceeded that seen after isolated section of the anterior cruciate ligament. The anterior and posterior load-tests were repeated with the tibia fixed in 5 degrees of internal and 5 degrees of external rotation. Fixed external rotation had no effect on anterior and posterior displacements. Fixed internal rotation significantly decreased anterior displacement only when both the anterior cruciate ligament and the medial structures were cut.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6736094

  9. Tibial rotational osteotomy with intramedullary nail fixation

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    There are several theoretic advantages of using intramedullary rod fixation for tibial osteotomy fixation. We performed a retrospective review of patients who were treated with a mid-diaphyseal osteotomy of the tibia fixed with an intramedullary rod for isolated, symptomatic tibial torsion. Forty patients (59 tibias) were included in the study and were followed for a minimum of 12 months or until rod removal (average follow-up 22.6 months). Major complication rate was 8.5%, which is comparable to alternative methods of fixation. We believe that intramedullary rods are a safe alternative for fixation of tibial rotational osteotomy in patients with physeal closure. PMID:19941168

  10. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture☆

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  11. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  12. Tibiofemoral cartilage contact biomechanics in patients after reconstruction of a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Ali; Van de Velde, Samuel; Gill, Thomas J; Li, Guoan

    2012-11-01

    We investigated the in vivo cartilage contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint in patients after reconstruction of a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). A dual fluoroscopic and MR imaging technique was used to investigate the cartilage contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint during in vivo weight-bearing flexion of the knee in eight patients 6 months following clinically successful reconstruction of an acute isolated ACL rupture. The location of tibiofemoral cartilage contact, size of the contact area, cartilage thickness at the contact area, and magnitude of the cartilage contact deformation of the ACL-reconstructed knees were compared with those previously measured in intact (contralateral) knees and ACL-deficient knees of the same subjects. Contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral cartilage after ACL reconstruction were similar to those measured in intact knees. However, at lower flexion, the abnormal posterior and lateral shift of cartilage contact location to smaller regions of thinner tibial cartilage that has been described in ACL-deficient knees persisted in ACL-reconstructed knees, resulting in an increase of the magnitude of cartilage contact deformation at those flexion angles. Reconstruction of the ACL restored some of the in vivo cartilage contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint to normal. Clinically, recovering anterior knee stability might be insufficient to prevent post-operative cartilage degeneration due to lack of restoration of in vivo cartilage contact biomechanics. PMID:22528687

  13. Clinical Outcomes of High Tibial Osteotomy for Knee Instability

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Chase S.; Liechti, Daniel J.; Chahla, Jorge; Moatshe, Gilbert; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years there has been an increasing interest in high tibial osteotomy (HTO) to treat patients with chronic knee instability due to posterolateral corner (PLC), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiencies with concurrent malalignment in the coronal and/or sagittal plane. Purpose: To perform a systematic review of the use of HTO for the treatment of knee ligament instability with concurrent malalignment. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted for the treatment of combined knee ligament instability and malalignment with HTO using the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and MEDLINE (1980 to present); the queries were performed in July 2015. Terms searched included the following: high or proximal tibial osteotomy, unstable, instability, laxity, subluxation, tibial slope, and malalignment, in the knee joint. Inclusion criteria were as follows: HTO to treat instability of the knee joint in the sagittal and/or coronal plane, minimum 2-year follow-up with reported outcomes measures, English language, and human studies. Animal, basic science, and cadaveric studies were excluded as well as editorials, reviews, expert opinions, surveys, special topics, letters to the editor, and correspondence. Results: The search resulted in 460 studies. After applying exclusion criteria and removing duplicates, 13 studies were considered. Of the studies reviewed, knee ligament pathologies, previous surgeries, and measurement of knee stability were heterogeneous. However, all studies reported an improvement in knee stability after HTO. Most studies reported improvement in outcome scores. However, other studies did not provide preoperative scores for comparison. Reported complication rates ranged from 0% to 47%. Conclusion: Although HTO has been highly advocated and used in treating patients with ligamentous knee instability, there

  14. Insufficiency fractures of the tibial plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Manco, L.G.; Schneider, R.; Pavlov, H.

    1983-06-01

    An insufficiency fracture of the tibial plateau may be the cause of knee pain in patients with osteoporosis. The diagnosis is usually not suspected until a bone scan is done, as initial radiographs are often negative or inconclusive and clinical findings are nonspecific and may simulate osteoarthritis or spontaneous osteonecrosis. In five of 165 patients referred for bone scans due to nontraumatic knee pain, a characteristic pattern of intense augmented uptake of radionuclide confined to the tibial plateau led to a presumptive diagnosis of insufficiency fracture, later confirmed on radiographs.

  15. Fracture of tibial tuberosity in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires e; Campos, André Siqueira; de Araújo, Gabriel Costa Serrão; Gameiro, Vinícius Schott

    2013-01-01

    The fracture of tibial tuberosity is a rare lesion and still more unusual in adults. We describe a case in an adult who suffered a left knee injury due to a fall from height. No risk factors were identified. The lesion was treated with surgical reduction and internal fixation. The rehabilitation method was successful, resulting in excellent function and rage of motion of the knee. The aim of this study was to present an unusual case of direct trauma of the tibial tuberosity in an adult and the therapy performed. PMID:24293543

  16. Aneurysm of the tibial-saphenous fistula in hemodialysis patient: the results of surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Günday, Murat

    2011-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulas are widely used for hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal failure. Due to the lack of suitable veins because of the arteriovenous fistulas previously opened in the upper extremity, alternative access routes are being tested. Few complications of long-term alternative arteriovenous fistulas have been reported in the literature. We report the results of surgical repairs of aneurysms that occurred on anterior tibial-saphenous arteriovenous fistulas (along the vein) in patients with end-stage renal disease after 5 years on hemodialysis. PMID:22140315

  17. Posterior Tibial Labrum Injury in a Professional Soccer Player: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Batista, Jorge Pablo; del Vecchio, Jorge Javier; Maestu, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Ankle ligament injuries are one of the most frequent lesions identified in professional soccer players. In most cases, the ligaments involved are the anterior talofibular ligament and the calcaneal fibular ligament. In the present report, we describe a professional soccer player who sustained an ankle sprain that did not respond to initial therapy. The findings from radiographic and magnetic resonance images were inconclusive. Ultimately, rupture of the posterior, transverse ligament with avulsion of the tibial labrum was identified as the cause of his ongoing ankle pain. Confirmation of the pathologic findings and successful treatment were performed arthroscopically. PMID:25459088

  18. The contribution of each anterior cruciate ligament bundle to the Lachman test: a cadaver investigation.

    PubMed

    Christel, P S; Akgun, U; Yasar, T; Karahan, M; Demirel, B

    2012-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of a partial tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is still subject to debate. Little is known about the contribution of each ACL bundle during the Lachman test. We investigated this using six fresh-frozen cadaveric lower limbs. Screws were placed in the femora and tibiae as fixed landmarks for digitisation of the bone positions. The femur was secured horizontally in a clamp. A metal hook was screwed to the tibial tubercle and used to apply a load of 150 N directed anteroposteriorly to the tibia to simulate the Lachman test. The knees then received constant axial compression and 3D knee kinematic data were collected by digitising the screw head positions in 30° flexion under each test condition. Measurements of tibial translation and rotation were made, first with the ACL intact, then after sequential cutting of the ACL bundles, and finally after complete division of the ACL. Two-way analysis of variance analysis was performed. During the Lachman test, in all knees and in all test conditions, lateral tibial translation exceeded that on the medial side. With an intact ACL, both anterior and lateral tibial landmarks translated significantly more than those on the medial side (p < 0.001). With sequential division of the ACL bundles, selective cutting of the posterolateral bundle (PLB) did not increase translation of any landmark compared with when the ACL remained intact. Cutting the anteromedial bundle (AMB) resulted in an increased anterior translation of all landmarks. Compared to the intact ACL, when the ACL was fully transected a significant increase in anterior translation of all landmarks occurred (p < 0.001). However, anterior tibial translation was almost identical after AMB or complete ACL division. We found that the AMB confers its most significant contribution to tibial translation during the Lachman test, whereas the PLB has a negligible effect on anterior translation. Section of the PLB had a greater effect on increasing

  19. Diagnostic Value of Knee Arthrometry in the Prediction of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strain During Landing

    PubMed Central

    Kiapour, Ata M.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Paterno, Mark V.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Levine, Jason W.; Goel, Vijay K.; Demetropoulos, Constantine K.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have indicated that higher knee joint laxity may be indicative of an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Despite the frequent clinical use of knee arthrometry in the evaluation of knee laxity, little data exist to correlate instrumented laxity measures and ACL strain during dynamic high-risk activities. Purpose/Hypotheses The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between ACL strain and anterior knee laxity measurements using arthrometry during both a drawer test and simulated bipedal landing (as an identified high-risk injurious task). We hypothesized that a high correlation exists between dynamic ACL strain and passive arthrometry displacement. The secondary hypothesis was that anterior knee laxity quantified by knee arthrometry is a valid predictor of injury risk such that specimens with greater anterior knee laxity would demonstrate increased levels of peak ACL strain during landing. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Twenty cadaveric lower limbs (mean age, 46 ± 6 years; 10 female and 10 male) were tested using a CompuKT knee arthrometer to measure knee joint laxity. Each specimen was tested under 4 continuous cycles of anterior-posterior shear force (±134 N) applied to the tibial tubercle. To quantify ACL strain, a differential variable reluctance transducer (DVRT) was arthroscopically placed on the ACL (anteromedial bundle), and specimens were retested. Subsequently, bipedal landing from 30 cm was simulated in a subset of 14 specimens (mean age, 45 ± 6 years; 6 female and 8 male) using a novel custom-designed drop stand. Changes in joint laxity and ACL strain under applied anterior shear force were statistically analyzed using paired sample t tests and analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between anterior shear force, anterior tibial translation, and ACL strain. Results During simulated drawer tests, 134 N

  20. Patterns of healing: a comparison of two proximal tibial osteotomy techniques.

    PubMed

    Peek, Anna C; Timms, Anna; Chin, Kuen F; Calder, Peter; Goodier, David

    2016-04-01

    Several low-energy osteotomy techniques are described in the literature, but there is limited evidence comparing them. Our study evaluates the patterns of regenerate formation using two different osteotomy techniques. Two cohorts of patients underwent osteotomy of the tibia using a Gigli saw (n = 15) or De Bastiani corticotomy (n = 12) technique. The patient radiographs were assessed by the two senior authors who were blinded to the osteotomy type. Regenerate quality was assessed along the anterior, posterior, medial and lateral cortices, graded 1-5 from absent to full consolidation over time. The time to 3 cortices healed/regenerate length was calculated. The time to consolidation of the anterior, posterior, medial and lateral cortices was compared. The mean 3 cortices index in the Gigli group was 2.0 months/cm and in the De Bastiani group 1.8 months/cm. This was not a significant difference. In both groups, anterior bone formation was slower, and anterior cortical deficiency with a scalloped appearance was seen in 25 % of cases overall with no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Both Gigli saw and De Bastiani corticotomy techniques result in good bone formation following distraction osteogenesis. The anterior tibial cortex consolidates more slowly than the other cortices in both groups. This is likely due to deficient soft tissue cover and direct periosteal damage at time of osteotomy. PMID:26884254

  1. Simultaneous Bilateral Tibial Tubercle Avulsion Fracture in a case of Pre-Existing Osgood-Schlatter Disease (OSD)

    PubMed Central

    Narayana Gowda, BS; Mohan Kumar, J

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) is a well known condition, characterized by pain over the tibial tubercle with subsequent tubercle prominence. Avulsion fracture following OSD is a rare complication. We report an unusual case of simultaneous bilateral tibial tubercle avulsion fracture in a 16 year old boy who was a known case of OSD. Case presentation: A 16 year old boy a known case of OSD presented to the outpatient department with history of jumping from the school compound wall (two feet height) while playing, followed by severe pain around anterior aspect of both knees and difficulty in walking. Radiographs showed bilateral tibial tubercle avulsion fracture. He was treated successfully with open reduction and internal fixation with tension band wiring. At the end of 22 months the patient was symptomatically relieved and both the tuberosities were united with the main bone. Conclusion: Even though bilateral Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) is a well known condition, one should always keep in mind the risk of tibial tubercle avulsion fractures while treating a case of OSD. Patient should be advised not to involve in strenuous activities till the disease subsides radiologically or till skeletal maturity.

  2. Clinically Relevant Injury Patterns After an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Provide Insight Into Injury Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Jason W.; Kiapour, Ata M.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Demetropoulos, Constantine K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional disability and high costs of treating anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have generated a great deal of interest in understanding the mechanism of noncontact ACL injuries. Secondary bone bruises have been reported in over 80% of partial and complete ACL ruptures. Purpose The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify ACL strain under a range of physiologically relevant loading conditions and (2) to evaluate soft tissue and bony injury patterns associated with applied loading conditions thought to be responsible for many noncontact ACL injuries. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Seventeen cadaveric legs (age, 45 ± 7 years; 9 female and 8 male) were tested utilizing a custom-designed drop stand to simulate landing. Specimens were randomly assigned between 2 loading groups that evaluated ACL strain under either knee abduction or internal tibial rotation moments. In each group, combinations of anterior tibial shear force, and knee abduction and internal tibial rotation moments under axial impact loading were applied sequentially until failure. Specimens were tested at 25° of flexion under simulated 1200-N quadriceps and 800-N hamstring loads. A differential variable reluctance transducer was used to calculate ACL strain across the anteromedial bundle. A general linear model was used to compare peak ACL strain at failure. Correlations between simulated knee injury patterns and loading conditions were evaluated by the χ2 test for independence. Results Anterior cruciate ligament failure was generated in 15 of 17 specimens (88%). A clinically relevant distribution of failure patterns was observed including medial collateral ligament tears and damage to the menisci, cartilage, and subchondral bone. Only abduction significantly contributed to calculated peak ACL strain at failure (P = .002). While ACL disruption patterns were independent of the loading mechanism, tibial plateau injury patterns (locations) were

  3. Intraneural ganglion cyst of the tibial nerve.

    PubMed

    Adn, M; Hamlat, A; Morandi, X; Guegan, Y

    2006-08-01

    Intraneural ganglion cyst of the tibial nerve is very rare. To date, only 5 cases of this entity in the popliteal fossa have been reported. We report a new case and review the previously reported cases. A 40-year-old man experienced a mild vague pain in the medial half of his right foot for 3 years. Magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrated a soft-tissue mass along the right tibial nerve. At surgery, an intraneural ganglion cyst was evacuated. After 12 months, the patient was pain-free with no signs of recurrence. Trauma might be a contributing factor to the development of intraneural ganglion cysts. Application of microsurgical techniques is encouraged. PMID:16775659

  4. Phacoemulsification in anterior megalophthalmos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Graham A; Hann, Joshua V; Braga-Mele, Rosa

    2006-07-01

    This case outlines the phacoemulsification technique used to overcome the challenge of the hyperdeep anterior chamber, weak zonules, abnormal anterior capsule, and large capsular bag. Key steps included trypan blue staining of the anterior capsule, a large capsulorhexis, prolapse of the nucleus into the anterior chamber with phacoemulsification anterior to the capsulorhexis, and a posterior chamber-placed iris-clip intraocular lens. Successful visual rehabilitation is achievable in these anatomically challenging eyes. PMID:16857490

  5. Comparative Study on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Determination of Isometric Points with and Without Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Fabio J.; Albuquerque, Roberto F. M.; Sasaki, Sandra U.; Camanho, Gilberto L.; Hernandez, Arnaldo J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the accuracy of tunnel placement and graft isometry for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction performed using a computer-assisted navigation system (Orthopilot) and using traditional instruments. METHODS: The anterior cruciate ligament was removed intact from 36 pairs of human cadaver knees. From each pair, one knee was randomized to Group 1 (conventional) and the other to Group 2 (Orthopilot). An inelastic suture was then passed through the central points of the tibial and femoral tunnels. Neither of the tunnels was drilled. All knees were then dissected, and six parameters were obtained: distances from the tibial tunnel center to the 1) posterior cruciate ligament, 2) anterior horn of the lateral meniscus and 3) medial tibial spine; 4) distance from the femoral tunnel center to the posterior femoral cortex; 5) femoral tunnel coronal angle; and 6) variation of the distance from the femoral to the tibial tunnel with the knee extended and at 90 degrees of flexion. RESULTS: The variation of the distance from the femoral to the tibial tunnel during flexion and extension was smaller in the Orthopilot group (better isometry) compared to the conventional group. There were no statistical differences in any other parameters between the groups, and all tunnels were considered to be in satisfactory positions. DISCUSSION: The results obtained for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction depend on precise isometric point positioning, and a navigation system is a precision tool that can assist surgeons in tunnel positioning. CONCLUSION: No differences in tunnel position were observed between the groups. Nonetheless, better isometry was achieved in the Orthopilot group than with conventional instruments. PMID:20668625

  6. Prognostic Value of the 24-Hour Neurological Examination in Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke: A post hoc Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled Stroke Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Frankel, Michael; Jovin, Tudor G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early prognostication of long-term outcomes following ischemic stroke can facilitate medical decision-making. We hypothesized that the 24-hour National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) predicts 3-month clinical outcomes in anterior circulation stroke. Methods Secondary analyses of the Interventional Management of Stroke 3 (IMS3) and intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) for acute ischemic stroke [National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) IV tPA] trials were performed. In participants with documented 24-hour NIHSS and 3-month Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), the predictive power of the 24-hour NIHSS and 24-hour NIHSS improvement for 3-month outcomes [mRS 0-2 and Barthel Index (BI) ≥95] was assessed. Percentages of good outcome (mRS 0-2 or BI ≥95) at 3, 6, and 12 months and mean quality of life (EQ5D™) index at 3 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were compared. Results The majority of the study participants were included (IMS3 n = 587/656, NINDS IV tPA n = 619/624). The 24-hour NIHSS was correlated with 3-month mRS (R = 0.73) with excellent predictive power for mRS 0-2 [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.91] and BI ≥95 (AUC = 0.9) in both cohorts. A model with the 24-hour NIHSS alone correctly classified 82-84% of patients in both cohorts. The percentages of good outcomes at 3-12 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were similar in both cohorts. mRS 0-2 was achieved by 75.6-77.7% of patients with 24-hour NIHSS ≤11 but by only 1.4-3.6% with 24-hour NIHSS ≥20. The EQ5D index at 3 months varied among NIHSS 0-4 (mean 0.86 ± 0.16), 5-11 (0.77 ± 0.18), and 12-19 (0.59 ± 0.26) quartiles. Conclusions The 24-hour NIHSS strongly predicts long-term stroke outcomes and is associated with quality of life. Its easy availability, reliability, and validity support its use as an early prognostic marker and surrogate of clinical outcome in ischemic stroke. PMID:27051408

  7. Exposed tibial bone after burns: Flap reconstruction versus dermal substitute.

    PubMed

    Verbelen, Jozef; Hoeksema, Henk; Pirayesh, Ali; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Monstrey, Stan

    2016-03-01

    A 44 years old male patient had suffered extensive 3rd degree burns on both legs, undergoing thorough surgical debridement, resulting in both tibias being exposed. Approximately 5 months after the incident he was referred to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the University Hospital Gent, Belgium, to undergo flap reconstruction. Free flap surgery was performed twice on both lower legs but failed on all four occasions. In between flap surgery, a dermal substitute (Integra(®)) was applied, attempting to cover the exposed tibias with a layer of soft tissue, but also without success. In order to promote the development of granulation tissue over the exposed bone, small holes were drilled in both tibias with removal of the outer layer of the anterior cortex causing the bone to bleed and subsequently negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was applied. The limited granulation tissue resulting from this procedure was then covered with a dermal substitute (Glyaderm(®)), consisting of acellular human dermis with an average thickness of 0.25mm. This dermal substitute was combined with a NPWT-dressing, and then served as an extracellular matrix (ECM), guiding the distribution of granulation tissue over the remaining areas of exposed tibial bone. Four days after initial application of Glyaderm(®) combined with NPWT both tibias were almost completely covered with a thin coating of soft tissue. In order to increase the thickness of this soft tissue cover two additional layers of Glyaderm(®) were applied at intervals of approximately 1 week. One week after the last Glyaderm(®) application both wounds were autografted. The combination of an acellular dermal substitute (Glyaderm(®)) with negative pressure wound therapy and skin grafting proved to be an efficient technique to cover a wider area of exposed tibial bone in a patient who was not a candidate for free flap surgery. An overview is also provided of newer and simpler techniques for coverage of

  8. Anatomic Single-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Remnant Preservation Using Outside-In Technique

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung-Ill; Kwon, Sai-Won; Choi, Hyung-Suk; Chun, Dong-Il; Kim, Yong-Beom; Kim, Byoung-Min

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a modified anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction technique using the FlipCutter guide pin (Arthrex, Naples, FL) as a retrograde drill and a cortical suspensory fixation device (TightRope; Arthrex) with an adjustable graft loop length. Preservation of the ACL remnant as a biological sleeve for the graft is an important issue from the viewpoints of acceleration of revascularization and ligamentization, preservation of the proprioceptive nerve fibers, enhancement of the biological environment for healing, and maintenance of the anchor point at the native tibial attachment, in addition to yielding a lower incidence of tibial bone tunnel enlargement. The goal of our technique is to obtain some advantages of the remnant-preserving technique through an anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction, which is performed to minimize damage to the ACL tibial remnant. PMID:26759771

  9. Giant somatosensory evoked potentials in a patient with the anterior spinal artery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Triggs, W J; Berić, A

    1993-05-01

    We studied a previously healthy 25-year-old woman with the anterior spinal artery syndrome, a rare thoracocervical myelopathy with multiple potential etiologies. Quantitative and clinical sensory examination showed dissociated loss of pin-prick and temperature discrimination below the level of the lesion, with normal light touch, vibratory, and position sense. Magnetic resonance imaging was consistent with cervical spinal cord infarction. Median SEPs showed normal Erb's potential with absent spinal N13- and normal scalp N20- latency. Tibial SEPs showed normal lumbosacral responses and normal scalp P30- latency. Both median and tibial nerve stimulation produced cortical responses of unusually large amplitude (median 38 microV, tibial 17 microV). We hypothesize that large SEP amplitudes in this patient resulted from loss of anterolateral inhibitory influences on the dorsal column-medial lemniscal system. PMID:8515757

  10. Can Tibial Cementation Be Enhanced in Knee Arthroplasty Surgery?

    PubMed

    Westerman, Richard W

    2016-07-01

    Aseptic loosening of the tibial component continues to be a significant mode of failure in total knee arthroplasty surgery. Surface cemented components preserve tibial bone stock, but are reliant on a strong bone-cement interface. This study compares standard surface cemented tibial component design to a tibial component with the addition of an undersurface cement containment skirt. The hypothesis was that the addition of a 2-mm underside skirt would allow cement containment and pressurization during implantation, which might improve the overall survival. Two identical tibial components were used, out of which one had the 2-mm underside skirt removed for the purposes of this study. Overall, 12 tibial Sawbones were prepared identically and transducers placed in the medial and lateral plateau. Each component was implanted six times, according to the manufacturer's operative technique. The series of implantation experiments showed no difference in cement pressurization (p = 0.86) regardless of the tibial component design used, with a wide variation in pressure measurements occurring in both groups. The tibial component skirt has not demonstrated any enhancement in cement pressurization. The cement containment skirt might still be advantageous by increasing the cement mantle thickness without causing excessive bone penetration; however, the biological effects cannot be predicted without further clinical evaluation. PMID:26408994

  11. How I do it: Anterior pull-through tympanoplasty for anterior eardrum perforations.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jeffrey P; Wong, Yu-Tung; Yang, Tzong-Hann; Miller, Mia

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions This technique is offered as a convenient and reliable method for cases with anterior TM perforation and inadequate anterior remnant. Objectives Chronic otitis media surgery is one of the most common procedures in otology. Anterior tympanic membrane (TM) perforation with inadequate anterior remnant is associated with higher rates of graft failure. It was the goal of this series to evaluate the anatomical and functional outcomes of a modified underlay myringoplasty technique-the anterior pull-through method. Materials and methods In a retrospective clinical study, 13 patients with anterior TM perforations with inadequate anterior remnants underwent tympanoplasty with anterior pull-through technique. The anterior tip of the temporalis fascia was pulled through and secured in a short incision lateral to the anterior part of the annulus. Data on graft take rate, pre-operative, and post-operative hearing status were analyzed. Results A graft success rate of 84.6% (11 out of 13) was achieved, without lateralization, blunting, atelectasia, or epithelial pearls. The air-bone gap was 21.5 ± 6.8 dB before intervention and 11.75 ± 5.7 dB after surgery (p = 0.003). PMID:26988908

  12. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cystocele Anterior vaginal wall repair (surgical treatment of urinary incontinence) - series References Lentz GM. Anatomic defects of the ... 72. Read More Anterior Inflatable artificial sphincter Stress urinary incontinence Urinary catheters Urinary incontinence - injectable implant Urinary incontinence - ...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF TIBIAL SLOPE ANGLE AND PATELLAR HEIGHT AFTER MEDIAL-OPENING TIBIAL OSTEOTOMY

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Mozella, Alan; Vieira Costa, Marcos Areias; de Araujo Barros Cobra, Hugo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure the variation in posterior tibial slope angle and patellar height in patients who underwent proximal tibial valgus-producing osteotomy using the medial-opening wedge technique. Methods: Anteroposterior panoramic radiographs of the lower limbs and lateral radiographs of the knee obtained before and after tibial valgus-producing osteotomy on 46 patients with unicompartmental arthrosis of the knee were analyzed. Results: In 23 patients, an external fixator was used to gradually apply a medial-opening wedge; and in the other 23, a blocked plate with a stop bar was applied as a fixation method. Patients with tricompartmental knee disease and those who underwent osteotomy to treat fracture sequelae were excluded from this study. After surgery, the mean increase in the tibial slope was 1.7 degrees (p < 0.01) in the group in which the blocked plate with a stop bar was used; and 2.7 degrees (p < 0.05) in the group in which the external fixator was used. There was no statistical difference between the groups regarding the increase in the posterior tibial slope. Conclusion: The patellar height did not present any change in the cases in which the plate was used, when measured using the Insall-Salvati method, but it presented a decrease in 11 cases (47.8%) when the Caton-Deschamps method was applied. The same tendency was observed regarding change in the patellar height in the cases in which the external fixator was used, such that a decrease was observed in eight cases (34.7%) only when measured using the Caton-Deschamps method. PMID:27047847

  14. Computational modelling of mobile bearing TKA anterior-posterior dislocation.

    PubMed

    Müller, J H; Zakaria, T; van der Merwe, W; D'Angelo, F

    2016-01-01

    Anterior-posterior stability in an unconstrained mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and one with rotational constraints is compared in a computational model based on an ASTM test. Both TKA designs dislocate at loads greater than reported maximum in vivo forces. The posterior drawer forces (mean: 3027 N vs. 1817 N) needed to induce subluxation increase with a greater anterior jump distance (12 mm vs. 7 mm; refers to the vertical height of the anterior or posterior border of the tibial insert's articulating surface). The posterior jump distance for both tested TKA differed by 1.5 mm and had minimal effect on the magnitude of the anterior drawer forces at dislocation in mid-flexion (unconstrained vs. constrained: 445 N vs. 412 N). The unconstrained insert dislocated by means of spin-out whereas in the constrained TKA the femur dislocated from the bearing during posterior drawer and the bearing from the baseplate during anterior drawer. MCL function is an important consideration during ligament balancing since a ± 10% variation in MCL tension affects dislocation forces by ± 20%. The simulation platform provided the means to investigate TKA designs in terms of anterior-posterior stability as a function of knee flexion, collateral ligament function and mechanical morphology. PMID:26047039

  15. An audit of tunnel position in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Topliss, C; Webb, J

    2001-03-01

    We audited 114 primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions. Notes were reviewed and tunnel positions assessed on lateral and AP radiographs. A literature review established optimal tunnel position. Sixteen surgeons performed 57 arthroscopic and 57 open reconstructions, using 24 hamstring and 90 bone-tendon-bone autografts. Eighty-five sets of radiographs were available for review. Sixty-five percent of femoral tunnels and 59% of the tibial tunnels were malpositioned in the sagittal plane. Guidelines for best practice are required for key procedures in each speciality. Tunnel position in ACL reconstruction can be easily measured and should be correct in at least 90% of cases. PMID:11248570

  16. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Hamstring Tendon Autograft With Preserved Insertions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ravi; Bahadur, Raj; Malhotra, Anubhav; Masih, Gladson David; Gupta, Parmanand

    2016-04-01

    We present a technique for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring tendon autograft with preserved tibial insertions. The tendons, harvested with an open-ended tendon stripper while their tibial insertions are preserved, are looped around to prepare a quadrupled graft. The femoral tunnel is drilled independently through a transportal technique, whereas the tibial tunnel is drilled in a standard manner. The length of the quadrupled graft and loop of the RetroButton is adjusted so that it matches the calculated length of both tunnels and the intra-articular part of the proposed ACL graft. After the RetroButton is flipped, the graft is manually tensioned with maximal stretch on the free end, which is then sutured to the other end with preserved insertions. We propose that preserving the insertions is more biological and may provide better proprioception. The technique eliminates the need for a tibial-side fixation device, thus reducing the cost of surgery. Furthermore, tibial-side fixation of the free graft is the weakest link in the overall stiffness of the reconstructed ACL, and this technique circumvents this problem. Postoperative mechanical stability and functional outcome with this technique need to be explored and compared with those of ACL reconstruction using free hamstring autograft. PMID:27354946

  17. Single intra-articular dexamethasone injection immediately post-surgery in a rabbit model mitigates early inflammatory responses and post-traumatic osteoarthritis-like alterations.

    PubMed

    Heard, Bryan J; Barton, Kristen I; Chung, May; Achari, Yamini; Shrive, Nigel G; Frank, Cyril B; Hart, David A

    2015-12-01

    Despite surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament, a significant number of patients will still develop post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Our objective was to determine if mitigating aspects of the acute phase of inflammation following a defined knee surgery with a single administration of a glucocorticoid could prevent the development of PTOA-like changes within an established rabbit model of surgically induced PTOA. An early and late post-surgical time-point was investigated in this study (48 h and 9 weeks post-surgery) in which the following groups were repeated (each n=6, for a total of 24 rabbits per time-point, and 48 rabbits used in the study): control (age/sex matched), sham (arthrotomy), drill injury (arthrotomy+two drill holes to a non-cartilaginous area of the femoral notch), and drill injury+single intra-articular (IA) injection of dexamethasone (DEX). At 48 h post-surgery, DEX treatment significantly lowered the mRNA levels for a subset of pro-inflammatory mediators, and significantly lowered the histological grade. Nine weeks post surgery, DEX treatment significantly lowered the histological scores (presented as effect size) for synovium (3.8), lateral femoral condyle (3.9), and lateral tibial cartilage (5.1) samples. Thus, DEX likely acts to prevent injury induced inflammation that could contribute to subsequent joint damage. PMID:26135713

  18. Tibial somatosensory evoked potential can prognosticate for ambulatory function in subacute hemiplegic stroke.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Pyoungsik; Sohn, Min Kyun; Kim, Cuk-Seong; Jee, Sungju

    2016-04-01

    Early prediction of expected recovery in stroke can help in planning appropriate medical and rehabilitation interventions. Recovery of ambulation is one of the essential endpoints in stroke rehabilitation. However, the correlation of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) with clinical parameters and their predictive significance are not clearly defined. We aimed to examine the association between tibial nerve SSEP and ambulatory outcomes in subacute hemiplegic stroke patients. We reviewed medical records for hemiplegic patients with first-ever stroke who received inpatient rehabilitation from January 2009 to May 2013. We excluded patients with diabetes mellitus, quadriplegia, bilateral lesions, brainstem lesions, those aged over 80years, and those with severe musculoskeletal problems. Tibial nerve SSEP were performed when they were transferred to the rehabilitation department. SSEP findings were divided into three groups; normal, abnormal and absent response. Berg balance scale and functional ambulation category (FAC) at discharge were compared with initial tibial SSEP findings using one-way analysis of variance. Thirty-one hemiplegic patients were included. Berg balance scale and FAC were significantly different according to the SSEP (P<0.001). Post hoc analysis showed a significant difference between normal and absent response in Berg balance scale (P<0.001) and FAC (P<0.001), and between abnormal and absent response in Berg balance scale (P=0.012) and FAC (P=0.019). Functional outcomes of the normal response group were better than the abnormal response group, but there was no statistical significance. These findings suggest that initial tibial nerve SSEP may be a useful biomarker for prognosticating functional outcomes in hemiplegic patients. PMID:26778357

  19. Clinical outcome of arthroscopic reduction and suture for displaced acute and chronic tibial spine fractures.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin Hwan; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2005-03-01

    This paper reports the clinical outcome of the arthroscopic reduction and pull-out suture technique in acute and chronic displaced tibial spine anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) avulsion fractures. Between April 1997 and December 2000, 14 patients received an arthroscopic reduction and pull-out suturing of displaced tibial spine fractures (ACL avulsion fractures of tibia). Of 14 cases, ten were acute fractures and four were chronic nonunion fractures, in which all patients showed extension limitation. The mean follow-up period was 51 months (ranging from 30 to 80 months). At final follow-up, review of range of motion, Lachman test, anterior drawer test, KT-2000 arthrometer, Lysholm knee score, and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score were evaluated. Compared to conventional pull-out suturing, several key modifications to surgical techniques were used. In all 14 patients, radiological bony union was detected at mean 12.3 weeks (range, 8-16 weeks) after surgery. All patients were able to return to their preinjury activity and sports level. At final follow-up, full range of motion was achieved in all patients. Anterior draw test, Lachman test, and KT-2000 (less than 3 mm side-to-side) were all negative in 13 patients. One female patient, who was 6 years old at the time of surgery, complained of no subjective instability, but showed Lachman grade I, and 5 mm side-to-side difference in KT-2000. She also revealed 10 degrees difference of genu recurvatum deformity. Two children (including the previously-mentioned 6-year-old female patient) showed leg-length discrepancy of 1 cm-the affected legs being longer-at final follow-up. The mean Lysholm knee scores were 95.6 (range, 92-100) and HSS knee scores were 96.4 (range, 91-100). Arthroscopic reduction with modified pull-out suturing technique in displaced tibial spine ACL avulsion fractures showed excellent union rate for both acute and chronic cases, without instability or extension limitations at minimum two

  20. Polyaxial Screws in Locked Plating of Tibial Pilon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Yenna, Zachary C; Bhadra, Arup K; Ojike, Nwakile I; Burden, Robert L; Voor, Michael J; Roberts, Craig S

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the axial and torsional stiffness of polyaxial locked plating techniques compared with fixed-angle locked plating techniques in a distal tibia pilon fracture model. The effect of using a polyaxial screw to cross the fracture site was examined to determine its ability to control relative fracture site motion. A laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the biomechanical stiffness of distal tibia fracture models repaired with 3.5-mm anterior polyaxial distal tibial plates and locking screws. Sawbones Fourth Generation Composite Tibia models (Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc, Vashon, Washington) were used to model an Orthopaedic Trauma Association 43-A1.3 distal tibia pilon fracture. The polyaxial plates were inserted with 2 central locking screws at a position perpendicular to the cortical surface of the tibia and tested for load as a function of axial displacement and torque as a function of angular displacement. The 2 screws were withdrawn and inserted at an angle 15° from perpendicular, allowing them to span the fracture and insert into the opposing fracture surface. Each tibia was tested again for axial and torsional stiffness. In medial and posterior loading, no statistically significant difference was found between tibiae plated with the polyaxial plate and the central screws placed in the neutral position compared with the central screws placed at a 15° position. In torsional loading, a statistically significant difference was noted, showing greater stiffness in tibiae plated with the polyaxial plate and the central screws placed at a 15° position compared with tibiae plated with the central screws placed at a 0° (or perpendicular) position. This study showed that variable angle constructs show similar stiffness properties between perpendicular and 15° angle insertions in axial loading. The 15° angle construct shows greater stiffness in torsional loading. PMID:26270750

  1. Biological post

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B. Suresh; Kumar, Senthil; Mohan Kumar, N. S.; Karunakaran, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior tooth fracture as a result of traumatic injuries, is frequently encountered in endodontic practice. Proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth can be achieved through the fragment reattachment procedure known as “biological restoration.” This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of extensively damaged maxillary central incisor through the preparation and adhesive cementation of “biological post” in a young patient. Biological post obtained through extracted teeth from another individual–represent a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged anterior teeth. PMID:26538952

  2. The treatment of high tibial osteotomy non-union with the Ilizarov external fixator.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, John J; Tilkeridis, Konstantinos; Simonis, Robert B; Monsell, Fergal

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the results of the Ilizarov external fixator in the treatment of non-union post-high tibial osteotomy (HTO). Five non-unions, in four patients, following HTO were treated by Ilizarov fixation. Clinical outcome was assessed pre- and post-operatively by the Knee Society Clinical Rating System (KSCRS). Radiological analysis assessed bone healing pre- and post-operatively and measured proximal tibial alignment. All cases healed with a mean time of 25 ± 3 weeks (Mean ± SD) (range, 24-30 weeks) in the fixator. The clinical and radiological outcome improved in all cases. Four knees were initially in excessive varus and underwent correction of alignment, as measured by medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), from 75.5° ± 8.4° (mean ± SD) to 90.2° ±  2.7° (normal range, 85°-90°). One patient was in excessive valgus and had a correction of MPTA from 100° to 87°. The KSCRS knee score improved from 35.6 ± 10.8 to 86.6 ± 13.9 (mean ± SD) (normal score = 100) and the functional score from 37.8 ± 11.8 to 85.4 ± 10.5 (mean ± SD) (normal score = 100). The Ilizarov technique is a minimally invasive method that produces excellent clinical, radiological and functional outcomes. PMID:22752756

  3. Discoid medial meniscus completely coalesced with the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Deepak; Jain, Vineet; Goyal, Ankit; Bahl, Vibhu; Chaudhary, Deepak

    2013-11-01

    Discoid meniscus is an abnormality of the knee in which the meniscus is discoid rather than semilunar in shape. Medial discoid menisci are rare, and no specific associated symptoms suggest this condition. Several medial meniscus anomalies, including discoid variants, have been reported in the literature. This article describes a rare case of medial discoid meniscus completely coalesced with the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). A 22-year-old man presented with intermittent right knee pain of 6 months' duration. Physical examination revealed mild wasting of the quadriceps with medial joint line tenderness but no effusion. Radiographically, hypoplasia of the lateral tibial spine, increased medial joint space, and increased concavity of the medial tibial condyle were noted in both knees. Arthroscopic examination revealed a complete discoid medial meniscus that was contiguous with the ACL. On probing, a horizontal tear in the medial meniscus was noted. A meniscectomy was performed, and deep longitudinal furrows with exposed subchondral bone were noted underlying the posteromedial tibial condyle. At the patient's 6-month follow-up visit, he had no knee symptoms and had returned to his daily activities, which included jogging. Discoid medial meniscus is a rare anomaly, and this case represents only the second reported in the literature of discoid medial meniscus completely coalesced with ACL. This case supports the theory that the ACL and menisci can be differentiated from 1 mesenchyme. PMID:24200455

  4. Incidence of Soft-Tissue Injuries in Patients with Posterolateral Tibial Plateau Fractures: A Retrospective Review from 2009 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanqing; Cao, Fujiang; Liu, Minghui; Wang, Jiantao; Jia, Shikong

    2016-08-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of soft-tissue injuries in patients with posterolateral tibial plateau fractures. Methods The data of 265 patients who had sustained posterolateral tibial plateau fractures between May 2009 and Aug 2014 were retrospectively reviewed using a picture archiving and communication system. Fractures were classified according to the Schatzker, AO/OTA, and quadrant classification systems. Soft-tissue injuries, including anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), lateral collateral ligament (LCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL), lateral meniscus, and medial meniscus injuries, were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Results The overall incidence of ACL and PCL tears was 80 and 36%, respectively. Nine (36%) patients sustained ACL footprint avulsions and three (12%) had complete ACL tears. A total of 19 (76%) patients had LCL injuries, and 15 (64%) had MCL injuries. The incidence of lateral meniscus tears was 48%, while that of medial meniscus tears was 4%. Conclusion Posterolateral tibial plateau fractures were associated with a high incidence of soft-tissue injuries, especially ACL footprint avulsions and lateral meniscus tears. The preoperative MRI examination was important for surgeons to decide whether the ligament and meniscal injuries should be treated simultaneously with the repair of the bone fractures. PMID:27183240

  5. Contact Stress and Kinematic Analysis of All-Epiphyseal and Over-the-Top Pediatric Reconstruction Techniques for the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Moira M.; Tucker, Scott; Nguyen, Joseph T.; Green, Daniel W.; Imhauser, Carl W.; Cordasco, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are an increasingly recognized problem in the pediatric population. Unfortunately, outcomes with conservative treatment are extremely poor. Furthermore, adult reconstruction techniques may be inappropriate to treat skeletally immature patients due to the risk of physeal complications. “Physeal-sparing” reconstruction techniques exist but their ability to restore knee stability and contact mechanics is not well understood. Purpose (1) To assess the ability of the all-epiphyseal (AE) and over-the-top (OT) reconstructions to restore knee kinematics; (2) to assess whether these reconstructions decrease the high posterior contact stresses seen with ACL deficiency; (3) to determine whether the AE or OT produce abnormal tibiofemoral contact stresses. Hypothesis The AE reconstruction will restore contact mechanics and kinematics similarly to that of the ACL intact knee. Methods Ten fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees were tested using a robotic manipulator. Tibiofemoral motions were recorded with the ACL intact, after sectioning the ACL, and after both reconstructions in each of the 10 specimens. The AE utilized an all-inside technique with tunnels exclusively within the epiphysis and fixed with suspensory cortical fixation devices. The OT had a central and vertical tibial tunnel with an over-the-top femur position and was fixed with staples and posts on both ends. Anterior stability was assessed with 134N anterior force at 0, 15, 30, 60, and 90° of knee flexion. Rotational stability was assessed with combined 8 Nm and 4 Nm of abduction and internal rotation, respectively, at 5, 15, and 30° of knee flexion. Results Both reconstruction techniques offloaded the posterior aspect of the tibial plateau compared to the ACL deficient knee in response to both anterior loads and combined moments as demonstrated by reduced contact stresses in this region at all flexion angles. Compared to the ACL intact condition, both the AE

  6. Shear Modulus of the Lower Leg Muscles in Patients with Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Kei; Akagi, Ryota; Hirayama, Kuniaki; Hirose, Norikazu; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Fukubayshi, Toru

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vivo kinematics of shear modulus of the lower leg muscles in patients with medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). The study population included 46 limbs with MTSS and 40 healthy limbs. The shear modulus of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, lateral head of the gastrocnemius, soleus, peroneus longus and tibialis anterior muscles were measured using shear wave ultrasound elastography. As a result, the shear modulus of the lower leg muscles was significantly greater in patients with MTSS than in healthy patients (p < 0.01). Based on the differences in shear modulus of lower leg muscles between the patients with MTSS and healthy patients, the measurements obtained via shear wave ultrasound elastography could be used to evaluate risk factors of MTSS. PMID:27129903

  7. A Japanese male patient with 'fibular aplasia, tibial campomelia and oligodactyly': an additional case report.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Taichi; Namba, Noriyuki; Kim, Ji Yoo; Kubota, Takuo; Miura, Kohji; Miyoshi, Yoko; Hirai, Haruhiko; Kogo, Mikihiko; Ozono, Keiichi

    2009-07-01

    We report a male infant with FATCO syndrome, an acronym for fibular aplasia, tibial campomelia, and oligosyndactyly. Courtens et al. reported an infant with oligosyndactyly of the left hand, complete absence of the right fibula, bowing of the right tibia, and absence of the right fifth metatarsal and phalanges. They noted 5 patients with similar clinical features, and proposed the FATCO syndrome. Our patient had a left-sided cleft lip, cleft palate, oligosyndactyly of the right hand and bilateral feet, and bilateral anterior bowing of the limbs associated with overlying skin dimpling. Radiographs showed a short angulated tibia with left fibular aplasia and right fibular hypoplasia. We consider our case the 6th patient with FATCO syndrome, and the cleft lip and palate, not reported in the previous 5 patients, may allow us to further understand the development of the extremities and facies. PMID:23926365

  8. Accuracy of CT-based patient-specific guides for total knee arthroplasty in patients with post-traumatic osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Schotanus, M G M; van Haaren, E H; Hendrickx, R P M; Jansen, E J P; Kort, N P

    2015-12-01

    Published clinical trials who studied the accuracy of patient-specific guides (PSG) for total knee arthroplasty exclude patients with articular deformity of the knee joint. We prospectively analysed a series of 30 patients with post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the knee joint with use of PSG. At 1 year post-operative, the achieved biomechanical (HKA) axis and varus/valgus of the femur and tibia components were measured on anterior-posterior (AP) long-standing weight-bearing radiographs. Flexion/extension of the femoral and AP slope of the tibia component was measured on standard lateral radiographs. Percentages >3° deviation of the pre-operative planned HKA axis and individual implant components were considered as outliers. Approved and used implant size, median blood loss (ml) and operation time (min) were obtained from the operation records. Pre- and 1-year post-operative patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were performed. Eighty-three per cent of the patients had a HKA axis restored <3° of the pre-operative planned alignment. Varus/valgus outliers were 0.0 and 6.7 % for the femoral and tibial components, respectively. Percentages of outliers of flexion/extension were 36.7 % for the femoral component and 10.0 % for the AP slope of the tibial component. Median blood loss was 300 ml (50-700), while operation time was 67 min (44-144). In 20 % of all cases, the approved implant size was changed into one size smaller. One-year post-operative PROMs improved significantly. We conclude that the accuracy of CT-based PSG is not impaired in patients with post-traumatic osteoarthritis and this modality can restore biomechanical limb alignment. PMID:26265403

  9. Intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Kyrö, A; Lamppu, M; Böstman, O

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-four displaced tibial shaft fractures were treated using intramedullary nailing, either primarily or after an attempt at conservative treatment, which consisted of closed reduction under anaesthesia and immobilisation in a long-leg plaster cast. There were 37 closed and 27 open fractures. Three patients had a fracture of both tibiae. The median time period from the intramedullary nailing of the closed solitary fractures to union was about the same after primary nailing as after delayed nailing. Although the fractures were different in these groups, it is possible that the time spent in conservative treatment before intramedullary nailing brings no additional benefits. The incidence of deep infection in open fractures after primary nailing was 1/16. The fractures, in which an acceptable position could not be maintained using conservative methods, were mainly spiral in configuration and located in the distal third or at the junction of the middle and distal thirds of the tibia. PMID:7645911

  10. Tibial Tuberosity-Posterior Cruciate Ligament Distance.

    PubMed

    Daynes, Jake; Hinckel, Betina Bremer; Farr, Jack

    2016-08-01

    When trochlear dysplasia is present, it is difficult to measure the tibial tuberosity to trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance. A new measurement to assess tuberosity position was recently described by Seitlinger et al, which avoids the difficulty of identifying the TG as it references the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). To evaluate the reproducibility of the Seitlinger et al findings, 42 knees in 41 patients with a documented history of recurrent patellar instability and 84 knees in patients with no history of patellar instability or patellofemoral symptoms were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging. The TT-PCL distance was increased in the instability group (mean, 21.6 mm) compared with the control group (mean, 19.0 mm). The TT-PCL distance is an independent risk factor for patients with recurrent patellar instability. Its role in surgical planning remains to be determined. PMID:26509659

  11. Surgical options for posterior tibial plateau fracture

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongwei; Wu, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate surgical methods and clinical effectiveness of posteromedial and posterolateral approaches for the posterior tibial plateau fracture. Method: 21 cases who received surgery through posterior approaches for the treatment of posterior tibial plateau fractures (PTPFs) were included. Results: 21 cases were subject to follow-up for 12-24 months (an average of 16.2 months). No cases developed incision inflammation, neurovascular injury, internal fixation loosening and breakage. All fractures were healed. No cases developed knee varus and valgus deformity and fracture dislocation. After surgery, Rasmussen score for knee joint functions was 13-30 points (a mean of 24.2). The results were excellent in 12 cases, good in 7 cases and fair in 2 cases. The percentage of excellent and good results was 90.5%. Rasmussen radiology score was 10-18 points (a mean of 15.6 points). The results were excellent in 13 cases, good in 7 cases and fair in 1 cases. The percentage of excellent and good results was 95.2%. 1 case had significant limited range of knee flexion and extension, which was improved after phase II release under arthroscopy combined with function exercise. 2 cases developed traumatic arthritis, which was relieved after intra-articular injection with sodium hyaluronate and oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Conclusion: The posteromedial and posterolateral approaches for PTPF is good for reduction and fixation of PTPF. The approaches have benefits such as clear exposure, convenient placement of internal fixation, less trauma and good clinical outcome. PMID:26885086

  12. Minimally invasive reconstruction of lateral tibial plateau fractures using the jail technique: a biomechanical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study described a novel, minimally invasive reconstruction technique of lateral tibial plateau fractures using a three-screw jail technique and compared it to a conventional two-screw osteosynthesis technique. The benefit of an additional screw implanted in the proximal tibia from the anterior at an angle of 90° below the conventional two-screw reconstruction after lateral tibial plateau fracture was evaluated. This new method was called the jail technique. Methods The two reconstruction techniques were tested using a porcine model (n = 40). Fracture was simulated using a defined osteotomy of the lateral tibial plateau. Load-to-failure and multiple cyclic loading tests were conducted using a material testing machine. Twenty tibias were used for each reconstruction technique, ten of which were loaded in a load-to-failure protocol and ten cyclically loaded (5000 times) between 200 and 1000 N using a ramp protocol. Displacement, stiffness and yield load were determined from the resulting load displacement curve. Failure was macroscopically documented. Results In the load-to-failure testing, the jail technique showed a significantly higher mean maximum load (2275.9 N) in comparison to the conventional reconstruction (1796.5 N, p < 0.001). The trend for better outcomes for the novel technique in terms of stiffness and yield load did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). In cyclic testing, the jail technique also showed better trends in displacement that were not statistically significant. Failure modes showed a tendency of screws cutting through the bone (cut-out) in the conventional reconstruction. No cut-out but a bending of the lag screws at the site of the additional third screw was observed in the jail technique. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that the jail and the conventional technique have seemingly similar biomechanical properties. This suggests that the jail technique may be a feasible alternative to

  13. Symmetric limb overgrowth following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a skeletally immature patient.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Lance J; Jauregui, Julio J; Riis, Jacob F; Tuten, Hans Robert

    2015-11-01

    This report describes a case of symmetric femoral and tibial overgrowth of 2.8 cm in a 13-year-old patient after undergoing reconstruction surgery for his torn right anterior cruciate ligament. A literature review of previous cases is also provided. Following a pediatric anterior cruciate ligament tear, delaying surgery until the patient approaches skeletal maturity may avoid long-term growth disturbances, however, delaying this procedure may increase the probability of further joint damage. This growth disturbance was managed with a percutaneous epiphysiodesis that corrected the limb length deformity. PMID:25919804

  14. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Screw Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizari, Mahmoud; Wang, Bin; Snow, Martyn; Barrett, Mel

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental and finite element analysis of tibial screw fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The mechanical properties of the bone and tendon graft are obtained from experiments using porcine bone and bovine tendon. The results of the numerical study are compared with those from mechanical testing. Analysis shows that the model may be used to establish the optimum placement of the tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by predicting mechanical parameters such as stress, strain and displacement at regions in the tunnel wall.

  15. Greater fear of re-injury and increased tibial translation in patients who later sustain an ACL graft rupture or a contralateral ACL rupture: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tagesson, Sofi; Kvist, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to compare fear of re-injury, patient reported function, static and dynamic tibial translation and muscle strength assessed before and 5 weeks after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction between individuals who sustained a subsequent ACL graft rupture or a contralateral ACL injury within 5 years after the reconstruction, and individuals with no subsequent injury. Nineteen patients were investigated before, and 5 weeks after an ACL reconstruction with a quadruple hamstring tendon graft. At 5 years follow up, 3 patients had sustained an ACL graft rupture and 2 patients had sustained a contralateral ACL rupture. Fear of re-injury, confidence with the knee, patient reported function, activity level, static and dynamic tibial translation and muscle strength were assessed. The re-injured group reported greater fear of re-injury and had greater static tibial translation in both knees before the ACL reconstruction compared to those who did not sustain another ACL injury. There were no other differences between groups. In conclusion, fear of re-injury and static tibial translation before the index ACL reconstruction were greater in patients who later on suffered an ACL graft rupture or a contralateral ACL rupture. These factors may predict a subsequent ACL injury. PMID:25894209

  16. Free posterior tibial flap reconstruction for hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this article was to determine outcomes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx (SCCHP) in whom the free posterior tibial flap was used for primary reconstruction of hypopharynx defects after cancer resection. Subjects and methods Between August 2009 and February 2012, 10 patients with SCCHP underwent posterior tibial flap reconstruction for hypopharynx defects. The corresponding clinical data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results Despite the multistep and time-consuming procedure, the posterior tibial flap survival rate was 100%. Operation-induced complications did not occur in four patients. Six patients developed postoperative hypoproteinemia, four patients developed postoperative pulmonary infections, and four patients developed pharyngeal fistula. The pharyngeal and laryngeal functions of all patients were preserved. Conclusion Our experience demonstrates that the posterior tibial flap is a safe and reliable choice for the reconstruction of hypopharynx defects. PMID:24884631

  17. Rotational alignment of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Graceffa, Angelo; Marcucci, Massimiliano; Baldini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many surgical techniques, correlated to different anatomical landmarks, have been proposed to allow a satisfactory rotational alignment of the tibial component in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Unfortunately, an accurate landmark has not yet been established although many computer models using CT reconstructions and standard radiologic studies have been performed. In this review article, the authors propose a new anatomical rotational reference for a correct positioning of the tibial component during primary TKA; the authors compared the results of their studies with the current literature on rotational alignment references and previously proposed surgical techniques. The authors also analyzed the correlation between classic and newer tibial baseplate designs and different tibial rotational landmarks. PMID:26855939

  18. Effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Jun-Ho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 adults who underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate reconstruction and neuromuscular training. The Lysholm scale was used to assess functional disorders on the affected knee joint. A KT-2000 arthrometer was used to measure anterior displacement of the tibia against the femur. Surface electromyography was used to detect the muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus before and after neuromuscular training. [Results] There was significant relaxation in tibial anterior displacement of the affected and sound sides in the supine position before neuromuscular training. Furthermore, the difference in the tibial anterior displacement of the affected knee joints in the standing position was reduced after neuromuscular training. Moreover, the variation of the muscle activation evoked higher muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus. [Conclusion] Neuromuscular training may improve functional joint stability in patients with orthopedic musculoskeletal injuries in the postoperative period. PMID:26834316

  19. A simple and safe technique for tibial lengthening.

    PubMed

    Rezaian, S M; Abtahi, M

    1986-06-01

    This is a report of long-term results and complications in 62 patients. Closed tibial osteotomy, direct tibial distraction, and simultaneous indirect proximal fibular epiphyseal distraction are the essential features of this new technique. Fibular osteotomy and complications from tibiofibular synostosis are eliminated. Bone graft and plating procedures have been proven to be unnecessary. The patient is ambulated immediately. Hospitalization has been reduced to a few days. PMID:3720089

  20. Corrective Tibial Osteotomy in Young Adults Using an Intramedullary Nail

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kang-Il; Thaller, Peter H.; Ramteke, Alankar; Lee, Seung-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to document results of a less invasive technique of open wedge proximal tibial osteotomy (PTO) for the varus knee in young adults using an intramedullary tibial nail. Materials and Methods We prospectively studied 24 knees in 16 young patients with varus knee deformity. The mean follow-up was 54 months (range, 36 to 107 months) and the mean age of patients at the time of operation was 25.8 years (range, 18 to 40 years). The open wedge PTO was performed below tibial tuberosity using a percutaneous multiple drill-hole technique. Conventional intramedullary tibial nail was used for fixation without bone graft. Radiographic evaluations were made using mechanical alignment (MA), posterior tibial slope angle, and Insall-Salvati ratio. Union time, loss of correction, implant failure, and associated complications were also investigated. Results The mean MA was significantly changed from -9.7° preoperatively to 1.1° at the final follow-up (p<0.001). There was no significant change in the proximal tibial anatomy and patellar height. All patients achieved radiographic bony union at an average of 3.1 months without loss of correction. The only complication was knee pain due to nail prominence in 3 patients. Conclusions Radiographic evaluation indicated that PTO using an intramedullary tibial nail leads to significant improvement in radiographic parameters without changes in posterior tibial slope or patellar height. We found that this technique could be a less invasive and effective alternative for correction of the varus knee in young adults. PMID:24944974

  1. TIBIAL TUBERCLE AVULSION FRACTURE IN A MALE ADOLESCENT.

    PubMed

    Matoković, Damir; Šimić-Klarić, Andrea; Rajić, Marijana Tomić; Crnković, Helena Tesari; Jurinić, Mislav; Jovanović, Savo

    2015-06-01

    Tibial tuberosity fractures are rare in childhood, most frequently due to excessive quadriceps muscle contraction. On performing long jump, a 15-year-old boy sustained tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture type II according to Watson-Jones. The patient was treated operatively with fragment repositioning and screw fixation. Ten months after the injury and rehabilitation, he resumed his sports activities with full range knee motion. PMID:26415319

  2. [Particular posteromedial and posterolateral approaches for the treatment of tibial head fractures].

    PubMed

    Lobenhoffer, P; Gerich, T; Bertram, T; Lattermann, C; Pohlemann, T; Tscheme, H

    1997-12-01

    Tibial plateau fractures with depression of posterior aspects of the proximal tibia cause significant therapeutic problems. Posterior fractures on the medial side are mainly highly instable fracture-dislocations (Moore type I). Posterolateral fractures usually cause massive depression and destruction of the chondral surface. Surgical exposure of these fractures from anterior requires major soft tissue dissection and has a significant complication rate. However, incomplete restoration of the joint surface results in chronic postero-inferior joint subluxation, osteoarthritis and pain. We present new specific approaches for posterior fracture types avoiding large skin incisions, but allowing for atraumatic exposure, reduction and fixation. Posteromedial fracture-dislocations are exposed by a direct posteromedial skin incision and a deep incision between medial collateral ligament and posterior oblique ligament. The posteromedial pillar and the posterior flare of the proximal tibia are visualized. The inferior extent of the joint fragment can be reduced by indirect techniques or direct manipulation of the fragment. Fixation is achieved with subchondral lag screws and an anti-glide plate at the tip of the fragment. Posterolateral fractures are exposed by a transfibular approach: the skin is incised laterally, the peroneal nerve is dissected free. The fibula neck is osteotomized, the tibiofibular syndesmosis is divided and the fibula neck is reflected upwards in one layer with the meniscotibial ligament and the iliotibial tract attachment. Reflexion of the fibula head relaxes the lateral collateral ligament, allows for lateral joint opening and internal rotation of the tibia and thus exposes the posterolateral and posterior aspect of the tibial plateau. Fixation and buttressing on the posterolateral side can be achieved easily with this approach. In closure, the fibula head is fixed back with a lag screw or a tension-band system. These two exposures can be combined in

  3. Kinematic Evaluation of the Step-up Exercise in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kozánek, Michal; Hosseini, Ali; Van de Velde, Samuel K.; Moussa, Mohamed E.; Gill, Thomas J.; Li, Guoan

    2011-01-01

    Background Step-up exercise is one of the most commonly utilized exercises during rehabilitation of patients after both ACL injury and reconstruction. Currently, insurance providers increasingly required a trial of intensified rehabilitation before surgical reconstruction is attempted. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether this “safe” rehabilitation exercise in the setting of ACL deficiency can cause altered knee kinematics. Methods Thirty patients with unilateral ACL rupture were recruited for this study. The mean time from injury was 3.3 months. Tibiofemoral kinematics were determined during a step-up exercise using a combination of MRI, dual fluoroscopy and advanced computer modeling. Findings The ACL-injured knee displayed an average 5° greater external tibial rotation than the uninjured knee (p<0.05), during the last 30% of step-up. The ACL-injured knee also demonstrated on average 2.5 mm greater anterior tibial shift during the last 40% of stance phase (p<0.01). In addition, during the last 30% of stance the tibia of the ACL-deficient knee tended to shift more medially (~1 mm) as the knee approached full extension (p<0.01). Interpertation The data confirmed the initial hypothesis as it was found that ACL deficient knees demonstrated significantly increased anterior tibial translation, medial tibial translation and external tibial rotation towards the end of the step-up as the knee approached full extension. Intensive rehabilitation utilizing the step-up exercise in the setting of ACL deficiency can potentially introduce repetitive microtrauma by way of altered kinematics. PMID:21652128

  4. Understanding the etiology of the posteromedial tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Charles; Burr, David B; Finestone, Aharon S; Voloshin, Arkady

    2015-09-01

    Previous human in vivo tibial strain measurements from surface strain gauges during vigorous activities were found to be below the threshold value of repetitive cyclical loading at 2500 microstrain in tension necessary to reduce the fatigue life of bone, based on ex vivo studies. Therefore it has been hypothesized that an intermediate bone remodeling response might play a role in the development of tibial stress fractures. In young adults tibial stress fractures are usually oblique, suggesting that they are the result of failure under shear strain. Strains were measured using surface mounted unstacked 45° rosette strain gauges on the posterior aspect of the flat medial cortex just below the tibial midshaft, in a 48year old male subject while performing vertical jumps, staircase jumps and running up and down stadium stairs. Shear strains approaching 5000 microstrain were recorded during stair jumping and vertical standing jumps. Shear strains above 1250 microstrain were recorded during runs up and down stadium steps. Based on predictions from ex vivo studies, stair and vertical jumping tibial shear strain in the test subject was high enough to potentially produce tibial stress fracture subsequent to repetitive cyclic loading without necessarily requiring an intermediate remodeling response to microdamage. PMID:25933941

  5. Distal Locking Screws for Intramedullary Nailing of Tibial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Agathangelidis, Filon; Petsatodis, Georgios; Kirkos, John; Papadopoulos, Pericles; Karataglis, Dimitrios; Christodoulou, Anastasios

    2016-01-01

    Recently introduced tibial intramedullary nails allow a number of distal screws to be used to reduce the incidence of malalignment and loss of fixation of distal metaphyseal fractures. However, the number of screws and the type of screw configuration to be used remains obscure. This biomechanical study was performed to address this question. Thirty-six Expert tibial nails (Synthes, Oberdorf, Switzerland) were introduced in composite bone models. The models were divided into 4 groups with different distal locking configurations ranging from 2 to 4 screws. A 7-mm gap osteotomy was performed 72 mm from the tibial plafond to simulate a 42-C3 unstable distal tibial fracture. Each group was divided in 3 subgroups and underwent nondestructive biomechanical testing in axial compression, coronal bending, and axial torsion. The passive construct stiffness was measured and statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance. Although some differences were noted between the stiffness of each group, these were not statistically significant in compression (P=.105), bending (P=.801), external rotation (P=.246), and internal rotation (P=.370). This in vitro study showed that, when using the Expert tibial nail for unstable distal tibial fractures, the classic configuration of 2 parallel distal screws could provide the necessary stability under partial weight-bearing conditions. PMID:26840700

  6. The Role of Fibular Fixation in Distal Tibial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Antin, S.M.; Akkimaradi, R.C.; Policepatil, Prasad; Naikawadi, Girish.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lower tibial extra-articular fractures of lower tibial extra-articular bone, treated with Minimally Invasive Percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) may have certain advantages, though the modiality is technically demanding. Aim To assess the results of distal tibial fractures treated with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis utilizing precontoured dital medial tibial locking plates without fibular fracture fixation. Material and Methods The study was conducted during the period from june 2009 to june 2011. A series of 30 patients (22 men and 8 women) with concurrent distal tibia and fibula fractures who underwent minimally plate osteosynthesis utilizing precontoured distal tibial medial locking plates without fibular fracture fixation have been reviewed after surgery. 14 fractures were type A1, 6 type A2, and 4 type A3. Open Grade II fracture were 4 and Open Grade IIIA fracture is2. Results The mean follow-up duration was 2 years. The mean time to bone union was 20 weeks. No patient had shortening, hardware breakdown, or deep-seated infection. Out of 30 patients, 24 had excellent results, 6 had good results. Four patients had palpable screws, two patient had blisters which subsidized with conservative treatment. This minimally invasive technique for treatment of distal tibial fractures proved to be a feasible and worthwhile method of stabilization. Conclusion It appears from our study that fibula fixation is not required in non-syndesmotic distal metaphyseal extra articular fractures when fixed by locking plate using minimal invasive techniques. PMID:27190908

  7. Evaluation of the bone healing process in an experimental tibial bone defect model in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Kido, Hueliton Wilian; Bossini, Paulo Sérgio; Tim, Carla Roberta; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antônio; da Cunha, Anderson Ferreira; Malavazi, Iran; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of postmenopausal bone loss (induced by ovariectomy) in the process of bone healing in a tibial bone defect model in rats by means of histological evaluation of bone defects and the analysis of the expression of genes and proteins involved in bone consolidation. Twenty female Wistar rats (12 weeks old, weighing ±250 g) were randomly divided into two groups: control group (CG) and ovariectomized group (OG). Rats of OG were submitted to ovariectomy and after 8 weeks post-surgery, all animals were submitted to the tibial bone defect model. The main histological finding analysis revealed that ovariectomized animals showed a higher amount of granulation tissue and immature newly formed bone compared to CG. Furthermore, quantitative histological analysis showed that OG presented a significant decrease in the amount of newly formed bone (p = 0.0351). RT-PCR analysis showed no difference in Runx2, ALP, RANK, RANKL and Osterix gene expression 14-day post-surgery. Interestingly, immunohistochemical evaluation showed that Runx2 was down expressed (p = 0.0001) and RANKL was up expressed (p = 0.0022) in the OG. In conclusion, these data highlight that bone loss induced by ovariectomy causes an impairment in the capacity of bone to heal mainly probably because of alterations in the imbalance of osteoblasts and osteoclasts activities. PMID:24532218

  8. [Isolated anterior cervical hypertrichosis].

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, B; Cabanillas, M; de las Heras, C; Cacharrón, J M

    2009-01-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis was described by Trattner and coworkers in 1991. It consists of a of hair at the anterior cervical level just above the laryngeal prominence. To date, only 28 cases of anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Although it is normally an isolated finding, it may be associated with mental retardation, hallux valgus, retinal disorders, other hair disorders, facial dysmorphism, or sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman who presented with this condition as an isolated finding. PMID:19268113

  9. Double tibial osteotomy for bow leg patients: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Nazem, Khalilollah; Fouladi, Arash; Chinigarzadeh, Mozhdeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: High tibia osteotomy (HTO) is a common surgical operation for correction of genu varum deformity. In some patients, there are concurrent tibia vara and genu varum (bow leg). This study aimed to consider the possibility of better correction of bow leg deformity after double level tibial osteotomy (DLTO). Materials and Methods: A case series of 10 patients of genu varum in addition to tibia vara (bow leg) deformity who were referred to orthopedic ward of an academic hospital of Isfahan- Iran during 2009–2011 were included in the study. The mean age was 17.3 ± 3.1 years and all of them underwent DLTO. The results of treatment have been assessed based on clinical and radiological parameters before and after surgery. Results: The mean pre- and post operative values for Tibia-Femoral Angle, Medial Proximal of Tibia Angle (MPTA), and Lateral Distal of Tibia Angle (LDTA) were 18.13 ± 3.05° vs. 3.93 ± 0.66°, 79.13 ± 3.4° vs. 89.7 ± 1.8° and 96.40 ± 1.8° vs. 88.73 ± 3.0° respectively (P < 0.05). Improvement of all radiological parameters was meaningful. Seventy three percent of patients had normal mechanical axis of limb after surgery. The remaining cases had varus deformity in distal femur that was corrected by valgus supracondylar osteotomy in an additional operation. Limited range of motion (ROM) near knee and ankle was not observed. Conclusion: DLTO correct bow leg deformity in the point of alignment of limb and paralleling of knee and ankle joint more effectively. This method can be used in metabolic and congenital bow leg which deformities are present in throughout of the lower limb. We described this technique for the first time. PMID:24523802

  10. Single Stage Tibial Osteotomy and Long Stem Total Knee Arthroplasty to Correct Adverse Consequences of Unequal Tibial Lengthening with an Ilizarov Circular Fixator

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Matt DA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Correction of limb alignment or length discrepancy by circular external fixation is an accepted technique which relies on the correct biomechanical application of the frame and precise corrections which are frequently delegated to the patient to perform. Errors can occur in the execution of the correction by the patient and may result in significant deformity that requires remedial intervention. Case Report: A 67 Caucasian female underwent multifocal limb reconstruction of the lower limb utilising a complex Ilizarov frame. Attendance at follow-up visits did not occur and the patient presented at 6 months with severe deformity due to incorrect execution of the correction protocol which resulted in a 45 degree varus deformity of the tibia. Subsequent correction via acute tibial osteotomy and stabilisation with a stemmed total knee replacement resulted in a good outcome. Conclusion: Patient compliance with post-operative management is paramount with distraction osteogenesis and should be ensured prior to embarking on lengthening or deformity correction. PMID:27299056

  11. Functional result relating to the positioning of the graft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction☆

    PubMed Central

    de Melo Silva Júnior, Otávio; do Nascimento Ohashi, Bruno; de Almeida, Murilo Oliveira; Reis Gonçalves, Murilo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To ascertain the coronal angles for the femoral and tibial tunnels that provide the best postoperative result from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery, through assessing the variables of the IKDC and Lysholm–Tegner questionnaires and the hop test. Methods Sixteen patients with a single unilateral ACL injury who underwent this surgery between 24 and 36 months earlier were evaluated. They were divided into four groups in which the tibial and femoral tunnel angles were greater than or less than 65° in the coronal plane. Results The results demonstrated that a more vertical angle for the tibial tunnel (72°) and a more horizontal angle for the femoral tunnel (60°), with valgus alignment of 12° correlated with the best values for the variables studied. This may indicate that the long-term results from this surgery are excellent. Conclusion A more horizontal femoral angle and a more vertical tibial angle produced better assessments in the tests that were applied and in the functional results evaluated. PMID:26229897

  12. Validation of a standardised gait score to predict the healing of tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Macri, F; Marques, L F; Backer, R C; Santos, M J; Belangero, W D

    2012-04-01

    There is no absolute method of evaluating healing of a fracture of the tibial shaft. In this study we sought to validate a new clinical method based on the systematic observation of gait, first by assessing the degree of agreement between three independent observers regarding the gait score for a given patient, and secondly by determining how such a score might predict healing of a fracture. We used a method of evaluating gait to assess 33 patients (29 men and four women, with a mean age of 29 years (15 to 62)) who had sustained an isolated fracture of the tibial shaft and had been treated with a locked intramedullary nail. There were 15 closed and 18 open fractures (three Gustilo and Anderson grade I, seven grade II, seven grade IIIA and one grade IIIB). Assessment was carried out three and six months post-operatively using videos taken with a digital camera. Gait was graded on a scale ranging from 1 (extreme difficulty) to 4 (normal gait). Bivariate analysis included analysis of variance to determine whether the gait score statistically correlated with previously validated and standardised scores of clinical status and radiological evidence of union. An association was found between the pattern of gait and all the other variables. Improvement in gait was associated with the absence of pain on weight-bearing, reduced tenderness over the fracture, a higher Radiographic Union Scale in Tibial Fractures score, and improved functional status, measured using the Brazilian version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire (all p < 0.001). Although further study is needed, the analysis of gait in this way may prove to be a useful clinical tool. PMID:22434473

  13. TIBIAL PERIPROSTHETIC FRACTURE COMBINED WITH TIBIAL STEM STRESS FRACTURE FROM TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Fernando; Rebelo, Edgar; Completo, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty complications related to the prosthetic material are very rare, except for polyethylene wear. We report the case of a 58-year-old woman who came to the emergency service of our hospital with a periprosthetic tibial fracture (Mayo Clinic type I). Careful examination showed that this fracture was concomitantly associated with a tibial stem fatigue fracture. The prosthesis and the stem were sent to an independent biomechanics laboratory for evaluation. A finite-element CAD system was used to make a reconstruction, so as to ascertain whether there had been any manufacturing defect and what the causes of the event might have been. After evaluation of several hypotheses, it was concluded that the fracture in the prosthetic material had been caused by overloading at the plate/stem transition zone secondary to previous bone failure (fracture). From the evaluation of this case, the need to make appropriate assessment of bone mineralization can again be emphasized. In cases of doubt, a longer stem should be used. PMID:27047838

  14. TIBIAL PERIPROSTHETIC FRACTURE COMBINED WITH TIBIAL STEM STRESS FRACTURE FROM TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Fernando; Rebelo, Edgar; Completo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty complications related to the prosthetic material are very rare, except for polyethylene wear. We report the case of a 58-year-old woman who came to the emergency service of our hospital with a periprosthetic tibial fracture (Mayo Clinic type I). Careful examination showed that this fracture was concomitantly associated with a tibial stem fatigue fracture. The prosthesis and the stem were sent to an independent biomechanics laboratory for evaluation. A finite-element CAD system was used to make a reconstruction, so as to ascertain whether there had been any manufacturing defect and what the causes of the event might have been. After evaluation of several hypotheses, it was concluded that the fracture in the prosthetic material had been caused by overloading at the plate/stem transition zone secondary to previous bone failure (fracture). From the evaluation of this case, the need to make appropriate assessment of bone mineralization can again be emphasized. In cases of doubt, a longer stem should be used. PMID:27047838

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of stress fractures located at the mid-tibial shaft in athletes.

    PubMed

    Orava, S; Karpakka, J; Hulkko, A; Väänänen, K; Takala, T; Kallinen, M; Alén, M

    1991-08-01

    Anterior mid-tibial stress fractures are a clinical problem. The diagnosis can be delayed because the normal radiographic anteroposterior and side views may only show thickening of the anterior cortex. Oblique views and tomography are often required. Isotope scan confirms the diagnosis and is the method of choice. The treatment varies from rest to operational intervention. A delayed union of this area of the tibia is a potential complication and is a high risk for an athlete, a complete fracture being the most serious complication. We present the results of conservative and operative treatment of 17 patients. Of these cases, nine progressed to a delayed union and operation was performed using transversal drilling with a 2.0-2.5 drill. We recommend a period of rest up till six months and surgical intervention with drilling of the hypertrophied cortex if there is any suspicion of a possibility of a delayed union. Also, if there is a long delay in the diagnosis, operative treatment is recommended. Biopsy is recommended during surgery for differential diagnosis. PMID:1917228

  16. Measurement of mechanical characteristics of tibial periosteum and evaluation of local differences.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, E; Yamakoshi, K; Sasaki, T

    1998-02-01

    Stress-strain relationships of bovine tibial periosteum, harvested from anterior, medial, lateral, and posterior aspects of tibia, were successfully measured using a newly developed experimental system. Results showed a curvilinear stress-strain pattern having three regions, i.e., toe, almost linear, and rupture regions, which resembled those of biological soft tissues like ligaments, skin, etc. Tensile moduli in the toe region (Ee) and in the linear region (Ec) were obtained by linear regressional analyses. These values and the tensile strength (sigma t) showed clear local differences. The values of Ee, Ec, and sigma t in the longitudinal direction in the metaphyseal regions where ligaments or connective tissues attach were approximately two times larger than those in the diaphysis, where muscles or connective tissues attach. However, these properties in the metaphyseal and diaphyseal regions with muscle attachments were almost the same. In the transverse direction, these properties in the anterior proximal metaphysis were approximately two times larger than those in the diaphysis and in the distal metaphysis. In the other regions, these properties appeared not to be significantly different. These results clearly demonstrate that the mechanical properties of periosteum are strongly influenced by the ligament and muscle attachments. PMID:9675685

  17. Osteolytic lesion of the tibial diaphysis after cementless TKA.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Brian A; Bollinger, Alexander J; Garvin, Kevin L; McGarry, Sean V

    2011-03-01

    Biomaterial wear debris is a known contributing factor in aseptic loosening of total joint prostheses, particularly when cementless tibial trays are used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Local inflammatory response can lead to osteolysis and aseptic loosening of implants. The resulting lesions require careful clinical evaluation. This article presents a case of a 76-year old man with a remote history of prostate cancer and cigarette smoking who presented with acute onset left knee and tibia pain 15 years after TKA. Radiographs showed an osteolytic lesion in the distal tibial diaphysis and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion with evidence concerning for pathologic mid-shaft fracture. Biopsy of the lesion confirmed a foreign body reaction and revision TKA was performed. The patient was seen at 3-year follow-up without complication. The existing literature presents cases reporting osteolytic lesions of the distal femur and proximal tibial metaphysis due to polyethylene wear debris and foreign body reaction following TKA. We are unaware of case reports involving osteolysis of this etiology extending into the distal tibial diaphysis. We conclude that polyethylene wear debris with foreign body reaction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an osteolytic lesion extending into the tibial diaphysis following TKA. PMID:21410114

  18. MOBILE TIBIAL POLYETHYLENE BEARING IN TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo Barros Cobra, Hugo Alexandre; da Palma, Idemar Monteiro

    2015-01-01

    Debris of polyethylene tibial bearings have been recognized as a major cause for the onset of the cascade of biological events leading to osteolysis and loosening of prosthetic components after total knee arthroplasty. Since then, research has been focused on alternative bearing surfaces in order to minimize the amount and rate of polyethylene wear off and, in doing so, increasing the survivorship rate for knee arthroplasties. One such option is to have a mobile tibial bearing allowing more conformity and rotational self-alignment of the components, improving kinetics and kinematics of the prosthesis. The authors present a resumed but throughout and comprehensive review of the rationale, biomechanics fundamentals, indications, pitfalls, outcomes and complications for the use of mobile tibial bearings in total knee replacement. PMID:27077055

  19. Posteromedial tibial polyethylene failure in total knee replacements.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P; Rorabeck, C H; Bourne, R B; Devane, P

    1994-02-01

    This report details 16 cases of focal posteromedial tibial polyethylene wear and failure after total knee arthroplasty. This wear phenomenon was associated with an external rotatory subluxation of the tibial component relative to the femoral component. Failure occurred in ten Miller Galante 1, three Porous Coated Anatomic, two Kinematic, and one Press-Fit Condylar knee designs at a mean time of 45 months from their implantation. With this type of failure, there did not seem to be a relationship with metal type, fixation, polyethylene manufacturing method, or polyethylene thickness. A relatively flat design of the tibial articular surface was common to all of these components. In certain patients this articular design may allow excessive component translation, which leads to polyethylene deformity, wear, and subluxation. Some methods for preventing this failure mode are reported here. PMID:8119004

  20. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be...

  1. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be...

  2. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be...

  3. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be...

  4. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be...

  5. Periprosthetic tibial bone mineral density changes after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jaroma, Antti; Soininvaara, Tarja; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may cause postoperative periprosthetic bone loss due to stress shielding. Bone also adapts to mechanical alterations such as correction of malalignment. We investigated medium-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in tibial periprosthetic bone after TKA. Patients and methods 86 TKA patients were prospectively measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the baseline measurement being within 1 week after TKA and the follow-up measurements being at 3 and 6 months, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 years postoperatively. Long standing radiographs were taken and clinical evaluation was done with the American Knee Society (AKS) score. Results The baseline BMD of the medial tibial metaphyseal region of interest (ROI) was higher in the varus aligned knees (25%; p < 0.001). Medial metaphyseal BMD decreased in subjects with preoperatively varus aligned knees (13%, p < 0.001) and in those with preoperatively valgus aligned knees (12%, p = 0.02) between the baseline and 7-year measurements. No statistically significant changes in BMD were detected in lateral metaphyseal ROIs. No implant failures or revision surgery due to tibial problems occurred. Interpretation Tibial metaphyseal periprosthetic bone is remodeled after TKA due to mechanical axis correction, resulting in more balanced bone stock below the tibial tray. The diaphyseal BMD remains unchanged after the initial drop, within 3–6 months. This remodeling process was related to good component survival, as there were no implant failures or revision operations due to tibial problems in this medium-term follow-up. PMID:27120266

  6. Periprosthetic tibial bone mineral density changes after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jaroma, Antti; Soininvaara, Tarja; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-06-01

    Background and purpose - Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may cause postoperative periprosthetic bone loss due to stress shielding. Bone also adapts to mechanical alterations such as correction of malalignment. We investigated medium-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in tibial periprosthetic bone after TKA. Patients and methods - 86 TKA patients were prospectively measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the baseline measurement being within 1 week after TKA and the follow-up measurements being at 3 and 6 months, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 years postoperatively. Long standing radiographs were taken and clinical evaluation was done with the American Knee Society (AKS) score. Results - The baseline BMD of the medial tibial metaphyseal region of interest (ROI) was higher in the varus aligned knees (25%; p < 0.001). Medial metaphyseal BMD decreased in subjects with preoperatively varus aligned knees (13%, p < 0.001) and in those with preoperatively valgus aligned knees (12%, p = 0.02) between the baseline and 7-year measurements. No statistically significant changes in BMD were detected in lateral metaphyseal ROIs. No implant failures or revision surgery due to tibial problems occurred. Interpretation - Tibial metaphyseal periprosthetic bone is remodeled after TKA due to mechanical axis correction, resulting in more balanced bone stock below the tibial tray. The diaphyseal BMD remains unchanged after the initial drop, within 3-6 months. This remodeling process was related to good component survival, as there were no implant failures or revision operations due to tibial problems in this medium-term follow-up. PMID:27120266

  7. In vitro modeling of human tibial strains during exercise in micro-gravity.

    PubMed

    Peterman, M M; Hamel, A J; Cavanagh, P R; Piazza, S J; Sharkey, N A

    2001-05-01

    Prolonged exposure to micro-gravity causes substantial bone loss (Leblanc et al., Journal of Bone Mineral Research 11 (1996) S323) and treadmill exercise under gravity replacement loads (GRLs) has been advocated as a countermeasure. To date, the magnitudes of GRLs employed for locomotion in space have been substantially less than the loads imposed in the earthbound 1G environment, which may account for the poor performance of locomotion as an intervention. The success of future treadmill interventions will likely require GRLs of greater magnitude. It is widely held that mechanical tissue strain is an important intermediary signal in the transduction pathway linking the external loading environment to bone maintenance and functional adaptation; yet, to our knowledge, no data exist linking alterations in external skeletal loading to alterations in bone strain. In this preliminary study, we used unique cadaver simulations of micro-gravity locomotion to determine relationships between localized tibial bone strains and external loading as a means to better predict the efficacy of future exercise interventions proposed for bone maintenance on orbit. Bone strain magnitudes in the distal tibia were found to be linearly related to ground reaction force magnitude (R(2)>0.7). Strain distributions indicated that the primary mode of tibial loading was in bending, with little variation in the neutral axis over the stance phase of gait. The greatest strains, as well as the greatest strain sensitivity to altered external loading, occurred within the anterior crest and posterior aspect of the tibia, the sites furthest removed from the neutral axis of bending. We established a technique for estimating local strain magnitudes from external loads, and equations for predicting strain during simulated micro-gravity walking are presented. PMID:11311711

  8. In vitro modeling of human tibial strains during exercise in micro-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterman, M. M.; Hamel, A. J.; Cavanagh, P. R.; Piazza, S. J.; Sharkey, N. A.

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to micro-gravity causes substantial bone loss (Leblanc et al., Journal of Bone Mineral Research 11 (1996) S323) and treadmill exercise under gravity replacement loads (GRLs) has been advocated as a countermeasure. To date, the magnitudes of GRLs employed for locomotion in space have been substantially less than the loads imposed in the earthbound 1G environment, which may account for the poor performance of locomotion as an intervention. The success of future treadmill interventions will likely require GRLs of greater magnitude. It is widely held that mechanical tissue strain is an important intermediary signal in the transduction pathway linking the external loading environment to bone maintenance and functional adaptation; yet, to our knowledge, no data exist linking alterations in external skeletal loading to alterations in bone strain. In this preliminary study, we used unique cadaver simulations of micro-gravity locomotion to determine relationships between localized tibial bone strains and external loading as a means to better predict the efficacy of future exercise interventions proposed for bone maintenance on orbit. Bone strain magnitudes in the distal tibia were found to be linearly related to ground reaction force magnitude (R(2)>0.7). Strain distributions indicated that the primary mode of tibial loading was in bending, with little variation in the neutral axis over the stance phase of gait. The greatest strains, as well as the greatest strain sensitivity to altered external loading, occurred within the anterior crest and posterior aspect of the tibia, the sites furthest removed from the neutral axis of bending. We established a technique for estimating local strain magnitudes from external loads, and equations for predicting strain during simulated micro-gravity walking are presented.

  9. Temporary Stabilization with External Fixator in ‘Tripolar’ Configuration in Two Steps Treatment of Tibial Pilon Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Daghino, Walter; Messina, Marco; Filipponi, Marco; Alessandro, Massè

    2016-01-01

    Background: The tibial pilon fractures represent a complex therapeutic problem for the orthopedic surgeon, given the frequent complications and outcomes disabling. The recent medical literature indicates that the best strategy to reduce amount of complications in tibial pilon fractures is two-stages procedure. We describe our experience in the primary stabilization of these fractures. Methods: We treated 36 cases with temporary external fixation in a simple configuration, called "tripolar": this is an essential structure (only three screws and three rods), that is possible to perform even without the availability of X-rays and with simple anesthesia or sedation. Results: We found a sufficient mechanical stability for the nursing post-operative, in absence of intraoperative and postoperative problems. The time between trauma and temporary stabilization ranged between 3 and 144 hours; surgical average time was 8.4 minutes. Definitive treatment was carried out with a delay of a minimum of 4 and a maximum of 15 days from the temporary stabilization, always without problems, both in case of ORIF (open reduction, internal fixation) or circular external fixation Conclusion: Temporary stabilization with external fixator in ‘tripolar’ configuration seems to be the most effective strategy in two steps treatment of tibial pilon fractures. These preliminary encouraging results must be confirmed by further studies with more cases. PMID:27123151

  10. Suprapatellar nailing of tibial fractures: surgical hints

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing of the tibia with suprapatellar entry and semi-extended positioning makes it technically easier to nail the proximal and distal fractures. The purpose of this article was to describe a simple method for suprapatellar nailing (SPN). A step-by-step run through of the surgical technique is described, including positioning of the patient. There are as yet only a few clinical studies that illustrate the complications with this method, and there has been no increased frequency of intraarticular damage. Within the body of the manuscript, information is included about intraarticular damage and comments with references about anterior knee pain. PMID:27340503

  11. Anterior cruciate ligament surgery in the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various methods regarding allograft knee replacements have been described. The animal models, which are generally used for this purpose include sheep, dogs, goats, and pigs, and accrue significant costs for study protocols. The authors herein describe an efficient and cost-effective model to study either native or tissue-engineered allografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) replacement in a New Zealand rabbit model with the potential for transgenic and cell migration studies. Methods ACL reconstructions were performed in rabbits under general anesthesia. For fresh allograft implantations, two animals were operated in parallel. Each right extensor digitorum longus tendon was harvested and prepared for implantation. After excision of the ACL, tibial and femoral bone tunnels were created to implant each graft in the native ACL position. Results During a 2-year period, the authors have successfully undertaken this surgery in 61 rabbits and have not noticed any major complications attributed to this surgical technique. In addition, the authors have observed fast recovery in the animals postoperatively. Conclusion The authors recommend this surgical procedure as an excellent model for the study of knee surgery. PMID:23957941

  12. Complete rupture of the popliteal artery complicating high tibial osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Attinger, Marc C.; Behrend, Henrik; Jost, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    We present two cases of high tibial osteotomies performed at our institution. Both cases were complicated with the immediate postoperative occurrence of an ischaemic syndrome of the lower leg. Urgent diagnostics revealed a complete rupture of the popliteal artery that required re-operation and a vascular repair. Although neurovascular complications during high tibial osteotomies are rare the awareness of this potentially catastrophic complication should be present when performing this common procedure. All precautions to minimize the harm to the neurovascular bundle should be put into practice. A summary of the surgical precautions is presented and discussed in this paper. PMID:25561756

  13. Ischial hypoplasia, tibial hypoplasia and facial abnormalities: a new syndrome?

    PubMed

    Nishimura, G; Haga, Y; Aoki, K; Hasegawa, T

    1998-12-01

    A child with facial abnormalities, short stature and a variety of skeletal alterations is reported. The facial abnormalities comprised low-set ears, short nose with a long philtrum, micrognathia and cleft palate. The skeletal alterations included ischial hypoplasia, malformations of the cervical spine, hypoplasia of the lesser trochanters, tibial hypoplasia with bowing of the lower legs, tibio-fibular diastasis with malformed distal tibial epiphyses, clubfeet and brachymesophalangy. The constellation of clinical and radiological findings in the present patient do not fit any known malformation syndrome. PMID:9880644

  14. Minimally Invasive Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction in the Setting of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    PubMed

    Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Barbosa, Nuno Camelo; Tuteja, Sanesh; Daggett, Matt; Kajetanek, Charles; Thaunat, Mathieu

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence on the anatomy, function, and biomechanical properties of the anterolateral ligament has led to the recognition of the importance of this structure in the rotational control of the knee. This article describes a technique that allows for minimally invasive anterolateral ligament reconstruction as a complement to most techniques of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A gracilis tendon autograft is harvested and prepared in a double-strand, inverted V-shaped graft. The graft is percutaneously placed through a femoral stab incision, and each strand is then passed deep to the iliotibial band, emerging through each tibial stab incision. After the femoral-end loop graft is fixed, the tibial fixation of each strand is performed in full extension for optimal isometry. PMID:27274456

  15. Comparison of loading rate-dependent injury modes in a murine model of post-traumatic osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Kevin A.; Chu, Bryce T.; Anderson, Matthew J.; Haudenschild, Dominik R.; Christiansen, Blaine A.

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is a common long-term consequence of joint injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. In this study we used a tibial compression overload mouse model to compare knee injury induced at low speed (1 mm/s), which creates an avulsion fracture, to injury induced at high speed (500 mm/s), which induces midsubstance tear of the ACL. Mice were sacrificed at 0 days, 10 days, 12 weeks, or 16 weeks post-injury, and joints were analyzed with micro-computed tomography, whole joint histology, and biomechanical laxity testing. Knee injury with both injury modes caused considerable trabecular bone loss by 10 days post-injury, with the Low Speed Injury group (avulsion) exhibiting a greater amount of bone loss than the High Speed Injury group (midsubstance tear). Immediately after injury, both injury modes resulted in greater than 2-fold increases in total AP joint laxity relative to control knees. By 12 and 16 weeks post-injury, total AP laxity was restored to uninjured control values, possibly due to knee stabilization via osteophyte formation. This model presents an opportunity to explore fundamental questions regarding the role of bone turnover in PTOA, and the findings of this study support a biomechanical mechanism of osteophyte formation following injury. PMID:24019199

  16. Porous bioactive scaffolds: characterization and biological performance in a model of tibial bone defect in rats.

    PubMed

    Kido, Hueliton Wilian; Tim, Carla Roberta; Bossini, Paulo Sérgio; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antônio; de Castro, Cynthia Aparecida; Crovace, Murilo Camuri; Rodrigues, Ana Candida Martins; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra; Peitl Filho, Oscar; de Freitas Anibal, Fernanda; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of highly porous Biosilicate(®) scaffolds on bone healing in a tibial bone defect model in rats by means of histological evaluation (histopathological and immunohistochemistry analysis) of the bone callus and the systemic inflammatory response (immunoenzymatic assay). Eighty Wistar rats (12 weeks-old, weighing±300 g) were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=10 per experimental group, per time point): control group and Biosilicate® group (BG). Each group was euthanized 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post-surgery. Histological findings revealed a similar inflammatory response in both experimental groups, 3 and 7 days post-surgery. During the experimental periods (3-21 days post-surgery), it was observed that the biomaterial degradation, mainly in the periphery region, provided the development of the newly formed bone into the scaffolds. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that the Biosilicate® scaffolds stimulated cyclooxygenase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor and runt-related transcription factor 2 expression. Furthermore, in the immunoenzymatic assay, BG presented no difference in the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha in all experimental periods. Still, BG showed a higher level of interleukin 4 after 14 days post-implantation and a lower level of interleukin 10 in 21 days post-surgery. Our results demonstrated that Biosilicate® scaffolds can contribute for bone formation through a suitable architecture and by stimulating the synthesis of markers related to the bone repair. PMID:25631271

  17. Arthroscopic anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Devgan, Ashish; Singh, Amanpreet; Gogna, Paritosh; Singla, Rohit; Magu, Narender Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Reetadyuti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Single bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been the current standard of treatment for ACL deficiency. However, a significant subset of patients continue to report residual symptoms of instability with a poor pivot control. Cadaveric biomechanical studies have shown double bundle (DB) ACL reconstructions to restore the knee kinematics better. This study evaluates the outcome of DB ACL reconstruction. Materials and Methods: 30 consecutive patients who underwent anatomic DB ACL reconstruction were included in this prospective longitudinal study. There were all males with a mean age of 25 ± 7.45 years. All patients were prospectively evaluated using GeNouRoB (GNRB) arthrometer, functional knee scores (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC] and Lysholm) and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for comparing the graft orientation and footprint of the reconstructed ACL with that of the normal knee. Results: The average followup was 36.2 months. At the time of final followup the mean Lysholm score was 93.13 ± 3.31. As per the objective IKDC score, 26 patients (86.6%) were in Group A while 4 patients (13.3%) were in Group B. The mean differential anterior tibial translation by GNRB, arthrometer was 1.07 ± 0.8 mm (range 0.1-2.3 mm). All cases had a negative pivot shift test. MRI scans of operated and the contralateral normal knee showed the mean sagittal ACL tibial angle coronal ACL tibial angle and tibial ACL footprint to be in accordance with the values of the contralateral, normal knee. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that DB ACL reconstruction restores the ACL anatomically in terms of size and angle of orientation. However, long term studies are needed to further substantiate its role in decreasing the incidence of early osteoarthritic changes compared to the conventional single bundle reconstructions. PMID:26015600

  18. Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjeet Kumar; Ansari, Ms

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum (CAUD) may be found all along the anterior urethra and may present itself at any age, from infant to adult. Most children with this condition present with difficulty in initiating micturition, dribbling of urine, poor urinary stream, or urinary tract infection. A careful history will reveal that these children never had a good urinary stream since birth, and the telltale sign is a cystic swelling of the penile urethra. In this paper, we present two cases of CAUD that were managed by excision of the diverticulum with primary repair. PMID:26328174

  19. Anatomic Tunnel Placement in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Aman; Gallo, Robert A; Lynch, Scott A

    2016-07-01

    The anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction concept has developed in part from renewed interest in the insertional anatomy of the ACL, using surgical techniques that can reproduce this anatomy reliably and accurately during surgical reconstruction. Several technical tools are available to help identify and place the tibial and femoral grafts anatomically, including arthroscopic anatomic landmarks, a malleable ruler device, and intraoperative fluoroscopy. The changes in technique for anatomic tunnel placement in ACL reconstruction follow recent biomechanical and kinematic data that demonstrate improved time zero characteristics. A better re-creation of native ACL kinematics and biomechanics is achieved with independent femoral drilling techniques that re-create a central footprint single-bundle ACL reconstruction or double-bundle reconstruction. However, to date, limited short-term and long-term clinical outcome data have been reported that support using either of these techniques rather than a transtibial drilling technique. This lack of clear clinical advantage for femoral independent and/or double-bundle techniques may arise because of the potentially offsetting biologic incorporation challenges of these grafts when placed using these techniques or could result from modifications made in traditional endoscopic transtibial techniques that allow improved femoral and tibial footprint restoration. PMID:27243794

  20. Bone tunnel enlargement on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, Adriano Barros de Aguiar; Duarte, Aires; Severino, Nilson Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the presence of tibial bone tunnel enlargement after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using quadruple graft of the flexor tendons and correlate the functional results in their presence. Methods: The studied lasted six months and included 25 patients, with ages ranging from 18 to 43 years old. Assessment was based on radiographs taken immediately postoperatively and at the third and sixth month of follow up in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Reconstruction of ligaments was performed with tendon grafts of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscle fixated in the femur with transverse metal screw and in the tibia with interference screws. Patients were evaluated objectively by tests ligament, graded from zero to four crosses and subjectively by the Lysholm method preoperative and after sixth month follow up. Results: Significant increase in the tunnels diameters were observed, 20.56% for radiographs in the anteroposterior view, 26.48% in profile view and 23.22% in computed tomography. Descriptive statistics showed significant improvement in subjective and objective clinical parameters. Conclusions: The bone tunnel enlargement is a phenomenon found in the first months after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament and it has no implications on clinical outcomes in the short term. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Study. PMID:25328430

  1. Olanzapine-induced tender pitting pre-tibial edema.

    PubMed

    Mathan, Kaliaperumal; Muthukrishnan, Venkatesan; Menon, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Antipsychotic-induced edema is uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. We report a case of tender pitting pre-tibial edema with olanzapine in a woman with no medical comorbidities. The peculiar distribution of edema resulted in diagnostic confusion necessitating specific investigations. Eventually, the edema resolved following complete stoppage of the drug, but caused distress to the patient and the caregiver. PMID:25969664

  2. Induction of Tibial Dyschondroplasia by Carbamate and Thiocarbamate Pesticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a major poultry leg problem the natural etiology of which is unknown. Certain dithiocarbamate pesticides such as tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (thiram) have been shown to induce the disease in chickens. Since many different carbamate and thiocarbamate chemicals are ...

  3. Changes in serum protein profiles of chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in serum protein profiles were analyzed to identify biomarkers associated with a poultry leg problem named tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) that can cause lameness. We used a bead-based affinity matrix containing a combinatorial library of hexapeptides (ProteoMinerTM) to deplete high abundan...

  4. Tibial dyschondroplasia associated proteomic changes in chicken growth plate cartilage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a poultry leg problem that affects the proximal growth plate of tibia preventing its transition to bone. To understand the disease-induced proteomic changes we compared the protein extracts of cartilage from normal and TD- affected growth plates. TD was induced by fe...

  5. Valgus subsidence of the tibial component in cementless Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement

    PubMed Central

    Liddle, A. D.; Pandit, H. G.; Jenkins, C.; Lobenhoffer, P.; Jackson, W. F. M.; Dodd, C. A. F.; Murray, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    The cementless Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement has been demonstrated to have superior fixation on radiographs and a similar early complication rate compared with the cemented version. However, a small number of cases have come to our attention where, after an apparently successful procedure, the tibial component subsides into a valgus position with an increased posterior slope, before becoming well-fixed. We present the clinical and radiological findings of these six patients and describe their natural history and the likely causes. Two underwent revision in the early post-operative period, and in four the implant stabilised and became well-fixed radiologically with a good functional outcome. This situation appears to be avoidable by minor modifications to the operative technique, and it appears that it can be treated conservatively in most patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:345–9. PMID:24589789

  6. [Toxic anterior segment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cornut, P-L; Chiquet, C

    2011-01-01

    Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) is a general term used to describe acute, sterile postoperative inflammation due to a non-infectious substance that accidentally enters the anterior segment at the time of surgery and mimics infectious endophthalmitis. TASS most commonly occurs acutely following anterior segment surgery, typically 12-72h after cataract extraction. Anterior segment inflammation is usually quite severe with hypopyon. Endothelial cell damage is common, resulting in diffuse corneal edema. No bacterium is isolated from ocular samples. The causes of TASS are numerous and difficult to isolate. Any device or substance used during the surgery or in the immediate postoperative period may be implicated. The major known causes include: preservatives in ophthalmic solutions, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices, bacterial endotoxin, and intraocular lens-induced inflammation. Clinical features of infectious and non-infectious inflammation are initially indistinguishable and TASS is usually diagnosed and treated as acute endophthalmitis. It usually improves with local steroid treatment but may result in chronic elevation of intraocular pressure or irreversible corneal edema due to permanent damage of trabecular meshwork or endothelial cells. PMID:21176994

  7. Retrograde Approach Using Surgical Cutdown Technique for Limb Salvage in a Case of Critical Limb Ischemia With Severely Calcified Tibial Occlusive Disease.

    PubMed

    Shiraki, Tatsuya; Iida, Osamu; Suemitsu, Kotaro; Tsuji, Yoriko; Uematsu, Masaaki

    2016-05-01

    We here report a successful angioplasty for tibial artery occlusion using direct tibial puncture and subsequent retrograde approach under surgical cutdown technique. An 82-year-old man with ulcer/gangrene in first and second digits was referred to our hospital for endovascular therapy (EVT) of lower extremity ischemia. Diagnostic angiogram revealed anterior tibial artery (ATA) occlusion with severe calcification. Subintimal angioplasty was attempted using a 0.014-inch hydrophilic guidewire but was unsuccessful. A retrograde approach was subsequently attempted for ATA recanalization. However, because of severe calcification of dorsal pedis artery (DPA), percutaneous distal puncture was also unsuccessful. Direct puncture under surgical cutdown technique for DPA was subsequently performed and was successful. A 0.014-inch hydrophilic wire was advanced in retrograde fashion across the ATA occlusion and was used to access the microcatheter positioned at the proximal ATA via antegrade approach. Angioplasty of the ATA occlusion was performed using a 2.5-/3.0-mm tapered balloon. Completion angiogram revealed restoration of flow without dissection. Skin perfusion pressure was dramatically improved. Complete wound healing was achieved 5 months after EVT. PMID:27207678

  8. Stress analysis of a condylar knee tibial component: influence of metaphyseal shell properties and cement injection depth.

    PubMed

    Cheal, E J; Hayes, W C; Lee, C H; Snyder, B D; Miller, J

    1985-01-01

    We generated three-dimensional finite element models of the proximal tibia with an implanted tibial component. The component features a cobalt-chromium tray with four short vertical posts and a porous-coated surface for improved fixation to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). We examined the stresses after varying: the structural rigidity of the metaphyseal cortical shell; the surface area of the cobalt-chromium tray; and the depth of pressure-injected PMMA bone cement. Our results indicate that previous finite element models of prosthetic tibial components have overestimated the structural contribution of the metaphyseal cortical shell by a factor of approximately 6. A standard size tray, in contrast to a tray that extends to the cortical shell, does not significantly alter the axial load distribution but could result in bone resorption beyond the tray periphery. An important consequence of the component peg locations is that they direct the compressive stresses into dense regions of trabeculae that run from the subchondral articular surface to the metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction. The use of a modified von Mises failure criterion suggests that at excessive load levels the most likely location of material failure is at the bone cement-trabecular bone interface immediately distal to the fixation posts. Due to its added rigidity, injection of cement beyond the fixation posts results in slightly increased stresses in this region, but these stress increases are compensated for by an increased strength of the cement-bone composite. PMID:4067701

  9. Current Trends in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Review.

    PubMed

    Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Ingole, Sachin; Vijay, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is an accepted and established surgical technique for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and is now being practiced across the globe in increasing numbers. Although most patients get good to excellent results in the short-term after ACLR, its consequences in the long-term in prevention or acceleration of knee osteoarthritis (OA) are not yet well-defined. Still, there are many debatable issues related to ACLR, such as the appropriate timing of surgery, graft selection, fixation methods of the graft, operative techniques, rehabilitation after surgery, and healing augmentation techniques. Most surgeons prefer not to wait long after an ACL injury to do an ACLR, as delayed reconstruction is associated with secondary damages to the intra- and periarticular structures of the knee. Autografts are the preferred choice of graft in primary ACLR, and hamstring tendons are the most popular amongst surgeons. Single bundle ACLR is being practiced by the majority, but double bundle ACLR is getting popular due to its theoretical advantage of providing more anatomical reconstruction. A preferred construct is the interference fixation (Bio-screw) at the tibial site and the suspensory method of fixation at the femoral site. In a single bundle hamstring graft, a transportal approach for creating a femoral tunnel has recently become more popular than the trans-tibial technique. Various healing augmentation techniques, including the platelet rich plasma (PRP), have been tried after ACLR, but there is still no conclusive proof of their efficacy. Accelerated rehabilitation is seemingly more accepted immediately after ACLR. PMID:26697280

  10. Current Trends in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Ingole, Sachin; Vijay, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is an accepted and established surgical technique for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and is now being practiced across the globe in increasing numbers. Although most patients get good to excellent results in the short-term after ACLR, its consequences in the long-term in prevention or acceleration of knee osteoarthritis (OA) are not yet well-defined. Still, there are many debatable issues related to ACLR, such as the appropriate timing of surgery, graft selection, fixation methods of the graft, operative techniques, rehabilitation after surgery, and healing augmentation techniques. Most surgeons prefer not to wait long after an ACL injury to do an ACLR, as delayed reconstruction is associated with secondary damages to the intra- and periarticular structures of the knee. Autografts are the preferred choice of graft in primary ACLR, and hamstring tendons are the most popular amongst surgeons. Single bundle ACLR is being practiced by the majority, but double bundle ACLR is getting popular due to its theoretical advantage of providing more anatomical reconstruction. A preferred construct is the interference fixation (Bio-screw) at the tibial site and the suspensory method of fixation at the femoral site. In a single bundle hamstring graft, a transportal approach for creating a femoral tunnel has recently become more popular than the trans-tibial technique. Various healing augmentation techniques, including the platelet rich plasma (PRP), have been tried after ACLR, but there is still no conclusive proof of their efficacy. Accelerated rehabilitation is seemingly more accepted immediately after ACLR. PMID:26697280