One of the most important issues in high-flex posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is anterior tibial post impingement. We examined 20 knees and 2 TKA designs to evaluate the in vivo kinematics during gait using fluoroscopic image analysis. The AP positions in both stance and swing phases were significantly larger and more anterior in J-curved design TKA compared with Single radius design TKA. Anterior tibial post impingement was observed in five knees implanted with Legacy-flex, and in four of the five knees they were not hyperextended. No impingement was observed with NRG. Less constraint and tibial posterior slope might lead to large AP translations and anterior tibial post impingement. Implant design and operative procedures for high-flexion TKAs affect the in vivo kinematics and the occurrence of anterior tibial post impingement. PMID:23454107
Tamaki, Masashi; Tomita, Tetsuya; Yamazaki, Takaharu; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugamoto, Kazuomi
The aim of the study was to assess pre, during, and postexercise compartment pressures in the anterior tibial compartment in asymptomatic long distance runners (5000 m) and recreational athletes. Forty-eight participants (n = 48, 24 females and 24 males) underwent the experimental procedures. The participants were assigned into 4 groups of 12 volunteers. Intracompartmen- tal pressures measurements were recorded 1
Panagiotis Baltopoulos; Eugenia Papadakou; Maria Tsironi; Panagiotis Karagounis
Interlocking nailing is a widely accepted and performed treatment for tibial shaft fractures. The addition of percutaneously placed transfixation screws increases the stabilisation provided by intramedullary nailing; however, the technical complexity associated with the procedure has introduced new potential complications. We report a pseudoaneurysm of the anterior tibial artery caused by a proximal interlocking screw after intramedullary nailing surgery to repair a tibial shaft fracture. The patient experienced complete relief of symptoms following removal of the nail and the screws, excision of the proximal fibula, resection of the pseudoaneurysm, and ligation of the anterior tibial artery. We recommend the oblique placement of the proximal interlocking screws to prevent this rare complication. PMID:16131685
Inamdar, D; Alagappan, M; Shyam, L; Devadoss, S; Devadoss, A
Background: Anteromedialization of the tibial tuberosity has been shown to decrease mean total contact pressures of the lateral trochlea and to shift contact pressures to the medial trochlea.Hypothesis: Modifying the anteromedialization osteotomy to a straight anteriorization osteotomy of the tibial tuberosity can decrease trochlear contact pressures without a resultant medial shift of forces to the medial trochlear contact area.Study Design:
John-Paul H. Rue; Anne Colton; Stephanie M. Zare; Elizabeth Shewman; Jack Farr; Bernard R. Bach; Brian J. Cole
INTRODUCTION We present a patient with a true anterior tibial artery aneurysm without any causative history. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 59 year old male was referred with a swelling on his left lateral ankle which he noticed 2 months ago, with symptoms of soaring pain. Additional radiological research showed a true arterial tibialis anterior aneurysm. True anterior tibial artery aneurysm is a rare condition. The aneurysm was repaired by resection and interposition of a venous bypass. DISCUSSION Patients may complain about symptoms like calf pain, distal ischemia, paresthesias due to nerve compression and the presence of a pulsating or increasing mass. Symptomatic aneurysms require surgical intervention, where bypass with a venous saphenous graft have shown good patency and endovascular treatment have shown good short term results. Asymptomatic and small aneurysm can be followed for several years with DUS. CONCLUSION Clinical features, radiographic findings, surgical management, and a review of the literature on true anterior tibial aneurysms are discussed.
Sigterman, Tim A.; Dolmans, Dennis E.J.G.J.; Welten, Rob J.Th.J.; Krasznai, Attila; Bouwman, Lee H.
A successful single-incision endoscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft requires attention to many technical details. The emphasis of placing the femoral bone plug flush with the opening of the femoral tunnel results in distal shift of the graft. Longer tibial tunnels are required to prevent excessive graft extrusion. The purpose of this study is to compare four direct and indirect measurement methods of tibial tunnel preparation to determine which method can be used to create consistently reproducible tibial tunnels that prevent excessive extrusion or recession of the graft within the tunnel. Tunnels placed at the empiric angles of 40 degrees, 50 degrees, and 60 degrees to the tibial plateau resulted in the incidence of acceptable tibial tunnel lengths of 44%, 83%, and 39%, respectively. Tunnels placed at an angle determined by the formula "N + 7" where 7 degrees is added to the patellar tendon length (N) resulted in acceptable tunnels 89% of the time. Direct measurement methods using the formulas "graft - 50 mm" and "N + 2 mm" resulted in acceptable tibial tunnels of 44% and 100%, respectively. We recommend using the "N + 7" in conjunction with the "N + 2 mm" formula to obtain the advantages of both indirect and direct measurement methods. PMID:9486327
Olszewski, A D; Miller, M D; Ritchie, J R
Allograft and bioabsorbable screw use in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) revision surgery is common. However, both allograft and bioabsorbable screws have been associated with immunologic reactions that lead to tunnel enlargement. Long-term studies examining tibial tunnel enlargement in this population are currently not available. We report a case of severe tibial and femoral tunnel enlargement 6.5 years after ACL revision surgery with anterior tibialis and semitendinosus allograft and bioabsorbable screw fixation. Longitudinal knee arthrometer data, knee examination with the patient under anesthesia, and arthroscopic inspection of the graft showed minimal effects of severe tunnel enlargement on anterior knee laxity and graft integrity. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a longitudinal assessment of anterior knee laxity associated with severe tunnel enlargement. Surgeons should be aware of this condition and the clinical consequences that may accompany bone tunnel enlargement after ACL surgery. PMID:21802626
Quatman, Carmen E; Paterno, Mark V; Wordeman, Samuel C; Kaeding, Christopher C
The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the results of anatomically tunneled grafts to the anterior\\u000a tibial artery for distal revascularization in terms of patency and limb salvage rates as well as local morbidity, which can\\u000a lengthen the postoperative hospital stay. Twenty-three patients received 24 bypasses to the anterior tibial artery, with grafts\\u000a tunneled through the interosseous
G. Illuminati; A. Bertagni; V. Martinelli
Peri-articular fractures after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery are rare. To our knowledge, this case documents the first insufficiency fracture of the tibial plateau after ACL reconstruction, which presented three weeks after the procedure. A 25-year-old female recreational soccer player suffered an insufficiency fracture of the tibial plateau, extending 1.5 mm into the anterior wall of tibial tunnel and medial compartment under the anterior horn of medial meniscus, which presented as a diagnostic challenge. Clinically, the fracture mimicked a low-grade infection of the surgical site, while radiographically, the fracture resembled an avulsion fracture, later confirmed as a tibial tunnel fracture with computed tomography. With the ACL graft integrity not in jeopardy, four weeks of non-weightbearing and a delayed post-operative rehabilitation program was effective in allowing the fracture to heal. Good functional outcome was achieved after conservative management, with minimal loss of terminal knee extension and minimal pain at 22-month follow-up.
Wong, Jessica J.; Muir, Brad
Peri-articular fractures after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery are rare. To our knowledge, this case documents the first insufficiency fracture of the tibial plateau after ACL reconstruction, which presented three weeks after the procedure. A 25-year-old female recreational soccer player suffered an insufficiency fracture of the tibial plateau, extending 1.5 mm into the anterior wall of tibial tunnel and medial compartment under the anterior horn of medial meniscus, which presented as a diagnostic challenge. Clinically, the fracture mimicked a low-grade infection of the surgical site, while radiographically, the fracture resembled an avulsion fracture, later confirmed as a tibial tunnel fracture with computed tomography. With the ACL graft integrity not in jeopardy, four weeks of non-weightbearing and a delayed post-operative rehabilitation program was effective in allowing the fracture to heal. Good functional outcome was achieved after conservative management, with minimal loss of terminal knee extension and minimal pain at 22-month follow-up. PMID:23754857
Wong, Jessica J; Muir, Brad
Intramuscular pressures in the anterior tibial compartment were measured in five paraplegic subjects who used functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) by percutaneous intramuscular electrodes for exercise and walking. Effects of two types of stimulation pattern were tested: continuous stimulation for 15 minutes and cyclic stimulation for 60 minutes, with duty cycle and stimulation levels similar to that used in walking. Resting compartment pressure levels before stimulation were less than 7 mm Hg in all subjects. Continuous stimulation at maximum parameters produced compartment pressure levels up to 116 mm Hg, but these were not sustained. They decreased to below 40 mm Hg within one minute in all except one subject, who was having repeated spasms. Cyclical stimulation raised mean muscle pressure to between 70 and 80 mm Hg in two patients. Muscle contraction pressure increased to 153 mm Hg in one patient, but was below 100 mm Hg in all patients after two minutes, except during spasms. Muscle relaxation pressure stayed below 30 mm Hg in four subjects. After stimulation, the pressure returned to prestimulation levels within 15 minutes. These results suggest that FNS subjects are not in danger of developing compartment syndrome. Nevertheless, occasional testing of compartment pressures is recommended, especially when activity levels rise significantly. PMID:1395291
Doyle, J; Kobetic, R; Marsolais, E B
The purpose of this study is to investigate the histological changes and apoptosis of cartilaginous layers in human anterior\\u000a cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial insertion at different time periods after rupture. By using a core reamer, 35 tibial insertions\\u000a of ruptured ACLs were obtained during primary ACL reconstructions (number of days after injury: 19–206 days). A histological\\u000a examination was performed and a
Hirotaka Mutsuzaki; Masataka Sakane; Kotaro Ikeda; Tomoo Ishii; Shinya Hattori; Junzo Tanaka; Naoyuki Ochiai
Many techniques have been described for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in skeletally immature patients, including extra-articular, complete or partial transphyseal, and physeal-sparing techniques. An all-epiphyseal technique places the tendon and its tunnels and fixation all within the child's epiphysis, leaving the growth plates untouched. We describe an all-epiphyseal quadruple-hamstring ACL reconstruction using a split tibial tunnel. The split tibial tunnels drop the tunnel size down to 4.5 to 5.5 mm from 7 to 8 mm because only half the total graft diameter passes through each of the split tunnels. This increases the safety margin for keeping the tunnel within the tibial epiphysis, in addition to avoiding damage into the growth plate. The bone bridge between the 2 tunnels serves as a solid low-profile fixation post. Femoral graft fixation is achieved with an interference screw, which allows precise tensioning and low-profile fixation entirely within the femoral tunnel. By placing the graft at the native ACL's anatomic attachment points without spanning or violating the growth plates at any step of the procedure, an all-epiphyseal ACL reconstruction with a split tibial tunnel theoretically minimizes the risk of growth disturbance in an ACL-deficient child.
Lykissas, Marios G.; Nathan, Senthil T.; Wall, Eric J.
Background: Fracture of the posterolateral tibial plateau is relatively uncommon. While surgical treatment by the posterior approach is theoretically ideal, this approach is associated with numerous complications. We describe a series of fractures of the posterolateral tibial plateau treated by the anterior surgical approach. Methods: Fifteen patients with posterolateral tibial plateau fractures were included in this study. All patients were treated operatively using the anterior approach. The quality of fracture reduction was evaluated and functional results were estimated by the Hospital for Special Surgery knee scoring system. Results: The most common cause of fracture was a motor scooter accident (86%, 13 of 15 patients), which may have resulted in the protective front plate of the scooter hitting the knee in the flexion position, causing an axial compression and valgus force, resulting in the fracture of the posterolateral tibial plateau. The average knee motion after surgery was 0–124° of flexion and 14 out of 15 patients (93%) experienced satisfactory articular reduction. There were no postoperative neural or vascular injuries and no wound complications. The average Hospital for Special Surgery knee score was 92 (range, 74–98). Conclusions: In our series, with careful preoperative planning, the anterior approach for the surgical treatment of posterolateral tibial plateau fractures had no complications and was associated with satisfactory outcomes.
Closed rupture of the tibial anterior tendon is a rare clinical entity. Case reports in the literature reveal a total of only 49 cases up to the year 2000. According to these reports, the age group affected is 50 to 70 years old, and there are more men than women affected. Although the functional limitation is quite considerable, late diagnosis
Stephanie Otte; Hans-Michael Klinger; Frank Lorenz; Thomas Haerer
A rare case of a 14-year-old girl with an avulsion-fracture of the tibial tuberosity is reported (type III-A). This lesion is described mainly in boys. The authors explain the classification of the different types of avulsion fracture according to the epiphyseal development of the upper end of the tibia and the stage of maturation at the time of trauma. PMID:1872165
Legaye, J; Lokietek, W
We performed a prospective analysis of 29 Fulkerson anteromedial tibial tubercle transfers in patients with chronic anterior knee pain. The average followup was 32 months (range, 25 to 44). Fourteen patients (Group 1) had subluxation-type malalignment (congruence an gle >20°, tilt angle >8°) and were treated with an isolated anteromedial tibial tubercle transfer. Fifteen patients (Group 2) had combined subluxation
Johan Bellemans; Frank Cauwenberghs; Eric Witvrouw; Peter Brys; Jan Victor
Background Posterior-stabilized TKAs, which use a polyethylene tibial post to articulate against a metal femoral cam, are used regularly.\\u000a Reported complications are related to the patellofemoral articulation or the tibial post-cam mechanism. Fracture of the tibial\\u000a post is an uncommon but disabling complication after posterior-stabilized TKA that requires operative treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes The literature was reviewed to determine the frequency of tibial post
Paul F. Lachiewicz
The rate of injury to arterial structures following long bone injuries is low. The rate in tibial diaphyseal fractures is similarly low. This rate increases with open fractures, likely reflective of the higher energy nature of open fractures. The possibility of iatrogenic injury to neurovascular structures during fracture fixation is more concerning. Consequently, the clinician must be aware of the location of neurovascular structures and the possible distortion of the normal anatomy when treating fractures. The anterior tibial artery is in proximity to the distal tibia. Typically, the neurovascular bundle lies directly on the anterolateral tibia between the tibialis anterior and the extensor hallucis longus in the distal third of the tibia. After fracture, this normal relationship may be disrupted. PMID:19226054
Miki, Roberto Augusto; Lawrence, James P; Gillon, Thomas J; Lawrence, Brandon D; Zell, Richard A
This study aimed to establish normal values for the position of the native anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insertion on the\\u000a tibia to assist in the evaluation of tunnel placement after primary ACL reconstruction or prior to revision surgery. One hundred\\u000a consecutive MRI studies performed on patients with a mean age of 29 years (range 20–35) from a single MRI facility were
Rachel M. FrankShane; Shane T. Seroyer; Paul B. Lewis; Bernard R. Bach; Nikhil N. Verma
Background The purpose of this study was to determine the tibial fixation strength provided by different intraosseous soft tissue graft lengths within the tibial tunnel. Methods Porcine tibial bones and digital flexor tendons were used for testing. Bone mineral densities of proximal tibial medial condyles were measured, and two-strand tendon bundles of 8 mm diameter were used. An intraosseous graft length of 2 cm was used in group 1 (n = 10), and a graft length of 4 cm was used in group 2 (n = 10). Tunnels were 4 cm in length and 8 mm in diameter. Tibial fixation was performed using a suture tied around a screw post with a washer and an additionally inserted 7 × 20 mm bioabsorbable screw. After applying preconditioning loading of 10 cycles, 1,000 cycles between 70-220 N were applied at a frequency of 1 Hz. Graft slippage and total graft movement were recorded. Ultimate tensile strength was measured by pull-out testing at an Instron crosshead speed of 1,000 mm/min. Results No significant intergroup difference was found for total graft movement after cyclic loading (slippage in group 1, 1.2 mm and group 2, 1.2 mm, respectively, p = 0.917; and total graft movement in group 1, 3.3 mm and group 2, 2.7 mm, respectively, p = 0.199). However, mean ultimate tensile strength in group 2 was significantly higher than that in group 1 (group 1, 649.9 N; group 2, 938 N; p = 0.008). Conclusions In a porcine model, ultimate tensile strength was greater for a 4 cm long intraosseous flexor tendon in the tibial tunnel. However, no intergroup difference in graft slippage or total graft movement was observed. The results show that a 2 cm intraosseous graft length in the tibial tunnel is safe and has sufficient strength (> 450 N) for adequate rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
Yang, Dong-Lyul; Cheon, Sang-Ho; Oh, Chang-Wug
Background The knowledge of in vivo anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deformation is fundamental for understanding ACL injury mechanisms and for improving surgical reconstruction of the injured ACL. This study investigated the relative elongation of the ACL when the knee is subject to no load (<10 N) and then to full body weight (axial tibial load) at various flexion angles using a combined dual fluoroscopic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. Methods Nine healthy subjects were scanned with MRI and imaged when one knee was subject to no load and then to full body weight using a dual fluoroscopic system (0°–45° flexion angles). The ACL was analyzed using three models: a single central bundle; an anteromedial and posterolateral (double functional) bundle; and multiple (eight) surface fiber bundles. Results The anteromedial bundle had a peak relative elongation of 4.4% ± 3.4% at 30° and that of the posterolateral bundle was 5.9% ± 3.4% at 15°. The ACL surface fiber bundles at the posterior portion of the ACL were shorter in length than those at the anterior portion. However, the peak relative elongation of one posterolateral fiber bundle reached more than 13% whereas one anteromedial fiber bundle reached a peak relative elongation of only about 3% at 30° of flexion by increasing the axial tibial load from no load to full body weight. Conclusions The data quantitatively demonstrated that under external loading the ACL experiences nonhomogeneous elongation, with the posterior fiber bundles stretching more than the anterior fiber bundles.
Hosseini, Ali; Gill, Thomas J.; Li, Guoan
The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the results of anatomically tunneled grafts to the anterior tibial artery for distal revascularization in terms of patency and limb salvage rates as well as local morbidity, which can lengthen the postoperative hospital stay. Twenty-three patients received 24 bypasses to the anterior tibial artery, with grafts tunneled through the interosseous membrane. The mean age was 67 years; 10 patients were diabetic, 12 were smokers, 9 presented with significant coronary artery disease, and 2 with chronic renal insufficiency. The donor vessel was the common femoral artery in 17 cases, the superficial femoral artery in 4, and the infra-articular popliteal artery in 3. The graft material consisted in the reversed saphenous vein in 4 cases, the non-reversed devalvulated ex situ saphenous vein in 11, composite polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) + inversed saphenous vein in 6, and PTFE alone in 3 cases. No postoperative mortality was observed, nor was there postoperative graft occlusion or need for major amputation. The average postoperative length of stay in the hospital was 9.7 days. Two local surgical wound complications were observed, which did not necessitate a postoperative hospital stay exceeding 15 days. Cumulative primary patency and limb salvage rates at 3 years were 50% and 70%, respectively. Anatomic tunneling of grafts to the anterior tibial artery yields patency and limb salvage rates comparable to those reported in the literature for distal bypasses and, considered overall, an acceptably low local morbidity and short hospital stay. Definitive superiority over externally tunneled grafts, however, is not definitely demonstrated by this study and should be prospectively tested. PMID:9776453
Illuminati, G; Calio, F G; Bertagni, A; Martinelli, V
Femoral rollback after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is necessary for flexion beyond 90–100°. Femoral rollback in posterior cruciate substituting TKA occurs as a result of the interaction between the femoral cam and tibial post. The geometric design of the cam post mechanism determines the kinematics of rollback. The purpose of this study is to optimise the design of the femoral cam-tibial post articulation through finite element analysis and suggest various design parameters that would optimise femoral rollback. Modifications to the tibial post geometry without changing the relative post position or slope are made. Results are characterised in terms femoral rollback and pressure distribution at the tibial post. Small design modifications to the tibial post are seen to produce large changes in femoral rollback with relatively small accompanying increases in contact pressures at the tibial post.
Chandran, Nagarajan; Gonzalez, Mark H.; Hilton, Kevin M.; Barmada, Riad; Goldstein, Wayne
Background: Intramedullary nailing is the treatment of choice for the majority of tibial shaft fractures and anterior knee pain is the most common complication of this surgery; however, its etiology is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the predicting factors related to anterior knee pain following tibial nailing. Materials and Methods: Patients with isolated, unilateral tibial shaft fracture who had undergone tibial nailing were identified retrospectively. Data including age, sex, type of fracture, technique of surgery and location of the nail were collected and finally the association between the above variables and knee pain were analyzed via SPSS software. Results: A total of 95 patients participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 33.52 ± 1.62, 87 (91.6%) of whom were male and 74 (77.9%) had close fractures respectively. The method of surgery in 60 (63.2%) patients was paratendinous approach and in 35 (36.8%) was transtendinous. Twenty six (27.4%) of the patients had anterior knee pain. There were no significant differences between the two groups of patients with and without knee pain by age, sex, type of fracture and type of surgery (P = 0.952, 0.502, 0.212 and 0.745, respectively). Patients with protrusion of the nail from the anterior cortex had higher risk of developing knee pain after surgery (odds ratio: 2.76, confidence interval: 1.08, 7.08, P = 0.031). Conclusion: The results revealed a higher risk of developing anterior knee pain after tibial nailing in patients with protrusion of the nail from the anterior cortex.
Tahririan, Mohammad Ali; Ziaei, Ehsan; Osanloo, Reza
Variant anatomy of the anterior tibial veins (ATV) was studied using 22 preparations of the lower extremities of men and. The great variability of the ATV anatomic patterns was established, which was characterized by the presence of numerous anastomoses between the main trunks and lengthy regions of duplication, creating an impression of a larger number of venous trunks. In most specimens, ATV were observed to originate as two main trunks. In 34% of cases veins had a scattered pattern. Perforating veins of the anterior musculofascial compartment penetrated the fascia in two main directions. Most frequently perforators appeared at the border between the lower and the middle thirds of the calf and between the upper and the middle thirds, their frequency amounting to 18.1% at both levels. In 45.5% of the samples, the tributaries were found that connected ATV with deep venous system of the back of the calf. The results obtained allow to plan the interventions on perforators of the anterior musculofascial compartment and ATV. PMID:20960710
Pavlov, A G; Sushkov, S A; Usovich, A K
In 42 patients with idiopathic chondromalacia patellae, the effect of anterior displacement of the tibial tuberosity was evaluated in a prospective and randomized study. The operation performed was a modified Bandi procedure, and it resulted in significant relief of the patellofemoral pains, compared with the effect of a standard shaving procedure. Shaving alone was done in 22 patients of whom 6 (27 per cent) were classified as good, a result which may have been due to the placebo effect. In another 20 patients shaving was combined with anterior displacement of the tibial tuberosity resulting in pain relief in 18 (9 degrees per cent). The lack of unambiguously good results may be due to the fact that, although an anterior displacement reduces the retropatellar pressure, it cannot by itself compensate for an abnormal, dynamic tracking pattern of the patella. PMID:7064673
Hejgaard, N; Watt-Boolsen, S
Complications associated with posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty (TKA) include patellar clunk syndrome, posterior subluxation of the tibial component, tibial post wear, and tibial post failure. Recently, an increasing number of reports have been issued on polyethylene tibial post failure in posterior-stabilized TKA. In most of these cases, tibial post failure in a well-functioning posterior-stabilized TKA was suspected based on clinical symptoms, such as a sudden onset of pain, effusion, patellar clunking, knee instability, and prosthesis dislocation. However, a floating, palpable, hard, mass-like symptom in the knee joint has not been previously reported. The authors report a case of a fractured polyethylene tibial post in a posterior-stabilized TKA that manifested as a palpable mass in the suprapatellar pouch. PMID:19902738
Jung, Kwang Am; Lee, Su Chan; Hwang, Seung Hyun; Kim, Sung Min
Study design:Controlled clinical test.Objectives:The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of quadriceps and anterior tibial muscles electrical stimulation on the feet and ankles of patients with spinal cord injuries and to compare them with able-bodied individuals and a group of patients who did not undergo neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES).Setting:This study was conducted at the Hospital das Clínicas
C K Bittar; A Cliquet
The effectiveness of below-the-knee (BTK) percutaneous transluminal angioplasty to obtain successful revascularization in patients with critical limb ischemia has been well established, and many of these patients with chronic lower-extremity disease have been treated by endovascular intervention as the firstline treatment. Dorsal-plantaer loop technique is one of the new BTK interventional techiniques, and includes recanalization of both pedal and plantar arteries and their anatomical anastomoses. This method generally needs two approaches simultaneously, including antegrade and retrograde. In this report, however, we describe a case in which dorsal-plantar loop technique with only one antegrade approach, using chronic total occlusion devices via anterior tibial artery, was used to successfully recanalize BTK arteries. We think that this new technique, which may represent a safe and feasible endovascular option to avoid more invasive, time-consuming, and riskier surgical procedures, especially in end-stage renal disease and diabetes, should be considered whenever the foot is at risk, and results of above-the-ankle percutaneous transluminal angioplasty remain unsatisfactory or insufficient to achieve limb salvage.
Kim, Seunghwan; Shin, Sanghoon; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Ko, Young-Guk; Hong, Myeong-Ki; Jang, Yangsoo
It is known that the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) plays a role in providing joint stabilities under tibial varus/valgus torques and the material behavior of the ACL has changed with ageing. However, the effect of this variation of the ACL material property on joint kinematics and biomechanics under tibial varus/valgus torques has still not been clarified.In this paper, three finite element (FE) models of an intact tibiofemoral joint were reconstructed with different ACL material properties, corresponding to the ACL on the younger, middle and older ages, respectively. The joint kinematics, the stress distribution and resultant force of the ACL were obtained under a tibial varus or valgus torque load. It was found that the variation in the ACL material property would result in great changes in some joint displacements (i.e., the tibial anterior translation and external rotation). The maximal stress value in the ACL had also altered while the stress distribution did not varied obviously. The great change in the tibial anterior translation illustrated that ACL played an important role against varus/valgus torques by controlling the coupled tibial anterior translation//external rotation rather than the corresponding varus/valgus rotation. PMID:24212034
Wan, Chao; Hao, Zhi-Xiu; Wen, Shi-Zhu
Background After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, formation of cortical sclerotic bone encircling the femoral and tibial tunnel is a part of intratunnel graft healing. During the physiological cascades of soft tissue healing and bone growth, cellular and hormonal factors play an important role. The purpose of this study was to non-invasively but quantitatively assess the effect of intraoperatively applied platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the formation of cortical bone encircling the tibial tunnel. Patients and methods In fifty patients, standard arthroscopic ACL reconstructions were performed. The PRP group (n = 25) received a local application of PRP while the control group (n = 25) did not receive PRP. The proximal tibial tunnel was examined by MRI in the paraxial plane where the portion of the tibial tunnel wall circumference consisting of sclerotic cortical bone was assessed with testing occurring at one, two and a half and six months after surgery. Results At one month after surgery, differences between the groups in the amount of cortical sclerotic bone encircling the tunnel were not significant (p = 0.928). At two and a half months, the sclerotic portion of the tunnel wall in the PRP group (36.2%) was significantly larger than in the control (22.5%) group (p = 0.004). At six months, the portion of sclerotic bone in the PRP group (67.1%) was also significantly larger than in the control (53.5%) group (p = 0.003). Conclusions Enhanced cortical bone formation encircling the tibial tunnel at 2.5 and 6 months after ACL graft reconstruction results from locally applied platelet-rich plasma.
Rupreht, Mitja; Vogrin, Matjaz; Hussein, Mohsen
To avoid complications related to the use of patellar tendon and hamstring (semitendinosus and gracilis) tendon and to create a more anatomic reconstruction, we present a new technique based on the use of quadriceps tendon placed in a single half femoral tunnel and double tibial tunnels. The graft, harvested by a central longitudinal incision, possesses the following characteristics: (1) a bone plug 20 mm long and 10 mm in diameter; (2) a tendon component 7 to 8 cm long, 10 mm wide, and 8 mm thick; and (3) division of the tendon longitudinally into 2 bundles while maintaining the patellar insertion. Every bundle has a width and thickness of approximately 5 mm and 8 mm, respectively. The total length of the graft is 9 to 10 cm. A 10-mm half femoral tunnel is drilled through a low anteromedial portal with the knee flexed at 120 degrees. A suture loop is left in place in the half tunnel. A double tibial tunnel is drilled in a convergent manner (from outside to inside) obtaining an osseous bridge between the 2 tunnels. Two suture loops are passed trough the tibial tunnels and retrieved in a plastic cannula (10 mm) positioned in the anteromedial portal to allow the passage of the 2 bundles in the tibial tunnels. The suture loop left in the half tunnel permits the transportation of the bone plug in the femoral tunnel. Fixation is achieved by an interference screw at the femoral side and by 2 absorbable interference screws (1 for each tunnel). The advantages of this technique are a more cross-sectional area (80 mm(2)), greater bone-tendon interface, and a more anatomic reconstruction. Theoretically, easier bone incorporation, decreased windshield wiper and bungee effect, fewer donor site problems, and less tunnel enlargement can also be possible. PMID:10882460
Pederzini, L; Adriani, E; Botticella, C; Tosi, M
Elevation of the patellar tendon by means of displacement of the tibial tubercle has been advocated by Maquet, Ficat and Hungerford, and Murray as an alternative to patellectomy for the treatment of patellofemoral arthralgias. Although tubercle elevation certainly reduces the over-all patellofemoral contact force, its effects on the complex local patterns of contact stress are of more direct significance. In a laboratory series using fresh amputation material, arrays of six miniature contact stress sensors were embedded in the retropatellar cartilage of knees subjected to isometric quadriceps-extension forces. The experimental data revealed that elevation of the patellar tendon generally afforded relief of local contact stress regardless of the joint configuration (zero degrees, 45 degrees, or 90 degrees of flexion), but that its effects were most pronounced at 90 degrees of flexion. Progressive increase in the tendon elevation caused progressive reduction in the contact stress. Most of the contact stress relief was achieved, however, with the first one-half inch of tendon elevation; further elevations to one and one and one-half inches were only marginally useful. In view of the increased superior patellar pole contact associated with distal pole flotation, the results indicate that under most circumstances the optimum amount of elevation of the tibial tubercle is about one-half inch. PMID:422601
Ferguson, A B; Brown, T D; Fu, F H; Rutkowski, R
Despite the widely held belief that residual incongruities from intra-articular fractures subject the joint to contact stresses that predispose to post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA), objective evidence has been lacking. This study tested the hypothesis that a metric of elevated contact stress exposure would predict the onset of PTOA. The ankles of 10 tibial plafond fracture patients were treated initially using a spanning fixator, with subsequent screw fixation of the articular surface. Following up on an earlier report of finite element computed post-operative contact stress distributions in these patients' ankles, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scores were assessed from minimum 2-year follow-up radiographs to characterize the presence/severity of PTOA. At that time point, seven patients had developed PTOA (KL???2). Five different metrics of contact stress exposure were calculated, all of which exhibited excellent concordance with KL scores, ranging from 88% to 95%. When time of stress exposure was included, one metric was able to predict PTOA development (KL???2) with 100% reliability, and all metrics exhibited >94% prediction reliability. These findings, albeit in a small population, support the existence of a contact stress exposure threshold above which incongruously reduced tibial plafond fractures are highly likely to develop PTOA. PMID:20607840
Anderson, Donald D; Van Hofwegen, Christopher; Marsh, J Lawrence; Brown, Thomas D
Purpose The use of graft tissue fixation using bioabsorbable interference screws (BISs) in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction offers various advantages, but limited pullout strength. Therefore, additional tibial fixation is essential for aggressive rehabilitation. We hypothesized that additional graft tissue fixation using bioabsorbable suture anchors (BSA) would provide sufficient pull-out strength. Materials and Methods Twenty four fresh frozen porcine distal femur and patellar tendon preparations were used. All specimens were divided into three groups based on additional fixation methods: A, isolated BIS; B, BIS and BSA; and C, BIS and post cortical screw. Tensile testing was carried out under an axial load. Ultimate failure load and ultimate failure load after cyclic loading were recorded. Results The ultimate failure loads after load to failure testing were 166.8 N in group A, 536.4 N in group B, and 438 N in group C; meanwhile, the ultimate failure loads after load to failure testing with cyclic loading were 140 N in group A, 466.5 N in group B, and 400 N in group C. Stiffness after load to failure testing was 16.5 N/mm in group A, 33.5 N/mm in group B, and 40 N/mm in group C. An additional BSA fixation resulted in a significantly higher ultimate failure load and stiffness than isolated BIS fixation, similar to post screw fixation. Conclusion Additional fixation using a BSA provided sufficient pullout strength for ACL reconstruction. The ultimate failure load of the BSA technique was similar to that of post cortical screws.
Na, Suk In; Lee, Jong Min; Park, Ju Yong
Disuse osteoporosis following tibial fractures is associated with pain and prolonged rehabilitation. In a prospective study, 22 patients with stable tibial fractures treated in plaster of Paris were compared with 15 patients in whom unstable tibial fractures were treated by external fixation. All patients were allowed to bear full weight from the day after the injury. The patients treated with
S. C. Tandon; P. A. Gregson; P. B. M. Thomas; J. Saklatvala; J. Singanayagam; P. W. Jones
Forty-four consecutive diaphyseal extra-articular tibial fractures (43 patients) were treated with intramedullary interlocking nail. There were 35 men and eight women with a mean age of 38 years. Average follow-up was 25 months. Cases were divided into two groups: anterior-knee-pain group, 20 knees; and no-pain group, 24 knees. The lateral projection radiographs of their tibiae were scrutinised for precise bony
Haydar A. J. Al Hussainy; Asem Deeb; Awani K. Choudhary
The purpose of this study was to develop a biomechanical model to estimate anterior tibial translation (ATT), anterior shear forces, and ligament loading in the healthy and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee joint during gait. This model used electromyography (EMG), joint position, and force plate data as inputs to calculate ligament loading during stance phase. First, an EMG-driven model was used to calculate forces for the major muscles crossing the knee joint. The calculated muscle forces were used as inputs to a knee model that incorporated a knee-ligament model in order to solve for ATT and ligament forces. The model took advantage of using EMGs as inputs, and could account for the abnormal muscle activation patterns of ACL-deficient gait. We validated our model by comparing the calculated results with previous in vitro, in vivo, and numerical studies of healthy and ACL-deficient knees, and this gave us confidence on the accuracy of our model calculations. Our model predicted that ATT increased throughout stance phase for the ACL-deficient knee compared with the healthy knee. The medial collateral ligament functioned as the main passive restraint to anterior shear force in the ACL-deficient knee. Although strong co-contraction of knee flexors was found to help restrain ATT in the ACL-deficient knee, it did not counteract the effect of ACL rupture. Posterior inclination angle of the tibial plateau was found to be a crucial parameter in determining knee mechanics, and increasing the tibial slope inclination in our model would increase the resulting ATT and ligament forces in both healthy and ACL-deficient knees. PMID:20683675
Shao, Qi; MacLeod, Toran D; Manal, Kurt; Buchanan, Thomas S
The aim of the present study was to evaluate incidence, degree and impact of tibial tunnel widening (TW) on patient-reported long-term clinical outcome, knee joint stability and prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) after isolated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. On average, 13.5 years after ACL reconstruction via patella-bone-tendon-bone autograft, 73 patients have been re-evaluated. Inclusion criteria consisted of an isolated anterior cruciate ligament rupture and reconstruction, a minimum of 10-year follow-up and no previous anterior cruciate ligament repair or associated intra-articular lesions. Clinical evaluation was performed via the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score and the Tegner and Lysholm scores. Instrumental anterior laxity testing was carried out with the KT-1000™ arthrometer. The degree of degenerative changes and the prevalence of osteoarthritis were assessed with the Kellgren-Lawrence score. Tibial tunnel enlargement was radiographically evaluated on both antero-posterior and lateral views under establishment of 4 degrees of tibial tunnel widening by measuring the actual tunnel diameters in mm on the sclerotic margins of the inserted tunnels on 3 different points (T1–T3). Afterwards, a conversion of the absolute values in mm into a 4 staged ratio, based on the comparison to the results of the initial drill-width, should provide a better quantification and statistical analysis. Evaluation was performed postoperatively as well as on 2 year follow-up and 13 years after ACL reconstruction. Minimum follow-up was 10 years. 75% of patients were graded A or B according to IKDC score. The mean Lysholm score was 90.2±4.8 (25–100). Radiological assessment on long-term follow-up showed in 45% a grade I, in 24% a grade II, in 17% a grade III and in additional 12% a grade IV enlargement of the tibial tunnel. No evident progression of TW was found in comparison to the 2 year results. Radiological evaluation revealed degenerative changes in sense of a grade II OA in 54% of patients. Prevalence of a grade III or grade IV OA was found in 20%. Correlation analysis showed no significant relationship between the amount of tibial tunnel enlargement (P>0.05), long-term clinical results, anterior joint laxity or prevalence of osteoarthritis. Tunnel widening remains a radiological phenomenon which is most commonly observed within the short to midterm intervals after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and subsequently stabilises on mid and long- term follow-up. It does not adversely affect long-term clinical outcome and stability. Furthermore, tunnel widening doesn't constitute an increasing prevalence of osteoarthritis.
Struewer, Johannes; Efe, Turgay; Frangen, Thomas Manfred; Schwarting, Tim; Buecking, Benjamin; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Schuttler, Karl Friedrich; Ziring, Ewgeni
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture ranks among the most common injuries in sports. The incidence of ACL injuries is considerably higher in females than in males and the underlying mechanisms are still under debate. Furthermore, it has been suggested that muscle fatigue can be a risk factor for ACL injuries. We investigated gender differences in hamstring reflex responses and posterior-anterior tibial translation (TT) before and after fatiguing exercise. We assessed the isolated movement of the tibia relative to the femur in the sagittal plane as a consequence of mechanically induced TT in standing subjects. The muscle activity of the hamstrings was evaluated. Furthermore, isometric maximum voluntary torque (iMVT) and rate of torque development (RTD) of the hamstrings (H) and quadriceps (Q) were measured and the MVT H/Q as well as the RTD H/Q ratios were calculated. After fatigue, reflex onset latencies were enhanced in women. A reduction of reflex responses associated with an increased TT was observed in females. Men showed no differences in these parameters. Correlation analysis revealed no significant associations between parameters for TT and MVT H/Q as well as RTD H/Q. The results of the present study revealed that the fatigue protocol used in this study altered the latency and magnitude of reflex responses of the hamstrings as well as TT in women. These changes were not found in men. Based on our results, it is conceivable that the fatigue-induced decrease in neuromuscular function with a corresponding increase in TT probably contributes to the higher incidence of ACL injuries in women.
Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Wassermann, Franziska; Bruhn, Sven
In this study, a constitutive law based on a nearly incompressible transversely isotropic hyperelastic potential is proposed to describe the mechanical behaviour of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The constitutive formulation is valid for arbitrary kinematics (finite elasticity) and is thermodynamically admissible. Based on anatomic measurements performed on a human cadaveric knee specimen, a three-dimensional continuum finite element model of the ACL was developed. The numerical model was used to simulate clinical procedures such as the Lachman and drawer tests, which are performed to assess the existence and severity of an ACL injury. Finite element analyses showed that the two procedures have distinct effects on the behaviour of the ACL and provided new insights into the stress distributions. Moreover, good qualitative and quantitative agreement was found between the present study and results obtained experimentally in comparable conditions. PMID:14965874
Limbert, Georges; Middleton, John; Taylor, Mark
Musculoskeletal system is involved in 1-5% of extrapulmonary cases of tuberculosis. Tuberculous tenosynovitis is a rare form of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the tendon sheath in the hand has been seen in a few cases. Involvement of the tendons of the leg is less common. Diagnosis is not easy as there are no specific clinical symptoms or signs. A 33-year-old male presented with painful swelling in the distal right lower limb that caused restriction of movement. Imaging studies showed inflammation and infection of the extensor digitorium longus and tibialis anterior tendons. Histopathological studies showed a necrotizing granulomatous inflammation in the synovial tissue. A diagnosis of tuberculosis was made and medical treatment was initiated that proved successful. Patient remained infection-free at 26-month follow-up examination.
Genc, Berhan; Solak, Aynur; Mayda, Aslan; Sen, Nazime
Like the human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), the porcine ACL also has a double bundle structure and several biomechanical studies using this model have been carried out to show the differential effect of these two bundles on macro-level knee joint function. It is hypothesised that if the different bundles of the porcine ACL are mechanically distinct in function, then a multi-scale anatomical characterisation of their individual enthesis will also reveal significant differences in structure between the bundles. Twenty-two porcine knee joints were cleared of their musculature to expose the intact ACL following which ligament-bone samples were obtained. The samples were fixed in formalin followed by decalcification with formic acid. Thin sections containing the ligament insertion into the tibia were then obtained by cryosectioning and analysed using differential interference contrast (DIC) optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At the micro-level, the anteromedial (AM) bundle insertion at the tibia displayed a significant deep-rooted interdigitation into bone, while for the posterolateral (PL) bundle the fibre insertions were less distributed and more focal. Three sub-types of enthesis were identified in the ACL and related to (i) bundle type, (ii) positional aspect within the insertion, and (iii) specific bundle function. At the nano-level the fibrils of the AM bundle were significantly larger than those in the PL bundle. The modes by which the AM and PL fibrils merged with the bone matrix fibrils were significantly different. A biomechanical interpretation of the data suggests that the porcine ACL enthesis is a specialized, functionally graded structural continuum, adapted at the micro-to-nano scales to serve joint function at the macro level. PMID:24697495
Zhao, Lei; Thambyah, Ashvin; Broom, Neil D
Background Quantitative measurement of anterior translation of the tibia (ATT) by KT 1000 is used mainly to provide an objective assessment of knee laxity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears or ACL reconstructions. Only few papers described its use after menisectomies in knees with intact ACL. The objective of this paper is to determine whether partial medial meniscectomies could induce significant immediate post-operative ATT. Methods Thirty-two patients with a diagnosis of partial medial meniscal tear limited to the posterior horn and documented with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were assessed under anesthesia before and immediately after arthroscopic meniscectomy. The assessment was performed by the same examiner by means of the MEDmetric(R) KT-1000 instrument using manual maximum (MM) force. The opposite knees were also assessed. Results There is a significant difference between pre and post-operative KT MM mean values for the operated knees (CI: -3.933953 to ?2.947297, p?0.0001). No significance was found between the mean values for the contralateral knees before and after the completion of the menisectomy on the operated knees (p?=?0.4). For the operated knees, 14 (43.75%) had a side-to-side difference between pre-and post-operative values of more than 3 mm, whereas for the contralateral knees, only 2 (6%) had the same. Conclusion Less than half of operated knees showed significant side-to-side difference values of ATT (>3 mm), immediately after meniscectomies in unconscious patients. Our values might reflect a temporarily increase of anterior laxity under specific conditions but whether a significant laxity remains in some knees, such changes may lead to higher cartilage loading and early osteoarthritis.
We evaluated the incidence and aetiology of anterior knee pain (AKP) in a series of patients that underwent intramedullary nailing for stabilisation of tibial fractures. During the preparation of the entry site no excision of the infrapatellar fat was allowed and electrical haemostasis was kept at the lowest level. Medullary canal was reamed and the nails inserted in position of knee flexion over 100 degrees. All fractures were fixed using medial paratendinous approach. Functional outcome was measured using Lysholm knee score. The knee range of movement and return to previous level of activity were also documented and analysed. Mean follow up was 38.9 months (range 12-84 months). In total 60 patients with 62 tibial shaft fractures were analysed. The mean age at the time of final follow up was 49.4 years (range 20-87). In 22 (35.5%) a newly developed and persisting pain in the anterior region of the operated knee was reported. According to VAP scale, the pain was mild (VAS 1-3) in 12 cases (19.4%) and moderate (VAS 4-6) in 10 (16.1%). In 16 cases (73%) the pain was noticed 6-12 months after injury and subjectively related to return to full range of working and recreational activities. The mean Lysholm knee score in the group without AKP was 90.8. In the AKP group with mild pain it was 88.4 and in the group with moderate AKP it was 79.9. Complete return to previous professional and recreational activities occurred in 49/60 patients (81.7%). Content with the treatment regarding expectations in recovery dynamics and return to desired level of activity was present in 98.3% of patients; one patient was unsatisfied with the treatment. Our results indicate that respecting the physiological motion of Hoffa pad and menisci during knee flexion, accompanied with atraumatic mobilisation of retrotendinous fat, reduces incidence and severity of anterior knee pain following intramedullary fixation of tibial shaft fractures. PMID:24060016
Jankovic, Andrija; Korac, Zelimir; Bozic, Nenad-Bozo; Stedul, Ivan
Background Conversion of a knee arthrodesis to a Total Knee Arthroplasty is an uncommon procedure. Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty in this setting presents the surgeon with a number of challenges including the management of the extensor mechanism and patella. Case presentation We describe a unique case of a 69 years old Caucasian man who underwent a revision Total Knee Arthroplasty using a tibial tubercle osteotomy after a previous conversion of a knee arthrodesis without patella resurfacing. Unfortunately 9 months following surgery a tibial tubercle pseudarthrosis and spontaneous patella fracture occurred. Both were managed with open reduction and internal fixation. At 30 months follow-up the tibial tubercle osteotomy had completely consolidated while the patella fracture was still evident but with no signs of further displacement. The patient was completely satisfied with the outcome and had a painless range of knee flexion between 0-95°. Conclusions We believe that patients undergoing this type of surgery require careful counseling regarding the risk of complications both during and after surgery despite strong evidence supporting improved functional outcomes.
The purpose of this study was to determine if geometry of the articular surfaces of the tibial plateau is associated with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. This was a longitudinal cohort study with a nested case-control analysis. Seventy-eight subjects who suffered a non-contact ACL tear and a corresponding number of controls matched by age, sex, and sport underwent 3 T MRI of both knees. Surface geometry of the tibial articular cartilage was characterized with polynomial equations and comparisons were made between knees on the same person and between ACL-injured and control subjects. There was no difference in surface geometry between the knees of the control subjects. In contrast, there were significant differences in the surface geometry between the injured and normal knees of the ACL-injured subjects, suggesting that the ACL injury changed the cartilage surface profile. Therefore, comparisons were made between the uninjured knees of the ACL-injured subjects and the corresponding knees of their matched controls and this revealed significant differences in the surface geometry for the medial (p < 0.006) and lateral (p < 0.001) compartments. ACL-injured subjects tended to demonstrate a posterior-inferior directed orientation of the articular surface relative to the long axis of the tibia, while the control subjects were more likely to show a posterior-superior directed orientation. PMID:24123281
Beynnon, Bruce D; Vacek, Pamela M; Sturnick, Daniel R; Holterman, Leigh Ann; Gardner-Morse, Mack; Tourville, Timothy W; Smith, Helen C; Slauterbeck, James R; Johnson, Robert J; Shultz, Sandra J
Postoperative tunnel enlargement has been frequently reported after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Interference screw, as a surgical implant in ACL reconstruction, may influence natural loading transmission and contribute to tunnel enlargement. The aims of this study are (1) to quantify the alteration of strain energy density (SED) distribution after the anatomic single-bundleACL reconstruction; and (2) to characterize the influence of screw length and diameter on the degree of the SED alteration. A validated finite element model of human knee joint was used. The screw length ranging from 20 to 30mm with screw diameter ranging from 7 to 9mm were investigated. In the post-operative knee, the SED increased steeply at the extra-articular tunnel aperture under compressive and complex loadings, whereas the SED decreased beneath the screw shaft and nearby the intra-articular tunnel aperture. Increasing the screw length could lower the SED deprivation in the proximal part of the bone tunnel; whereas increasing either screw length or diameter could aggravate the SED deprivation in the distal part of the bone tunnel. Decreasing the elastic modulus of the screw could lower the bone SED deprivation around the screw. In consideration of both graft stability and SED alteration, a biodegradable interference screw with a long length is recommended, which could provide a beneficial mechanical environment at the distal part of the tunnel, and meanwhile decrease the bone-graft motion and synovial fluid propagation at the proximal part of the tunnel. These findings together with the clinical and histological factors could help to improve surgical outcome, and serve as a preliminary knowledge for the following study of biodegradable interference screw.
Yao, Jie; Kuang, Guan-Ming; Wong, DuoWai-Chi; Niu, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yu-Bo
Postoperative tunnel enlargement has been frequently reported after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Interference screw, as a surgical implant in ACL reconstruction, may influence natural loading transmission and contribute to tunnel enlargement. The aims of this study are (1) to quantify the alteration of strain energy den sity (SED) distribution after the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction; and (2) to characterize the influence of screw length and diameter on the degree of the SED alteration. A validated finite element model of human knee joint was used. The screw length ranging from 20 to 30mm with screw diameter ranging from 7 to 9 mm were investigated. In the post-operative knee, the SED increased steeply at the extra-articular tunnel aperture under compressive and complex loadings, whereas the SED decreased beneath the screw shaft and nearby the intra-articular tunnel aperture. Increasing the screw length could lower the SED deprivation in the proximal part of the bone tunnel; whereas increasing either screw length or diameter could aggravate the SED deprivation in the distal part of the bone tunnel. Decreasing the elastic modulus of the screw could lower the bone SED deprivation around the screw. In consideration of both graft stability and SED alteration, a biodegradable interference screw with a long length is recommended, which could provide a beneficial mechanical environment at the distal part of the tunnel, and meanwhile decrease the bone-graft motion and synovial fluid propagation at the proximal part of the tunnel. These findings together with the clinical and histological factors could help to improve surgical outcome, and serve as a preliminary knowledge for the following study of biodegradable interference screw. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Yao, Jie; Kuang, Guan-Ming; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Niu, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yu-Bo
The role of the anterior urethral culture and its relationship to post-operative urine infection in patients undergoing transurethral surgery was studied in 43 consecutive patients. A significant relationship between the anterior urethral culture and subsequent urine infection in patients with a sterile pre-operative urine was noted (p<0.01).
L. Walker; I. King; B. J. Abel; A. G. Hutchison; H. J. Lewi
Intramuscular connective tissues are continuous to extramuscular connective tissues. If force is transmitted there, differences should be present between force at proximal and distal attachments of muscles. Extensor digitorum longus (EDL), tibialis anterior (TA), and extensor hallucis longus muscles (EHL) were excited simultaneously and maximally. Only EDL length was changed, exclusively by moving the position of its proximal tendon. Distal
P. A. J. B. M. Huijing; G. C. Baan
Purpose: To compare the motion of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) replacement graft within the femoral bone tunnel (graft-tunnel motion) when a soft-tissue graft is secured either by a titanium button and polyester tape (EndoButton fixation; Acufex, Smith & Nephew, Mansfield, MA) or by a biodegradable interference screw (Biointerference fixation; Endo-fix; Acufex, Smith & Nephew) An additional purpose was to
Eiichi Tsuda; Yukihisa Fukuda; John C. Loh; Richard E. Debski; Freddie H. Fu; Savio L. Y. Woo
If early neurological deterioration occurs following anterior cervical discectomy, the patient should be evaluated by urgent\\u000a MRI scanning. In order to interpret such a scan it is essential to know what the normal post-operative MRI appearance is following\\u000a an uncomplicated procedure. In the lumbar spine it is well recognized that early post-operative imaging following discectomy\\u000a is difficult to interpret with
R. Bommireddy; A. Kamat; E. T. Smith; T. Nixon; R. Pillay; T. Pigott; G. F. Findlay
Post-traumatic anterior open bite can occur as a result of broken balance among the masticatory muscles. The superior hyoid muscle group retracts the mandible downward and contributes to the anterior open bite. Denervation of the digastric muscle by injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) can reduce the power of the digastric muscle and help to resolve the post-traumatic anterior open bite. A patient with a bilateral angle fracture had an anterior open bite even after undergoing three operations under general anesthesia and rubber traction. Although the open bite showed some improvement by the repeated operation, the occlusion was still unstable six weeks after the initial treatment. To eliminate the residual anterior open bite, BTX-A was injected into the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. Following injection of BTX-A, the anterior open bite showed immediate improvement. Complication and relapse were not observed during follow-up. Long-standing post-traumatic open bite could be successfully corrected by injection of BTX-A into the anterior belly of the digastric muscle without complication. PMID:24471041
Seok, Hyun; Park, Yong-Tae; Kim, Seong-Gon; Park, Young-Wook
The role played by anatomic factors in ACL injury remains elusive. In this study, objective methods were used to characterize ACL volume, tibial slopes, and notch geometry from ACL-injured and matched control subjects. The study tested four hypotheses: 1) the medial tibial plateau slope is steeper posteriorly in the injured group compared to the non-injured group, 2) the lateral tibial plateau slope is steeper posteriorly in the injured group compared to the non-injured group, 3) the femoral intercondylar notch dimensions are smaller in the injured group compared to the non-injured group and 4) the ACL volume, tibial plateau slopes and intercondylar notch dimensions are all independent of each other. Fifty-four subjects were divided into two groups, those who had suffered a non-contact ACL injury and those who still had two healthy ACLs, matched to the injured subjects by gender, age, height and weight. The lateral tibial plateaus in the uninjured contralateral knees of the injured subjects had a significantly steeper posterior slope (1.8° vs. ?0.3°), a factor that potentially contributed to the ACL injury in the opposite knee. The intercondylar notch dimensions were found to be smaller in the injured subjects, potentially putting the ACL at risk of impingement, and intercondylar notch volume was correlated to ACL volume (r=0.58). Discriminant analysis showed that the notch width at the inlet was the best single predictor of ACL injury.
Simon, RA; Everhart, J; Nagaraja, HN; Chaudhari, AM
Interest in esthetic dentistry is growing recently. Patients visit dental offices not only to exchange fillings or perform bleaching, but often to demand replacement of unaesthetic prosthetic crowns. Problems appear when dealing with a prosthetic crown of an anterior tooth reinforced with a coronoradicular metal post. Firstly, there exists the risk of color mismatch of the all-ceramic crown due to the old coronoradicular post. Secondly, dark coloration of gum tissues may appear and prove particularly worrisome for a patient with a high lip line. In some cases, root canal retreatment may be necessary due to incomplete root canal filling, apical periodontitis, or interference between filling material and future adhesion of the fiber post to root dentin. This article is a case report describing coronoradicular metal post removal with ultrasound. Indications and contraindications for the procedure are discussed. PMID:20349597
Zarow, Maciej; Nizankowska-Jedrzejczyk, Agata
Background Post-stroke mania is an infrequent complication after stroke, and the mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. Although a contralesional release phenomenon has been implicated in post-stroke mania, empirical findings are lacking. Case presentation We present a case report of post stroke mania. Single photon emission tomography (SPECT) was performed twice, during the manic state and during the remitted euthymic state. The first SPECT study performed during the manic state demonstrated hypoperfusion in the right temporal and frontal regions due to right putaminal hemorrhage. It also showed hyperperfusion in the inferior lateral prefrontal lobe, the temporal lobe, and the medial and lateral parts of the parietal lobe in the left hemisphere. The second SPECT study performed during the euthymic state demonstrated moderate improvement in the hypoperfusion in the right fronto-temporal regions. Furthermore, compared to the findings on the first SPECT study, the second study showed that the focal hyperperfusion in the anterior insular cortex, inferior lateral prefrontal lobes, and superior-middle temporal gyrus in the left hemisphere had vanished. Conclusion Increased left inferior prefrontal and anterior insular activity and reduced extensive right fronto-temporal lobe activity are involved in the development of post-stroke mania.
Post-traumatic undiagnosed disco-ligamentous and osseous lesions of the cervical spine may eventually result in irreducible extreme kyphosis. Correction of such consolidated deformities requires major surgery with a combined posterior and anterior approach, aiming to correct bony impingement on neural and vascular structures, reduce deformity and to attain circumferential instrumentation and fusion in physiological alignment. This can be achieved using either a single-staged or a two-staged procedure. Regardless, this type of major surgery entails considerable neurological risks. Therefore, thorough planning of the intervention and considerable surgical experience is needed. We present an elderly woman with gross restriction of forward gaze and intractable nuchal and radicular pain due to cervical spine deformity. Her cervical kyphosis was corrected using preoperative skeletal axial traction for four days and subsequent operative reduction with circumferential instrumentation and fusion. The post-operative course was complicated by a temporary anterior spinal artery syndrome despite normal intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and by a wound infection requiring removal of the implant. Nevertheless, segmental fusion in physiological alignment was successfully achieved and the patient fully recovered from the neurological deficit and infection. Quality of life was significantly improved. PMID:15749431
Wenger, Markus; Braun, Michel; Markwalder, Thomas-Marc
In this study, a new modified surgical technique is presented for anatomic acromioclavicular (AC) joint reconstruction made by the application of anterior tibialis tendon autograft, three-way tunnel (two clavicular and one coracoid) and hook plate. The study is aimed to evaluate the post-operative short-term results of patients who underwent this treatment. A total of 11 patients underwent AC joint reconstruction because of persistent AC subluxation. In this reconstruction, a triple tunnel was made between the coracoid and the clavicle to anatomically restore the coracoclavicular (CC) ligament and an allograft was passed through the tunnels resembling conoid and trapezoid ligaments. The tendon had to be non-weight bearing at the appropriate tension to provide rapid and appropriate integration of the tendon in the tunnel. This was maintained by applying a hook plate. The hook plate method was used to protect the reconstructed ligament during the healing process as it has a similar hardness to that of the natural AC joint and provides rigid fixation. For a more comprehensive description of the technique, a cadaver demonstration was also performed. The mean follow-up period was 25.3 months (range: 18-34 month). None of the patients had a loss of reduction at the final follow-up. When the constant scores were examined, of the total 11 patients, 2 (18.2%) 38,39 had excellent results, 6 (54.5%) had good results and 3 (27.3%) had fair results. It can be seen that this newly described reconstruction technique has successful short-term results as an anatomic method and can be used effectively in revision cases. However, there is a need for further biomechanical and clinical studies to make comparisons with other techniques.
Deveci, Alper; Firat, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Serdar; Yildirim, Ahmet Ozgur; Acar, Halil I.; Unal, Kazim O.; Bozkurt, Murat
Objective This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of a novel approach to the treatment of post-traumatic myositis ossificans with extracorporeal shockwave therapy in an elite athlete. Clinical Features A 20 year-old male semi-professional rugby player presented with progressive pain and loss of range of motion after sustaining a severe, right quadriceps contusion nine weeks earlier. The differential diagnosis of myositis ossificans was suspected and confirmed on radiographic examination. Intervention and Outcome A two week treatment protocol was undertaken consisting of three sessions of extracorporeal shockwave therapy and an unsupervised exercise program consisting of active and passive range of motion, gradual strengthening and balance exercises. The patient experienced appreciable improvements in pain and range of motion in two weeks and was able to participate in sport specific activity four weeks after presentation. Summary This case illustrates the successful conservative management of post-traumatic myositis ossificans of the anterior thigh with extracorporeal shockwave therapy and a primarily unsupervised graded exercise program within a condensed treatment time frame of 2 weeks.
Torrance, David Allen; deGraauw, Christopher
The integrity of the rodent anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is essential for various aspects of instrumental behavior, but it is not clear if the ACC is important for the acquisition of a simple instrumental response. Here, it was demonstrated that post-session infusions of anisomycin into the rat ACC completely prevented the acquisition of…
Jonkman, Sietse; Everitt, Barry J.
The purpose of this case study is to present complications in three cases of female intercollegiate athletes with intramedullary rodding for chronic tibial stress fracture. Three female college athletes underwent tibial rodding insertion after diagnosed with chronic tibial stress fracture. Postoperatively, the stress fracture healed; however, unusual stress reaction occurred at the distal end of the anterior tibia a few
TOMO YAMADA; LEAMOR KAHANOV
Anterior knee pain (AKP) is a common injury among runners and effectively treated with posted insoles and foot orthotics. While clinically effective, the underlying biomechanical mechanisms that bring about these improvements remain debatable. Several methodological factors contribute to the inconsistent biomechanical findings, including errors associated with removing and reattaching markers, inferring foot motion from markers placed externally on a shoe, and redefining segmental coordinate systems between conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of medially posted insoles on lower extremity kinematics in runners with and without AKP while trying to limit the influence of these methodological factors. Kinematics of 16 asymptomatic and 17 runners with AKP were collected while running with and without insoles. Reflective markers were attached to the surface of the calcaneus and kept in place (as opposed to detached) between conditions, eliminating the error associated with reattaching markers and redefining segmental coordinate systems. Using these methods, no significant interactions between insole and injury and the main effect of injury were detected (p>0.05); therefore, means were pooled across injury. Insoles, on average, reduced peak eversion by 3.6° (95% confidence interval -2.9° to -4.3°), peak eversion velocity by 53.2°/s (95% confidence interval -32.9 to -73.4) and eversion range of motion by 1.33 (95% confidence interval -0.8 to -1.9). However, while insoles systematically reduced eversion variables, they had small influences on the transverse plane kinematics of the tibia or knee, indicating that they may bring about their clinical effect by influencing other variables. PMID:23137595
Rodrigues, Pedro; Chang, Ryan; TenBroek, Trampas; Hamill, Joseph
Abstract A hardware/software co-design for assessing post-Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction ambulation is presented. The knee kinematics and neuromuscular data during walking (2-6 km?h(-1)) have been acquired using wireless wearable motion and electromyography (EMG) sensors, respectively. These signals were integrated by superimposition and mixed signals processing techniques in order to provide visual analyses of bio-signals and identification of the recovery progress of subjects. Monitoring overlapped signals simultaneously helps in detecting variability and correlation of knee joint dynamics and muscles activities for an individual subject as well as for a group. The recovery stages of subjects have been identified based on combined features (knee flexion/extension and EMG signals) using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The proposed system has been validated for 28 test subjects (healthy and ACL-reconstructed). Results of ANFIS showed that the ambulation data can be used to distinguish subjects at different levels of recuperation after ACL reconstruction. PMID:24117351
Arosha Senanayake, S M N; Ahmed Malik, Owais; Mohammad Iskandar, Pg; Zaheer, Dansih
Aesthetic requirement of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth in the case of early childhood caries has been a challenge to pediatric dentist. Among restorative treatment options, prefabricated crown and biological and resin composite restoration either by means of direct or indirect technique are mentioned in the literature. This paper presents the clinical sequence of rehabilitation of maxillary anterior primary teeth. Endodontic treatment was followed by the placement of a glass fibre-reinforced composite resin post. The crown reconstruction was done with composite restoration. Resin glass fibre post has best properties in elasticity, translucency, adaptability, tenaciousness, and resistance to traction and to impact. Along with ease of application, fiber can be used as an alternative to traditionally used materials in the management of early childhood caries.
Verma, Leena; Passi, Sidhi
Objectives Oral and maxillofacial defects often require bone grafts to restore missing tissues. Well-recognized donor sites include the anterior and posterior iliac crest, rib, and intercalvarial diploic bone. The proximal tibia has also been explored as an alternative donor site. The use of the tibia for bone graft has many benefits, such as procedural ease, adequate volume of cancellous and cortical bone, and minimal complications. Although patients rarely complain of pain, swelling, discomfort, or dysfunction, such as gait disturbance, both patients and surgeons should pay close attention to such after effects due to the possibility of tibial fracture. The purpose of this study is to analyze tibial fractures that occurring after osteotomy for a medioproximal tibial graft. Materials and Methods An analysis was intended for patients who underwent medioproximal tibial graft between March 2004 and December 2011 in Inha University Hospital. A total of 105 subjects, 30 females and 75 males, ranged in age from 17 to 78 years. We investigated the age, weight, circumstance, and graft timing in relation to tibial fracture. Results Tibial fractures occurred in four of 105 patients. There were no significant differences in graft region, shape, or scale between the fractured and non-fractured patients. Conclusion Patients who undergo tibial grafts must be careful of excessive external force after the operation.
Cho, Hyun-Young; Pae, Sang-Pill; Jung, Bum-Sang; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Ji-Hoon
Objectives To determine the retentive strength and failure mode of undercut composite post, glass fiber post and polyethylene fiber post luted with flowable composite resin and resin-cement. Materials and Methods Coronal parts of 120 primary canine teeth were sectioned and specimens were treated endodontically. The teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 20). Prepared root canals received intracanal retainers with a short composite post, undercut composite post, glass fiber post luted with flowable resin or resin-cement, and polyethylene fiber post luted with flowable resin or resin-cement. After crown reconstruction, samples were tested for retentive strength and failure mode. Statistical analysis was done with one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p < 0.05). Results There were statistically significant differences between groups (p = 0.001). Mean bond strength in the undercut group was significantly greater than in the short composite post (p = 0.030), and the glass fiber post (p = 0.001) and the polyethylene fiber post group luted with resin-cement (p = 0.008). However, the differences between the undercut group and the groups with flowable composite as the luting agent were not significant (p = 0.068, p = 0.557). Adhesive failure was more frequent in the fiber post groups. Conclusions Although the composite post with undercutting showed the greatest resistance to dislodgement, fiber posts cemented with flowable composite resin provided acceptable results in terms of retentive strength and fracture mode.
Memarpour, Mahtab; Abbaszadeh, Maryam
The objective of this study was to verify whether pre-reconstruction laxity condition effects post-reconstruction outcome. A total of 100 patients who underwent navigated Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction were included in the study and knee laxity analysed retrospectively. The knee was assessed in six different laxity tests before and after ACL reconstruction, namely antero-posterior (AP) and internal-external (IE) at 30° and 90°, and varus-valgus (VV) rotations at 0° and 30° of flexion. For each test, the least square (LS) fitting line based on pre-operative-to-post-operative laxity value was calculated. To what degree the post-operative laxity value is explainable by the corresponding pre-operative condition was evaluated by the LS line slope. Post-operatively, for each single patient, the grade of laxity decreased at any evaluated test. The strongest influence of pre-operative-to-post-operative laxity values was found during IE30 and IE90 tests. While AP30 and VV0 tests seem to be those in which the post-reconstruction laxity was barely affected by the pre-surgery condition. The analysis of the global laxity reduction confirms the previous results. Following this hypothesis, our study remarks on the importance of combined lesions to secondary restraints and the importance of fully understanding the residual laxity to optimize the surgical technique. PMID:23438253
Signorelli, C; Bonanzinga, T; Lopomo, N; Marcheggiani Muccioli, G M; Bignozzi, S; Filardo, G; Zaffagnini, S; Marcacci, M
Clinically significant laxity occurs in 10%-30% of knees after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Graft slippage and tension loss at the hamstring graft tibial fixation site during and after reconstruction surgery contribute to postoperative joint laxity and are detrimental to long-term knee stability and graft properties. Limiting graft slippage will reduce associated complications. We sought to compare the in vitro mechanical properties and in vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use, and graft incorporation of the novel GraftGrab™ (GG) device designed to reduce hamstring graft tibial fixation slippage with the commercially available bioabsorbable Bio-Post™ and spiked washer (BP). Mechanical testing was performed on canine tibia-hamstring graft constructs to quantify initial fixation properties. In vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use and graft incorporation of hamstring graft reconstructions were determined in a canine model. Outcomes included tibial translation and ground reaction forces preoperatively and 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, three-dimensional graft and bone tunnel dimensions at the latter two time points, and graft-bone microstructure, as well as mechanical properties 8 weeks after implantation. Immediately after fixation, all grafts slipped from the BP constructs versus about 30% of GG constructs. In vivo limb use remained low, and tibial translation increased with time in the BP cohort. These results together confirm that initial graft slippage is lower with GG versus BP extracortical hamstring graft tibial fixation. In addition, postoperative recovery and joint stability are more consistent with the GG. This information supports the GG as an alternative to extracortical tibial hamstring graft fixation that has procedural advantages over current implants and reduces graft failure from slippage. PMID:23717051
Lopez, Mandi J; Borne, Allen; Monroe, W Todd; Bommala, Prakash; Kelly, Laura; Zhang, Nan
This case report describes the esthetic and functional recovery of a maxillary central incisor. The treatments used were dentin post (biological post) reinforcement and reattachment of the fragment. From the outcomes achieved, it can be concluded that this technique is promising and is yet another alternative method that can be used for the recovery of fractured anterior teeth. PMID:20831641
de Alcântara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Vasconcellos, Walison Arthuso; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia
The purpose of the study was to evaluate survival and peri-implant bone levels of single, immediately loaded post-extractive implants in the anterior maxilla 12 months after implant placement. Thirty-six consecutive patients from 3 study centers were included in the study. The concerned sites were upper premolars, canines, and incisors. For each patient the following data were recorded: reason for tooth extraction, bone quality, implant size, and final insertion torque. Implants were placed using a flapless technique and immediately loaded with a nonoccluding temporary restoration. Final restorations were provided 4 months later. Peri-implant bone resorption was evaluated radiographically after 6 and 12 months. The average final insertion torque was 70.55 Ncm. One implant inserted in D3 quality bone with a 35-Ncm seating torque was lost. All other implants had a final insertion torque ranging between 50 and 80 Ncm. The average peri-implant bone loss was 0.437 and 0.507 mm at 6 and 12 months, respectively. All the sites maintained excellent papillae and peri-implant soft-tissue conditions. The resulting 1-year success rate was 97.2%. Immediate nonfunctional loading of single post-extractive implants in the anterior maxilla is a predictable treatment. And it seems that achieving high insertion torques by placing self-tapping/self-condensing implants in an underprepared osteotomy is favorable. PMID:21905885
Grandi, Tommaso; Garuti, Giovanna; Samarani, Rawad; Guazzi, Paolo; Forabosco, Andrea
Background Tibial tuberosity realignment surgery is performed to improve patellofemoral alignment, but could also alter tibiofemoral kinematics. Hypothesis Following tuberosity realignment in the malaligned knee, the reoriented patella tendon will pull the tuberosity back toward the pre-operative position, thereby altering tibiofemoral kinematics. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Ten knees were tested at 40°, 60° and 80° of flexion in vitro. The knees were loaded with a quadriceps force of 586 N, with 200 N divided between the medial and lateral hamstrings. The position of the tuberosity was varied to represent lateral malalignment, with the tuberosity 5 mm lateral of the normal position, tuberosity medialization, with the tuberosity 5 mm medial of the normal position, and tuberosity anteromedialization, with the tuberosity 10 mm anterior of the medial position. Tibiofemoral kinematics were measured using magnetic sensors secured to the femur and tibia. A repeated measures ANOVA with a post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test was used to identify significant (p < 0.05) differences in the kinematic data between the tuberosity positions at each flexion angle. Results Medializing the tibial tuberosity primarily rotated the tibia externally, compared to the lateral malalignment condition. The largest average increase in external rotation was 13° at 40° of flexion, with the increase significant at each flexion angle. The varus orientation also increased significantly by an average of 1.5° at 40° and 80°. The tibia shifted significantly posteriorly at 40° and 60° by an average of 4 mm and 2 mm, respectively. Shifting the tuberosity from the medial to the anteromedial position translated the tibia significantly posteriorly by an average of 2 mm at 40°. Conclusions Following tibial tuberosity realignment in the malaligned knee, the altered orientation of the patella tendon alters tibiofemoral kinematics. Clinical Relevance The kinematic changes reduce the correction applied to the orientation of the patella tendon and could alter the pressure applied to tibiofemoral cartilage.
Mani, Saandeep; Kirkpatrick, Marcus S.; Saranathan, Archana; Smith, Laura G.; Cosgarea, Andrew J.; Elias, John J.
Ideal coronal reconstruction of endodontically treated tooth is still a challenge for restorative dentistry. Despite having varied types of commercially available posts, none of them meet all the ideal biological and mechanical properties. In this context a "Biological Post" serves as a homologous recipe for intraradicular rehabilitation of a fractured endodontically treated tooth by virtue of its biomimetic property.This case report addresses the esthetic and functional restoration of a fractured, endodontically treated maxillary lateral incisor in a young patient, through the preparation and adhesive cementation of a "Biological Post" made from a freshly extracted, intact human canine. The use of biological post can be considered as a novel alternative technique for the rehabilitation of an extensively damaged tooth. PMID:24701545
Swarupa, C H; Sajjan, Girija S; Bhupahupathiraju, Vijaya Lakshmi; Anwarullahwarullah, Anupreeta; Y V, Sashikanth
Ideal coronal reconstruction of endodontically treated tooth is still a challenge for restorative dentistry. Despite having varied types of commercially available posts, none of them meet all the ideal biological and mechanical properties. In this context a “Biological Post” serves as a homologous recipe for intraradicular rehabilitation of a fractured endodontically treated tooth by virtue of its biomimetic property.This case report addresses the esthetic and functional restoration of a fractured, endodontically treated maxillary lateral incisor in a young patient, through the preparation and adhesive cementation of a “Biological Post” made from a freshly extracted, intact human canine. The use of biological post can be considered as a novel alternative technique for the rehabilitation of an extensively damaged tooth.
Swarupa, C.H; Sajjan, Girija S; Bhupahupathiraju, Vijaya Lakshmi; Anwarullahwarullah, Anupreeta; Y.V, Sashikanth
Background: To investigate and compare the post-obturation pain after one-visit and two-visit root canal treatment in non-vital anterior teeth. Materials & Methods: One hundred forty eight patients requiring root canal therapy on permanent anterior non-vital teeth with single root were included in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to either the one-appointment or the twoappointment group. The standardized protocol for all the teeth involved local anesthesia, isolation and access, engine-driven rotary nickel-titanium canal instrumentation with 2.5% NaOCl irrigation and obturation. Teeth in group 1 (n = 74) were obturated during the first appointment by using laterally condensed gutta-percha and resin sealer. Teeth in group 2 (n = 74) were given closed dressing and were obturated during the second appointment, 7 to 14 days later. A modified Visual Analogue Scale was used to measure pain after 6 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 7 days after the treatment. Statistical analysis was done to compare groups at each interval by using an independent-samples t test. Results: The incidence and intensity of post-obturation pain in both Group ‘A’ and Group ‘B’ gradually reduced over the study period. When the incidence of pain was compared in the single and two visit group, it was found that the single-visit group experienced slightly less pain than the two-visit group during all study intervals, but the difference found was not statistically significant. Conclusion: There was no difference in postoperative pain between patients treated in only one appointment and patients treated in two appointments. The majority of patients in both groups reported no pain or only minimal pain after 7 days of treatment. How to cite the article: Rao KN, Kandaswamy R, Umashetty G, Rathore VP, Hotkar C, Patil BS. Post-Obturation pain following one-visit and two-visit root canal treatment in necrotic anterior teeth. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):28-32.
Rao, K Nandan; Kandaswamy, Raghavendra; Umashetty, Girish; Rathore, Vishnu Pratap Singh; Hotkar, Chetan; Patil, Basanagouda S
The integrity of the rodent anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is essential for various aspects of instrumental behavior, but it is not clear if the ACC is important for the acquisition of a simple instrumental response. Here, it was demonstrated that post-session infusions of anisomycin into the rat ACC completely prevented the acquisition of instrumental responding. The experimental use of post-session intracranial infusions of plasticity inhibitors is assumed to affect local consolidation of plasticity, but not behavioral task performance. However, in associative appetitive conditioning, post-session intracranial infusion of pharmaco-active compounds could actually interfere with subsequent task performance indirectly through retrospective effects on the valuation of ingested rewards. Thus, it was subsequently demonstrated that the intracranial infusion of anisomycin into the ACC after sucrose pellet consumption significantly reduced subsequent pellet consumption, suggesting that the infusion of anisomycin into the ACC produced conditioned taste avoidance. In the third experiment, an innovative procedure was introduced that dissociated the effects of intracranial infusions after conditioning sessions on task-learning and unconditioned stimulus valuation. With this procedure, the infusion of anisomycin into the ACC after instrumental sessions did not affect instrumental reinforcer valuation or the acquisition of instrumental responding, suggesting that plasticity in the ACC is not necessary for the acquisition of instrumental behavior. PMID:19864297
Jonkman, Sietse; Everitt, Barry J
Change in gait variability at least 6 months after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was assessed in 20 male patients with acute ACL deficiency and compared with pre-operative data and that from 20 healthy male controls. Gait was measured using a triaxial accelerometer and data were analysed by the Gait Evaluation Differential Entropy Method (GEDEM) to determine gait variability. Pain was assessed with a visual analogue scale and functional ability with the Oswestry Disability Index and the International Knee Documentation Committee score. Mean gait variability was significantly lower after than before surgery, with values for the anterior-posterior axis being in the normal range of controls after 6 months, whereas in the mediolateral axis mean gait variability remained significantly higher, indicating that some rotational instability remained in the time-frame of the study. Pain and functional ability scores improved after surgery compared with before surgery. The combination of accelerometry and GEDEM may be a useful orthopaedic tool for the post-operative evaluation of patients who have undergone ACL reconstruction. PMID:21672363
Tsivgoulis, S D; Tzagarakis, G N; Papagelopoulos, P J; Koulalis, D; Sakellariou, V I; Kampanis, N A; Chlouverakis, G I; Alpantaki, K I; Nikolaou, P K; Katonis, P G
This study was designed to objectively quantify in vivo anterior–posterior canine knee translation relative to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) integrity. Tibial translation was determined in one knee of 43 crossbreed hounds from radiographs performed while a set anterior and then posterior force was applied to the tibia using a custom designed device. The total (TTT), anterior (ATT), and posterior (PTT)
Mandi J. Lopez; William Hagquist; Susan L. Jeffrey; Sara Gilbertson; Mark D. Markel
One of the most common errors of total knee arthroplasty procedure is a malrotation of tibial component. The stress on tibial insert is closely related to polyethylene failure. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of malrotation of tibial component for the stress on tibial insert during high flexion using a finite element analysis. We used Stryker NRG PS for analysis. Three different initial conditions of tibial component including normal, 15° internal malrotation, and 15° external malrotation were analyzed. The tibial insert made from ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene was assumed to be elastic-plastic while femoral and tibial metal components were assumed to be rigid. Four nonlinear springs attached to tibial component represented soft tissues around the knee. Vertical load was applied to femoral component which rotated from 0° to 135° while horizontal load along the anterior posterior axis was applied to tibial component during flexion. Maximum equivalent stresses on the surface were analyzed. Internal malrotation caused the highest stress which arose up to 160% of normal position. External malrotation also caused higher stress. Implanting prosthesis in correct position is important for reducing the risk of abnormal wear and failure.
One of the most common errors of total knee arthroplasty procedure is a malrotation of tibial component. The stress on tibial insert is closely related to polyethylene failure. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of malrotation of tibial component for the stress on tibial insert during high flexion using a finite element analysis. We used Stryker NRG PS for analysis. Three different initial conditions of tibial component including normal, 15° internal malrotation, and 15° external malrotation were analyzed. The tibial insert made from ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene was assumed to be elastic-plastic while femoral and tibial metal components were assumed to be rigid. Four nonlinear springs attached to tibial component represented soft tissues around the knee. Vertical load was applied to femoral component which rotated from 0° to 135° while horizontal load along the anterior posterior axis was applied to tibial component during flexion. Maximum equivalent stresses on the surface were analyzed. Internal malrotation caused the highest stress which arose up to 160% of normal position. External malrotation also caused higher stress. Implanting prosthesis in correct position is important for reducing the risk of abnormal wear and failure. PMID:24895658
Osano, Kei; Nagamine, Ryuji; Todo, Mitsugu; Kawasaki, Makoto
PURPOSE: To ascertain whether changing position and size of the spacer may modify the load and displacement of the tibial plateau when performing an opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. METHODS: Fifteen sawbones tibia models were used. In the axial plane, the anterior, medial, and posterior thirds of the tibial plateau were marked, and the medial and posterior thirds were called "point 1" and "point 2", respectively. A 7.5-mm-stainless steel indenter was used to apply the load over these two points: the load applied to point 1 simulated the load to that site when the knee was extended, and the load to point 2 simulated the load to the same area when the knee was flexed. Maximum load (N) and displacement (mm) were calculated. RESULTS: The system was shown to withstand higher loads with less displacement when the plate was posterior than it could do with the plate in the middle position. Significant differences were also found when comparing the anterior and middle position of the plate with the greatest displacement when the plate was anterior. The differences were increased when comparing the anterior and posterior positions of the plate. No statistical differences (n.s.) were found when using different spacers. The maximum stiffness was achieved if the plate was posterior and in point 1 indenter position, in which the force vector stands on the points of the lateral and medial supports (F? = 198.8 ± 61.5 N). The lowest stiffness was observed when the plate was anterior, and the force was applied to point 2 (F? = 29.7 ± 5.1 N). CONCLUSIONS: Application of the plate in a more posterior position provides greater stability. PMID:23624677
Martinez de Albornoz, Pilar; Leyes, Manuel; Forriol, Francisco; Del Buono, Angelo; Maffulli, Nicola
PURPOSE: Recurrent patella subluxation may be secondary to excessive external tibial torsion. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcome of patients undergoing tibial derotation osteotomy and tibial tuberosity transfer for recurrent patella subluxation in association with excessive external tibial torsion. METHODS: A combined tibial derotation osteotomy and tibial tuberosity transfer was performed in 15 knees (12 patients) with recurrent patella subluxation secondary to excessive external tibial torsion. Clinical evaluation was carried out using preoperative and post-operative Knee Society Score (KSS), Kujala Patellofemoral score, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire, the short form-12 (SF-12) and a visual analogue score (VAS) pain scale. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 84 months (range 15-156) and median patient age was 34 years (range 19-57 years). The median preoperative external tibial torsion was 62° (range 55°-70°), with a median rotational correction of 36° (range 30°-45°) after surgery. Significant improvement (p < 0.05) was found in the KSS part I (37 ± 14 to 89 ± 11 points), KSS part II (25 ± 26 to 85 ± 14 points), Kujala score, the SF-12 outcome, WOMAC score and VAS score (8.8 ± 1.9 to 2.4 ± 1.5). Two patients had a nonunion of the tibial osteotomy site; one patient required bone grafting, while another patient required revision to total knee arthroplasty. CONCLUSION: Patients presenting with recurrent patella subluxation secondary to excessive external tibial torsion >45° who underwent tibial derotation osteotomy and tibial tuberosity transfer achieved a satisfactory outcome in terms of pain relief and improved function. A significant complication was seen in 2/15 patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Case series, Level IV. PMID:23740327
Drexler, M; Dwyer, T; Dolkart, O; Goldstein, Y; Steinberg, E L; Chakravertty, R; Cameron, J C
We report an unusual case of anteromedial tibial plateau compression fracture following hyperextension and forced varus of the knee, resulting in an anterior bone fragment large enough to require osteosynthesis. This uncommon lesion was associated with posterolateral complex injury, diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while both cruciate ligaments were preserved. After proceeding with tibial plateau osteosynthesis, a peroneal tendon allograft was used for supplementation repair of the lateral collateral ligament and biceps tendon in a single surgical intervention. Tibial plateau fractures are often associated with soft-tissue involvement, mainly of the anterior cruciate ligament and external meniscus. Posterolateral complex injuries also occur with a mechanism of forced varus and hyperextension. These lesions require an accurate diagnosis to avoid future knee instability; moreover, adequate treatment in the acute phase provides a better functional outcome. Physicians should suspect associated posterolateral complex injury when an anteromedial tibial plateau fracture is diagnosed. MRI allows adequate diagnosis and permits surgical treatment in one procedure. PMID:23288728
Conesa, Xavier; Minguell, Joan; Cortina, Josep; Castellet, Enric; Carrera, Lluís; Nardi, Joan; Cáceres, Enric
Comparative Evaluation of the Reinforcing Effect of Different Post Systems in the Restoration of Endodontically Treated Human Anterior Teeth at Two Different Lengths of Post Space Preparation- An in Vitro Study
Objectives: Comparative evaluation of the reinforcing effect of different post systems in the restoration of endodontically treated human anterior teeth at two different lengths of post space preparation- an in vitro study Materials and Methods: 135 extracted human incisors were endodontically treated, out of which 120 teeth were decoronated 2mm above the cementoenamel junction and divided into four experimental groups based on the post system to be used: Glass fiber post (GFP) and stainless steel post (SSP), titanium post (TTP), cast metal post (CMP). Each group was divided into two sub-groups according to the length of post space preparation: 5mm and 10mm. All the samples were restored with metal crowns. The fracture resistance was measured by applying loads at an angle of 135º to the long axis of teeth in an instron universal testing machine. Fracture mode was analyzed for all the samples. Results from the four test groups were compared and analysed using one-way ANOVA test and the Post-hoc Bonferroni test to demonstrate differences between pairs of groups. Results: The results revealed that SSP group at 10mm post space length showed the significantly (“P-value< 0.05”) highest fracture resistance (793.7787 N). Decrease in post length resulted in the decrease in fracture resistance in all the groups reduced to values even lesser than the control (437.8733N). Conclusion: The different post systems used in the study were able to reinforce endodontically treated teeth only at 10mm post space length.
Jindal, Sahil; Jindal, Ritu; Gupta, Kanika; Mahajan, Sandeep; Garg, Sunidhi
Purpose The study was performed to characterize the influence of tibial tuberosity realignment on the pressure applied to cartilage on the patella in the intact condition and with lesions on the lateral and medial facets. Methods Ten knees were loaded in vitro through the quadriceps (586 N) and hamstrings (200 N) at 40°, 60° and 80° of flexion while measuring patellofemoral contact pressures with a pressure sensor. The tibial tuberosity was positioned 5 mm lateral of the normal position to represent lateral malalignment, 5 mm medial of the normal position to represent tuberosity medialization, and 10 mm anterior of the medial position to represent tuberosity anteromedialization. The knees were tested with intact cartilage, with a 12 mm diameter lesion created within the lateral patellar cartilage, and with the lateral lesion repaired with silicone combined with a medial lesion. A repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc tests were used to identify significant (p < 0.05) differences in the maximum lateral and medial pressure between the tuberosity positions. Results Tuberosity medialization and anteromedialization significantly decreased the maximum lateral pressure by approximately 15% at 60° and 80° for intact cartilage and cartilage with a lateral lesion. Tuberosity medialization significantly increased the maximum medial pressure for intact cartilage at 80°, but the maximum medial pressure did not exceed the maximum lateral pressure for any testing condition. Conclusions The results indicate that medializing the tibial tuberosity by 10 mm reduces the pressure applied to lateral patellar cartilage for intact cartilage and cartilage with lateral lesions, but does not overload medial cartilage.
Saranathan, Archana; Kirkpatrick, Marcus S.; Mani, Saandeep; Smith, Laura G.; Cosgarea, Andrew J.; Tan, Juay Seng; Elias, John J.
With increased precision in alignment offered by new generations of instrumentation and customized guides, this study was designed to establish a biomechanically-based target alignment for the balance of tibial loading in order to diminish the likelihood of pain and subsidence related to mechanical overload post-UKA. Sixty composite tibias were implanted with Oxford UKA tibial components with varied sagittal slope, resection depth, rotation and medial shift using patient matched instrumentation. Digital image correlation and strain gage analysis was conducted in static loading to evaluate strain distribution as a result of component alignment. In this model, minimal distal resection and most lateral positioning, neutral component rotation, and 3° of slope (from mechanical axis) exhibited the most balanced strain response to loading following UKA. PMID:23518429
Small, Scott R; Berend, Michael E; Rogge, Renee D; Archer, Derek B; Kingman, Amanda L; Ritter, Merrill A
Twenty patients with tibial plateau fractures were studied by conventional tomography and computed tomography (CT) in order to determine the role and feasibility of CT in management of such patients. CT resulted in less discomfort to the patient and provided optimal visualization of the plateau defect and the split fragments. It proved more accurate than conventional tomography in assessing depressed and split fractures when they involved the anterior or posterior border of the plateau and in demonstrating the extent of fracture comminution. Split fragments with an oblique plane of fracture also were seen better by CT. The degree of fracture depression and separation as measured by the computerized technique was often more accurate than measurements obtained from conventional tomograms.
Rafii, M.; Firooznia, H.; Golimbu, C.; Bonamo, J.
Tibial intercondylar eminence fractures that are displaced and non-reducible require open or arthroscopically assisted repair. Ideally, fracture reduction and fixation would be performed with a technique that has low morbidity, allows easy visualization and reduction, provides firm fixation, does not violate the proximal tibial physis, avoids metal hardware, and does not require a second procedure for implant removal. The suture bridge technique, used in the shoulder for rotator cuff tears and greater tuberosity fracture repair, has the ability to produce high contact pressures with rigid fixation. We describe an all-inside and all-epiphyseal arthroscopic suture bridge technique for tibial intercondylar eminence fracture repair performed with PushLock anchors (Arthrex, Naples, FL). One or 2 anchors preloaded with No. 2 FiberWire (Arthrex) are placed in the posterior fracture bed, followed by fracture reduction. The suture limbs are shuttled through and around the anterior cruciate ligament and over the fracture fragment in crossing fashion and are secured by use of additional anchors placed at the anteromedial and anterolateral fracture margin. The anchors are placed obliquely to avoid the proximal tibial physis in the pediatric population. Anatomic reduction and secure fixation allow more aggressive rehabilitation and faster restoration of joint function.
Sawyer, Gregory A.; Hulstyn, Michael J.; Anderson, Brett C.; Schiller, Jonathan
The three rotations and three translations that comprise total knee motion were simultaneously measured in cadaveric knees during the commonly employed clinical tests for anterior cruciate injury. A second study determined the three-dimensional motions that occurred when known forces and moments were applied. A total of eight whole lower limbs were studied. A 6 degree-of-freedom instrumented linkage (3-D electrogoniometer), rigidly mounted to the tibia and femur, was used. The ligaments sectioned included the lateral extraarticular restraints (iliotibial band, lateral capsule) and the anterior cruciate ligament, both separately and in combination. After sectioning the anterior cruciate ligament alone, anterior displacement of both the medial and lateral tibial condyles increased markedly during the flexion rotation drawer and pivot shift tests. At 30 degrees knee flexion, total anterior-posterior displacement increased 100 percent, but internal-external tibial rotation increased only 15 percent. In all the anterior displacement type of clinical tests (including Lachman's test), there was not a true rigid coupling of knee motions because the examiner controlled the amount of internal tibial rotation and anterior tibial translation. After anterior cruciate sectioning alone, both the lateral and medial tibial condyles displaced anteriorly. Sectioning the medial structures caused additional anterior translation of the medial and lateral tibial condyles. We measured many different combinations of motions that depend on the ligament and capsular structures injured, the clinical test used, and how the clinician performed the test. Differing types of anterior subluxation require that the separate subluxations of the medial and lateral tibial condyles be determined during each stress test. PMID:2750506
Noyes, F R; Grood, E S; Suntay, W J
Simultaneous repair of a radial tear at the tibial attachment site of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus under special circumstances requiring tibial valgus osteotomy is technically difficult. First, most patients who need an osteotomy have a narrowed medial tibiofemoral joint space. In such a situation, the pull-out suture technique is more difficult to perform than in a normal joint space. Second, pulling out suture strands that penetrate the posterior horn of the medial meniscus to the anterior tibial cortex increases the risk of transection during osteotomy. We performed a meniscus repair combined with an opening wedge tibial valgus osteotomy without complications and present our technique as a new method for use in selective cases necessitating both meniscus repair of a complete radial tear and opening wedge tibial osteotomy. PMID:19634730
Jung, Kwang Am; Kim, Sung Jae; Lee, Su Chan; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Song, Moon Bok; Lee, Choon Key
The purpose of this technical note and accompanying video is to describe a modified arthroscopic suture fixation technique to treat tibial spine avulsion fractures. Twenty-one patients underwent arthroscopic treatment for tibial spine avulsion with our technique; they were clinically and biomechanically evaluated at 2 years' follow-up and showed optimal clinical and radiographic outcomes. Repair with this arthroscopic technique provides a significant advantage in the treatment of type III and IV fractures of the tibial eminence by obtaining arthroscopic fixation within the substance of the anterior cruciate ligament: suture methods based on the avulsed bone fragment are technically impossible, but sutures through the base of the ligament itself provide secure fixation, reducing the risks of comminution of the fracture fragment and eliminating the time for hardware removal. This arthroscopic technique restores the length and the integrity of the anterior cruciate ligament and provides a simplified, reproducible method of treating patients, including young patients, with low hardware costs in comparison to sutures using anchors or other hardware. PMID:24749022
Verdano, Michele Arcangelo; Pellegrini, Andrea; Lunini, Enricomaria; Tonino, Pietro; Ceccarelli, Francesco
The purpose of this technical note and accompanying video is to describe a modified arthroscopic suture fixation technique to treat tibial spine avulsion fractures. Twenty-one patients underwent arthroscopic treatment for tibial spine avulsion with our technique; they were clinically and biomechanically evaluated at 2 years' follow-up and showed optimal clinical and radiographic outcomes. Repair with this arthroscopic technique provides a significant advantage in the treatment of type III and IV fractures of the tibial eminence by obtaining arthroscopic fixation within the substance of the anterior cruciate ligament: suture methods based on the avulsed bone fragment are technically impossible, but sutures through the base of the ligament itself provide secure fixation, reducing the risks of comminution of the fracture fragment and eliminating the time for hardware removal. This arthroscopic technique restores the length and the integrity of the anterior cruciate ligament and provides a simplified, reproducible method of treating patients, including young patients, with low hardware costs in comparison to sutures using anchors or other hardware.
Verdano, Michele Arcangelo; Pellegrini, Andrea; Lunini, Enricomaria; Tonino, Pietro; Ceccarelli, Francesco
Initial implant stability is crucial to cementless knee arthroplasty success. The objective of this study was to develop a physiological relevant methodology that incorporates torsion, shear, and compression forces to evaluate two tibial component designs that feature either a keel or cylindrical porous metal pegs. The data were compared with a simplified compression loading scenario. Results show a loading profile that combines compressive, shear, and torsional loads results in significantly larger motions than occur when loading in compression only. When comparing between a keeled and a pegged device, the new method shows significant differences in tibial component subsidence/liftoff at the anterior and posterior locations, which were lacking in the simplified test model. To accurately assess implant stability, studies should use physiological relevant loading. PMID:21831575
Bhimji, Safia; Meneghini, R Michael
This retrospective study assessed 5 male and 5 female patients, age 35.1ᆤ years, height 171.8ᆠ cm, and weight 75.5ᆦ kg (mean-SD) who were more than 1 year post isolated tibial fracture (18ǈ months) and had been treated with an intramedullary tibial nail. Subjects completed a 12-question visual analog scale, a physical symptom and activity of daily living survey, and were
J. Nyland; D. P. Bealle; H. Kaufer; D. L. Johnson
Closed tibial shaft fractures are common injuries that remain challenging to treat because of the wide spectrum of fracture patterns and soft-tissue injuries. Understanding the indications for surgical and nonsurgical treatment of these fractures is essential for good outcomes. Although cast treatment of stable tibial shaft fractures has traditionally been successful and continues to be widely used, recent clinical studies have shown that intramedullary nails may be more advantageous for fracture healing and function than casting. Surgical treatment (intramedullary nailing, plate fixation, or external fixation) of closed tibial shaft fractures varies depending on multiple factors. Metaphyseal fractures are well suited for plates, although newer intramedullary nail designs provide the option of intramedullary nailing of proximal or distal metaphyseal tibia-fibula fractures. External fixators are well suited for skeletally immature patients with unstable fracture patterns or for patients with unacceptably small intramedullary canals. Interlocking intramedullary nails are the treatment of choice for most unstable tibia-fibula shaft fractures. PMID:12690886
Schmidt, Andrew H; Finkemeier, Christopher G; Tornetta, Paul
The purpose of this cadaveric study was to analyze variation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tunnel placement between surgeons and the influence of preferred surgical technique and surgeon experience level using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT). In this study, 12 surgeons drilled ACL tunnels on six cadaveric knees each. Surgeons were divided by experience level and preferred surgical technique (two-incision [TI], medial portal [MP], and transtibial [TT]). ACL tunnel aperture locations were analyzed using 3D CT scans and compared with radiographic ACL footprint criteria. The femoral tunnel location from front to back within the notch demonstrated a range of means of 16% with the TI tunnels the furthest back. A range of means of only 5% was found for femoral tunnel low to high positions by technique. The anterior to posterior tibial tunnel measure demonstrated wider variation than the medial to lateral position. The mean tibial tunnel location drilled by TT surgeons was more posterior than surgeons using the other techniques. Overall, 82% of femoral tunnels and 78% of tibial tunnels met all radiographic measurement criteria. Slight (1-7%) differences in mean tunnel placement on the femur and tibia were found between experienced and new surgeons. The location of the femoral tunnel aperture in the front to back plane relative to the notch roof and the anterior to posterior position on the tibia were the most variable measures. Surgeon experience level did not appear to significantly affect tunnel location. This study provides background information that may be beneficial when evaluating multisurgeon and multicenter collaborative ACL studies. PMID:24414390
Wolf, Brian R; Ramme, Austin J; Britton, Carla L; Amendola, Annunziato
Tibial eminence fractures are an uncommon but well-described avulsion of the anterior cruciate ligament. Treatment principles are based on the amount and pattern of fracture displacement. Management has evolved from closed reduction and immobilization to arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation followed by early rehabilitation. Various fixation methods have evolved, ranging from arthroscopic reduction and percutaneous screw fixation to arthroscopic suture repair. We present a technique for arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation using a cannulated drill bit and high-strength suture. This technique facilitates anatomic reduction with uncomplicated tunnel placement and suture passing in an effort to allow strong fixation and early rehabilitation.
Myer, Daniel M.; Purnell, Gregory J.; Caldwell, Paul E.; Pearson, Sara E.
The aim of this study was to review MRI findings of clinically suspected posterolateral corner knee injuries and their associated internal derangements. Sixteen knees in 15 patients who had evidence of a posterolateral corner knee injury on the physical exam underwent MRI to evaluate the posterolateral corner of the knee and to look for associated injuries. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed
D. Lee Bennett; Michael J. George; Georges Y. El-Khoury; Mark D. Stanley; Murali Sundaram
The official consumer website of: Visit ACFAS.org | About ACFAS | Información en Español ... tendon serves as one of the major supporting structures of the foot, helping it to function while walking. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a condition caused ...
We examined subjects with the Stryker knee laxity tester as part of the clinical examination to determine its usefulness in evaluating the anterior cruciate ligament. We measured 123 athletes with no history of knee injury, as well as 30 patients with ACL injury proven by arthroscopy, and 11 injured patients with intact ACL at arthroscopy. We recorded anterior and posterior tibial displacement at 20 degrees of knee flexion and 20 lbs force in each direction. Anterior laxity and side to side difference correlated with ACL injury; posterior and total AP laxity did not. In normal subjects, mean anterior laxity was 2.5 mm. Only 8% of normal knees had anterior laxity of 5 mm or more. Ten percent of normal subjects had a side to side difference of 2 mm or more. In ACL tears, mean laxity was 8.1 mm, with 94% measuring 5 mm or more. Of the subjects, 89% with unilateral ACL injury had an increase of 2 mm or more on the injured side. Ten of ten acute ACL tears were detected by these criteria, with no false positives. In injured knees with intact ACL, measurements did not differ significantly from normal. We found the objective knee laxity measurement to be a useful complement to clinical knee examination. PMID:3960778
Boniface, R J; Fu, F H; Ilkhanipour, K
Background: Despite improved biomechanical stability and kinematics with anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, concerns regarding notch impingement of the graft have persisted, particularly with increasingly anterior tibial tunnel position. The potentially mitigating effect of anatomic femoral socket position, however, has not been evaluated.Hypothesis: Placement of the femoral socket in the central or posterolateral bundle footprint reduces the risk and
Travis G. Maak; Asheesh Bedi; Bradley S. Raphael; Musa Citak; Eduardo M. Suero; Thomas Wickiewicz; Andrew D. Pearle
Few data are available focusing on controlled blunt microdissection during below-the-knee interventions as sole or synchronous technique coupled to subintimal angioplasty, particularly in the management of diabetic critical-ischemic foot wounds. We present two cases of targeted recanalizations in the tibial and pedal trunks for plantar and forefoot diabetic ischemic tissue defects, following an angiosome-model for perfusion. PMID:22231535
Alexandrescu, V; Vincent, G; Ngongang, C; Ledent, G; Hubermont, G
Summary Background Tibial Fractures constitute a large number of emergency operations in most trauma centers. There are different approaches for tibial fractures. To our knowledge, there is insufficient evidence to consider post-operative complications in relation to both surgical methods and the types of fractures. Our purpose is to report our experience regarding the efficacy and complications associated with diverse surgical methods of different patterns of tibial shaft fractures in adults. Material/Methods We studied 387 adult patients. The patients’ information was registered from the charts and after examination. The methods used were intramedullary interlocking nails, simple intramedullary rods, plating and external fixation. Early and late complications were recorded and by applying the DELPHI method different treatments were compared. Finally, the safest mode of treatment is proposed. Results In the intramedullary interlocking nails method the most noticeable complication was delayed union and the highest rate of complications was seen in open oblique fractures. In the simple intramedullary rods method the most frequent complication was pain, and in the with butterfly fractures the complications were the most. In the plating method the most frequent complication was pain, and most of the complications were seen in open comminuted fractures. Finally, in the external fixation method the most frequent complication was non-union and complications were the highest in the patients with oblique, comminuted and segmented fractures. Conclusions The proposed method to treat transverse, oblique and butterfly fractures is simple intramedullary rods; whereas intramedullary interlocking nails is the better method for comminuted, segmented and spiral fractures.
Madadi, Firooz; Eajazi, Alireza; Madadi, Firoozeh; Besheli, Laleh Daftari; Sadeghian, Reza; Lari, Mehdi Nasri
Fractures of the tibial tuberosity are infrequent injuries that occur during adolescence. Displaced tibial tuberosity fractures are typically treated with open reduction and internal fixation. Since these fractures occur at or near skeletal maturity, growth disturbances are not seen. This paper presents a case, the first report to our knowledge, of genu recurvatum deformity after open reduction and internal fixation of a tibial tuberosity fracture. A successful treatment plan of tibial tuberosity osteotomy with proximal tibial opening wedge osteotomy was used for the correction of genu recurvatum deformity and to maintain appropriate patellar height. At eighteen-month followup, the deformity remains corrected with satisfactory functional results. This case highlights the importance of recognition of potential complications of fracture management in adolescence. PMID:23710399
Nathan, Senthil T; Parikh, Shital N
We report on a case of a tension band plate and screw construct (Eight Plate) used over the anterior distal tibia in an 9-year-old girl in an attempt to induce recurvatum of the ankle joint to correct a recalcitrant equinus deformity. With growth of the distal tibial physis, the epiphyseal screw was drawn through the physis into the distal tibial metaphysis, resulting in the creation of a transphyseal bony bar. Caution should be exercised when attempting temporary hemiepiphyseodesis using a plate and screw construct in small epiphyses or in an osteopenic bone. PMID:22158054
Oda, Jon E; Thacker, Mihir M
High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is an accepted surgical technique for the treatment of medial compartmental arthrosis of the knee in younger patients. Compared to total knee arthroplasty, HTO may be a good choice in patients who wish to continue with heavy labor and/or impact sports. Based on the rehabilitation protocol after HTO, impact sports, such as running, jumping rope, and full sports activities, are generally permitted 6 months postoperatively. Jumping rope is an excellent form of aerobic exercise, and when done properly, jumping rope can lead to a dramatic improvement in rehabilitation and full sports activities. However, an adequate evaluation should be performed prior to initiating impact sports. We present the case of a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament that occurred in a patient with an unintended increase in the tibial slope after an opening wedge HTO who was jumping rope. PMID:18784927
Jung, Kwang Am; Lee, Su Chan; Hwang, Seung Hyun; Song, Moon Bok
Background Exacerbation of chronic glaucoma or acute glaucoma is occasionally observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) because of anterior chamber depth changes during this therapy. Purpose To evaluate anterior chamber depth and axial length in patients during HD sessions. Methods A total of 67 eyes of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured using ultrasonic biometry, and these measures were evaluated at three different times during HD sessions. Body weight and blood pressure pre- and post-HD were also measured. Results There was no difference in the axial length between the three measurements (P = 0.241). We observed a significantly decreased anterior chamber depth (P = 0.002) during HD sessions. Conclusion Our results support the idea that there is a change in anterior chamber depth in HD sessions.
Gracitelli, Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa; Stefanini, Francisco Rosa; Penha, Fernando; Goes, Miguel Angelo; Draibe, Sergio Antonio; Canziani, Maria Eugenia; Junior, Augusto Paranhos
We describe a case of unilateral tibial agenesis which was initially observed at 21 weeks' gestation. Unlike bilateral tibial hemimelia syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant condition, unilateral tibial agenesis, which accounts for about three-quarters of all newborns with this condition, has not previously been described. This case could have been a sporadic abnormality but, in view of the association with other observations (distal bifurcation of the femur, club foot), could be considered as an autosomal recessive inherited condition with variable penetrance. Ultrasonographic features and the genetic prognosis are discussed. PMID:8705415
Dreyfus, M; Baldauf, J J; Rigaut, E; Clavert, J M; Gasser, B; Ritter, J
INTRODUCTION Osteomyelitis following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is extremely rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a thirty year old man who presented with pain in his proximal tibia six years after ACL reconstruction. Haematological investigations were normal. He was diagnosed with osteomyelitis of his proximal tibia. He was successfully treated with washout and debridement of his tibial tunnel. DISCUSSION This case highlights the need to exclude osteomyelitis as a late complication of ACL reconstruction in patients with proximal tibial pain. We also report on an unusual pathogen as casue of osteomyelitis. CONCLUSION Osteomyelitis in a tibial tunnel can present as a late complication of ACL reconstruction, even in the presence of normal haematological investigations.
O'Neill, Barry J.; Molloy, Alan P.; McCarthy, Tom
Tibial plafond fractures comprise a diverse group of articular, metaphyseal, and occasionally diaphyseal injuries and have in common injury to the articular surface of the distal tibia and significant associated soft-tissue injury. Injury to the soft tissues combined with the complex fracture patterns has led to high complication rates from surgical attempts to reduce and stabilize these fractures. Currently, there is a wide range of treatment techniques available for a wide spectrum of injury severity, surgeon experience, and surgeon preferences. Patient outcomes vary widely. Because these injuries are relatively uncommon, the amount of clinical data available to guide treatment decisions is limited. Careful classification and assessment of the fracture pattern and associated soft-tissue injury and an understanding of the principles of modern concepts of treatment should allow the surgeon to choose from among several treatment protocols, all of which emphasize minimizing complications to optimize patient outcomes. PMID:17472318
Marsh, J Lawrence; Borrelli, Joseph; Dirschl, Douglas R; Sirkin, Michael S
During flexion of the intact knee, we measured the changes in distance between possible tibial and femoral attachments of an intraarticular ACL substitute. The change in distance during motion was described by the difference between the longest and shortest distances measured. Using knees from eight cadaver donors, we studied the effects of varying tibial and femoral attachment locations, applying anterior and posterior forces, and altering the range of flexion. We found that altering the femoral attachment had a much larger effect than had altering the tibial attachment. No femoral attachments were completely isometric. Femoral attachments that produced the smallest change in tibiofemoral distance, 2 mm and less, formed a band whose greatest width ranged from 3 to 5 mm. The axis of the 2 mm region was nearly proximal-distal in orientation and located near the center of the ACL's femoral insertion. Attachments located anterior to the axis moved away from the tibial attachment with flexion, whereas attachments located posterior to the axis moved toward the tibia. The AP position of the tibial attachment affected the orientation of the 2 mm region. Moving the tibial attachment posteriorly caused the proximal part of the region to move anterior, with little change in the location of the distal part of the region. Changing the applied joint force from anterior to posterior was similar to moving the tibial attachment posteriorly, but the effect was less pronounced. Increasing the range of flexion from 90 degrees to 120 degrees caused the 2 mm region to become narrower and changed its orientation. PMID:2667378
Hefzy, M S; Grood, E S; Noyes, F R
We describe a case of a severely comminuted type iiia open tibial fracture, with distal loss of bone stock (7 cm), total involvement of the tibial joint surface, and severe instability of the fibular-talar joint. The treatment performed consisted of thorough cleansing, placing a retrograde reamed calcaneal-talar-tibial nail with proximal and distal blockage, as well as a fibular-talar Kirschner nail. Primary closure of the skin was achieved. After 3 weeks, an autologous iliac crest bone graft was performed to fill the bone defect, and the endomedullary nail, which had protruded distally was reimpacted and dynamized distally. The bone defect was eventually consolidated after 16 weeks. Currently, the patient can walk without pain the tibial-astragal arthrodesis is consolidated. PMID:24438859
Valls-Mellado, M; Martí-Garín, D; Fillat-Gomà, F; Marcano-Fernández, F A; González-Vargas, J A
Distal tibial triplane features, which constitute 6%-10% of epiphyseal injuries, are most accurately delineated and analyzed with computed tomography (CT). This is directly related to the special geometry of these fractures that have important transverse components. CT, with its transaxial orientation, is the only radiographic technique that directly images the otherwise inaccessible, horizontally oriented tibial plafond, the integrity of which largely determines the prognosis. CT is the method of choice for preoperative and postoperative evaluation of these injuries. PMID:3602382
Feldman, F; Singson, R D; Rosenberg, Z S; Berdon, W E; Amodio, J; Abramson, S J
The purpose of this article is to describe a new and simple technique for arthroscopic fixation of tibial intercondylar eminence avulsion fractures using folded surgical pin. This technique allows reduction and fixation of the bone fragment without using special equipment. After standard arthroscopic procedure to explore the knee and to remove fracture debris and blood clot, the bone block is reduced and advanced with the spike of the anterior cruciate ligament tibial drill guide. A 1.8-mm K-wire is drilled through the guide from the proximal tibia into the reduced fragment. It is bent on its end into the joint with a strong needle case. The K-wire is then pulled back until good fragment compression to the tibia appears with the wire starting unbending. Next, the other side is bent on the anterior tibial cortex and cut. This arthroscopic fixation allows elastic compression fragment stabilization that authorizes early weight bearing and rehabilitation programs. The material is extracted by traction after 6 months. PMID:17235617
Bonin, Nicolas; Jeunet, Laurent; Obert, Laurent; Dejour, David
Hallux valgus and tibial fractures are common conditions in trauma and orthopaedics. To date, there has been no report of acute hallux valgus developing secondary to a tibial fracture. We report the case of acute post-traumatic hallux valgus due to compression of the medial plantar nerve in the tarsal tunnel. PMID:20573500
Johal, S; Sawalha, S; Pasapula, C
The origins of the earliest evoked potentials and magnetic fields after tibial nerve electrical stimulation are still controversial. We focused on the initial activity from the gyrus area and analyzed the components for the coronal and sagittal planes. In 12 healthy right-handed subjects, electrical stimuli were delivered to the left posterior tibial nerve at the ankle. The cortical somatosensory evoked fields were recorded, and the equivalent current dipoles were calculated and separated into the sagittal plane (y-components) and coronal plane (x-components) components. In nine subjects, we observed two deflections (y1 and y2) in the y-component waveform and two deflections (x1 and x2) in the x-component waveform over 60 milliseconds; y1 was directed anteriorly, y2 posteriorly, x1 to the left, and x2 to the right. The y1 was originated in the anterior wall of the central sulcus. By focusing on the y-component, we elucidated the existence of the posteroanterior component, which may originate from the area 3b (gyrus) in tibial nerve somatosensory evoked fields and has the same quality as N20m for median nerve somatosensory evoked fields. This is the first report to suggest that the posteroanterior component in the tibial nerve is analogous to N20m in the median nerve using magnetoencephalography. PMID:24887607
Nakanishi, Kazuyoshi; Inoue, Ken; Hadoush, Hikmat; Sunagawa, Toru; Ochi, Mitsuo
Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common overuse injury of the lower extremity predominantly observed in weight bearing activities. Knowledge about the pathological lesions and their pathophysiology is still limited. Only a single study was found to have investigated tibial bone density in the pain region, revealing lower density in athletes with long standing (range, 5-120 month) MTSS. In a follow-up study, bone density was determined to return to normal levels after recovery. The purpose of the present study was to investigate tibial bone density in athletes with shorter MTSS history (range, 3-10 weeks). A total of 11 athletes (7 males, 4 females) diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome were included in the study. The control group consisted of 11 regularly exercising individuals (7 males, 4 females). Tibial, femoral and vertebral bone densities were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Total calcium intake was calculated by evaluating detailed nutrition history. No statistically significant differences were found in the tibial, femoral and vertebral bone densities between the groups. No statistically significant difference was found among groups, considering for calcium intake. Tibial bone densities were not lower in athletes with MTSS of 5.0 weeks mean duration (range, 3-10 weeks) compared to the healthy control group. Longitudinal studies with regular tibial bone density measurements in heavily trained athletes are necessary to investigate tibial density alterations in MTSS developing athletes during the course of the symptoms. Key points Tibial, femoral and vertebral bone densities were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. No differences were found between the MTSS group (MTSS history 3-10 weeks) and the healthy athletes group.
Ozgurbuz, Cengizhan; Yuksel, Oguz; Ergun, Metin; Islegen, Cetin; Taskiran, Emin; Denerel, Nevzad; Karamizrak, Oguz
Glenoid bone loss is commonly associated with recurrent shoulder instability. Failure to recognize and appropriately address it can lead to poor outcomes. Numerous studies have found anterior-inferior glenoid bone loss in the setting of recurrent anterior instability. Though much less common, posterior shoulder instability can be seen in the setting of acute trauma, epilepsy, electrocution, and alcoholism. Heightened awareness has led to recognition in collision athletes as well. Posterior glenoid bone loss must be addressed in a similar fashion to anterior glenoid bone loss to prevent recurrent instability. Open bone augmentation procedures have been described with successful results. In this technical note, we describe an arthroscopic technique using fresh distal tibial allograft for posterior glenoid augmentation. In addition, a current review regarding the diagnosis and management of recurrent posterior shoulder instability is provided.
Gupta, Anil K.; Chalmers, Peter N.; Klosterman, Emma; Harris, Joshua D.; Provencher, Matthew T.; Romeo, Anthony A.
Fractures of ossified tibialis anterior tendon have been successfully managed by the excision of the ossified tendon and transfer of the extensor hallucis longus tendon. A 64-year-old man sustained an injury during mountain hiking 2 weeks prior to presentation, falling down on his heels with his ankle fully plantarflexed. Two tender and bony hard masses were palpable along the course of the tibialis anterior tendon, one at the anteromedial aspect of the ankle and another at the dorsum of the talonavicular joint. Radiographs of the ankle demonstrated an approximately 2x1-cm ovoid-shaped bony mass at the anterior aspect of the ankle joint and another bony mass of similar size and shape at the dorsal aspect of the talonavicular joint. He underwent operative exploration, and complete rupture of the tendon through a bony mass was observed. The gap between the torn ends of the tendon after excision of the mass was too long to be repaired directly. Extensor hallucis longus tendon was retrieved 1 cm proximal to the metatarsophalangeal joint and was passed through the insertion of the anterior tibial tendon and pulled proximally and sutured to itself with the ankle in neutral. At 1 year after surgery, plain radiographs and ultrasonography showed no recurrence of calcification or ossification in the tendon and good mobility of the tibialis anterior muscle was observed. PMID:19301787
Lee, Woo-Chun; Moon, Jeong-Seok; Kim, Ji-Yeong; Ko, Hyeong-Tak
A convenience sample based on availability of tibial stress fracture cases at local Sports Medicine Clinics was selected. The study was designed to determine if electric field stimulation accelerates the healing of tibial stress fracture and whether there...
A. R. Hoffman B. Beck G. Bergman G. Matheson
Primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is considered a successful surgical procedure, but the results reported for revision ACL surgery are less satisfactory. The most common cause of technical failure in primary reconstruction is tunnel misplacement, particularly on the femoral side, although an anterior placement of the tibial tunnel may lead to graft impingement and failure. Several technical problems are encountered during revision procedures. We describe a technique for revision ACL surgery using a special jig for preparing the tibial tunnel that references the apex and roof of the intercondylar notch and an over-the-top routing for proximal femoral placement. This combination avoids graft impingement at the tibial tunnel exit and circumvents the problems associated with further femoral tunnel preparation. PMID:15689877
Yiannakopoulos, Christos K; Fules, Peter J; Korres, Dimitrios S; Mowbray, Michael A S
Open tibial fractures are true surgical emergencies because of the risk of extensive infection to bone and devitalized soft tissue. The most serious consequence of open tibial fractures is osteomyelitisf-which usually can be prevented by prompt surgical intervention within six to eight hours after injuries occur. Open tibial fractures often are the result of trauma from motor vehicle collisions, farm
Chris Brown; Shirley Henderson; Shirley Moore
We documented functional outcome in 83 knees with tibial spine fractures. The mean age at injury was 35 years. There was a medial collateral ligament sprain in 17 knees and posterolateral corner injury in three knees. Twenty patients with displaced tibial spine fractures were treated with fixation of the tibial spine and 63 patients with undisplaced or minimally displaced fractures were
J. Aderinto; P. Walmsley; J. F. Keating
We retrospectively reviewed 87 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions using autogenous hamstring tendons with the Endobutton technique to investigate the relationship between bone tunnel enlargement and clinical outcome and to identify factors that contribute to the enlargement. The clinical outcome was evaluated using the Lysholm score and KT-1000 arthrometer. The location of the femoral tunnel with respect to Blumensaat's line, the tibial tunnel with respect to the tibial plateau, and the angle between the femoral tunnel and Blumensaat's line (femoral tunnel angle) were measured. Bone tunnel enlargement was observed in 32 patients (37%). Enlargement occurred in 22 of the femoral tunnels and 26 of the tibial tunnels. Enlargement of both tunnels occurred in 16 knees. There was no statistical difference in Lysholm scores or KT-1000 arthrometer measurements between the enlarged group and the unenlarged group. The femoral tunnel was placed more anteriorly in the enlarged femoral tunnel group than in the unenlarged femoral tunnel group. The tibial tunnel was placed more anteriorly in the enlarged tibial tunnel group than in the unenlarged tibial tunnel group. The femoral tunnel angle was significantly smaller in the enlarged femoral tunnel group than in the femoral unenlarged group. Gender, patient age, intraoperative isometricity, and graft size were not significant factors. Bone tunnel enlargement was not correlated with the clinical outcome measures. We conclude that the main factor associated with tunnel enlargement are the locations and angles of the tunnels. The windshield-wiper motion of the graft may be enhanced by changing tension in the graft due to tunnel malposition. An acute femoral tunnel angle may increase the mechanical stress on the anterior margin of the femoral tunnel. PMID:11522075
Segawa, H; Omori, G; Tomita, S; Koga, Y
Osteochondritis of the distal tibial epiphysis is a very rare entity. 9 cases have been described in 7 articles and 8 other cases have been mentioned in textbooks. This paper describes the 10th case of osteochondritis of the distal tibial epiphysis and summarizes the clinical and radiological presentations of the 9 other cases. The etiology of this entity is well debated in the literature. We believe that it results from a vascular abnormality in the distal tibial epiphysis associated with a mechanical stress (trauma, excessive overload, etc.). Since it is a self-limited disease, the prognosis is good and the younger the patient is the better the prognosis will be. In general, this entity responds well to conservative treatment.
EL Hajj, Firass; Sebaaly, Amer; Kharrat, Khalil; Ghanem, Ismat
High tibial osteotomy may be indicated in the treatment of varus knee in young, active patients. The preservation of proprioception and native joint and biomechanics is crucial for functional recovery in these patients. However, deterioration of initial good results can occur with time. In such cases, revision with total knee arthroplasty is indicated. However, this is a more surgically demanding option compared with a primary prosthesis. Accurate preoperative planning is mandatory to decrease the risk of intraoperative complications. A precise surgical technique, which is crucial to improving functional outcomes, includes hardware removal, joint exposition, tibial deformities due to previous osteotomy, and managing soft tissue mismatches. Possible technical challenges and surgical solutions exist for each of these aspects. However, several studies report lower functional results compared with primary implants. Thus, patients should be informed before high tibial osteotomy about its failure rate, the difficult surgical aspects of an additional prosthesis, and less satisfactory clinical results. PMID:24762146
Cerciello, Simone; Vasso, Michele; Maffulli, Nicola; Neyret, Philippe; Corona, Katia; Panni, Alfredo Schiavone
The functional anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament was studied in 18 freshly amputated specimens. The cruciates were observed in the extremes of flexion and extension, and in midposition in simulated weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing conditions. Five femoral shafts were split longitudinally so that the femoral and tibial attachments of the ligament could be inspected. The findings indicated that (1) the
Lyle A. Norwood; Mervyn J. Cross
Problems of the proximal tibiofibular joint (pTFj) after high tibial osteotomy (HTO) are rare. With this case report, we strive to highlight the importance of investigating the pTFj in patients with unexplained knee pain after HTO. A 44 year old male patient presented with diffuse pain on his left knee 3 years after medial opening wedge HTO due to medial compartment overloading in a varus knee. Patient described persistent anterior tibial and lateral knee pain. 2 years after HTO, patient underwent implant removal but the knee pain persisted. As the reason for the persistent pain was not identified, further radiological evaluation was done. Single photon emission computerized tomography/computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) revealed that there was no increased uptake within the tibiofemoral joint, indicating a biologically well performed correction of the varus deformity. However, markedly increased tracer uptake was found at the pTFj. On the inherent axial CT scans, it was seen that the proximal screws were too long and placed within the pTFj. Along with this a severe osteoarthritis of the pTFj was identified. The cause of the patient's pain was then confirmed by a CT guided infiltration of local anesthetic. An arthrodesis of the pTFj was performed and at 12 months followup after the arthrodesis the patient was pain free. This case highlights how important it is to evaluate the pTFj in patients with unexplained pain after HTO. SPECT/CT was helpful in identifying the patient's problem in this challenging case.
Testa, Enrique Adrian; Haeni, David L; Behrens, Gerrit; Hirschmann, Michael T
Problems of the proximal tibiofibular joint (pTFj) after high tibial osteotomy (HTO) are rare. With this case report, we strive to highlight the importance of investigating the pTFj in patients with unexplained knee pain after HTO. A 44 year old male patient presented with diffuse pain on his left knee 3 years after medial opening wedge HTO due to medial compartment overloading in a varus knee. Patient described persistent anterior tibial and lateral knee pain. 2 years after HTO, patient underwent implant removal but the knee pain persisted. As the reason for the persistent pain was not identified, further radiological evaluation was done. Single photon emission computerized tomography/computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) revealed that there was no increased uptake within the tibiofemoral joint, indicating a biologically well performed correction of the varus deformity. However, markedly increased tracer uptake was found at the pTFj. On the inherent axial CT scans, it was seen that the proximal screws were too long and placed within the pTFj. Along with this a severe osteoarthritis of the pTFj was identified. The cause of the patient's pain was then confirmed by a CT guided infiltration of local anesthetic. An arthrodesis of the pTFj was performed and at 12 months followup after the arthrodesis the patient was pain free. This case highlights how important it is to evaluate the pTFj in patients with unexplained pain after HTO. SPECT/CT was helpful in identifying the patient's problem in this challenging case. PMID:24932045
Testa, Enrique Adrian; Haeni, David L; Behrens, Gerrit; Hirschmann, Michael T
BackgroundMuscle strengthen exercise of quadriceps femoris is important but risky to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft, because quadriceps muscle exercise near the knee extension may causes anterior tibial translation. We developed a new exercise method, ‘resisted front bridge exercise with a leg support at proximal tibia’ (RFBP) in a prone position to avoid a risk. Our hypothesis is that
N Nakae; M Koyanagi; M Sato; T Sakai; Y Kimura; K Hidaka; K Nakata
Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the medial tibial plateau is less recognized than osteonecrosis of the medial femoral condyle, but it presents in a similar manner. These patients have a sudden onset of pain on the medial side of the knee associated with a spectrum of MRI changes in the tibial subchondral bone. The small lesions can resolve with only minimal residual scar remaining in the subchondral zone. If the lesion is large, it can collapse or show MRI changes of osteonecrosis. Recognition of this problem may help avoid unnecessary intra-articular surgical intervention. PMID:15271545
Lotke, Paul A; Nelson, Charles L; Lonner, Jess H
An insufficiency fracture of the tibial plateau may be the cause of knee pain in patients with osteoporosis. The diagnosis is usually not suspected until a bone scan is done, as initial radiographs are often negative or inconclusive and clinical findings are nonspecific and may simulate osteoarthritis or spontaneous osteonecrosis. In five of 165 patients referred for bone scans due to nontraumatic knee pain, a characteristic pattern of intense augmented uptake of radionuclide confined to the tibial plateau led to a presumptive diagnosis of insufficiency fracture, later confirmed on radiographs.
Manco, L.G.; Schneider, R.; Pavlov, H.
Unicompartmental osteoarthritis of the knee is often a difficult management problem in the younger age group. A high tibial osteotomy has been found to be quite an effective procedure for this condition in the past. A better understanding of the principles of this technique and innovations in the instrumentation has renewed interest in this procedure. This article provides an overview of the principles, biology, indications, contraindications, planning and execution, postoperative care, results and complications of high tibial osteotomy. An attempt has been made to incorporate important technical considerations, recent developments and other treatment options in this condition. PMID:16515862
Dowd, G S E; Somayaji, H S; Uthukuri, M
Background Previous studies have indicated that higher knee joint laxity may be indicative of an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Despite the frequent clinical use of knee arthrometry in the evaluation of knee laxity, little data exist to correlate instrumented laxity measures and ACL strain during dynamic high-risk activities. Purpose/Hypotheses The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between ACL strain and anterior knee laxity measurements using arthrometry during both a drawer test and simulated bipedal landing (as an identified high-risk injurious task). We hypothesized that a high correlation exists between dynamic ACL strain and passive arthrometry displacement. The secondary hypothesis was that anterior knee laxity quantified by knee arthrometry is a valid predictor of injury risk such that specimens with greater anterior knee laxity would demonstrate increased levels of peak ACL strain during landing. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Twenty cadaveric lower limbs (mean age, 46 ± 6 years; 10 female and 10 male) were tested using a CompuKT knee arthrometer to measure knee joint laxity. Each specimen was tested under 4 continuous cycles of anterior-posterior shear force (±134 N) applied to the tibial tubercle. To quantify ACL strain, a differential variable reluctance transducer (DVRT) was arthroscopically placed on the ACL (anteromedial bundle), and specimens were retested. Subsequently, bipedal landing from 30 cm was simulated in a subset of 14 specimens (mean age, 45 ± 6 years; 6 female and 8 male) using a novel custom-designed drop stand. Changes in joint laxity and ACL strain under applied anterior shear force were statistically analyzed using paired sample t tests and analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between anterior shear force, anterior tibial translation, and ACL strain. Results During simulated drawer tests, 134 N of applied anterior shear load produced a mean peak anterior tibial translation of 3.1 ± 1.1 mm and a mean peak ACL strain of 4.9% ± 4.3%. Anterior shear load was a significant determinant of anterior tibial translation (P <.0005) and peak ACL strain (P = .04). A significant correlation (r = 0.52, P <.0005) was observed between anterior tibial translation and ACL strain. Cadaveric simulations of landing produced a mean axial impact load of 4070 ± 732 N. Simulated landing significantly increased the mean peak anterior tibial translation to 10.4 ± 3.5 mm and the mean peak ACL strain to 6.8% ± 2.8% (P <.0005) compared with the prelanding condition. Significant correlations were observed between peak ACL strain during simulated landing and anterior tibial translation quantified by knee arthrometry. Conclusion Our first hypothesis is supported by a significant correlation between arthrometry displacement collected during laxity tests and concurrent ACL strain calculated from DVRT measurements. Experimental findings also support our second hypothesis that instrumented measures of anterior knee laxity predict peak ACL strain during landing, while specimens with greater knee laxity demonstrated higher levels of peak ACL strain during landing. Clinical Relevance The current findings highlight the importance of instrumented anterior knee laxity assessments as a potential indicator of the risk of ACL injuries in addition to its clinical utility in the evaluation of ACL integrity.
Kiapour, Ata M.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Paterno, Mark V.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Levine, Jason W.; Goel, Vijay K.; Demetropoulos, Constantine K.; Hewett, Timothy E.
The tibial nerve transection model is a well-tolerated, validated, and reproducible model of denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in rodents. Although originally developed and used extensively in the rat due to its larger size, the tibial nerve in mice is big enough that it can be easily manipulated with either crush or transection, leaving the peroneal and sural nerve branches of the sciatic nerve intact and thereby preserving their target muscles. Thus, this model offers the advantages of inducing less morbidity and impediment of ambulation than the sciatic nerve transection model and also allows investigators to study the physiologic, cellular and molecular biologic mechanisms regulating the process of muscle atrophy in genetically engineered mice. The tibial nerve supplies the gastrocnemius, soleus and plantaris muscles, so its transection permits the study of denervated skeletal muscle composed of fast twitch type II fibers and/or slow twitch type I fibers. Here we demonstrate the tibial nerve transection model in the C57Black6 mouse. We assess the atrophy of the gastrocnemius muscle, as a representative muscle, at 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-denervation by measuring muscle weights and fiber type specific cross-sectional area on paraffin-embedded histologic sections immunostained for fast twitch myosin. PMID:24300114
Batt, Jane A E; Bain, James Ralph
Sustained muscle wasting due to immobilization leads to weakening and severe metabolic consequences. The mechanisms responsible for muscle recovery after immobilization are poorly defined. Muscle atrophy induced by immobilization worsened in the lengthened tibialis anterior (TA) muscle but not in the shortened gastrocnemius muscle. Here, we investigated some mechanisms responsible for this differential response. Adult rats were subjected to unilateral hindlimb casting for 8 days (I8). Casts were removed at I8, and animals were allowed to recover for 10 days (R1 to R10). The worsening of TA atrophy following immobilization occurred immediately after cast removal at R1 and was sustained until R10. This atrophy correlated with a decrease in type IIb myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform and an increase in type IIx, IIa, and I isoforms, with muscle connective tissue thickening, and with increased collagen (Col) I mRNA levels. Increased Col XII, Col IV, and Col XVIII mRNA levels during TA immobilization normalized at R6. Sustained enhanced peptidase activities of the proteasome and apoptosome activity contributed to the catabolic response during the studied recovery period. Finally, increased nuclear apoptosis prevailed only in the connective tissue compartment of the TA. Altogether, the worsening of the TA atrophy pending immediate reloading reflects a major remodeling of its fiber type properties and alterations in the structure/composition of the extracellular compartment that may influence its elasticity/stiffness. The data suggest that sustained enhanced ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis and apoptosis are important for these adaptations and provide some rationale for explaining the atrophy of reloaded muscles pending immobilization in a lengthened position. PMID:23032683
Slimani, Lamia; Micol, Didier; Amat, Julien; Delcros, Geoffrey; Meunier, Bruno; Taillandier, Daniel; Polge, Cécile; Béchet, Daniel; Dardevet, Dominique; Picard, Brigitte; Attaix, Didier; Listrat, Anne; Combaret, Lydie
The management of failed surgical procedures involving osteotomy for tibial tuberosity advancement can be demanding due to the limited available bone stock, which must be large enough to counteract the powerful proximal and cranial distractive forces exerted by the quadriceps mechanism. Initial mode of failure may be related to implant failure, fracture of the tibial tuberosity, or a combination of both. The complications and management of the cases reported here were all associated with avulsion fracture of the tibial tuberosity following tibial tuberosity advancement. In all cases, a cranial tibial dynamic compression plate was applied to reduce the fractures and stabilize the osteotomy. No further major complications associated with the implants or fracture occurred. Radiographic evidence of progression of fracture healing was documented in all four cases at the six to eight-week postoperative follow-up. Long-term follow-up information was available for three out of four cases at nine to 23 months after surgery by telephone interview and validated owner questionnaires. Owners reported return to normal exercise with intermittent lameness occurring in two of the three cases. The authors concluded that this technique offers an alternative technique for the management of such fractures, in particular in large breed dogs where sufficient tibial tuberosity bone stock remains. PMID:24493154
Lorenz, N D; Pettitt, R
Adenomyoepithelioma is a rarely occurring tumor and its generation in the limbs is extremely rare. We report a case of an adenomyoepithelioma over the proximal tibial tuberosity that was treated without any complications after an excisional biopsy with a literature review.
Kim, Kyung Taek; Kang, Min Soo; Kim, Dae Cheol; Yoon, Hyung Min
ABSTRACT Objectives The iliac crest is the standard site for harvesting bone; however, this procedure may require another specialist and a general anaesthetic. The proximal tibial bone harvest has gained popularity for harvesting autogenous bone. An analysis of the clinical literature regarding the various regions for harvesting bone demonstrates that the use of the proximal tibia led to shorter hospital stays, lower morbidity rates, and a shorter learning curve for the surgeon. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical anatomy of a proximal tibial bone harvest graft to provide the anatomical architecture supporting a safe procedure. Materials and Methods Dissection of 58 lower limbs from embalmed cadavers was conducted to determine the anatomy of a proximal tibial bone harvest (PTBH). Results Dissection revealed that the medial approach has fewer clinically relevant neurovascular structures in harms way, and a larger surface area, providing the clinician a confident surgical window to perform the procedure. Conclusions The anatomical basis of this study suggests that the medial proximal tibial bone harvest approach would have fewer serious structures in harm's way compared to the lateral; however, the lateral approach may be preferred for a subgroup of patients.
Ross, Alan; Delamarter, Taylor
e reviewed 25 patients with tibial diaphyseal fractures which had been complicated by an acute compartment syndrome. Thirteen had undergone continuous monitoring of the compartment pressure and the other 12 had not. The average delay from injury to fasciotomy in the monitored group was 16 hours and in the non-monitored group 32 hours (p < 0.05). Of the 12 surviving
M. M. MCQUEEN; J. CHRISTIE; C. M. COURT-BROWN
We report an unusual case of true atherosclerotic posterior tibial artery (PTA) aneurysm without any apparent causative history. To our knowledge, in the English Literature only seven previously cases of true PTA aneurysms are reported. Due to its location, this lesion may require surgical intervention and removal. The presentation, the diagnostic evaluation, and the surgical management of the aneurysm are discussed.
Robaldo, Alessandro; Di Iasio, Giacomo; Testi, Gabriele; Colotto, Patrizio
We followed 30 patients for more than 2 years after anteromedial tibial tubercle transfer for persistent pa tellofemoral pain associated with patellar articular de generation. Twelve of these patients were followed more than 5 years. We report 93% good and excellent results subjectively and 89% good and excellent results objectively. The quality of improvement was sustained in all 12 of
John P. Fulkerson; Gerald J. Becker; John A. Meaney; Michael Miranda; Marilyn A. Folcik
In this report, a case of cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture treated by tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO), in a 36-month-old male breeding alpaca, is described. The alpaca was presented with the complaint of acute onset of right pelvic limb lameness. The findings of our clinical and radiographic examinations were consistent with CrCL insufficiency of the right stifle joint. The right tibial plateau angle measured prior to surgery was 19 degrees . A TPLO was performed and this eliminated cranial tibial thrust. Culture of a swab taken from the surgical site prior to wound closure was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Enrofloxacin was administered parenterally for two weeks postoperatively. There were not any clinical signs of infection noted. Outcome assessments included veterinary examination (two and six weeks) and owner assessment (28 months). At two weeks the animal walked with a grade 2/5 lameness, and at six weeks radiographic examination showed progression of bone healing at the site of tibial osteotomy. A return to full breeding fitness occurred by eight weeks after the surgery. The alpaca remained free from lameness 28 months later, according to the owner. PMID:19597639
Smith, T; Girard, N; O'Riordan, J; Fitzpatrick, N
The authors describe a surgical procedure to 'fine-tune' the tibial slope during high-tibial osteotomy. Fifteen consecutive patients were treated for medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee using a temporary unilateral external fixator and accompanying internal fixator composed of two plates (with different sized space). All 15 patients were evaluated by measuring femoro-tibial angles (FTAs) in the frontal plane, and using the proximal tibial anatomical axis (PTAA) and the posterior tibial cortex (PTC) methods to assess tibial slope in the sagittal plane. FTA, PTAA, and PTC angles were measured using: (1) radiographs taken before surgery, (2) fluoroscopic images taken after inserting the first plate during surgery, (3) fluoroscopic images taken after tibial slope restoration using an external fixator system during surgery, and finally using, (4) radiographs taken after surgery. In all patients, preoperative PTAA and PTC angles increased significantly after inserting the first plate posteromedially at osteotomy site. After tibial slope had been accurately restored using the external fixator system, PTAA and PTC angles decreased to the preoperative tibial slope level without changing femorotibial angles in the coronal plane. The authors were able to acquire a consistent and reproducible natural tibial slope using tibial slope "fine tuning" using an external fixator and a stable internal fixator. PMID:18183371
Jung, Kwang Am; Kim, Sung Jae; Lee, Su Chan; Song, Moon Bok; Yoon, Kyung Hwan
ABSTRACT Objectives: In some total knee arthroplasty cases, the usual medial parapatellar approach does not allow the appropriate patellar eversion and the desired exposure of the knee joint. Partial disinsertion of the patellar tendon doesn't substantially improve the surgical exposure and can lead to extensor apparatus weakening and complete secondary ruptures, while the V-Y quadricipital plasty leads to post-op immobilization of the knee, which delays the functional rehabilitation, with negative impact on the range of motion. The tibial tubercle osteotomy, however, allows an extension of the approach in total knee arthroplasty, without endangering the quadricipital extensor apparatus. Material and Methods: In this study we analysed the post-operative results of 11 cases of primary total knee arthroplasty in which a frontal plane osteotomy of the tibial tubercle was performed in addition to the standard medial parapatellar approach, as a result of the patients associated conditions, like rheumatoid arthritis with an extension deficit higher than 150, previous knee synovectomy by arthrotomy, progressive genu varum with more than 150 deviation, varus deviation of the lower limb with previous closing wedge proximal tibial osteotomy or patellar fractures with vicious consolidation. Outcomes: Overall, the results were more than satisfactory with a significant increase in the patients mean range of motion and Knee Society Score. There were some post-op issues in some of the patients, but they were adressed accordingly, having no long-term impact on the results. Conclusions:. We could thus conclude that, in special cases, the frontal plane tibial tubercle osteotomy is an effective technique which can provide a wide approach with appropriate protection of the knee extensor apparatus.
RADULESCU, Radu; BADILA, Adrian; NUTIU, Octavian; JAPIE, Ionut; TERINTE, Silvia; RADULESCU, Dragos; MANOLESCU, Robert
It has been theorized that a traumatic tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the medial meniscus (MM) is the cause of the so-called meniscus ossicle (MO). We report the delayed appearance of a tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM after a valgus, twisting injury in a 12-year-old boy with open physes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans performed 3 days after the injury did not demonstrate a definitive tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM; whereas, a repeat MRI for 3 months post-injury did. Medial extrusion of the MM was also noted on the 3 month MRI. Arthroscopic reattachment of the avulsed posterior root of the MM using a trans-physeal nonabsorbable suture tied over a proximal tibia staple was performed. Follow-up MRI at 6 months postoperatively demonstrated healing of the tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM in an anatomic position. The patient had a complete resolution of symptoms and there was no angular deformity or limb-length discrepancy at 2 years postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM in a skeletally-immature patient successfully treated by a trans-physeal arthroscopic suture. This case also illustrates the development of the MO of the posterior root of the MM. PMID:20199863
Matava, Matthew J; Kim, Young-Mo
Locked intramedullary nailing and external fixation are alternatives for the stabilization of tibial shaft fractures. The goal of this study was to determine to what extent the mechanical conditions at the fracture site influence the healing process after unreamed tibial nailing compared to external fixation. A standardized tibial diastasis was stabilized with either a locked unreamed tibial nail or a monolateral fixator in a sheep model. Interfragmentary movements and ground reaction parameters were monitored in vivo throughout the healing period. After sacrifice, the tibiae were examined mechanically and histologically. Bending angles and axial torsion at the fracture site were larger in the nail group within the first five weeks post-operatively. Unlike the fixator group, the operated limb in the nail group did not return to full weight bearing during the treatment period. Mechanical and histomorphometrical observations showed significantly inferior bone healing in the nail group compared to the fixator group. In this study, unreamed nailing of a tibial diastasis did not provide rotational stability of the osteosynthesis and resulted in a significant delay in bone healing. PMID:15304281
Klein, P; Opitz, M; Schell, H; Taylor, W R; Heller, M O; Kassi, J-P; Kandziora, F; Duda, G N
Periprosthetic bone resorption after tibial prosthesis implantation remains a concern for long-term fixation performance. The fixation techniques may inherently aggravate the "stress-shielding" effect of the implant, leading to weakened bone foundation. In this study, two cemented tibial fixation cases (fully cemented and hybrid cementing with cement applied under the tibial tray leaving the stem uncemented) and three cementless cases relying on bony ingrowth (no, partial and fully ingrown) were modelled using the finite element method with a strain-adaptive remodelling theory incorporated to predict the change in the bone apparent density after prosthesis implantation. When the models were loaded with physiological knee joint loads, the predicted patterns of bone resorption correlated well with reported densitometry results. The modelling results showed that the firm anchorage fixation formed between the prosthesis and the bone for the fully cemented and fully ingrown cases greatly increased the amount of proximal bone resorption. Bone resorption in tibial fixations with a less secure anchorage (hybrid cementing, partial and no ingrowth) occurred at almost half the rate of the changes around the fixations with a firm anchorage. The results suggested that the hybrid cementing fixation or the cementless fixation with partial bony ingrowth (into the porous-coated prosthesis surface) is preferred for preserving proximal tibial bone stock, which should help to maintain post-operative fixation stability. Specifically, the hybrid cementing fixation induced the least amount of bone resorption. PMID:21236431
Chong, Desmond Y R; Hansen, Ulrich N; van der Venne, Rene; Verdonschot, Nico; Amis, Andrew A
Fourteen pairs of explanted low contact stress (LCS) tibial interface components: six rotating platform (RP), six meniscal (MN) and two anterior-posterior (AP) glide designs, have been analysed with particular attention paid to the condition of the tibial counterfaces. The average surface roughness, Ra, for the tibial trays ranged from 0.01 to 0.087 micron, significantly greater than the unworn control measurement of 0.008 micron. The scratch geometry analysis showed that the scratch peaks were found to be consistently of a lower aspect ratio than the scratch valleys and under 1 micron in height (average asperity height Rp = 0.52 micron, aspect ratio delta p = 0.01, average asperity depth Rv = 1.10 microns, delta v = 0.05). The largest scratches were 3-4 microns in both Rp and Rv. In vitro tests have shown that ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear increases in the presence of counterface scratches perpendicular to the direction of motion. In these explants, the unidirectional motion produced scratches parallel to the direction of sliding which is predicted to produce a smaller increase in UHMWPE wear. Other designs in mobile bearing knees have less constrained motion at the tibial counterface and this has been shown to accelerate wear; it may also lead to a further increase in wear in the presence of third body scratches. It may be possible in future knee designs to reduce this type of wear damage by introducing alternative materials or coatings which are more resistant to scratching and surface roughening. PMID:11382076
Jones, V C; Williams, I R; Auger, D D; Walsh, W; Barton, D C; Stone, M H; Fisher, J
As the number of patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions continues to grow, a subpopulation of patients with displaced tibia-fibula fractures will emerge who have had prior anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Previous cruciate ligament surgery can complicate the operative treatment of tibia-fibula fractures by intramedullary nailing. Technical complications arise because the tibial tunnel-graft-screw is in the path of insertion of the intramedullary implant. We present a case in which we traced the path of the patellar tendon autograft, adjusted our entry point for the tibial intramedullary canal, and removed the interference screw to facilitate the fracture surgery. This technical note provides an approach to planning intramedullary nailing of the tibia in patients with prior anterior cruciate ligament surgery. PMID:9788381
Roberts, C; John, C; Seligson, D
Arthrosis following rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament has been analysed in two series. The first series was derived from a review of 150 cases of reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with a follow-up of 3 years or more. Arthrosis was seen to have developed in 13.3%. The second series was concerned with 64 cases of unilateral arthrosis treated by upper tibial valgus osteotomy in whom there had been a previous rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament. The 'tolerance interval'--that is the time between the original ligamentous injury and the time of osteotomy--for the development of arthrosis was very variable, ranging in the natural-history cases from 10 to 50 years, with a mean of 35 years. It is important to recognise the radiological signs of the onset of arthrosis. These are osteophytosis of the intercondylar notch, osteophyte formation at the posterior part of the medial tibial plateau, and, in particular, narrowing of the medial joint line with posterior subluxation of the medial femoral condyle, well seen in lateral radiographs whilst standing on one lower limb. Early arthroses, appearing after 10 years, may occur as a 'natural arthrosis', but it develops much more frequently after surgical treatment that had failed to correct anterior laxity and particularly when it had been performed on knees that were already pre-arthrotic. The main factor in arthrosis is anterior laxity measured radiologically by an 'active Lachman' radiograph. Removal of the medial meniscus which in itself, is liable to produce arthrosis, is even more harmful in anterior cruciate laxity since it doubles the degree of anterior subluxation of the tibia seen on unilateral weight-bearing. The development of varus deformity, which characterises progressive arthrosis, has its origin in wear of the posterior part of the medial tibial plateau caused by anterior cruciate laxity. Other factors play an important part such as associated lateral laxity, constitutional genu varum and weakness of the hamstring muscles, which oppose the subluxating action of the quadriceps. PMID:24461232
Dejour, H; Walch, G; Deschamps, G; Chambat, P
Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using a hamstring tendon autograft has often been recommended for female athletes. We compared the results of acute, isolated, intraarticular anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions using quadruple-looped hamstring autografts in 39 female and 26 male patients. All reconstructions were performed by the same surgeon using a similar surgical technique and the same postoperative management. In each case, patients had Endobutton femoral fixation and either post or button fixation for the tibial side. The average follow-up was 40.9 months for women and 39.0 months for men. Objective analysis of results included examination for the presence of effusion and crepitus, Lachman and pivot shift testing, and KT-1000 arthrometer testing for side-to-side differences. Subjective analysis consisted of a 15-item visual analog scale completed by patients postoperatively, and pre- and postoperative Tegner and Lysholm scores. The clinical failure rate was 23% (9 of 39) for the female patients and 4% (1 of 26) for the male patients, which was statistically significant. There was also a trend toward increased laxity in female patients. Subjectively, the women also reported a higher frequency and intensity of pain. Based on Tegner activity levels, more of the men returned to their preinjury level of activity than did the women. When compared with the male patients, female patients had a significantly higher failure rate after reconstruction. PMID:11101098
Noojin, F K; Barrett, G R; Hartzog, C W; Nash, C R
The objective of this study is to report the clinical and radiological long-term follow-up evaluation of young patients arthroscopically treated for anterior tibial eminence fracture. Ten patients (mean age: 13.5 years) were treated between 1992 and 2006. At follow-up they were clinically and radiologically evaluated. Moreover, they underwent assessment with the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) forms, Lysholm and Tegner knee scales and measurement with the KT-1000 arthrometer. At a mean follow-up of 85.8 months, all of the patients reported a subjective good-excellent outcome. Objectively, the Lachman test was negative in seven patients and positive in three patients; six patients (60%) registered a slight (+) to mild (++) pivot-glide test. The mean value of KT-1000 arthrometer measurements was 3 mm; all knee scales showed satisfactory results. Radiological exam always showed good healing of the fracture. Fractures of the tibial spine often lead to anterior and rotational knee laxity. However, despite this instrumental finding, patients usually do not report any type of restriction in their functional or sports activities. PMID:19043709
Perugia, D; Basiglini, L; Vadalà, A; Ferretti, A
Revision arthroplasty of large tibial defects remains a challenge. Thirty revision knee arthroplasties using a porous titanium tibial sleeve for Anderson Orthopaedic Research Institute (AORI) Type 2B and Type 3 defects with minimum 2year follow up were retrospectively reviewed. The average Knee Society Score increased from 55 pre-operatively to 92 post-operatively. Six patients had a repeat operation though none were sleeve related. All radiographs at final follow-up showed well fixed components with osseous in-growth. Seven patients had end-of-stem pain, four of which resolved. Our short-term results show that porous titanium sleeves are a promising option when managing large areas of metaphyseal bone loss by filling defects and providing stable construct with biologic fixation. PMID:23123042
Alexander, Gerald E; Bernasek, Thomas L; Crank, Richard L; Haidukewych, George J
Skiing is an increasingly popular sport amongst both adults and children. Opportunities for skiing within the United Kingdom are limited, but the introduction of increasing numbers of dry ski slopes has made the sport more available. The nature of injuries sustained by adults on snow and dry slopes is well documented, but this is less true of childhood injury, especially on dry slopes. A consecutive series of 92 patients with skiing injuries is presented. Both dry slope and snow slope injuries are included. The incidence of tibial fracture in children was ten times that of adults. The nature of all injuries sustained during the study period is documented, the childhood tibial fractures are described in detail, and possible aetiological factors are discussed.
Hill, S A
The location of neuron nuclei of different labelling intensities in autoradiographs of the anterior forebrain of two 22 day old mice which had been injected with [3H]thymidine at 11 and 12 days post-conception respectively was charted on photocollages of sections enlarges 175 times. The pattern of distribution of the heavily labelled nuclei, i.e. those nuclei belonging to cells most likely to have been born shortly after the time of [3H]thymidine injection, indicated that the inner two thirds of the neocortex is laid down along a ventro-dorsal gradient, i.e. the lateral neocortex starts to form before the dorsal; and that cells born at a particular time lie in cortical layer VI at the dorsal edge of the gradient is traced ventrally. Progressively more weakly labelled cells formed intermediate steps in this migration. A model or cortical growth fitting these findings is presented. Some inferences are also made about the possible role of the ganglionic eminences in providing cortical cells, at least during the initial stages of cortical histogenesis. Images Fig. 1 Figs. 14 and 15
Smart, I H; Smart, M
Background: This is a case series of 76 knees of 62 patients who underwent upper tibial valgus osteotomy for treatment of medial compartment osteoarthritis during a 20-year period and who were followed for a mean of 7.6 years. Methods: The patients were evaluated by validated outcome assessment systems of general health status short form (SF- 36), the Western Ontario McMaster
G. H. Shahcheraghi; P. Zarae; M. Javid; B. Mahmoodian
We present a patient whose ectopic calcification following deep posterior compartment syndrome was studied by electron microscopy,\\u000a chemical analyses, and X-ray diffraction. The patient complained of a toe flexion deformity following a tibial fracture which\\u000a he sustained 18 years earlier. Damage to the peroneal artery was demonstrated by magnetic resonance angiography, suggesting\\u000a that the patient had had deep posterior compartment
Satoru Saitoh; Yukihiko Hata; Narumichi Murakami; Hiroshi Seki; Shigeru Miyauchi; Kunio Takaoka
For total knee arthroplasty (TKA), neutral mechanical alignment produces balanced static knee loading. Dynamically, knee loading is affected by more than limb static alignment. We compared static and dynamic knee loading following TKA. Fifteen TKA patients were evaluated pre-operatively and 2 months and 2 years post-operatively. Tibiofemoral angles and medial tibial plateau loading were calculated. Pre-operatively, static medial load was greater for varus than valgus knees. Post-operatively, no relationship existed between tibiofemoral angle and static medial plateau load. Pre-operatively and post-operatively, dynamic medial load was not dependent on tibiofemoral angle. While all patients achieved equal static plateau load distributions at 2 years, only 47% had dynamic medial load distributions of 50?±?10%. Static tibiofemoral alignment alone does not predict dynamic tibial loading. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 32:???-???, 2014. PMID:24820681
Miller, Emily J; Pagnano, Mark W; Kaufman, Kenton R
This study was designed to analyze how anterior tibial tunnel placement can result in graft impingement by the intercondylar roof. The relationship of the ACL to the intercondylar roof was studied using magnetic reso nance scans. An attempt was made to predict the amount of bone that may need to be removed from the intercondylar roof to prevent impingement on
Stephen M. Howell; James A. Clark; Timothy E. Farley
Intraarticular fracture of the lateral tibial plateau is one of the serious complications in medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO). We present a case of fracture of the lateral tibial plateau during medial opening wedge HTO. The authors have found the early fracture sign, uneven divergence gap of proximal and distal parts during enlargement of the osteotomy site with a dilatator, a useful marker for early detection and prevention of fracture extending. PMID:22664157
Lee, Su-Chan; Kim, Sung-Jae; Jung, Kwang-Am; Choi, Duck-Hyun; Hwang, Byoung-Yoon
Hemi-condylar tibial osteotomy was first reported as a corrective surgical option for neglected Blount's disease by Langenskiold in 1964. The indication for this procedure is largely reserved for the rare cases of excessive ligament laxity. To the best of our knowledge, literature search reveals only 6 cases, all of which were of Blount's disease and there has been no report of this procedure being used in Trauma. We present a case of failed osteosynthesis of Type V tibial plateau fracture, which resulted in genu varum deformity secondary to collapse of only the medial tibial condyle. We successfully realigned the mechanical axis by elevation osteotomy of the medial tibial hemicondyle. PMID:21773698
Prasad, Ganesh; Zahn, Helmut
A tibial shaft fracture model was created to study the effects of an intramedullary nail and partial fibulectomy on fracture loading. Cadaveric lower extremities were instrumented with strain gages and subjected to biomechanical testing. A nonreamed nail was inserted into each tibia using only the proximal locking screws. Each specimen was tested under six conditions: intact tibia; intact tibia with nail; fractured tibia with nail removed and fibula intact; fractured tibia with nail and fibula intact; fractured tibia with nail and partial fibulectomy; and fractured tibia with partial fibulectomy and nail removed. In the intact tibia the anterior cortices were in relative tension compared with the posterior cortex. After transverse fracture this relative tension was increased. Inserting the nail after fracture significantly increased anteromedial and anterolateral compressive strains and decreased posterior strains. Performing a partial fibulectomy in the fractured tibia with a nail had no significant effect on the strain patterns. These results confirm the relative anterior tension present in the intact tibia and demonstrate an increase in this anterior tension following transverse fracture. Performing a partial fibulectomy or inserting an intramedullary nail increased anterior compressive loading. This loading alteration may be responsible for the clinical success seen using these treatment methods. PMID:9122053
Thomas, K A; Bearden, C M; Gallagher, D J; Hinton, M A; Harris, M B
PurposeCongenital anterior urethrocutaneous fistula is a rare anomaly that may present in an isolated fashion or in association with other penile abnormalities, such as chordee or hypospadias. There have been 18 cases of congenital anterior urethrocutaneous fistula reported in the literature. We present 14 additional cases of congenital anterior urethrocutaneous fistula.
ANTHONY A. CALDAMONE; SHYH-CHYAN CHEN; JACK S. ELDER; MICHAEL L. RITCHEY; DAVID A. DIAMOND; MARTIN A. KOYLE
Four main proprioceptors monitor tibial position in the hindleg of the locust: the femoral chordotonal organ (FCO), the lump receptor, the suspensory ligament receptors and Brunner's organ. The influence of these proprioceptors on quantitative aspects of the kick motor programme has been investigated. The parameters measured were the duration of the initial flexion burst, the duration of co-activation of flexor and fast extensor tibiae (FETi) motoneurones, the number of FETi spikes during the co-activation, the interval between the kick and post-kick flexion, the number of FETi spikes occurring in this interval and the duration of post-kick flexion activity. The lump receptor and Brunner's organ have no detectable effect on any of these parameters. The FCO has highly significant effects on the duration of both initial flexion and post-kick flexion bursts, and on the number of FETi spikes occurring after the moment of tibial extension. The suspensory ligament receptors have significant effects upon the number of FETi spikes after the kick and the interval between the kick and the post-kick flexion. However, no proprioceptor had any influence upon the duration of co-activation or the number of FETi spikes during the co-activation. Thus, although elements of the kick motor programme preceding and following co-activation are strongly influenced by proprioceptors monitoring tibial position and movement, the co-activation stage, which is central to the effectiveness of the complete behaviour pattern, is not affected. PMID:9320327
Although gradual bone transport may permit the restoration of large-diameter bones, complications are common owing to the long duration of external fixation. In order to reduce such complications, a new technique of bone transport involving the use of an external fixator and a locking plate was devised for segmental tibial bone defects. A total of ten patients (nine men, one woman) with a mean age at operation of 40.4 years (16 to 64) underwent distraction osteogenesis with a locking plate to treat previously infected post-traumatic segmental tibial defects. The locking plate was fixed percutaneously to bridge proximal and distal segments, and was followed by external fixation. After docking, percutaneous screws were fixed at the transported segment through plate holes. At the same time, bone grafting was performed at the docking site with the external fixator removed. The mean defect size was 5.9 cm (3.8 to 9.3) and mean external fixation index was 13.4 days/cm (11.8 to 19.5). In all cases, primary union of the docking site and distraction callus was achieved, with an excellent bony result. There was no recurrence of deep infection or osteomyelitis, and with the exception of one patient with a pre-existing peroneal nerve injury, all achieved an excellent or good functional result. With short external fixation times and low complication rates, bone transport with a locking plate could be recommended for patients with segmental tibial defects. PMID:24293598
Oh, C-W; Apivatthakakul, T; Oh, J-K; Kim, J-W; Lee, H-J; Kyung, H-S; Baek, S-G; Jung, G-H
Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is common and a major cause of flat foot (pes planus) and functional impairment in adults. It is frequently undiagnosed and therefore inappropriately managed. This review raises awareness of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction with the intention of improving patient management. PMID:22875521
Singh, Rahul; King, Amanda; Perera, Anthony
The current study determined (I) the environment where oxidation in a series of retrieved, HXL UHMWPE tibial inserts occurred (in vivo or postexplant); and (II) the effect of fabrication variables (irradiation source, irradiation dose) and thermal processing after irradiation (annealing or remelting) on oxidation resistance. Hypotheses examined are (1) HXL UHMWPE tibial inserts have potential to oxidize in vivo, and (2) annealed HXL UHMWPE oxidizes at a higher rate in vivo than remelted HXL UHMWPE. Highly crosslinked UHMWPE tibial inserts (87), received by an IRB-approved retrieval laboratory from 20 surgeons at 10 institutions across the U.S., were analyzed from 2005 to 2011. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine oxidation and trans-vinylene index for each retrieved insert. Measured oxidation that was maximum subsurface was found in 56% of all HXL tibial inserts. This maximum oxidation correlated significantly with in vivo time, trans-vinylene index, and thermal processing after irradiation. Articular oxidation rate correlated with crosslinking irradiation dose and thermal processing after irradiation. Retrieved below-melt annealed tibial inserts had significantly higher articular oxidation rates than remelted tibial inserts (p < 0.001). Articular oxidation rates correlated positively with cross-linking irradiation dose and postirradiation thermal processing. Edge oxidation correlated with postirradiation thermal processing. Oxidation of HXL UHMWPE may have clinical implications for tibial inserts, since loss of UHMWPE toughness resulting from oxidation has led to fatigue damage in gamma-sterilized tibial inserts. PMID:22997097
Currier, B H; Van Citters, D W; Currier, J H; Carlson, E M; Tibbo, M E; Collier, J P
Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise, with pain on palpation of the tibia over a length of at least 5 cm. Histological studies fail to provide evidence that MTSS is caused by periostitis as a result of traction. It is caused by bony resorption that outpaces bone formation of the tibial cortex. Evidence for this overloaded adaptation of the cortex is found in several studies describing MTSS findings on bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis is made based on physical examination, although only one study has been conducted on this subject. Additional imaging such as bone, CT and MRI scans has been well studied but is of limited value. The prevalence of abnormal findings in asymptomatic subjects means that results should be interpreted with caution. Excessive pronation of the foot while standing and female sex were found to be intrinsic risk factors in multiple prospective studies. Other intrinsic risk factors found in single prospective studies are higher body mass index, greater internal and external ranges of hip motion, and calf girth. Previous history of MTSS was shown to be an extrinsic risk factor. The treatment of MTSS has been examined in three randomized controlled studies. In these studies rest is equal to any intervention. The use of neoprene or semi-rigid orthotics may help prevent MTSS, as evidenced by two large prospective studies. PMID:19530750
Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; De Winter, Theodorus C
Previously, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring was not used routinely during tibial osteotomies. In an attempt to improve the post-operative outcomes and reduce known neurologic complications, we used discrete multimodality recording and stimulation models to identify areas of motor and sensory function in eighteen (18) pediatric patients presenting with Tibia Vara (Blount's Disease). By using both posterior tibial and peroneal nerves somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) with transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials (TCeMEPs) precise status of sensory and motor pathways was possible during surgical correction. Similarly, spontaneous electromyography (s-EMG) and triggered electromyography (t-EMG) were used to more accurately localize nerve irritation. Concerns during tibial and fibular osteotomies included ipsilateral lower limb motor and sensory function, especially peroneal nerve injuries due to the location of the osteotomy at the fibular neck. Surgical interventions consisting of additional fibular resection were made during the index procedures for four patients because of real-time monitoring changes noted as the peroneal nerve was entrapped in three patients at the osteotomy site. In fourth patient, the tourniquet pressure was the cause for loss of ipsilateral SSEPs and TCeMEPs. After appropriate surgical intervention, monitoring parameters began to normalize and postoperatively the patients presented with no neurologic deficit. In this study, the application of multimodality recording and stimulation models were utilized including posterior tibial nerve and peroneal nerve SSEP with lumbar potential (LP) identification to compare with contralateral limb recordings. In addition, by using spontaneous and triggered EMG and TCeMEP, we were able to perform monitoring with a high level of confidence throughout surgery. PMID:23833842
Jahangiri, Faisal R
There is a growing need to develop tools that allow for better reductions of difficult to treat fractures in minimally disruptive ways. One such technique has been developed using the inflatable bone tamp and a fast setting calcium phosphate. KYPHON(®) XPANDER Inflatable Bone Tamp and the KYPHON(®) Osteo Introducer(®) System were used to reduce the articular fractures and a fast-setting calcium phosphate was introduced into those voids and metal hardware was applied as deemed necessary. Subjects were skeletally mature patients treated for articular fractures of the calcaneus, tibial plateau, tibial pilon, or distal radius. Post-operative day zero and week 12 radiographs were objectively and subjectively evaluated by three independent orthopaedic surgeons. Their objective scores were then translated into subjective categories based on the Heiney-Redfern scaled scoring (H-R score) system established herein. Overall, the thorough radiographic analysis by independent reviewers indicates that the technique is capable of obtaining and maintaining articular reductions in a good or adequate manner at 12-weeks post-operatively. Introduced is a potential novel evaluation scale scoring system for these articular fractures that evaluates the important anatomic considerations reproducibly in fracture reductions. There are many potential benefits that remain speculative to this type of tool within a procedure, and therefore this tool and technique warrants further research. PMID:23601366
Heiney, Jake P; Redfern, Roberta E; Wanjiku, Stephen
We used computerized tomography to evaluate the po sition of the tibial tubercle and to determine if the tibial tubercle is positioned more laterally in female patients with patellofemoral pain. We also wanted to determine the relationship of the tibial tubercle to tibial external rotation and patellar tilt. Sixty female patients and 19 healthy female controls were evaluated. To evaluate
Takeshi Muneta; Haruyasy Yamamoto; Toshiro Ishibashi; Shintaro Asahina; Kohtaro Furuya
A six-month-old, male Bernese Mountain Dog in which radius-ulna and tibia-fibula concomitant fractures were treated each with a 3.5 mm Locking Compression Plate (LCP) is presented. Both fractures were approached and plated medially. The tibial fracture had to be revised with a 4.5 mm intramedullary nail and a new 3.5 mm LCP at the second post-operative day because of fixation breakdown. The follow-up radiographs taken at days 14 and 53 revealed uneventful healing of both fractures. Implants were removed 53 days after surgery. PMID:16594453
Schwandt, C S; Montavon, P M
Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are an increasingly recognized problem in the pediatric population. Unfortunately, outcomes with conservative treatment are extremely poor. Furthermore, adult reconstruction techniques may be inappropriate to treat skeletally immature patients due to the risk of physeal complications. “Physeal-sparing” reconstruction techniques exist but their ability to restore knee stability and contact mechanics is not well understood. Purpose (1) To assess the ability of the all-epiphyseal (AE) and over-the-top (OT) reconstructions to restore knee kinematics; (2) to assess whether these reconstructions decrease the high posterior contact stresses seen with ACL deficiency; (3) to determine whether the AE or OT produce abnormal tibiofemoral contact stresses. Hypothesis The AE reconstruction will restore contact mechanics and kinematics similarly to that of the ACL intact knee. Methods Ten fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees were tested using a robotic manipulator. Tibiofemoral motions were recorded with the ACL intact, after sectioning the ACL, and after both reconstructions in each of the 10 specimens. The AE utilized an all-inside technique with tunnels exclusively within the epiphysis and fixed with suspensory cortical fixation devices. The OT had a central and vertical tibial tunnel with an over-the-top femur position and was fixed with staples and posts on both ends. Anterior stability was assessed with 134N anterior force at 0, 15, 30, 60, and 90° of knee flexion. Rotational stability was assessed with combined 8 Nm and 4 Nm of abduction and internal rotation, respectively, at 5, 15, and 30° of knee flexion. Results Both reconstruction techniques offloaded the posterior aspect of the tibial plateau compared to the ACL deficient knee in response to both anterior loads and combined moments as demonstrated by reduced contact stresses in this region at all flexion angles. Compared to the ACL intact condition, both the AE and OT had increased posteromedial contact stresses in response to anterior load at some flexion angles and the OT had increased peripheral posterolateral contact stresses at 15° in response to combined moments. Neither reconstruction completely restored the mid-joint contact stresses. Both reconstruction techniques restored anterior stability at flexion angles less than or equal to 30°. In contrast, neither reconstruction restored anterior stability at 60 and 90° flexion. Both reconstructions restored coupled anterior translation under combined moments. Additionally, the AE over-constrained internal rotation in response to the combined moments by 12% at 15° flexion. Conclusions Both reconstructions provide anterior and rotational stability, and decrease posterior joint contact stresses compared to the ACL deficient knee. However, neither reconstruction restored the contact mechanics and kinematics of the ACL intact knee. Clinical Relevance Since the AE reconstruction has clinical advantages over the OT, our results support the hypothesis that the new AE technique is a potential candidate for use in the skeletally immature athlete.
McCarthy, Moira M.; Tucker, Scott; Nguyen, Joseph T.; Green, Daniel W.; Imhauser, Carl W.; Cordasco, Frank A.
To assess the relationship of nerve conduction and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) status in organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN), we evaluated both in adult hen peripheral nerves following exposure to a single 2.5 mg/kg dose of phenyl saligenin phosphate (PSP). ATP concentrations were determined at days 2, 4, 7, and 14 post-dosing, from five segments (n = 5 per group) representing the entire length of the sciatic-tibial and medial plantar nerve. Initial effects of PSP dosing were seen in the most distal segment at day 2, when a transient ATP concentration increase (388 +/- 79 pmol/ml/mg versus control value of 215 +/- 23, P < 0.05) was noted. Subsequently, ATP concentration in this distal segment returned to normal. In the most proximal nerve segment, ATP concentrations were decreased on day 7, and further decreased on day 14 post-dosing (P < 0.05). Changes in ATP concentration and nerve conduction velocity begin at post-dosing day 2, and were found prior to development of clinical neuropathy and axonopathic lesions. These results suggest that alterations in sciatic-tibial and medial plantar nerve conduction associated with sciatic-tibial and medial plantar nerve ATP concentration are early events in the development of OPIDN. PMID:11307855
Massicotte, C; Barber, D S; Jortner, B S; Ehrich, M
Pharyngocutaneous fistulae are rare complications of anterior spine surgery occurring in less than 0.1% of all anterior surgery cases. We report a case of a 19 year old female who sustained a C6 burst fracture with complete quadriplegia. She was treated urgently with a C6 corpectomy with anterior cage and plating followed by posterior cervical stabilization at another institution. Post operatively she developed a pharyngocutaneous fistula that failed to heal despite several attempts of closure and esophageal exclusion with a Jpeg tube. The patient was eventually successfully treated with a three-stage procedure consisting of firstly a posterior approach to reinforce the posterior stabilization of the cervical spine that was felt to be inadequate, secondly an anterior approach with removal of all the anterior instrumentation followed by iliac crest bone graft and thirdly a superior based sternocleidomastoid flap that was interposed between the esophagus and the anterior cervical spine. The patient's fistula healed successfully. However, yet asymptomatic, the anterior iliac crest bone graft resorbed almost completely at 16 months follow up. In light of this complication, we discuss the surgical options for the treatment of pharyngocutaneous fistulae and the closure of this fistula using a superiorly based sternocleidomastoid muscle flap.
Sansur, Charles A.; Early, Stephen; Reibel, James
Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) is a technique that continues to evolve. Good results have been established with respect to reducing anteroposterior laxity. However, these results have come into question because nonanatomic techniques have been ineffective at restoring knee kinematics and raised concerns that abnormal kinematics may impact long-term knee health. Anatomic ACL-R attempts to closely reproduce the patient's individual anatomic characteristics. Measurements of the patient's anatomy help determine graft choice and whether anatomic reconstruction should be performed with a single- or double-bundle technique. The bony landmarks and insertions of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are preserved to assist with anatomic placement of both tibial and femoral tunnels. An anatomic single- or double-bundle reconstruction is performed with a goal of reproducing the characteristics of the native ACL. Long-term outcomes for anatomic ACL reconstruction are unknown. By individualizing ACL-R, we strive to reproduce the patient's native anatomy and restore knee kinematics to improve patient outcomes.
Rabuck, Stephen J.; Middleton, Kellie K.; Maeda, Shugo; Fujimaki, Yoshimasa; Muller, Bart; Araujo, Paulo H.; Fu, Freddie H.
Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency alters 6 degrees of freedom knee kinematics, yet only anterior translation and internal rotation have been the primary measures in previous studies. Purpose To compare the 6 degrees of freedom knee kinematics and the graft forces after single- and double-bundle ACL reconstructions under various external loading conditions. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Ten human cadaveric knees were tested with a robotic testing system under 4 conditions: intact, ACL deficient, single-bundle reconstructed with a quadrupled hamstring tendon graft, and double-bundle reconstructed with 2 looped hamstring tendon grafts. Knee kinematics and forces of the ACL or ACL graft in each knee were measured under 3 loading conditions: an anterior tibial load of 134 N, a simulated quadriceps muscle load of 400 N, and combined tibial torques (10 N·m valgus and 5 N·m internal tibial torques) at 0°, 15°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of knee flexion. Results The double-bundle reconstruction restored the anterior and medial laxities closer to the intact knee than the single-bundle reconstruction. However, the internal rotation of the tibia under the simulated quadriceps muscle load was significantly decreased when compared with the intact knee after both reconstructions, more so after double-bundle reconstruction (P < .05). The entire graft force of the double-bundle reconstruction was more similar to that of the intact ACL than that of the single-bundle reconstruction. However, the posterolateral bundle graft in the double-bundle reconstructed knee was overloaded as compared with the intact posterolateral bundle. Conclusion The double-bundle reconstruction can better restore the normal anterior-posterior and medial-lateral laxities than the single-bundle reconstruction can, but an overloading of the posterolateral bundle graft can occur in a double-bundle reconstructed knee. Clinical relevance Both single-bundle and double-bundle techniques cannot restore the rotational laxities and the ACL force distributions of the intact knee.
Seon, Jong Keun; Gadikota, Hemanth R.; Wu, Jia-Lin; Sutton, Karen; Gill, Thomas J.; Li, Guoan
Background: Rotational malalignment after intramedullary tibial nailing is rarely addressed in clinical studies. Malrotation (especially >10°)of the lower extremity can lead to development and progression of degenerative changes in knee and ankle joints. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence and severity of tibial malrotation after reamed intramedullary nailing for closed diaphyseal tibial fractures. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients (53 males and 7 females) with tibial diaphyseal fracture were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 33.4±13.3 years. All fractures were manually reduced and fixed using reamed intramedullary nailing. A standard method using bilateral limited computerized tomography was used to measure the tibial torsion. A difference greater than 10° between two tibiae was defined as malrotation. Results: Eighteen (30%) patients had malrotation of more than 10°. Malrotation was greater than 15° in seven cases. Good or excellent rotational reduction was achieved in 70% of the patients. There was no statistically significant relation between AO tibial fracture classification and fibular fixation and malrotation of greater than 10°. Conclusions: Considering the high incidence rate of tibial malrotation following intramedullary nailing, we need a precise method to evaluate the torsion intraoperatively to prevent the problem.
Jafarinejad, Adel Ebrahimpour; Bakhshi, Hooman; Haghnegahdar, Maryam; Ghomeishi, Nima
Strains within the bone tissue play a major role in bone (re)modeling. These small strains can be assessed using experimental strain gage measurements, which are challenging and invasive. Further, the strain measurements are, in practise, limited to certain regions of superficial bones only, such as the anterior surface of the tibia. In this study, tibial strains occurring during walking were estimated using a numerical approach based on flexible multibody dynamics. In the introduced approach, a lower body musculoskeletal model was developed by employing motion capture data obtained from walking at a constant velocity. The motion capture data were used in inverse dynamics simulation to teach the muscles in the model to replicate the motion in forward dynamics simulation. The maximum and minimum tibial principal strains predicted by the model were 490 and -588 microstrain, respectively, which are in line with literature values from in vivo measurements. In conclusion, the non-invasive flexible multibody simulation approach may be used as a surrogate for experimental bone strain measurements and thus be of use in detailed strain estimations of bones in different applications. PMID:18191865
Al Nazer, R; Rantalainen, T; Heinonen, A; Sievänen, H; Mikkola, A
We report the clinical features, radiographic findings, management and results of a patient with a post-traumatic synovial sarcoma of the anterior tibialis tendon. Our patient was managed operatively and with radiotherapy with good clinical results. No evidence of recurrence or metastatic disease was seen at 3-year follow-up. PMID:22461273
Papapietro, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Palumbo, Alessio; Bianchi, Antonella; Maffuli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
Here we report a case of pseudoaneurysm of distal posterior tibial artery following closed fracture of calcaneous. Association of pseudoaneurysm of posterior tibial artery with fracture of calcaneous is extremely uncommon. It is always suggested that pseudoaneurysm be treated by reconstruction, but here we present the case treated by ligation, obliteration and excision as it was situated distally and the plantar arch circulation was maintained. The purpose of this case report is to bring attention to this complication of vascular trauma, which may cause delayed symptoms long time after the injury as well as the rare incidence of posterior tibial artery involvement with fracture calcaneous. PMID:23133058
Dey, Subhajeet; Das, Anjan K; Dey, Rubi
Ankle arthroscopy provides a minimally invasive approach to the diagnosis and treatment of certain ankle disorders. Neurological complications resulting from ankle arthroscopy have been well documented in orthopaedic and podiatric literature. Owing to the superficial location of the ankle joint and the abundance of overlying periarticular neurovascular structures, complications reported in ankle arthroscopy are greater than those reported for other joints. In particular, all reported neurovascular injuries following ankle arthroscopy have been the direct result of distractor pin or portal placement. The standard posteromedial portal has recognized risks because of the proximity of the posterior neurovascular structures. There can be considerable variability in the course of these portals and their proximity to the neurovascular structures. We found one report of intra-articular damage to the posterior tibial nerve as a result of ankle arthroscopy in the English-language literature and we report this paper as a second case described in the literature. PMID:17618442
Cugat, Ramon; Ares, Oscar; Cuscó, Xavier; Garcia, Montserrat; Samitier, Gonzalo; Seijas, Roberto
Flexible wire and small pins cause minimal disturbance of osseous blood supply, and introduce minimal foreign material into the wound. Supplemental support by a plaster cast or by traction is required, but the external support can generally be discontinued early for joint mobilization. Several simple auxillary fixation devices extend the usefulness of wire fixation. Removal of metal is not required. Many common fractures of the tibia are amenable to this method of minimal internal fixation. In the diaphysis, long oblique fractures are the most suitable for this application; the firmness of their fixation by cerclage is augmented by muscle pull. Rotation is effectively controlled by a plate which is L-shaped in cross section, and is held in position by cerclage. In the metaphysis, articular fractures of the knee and ankle are securely fixed by a flattened loop of wire and two washers (wire-washer set), supplemented sometimes by pins or hand-made staples. Two pins alone provide excellent fixation of the medial malleolus. A single pin, or a single wire loop through drill holes, may be sufficient to impart stability to an unstable tibial fracture. A key-type graft of iliac bone, maintained by crossed wire loops through cortical drill holes, is effective in the tibial diaphysis. Autogenous iliac cancellous chips provide minimal and effective internal fixation for an infected ununited fracture of the tibia. The surgical instrument most important for making wire fixation highly successful is a tightener-twister which protects wire loops from excessive strain during application, and permits twisting at a predetermined and therefore reproducible tension. Other special and ordinary instruments are valuable assets. PMID:1093765
Rhinelander, F W
An average of three months rest is generally recommended for resolution of tibial stress fractures. Such an extended absence from athletic or military training reduces the ability to perform optimally and the likelihood of successful return to activity up...
Objectives The aim of this article was to determine outcomes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx (SCCHP) in whom the free posterior tibial flap was used for primary reconstruction of hypopharynx defects after cancer resection. Subjects and methods Between August 2009 and February 2012, 10 patients with SCCHP underwent posterior tibial flap reconstruction for hypopharynx defects. The corresponding clinical data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results Despite the multistep and time-consuming procedure, the posterior tibial flap survival rate was 100%. Operation-induced complications did not occur in four patients. Six patients developed postoperative hypoproteinemia, four patients developed postoperative pulmonary infections, and four patients developed pharyngeal fistula. The pharyngeal and laryngeal functions of all patients were preserved. Conclusion Our experience demonstrates that the posterior tibial flap is a safe and reliable choice for the reconstruction of hypopharynx defects.
Background High tibial osteotomy is a common procedure to treat symptomatic osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee with varus alignment. This is achieved by overcorrecting the varus alignment to 2-6° of valgus. Various high tibial osteotomy techniques are currently used to this end. Common procedures are medial opening wedge and lateral closing wedge tibial osteotomies. The lateral closing wedge technique is a primary stable correction with a high rate of consolidation, but has the disadvantage of bone loss and change in tibial condylar offset. The medial opening wedge technique does not result in any bone loss but needs to be fixated with a plate and may cause tibial slope and medial collateral ligament tightening. A relatively new technique, the combined valgus high tibial osteotomy, claims to include the advantages of both techniques without bone loss. Aim of this prospective randomized trial is to compare the lateral closing wedge with the combined wedge osteotomy in patients with symptomatic varus osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods/design A group of 110 patients with osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee with 6-12° varus malalignment over 18 years of age are recruited to participate a randomized controlled trial. Patients are randomized to undergo a high tibial osteotomy, with either a lateral closing wedge technique or a combined wedge osteotomy technique. Primary outcome measure is achievement of an overcorrection of 4° valgus after one year of surgery, assessed by measuring the hip-knee-ankle angle. Secondary objectives are radiological scores and anatomical changes after high tibial osteotomy; pain, functional scores and quality of life will also be compared. Discussion Combined high tibial osteotomy modification avoids metaphyseal tibial bone loss, decreasing transposition of the tibial condyle and shortening of the patellar tendon after osteotomy, even in case of great correction. The clinical results of the combined wedge osteotomy technique are very promising. Hypothesis is that the combined wedge osteotomy technique will achieve more accurate overcorrection of varus malalignment with fewer anatomical changes of the proximal tibia after one year. Trial registration Dutch Trial Registry (Netherlands trial register): NTR3898.
MILNER, C. E., R. FERBER, C. D. POLLARD, J. HAMILL, and I. S. DAVIS. Biomechanical Factors Associated with Tibial Stress Fracture in Female Runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 323-328, 2006. Purpose: Tibial stress fractures (TSF) are among the most serious running injuries, typically requiring 6-8 wk for recovery. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine
CLARE E. MILNER; REED FERBER; CHRISTINE D. POLLARD; JOSEPH HAMILL; IRENE S. DAVIS
Total knee arthroplasty following complex fractures of the tibial plateau is considered a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons\\u000a and clinical outcomes may vary. A total of 29 total knee replacements were performed after a tibial plateau fracture: 25 patients\\u000a (16 women, 9 men; average age: 57 years; mean follow-up: 92 months) were available. We had two significative complications:\\u000a one partial avulsion
R. Civinini; Christian Carulli; F. Matassi; M. Villano; M. Innocenti
Purpose The purpose of this study was to document results of a less invasive technique of open wedge proximal tibial osteotomy (PTO) for the varus knee in young adults using an intramedullary tibial nail. Materials and Methods We prospectively studied 24 knees in 16 young patients with varus knee deformity. The mean follow-up was 54 months (range, 36 to 107 months) and the mean age of patients at the time of operation was 25.8 years (range, 18 to 40 years). The open wedge PTO was performed below tibial tuberosity using a percutaneous multiple drill-hole technique. Conventional intramedullary tibial nail was used for fixation without bone graft. Radiographic evaluations were made using mechanical alignment (MA), posterior tibial slope angle, and Insall-Salvati ratio. Union time, loss of correction, implant failure, and associated complications were also investigated. Results The mean MA was significantly changed from -9.7° preoperatively to 1.1° at the final follow-up (p<0.001). There was no significant change in the proximal tibial anatomy and patellar height. All patients achieved radiographic bony union at an average of 3.1 months without loss of correction. The only complication was knee pain due to nail prominence in 3 patients. Conclusions Radiographic evaluation indicated that PTO using an intramedullary tibial nail leads to significant improvement in radiographic parameters without changes in posterior tibial slope or patellar height. We found that this technique could be a less invasive and effective alternative for correction of the varus knee in young adults.
Kim, Kang-Il; Thaller, Peter H.; Ramteke, Alankar; Lee, Seung-Hyuk
Tibial plateau fractures with depression of posterior aspects of the proximal tibia cause significant therapeutic problems. Posterior fractures on the medial side are mainly highly instable fracture-dislocations (Moore type I). Posterolateral fractures usually cause massive depression and destruction of the chondral surface. Surgical exposure of these fractures from anterior requires major soft tissue dissection and has a significant complication rate. However, incomplete restoration of the joint surface results in chronic postero-inferior joint subluxation, osteoarthritis and pain. We present new specific approaches for posterior fracture types avoiding large skin incisions, but allowing for atraumatic exposure, reduction and fixation. Posteromedial fracture-dislocations are exposed by a direct posteromedial skin incision and a deep incision between medial collateral ligament and posterior oblique ligament. The posteromedial pillar and the posterior flare of the proximal tibia are visualized. The inferior extent of the joint fragment can be reduced by indirect techniques or direct manipulation of the fragment. Fixation is achieved with subchondral lag screws and an anti-glide plate at the tip of the fragment. Posterolateral fractures are exposed by a transfibular approach: the skin is incised laterally, the peroneal nerve is dissected free. The fibula neck is osteotomized, the tibiofibular syndesmosis is divided and the fibula neck is reflected upwards in one layer with the meniscotibial ligament and the iliotibial tract attachment. Reflexion of the fibula head relaxes the lateral collateral ligament, allows for lateral joint opening and internal rotation of the tibia and thus exposes the posterolateral and posterior aspect of the tibial plateau. Fixation and buttressing on the posterolateral side can be achieved easily with this approach. In closure, the fibula head is fixed back with a lag screw or a tension-band system. These two exposures can be combined in bicondylar posterior fracture situations. 168 cases with tibial plateau fractures had ORIF in the authors' institution from 1988 to 1994. 26 of these patients had a total of 29 posterior exposures to treat their fractures (9 posteromedial, 12 posterolateral, 3 combined posteromedial/posterolateral and 2 posterior/anterior exposures). No specific complications occurred related to these exposures, i.e. no skin slough, no infection, no nerve palsy. The mean duration of follow-up was 4 years. Twenty-one cases healed uneventfully: 12 were excellent in Rasmussen's clinical score, 8 were good and 1 was fair. Seven patients were excellent in the radiological score, 13 good and 1 fair. Five of the 26 cases had revision surgery: 3 patients developed valgus or retrocurvatum deformity and were successfully treated by an osteotomy. They obtained a good result at follow-up. Two fractures in elderly patients were revised to an endoprosthesis. PMID:9492642
Lobenhoffer, P; Gerich, T; Bertram, T; Lattermann, C; Pohlemann, T; Tscheme, H
We compared early post-operative rates of wound infection in HIV-positive and -negative patients presenting with open tibial fractures managed with surgical fixation. The wounds of 84 patients (85 fractures), 28 of whom were HIV positive and 56 were HIV negative, were assessed for signs of infection using the ASEPIS wound score. There were 19 women and 65 men with a mean age of 34.8 years. A total of 57 fractures (17 HIV-positive, 40 HIV-negative) treated with external fixation were also assessed using the Checkett score for pin-site infection. The remaining 28 fractures were treated with internal fixation. No significant difference in early post-operative wound infection between the two groups of patients was found (10.7% (n = 3) vs 19.6% (n = 11); relative risk (RR) 0.55 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17 to 1.8); p = 0.32). There was also no significant difference in pin-site infection rates (17.6% (n = 3) vs 12.5% (n = 5); RR 1.62 (95% CI 0.44 to 6.07); p = 0.47). The study does not support the hypothesis that HIV significantly increases the rate of early wound or pin-site infection in open tibial fractures. We would therefore suggest that a patient's HIV status should not alter the management of open tibial fractures in patients who have a CD4 count > 350 cells/?l. PMID:24293603
Howard, N E; Phaff, M; Aird, J; Wicks, L; Rollinson, P
Tibial component loosening is an important failure mode in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) which may be due to the 6-8?mm of bone resection required. To address component loosening and fixation, a new early intervention (EI) design is proposed which reverses the traditional material scheme between femoral and tibial components. The EI design consists of a plastic inlay for the distal femur and a thin metal plate for the proximal tibia. With this reversed materials scheme, the EI design requires minimal tibial bone resection compared with traditional UKA. This study investigated, by means of finite element (FE) simulations, the advantages of a thin metal tibial component compared with traditional UKA tibial components, such as an all-plastic inlay or a metal-backed onlay. We hypothesized that an EI tibial component would produce comparable stress, strain, and strain energy density (SED) characteristics to an intact knee and more favorable values than UKA components, due primarily to the preservation of dense cancellous bone near the surface. Indeed, FE results showed that stresses in the supporting bone for an EI design were close to intact, while stresses, strains, and strain energy densities were reduced compared with an all-plastic UKA component. Analyzed parameters were similar for an EI and a metal-backed onlay, but the EI component had the advantage of minimal resection of the stiffest bone. PMID:24749143
Chaudhary, M E; Walker, P S
The persistent sciatic artery (PSA) is a rare arterial variant. Patients may present with a spectrum of atherosclerotic disease, but aneurysm formation with thromboembolic complications is more common. Although no intervention is required for asymptomatic individuals, stenting for stenosis, thrombolysis for occlusion and even utilisation of the PSA for intrapelvic embolisation have been reported. Angioplasty via an incidentally discovered PSA has rarely been described. PMID:24422760
H'ng, Martin Weng Chin; Punamiya, Sundeep
BACKGROUND: Ankle pain and swelling following sports injuries are common presenting complaints to the accident and emergency department. Frequently these are diagnosed as musculoskeletal injuries, even when no definitive cause is found. Vascular injuries following trauma are uncommon and are an extremely rare cause of ankle swelling and pain. These injuries may however be limb threatening and are important to
Conor D Marron; Damian McKay; Ruth Johnston; Eamon McAteer; WJ Ivan Stirling
Background: The treatment options of bone loss with infections include bone transport with external fixators, vascularized bone grafts, non-vascularized autogenous grafts and vascularized allografts. The research hypothesis was that the graft length and intact ipsilateral fibula influenced hypertrophy and stress fracture. We retrospectively studied the graft hypertrophy in 15 patients, in whom vascularized fibular graft was done for post-traumatic tibial defects with infection. Materials and Methods: 15 male patients with mean age 33.7 years (range 18 - 56 years) of post traumatic tibial bone loss were analysed. The mean bony defect was 14.5 cm (range 6.5 – 20 cm). The mean length of the graft was 16.7 cm (range 11.5 – 21 cm). The osteoseptocutaneous flap (bone flap with attached overlying skin flap) from the contralateral side was used in all patients except one. The graft was fixed to the recipient bone at both ends by one or two AO cortical screws, supplemented by a monolateral external fixator. A standard postoperative protocol was followed in all patients. The hypertrophy percentage of the vascularized fibular graft was calculated by a modification of the formula described by El-Gammal. The followup period averaged 46.5 months (range 24 – 164 months). The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was worked out, to find the relationship between graft length and hypertrophy. The t-test was performed to find out if there was any significant difference in the graft length of those who had a stress fracture and those who did not and to find out whether there was any significant difference in hypertrophy with and without ipsilateral fibula union. The Chi square test was performed to identify whether there was any association between the stress fracture and the fibula union. Given the small sample size we have not used any statistical analysis to determine the relation between the percentage of the graft hypertrophy and stress fracture. Results: Graft union occurred in all patients in a mean time of 3.3 months, at both ends. At a minimum followup of 24 months the mean hypertrophy noted was 63.6% (30 – 136%) in the vascularized fibular graft. Ten stress fractures occurred in seven patients. The mean duration of the occurrence of a stress fracture in the graft was 11.1 months (2.5 – 18 months) postoperatively. The highest incidence of stress fractures was when the graft hypertrophy was less than 20%. The incidence of stress fractures reduced significantly after the graft hypertrophy exceeded 20%. Conclusion: In most cases hypertrophy of the vascularized fibular graft occurs in response to mechanical loading by protected weight bearing, and the amount of hypertrophy is variable. The presence or absence of an intact fibula has no bearing on the hypertrophy or incidence of stress fracture. The length of the fibular graft has no bearing on the hypertrophy or stress fracture.
Kovoor, C Cheriyan; Jayakumar, R; George, VV; Padmanabhan, Vinod; Guild, AJ; Viswanath, Sabin
Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is a common long-term consequence of joint injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. In this study we used a tibial compression overload mouse model to compare knee injury induced at low speed (1 mm/s), which creates an avulsion fracture, to injury induced at high speed (500 mm/s), which induces midsubstance tear of the ACL. Mice were sacrificed at 0 days, 10 days, 12 weeks, or 16 weeks post-injury, and joints were analyzed with micro-computed tomography, whole joint histology, and biomechanical laxity testing. Knee injury with both injury modes caused considerable trabecular bone loss by 10 days post-injury, with the Low Speed Injury group (avulsion) exhibiting a greater amount of bone loss than the High Speed Injury group (midsubstance tear). Immediately after injury, both injury modes resulted in greater than twofold increases in total AP joint laxity relative to control knees. By 12 and 16 weeks post-injury, total AP laxity was restored to uninjured control values, possibly due to knee stabilization via osteophyte formation. This model presents an opportunity to explore fundamental questions regarding the role of bone turnover in PTOA, and the findings of this study support a biomechanical mechanism of osteophyte formation following injury. PMID:24019199
Lockwood, Kevin A; Chu, Bryce T; Anderson, Matthew J; Haudenschild, Dominik R; Christiansen, Blaine A
Avulsion of the tibial spine is functionally equivalent to rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament in an adolescent athlete. It therefore presents to general orthopaedists as well as a wide variety of orthopaedic subspecialty surgeons, including traumatology sports medicine, and pediatrics. Restoration of normal knee kinematics is dependent on anatomic reduction and fixation of the avulsed fragment. Because this injury is typically sustained by the skeletally immature patient, epiphyseal fixation is ideal to avoid physeal injury, which can lead to angular limb deformity. We present a case, the first report to our knowledge, of coronal plane deformity in a lower extremity after open reduction and internal fixation of a tibial spine avulsion fracture. A successful treatment plan using hemiepiphysiodesis and guided growth is used with 20-month follow-up to skeletal maturity. PMID:21804418
Fabricant, Peter D; Osbahr, Daryl C; Green, Daniel W
Objectives Oxygen is an essential component for many aspects of tissue repair. However, the effect of oxygen levels on differentiation of stem cells into osteoblasts and chondrocytes during fracture healing is unknown, in part because of the difficulty in measuring oxygen during fracture healing. In this study we tested the feasibility of using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry to assess tissue oxygen partial pressure (pO2) after tibial fractures in mice. Methods Transverse tibia fractures were created by three-point bending in adult mice. Paramagnetic material, lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc), was implanted into the fracture site or adjacent to the periosteum in the contralateral leg immediately after fracture. Tissue pO2 was assessed by EPR 90-110 minutes after implantation of the crystals. in a second experiment, LiPc was implanted into the fracture site and fracture repair and the bio-compatibility of LiPc were assessed at 14 and 28 days after injury. Results At the very early stage after fracture, injury significantly decreased tissue oxygenation at the fracture site. When animals were breathing 21% oxygen, pO2 at the fracture site ((30.6 ± 12.7mmhg, n=7) was lower than that in contralateral legs (45.5 ± 15.3mmhg, n=7, p<0.01). breathing 100% inspired oxygen increased the pO2 in both the fractured (72.8 ± 28.2mmhg; n=7) and contralateral legs (148.4 ± 59.2mmhg; n=7, p<0.01). in addition, LiPc crystals implanted into fracture sites did not interfere with normal fracture healing at 10 and 28 days post-injury. Conclusions EPR oximetry is a valuable tool for monitoring oxygen levels during fracture repair in mice.
Lu, Chuanyong; Rollins, Mark; Hou, Huagang; Swartz, Harold M.; Hopf, Harriet; Miclau, Theodore; Marcucio, Ralph S.
Tibial dyschondroplastic (TD) lesions and their associated growth plates, obtained from chickens, were prepared by freeze-drying and embedding in an anhydrous epoxy resin. Quantitative electron probe analysis was performed on dry, unstained sections. Levels of Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, and Ca were determined in cytoplasm (endoplasmic reticulum), mitochondria, and extracellular matrix of the proliferative, prehypertrophic, and early hypertrophic zones of the growth plate and in the proximal, mid, and distal regions of the lesion. A zone of calcification in the growth plate was absent. The concentration of elements in all regions of the TD growth plate was the same as found in an earlier study for normal growth plate. The cytoplasm of proximal lesion chondrocytes was similar to that of early hypertrophic chondrocytes. However, in the remainder of the lesion there was a progressive increase in cellular Na, S, Cl, and Ca and a progressive loss of P. The first sign of the disease appears in the matrix of the growth plate, where it seems that S and K are in abnormally low amounts. Although there are sufficient levels of Ca and P present, the matrix does not calcify. The cartilage remains avascular, and the cells appear to be dying. The event that triggers the chondrocytes of the growth plate to form an abnormal uncalcified matrix is not known.
Hargest, T.E.; Gay, C.V.; Leach, R.M.
High tibial osteotomy has been established as an effective surgical intervention in patients with unicompartment osteoarthritis of the knee associated with varus deformity and abnormal load through the medial compartment. The aims of this study were to report the result of open-wedge osteotomy performed with allograft bone and also to evaluate the postoperative clinical results in a series of patients. There are still little medical literatures regarding the use of an allograft bone transplant in open-wedge osteotomy. 37 consecutive cases that had undergone opening wedge osteotomy using allograft bone were studied. They were followed each 2 months after surgery until 6 month. There were 7 men and 30 women, aged ranging from 16 to 66. All patients were followed 6 months after surgery until clinical and radiographic healing of the osteotomy site. All patients could stand and walk on operated limb 6 months after operation, but 11 of them had still pain after this duration. There were no cases of non-union or osteotomy site collapse associated with the use of allograft. Moreover, no significant complication has been detected in these patients with choosing appropriate patients and performing good surgical technique, and the proximal tibial wedge allograft is a satisfactory choice that provides effective clinical and radiographic bone union. PMID:23412416
Ganji, Reza; Omidvar, Maryam; Izadfar, Alireza; Alavinia, Seyed Mohammad
Background Very little is known about the effects of applied torque about the long axis of the tibia in combination with muscle loads on anterior cruciate ligament biomechanics. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of muscle contraction and tibial torques applied about the long axis of the tibia on anterior cruciate ligament strain behavior. Methods Six cadaver knee specimens were used to measure the strain behaviour of the anterior cruciate ligament. Internal and external axial torques were applied to the tibia when the knee was between 30° and 120° of flexion in combination with the conditions of no muscle load, isolated quadriceps load, and simultaneous quadriceps and hamstring loading. Findings The highest anterior cruciate ligament strain values were measured when the muscles were not loaded, when the knee was at 120° of flexion, and when internal tibial torques were applied to the knee. During muscle loading the highest anterior cruciate ligament strain values were measured at 30° of flexion and then the strain values gradually decreased with increase in knee flexion. During co-contraction of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles the anterior cruciate ligament was unstrained or minimally strained at 60°, 90° and 120° of knee flexion. Intepretation This study suggests that quadriceps and hamstring muscle co-contraction has a potential role in reducing the anterior cruciate ligament strain values when the knee is in deep flexion. These results can be used to gain insight into anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanisms and to design rehabilitation regimens.
Fujiya, Hiroto; Kousa, Petteri; Fleming, Braden C; Churchill, David L; Beynnon, Bruce D
Although opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is used to correct deformities, it can simultaneously alter tibial slope in the sagittal plane because of the triangular configuration of the proximal tibia, and this undesired change in tibial slope can influence knee kinematics, stability, and joint contact pressure. Therefore, medial opening-wedge HTO is a technically demanding procedure despite the use of 2-dimensional (2-D) navigation. The authors evaluated the posterior tibial slope pre- and postoperatively in patients who underwent navigation-assisted opening-wedge HTO and compared posterior slope changes for 2-D and 3-dimensional (3-D) navigation versions. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups based on the navigation system used: group A (2-D guidance for coronal alignment; 17 patients) and group B (3-D guidance for coronal and sagittal alignments; 17 patients). Postoperatively, the mechanical axis was corrected to a mean valgus of 2.81° (range, 1°-5.4°) in group A and 3.15° (range, 1.5°-5.6°) in group B. A significant intergroup difference existed for the amount of posterior tibial slope change (? slope) pre- and postoperatively (P=.04).Opening-wedge HTO using navigation offers accurate alignment of the lower limb. In particular, the use of 3-D navigation results in significantly less change in the posterior tibial slope postoperatively than does the use of 2-D navigation. Accordingly, the authors recommend the use of 3-D navigation systems because they provide real-time intraoperative information about coronal, sagittal, and transverse axes and guide the maintenance of the native posterior tibial slope. PMID:23026255
Yim, Ji Hyeon; Seon, Jong Keun; Song, Eun Kyoo
Our intent is to review pediatric tibial eminence fractures treated at a Level I Trauma Center and to note the incidence of associated knee pathology. All pediatric patients treated operatively for a tibial eminence fracture over a 10-year period were identified. A chart review was performed to identify patient demographics, injury pattern, presence of associated pathology, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. In our series of 20 pediatric tibial eminence fractures, 6 patients had associated meniscal tears. Meniscal tears occurred more commonly in type III injuries (5 of 13) than type II injuries (1 of 6). Two patients sustained associated ligamentous injury; there were no patients with associated chondral defects. A displaced pediatric tibial eminence fracture is a relatively infrequent injury. The incidence of associated meniscal injury in our study was 30%, and associated ligamentous injury was uncommon. Arthroscopic evaluation before definitive treatment of displaced tibial eminence fractures should be considered given the associated incidence of meniscal tears. MRI does not appear to provide additional information if arthroscopic treatment is pursued. This study is level IV, case series. PMID:24285367
Johnson, Adam C; Wyatt, Jonathan D; Treme, Gehron; Veitch, Andrew J
An accessory flexor digitorum longus muscle associated with a high division of the tibial nerve was encountered during routine dissection in the right leg of a newborn cadaver. The tibial nerve divided into its two terminal branches at a higher level than normal with a small branch from the tibial nerve contributing to one of the terminal branches. In addition, an accessory flexor digitorum longus muscle was observed to pass between the terminal branches of the tibial nerve. PMID:11370145
Kurtoglu, Z; Uluutku, M H; Can, M A; Onderoglu, S
Background: Gender differences exist in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) cross-sectional area and lateral tibial slope. Biomechanical principles suggest that the direction of these gender differences should induce larger peak ACL strains in females under dynamic loading.Hypothesis: Peak ACL relative strain during a simulated pivot landing is significantly greater in female ACLs than male ACLs.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Methods: Twenty cadaveric
David B. Lipps; Youkeun K. Oh; James A. Ashton-Miller; Edward M. Wojtys
An innovative technique for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been developed in 1998 which allows the grafts to be fixed by press-fit to the femoral and tibial tunnel without any hardware. The semitendinosus (ST) and gracilis tendons (GT) are built into a sling by tying a knot with the tendon ends and securing the knot after conditioning by sutures. For the femoral tunnel the anteromedial porta is used. The correct anatomic position of the single femoral tunnel is checked using intraoperative lateral fluoroscopy by placing the tip of a K-wire to a point between the anteromedial and posterolateral bundle insertion sites. A femoral bottleneck tunnel is drilled to receive the knot of the tendons. The tendon loops filled the tibial tunnel without any suture material. The loops are fixed at the tibial tunnel outlet with tapes over a bone bridge. Between 1998 and 1999 a prospective randomized study (level 1) was conducted comparing this technique with a technique using bone-patellar-tendon graft and press-fit fixation without hardware. In conclusion it was found that implant-free press-fit ACL reconstruction using bone-patella-tendon (BPT) and hamstring tendon (HT) grafts proved to be an excellent procedure to restore stability and function of the knee. Using hamstring tendons (ST and GT) significantly lower donor site morbidity was noted. Kneeling and knee walking pain persisted to be significantly more intense in the BPT up to 9 years after the operation. Re-rupture rates, subjective findings, knee stability and isokinetic testing showed similar results for both grafts. This is the first level I study which demonstrates cartilage protection by ACL reconstruction as long as the meniscus is intact at index surgery, shown by bilateral MRI analysis 9 years post-operation. There was no significant difference in the average grade of chondral and meniscus lesions between BPT and HT and in comparison of the operated to the intact knee, except for grade 3-4 lesions found at the 9 year follow-up, which were significantly higher in the BPT group. PMID:20607509
Pässler, H H
Mots-clés: Enfant; Epine tibiale; Fracture; Traitement Tibial spine fractures in children: a case report Summary Fractures of the tibial spine in children are rare. Those fractures can hide severe knee sprain. Diagnosis is made with the presence of hemarthrosis, knee pain and limb disability. Most often, thoses signs are variables in terms of intensity, so that fractures can be misdiagnosed
R. A. Randriambololona; H. J. C. Razafimahandry; H. N. Rakoto-Ratsimba; T. D. M. Andriantsoa; R. H. B. Randriarimanga; P. Lascombes
An accessory flexor digitorum longus muscle associated with a high division of the tibial nerve was encountered during routine dissection in the right leg of a newborn cadaver. The tibial nerve divided into its two terminal branches at a higher level than normal with a small branch from the tibial nerve contributing to one of the terminal branches. In addition,
Z. Kurtoglu; M. H. Uluutku; M. A. Çan; S. Önderoglu
Tibial eminence fractures most commonly occur in children and adolescents. When treating displaced fractures of the tibial eminence, some surgeons prefer screw fixation whereas others prefer suture fixation. The ultimate goal is to limit morbidity through early return to range of motion and activity. In this technical note, we describe 2 hybrid fixation techniques for fixing tibial eminence fractures, one for type III and the other for type IV fractures. The first technique (variation A) is used to treat type III fractures and combines use of both a bioabsorbable compression screw and suture for fixation. The second technique (variation B) is used to treat type IV fractures and combines use of both a bioabsorbable compression screw and shoulder anchor fixation. We have found that these methods provide efficient, secure, and reliable fixation using standard techniques common to arthroscopic surgery. In addition, the growth plates are spared in children and adolescents, and the need for reoperation to remove hardware is eliminated.
Gans, Itai; Babatunde, Oladapo M.; Ganley, Theodore J.
The object of the present investigation was to measure the thickness distribution of the subchondral plate of the tibial plateau. The data were obtained by computerised image analysis of serial sections. The measured values revealed a marked difference in the thickness between the various regions of the joint surface. Thinner zones (100-300 microns) are found in the peripheral region near the margin of the tibial plateau. Thickness maxima (up to 1500 microns and more) are to be seen at the centres of the joint surfaces. The relationship between the thickness distribution of the subchondral plate and information about the stress distribution of this particular joint surface support the conclusion that the morphology of the subchondral plate of the tibial plateau is determined by the function of the joint. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Milz, S; Putz, R
Introduction: Hyperglycemia associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) has adverse impacts on peripheral nerve connective tissue structure, and there is preliminary evidence that nerve biomechanics may be altered. Methods: Ultrasound imaging was utilized to quantify the magnitude and timing of tibial nerve excursion during ankle dorsiflexion in patients with DM and matched healthy controls. Results: Tibial nerve longitudinal excursion at the ankle and knee was reduced, and timing was delayed at the ankle in the DM group. Severity of neuropathy was correlated with larger reductions in longitudinal excursion. Nerve cross-sectional area was increased at the ankle in the DM group. Conclusions: Larger tibial nerve size within the tarsal tunnel in patients with DM may restrict longitudinal excursion, which was most evident with more severe neuropathy. It is hypothesized that these alterations may be related to painful symptoms during functional activities that utilize similar physiological motions through various biomechanical and physiological mechanisms. Muscle Nerve 50:216-223, 2014. PMID:24375463
Boyd, Benjamin S; Dilley, Andrew
Prolonged exposure to micro-gravity causes substantial bone loss (Leblanc et al., Journal of Bone Mineral Research 11 (1996) S323) and treadmill exercise under gravity replacement loads (GRLs) has been advocated as a countermeasure. To date, the magnitudes of GRLs employed for locomotion in space have been substantially less than the loads imposed in the earthbound 1G environment, which may account for the poor performance of locomotion as an intervention. The success of future treadmill interventions will likely require GRLs of greater magnitude. It is widely held that mechanical tissue strain is an important intermediary signal in the transduction pathway linking the external loading environment to bone maintenance and functional adaptation; yet, to our knowledge, no data exist linking alterations in external skeletal loading to alterations in bone strain. In this preliminary study, we used unique cadaver simulations of micro-gravity locomotion to determine relationships between localized tibial bone strains and external loading as a means to better predict the efficacy of future exercise interventions proposed for bone maintenance on orbit. Bone strain magnitudes in the distal tibia were found to be linearly related to ground reaction force magnitude (R(2)>0.7). Strain distributions indicated that the primary mode of tibial loading was in bending, with little variation in the neutral axis over the stance phase of gait. The greatest strains, as well as the greatest strain sensitivity to altered external loading, occurred within the anterior crest and posterior aspect of the tibia, the sites furthest removed from the neutral axis of bending. We established a technique for estimating local strain magnitudes from external loads, and equations for predicting strain during simulated micro-gravity walking are presented.
Peterman, M. M.; Hamel, A. J.; Cavanagh, P. R.; Piazza, S. J.; Sharkey, N. A.
BACKGROUND—Despite the increasing interest in using knee cartilage volume as an outcome measure in studies of osteoarthritis (OA), it is unclear what components of knee cartilage will be most useful as markers of structure in the tibiofemoral (TF) joint.?OBJECTIVE—To compare the changes that occur in femoral and tibial cartilage volume in normal and osteoarthritic knees and how they relate to radiological grade.?METHODS—82 subjects (44 female, 38 male, age range 35-69 years) with a spectrum of radiological knee OA were examined. Each subject had femoral and tibial cartilage volume in the medial and lateral TF joint determined from T1 weighted fat saturated magnetic resonance images of the knee. Radiological grade of OA was determined from standing knee radiographs.?RESULTS—There was strong correlation between femoral and tibial cartilage volume measured in both the medial (R=0.75, p<0.001) and lateral TF joint (R=0.77, p<0.001). Similar correlations persisted when those with normal and those with OA joints were examined separately at both the medial and lateral TF joint. For each increase in radiological grade of joint space narrowing (0-3), there was a mean (SD) reduction in tibial cartilage volume of 1.00 (0.32) ml in the medial compartment and 0.53 (0.25) ml in the lateral compartment, after adjusting for differences in bone size. Similar changes were seen in the femoral cartilage.?CONCLUSIONS—The amounts of tibial and femoral cartilage are strongly related. It may be that for TF joint disease, measuring tibial cartilage alone may be adequate, given that measurements of the total femoral cartilage are less reproducible and the difficulties inherent in identifying the most appropriate component of femoral cartilage to measure.??
Cicuttini, F; Wluka, A; Stuckey, S
Background Optimal leg alignment is the goal of tibial osteotomy. The Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) and the Ilizarov method enable gradual realignment of angulation and translation in the coronal, sagittal, and axial planes, therefore, the term six-axis correction. Questions/purposes We asked whether this approach would allow precise correction of tibial deformities. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 102 patients (122 tibiae) with tibial deformities treated with percutaneous osteotomy and gradual correction with the TSF. The proximal osteotomy group was subdivided into two subgroups to distinguish those with an intentional overcorrection of the mechanical axis deviation (MAD). The minimum followup after frame removal was 10 months (average, 48 months; range, 10–98 months). Results In the proximal osteotomy group, patients with varus and valgus deformities for whom the goal of alignment was neutral or overcorrection experienced accurate correction of MAD. In the proximal tibia, the medial proximal tibial angle improved from 80° to 89° in patients with a varus deformity and from 96° to 85° in patients with a valgus deformity. In the middle osteotomy group, all patients had less than 5° coronal plane deformity and 15 of 17 patients had less that 5° sagittal plane deformity. In the distal osteotomy group, the lateral distal tibial angle improved from 77° to 86° in patients with a valgus deformity and from 101° to 90° for patients with a varus deformity. Conclusions Gradual correction of all tibial deformities with the TSF was accurate and with few complications. Level of Evidence Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Segal, Kira; Ilizarov, Svetlana; Fragomen, Austin T.; Ilizarov, Gabriel
The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of barrel-vault high tibial osteotomy on patellar position and to evaluate the reliability and interobserver variability of three patellar height ratios. The radiographs of 24 knees that had undergone barrel-vault height tibial osteotomy with available preoperative as well as postoperative radiographs of the last follow-up were enrolled in the study. The patellar position was evaluated with the use of the Insall-Salvati, Blackbourne-Peel and Caton-Linclau methods. The indices were calculated with the tibial slope angle measured by the Moore-Harvey method. The average patellar index in the Blackburne-Peel and Caton-Linclau measurements had a statistically significant tendency to increase after barrel-vault tibial osteotomy. The results of the Insall-Salvati assessment method showed no statistically significant differences. Intrasession ICCs (intraclass correlation coefficient) varied between 0.8 and 0.99. The kappa value for the inter-observer agreement of all three ratios determined varied between 0.48 for the Blackburne-Peel index and 0.5 for the Insall-Salvati and Caton-Linclau indices. The average tibial slope before the surgery was 11.8 degrees (+/- 3.6) and decreased to 6.6 degrees (+/- 4.3). No significant associations between the index change and tibial slope change were detected. The data suggest that since some of patellar height indices measure different anatomical relationships, comparable types of indices should be used in order to estimate the patellar height or patellar relation to the joint line. PMID:18092702
Wito?ski, Dariusz; Paradowski, Przemys?aw; Dorman, Tomasz; Sibi?ski, Marcin
Objective: To introduce and characterize the modified biplanar opening high tibial osteotomy with rigid fixation to treat varus knee in young and active patients. Methods: Between June 2001 to July 2008, 18 patients with monocompartmental degeneration of the knee combined with a varus malalignment of the leg had the modified biplanar opening high tibial osteotomy and the osteotomy was fixed with the locking plates (Locking Compression Plate System). The mean varus deformity before operation was 11.5° (5°~19°) and no degenerative changes were found in other departments. Stability of the knee was normal in 15 patients, but ruptures in anterior cruciate ligaments or lateral collateral ligament were presented in the remaining 3 patients. Preoperative symptom was mainly limited in the pain of medial compartment. The preoperative and follow-up data for the range of motion and Lysholm score were determined. Subjective satisfactory examination was also applied to the patients for the operation they selected. Results: All of the patients were followed up with an average of 32.5 months (12~82 months). There was no ununion or delayed union in this group during the follow-up period. No complications like broken plate, nerve injury, or blood vessel injury occurred. The postoperative average corrected degree was 9.5° (5.5°~18°). No degenerations developed in the three departments of the knee. The Lysholm scores before and after surgery were 42.5 and 77.5, respectively (P<0.01). The overall fineness rate was 83.3%. The subjective satisfactory survey demonstrated that about 83.3% patients showed satisfactory on the operation. There was no obvious difference in the range of motion before and after operation, but significant changes were found in the Lysholm score and varus degree from preoperative to follow-up. Conclusion: Proximal opening high tibial osteotomy performed in conjunction with the special rigid locking plate yielded good results for symptomatic genu varum. This new classic technique can be effectively applied to the medial compartment degeneration of the knee in active young patients.
Zhang, Hai-ning; Zhang, Jie; Lv, Cheng-yu; Leng, Ping; Wang, Ying-zhen; Wang, Xiang-da; Wang, Chang-yao
Sixty-three patients with rigid equinovarus contractures of the foot following ischemic episodes in the lower leg were treated at our institute from 1983 to 1994 by lengthening the Achilles tendon and the tendon of the m.tibialis posterior, release of the tendons of the m.flexor digitorum longus and the m.flexor hallucis longus and release of the dorsal capsule of the ankle joint. Patients with an equinus deformity greater than 20 degrees, with an additional hind foot varus deformity of more than 5 degrees and/or malrotation of the midfoot were not eligible for this procedure. The initial equinus deformity ranged from 7 degrees to 20 degrees (mean 14 degrees). The clinical and radiological results of 41 patients were evaluated retrospectively with a minimum follow-up of 1 year (mean 3.4 years). The overall results were evaluated according to a modified score of Angus and Cowell. Results were good in 60.9%, fair in 29.3% and poor in 9.8%. The range of motion of the ankle joint and the subtalar and midtarsal joints could not be improved. Postoperative complications were observed in 8 patients, one intraoperative lesion of the posterior tibial artery occurred, one avulsion fracture of the anterior tibial metaphysis and one compression syndrome of the tibial nerve. One patient had an initially incomplete correction with a remaining equinus deformity of 10 degrees, and two recurrences of the foot deformity after initially correct position were observed. Furthermore, two hematomas and two soft-tissue infections required surgical revision. These complications may have been due to the preoperatively scarred soft tissue at the medial aspect of the hind foot and a residual postoperative soft-tissue defect after the correction of the foot deformity had been achieved. In conclusion, the technique described is effective in correcting mild pes equinovarus deformities after ischemic episodes in the lower leg. If the pes equinus deformity is greater than 20 degrees, corrective osteotomies of the hind foot should be performed instead. PMID:9297245
Dávid, A; Tiemann, A; Richter, J; Muhr, G
Objectives: Tibial plateau fractures are efficiently treated using arthroscopy when limited to one condyle. Operative technique and early\\u000a results are now well documented. However, long term results have not been widely reported. The goal of this study was to evaluate\\u000a clinical and radiological outcomes of arthroscopically treated tibial plateau fractures in the long term.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Fourteen out of thirty consecutive cases have
Marc-Antoine Rousseau; Gregory Biette; Franck Jouve; Nicolas Graveleau; Philippe Hardy
Diagnosis of tibial neuropathy has been traditionally based on clinical examination and electrodiagnostic studies; however, cross-sectional imaging modalities have been used to increase the diagnostic accuracy and provide anatomic mapping of the abnormalities. In this context, magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) offers high-resolution imaging of the tibial nerve (TN), its branches and the adjacent soft tissues, and provides an objective assessment of the neuromuscular anatomy, abnormality, and the surrounding pathology. This review describes the pathologies affecting the TN and illustrates their respective 3 Tesla (T) MRN appearances with relevant case examples. PMID:22243916
Chalian, Majid; Soldatos, Theodoros; Faridian-Aragh, Neda; Williams, Eric H; Rosson, Gedge D; Eng, John; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh
In this prospective study of childhood uveitis, 75 children with anterior uveitis were analyzed to determine whether a relationship could be found between the occurrence of uveitis, its clinical features, and humoral immunity to retinal S-antigen. For the purposes of analysis, children were divided into acute (18 cases) and chronic (57 cases) categories, depending on the duration of ocular inflammation.
Risto J. Uusitalo; Hannu Uusitalo; Kaj Mahlberg
Purpose: Thirty-three patients with avulsions of the middle glenohumeral ligament repaired using arthroscopic techniques were evaluated to determine the mechanism of injury, physical examination findings, and efficiency of repair techniques in this patient cohort. Type of Study: In a retrospective consecutive case series, 33 patients with symptomatic anterior subluxation of the glenohumeral joint were found to have a history, physical
Felix H. Savoie; Lew Papendik; Larry D. Field; Christopher Jobe
Post-hysterectomy vault prolapse may be accompanied by anterior (cystocele) and posterior (rectocele) pelvic compartment prolapse. We describe our results with sacrocolpopexy with anterior and posterior polytetrafluoroethylene mesh (SCAPM) extensions. A prospective on-going study is presented of 12 consecutive, complicated patients referred to our tertiary referral unit with a median age of 60 years (range 39–69) who underwent SCAPM between April
Serge Peter Marinkovic; Stuart L Stanton
This was a retrieval analysis of 83 PS inserts to assess the effect of limb alignment, implant position and joint line position on the pattern of wear in posterior stabilized (PS) tibial inserts. The total damage score was significantly higher in knees with postoperative varus alignment more than 3° (P = 0.03). The total damage score to the post was significantly more in knees with joint line elevation more than 5 mm (9.7 ± 3.9, compared to 6.5 ± 3.7 in knees with less joint line elevation) (P = 0.05). Limb malalignment and joint line elevation resulted in more damage in PS inserts. An external rotation subluxation damage pattern was found in joint line elevation. PMID:23809707
Pang, Hee-Nee; Jamieson, Paul; Teeter, Matthew G; McCalden, Richard W; Naudie, Douglas D R; MacDonald, Steven J
The purposes of this study were to describe the changes in tibial torsion and knee rotation in varus osteoarthritic knees and to check the reliability of reference axis, for tibial component placement, based on femoral transepicondylar axis in these patients. A secondary goal was to determine which reference axis based on proximal tibia is most accurate for determining tibial component rotation. Fifty-two varus osteoarthritic knees and 20 normal knees were analyzed using computed tomographic scan. Tibial torsion and knee rotation were significantly reduced in patients with osteoarthritis. Reference axis based on posterior tibial condyles was most accurate and least variable for tibial component alignment. A significant negative correlation was found between knee rotation and tibial axis based on transepicondylar axis (r = -0.485). PMID:21978564
Khan, Mohammad Shahnawaz; Seon, Jong Keun; Song, Eun Kyoo
Background The function of the anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) bundles of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) during gait has not been reported. Hypothesis The AM and PL bundles have distinct functional behavior during the stance phase of treadmill gait. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods Three-dimensional models of the knee were created by magnetic resonance images from 8 healthy subjects. The contour of the 2 bundle attachments were constructed on each model. Each bundle was represented by a straight line connecting its tibial and femoral attachment centroids. Next, the knee kinematics during the stance phase of gait was determined with a dual fluoroscopic imaging system. The relative elongation, sagittal plane elevation, coronal plane elevation, and transverse plane deviation of the 2 bundles were measured directly from heel strike to toe-off. Results At heel strike, the AM and PL bundles had first peak elongation of 9% ± 7% and 9% ± 13%, respectively. At 50% progress of the stance phase, both bundles were maximally elongated, 12% ± 7% for the AM bundle and 13% ± 15% for the PL bundle. No significant difference was found for each bundle between 40% and 60% of the stance phase (P > .05). With increasing knee flexion, the sagittal plane and coronal plane elevations of the 2 bundles decreased, whereas the deviation angles increased. Conclusion Both bundles are anisometric and function in a similar manner during the stance phase of gait. They were maximally elongated throughout the midstance where they were stretched maximally to resist anterior tibial translation. Clinical relevance This information can be useful for further improving anatomical ACL reconstructions to better reproduce the 2 bundle functions. It may also be useful for designing postoperative rehabilitation regimens to prevent overstretch of the grafts.
Wu, Jia-Lin; Hosseini, Ali; Kozanek, Michal; Gadikota, Hemanth R.; Gill, Thomas J.; Li, Guoan
Urethral diverticulum is a sac-like outpouching of urethral mucosa. It may be anterior or posterior according to anatomical locations. It is less common in men than in women. It can be congenital or acquired. Anterior urethral diverticula are usually congenital as compared to majority of posterior diverticula which are acquired. The most common aetiologies of male acquired diverticula are stricture, abscess, trauma or post-hypospadias repair. We report a case of congenital giant anterior urethral diverticulum with a calculus which has been managed successfully with surgical excision and repair in two layers. PMID:24567184
Kamal, Mir Reza; Jindal, Tarun; Sinha, Rajan Kumar; Karmakar, Dilip
A convenience sample based on availability of tibial stress fracture cases at local Sports Medicine Clinics will be selected over 2-3 years until forty subjects (20 male, 20 female) have been treated. The study is designed to be able to determine if elect...
A. Hoffman B. Beck G. Matheson G. Bergman
he accuracy of templates used for the preoperative planning of the fixation of intramedullary fractures depends on radiological magnification. To study the accuracy of these templates, we randomly selected 100 femoral and 100 tibial radiographs taken after stabilisation by an intramedullary nail using a standard technique. We then compared the known nail length with the corresponding measurements on the radiographs.
Christian Krettek; Michael Blauth; Theodore Miclau; Joachim Rudolf; Bernd Könemann; Peter Schandelmaier
Tibial condyle fractures affect knee stability and motion. Treatment of bicondylar type of tibial plateau fracture is a challenging problem. This study aimed at evaluating the application of hybrid external fixators with minimum deformation in these patients and the resulted outcomes. In this descriptive analytical study, 28 patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated by HEF device were evaluated. The surgeon used a semicircular and one circular wire instead of the one or two loop of conventional HEF device for a better range of motion of the knee joint. Treatment outcomes including quality of walking, union condition, knee range of motion, complications and the final outcome according to the knee score (rusmussen) were checked. Twenty-eight male patients, with the mean age of 40.54 +/- 13.83 years were enrolled in the study. Complications occurred in 8 (28.6%) patients; 7 cases with superficial infection and 1 patient with deep vein thrombosis. All complications were managed medically with no significant consequences left. All the patients were able to walk with no aid except in one case. In 96.4% and 89.3% of the cases, the clinical and radiological outcomes were good to excellent, respectively according to the knee score. In 85.7% of the patients, the knee range of motion was in normal limits. Application of hybrid external fixator using one and half ring instead of one or two fixator rings in treating bicondylar tibial fractures was associated with desired clinical and radiological results. PMID:24498816
Sales, Jafar Ganjpour; Soleymaopour, Jafar; Ansari, Maroof; Afaghi, Farhad; Goldust, Mohamad
Intramedullary nailing is an effective and well-established method for the treatment of a wide spectrum of tibial fractures.\\u000a Nevertheless, the handling of metaphyseal and open fracture remains challenging. Surgical and technical advancements have\\u000a opened up new possibilities to broaden the indication of intramedullary nailing in these areas.
Sebastian Kuhn; Matthias Hansen; Pol M. Rommens
We describe a case highlighting the need to consider hypovitaminosis-D when investigating background causation and treatment of femoral and tibial stress fractures. The case also suggests that prescribing calcium and vitamin D supplementation may help with fracture healing in soldiers presenting with stress fractures who may have unrecognised hypovitaminosis-D which if left untreated may delay fracture healing. PMID:24109098
Inklebarger, James; Griffin, M; Taylor, M J D; Dembry, R B
The native anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) consists of 2 bundles, which have distinct biomechanical yet synergistic functions with respect to anterior tibial translation and combined rotatory loads. Traditionally, most ACL reconstruction techniques have primarily addressed the restoration of the anteromedial bundle, and less consideration was given to the posterolateral bundle. Recently, various ACL double-bundle reconstruction techniques have been described. With most of these techniques, however, an indirect extra-anatomic fixation far from the articular surface was performed. Because extra-anatomic fixation techniques, rather than aperture fixation techniques, are associated with graft tunnel motion, windshield wiper action, and suture stretch-out, concerns may arise regarding delayed biological incorporation, tunnel enlargement, and secondary rotational and anterior instability. We, therefore, present a novel arthroscopic technique that reapproximates the footprints of native ACL with the use of double-strand semitendinosus and gracilis autografts for reconstruction of the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles, respectively. A separate femoral and tibial tunnel is drilled for each double-strand autograft. The femoral tunnel for the anteromedial bundle is drilled primarily through a transtibial technique, and the femoral tunnel for the posterolateral bundle is drilled via an accessory anteromedial portal with the use of a 4-mm offset drill guide in the anteroinferior aspect of the femoral tunnel for the anteromedial bundle. Bioabsorbable interference screws are used in aperture fixation for anatomic fixation of each bundle. This technique attempts to reproduce closely the native ligament and its biomechanical function. PMID:17084308
Brucker, Peter U; Lorenz, Stephan; Imhoff, Andreas B
Many biomechanical studies investigated pathology of flatfoot and effects of operations on flatfoot. The majority of cadaveric studies are limited to the quasistatic response to static joint loads. This study examined the unconstrained joint motion of the foot and ankle during stance phase utilizing a dynamic foot-ankle simulator in simulated stage 2 posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD). Muscle forces were applied on the extrinsic tendons of the foot using six servo-pneumatic cylinders to simulate their action. Vertical and fore-aft shear forces were applied and tibial advancement was performed with the servomotors. Three-dimensional movements of multiple bones of the foot were monitored with a magnetic tracking system. Twenty-two fresh-frozen lower extremities were studied in the intact condition, then following sectioning peritalar constraints to create a flatfoot and unloading the posterior tibial muscle force. Kinematics in the intact condition were consistent with gait analysis data for normals. There were altered kinematics in the flatfoot condition, particularly in coronal and transverse planes. Calcaneal eversion relative to the tibia averaged 11.1±2.8° compared to 5.8±2.3° in the normal condition. Calcaneal-tibial external rotation was significantly increased in flatfeet from mean of 2.3±1.7° to 8.1±4.0°. There were also significant changes in metatarsal-tibial eversion and external rotation in the flatfoot condition. The simulated PTTD with flatfoot was consistent with previous data obtained in patients with PTTD. The use of a flatfoot model will enable more detailed study on the flatfoot condition and/or effect of surgical treatment.
Watanabe, Kota; Kitaoka, Harold B.; Fujii, Tadashi; Crevoisier, Xavier M.; Berglund, Lawrence J.; Zhao, Kristin D.; Kaufman, Kenton R.; An, Kai-Nan
Many biomechanical studies investigated pathology of flatfoot and effects of operations on flatfoot. The majority of cadaveric studies are limited to the quasistatic response to static joint loads. This study examined the unconstrained joint motion of the foot and ankle during stance phase utilizing a dynamic foot-ankle simulator in simulated stage 2 posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD). Muscle forces were applied on the extrinsic tendons of the foot using six servo-pneumatic cylinders to simulate their action. Vertical and fore-aft shear forces were applied and tibial advancement was performed with the servomotors. Three-dimensional movements of multiple bones of the foot were monitored with a magnetic tracking system. Twenty-two fresh-frozen lower extremities were studied in the intact condition, then following sectioning peritalar constraints to create a flatfoot and unloading the posterior tibial muscle force. Kinematics in the intact condition were consistent with gait analysis data for normals. There were altered kinematics in the flatfoot condition, particularly in coronal and transverse planes. Calcaneal eversion relative to the tibia averaged 11.1±2.8° compared to 5.8±2.3° in the normal condition. Calcaneal-tibial external rotation was significantly increased in flatfeet from mean of 2.3±1.7° to 8.1±4.0°. There were also significant changes in metatarsal-tibial eversion and external rotation in the flatfoot condition. The simulated PTTD with flatfoot was consistent with previous data obtained in patients with PTTD. The use of a flatfoot model will enable more detailed study on the flatfoot condition and/or effect of surgical treatment. PMID:22939754
Watanabe, Kota; Kitaoka, Harold B; Fujii, Tadashi; Crevoisier, Xavier; Berglund, Lawrence J; Zhao, Kristin D; Kaufman, Kenton R; An, Kai-Nan
This report is composed of two patients with anteriorly located cervical intradural arachnoid cyst and review of 24 cases in Englishlanguage literature. Both of our patients were in the first two decades of life with neck pain and motor weakness. With suspicious diagnosis of anterior arachnoid cyst surgery was carried out in both cases, though laminectomy in one and laminoplasty in the other. The cyst wall was widely fenestrated with subsequent subtotal excision of the cyst. Both cases had good long-term outcome. The review disclosed male predominance. 73% of the patients were diagnosed within the first two decades of life. Neck pain and motor weakness were the dominant signs and symptoms of this pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging showing a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing cyst was the best mode of diagnosis. Wide cyst fenestration with waying CSF into subarachnoid cyst was the most appropriate and applied surgery with optimal outcome.
PURPOSE: It is better to use multiple anatomical landmarks to reduce errors in component alignment in total knee arthroplasty. Therefore, it is worthwhile to find a new landmark that can be used as an addition to conventional ones. Herein, we assessed the dorsal pedis artery as a new distal landmark for extramedullary tibial alignment. METHODS: Fifty-two ankles in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and 10 ankles in normal controls were included. Color Doppler ultrasonography was used to locate the dorsal pedis artery at the level of the ankle joint. Conventional landmarks, including the tibialis anterior tendon, the extensor hallucis longus tendon, the extensor digitorum longus tendon, and the malleolar centre, were also located on ultrasound images. The distances between the ankle centre and each landmark were measured and compared. RESULTS: The dorsal pedis artery was absent in 2 patients and impalpable but visible with ultrasonography in other 2 patients. The dorsal pedis artery was located anatomically closest to the ankle centre in patients (0.4 ± 3.4 mm lateral). Statistical analysis showed that the dorsal pedis artery, the extensor hallucis longus tendon, and the malleolar centre were located significantly closer to the ankle centre comparing with the extensor digitorum longus tendon and the tibialis anterior tendon in both patients and controls (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: As long as the dorsal pedis artery exists, it can be used as an addition to the conventional landmarks in total knee arthroplasty. Using this new landmark will help reduce errors in coronal plane alignment of tibial component. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II. PMID:23455389
Sugimura, Natsuki; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Izumi, Masashi; Aso, Koji; Ushida, Takahiro; Tani, Toshikazu
An accurate and repeatable tibial measurement system will aid in the definition of tibial geometry and improving tibial prosthesis design. Unlike in the femur, there is no standardized method for constructing a tibial coordinate frame. Most tibial measurements are given relative to femoral axes or the coordinate frame of the CT/MRI scanner or radiograph machine. The objective of this study was to establish an independent tibial coordinate frame. Data consisted of CT scans from 34 subjects. The tibial anatomical axis was chosen as the axial axis. The anteroposterior (AP) axis was selected to be parallel to the lateral surface of the tibial shaft and orthogonal to the anatomical axis and from this the mediolateral axis could be derived. The selected AP axis was compared with the surgical tibial AP axis by measuring their variability relative to a common axis, the posterior tibial condylar line (PTCL). The mean angle between the selected AP axis and the perpendicular to the PTCL was measured as -4.07 degrees, standard deviation of 4.28 degrees. The mean angle between the surgical AP axis and the perpendicular to the PTCL was measured as -18.56 degrees, standard deviation of 4.66 degrees. There was no significant difference in the variance of the two sets of measurements (p=0.63). Variability of the selected AP axis was even smaller (standard deviation of 2.74 degrees) when measured independently from the PTCL reference axis, by aligning virtual resection profiles. Anatomically, the selected AP axis was almost perpendicular to the posterior tibial condylar axis. This coordinate system can aid in gathering consistent and repeatable anthropometric data that can be used to improve tibial implant design and could also, in combination with CT/MR imaged-based computer assisted surgery, be used as a guideline for tibial component positioning in TKR. PMID:17182247
Fitzpatrick, Clare; FitzPatrick, David; Auger, Daniel; Lee, Jordan
Cadaveric and clinical biomechanical studies show improved kinematic restoration using double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction techniques. These have been criticized in the past for being technically challenging. We present a novel 3-socket approach for anatomic “all-inside” double-bundle reconstruction using a single hamstring tendon fashioned to create a trifurcate graft: the TriLink technique. The semitendinosus alone is harvested, quadrupled, and attached to 3 suspensory fixation devices in a Y-shaped configuration, creating a 4-stranded tibial limb and 2 double-stranded femoral limbs. A medial viewing/lateral working arthroscopic approach is adopted using specifically designed instrumentation. Anatomic placement of the 2 femoral tunnels is performed by a validated direct measurement technique. A single mid-bundle position is used on the tibia. Both femoral and tibial sockets are created in a retrograde manner using outside-to-in drilling. This is a simplified operative technique for anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction that maximizes bone preservation. The TriLink construct replicates the 2 bundles of the ACL, conferring native functional anisometry and improving femoral footprint coverage while avoiding the complexities and pitfalls of double–tibial tunnel techniques. Preservation of the gracilis reduces the morbidity of hamstring harvest and allows greater flexibility in graft choice in cases requiring multiligament reconstruction.
Yasen, Sam K.; Logan, James S.; Smith, James O.; Nancoo, Tamara; Risebury, Mike J.; Wilson, Adrian J.
The behavior of a ligament graft following cruciate ligament reconstruction is still an area of limited knowledge. Cinematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the possibility of visualizing the graft, including the graft tunnels and fixation during knee motion. Twenty-three patients underwent cinematic MRI (0. 2 T; Artoscan) mean 23.4 months (range 14-39 months) after autologous anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (eight bone-tendon-bone, seven semitendinosus-gracilis, and eight iliotibial band). The images were read without knowledge of the clinical condition or the type of surgery performed. Signal intensity and continuity of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and movement of the graft in the tibial or femoral tunnel anteriorly and posteriorly were noted. In two of the 23 patients the graft (semitendinosus-gracilis) moved in the tibial canal. The initial 9-mm tunnel had expanded by 2 mm in the anteroposterior direction at the entrance to the joint space. Only these two had a slight knee laxity, with a side-to-side difference in anterior translation measured by the KT-2000 of 4 and 5 mm. No movement was observed in any of the femoral tunnels. Cinematic MRI thus makes it possible to study graft behavior within the bone tunnels. PMID:10663317
Jørgensen, U; Thomsen, H S
A protocol to choose the graft diameter attachment point of each bundle has not yet been determined since they are usually dependent on a surgeon's preference. Therefore, the influence of bundle diameters and attachment points on the kinematics of the knee joint needs to be quantitatively analyzed. A three-dimensional knee model was reconstructed with computed tomography images of a 26-year-old man. Based on the model, models of double bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction were developed. The anterior tibial translations for the anterior drawer test and the internal tibial rotation for the pivot shift test were investigated according to variation of bundle diameters and attachment points. For the model in this study, the knee kinematics after the double bundle ACL reconstruction were dependent on the attachment point and not much influenced by the bundle diameter although larger sized anterior-medial bundles provided increased stability in the knee joint. Therefore, in the clinical setting, the bundle attachment point needs to be considered prior to the bundle diameter, and the current selection method of graft diameters for both bundles appears justified. PMID:24516506
Kwon, Oh Soo; Purevsuren, Tserenchimed; Kim, Kyungsoo; Park, Won Man; Kwon, Tae-Kyu; Kim, Yoon Hyuk
The effects of tears of the anterior cruciate ligament on knee kinematics and contact mechanics during dynamic everyday activities, such as gait, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize anterior cruciate ligament–deficient knee contact mechanics and kinematics during simulated gait. Nine human cadaveric knees were each augmented with a sensor capable of measuring dynamic normal contact stresses on the tibial plateau, mounted on a load-controlled simulator, and subjected to physiological, multidirectional, dynamic loads to mimic gait. Using a mixed model with random knee identifiers, confidence intervals were constructed for contact stress before and after anterior cruciate ligament transection at two points in the gait cycle at which axial force peaked (14% and 45% of the gait cycle). Kinematic and contact mechanics changes after anterior cruciate ligament transection were highly variable across knees. Nonetheless, a statistically significant increase in contact stress in the posterior–central aspect of the medial tibial plateau at 45% of the gait cycle was identified, the location of which corresponds to the location of degenerative changes that are frequently found in patients with chronic anterior cruciate ligament injury. The variability in the contact stress in other regions of the medial plateau at 45% of the gait cycle was partly explained by the variations in osseous geometry across the nine knees tested. At 14% of gait, there was no significant change in peak contact stress after anterior cruciate ligament transection in any of the four quadrants, and none of the possible explanatory variables showed statistical significance. Understanding the variable effect of anterior cruciate ligament injury on contact mechanics based on geometric differences in osseous anatomy is of paramount clinical importance and may be invaluable to select the best reconstruction techniques and counsel patients on their individual risk of subsequent chondral degeneration.
Bedi, Asheesh; Chen, Tony; Santner, Thomas J; El-Amin, Saadiq; Kelly, Natalie H; Warren, Russell F; Maher, Suzanne A
The effects of tears of the anterior cruciate ligament on knee kinematics and contact mechanics during dynamic everyday activities, such as gait, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee contact mechanics and kinematics during simulated gait. Nine human cadaveric knees were each augmented with a sensor capable of measuring dynamic normal contact stresses on the tibial plateau, mounted on a load-controlled simulator, and subjected to physiological, multidirectional, dynamic loads to mimic gait. Using a mixed model with random knee identifiers, confidence intervals were constructed for contact stress before and after anterior cruciate ligament transection at two points in the gait cycle at which axial force peaked (14% and 45% of the gait cycle). Kinematic and contact mechanics changes after anterior cruciate ligament transection were highly variable across knees. Nonetheless, a statistically significant increase in contact stress in the posterior-central aspect of the medial tibial plateau at 45% of the gait cycle was identified, the location of which corresponds to the location of degenerative changes that are frequently found in patients with chronic anterior cruciate ligament injury. The variability in the contact stress in other regions of the medial plateau at 45% of the gait cycle was partly explained by the variations in osseous geometry across the nine knees tested. At 14% of gait, there was no significant change in peak contact stress after anterior cruciate ligament transection in any of the four quadrants, and none of the possible explanatory variables showed statistical significance. Understanding the variable effect of anterior cruciate ligament injury on contact mechanics based on geometric differences in osseous anatomy is of paramount clinical importance and may be invaluable to select the best reconstruction techniques and counsel patients on their individual risk of subsequent chondral degeneration. PMID:23804954
Bedi, Asheesh; Chen, Tony; Santner, Thomas J; El-Amin, Saadiq; Kelly, Natalie H; Warren, Russell F; Maher, Suzanne A
In the treatment of the first premolar extraction cases with certain techniques, incisor retraction is realized after canine distalization. In maximum anchorage cases, retraction of anterior segments require more posterior anchorage. This treatment concept is still valid, however, the difficult anchorage control is considered a major drawback. The purpose of this study is to introduce our technique for the "en masse" retraction of maxillary anterior teeth after first premolar extraction and discuss its effects. The technique consists of the application of extraoral traction on canines, followed by banding of maxillary anterior teeth, to form them as a mass. Advantages of our mechanics are as follows: (1) Anterior headgear may have the advantage of retracting anterior teeth with minimum strain on posterior anchorage. (2) The adjustability of the outer bow in relation to the premaxilla's center of resistance, provides effective desired movements. (3) Intrusion and torque control are achieved in the course of anterior segment retraction. PMID:9387832
Güray, E; Orhan, M
We compared, via a computational model, the biomechanical performance of reamed versus unreamed intramedullary tibial nails to treat fractures in three different locations: proximal, mid-diaphyseal, and distal. Two finite element models were analyzed for the two nail types and the three kinds of fractures. Several biomechanical variables were determined: interfragmentary strains in the fracture site, von Mises stresses in nails and bolts, and strain distributions in the tibia and fibula. Although good mechanical stabilization was achieved in all the simulated fractures, the best results were obtained in the proximal fracture for the unreamed nail and in the mid-diaphyseal and distal fractures for the reamed nail. The interlocking bolts, in general, were subjected to higher stresses in the unreamed tibial nail than in the reamed one; thus the former stabilization technique is more likely to fail due to fatigue. PMID:17089377
Gómez-Benito, María José; Fornells, Pere; García-Aznar, José Manuel; Seral, Belén; Seral-Iñnigo, Fernando; Doblaré, Manuel
Arthroscopic assessment and treatment of tibial plateau fractures has gained popularity in recent years. This article describes some maneuvers to facilitate the management of these fractures with the arthroscope. We use a 14-mm rounded curved periosteal elevator to manipulate fragments within the joint instead of using a probe. To facilitate visualization of fractures, we describe the use of loop sutures around the meniscus to retract the meniscus when there is a tear in the meniscus. We suggest the use of the arthroscope for directly viewing the interosseous space to be sure that any internal fixation devices remain outside the articular space. The use of these tactics will allow a faster, more accurate reduction with less radiation exposure in patients with displaced tibial plateau fractures. PMID:9127091
Perez Carro, L
Metallosis is mainly described in the hip joint at the time of wear or inappropriate use. Cases have also been reported in patients with a knee prosthesis, but never after tibial osteotomy. We report a rare case of metallosis resulting from metal-alumina contact after open wedge tibial osteotomy. The patient complained of pain, which was relieved after removal of the plate nine months after the first operation. Intraoperative inspection revealed metallosis at the synthesis site and local plate wear at zone of contact with the ceramic filler. Removal of the plate and cleaning of the metallosis zone led to full relief of the pain at one and a half months. PMID:18456066
Mathieu, G; Roue, J; Poignard, A; Hernigou, P
Reamed intramedullary nailing was carried out on R57 Gustilo grade-IIIB tibial fractures in 55 patients. After debridement, there was substantial bone loss in 28 fractures (49%). The mean time to union was 43 weeks (14 to 94). When there was no bone loss, the mean time to union was 32 weeks; it was 45 weeks if there was bone loss. Fractures complicated by infection took a mean of 53 weeks to heal. Revision nailing was necessary in 13 fractures (23%) and bone grafting in 15 (26%). In ten fractures (17.5%) infection developed, in four within six weeks of injury and in six more than four months later. Of these, nine were treated successfully, but one patient required an amputation because of osteomyelitis. Our results indicate that reamed intramedullary nailing is a satisfactory treatment for Gustilo grade-III tibial fractures. PMID:11132268
Keating, J F; Blachut, P A; O'Brien, P J; Court-Brown, C M
Despite significant advances in scaffold design, manufacture, and development, it remains unclear what forces these scaffolds must withstand when implanted into the heavily loaded environment of the knee joint. The objective of this study was to fully quantify the dynamic contact mechanics across the tibial plateau of the human knee joint during gait and stair climbing. Our model consisted of a modified Stanmore knee simulator (to apply multi-directional dynamic forces), a two-camera motion capture system (to record joint kinematics), an electronic sensor (to record contact stresses on the tibial plateau), and a suite of post-processing algorithms. During gait, peak contact stresses on the medial plateau occurred in areas of cartilage-cartilage contact; while during stair climb, peak contact stresses were located in the posterior aspect of the plateau, under the meniscus. On the lateral plateau, during gait and in early stair-climb, peak contact stresses occurred under the meniscus, while in late stair-climb, peak contact stresses were experienced in the zone of cartilage-cartilage contact. At 45% of the gait cycle, and 20% and 48% of the stair-climb cycle, peak stresses were simultaneously experienced on both the medial and lateral compartment, suggesting that these phases of loading warrant particular consideration in any simulation intended to evaluate scaffold performance. Our study suggests that in order to design a scaffold capable of restoring 'normal' contact mechanics to the injured knees, the mechanics of the intended site of implantation should be taken into account in any pre-clinical testing regime. PMID:24296275
Gilbert, Susannah; Chen, Tony; Hutchinson, Ian D; Choi, Dan; Voigt, Clifford; Warren, Russell F; Maher, Suzanne A
PURPOSE: Pressure algometry (PA) may provide an objective and standardised tool in assessing palpation pain over the tibia. The purpose of this study was to analyse the intra-rater repeatability of PA and to determine whether tibial tenderness in healthy runners differ from runners with medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). METHODS: Pressure algometry was performed on 20 asymptomatic runners (40 legs) and 9 MTSS patients (14 symptomatic legs) at standardised locations along the medial border of the tibia. Intra-rater reliability was assessed in 10 randomly selected asymptomatic runners through repeated measurements 2 weeks later. RESULTS: Intra-rater reliability was moderate to excellent (ICC 0.53-0.90) in asymptomatic runners. Pain pressure threshold (PPT) was significantly reduced at 2/9-5/9 of the distance from the medial malleolus to the medial tibial condyle (p = 0.002-0.022). There was evidence of a statistically significant association between both height and weight, and PPT from the 3/9 (r = 0.416, p = 0.008) to 7/9 (r = 0.334, p = 0.035) and 3/9 (r = 0.448, p = 0.004) to 6/9 (r = 0.337, p = 0.034) area, respectively. In both MTSS patients and healthy runners, there was evidence of lower PPT in females compared to males (p = 0.0001-0.049) and a negative association between age and PPT (p = 0.001-0.033). MTSS patients had significantly lower PPT at the 3/9 site (p = 0.048) compared to asymptomatic runners. CONCLUSION: Pain pressure threshold algometry can be incorporated into MTSS clinical assessment to objectively assess pain and monitor progress. The presence of reduced medial tibial PPT in asymptomatic runners suggests that clinicians may not need to await resolution of medial tibia tenderness before allowing return to sport in MTSS patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III. PMID:23740326
Aweid, Osama; Gallie, Rosa; Morrissey, Dylan; Crisp, Tom; Maffulli, Nicola; Malliaras, Peter; Padhiar, Nat
A retrospective review of the cases of 180 patients who had 198 acute open fractures of the tibial shaft and were admitted to a multiple-trauma re- ferral center over a three-year period revealed an mci- dence of accompanying compartment syndrome of 9.1 per cent (eighteen fractures in sixteen patients). Each of the eighteen compartment syndromes was documented by measurements of
SAMUEL S. BLICK; ROBERT J. BRUMBACK; ATTILA POKA; ANDREW R. BURGESS; NABIL A. EBRAHEIM
Despite its current popularity and relative success, endoscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) graft has not yet been perfected. Using a recently developed robotic\\/UFS testing system, we assessed the overall stability of porcine knees following ACL reconstruction with different sites of tibial graft fixation—proximal, central, and distal. Testing of the intact knee was
Yasuyuki Ishibashi; Theodore W. Rudy; Glen A. Livesay; Jeffrey D. Stone; Freddie H. Fu; Savio L.-Y. Woo
Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are rare lesions, especially as they may pass unnoticed when associated with tibial fractures. Anatomically, there is bony and ligamentous predisposition to upward and backward dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint which is promoted by the shortening of the lower limb accompanying a tibial fracture. We report 3 tibial fractures associated with acute ischemia due to proximal tibiofibular dislocation, an association never previously described. This lesion and its mechanism were studied anatomically. PMID:2617412
Tricoire, J L; Lefèbvre, D
Background In dislocated proximal tibial fractures, the most frequently used treatment is ORIF with screws and plates. Minimally-invasive techniques using external fixation are an alternative. The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical and radiological results using the Ilizarov technique in both uni- and bicondylar tibial fractures. Methods Thirty consecutive patients with isolated fractures of the proximal tibia were treated with the Ilizarov technique, 11 Schatzker I-IV with 2–3 rings and 19 Schatzker V-VI with 3–4 tibial rings and a femoral, hinged, two-ring extension. Unrestricted weight-bearing was allowed. Pre and post-operatively, conventional radiographs, computerized tomography scans, post-operative pain assessments and complications were evaluated. The knee function was evaluated with the EQ-5D, NHP and KOOS scores, as well as self-appraisal. Results All the fractures healed. Twenty-five patients achieved a range of motion better than 10-100º. The type I-IV fractures had a shorter operating time and hospital stay, as well as better knee flexion, and the self-appraisal indicated that they tolerated the treatment better. Pin infections occurred in 4% of the pin sites, but only two patients required debridement. Two patients developed compartment syndrome and underwent fasciotomy. No patient complained of functional knee instability. Two patients underwent a total knee arthroplasty because of residual pain. The overall result was judged as satisfactory in twenty-seven patients. Conclusions The Ilizarov method produces a good clinical outcome and is a valuable treatment alternative in proximal tibial fractures of all types.
This prospective study evaluated the effect of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) on lameness, thigh circumference, range of motion (ROM), and radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) scores at 6 wk, 6 mo, and 1 y after surgery in 24 client-owned dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) deficiency. Complications associated with TTA were also assessed. A significant improvement in lameness score and thigh circumference was observed in CrCL deficient limbs that received TTA, but no significant overall change in range of motion occurred in the affected limbs over the course of the study. Post-operative complications were identified in 33.3% of the dogs. This study demonstrates that TTA results in significant clinical improvement in patients up to 1 y after surgery. However, 21% of the dogs had post-operative recurrent lameness.
MacDonald, Tamara L.; Allen, David A.; Monteith, Gabrielle J.
A retrospective analysis was done of 52 rotational tibial osteotomies (RTOs) performed on 35 patients with severe idiopathic tibial torsion. Thirty-nine osteotomies were performed at the proximal or midtibial level. Thirteen were performed at the distal tibial level with a technique previously described by one of the authors. Serious complications occurred in five (13%) of the proximal and in none of the distal RTOs. For severe and persisting idiopathic tibial torsion, the authors recommend correction by RTO at the distal level. Proximal level osteotomy is indicated only when a varus or valgus deformity required concurrent correction. PMID:1395261
Krengel, W F; Staheli, L T
Due to the known potential for fretting and corrosion at modular junctions in orthopaedic implants, this retrospective study evaluated radiographic and clinical outcomes of 85 primary TKA patients implanted with modular stemmed tibial components and followed up for an average of 82 months. There was low incidence of tibial radiolucent lines, excellent functional outcomes, and no complications associated with stem modularity. The findings were comparable to the historical control study involving 107?TKA with a nonmodular tibial stem design. When using surface cemented tibial components combined with a constrained polyethylene bearing, modular stems appear to be a viable option for primary TKA when adequate fixation and rotational stability are maintained.
Pace, Thomas; Broome, Brandon; Osuji, Obi; Harman, Melinda K.
If operative treatment of a proximal diaphyseal tibial and fibular fracture is required, in most cases, it involves reduction and stabilization of only the tibial fracture. In this case report, after stabilization of the tibial fracture with an intramedullary nail, the patient continued to demonstrate significant varus knee laxity, despite an intact proximal tibiofibular joint and undisplaced fibular head. The stability of the knee was achieved only with internal fixation of the segmental fibular fracture. This case shows the importance of assessing knee laxity in all cases of proximal tibial and fibular fractures. PMID:15091276
Tejwani, Nirmal; Chattoo, Minhal; Preston, Charles; Wolinsky, Philip
Due to the known potential for fretting and corrosion at modular junctions in orthopaedic implants, this retrospective study evaluated radiographic and clinical outcomes of 85 primary TKA patients implanted with modular stemmed tibial components and followed up for an average of 82 months. There was low incidence of tibial radiolucent lines, excellent functional outcomes, and no complications associated with stem modularity. The findings were comparable to the historical control study involving 107?TKA with a nonmodular tibial stem design. When using surface cemented tibial components combined with a constrained polyethylene bearing, modular stems appear to be a viable option for primary TKA when adequate fixation and rotational stability are maintained. PMID:24669319
Durig, Nicole; Pace, Thomas; Broome, Brandon; Osuji, Obi; Harman, Melinda K
We examined persons after anterior cruciate ligament injury and for 1.5 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction to analyze changes in anterior knee laxity, lower extremity muscle strength, endurance, and several parameters of neuromuscular function. Sixteen men and nine women (average age, 23.8 years) were evaluated preoperatively, then underwent intraarticular autogenous patellar tendon anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by the same surgeon and were evaluated at 6, 12, and 18 months postoperatively. Muscle strength was measured isokinetically and neuromuscular function was quantified with simultaneous anterior tibial translation and surface electromyography tests. Forty subjects (26 men and 14 women; average age, 23.5 years) with no known knee abnormalities served as the control group. Subjective questionnaire results showed that by 18 months postoperatively, 20 subjects (80%) believed they had regained their preoperative levels of function. Unfortunately, muscle function in most subjects had not returned to normal. At 12 to 18 months postoperatively, when knee rehabilitation was terminated, significant deficiencies in muscle performance persisted in most patients. Interestingly, in this group of stable knees, quadriceps and hamstring muscle reaction times appeared to be the best objective indicators of subjective knee function. PMID:10843124
Wojtys, E M; Huston, L J
Cortical suspension is one of the most frequently used methods of femoral fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. We present a simple technique for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a suspension device for femoral fixation. The purposes of this technique are to ensure greater contact between the graft and the tunnel walls—a goal that is achieved by using the femoral fixation device with the shortest possible loop—to avoid the flip step and the need for hyperflexion, and in short, to minimize the risk of complications that can occur when using the anteromedial portal to drill the femoral tunnel. To this end, both the femoral and tibial tunnels are created in an outside-in manner and with the same guide. The graft is passed through in a craniocaudal direction, and the suspension device is fitted inside an expansion piece for a better adaptation to the femoral cortex.
Espejo-Baena, Alejandro; Espejo-Reina, Alejandro
There is growing evidence that anatomic placement of the femoral tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction confers biomechanical advantages over the traditional tunnel position. The anteromedial portal technique for anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has many well-described technical challenges. This article describes the translateral all-inside technique, which produces anatomic femoral tunnel placement using direct measurement of the medial wall of the lateral femoral condyle and outside-in drilling. All work is carried out through the lateral portal with all viewing through the medial portal. Thus there is no need for an accessory medial portal or hyperflexion of the knee during femoral socket preparation. A single quadrupled hamstring graft is used with cortical fixation at both the femoral and tibial tunnels.
Wilson, Adrian J.; Yasen, Sam K.; Nancoo, Tamara; Stannard, Roger; Smith, James O.; Logan, James S.
A careful review of the literature suggests that a significant number of patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have less-than-optimal results. Although overall outcomes of ACL reconstruction are favorable, there remains considerable room for improvement. Anatomically, the ACL consists of 2 major functional bundles, the anteromedial bundle and the posterolateral bundle. Biomechanically, both bundles contribute significantly to the anterior and rotational stability of the knee. Therefore anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction techniques may further improve the outcomes in ACL surgery. This article presents a technique for arthroscopic double-bundle ACL reconstruction that includes the use of 2 femoral and 2 tibial tunnels to restore both the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles of the ACL with minimal hardware for fixation.
Wagih, Ahmad M.
Measuring knee biomechanics in six degrees of freedom with acceptable accuracy has been proven to be technically challenging. At our bioengineering laboratory, we have employed both an in vitro robotic testing system and an in vivo combined dual fluoroscopic and magnetic resonance imaging technique to analyze the impact of anterior cruciate ligament rupture on the knee joint. When measuring the tibiofemoral kinematics of nine cadavers with the robotic testing system, we found that anterior cruciate ligament deficiency not only altered anterior translation and axial rotation of the tibia, but it also increased the medial translation of the tibia as well. The in vivo dual fluoroscopic imaging analysis of tibiofemoral kinematics in ten anterior cruciate ligament-deficient patients revealed analogous findings: an increased medial translation of the tibia of approximately 1 mm between 15° and 90° of flexion was found in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees, in addition to an increased anterior translation (approximately 3 mm) and internal rotation (approximately 2°) of the tibia at low flexion angles. In a subsequent study of tibiofemoral cartilage contact, we found that the cartilage contact points shifted posteriorly—as was expected on the basis of the increased anterior tibial translation—as well as laterally on the surface of the tibial plateau. The data demonstrate how rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament initiates a cascade of events that eventually results in abnormal tibiofemoral cartilage contact in both the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. If the restoration of normal knee homeostasis is the ultimate goal of ligament reconstruction, the normal function of the anterior cruciate ligament should be restored as closely as possible in all degrees of freedom.
Van de Velde, Samuel K.; Gill, Thomas J.; Li, Guoan
The present invention provides a method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament ex vivo. The method comprises seeding pluripotent stem cells in a three dimensional matrix, anchoring the seeded matrix by attachment to two anchors, and culturing the cells within the matrix under conditions appropriate for cell growth and regeneration, while subjecting the matrix to one or more mechanical forces via movement of one or both of the attached anchors. Bone marrow stromal cells are preferably used as the pluripotent cells in the method. Suitable matrix materials are materials to which cells can adhere, such as a gel made from collagen type I. Suitable anchor materials are materials to which the matrix can attach, such as Goinopra coral and also demineralized bone. Optimally, the mechanical forces to which the matrix is subjected mimic mechanical stimuli experienced by an anterior cruciate ligament in vivo. This is accomplished by delivering the appropriate combination of tension, compression, torsion, and shear, to the matrix. The bioengineered ligament which is produced by this method is characterized by a cellular orientation and/or matrix crimp pattern in the direction of the applied mechanical forces, and also by the production of collagen type I, collagen type III, and fibronectin proteins along the axis of mechanical load produced by the mechanical forces. Optimally, the ligament produced has fiber bundles which are arranged into a helical organization. The method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament can be adapted to produce a wide range of tissue types ex vivo by adapting the anchor size and attachment sites to reflect the size of the specific type of tissue to be produced, and also adapting the specific combination of forces applied, to mimic the mechanical stimuli experienced in vivo by the specific type of tissue to be produced. The methods of the present invention can be further modified to incorporate other stimuli experienced in vivo by the particular developing tissue, some examples of the stimuli being chemical stimuli, and electro-magnetic stimuli. Some examples of tissue which can be produced include other ligaments in the body (hand, wrist, elbow, knee), tendon, cartilage, bone, muscle, and blood vessels.
Altman, Gregory (Inventor); Kaplan, David (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor); Martin, Ivan (Inventor)
This study was designed to determine the ability of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) to eliminate cranial tibial translation (CTT) through a loaded range of motion. Twenty-four large-breed canine cadaver limbs were compared. Each limb was placed in a custom designed jig at 120° of stifle extension under an axial load of 20% body weight. A force of approximately 10 N/s mimiced the action of the quadriceps muscle and allowed the limb to move from 120° to maximal extension. Positional data were acquired using electromagnetic motion-tracking sensors. Each limb was tested under normal, cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient, and TPLO-treated conditions. Cranial tibial translation significantly increased after transection of the CrCL. The TPLO failed to normalize CTT within the CrCL deficient stifle; however, values trended towards intact values throughout the range of motion. The TPLO was more effective at higher angles of flexion. These altered biomechanics may help explain the continued progression of osteoarthritis in TPLO repaired stifles. This loaded model may serve as a method for future evaluation of other surgical techniques.
Johnson, Kelly; Lanz, Otto; Elder, Steven; McLaughlin, Ron; Werre, Stephen; Harper, Tisha
This study was designed to determine the ability of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) to eliminate cranial tibial translation (CTT) through a loaded range of motion. Twenty-four large-breed canine cadaver limbs were compared. Each limb was placed in a custom designed jig at 120° of stifle extension under an axial load of 20% body weight. A force of approximately 10 N/s mimiced the action of the quadriceps muscle and allowed the limb to move from 120° to maximal extension. Positional data were acquired using electromagnetic motion-tracking sensors. Each limb was tested under normal, cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient, and TPLO-treated conditions. Cranial tibial translation significantly increased after transection of the CrCL. The TPLO failed to normalize CTT within the CrCL deficient stifle; however, values trended towards intact values throughout the range of motion. The TPLO was more effective at higher angles of flexion. These altered biomechanics may help explain the continued progression of osteoarthritis in TPLO repaired stifles. This loaded model may serve as a method for future evaluation of other surgical techniques. PMID:22379194
Johnson, Kelly; Lanz, Otto; Elder, Steven; McLaughlin, Ron; Werre, Stephen; Harper, Tisha
Bone bruise patterns are commonly seen after acute anterior cruciate ligament injuries; they represent a subchondral impaction injury that occurs in the lateral knee joint between the mid-lateral femoral condyle and the posterior lateral tibial plateau. These contusion patterns are present in the majority of noncontact ACL injuries. These injury patterns vary significantly in severity and this aspect is poorly understood. Edema patterns have gained increased interest in the literature of late; they may indicate the severity of the initial injury. They also may be correlated with the development of subsequent osteochondral defects and osteoarthritis. Given the location of this subchondral injury, it is plausible to assume that the geometry of the lateral femorotibial joint may play a role in ACL injury mechanism and severity of injury. We are reporting two cases of clinically identical ACL injuries. A patient with a flat lateral tibial plateau was noted to have a much larger bone edema pattern than a second patient with the highly convex lateral tibial plateau. This may shed light on the pathomechanics of ACL injury and suggests that an individual with a relatively flat tibial plateau has a stable lateral knee joint. Therefore, we hypothesize that much greater force is required to dislocate a flat and stable lateral femorotibial joint in a pivot shift pattern to produce an ACL injury. The greater force required results in a large bone edema pattern. Conversely, the individual with a relatively short and convex tibial plateau has an inherently unstable lateral joint and relatively smaller amounts of force would be needed to produce the identical injury to the ACL. As less force is required, smaller bone edema patterns result.
Westermann, Robert W; Wolf, Brian R; Wahl, Christopher J
The conventional procedure in the treatment of vertebral tuberculosis is drainage of the abscess, curettage of the devitalized vertebra and application of an antituberculous chemotherapy regimen. Posterior instrumentation results are encouraging in the prevention or treatment of late kyphosis; however, a second-stage operation is needed. Recently, posterolateral or transpedicular drainage without anterior drainage or posterior instrumentation following anterior drainage in
?. Benli; Emre Acaro?lu; Serdar Akalin; Mahmut Ki?; Evrim Duman; Ahmet Ün
Anterior sacral meningomyelocele is the rarest and least known form of congenital myelocele. It is not manifested externally, it is usually not attended with changes in the neurologic status, and may be regarded as a presacral dermoid cyst. The authors observed 5 members of one family with similar clinical and X-ray signs of such herniations, in 2 they were verified. The presence of cystic structures in the cavity of the small pelvis in conjunction with a congenital defect in the bodies of the sacral vertebrae is an indication for conducting pneumomyelography so as to make a more precise diagnosis. A study of the hereditary and family history is a necessary trend in the examination of such patients because the disease may be of a familial character. PMID:919974
Solopaev, A A; Myl'nikov, P I; Gerber, Iu M; Riazantsev, P N
The Multicenter ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) Revision Study (MARS) group was developed to investigate revision ACL reconstruction outcomes. An important part of this is obtaining and reviewing radiographic studies. The goal for this radiographic analysis is to establish radiographic findings for a large revision ACL cohort to allow comparison with future studies. The study was designed as a cohort study. Various established radiographic parameters were measured by three readers. These included sagittal and coronal femoral and tibial tunnel position, joint space narrowing, and leg alignment. Inter- and intraobserver comparisons were performed. Femoral sagittal position demonstrated 42% were more than 40% anterior to the posterior cortex. On the sagittal tibia tunnel position, 49% demonstrated some impingement on full-extension lateral radiographs. Limb alignment averaged 43% medial to the medial edge of the tibial plateau. On the Rosenberg view (45-degree flexion view), the minimum joint space in the medial compartment averaged 106% of the opposite knee, but it ranged down to a minimum of 4.6%. Lateral compartment narrowing at its minimum on the Rosenberg view averaged 91.2% of the opposite knee, but it ranged down to a minimum of 0.0%. On the coronal view, verticality as measured by the angle from the center of the tibial tunnel aperture to the center of the femoral tunnel aperture measured 15.8 degree ± 6.9% from vertical. This study represents the radiographic findings in the largest revision ACL reconstruction series ever assembled. Findings were generally consistent with those previously demonstrated in the literature.
The Multicenter ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) Revision Study (MARS) group was developed to investigate revision ACL reconstruction outcomes. An important part of this is obtaining and reviewing radiographic studies. The goal for this radiographic analysis is to establish radiographic findings for a large revision ACL cohort to allow comparison with future studies. The study was designed as a cohort study. Various established radiographic parameters were measured by three readers. These included sagittal and coronal femoral and tibial tunnel position, joint space narrowing, and leg alignment. Inter- and intraobserver comparisons were performed. Femoral sagittal position demonstrated 42% were more than 40% anterior to the posterior cortex. On the sagittal tibia tunnel position, 49% demonstrated some impingement on full-extension lateral radiographs. Limb alignment averaged 43% medial to the medial edge of the tibial plateau. On the Rosenberg view (45-degree flexion view), the minimum joint space in the medial compartment averaged 106% of the opposite knee, but it ranged down to a minimum of 4.6%. Lateral compartment narrowing at its minimum on the Rosenberg view averaged 91.2% of the opposite knee, but it ranged down to a minimum of 0.0%. On the coronal view, verticality as measured by the angle from the center of the tibial tunnel aperture to the center of the femoral tunnel aperture measured 15.8 degree ± 6.9% from vertical. This study represents the radiographic findings in the largest revision ACL reconstruction series ever assembled. Findings were generally consistent with those previously demonstrated in the literature. PMID:23404491
Since no current studies reflect the long-term function of patients accurately categorized and uniformly managed for the same degree and location of tibial injury, seven individuals with Type III-B open, distal tibial fractures were studied prospectively ...
A. E. Seyfer R. Lower
This study investigated the bone holding power of tibial locking screws by mechanical testing and finite element analysis. In mechanical tests, five types of commercially available tibial locking screws: Howmedica, Osteo AG, Richards type I, Richards type II, and Synthes were inserted in a cylinder of polyurethane foam bone. Axial load was applied to the screw tip to push the
Free vascularized fibular grafts were employed in seven patients with large tibial defects following trauma or resection of tumour. All patients were followed for more than 5 years. Tibial union and excellent functional results were achieved in all seven patients. Free vascularized fibular transfer seems to be an effective method of treatment for massive segmental bone defects.
H. Takami; S. Takahashi; M. Ando; A. Masuda
For extramedullary tibial alignment in total knee arthroplasty, it is important to localize the center of the ankle mortise. Malpositioning of alignment jigs can produce varus or valgus implantation and can lead to inferior clinical and radiologic outcomes. In a cadaver study, we investigated the accuracy of palpable tendons as references for extramedullary tibial alignment in 86 anatomical specimens. To
Michael Schneider; Christian Heisel; Peter R. Aldinger; Steffen J. Breusch
The aim of the present study was to comparatively analyse certain outcome measures of open tibial fractures, stratified per grade of open injury and method of treatment. For this purpose, a systematic review of the English literature from 1990 until 2010 was undertaken, comprising 32 eligible articles reporting on 3060 open tibial fractures. Outcome measures included rates of union progress
Costas Papakostidis; Nikolaos K. Kanakaris; Juan Pretel; Omar Faour; Daniel Juan Morell; Peter V. Giannoudis
Keratoconus is a disease causing increased steepening of the cornea resulted in irregular astigmatism. Treatment options are Glasses, Hard contact lenses, Cross linking, Intracorneal Segments insertion, Refractive surgery (Gilda et al., 2008), or Keratoplasty. Lamellar Keratoplasty (LKP) can be a better choice to manage cases of moderate and some cases of severe Keratoconus without deep scarring and severe thinning, also in cases of corneal scarring not involving the deeper layers of the cornea. LKP is a corneal graft technique consisting of transplantation of partial-thickness donor tissue, devoid of endothelium, Descemet membrane (DM), and rear stroma into a recipient healthy stromal bed after dissection of pathologic anterior stroma. However, deep lamellar Keratoplasty (DLKP) is a surgical method that completely removes pathologic corneal stroma tissue down to the DM, followed by transplantation of donor cornea without endothelium over the host bed. DLKP has a number of advantages over penetrating Keratoplasty (PKP). Because it does not violate the intraocular structures of the eye, it diminishes or eliminates the chance of postoperative glaucoma, cataract formation, retinal detachment, cystoids macular edema, expulsive choroidal hemorrhage and epithelial ingrowths. Furthermore, this procedure avoids the replacement of host endothelium with donor endothelium and thus precludes endothelial graft rejection, with comparable visual outcomes and low rate of chronic endothelial cell loss compared to PKP.
Al-Kharashi, Soliman A.; Al-Obailan, Majed M.; Almohaimeed, Mansour; Al-Torbak, Abdullah A.
The best operative technique for achieving appropriate postoperative alignment following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial, with proponents of extramedullary, intramedullary and computer-assisted techniques. One hundred ninety-two consecutive patients undergoing TKA were prospectively evaluated with full-length lower extremity radiographs. Patients underwent cemented TKA using femoral and tibial intramedullary instrumentation. Digital radiographs were analyzed using PACS (AGFA Healthcare, Ridgefield Park, NJ) software. Tibial component alignment was measured in the coronal and sagittal planes. Tibial component slope averaged 3.89° + 1.96 for the cruciate-retaining components and averaged 1.7° + 1.92 for PS components. The average coronal tibial component alignment was 90.00°, and 99% were within 3° of neutral mechanical alignment with only 2 (1%) outliers. Intramedullary instrumentation resulted in excellent postoperative tibial component and lower extremity alignment. PMID:19879723
Talmo, Carl T; Cooper, Andrew J; Wuerz, Tom; Lang, Jason E; Bono, James V
Tibial stress fractures are a common overuse injury among military recruits. The purpose of this study was to determine what, if any, long-term effects that tibial stress fractures have on military personnel with respect to physical activity level, completion of military training, recurrence of symptoms, and active duty service. Twenty-six military recruits included in a previous tibial stress fracture study were contacted 10 years after initial injury and asked a series of questions related to any long-term consequences of their tibial stress fracture. Of the 13 patients available for contact, no patients reported any necessary limited duty while on active duty, and no patient reported being separated or discharged from the military as a result of stress fracture. Tibial stress fractures in military recruits are most often an isolated injury and do not affect ability to complete military training or reflect a long-term need for decreased physical activity. PMID:23449055
Kilcoyne, Kelly G; Dickens, Jonathan F; Rue, John-Paul
We report a case of a 61-year-old gentleman who presented with frank hematuria with associated weight loss and on-going left knee pain. Subsequent investigation revealed a muscle invasive bladder carcinoma with a related unusual bone metastasis. Though bone metastases form bladder carcinoma are common, frequent deposition sites include the spinal column and pelvis. This case report is to the best of our knowledge the first reported case of a tibial metastasis for relevant bladder carcinoma. Furthermore, we reviewed the literature, relevant diagnostic and management surrounding such occurrences.
Brennan, David; Kelly, Michael E.; Nason, Gregory J.; Collins-Smyth, Coilin; McGuire, Barry B.; Lennon, Gerald M.
We report the case of a 59-year-old man with severe knee pain and inability to flex his toes or invert his plantar flexed foot after an external rotation injury to his knee. MRI showed rupture of the popliteus with a haematoma compressing the neurovascular bundle in the proximal calf, and electromyography demonstrated signs of an axonotmesis of the posterior tibial nerve. There was progressive nerve recovery over 24 weeks. Isolated rupture of the popliteus should be considered in any patient with an acute haemarthrosis, lateral tenderness and a stable knee, especially after an external rotation injury. PMID:1447239
Geissler, W B; Corso, S R; Caspari, R B
Purpose Proper femoral tunnel position is important for anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the positions of femoral and tibial tunnels created using an accessory anteromedial portal technique in single bundle ACL reconstruction. Materials and Methods The femoral tunnel was targeted at the mid-portion of the ACL bundles. We evaluated postoperative computed tomography scans of 32 patients treated by ACL reconstruction using a free-hand low accessory anteromedial portal technique. On the tibial side, the tunnel position was evaluated using Tsukada's method. On the femoral side, the position was evaluated using 1) the quadrant method, 2) Mochizuki's method, 3) Mochizuki's method, and 4) Takahashi's method. Tunnel obliquity was also evaluated. Results The mean tibial tunnel position was located at 44.6%±2.5% anterior from the anterior margin and 48.0%±3.0% in medial from the medial margin. The mean femoral tunnel position was located at the center between the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles: Quadrant method, 26.7%±2.7%/30.0%±2.9%; Watanabe's method, 37.7%±2.5%/26.6%±2.2%; Mochizuki's method, 38.7%±2.7%; Takahashi's method, 21.8%±2.2%. The mean femoral tunnel obliquity was 57.7°±6.2° in the sagittal plane and 49.9°±5.6° in the coronal plane. Conclusions In anatomic single bundle ACL reconstruction, the low anteromedial portal technique can restore accurate position of the native footprint. Accurate femoral tunnel position facilitates recovery of stability and decreases graft failure rate.
Lee, Kwang Won; Chi, Yong Joo; Yang, Dae Suk; Kim, Ha Yong; Choy, Won Sik
The conventional procedure in the treatment of vertebral tuberculosis is drainage of the abscess, curettage of the devitalized vertebra and application of an antituberculous chemotherapy regimen. Posterior instrumentation results are encouraging in the prevention or treatment of late kyphosis; however, a second-stage operation is needed. Recently, posterolateral or transpedicular drainage without anterior drainage or posterior instrumentation following anterior drainage in the same session has become the preferred treatment, in order that kyphotic deformity can be avoided. Information on the use of anterior instrumentation along with radical debridement and fusion is scarce. This study reports on the surgical results of 63 patients with Pott's disease who underwent anterior radical debridement with anterior fusion and anterior instrumentation (23 patients with Z-plate and 40 patients with CDH system). Average age at the time of operation was 46.8+/-13.4 years. Average duration of follow-up was 50.9+/-12.9 months. Local kyphosis was measured preoperatively, postoperatively and at the last follow-up visit as the angle between the upper and lower end plates of the collapsed vertebrae. Vertebral collapse, destruction, cold abscess, and canal compromise were assessed on magnetic resonance (MR) images. It was observed that the addition of anterior instrumentation increased the rate of correction of the kyphotic deformity (79.7+/-20.1%), and was effective in maintaining it, with an average loss of 1.1 degrees +/-1.7 degrees. Of the 25 patients (39.7%) with neurological symptoms, 20 (80%) had full and 4 (16%) partial recoveries. There were very few intraoperative and postoperative complications (major vessel complication: 3.2%; secondary non-specific infection: 3.2%). Disease reactivation was not seen with the employment of an aggressive chemotherapy regimen. It was concluded that anterior instrumentation is a safe and effective method in the treatment of tuberculosis spondylitis. PMID:12709862
Benli, I Teoman; Acaro?lu, Emre; Akalin, Serdar; Ki?, Mahmut; Duman, Evrim; Un, Ahmet
We evaluated a prototype composite collagenous anterior cruciate ligament replacement device designed to possess the advantages of biological grafts and synthetic materials. Collagenous anterior cruciate ligament prostheses were made by embedding 225 reconstituted type I collagen fibers in a type I collagen matrix, and placing polymethylmethacrylate bone fixation plugs on the ends. The collagenous prosthesis was used to replace the anterior cruciate ligament of 31 mature rabbits. At 4 and 20 weeks postimplantation, histologic and mechanical studies were performed on the developing neoligament tissue, and compared to values for the contralateral sham-operated control. At 4 weeks, neoligament tissue infiltrated the collagen fibers of the prostheses. The tibial bone tunnel attachment site contained new bone approaching the fibrous neoligament. The glutaraldehyde-treated prosthetic fibers appeared intact, while the carbodiimide-treated prosthetic fibers began to resorb. The ultimate load and ultimate tensile strength of femur-neoligament-tibia complexes had decreased. At 20 weeks, glutaraldehyde-treated fibers appeared partially intact; in contrast, the carbodiimide-treated prostheses appeared to be completely degraded, and were replaced by organized, crimped neoligament tissue. The ultimate tensile strength and ultimate load increased substantially due to deposition and remodeling of neoligament tissue. The neoligament ultimate load was 2 to 4 times the initial load value of the prosthesis. Implantation of a resorbable, composite collagenous anterior cruciate ligament prosthesis encourages the development of functional neoligament tissue. Studies are underway to optimize the mechanical and biological properties of the prostheses. PMID:1443316
Dunn, M G; Tria, A J; Kato, Y P; Bechler, J R; Ochner, R S; Zawadsky, J P; Silver, F H
Traumatic rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in adulthood is relatively common and surgical reconstruction is frequently required to allow return to high-level activities. There is growing evidence to suggest that ACL rupture in children is more common than previously thought and a poor outcome is associated with conservative management. The site of rupture in childhood is predominantly tibial avulsion, but mid-substance tears have also been reported. We report a case of a proximal ACL avulsion in an 11-year-old athlete and discuss a method of extra-physeal repair. There are very few previous reports of proximal avulsion fractures in skeletally immature patients. PMID:16937153
Edwards, M R; Terry, J; Gibbs, J; Bridle, S
Percutaneous tenotomy of the Achilles tendon is an integral part of the Ponseti technique of clubfoot correction. Although originally described by Ponseti as an office procedure that was performed under local anaesthesia, serious neurovascular complications that include iatrogenic injury to the lesser saphenous vein, the posterior tibial neurovascular bundle, the sural artery and pseudoaneurysm formation have been reported. We describe a new tenotomy technique, the posterior to anterior controlled technique, that may decrease the possibility of neurovascular damage, does not require exposure of the Achilles tendon and can be performed as an office procedure under local anaesthesia. PMID:23407431
Sharma, Siddhartha; Butt, Mohammad F; Singh, Manjeet; Sharma, Sudesh
The extended usage of unreamed tibial nailing resulted in reports of an increased rate of complications, especially for the distal portion of the tibia. The goal was to gain a thorough understanding of the load-sharing mechanism between unreamed nail and bone in a fractured tibia, and to identify borderline indications due to biomechanical factors. In finite element analyses of a human tibia, horizontal defects were modeled using unreamed nailing for five different fracture locations, including proximal and distal borderline indications for this treatment method. The findings of this study show that with all muscle and joint contact forces included, nailing leads to considerable unloading of the interlocked bone segments. Unreamed nailing of the distal defect results in an extremely low axial and high shear strain between the fragments. Apart from biological reasons, clinical problems reported for distal fractures may be due to the less favorable mechanical conditions in unreamed nailing. From a biomechanical perspective, the treatment of distal tibial shaft fractures with unreamed nailing without additional fragment contact or without stabilizing the fibula should be carefully reconsidered. PMID:12955241
Duda, G N; Mandruzzato, F; Heller, M; Schütz, M; Claes, L; Haas, N P
Background and purpose Complications related to the fibula during distraction osteogenesis could cause malalignment. Most published studies have analyzed only migration of the fibula during lengthening, with few studies examining the effects of fibular complications. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed 120 segments (in 60 patients) between 2002 and 2009. All patients underwent bilateral tibial lengthening of more than 5 cm. The mean follow-up time was 4.9 (2.5–6.9) years. Results The average lengthening percentage was 34% (21–65). The ratio of mean fibular length to tibial length was 1.05 (0.91–1.11) preoperatively and 0.83 (0.65–0.95) postoperatively. The mean proximal fibular migration (PFM) was 15 (4–31) mm and mean distal fibular migration (DFM) was 9.7 (0–24) mm. Premature consolidation occurred in 10 segments, nonunion occurred in 12, and angulation of fibula occurred in 8 segments after lengthening. Valgus deformities of the knee occurred in 10 segments. Interpretation PFM induced valgus deformity of the knee, and premature consolidation of the fibula was associated with the distal migration of the proximal fibula. These mechanical malalignments could sometimes be serious enough to warrant surgical correction. Thus, during lengthening repeated radiographic examinations of the fibula are necessary to avoid complications.
Objectives: To determine whether the medial collateral ligament can be a reliable intra-operative anatomical landmark for rotation of the tibial plateau in the tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) procedure, thus providing a tibial plateau rotation equal to that obtained using standard preoperative measurements. Methods: Tibial plateau levelling osteotomy procedures were performed on pelvic limbs (n = 42) from canine cadavers with or without a history of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. The rotation of the proximal fragment was performed such that the orientation of the fibres of the medial collateral ligament were aligned parallel to the caudal tibial cortex at the location of the osteotomy. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the difference between calculated rotation to achieve a postoperative tibial plateau angle of five degrees and the actual rotation achieved by aligning the medial collateral ligament and caudal tibial cortex. Results: The rotation performed by alignment of the medial collateral ligament fibres with the caudal tibial cortex resulted in a significantly greater rotation than the calculated movement required to achieve a postoperative angle of five degrees. The mean over-rotation was 2.1 ± 1.73 mm. Clinical significance: Use of the medial collateral ligament alignment with the caudal tibial cortex will reliably result in over-rotation of the tibial plateau and should not be used as an intra-operative guideline for tibial plateau rotation during TPLO procedures. PMID:24999181
Ley, B; Daubs, B; Bader, J; Silverman, E
Despite the fact that common surgical techniques for the treatment of genu varum usually correct the malalignment in the affected knee, these methods have significant complications and cause problems in the long term. Retro-tubercle opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy is among the newer techniques for the treatment of genu varum. The goal of this study was to compare the results of retro-tubercle opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy with those of medial opening-wedge osteotomy. In a randomized, controlled trial, 72 patients with varus knees who were scheduled for surgery were assigned into either the retro-tubercle opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (n=34) or medial opening-wedge osteotomy groups (n=38). Groups were matched for age and sex. The position of the patella was compared with respect to the tuberosity and the upper tibial slope pre- and postoperatively. Patients were followed for an average of 13 months (range, 10-21 months). In the retro-tubercle opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy group, the length of the patellar tendon did not significantly differ pre- and postoperatively (P?.5); however, in the medial opening-wedge osteotomy group, a statistically significant shortening was noted in patellar tendon postoperatively (P?.05). Similarly, the tibial plateau inclination showed a statistically significant difference postoperatively in the medial opening-wedge osteotomy group, while the difference in the retro-tubercle opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy group did not reach statistical significance. PMID:21323292
Keyhani, Sohrab; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Kazemi, Seyed Morteza; Esmailiejah, Ali Akbar; Seyed Hosseinzadeh, Hamid Reza; Shahi, Ali Sina; Firouzi, Farzad
In 33 total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) using instrumentation designed to cut the tibia with 0 degree posterior slope, ten tibial components demonstrated at least 2 mm of tibial component subsidence. These subsided components were implanted onto tibiae with an average of 8 degrees +/- 2 degrees difference between the preoperative, anatomic posterior slope and their postoperative posterior slope. The remaining 23 components, without subsidence, were implanted onto tibiae cut within 2 degrees +/- 2 degrees of their anatomic slope. To help understand these clinical observations, a laboratory study was performed to compare the load carrying capacity and the stiffness of tibial subchondral bone following two types of tibial cuts: one made perpendicular to the long axis of the tibia and the other made parallel to the articular surface of the tibia. Mock tibial baseplates mounted on paired cadaver tibiae were loaded in compression and force displacement curves were recorded. Tibiae cut parallel to the surface exhibited 40% greater load carrying capacity and 70% greater stiffness than the paired tibiae cut perpendicular to the long axis. The biomechanical data of this study indicated that cutting the tibia perpendicular to the long axis results in weaker bone that may be inadequate to support a tibial component. This may explain the higher incidence of clinical subsidence if the tibial cut is not made approximately parallel to the anatomic slope. PMID:1864058
Hofmann, A A; Bachus, K N; Wyatt, R W
Background and purpose The choice of either all-polyethylene (AP) tibial components or metal-backed (MB) tibial components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial. We therefore performed a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials that have evaluated MB and AP tibial components in primary TKA. Methods The search strategy included a computerized literature search (Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) and a manual search of major orthopedic journals. A meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized or quasi-randomized trials that compared the performance of tibial components in primary TKA was performed using a fixed or random effects model. We assessed the methodological quality of studies using Detsky quality scale. Results 9 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 2000 and 2009 met the inclusion quality standards for the systematic review. The mean standardized Detsky score was 14 (SD 3). We found that the frequency of radiolucent lines in the MB group was significantly higher than that in the AP group. There were no statistically significant differences between the MB and AP tibial components regarding component positioning, knee score, knee range of motion, quality of life, and postoperative complications. Interpretation Based on evidence obtained from this study, the AP tibial component was comparable with or better than the MB tibial component in TKA. However, high-quality RCTs are required to validate the results.
Background The management of displaced distal tibial fractures is still controversial. The different internal fixation techniques are often burdened by relatively high complication rates. Minimally invasive techniques with ring fixators have been introduced as an alternative allowing immediate reduction and stabilization, avoiding a staged protocol. The aim of this prospective study was to analyze the clinical and radiographic outcome the Ilizarov technique in patients with distal metaphyseal tibial fractures, with or without intra-articular involvement. Methods Thirty-nine consecutive patients with isolated fractures treated with the Ilizarov technique were followed prospectively for one year. Depending on the type of fracture, 4 or 5 rings were used, in some cases with additional foot extension. Unrestricted weight-bearing was allowed in all cases. Pre- and post-operatively conventional radiographs, post-operative pain assessment and complications were evaluated. The function was evaluated clinically and with self-appraisal protocols: EQ-5D, NHP and FAOS. Results No patient developed compartment syndrome or deep venous thrombosis. Pin infections were frequent, but they were mostly superficial and were treated with antibiotics and/or the removal of isolated pins. Two patients required debridement. One of them had a deep infection and developed a residual deformity which was corrected and healed after re-operation. Another patient had a severe residual deformity. The fixator was removed after a median period of 16 weeks (range 11–30). The radiological results were poor in 5 patients but the overall self-appraisal showed satisfactory results in 36 patients. Conclusions The Ilizarov method allowed early definitive treatment with a low complication rate and a good clinical outcome.
This study identifies and compares the kinematic gait changes occurring in tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) and cranial tibial wedge osteotomy (CTWO) limbs after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL). Ten, healthy, adult beagle dogs were assigned to TPLO (five dogs) and CTWO (five dogs) groups. Hind limb kinematics were assessed, while dogs were trotted at speeds ranging from 2.0 to 2.3 m/s. The animals were evaluated preoperatively (prior to TPLO and CTWO surgery) and at both 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. Two-dimensional evaluation was synchronized to obtain the three-dimensional coordinates using the APAS motion analysis software. Gait patterns were assessed by measuring stifle, tibiotarsal joint angles and stifle joints angular velocity. Stifle and tibiotarsal joint functions were not affected by TPLO surgery, but stifle and tibiotarsal joint angles were changed, following CTWO surgery, compared with their preoperative values. The angular velocity patterns of CTWO were characterized by increased stifle joint extension velocity from the middle to end swing phase and decrease in the peak velocities (flexion) during swing phase. None of these changes was observed in the stance phase after the CTWO surgery. These kinematic results showed that dogs that underwent a CTWO procedure were more likely to have significantly hyperextended gait patterns of the swing phase postoperatively than the dogs that had a TPLO procedure for repair of a ruptured CrCL. PMID:18045343
Lee, J Y; Kim, G; Kim, J-H; Choi, S H
Background The long-term outcomes following femoral and tibial segment transports are not well documented. Purpose of the study is to\\u000a compare the complication rates and life quality scores of femoral and tibial transports in order to find what are the complication\\u000a rates of femoral and tibial monorail bone transports and if they are different?\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of
Emmanouil Liodakis; Mohamed Kenawey; Christian Krettek; Max Ettinger; Michael Jagodzinski; Stefan Hankemeier
Endovascular intervention has emerged as an accepted modality for treating patients with critical limb ischemia. However, this therapy poses multiple challenges to the interventionalist due to the presence of widespread multilevel disease, long and complex occlusive lesions, and the common involvement of the tibial vessels. Retrograde pedal/tibial access is a relatively new technique that allows the treatment of tibial occlusive lesions when conventional endovascular techniques fail. This article reviews the technical details and published data regarding this technique and evaluates its use in this difficult-to-treat patient population.
El-Sayed, Hosam F.
Background Fractures of the tibial plateau present a treatment challenge and are susceptible to both prolonged operative times and high postoperative infection rates. For those fractures treated with open plating, we sought to identify the relationship between surgical site infection and prolonged operative time as well as identify other surgical risk factors. Methods We performed a retrospective controlled analysis of 309 consecutive unicondylar and bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with open plate osteosynthesis at our institution’s level I trauma center during a recent five year period. We recorded operative times, injury characteristics, surgical treatment, and need for operative debridement due to infection. Operative times of infected cases were compared to uncomplicated surgical cases. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for postoperative infection. Results Mean operative time in the infection group was 2.8 hours vs. 2.2 hours in the non-infected group (p=0.005). 15 fractures (4.9%) underwent four compartment fasciotomies as part of their treatment, with a significantly higher infection rate than those not undergoing fasciotomy (26.7% vs. 6.8%, p=0.01). Open fracture grade was also significantly related to infection rate (closed fractures: 5.3%, grade 1: 14.3%, grade 2: 40%, grade 3: 50%, p<0.0001). In the bicolumnar fracture group, use of dual-incision medial and lateral plating as compared to single incision lateral locked plating had statistically similar infection rates (13.9% vs. 8.7%, p=0.36). Multivariable logistic regression analysis of the entire study group identified longer operative times (OR 1.78, p=0.013) and open fractures (OR 7.02, p<0.001) as independent predictors of surgical site infection. Conclusions Operative times approaching three hours and open fractures are related to an increased overall risk for surgical site infection after open plating of the tibial plateau. Dual incision approaches with bicolumnar plating do not appear to expose the patient to increased risk compared to single incision approaches.
Colman, Matthew; Wright, Adam; Gruen, Gary; Siska, Peter; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Tarkin, Ivan
Background This article describes an arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction technique with a quadriceps tendon autograft using an anteromedial portal technique. Methods A 5?cm quadriceps tendon graft is harvested with an adjacent 2?cm bone block. The femoral tunnel is created through a low anteromedial portal in its anatomical position. The tibial tunnel is created with a hollow burr, thus acquiring a free cylindrical bone block. The graft is then passed through the tibial tunnel and the bone block, customized at its tip, is tapped into the femoral tunnel through the anteromedial portal to provide press-fit fixation. The graft is tensioned distally and sutures are tied over a bone bridge at the distal end of the tibial tunnel. From the cylindrical bone block harvested from the tibia the proximal end is customized and gently tapped next to the graft tissue into the tibial tunnel to assure press fitting of the graft in the tibial tunnel. The distal part of the tibial tunnel is filled up with the remaining bone. All patients were observed in a prospective fashion with subjective and objective evaluation after 6?weeks, 6 and 12?months. Results Thirty patients have been evaluated at a 12?months follow-up. The technique achieved in 96.7% normal or nearly normal results for the objective IKDC. The mean subjective IKDC score was 86.1 ± 15.8. In 96.7% the Tegner score was the same as before injury or decreased one category. A negative or 1+ Lachman test was achieved in all cases. Pivot-shift test was negative or (+) glide in 86.7%. The mean side-to-side difference elevated by instrumental laxity measurement was 1.6 ± 1.1?mm. Full ROM has been achieved in 92.3%. The mean single one-leg-hop index was 91.9 ± 8.0 at the follow-up. Conclusions Potential advantages include minimum bone loss specifically on the femoral side and graft fixation without implants.
Dysphagia is a common complication of anterior surgery of the cervical spine. The incidence of post-operative dysphagia may be as high as 71% within the first two weeks after surgery, but gradually decreases during the following months. However, 12% to 14% of patients may have some persistent dysphagia one year after the procedure. It has been shown that female gender, advanced age, multilevel surgery, longer operating time and severe pre-operative neck pain may be risk factors. Although the aetiology remains unclear and is probably multifactorial, proposed causes include oesophageal retraction, prominence of the cervical plate and prevertebral swelling. Recently, pre-operative tracheal traction exercises and the use of retropharyngeal steroids have been proposed as methods of reducing post-operative dysphagia. We performed a systematic review to assess the incidence, aetiology, risk factors, methods of assessment and management of dysphagia following anterior cervical spinal surgery. PMID:23814234
Cho, S K; Lu, Y; Lee, D-H
The current available evidence for the use of bone graft substitutes in the management of subchondral bone defects associated with tibial plateau fractures as to their efficiency and safety has been collected following a literature review of the Ovid MEDLINE (1948-Present) and EMBASE (1980-Present). Nineteen studies were analysed reporting on 672 patients (674 fractures), with a mean age of 50.35 years (range 15-89), and a gender ratio of 3/2 males/females. The graft substitutes evaluated in the included studies were calcium phosphate cement, hydroxyapatite granules, calcium sulphate, bioactive glass, tricalcium phosphate, demineralised bone matrix, allografts, and xenograft. Fracture healing was uneventful in over 90% of the cases over a variant period of time. Besides two studies reporting on injectable calcium phosphate cement excellent incorporation was reported within 6 to 36 months post-surgery. No correlation was made by any of the authors between poor incorporation/resorption and adverse functional or radiological outcome. Secondary collapse of the knee joint surface ? 2 mm was reported in 8.6% in the biological substitutes (allograft, DBM, and xenograft), 5.4% in the hydroxyapatite, 3.7% in the calcium phosphate cement, and 11.1% in the calcium sulphate cases. The recorded incidence of primary surgical site and donor site infection (3.6%) was not statistically significant different, however donor site-related pain was reported up to 12 months following autologous iliac bone graft (AIBG) harvest. Shorter total operative time, greater tolerance of early weight bearing, improved early functional outcomes within the first year post-surgery was also recorded in the studies reporting on the use of injectable calcium phosphate cement (Norian SRS). Despite a lack of good quality randomised control trials, there is arguably sufficient evidence supporting the use of bone graft substitutes at the clinical setting of depressed plateau fractures. PMID:23351879
Goff, Thomas; Kanakaris, Nikolaos K; Giannoudis, Peter V
Congenital absence of tibia is a rare anomaly, and may be total or partial, unilateral or bilateral. Total absence is more frequent than partial, unilateral absence occurs more often than bilateral, with right limb more commonly affected than the left. In partial defect, almost always the distal end of the bone is affected, and of the bilateral cases, there may be total absence on both sides, or total on one side and partial on the other. Males are slightly more commonly affected than the females. Though, the family history is usually negative for congenital abnormalities and other diseases, there is a considerable chance of occurrence of congenital defect of the tibia or of other abnormalities, in near or remote relatives. We report a case of newborn having bilateral tibial hemimelia type VIIa. PMID:23901205
Chinnakkannan, Selvakumar; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Rughmini, K; Ahmed, Sufath
Congenital absence of tibia is a rare anomaly, and may be total or partial, unilateral or bilateral. Total absence is more frequent than partial, unilateral absence occurs more often than bilateral, with right limb more commonly affected than the left. In partial defect, almost always the distal end of the bone is affected, and of the bilateral cases, there may be total absence on both sides, or total on one side and partial on the other. Males are slightly more commonly affected than the females. Though, the family history is usually negative for congenital abnormalities and other diseases, there is a considerable chance of occurrence of congenital defect of the tibia or of other abnormalities, in near or remote relatives. We report a case of newborn having bilateral tibial hemimelia type VIIa.
Chinnakkannan, Selvakumar; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Rughmini, K.; Ahmed, Sufath
Analysing 1077 fractures of the distal segment of the tibia the author found specific morphologies of the accompanying fibula fractures when axial dislocations exist. In valgus position compression and bending forces induce multifragmentary fractures of the diaphysis or impactions of the metaphysis. In varus position bending and traction forces create simple oblique or transverse fractures. The ligaments of the syndesmosis are rarely ruptured when the fibula is fractured. They may remain undamaged when the fibula is intact. Ruptures of the fibulotalar and fibulocalcanear ligaments are not uncommon. The internal fixation of the fibula remains the first step of the AO-tactics for the operative treatment of Pilon-tibial fractures. The initial axial position must be respected. In valgus cases there will be postoperative compression forces (pillar function), in varus cases traction forces (tension band function) acting on the repaired fibula. Indirect reduction techniques ought to be used for complex fibula fractures. PMID:2099165
The accuracy of templates used for the preoperative planning of the fixation of intramedullary fractures depends on radiological magnification. To study the accuracy of these templates, we randomly selected 100 femoral and 100 tibial radiographs taken after stabilisation by an intramedullary nail using a standard technique. We then compared the known nail length with the corresponding measurements on the radiographs. The mean magnification factor for the femur was 9% and for the tibia 7%; these differ considerably from the range of magnification of the manufacturers' templates (femur, 15% to 17%; tibia 10% to 15%). We conclude that templates are unreliable for the selection of implant length and that this should be done by intraoperative measurements. PMID:8951016
Krettek, C; Blauth, M; Miclau, T; Rudolf, J; Könemann, B; Schandelmaier, P
In a retrospective study involving 59 patients, a regression equation between nail length and body weight has been computed as follows: nail length = -5.05729 + 0.222 x body height (probability value for intercept P = 0.24327 and slope P = 0.0000). Graphic analysis of the residuals gave a randomly scattered blob of data points. Validation of the equation in 12 patients showed an average difference between actual and derived nail length of -0.09 (SD 0.93, minimum -1.57, maximum 1.42). It can be stated that in most cases of intramedullary tibial nailing, the length of nail required can be predicted by the regression equation using the available manufactured nail of the size nearest in length to the derived length or the next size up or down. PMID:7917710
Fischmeister, M F; Lang, T; Reichl, C; Wechselberger, C
We report the case of a 42-year-old man with pleuritic chest pain, shortness of breath, and associated tachycardia. Three months before, he had been treated for similar features with the diagnosis of pulmonary emboli. Computed tomography scan showed multiple bilateral pulmonary emboli. He had no clinical evidence of deep venous thrombosis, but an accurate venous duplex examination revealed a thrombosis of the posterior tibial vein aneurysm. Thrombolysis, a temporary inferior cava filter (ICV filter), and tangential aneurysmectomy and lateral venorrhaphy were performed. Accurate duplex scan evaluation of lower limb venous system is mandatory in all cases of pulmonary embolism; anticoagulation may be ineffective in preventing pulmonary embolism, and the surgical repair is treatment of choice of this pathology because it is safe and effective. PMID:20570471
Gabrielli, Roberto; Rosati, Maria Sofia; Costanzo, Alessandro; Chiappa, Roberto; Siani, Andrea; Caselli, Giovanni
Stress fractures are common injuries in athletes and military recruits. They result from repetitive microtrauma, which over time exceeds the bone's intrinsic ability to repair itself. The site of occurrence is most commonly the weight-bearing lower limb. Such injuries are easily missed as the history and clinical signs are often not consistent with an acute injury and therefore may not warrant an x-ray on first presentation to the emergency department or primary care. Even when plain radiographs are taken, the fractures may not be initially evident and in the presence of a high index of clinical suspicion, further investigations may be necessary. We present the case of a military recruit who developed bilateral distal tibial stress fractures early on in his training. PMID:22669851
Sciberras, Nadia; Taylor, Clare; Trimble, Karl
The tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) is one of the most common surgical procedures used to treat cranial cruciate ligament disease in dogs. Complications occurring during or after TPLO can range in severity from swelling and bruising to fracture and osteomyelitis. Ten to 34% of TPLO surgical procedures are reported to experience a complication and approximately two to four percent require revision surgery to address a complication. Although the risk factors for many complications have not been fully assessed, the best available evidence suggests that complications of TPLO can be reduced with increased surgeon experience, careful surgical planning, and accurate execution of the surgical procedure. Identification of known or suspected risk factors and intra-operative technical errors allow subsequent action to be taken that is aimed at decreasing postoperative morbidity. There is a need for prospective studies with consistent data reporting in order to fully reveal the incidence risk factors for complications associated with TPLO. PMID:22534675
Bergh, M S; Peirone, B
Chondrosarcoma is one of the most common malignant bone tumours in adults. However, it rarely occurs during pregnancy. Therefore, reports on surgical and medical management of this entity are hard to find. Different studies suggest a possible growth-enhancing effect of altered hormone levels on various bone tumours. The effect of pregnancy on growth characteristics of chondrosarcomas however remains unclear. We report a case of a 32-year-old pregnant woman with a newly occurred chondrosarcoma of the tibial head. Intense clinical monitoring and repeated MRI scans showed a tumour progression during pregnancy followed by the need of above-knee amputation after 30?weeks gestation. Spontaneous vaginal delivery after 38?weeks gestation was complicated by an amniotic infection syndrome and finally stopped, necessitating a caesarean section. Despite this there were no further complications to be mentioned. No local tumour recurrence or metastases could be detected in the staging CT scans following pregnancy. PMID:24981001
Roessler, Philip P; Schmitt, Jan; Fuchs-Winkelmann, Susanne; Efe, Turgay
Background: Double bundle anterior cruciate ligament (DBACL) reconstruction is said to reproduce the native anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) anatomy better than single bundle anterior cruciate ligament, whether it leads to better functional results is debatable. Different fixation methods have been used for DBACL reconstruction, the most common being aperture fixation on tibial side and cortical suspensory fixation on the femoral side. We present the results of DBACL reconstruction technique, wherein on the femoral side anteromedial (AM) bundle is fixed with a crosspin and aperture fixation was done for the posterolateral (PL) bundle. Materials and Methods: Out of 157 isolated ACL injury patients who underwent ACL reconstruction, 100 were included in the prospective study. Arthroscopic DBACL reconstruction was done using ipsilateral hamstring autograft. AM bundle was fixed using Transfix (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) on the femoral side and bio interference screw (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) on the tibial side. PL bundle was fixed on femoral as well as on tibial side with a biointerference screw. Patients were evaluated using KT-1000 arthrometer, Lysholm score, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Score and isokinetic muscle strength testing. Methods: Out of 157 isolated ACL injury patients who underwent ACL reconstruction, 100 were included in the prospective study. Arthroscopic DBACL reconstruction was done using ipsilateral hamstring autograft. AM bundle was fixed using Transfix (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) on the femoral side and bio interference screw (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) on the tibial side. PL bundle was fixed on femoral as well as on tibial side with a biointerference screw. Patients were evaluated using KT-1000 arthrometer, Lysholm score, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Score and isokinetic muscle strength testing. Results: The KT-1000 results were evaluated using paired t test with the P value set at 0.001. At the end of 1 year, the anteroposterior side to side translation difference (KT-1000 manual maximum) showed mean improvement from 5.1 mm ± 1.5 preoperatively to 1.6 mm ± 1.2 (P < 0.001) postoperatively. The Lysholm score too showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) improvement from 52.4 ± 15.2 (range: 32-76) preoperatively to a postoperative score of 89.1 Â± 3.2 (range 67-100). According to the IKDC score 90% patients had normal results (Category A and B). The AM femoral tunnel initial posterior blow out was seen in 4 patients and confluence in the intraarticular part of the femoral tunnels was seen in 6 patients intraoperatively. The quadriceps strength on isokinetic testing had an average deficit of 10.3% while the hamstrings had a 5.2% deficit at the end of 1 year as compared with the normal side. Conclusion: Our study revealed that the DBACL reconstruction using crosspin fixation for AM bundle and aperture fixation for PL bundle on the femoral side resulted in significant improvement in KT 1000, Lysholm and IKDC scores.
Joshi, Deepak; Jain, Vineet; Goyal, Ankit; Bahl, Vibhu; Modi, Prashant; Chaudhary, Deepak
Background: Schatzker type V and VI tibial fractures are complex injuries, usually treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) using dual plates or ring fixators. ORIF has the advantage of not requiring pin tract care, but has a higher infection rate, especially in open fractures. We have combined the advantages of these two methods to treat these difficult fractures. Materials and Methods: Ten Schatzker type V and 11 Schatzker type VI fractures were treated between 2006 and 2010. ORIF with dual plates was performed, only if there was marked articular displacement (> 2 mm) in a closed fracture. All other fractures including open fractures and closed fractures with soft tissue compromise or minimal articular displacement were treated with ring fixators. The outcomes were analyzed and documented using the Honkonen and Jarvinen subjective, clinical, functional, and radiological criteria and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). Results: Nine closed fractures with marked articular displacement (> 2 mm) were treated with dual plates. Eight closed fractures with minimal articular displacement (< 2 mm) and poor skin condition and four open fractures were treated with ring fixators. The mean follow-up period was 2 ½ years. The mean postoperative knee flexion was 128°. All patients could walk, jump, and climb steps. 90% could squat, though only 50% could duck walk properly. Radiologically, 85% had a plateau tilt of less than 5°, 92% had an articular step of less than 2 mm, and a residual articular widening of less than 5 mm. There were no major infections. Two patients had minor pin tract infections and two requested that their plates be removed subsequently. Conclusion: The protocol used to treat Schatzker type V and VI tibial plateau fractures has had excellent results and we suggest that all open fractures be treated with ring fixators and that ORIF should be done only for closed fractures with marked displacement.
Pun, Tul B; Krishnamoorthy, Vignesh P; Poonnoose, Pradeep M; Oommen, Anil T; Korula, Ravi J
This study investigated the efficacy of tibial tubercle osteotomy (TTO) with screw fixation as part of the surgical treatment of primary complicated total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and revision TKA. From January 2000 to April 2011, 15 patients (15 knees) underwent revision TKA and 20 patients (21 knees) underwent primary TKA. The average patient age was 68.7±8.7 years. Patients underwent follow-up at the authors' institution for an average of 60.6±32.9 months. Comparison of preoperative and postoperative Knee Society Scores and Knee Society Functional Scores showed significant postoperative improvement (P<.05). Moreover, postoperative range of motion of the knee improved from 88.5°±33.8° to 104.3°±18.2° (P<.05). Radiographic assessment showed that the average period to bone union was 10.8±5 weeks (range, 5-28 weeks), the average length of the bone fragment was 59.4±5.9 mm, the average width at the proximal end was 18.9±2.9 mm, and the average thickness at the proximal end of the osteotomy was 10.3±1.2 mm. Tibial tubercle osteotomy provided wide exposure for TKA while protecting the extensor mechanism. Solid bone-to-bone fixation was achieved using TTO with 2 screws, and although the overall complication rate was 8.3%, none of the complications were associated with TTO itself. It is recommended that the bone fragment be 60 mm long, 20 mm wide, and 10 mm thick at the proximal end. Appropriate size of the osteotomized bone and solid screw fixation are essential to prevent complications during this procedure. PMID:24762842
Chinzei, Nobuaki; Ishida, Kazunari; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Seiji; Iguchi, Tetsuhiro; Chin, Takaaki; Akisue, Toshihiro; Nishida, Kotaro; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Tsumura, Nobuhiro
Background Previous osteotomy may compromise subsequent knee replacement, but no guidelines considering knee arthroplasty after prior osteotomy have been developed. We describe a systematic review of non-randomized studies to analyze the effect of high tibial osteotomy on total knee arthroplasty. Methods A computerized search for relevant studies published up to September 2007 was performed in Medline and Embase using a search strategy that is highly sensitive to find nonrandomized studies. Included were observational studies in which patients had total knee arthroplasty performed after prior high tibial osteotomy. Studies that fulfilled these criteria, were assessed for methodologic quality by two independent reviewers using the critical appraisal of observational studies developed by Deeks and the MINORS instrument. The study characteristics and data on the intervention, follow-up, and outcome measures, were extracted using a pre-tested standardized form. Primary outcomes were: knee range of motion, knee clinical score, and revision surgery. The grade of evidence was determined using the guidelines of the GRADE working group. Results Of the 458 articles identified using our search strategy, 17 met the inclusion criteria. Fifteen studies were cohort study with a concurrent control group, one was a historical cohort study and one a case-control study. Nine studies scored 50% or more on both methodological quality assessments. Pooling of the results was not possible due to the heterogeneity of the studies, and our analysis could not raise the overall low quality of evidence. No significant differences between primary total knee arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty after osteotomy were found for knee range of motion in four out of six studies, knee clinical scores in eight out of nine studies, and revision surgery in eight out of eight studies after a median follow-up of 5 years. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that osteotomy does not compromise subsequent knee replacement. However, the low quality of evidence precludes solid clinical conclusions.
van Raaij, Tom M; Reijman, Max; Furlan, Andrea D; Verhaar, Jan AN
Injury to the lymphatic channels is a rare and relatively unknown complication of anterior approaches to the lumbar spine and can cause fluid to build up in the retroperitoneal space, resulting in a lymphocele. If they enlarge sufficiently, these collections of chyle in the abdomen can cause pain and bowel ischemia, and can compress nearby organs. The authors report 4 cases in which anterior approaches to the lumbar spine were complicated by a postoperative retroperitoneal chylous fluid collection. They describe the anatomy of the lymphatic system and pathophysiology of this disease entity, review the sparse literature on this subject, and recommend a treatment algorithm. Maintaining a high index of suspicion for this clinical entity in patients who have recently undergone an anterior approach to the thoracic or lumbar spine is vital to avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22978438
Hussain, Namath S; Hanscom, David; Oskouian, Rod J
There is renewed interest in cementless total knee arthroplasty, yet the optimal tibial design remains elusive. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the stability of various tibial component designs in normal and osteoporotic bone. Two cementless tibial implants, a CoCr beaded keeled baseplate and a two-pegged, highly porous titanium design underwent mechanical testing in normal and osteoporotic bone models. Decreased stability was observed in both designs in the osteoporotic model compared with "normal" bone (p < 0.0017). Stability of the keeled design was greater than the two-peg design in both densities; however, this difference was statistically significant only in the "normal" bone model (p = 0.005). This study demonstrates that cementless tibial component stability is affected by both implant design and host bone quality. PMID:21980880
Meneghini, R Michael; Daluga, Andrew; Soliman, Mohamed
We report a case of closed distal tibial fracture (AO 43C3), treated successfully with arthroscopically assisted minimally invasive reduction and percutaneous screw fixation. Techniques and postoperative treatment are described. PMID:12724669
Kralinger, Franz; Lutz, Martin; Wambacher, Markus; Smekal, Vinzenz; Golser, Karl
The purpose of this study was to mechanically test the cement-tibial component interface using titanium and cobalt-chrome sample prostheses with several commercially available surface textures. The results of this study indicate that the type of metal substrate and surface preparation of contemporary tibial baseplates may influence the strength of the metal-cement interface and as such influence tibial component survival. The results indicate that, in general, metal-cement interface strength increases with increasing surface roughness and common surface treatments such as AlO2 grit-blasting (Ra = 6.76 microm) produce interface strengths similar to plasma-spray, porous-coated specimens. Macrosurfaced tibial components, although comparable in tension, may be vulnerable to metal-cement interface failure with rotational loading. PMID:16950044
Pittman, Gavin T; Peters, Christopher L; Hines, Jerod L; Bachus, Kent N
Release of the patellar retinaculum and tibial tubercle elevation have both been advocated for the treatment of patellofemoral degeneration. Questions remain, however, regarding the magnitude and predictability of such effects in diseased joints. Using cadaver knee joints exhibiting a range of patellofemoral cartilage degeneration, we investigated the effects on joint contact pressures on release of the patellar retinaculum, followed by tibial tubercle elevations of 1.25 and 2.5 cm. Retinacular release failed to alter the joint-loading parameters significantly. Tibial tubercle elevation reduced the patello-femoral joint contact area and contact force, but failed to cause a consistent change in contact pressure. Tibial tubercle elevation also caused a migration of the joint contact area superolaterally on the retropatellar surface. This migration occurred in conjunction with ventral tilting of the inferior pole of the patella as the tubercle was elevated, suggesting that significant changes in joint kinematics may result from this procedure. PMID:2213343
Lewallen, D G; Riegger, C L; Myers, E R; Hayes, W C
To investigate the clinical behavior of deep frozen and irradiated bone allografts in the treatment of depressed tibial plateau fractures. Twenty-two patients with a tibial plateau fracture were treated with cancellous bone allografts. The bone allograft preparation process included fresh-freezing at -70 °C for 4 weeks and gamma-irradiation at 25 kGy. All of the patients were followed for 1-2 years. The clinical effects were assessed using the Rasmussen score for tibial head fractures and X-rays. Postoperatively, the average excellent and fair Rasmussen scores were 88.9%. Only one patient developed an infection, with no integration between allograft and recipient bone observed. All of the other bone allografts were incorporated successfully, and no osteoporosis or sclerosis was observed. The frozen and gamma-irradiated bone allograft is a good alternative in the treatment of tibial plateau fractures, which we have shown can integrate with the surrounding host bone. PMID:22986931
Feng, Wei; Fu, Li; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Dongsong; Qi, Xin
Clinical observation of several hundred Ilizarov patients has demonstrated prolonged muscle weakness in the involved limb after treatment. The etiology may be either neuropathic or myopathic. Direct intraoperative neural injury is unusual but generally is detected immediately postoperatively. We wished to determine the etiology of this clinical problem. Six consecutive patients completing tibial lengthening by the Ilizarov method were examined by electrodiagnostic methods. All patients were clinically normal. Electrodiagnostic testing showed abnormalities in six of six deep peroneal nerves. Five of six demonstrated abnormalities in the superficial peroneal sensory responses. In addition, two of six patients demonstrated abnormalities related to the posterior tibial nerve. Concomitantly, sequential perioperative limb compartment pressure studies were performed in nine patients undergoing 12 tibial applications of the Ilizarov technique. Increases in mean compartment pressures to between 20 and 30 mm Hg were demonstrated after tibial osteotomy and in the first 18 hours postoperatively. PMID:8396595
Young, N L; Davis, R J; Bell, D F; Redmond, D M
A laboratory-based study was performed to describe the tibial axis and patellar position relative to the femoral epicondylar (FE) axis during squatting. During the squat, the angle between the tibial and FE axes averaged 90.5°, and 66% of internal rotation of the tibia occurred before 15° flexion. In the mid-sagittal plane of the femur, the patella followed a circular arc,
Kathryn M Coughlin; Stephen J Incavo; David L Churchill; Bruce D Beynnon
The purpose of this study was to compare prosthetic weight-bearing tolerance in the standing position to the dynamic vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF) experienced during walking in elderly dysvascular trans-tibial amputees. Ten unilateral trans-tibial amputees attending an amputee clinic (mean age =67±6.5 years) were selected as subjects. Selection criteria were the level of amputation, age, medical fitness to participate and
M. E. JONES; J. R. STEEL; G. M. BASHFORD; I. R. DAVIDSON
Objective To determine the effect of aging on the occurence of femoral and tibial fractures during vehicular crashes. Methods The Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN), which includes occupants of a vehicle < 8 years old with at least one AIS ?3 or two AIS ?2 injuries in different body regions, comprised the study population. The occurrence of femoral and tibial fractures during vehicular crashes was analyzed in relation to age and other confounders [gender, BMI, stature, change in velocity (?v), restraint use, occupant position (driver vs. passenger) and principal direction of force (PDOF)] using ?2, Mantel-Haenszel ?2 and student t test. Multiple logistic regression (MLR) models were built for the prediction of femoral and tibial fractures with age as the independent variable and possible confounders as co-variates. An ? = 0.05 was used for all statistics. Results The incidence of femoral and tibial fractures in the study population (N=1,418) was 23% and 27%, respectively. Univariate analyses revealed a negative association between increasing age and femoral fractures and no association between age and tibial fractures. MLR models revealed no clear effect of increasing age on the occurrence of either femoral or tibial fractures. Obesity, frontal PDOF, and high Delta;v affected the occurrence of femoral fractures. Tibial fractures were influenced by occupant position (driver), frontal PDOF, high ?v and shorter stature. Conclusion Despite the known changes in bone composition and strength with aging, elderly vehicular occupants do not experience higher odds of incurring femoral and tibial fractures during crashes.
Ryb, Gabriel; Dischinger, Patricia; Kleinberger, Michael; Burch, Cynthia; Ho, Shiu
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of unilateral external fixator as primary and definitive treatment\\u000a for open tibial fractures, fractures with severe soft tissues injuries, threatened compartment syndrome, and in multiply injured\\u000a patients. Two hundred and twenty-three tibial shaft fractures (212 patients) were treated. In open fractures, union was achieved\\u000a in 25 weeks, while in closed in
Michail Beltsios; Olga Savvidou; John Kovanis; Panagiotis Alexandropoulos; Panagiotis Papagelopoulos
Various different interlocking intramedullary nail designs are now available for the tibia the designs resulting from a different approaches to achieving stability for fracture fixation. During recent years small-diameter unreamed interlocking nails have been developed. So far there are no data on stiffness of different nail designs that can justify the use of certain nail types. We compared different nail types in the bone-implant complex (BIC) with reference to stiffness under axial load, bending and torsion of the BIC. We simulated comminuted mid-shaft fractures by a 2-cm defect osteotomy in paired human cadaver tibiae. We fixed each tibia with one of nine different interlocking nails (AO Unreamed Tibial Nail 9 mm [UTN9], AO Unreamed Tibial Nail 8 mm [UTN8], Russell & Taylor Delta Tibial Nail 9 mm [RTD], Russell & Taylor Reconstruction Tibial Nail 11 mm [RTR], Brooker & Wills Nail 11 mm [B-W], Grosse & Kempf Tibial Nail 11 mm [G-K], AO Universal Tibial Nail 11 mm [AOU], Klemm & Schellmann Tibial Nail 11 mm [K-S], Börner & Mattheck Tibial Nail 11 mm [B-M]) according to the manufacturers' recommendations. Each BIC was tested mechanically using a Zwick universal testing machine. Torque testing was performed with a maximum moment of 5 Nm in both directions. Maximum axial load was 1100 N. Four-point bending was done up to a moment of 66 Nm. For each implant bending and torque stiffness of the nail were calculated and compared with the test results obtained in the cadaver study. A P-value less than 0.05 (least significance difference test, ANOVA) was considered significant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7817197
Schandelmaier, P; Krettek, C; Tscherne, H
Proximal tibial fractures are rare in children, and most are treated conservatively. We report a case of a minimally displaced proximal tibial epiphyseal injury (Salter-Harris type III) in an 11-year-old child. We initially thought to treat this fracture conservatively, but the presence of massive haemarthrosis and considerable pain made us choose arthroscopy under general anaesthetic. During examination under anesthesia no
R. Dharmarajan; A. J. S. Kumar; M. J. Aldridge
The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanical adaptations were present in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees during high-demand activities. Twenty-two subjects with unilateral ACL deficiency (11 males and 11 females, 19.6months after injury) performed five different activities at a comfortable speed (level walking, ascending and descending steps, jogging, jogging to a 90-degree side cutting toward the opposite direction of the tested side). Three-dimensional knee kinematics for the ACL-deficient knees and uninjured contralateral knees were evaluated using the Point Cluster Technique. There was no significant difference in knee flexion angle, but an offset toward the knee in less valgus and more external tibial rotation was observed in the ACL-deficient knee. The tendency was more obvious in high demand motions, and a significant difference was clearly observed in the side cutting motions. These motion patterns, with the knee in less valgus and more external tibial rotation, are proposed to be an adaptive movement to avoid pivot shift dynamically, and reveal evidence in support of a dynamic adaptive motion occurring in ACL-deficient knees. PMID:24837218
Takeda, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Takayuki; Kiriyama, Yoshimori; Matsumoto, Hideo; Otani, Toshiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Nagura, Takeo
Background Preservation of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) remnant is important from the biological point of view as it enhances revascularization, and preserves the proprioceptive function of the graft construct. Additionally, it may have a useful biomechanical function. Double bundle ACL reconstruction has been shown to better replicate the native ACL anatomy and results in better restoration of the rotational stability than single bundle reconstruction. Methods We used the far anteromedial (FAM) portal for creation of the femoral tunnels, with a special technique for its preoperative localization using three dimensional (3D) CT. The central anteromedial (AM) portal was used to make a longitudinal slit in the ACL remnant to allow visualization of the tips of the guide pins during anatomical creation of the tibial tunnels within the native ACL tibial foot print. The use of curved hemostat allow retrieval of the wire loop from the apertures of the femoral tunnels through the longitudinal slit in the ACL remnant thereby, guarding against impingement of the reconstruction graft against the ACL remnant as well as the roof of the intercondylar notch. Conclusion Our technique allows for anatomical double bundle reconstruction of the ACL while maximally preserving the ACL remnant without the use of intra-operative image intensifier.
The commonly used size of microsphere for bone blood flow estimation is 15 microns, because it has appeared to be the smallest size that is not subject to significant nonentrapment in bone. Soft-tissue studies suggest that it is microspheres of 9-10 microns or less that pass through peripheral tissues and give low calculated flows, whereas many vessels passing into and within cortical bone are less than 15 microns in diameter. We have therefore performed a comparison between microspheres approximately 15 and 11 microns in average size. Blood flows to the cortex and marrow of the tibial diaphysis, and to the skeletal muscle of the anterior compartment, were obtained in six adult New Zealand White rabbits by the reference sample technique, injecting microspheres of 16.5 +/- 0.1 microns and 11.3 +/- 0.1 microns simultaneously. The calculated cortical flows averaged 2.07 and 2.51 ml/min/100 g, respectively, and the marrow flows 26.63 and 24.92 ml/min/100 g. Mean skeletal muscle flows were 15.57 and 14.54 ml/min/100 g, respectively. There were no significant differences between the calculated flows for the two sizes of microsphere. Thus, the smaller microspheres do not appear by this method to be subject to significant nonentrapment, and they are therefore suitable for blood flow measurement in these tissues.
Triffitt, P.D.; Gregg, P.J. (Univ. of Leicester (England))
Background: No consistent relationship between the severity of symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and radiographic change has been demonstrated. Objectives: To determine the relationship between symptoms of knee OA and tibial cartilage volume, whether pain predicts loss of cartilage in knee OA, and whether change in cartilage volume over time relates to change in symptoms over the same period. Method: 132 subjects with symptomatic, early (mild to moderate) knee OA were studied. At baseline and 2 years later, participants had MRI scans of their knee and completed questionnaires quantifying symptoms of knee OA (knee-specific WOMAC: pain, stiffness, function) and general physical and mental health (SF-36). Tibial cartilage volume was determined from the MRI images. Results: Complete data were available for 117 (89%) subjects. A weak association was found between tibial cartilage volume and symptoms at baseline. The severity of the symptoms of knee OA at baseline did not predict subsequent tibial cartilage loss. However, weak associations were seen between worsening of symptoms of OA and increased cartilage loss: pain (rs = 0.28, p = 0.002), stiffness (rs = 0.17, p = 0.07), and deterioration in function (rs = 0.21, p = 0.02). Conclusion: Tibial cartilage volume is weakly associated with symptoms in knee OA. There is a weak association between loss of tibial cartilage and worsening of symptoms. This suggests that although cartilage is not a major determinant of symptoms in knee OA, it does relate to symptoms.
Wluka, A; Wolfe, R; Stuckey, S; Cicuttini, F
We present the case of a patient who had surgery for cataract extraction by phacoemulsification method and that the first day after surgery one lash was found in the anterior chamber of the eye. The lash was removed the same day, the postoperative refraction being 1.0. Starting from this case, therapeutic attitude is presented in different intracameral foreign bodies. PMID:20361650
Vámosi, P; Horvath, Karin
nterior knee pain (AKP) is a common complaint in primary care and orthopedic clinics. In fact, in the sports medicine clinic, up to 25% of patients with knee complaints have symptoms of anterior knee pain (1). Adolescent females and other young individuals are at particular risk for AKP. In these individuals, symptoms are usually related to increased use, fre- quently
Stephen R. Christian; M. Bret Anderson; Ronald Workman; William F. Conway; Thomas L. Pope
This investigation examined the relationships of tooth preparation and resin material types in repair of fractured anterior teeth by reattachment of fractured tooth fragments. A total of 44 extracted maxillary central incisors were tested. Statistical analysis revealed that no mechanical preparation of the enamel was as retentive as a 45°-circumferential bevel (p K.01). In addition, light-cured resin proved to be
Jeffrey A. Dean; Marjorie L. Swartz; David R. Avery
Based on our clinical experience and an anatomical study, we examined the conditions under which injury to the popliteal\\u000a artery, tibial nerve or peroneal nerve and its branches may occur during high tibial osteotomy. In 250 high tibial osteotomies\\u000a performed in our department, we observed the following intraoperative complications. (1) The popliteal artery was severed\\u000a in 1 patient and repaired
Anastasios D. Georgoulis; Charalampos A. Makris; Christos D. Papageorgiou; Ulf G. Moebius; Theodoros Xenakis; Panagiotis N. Soucacos
Magnetic resonance imaging of anterior cruciate ligament tears: reevaluation of quantitative parameters and imaging findings including a simplified method for measuring the anterior cruciate ligament angle.
We evaluated the diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for predicting anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears using both quantitative parameters and nonquantitative imaging findings. MRI examinations were retrospectively evaluated in a group of patients with arthroscopically confirmed complete ACL tear and in a control group with arthroscopically confirmed intact ACL. We evaluated multiple MRI features to compare their sensitivity and specificity for detecting ACL tears. Particular emphasis is put on the evaluation of three different quantitative parameters, including a simplified method for measuring the ACL angle. With a threshold value of 45 degrees the ACL angle reached a sensitivity and specificity of 100% for detecting ACL tears. With a threshold value of 0 degrees the Blumensaat angle had a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 98%. Finally, a threshold value of 115 degrees gave the posterior cruciate ligament angle a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 82%. Discontinuity was found to be the most useful of the ACL abnormalities. Of the secondary findings anterior tibial displacement was the best predictor of ligamentous injury. However, ACL abnormalities and secondary findings, alone or combined, failed to surpass the diagnostic value of the ACL angle for predicting ACL tears. Quantitative parameters are thus good predictors of ACL tears and may increase the overall sensitivity and specificity of MRI. The ACL angle may be confidently measured in a single MRI section and can be considered to be the most reliable quantitative parameter for detecting ACL tears. PMID:14530852
Mellado, J M; Calmet, J; Olona, M; Giné, J; Saurí, A
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vascular status of autogenous semitendinosus grafts after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in humans using magnetic resonance angiography. Twelve patients (mean age, 24.3 years) who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with the 4-strand semitendinosus tendon were studied. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography and second-look arthroscopy in their reconstructed knees on an average of 15.8 months (range 9-22 months) after surgery. Blood vessels to the graft were visualised and contrast medium enhancement for visualising the femoral tunnel, graft, and tibial tunnel was evaluated. Magnetic resonance angiography showed that a branch of the middle genicular artery extended to the upper side of the graft through the posterior capsule and that branches of the inferior genicular artery ended at the lower side of the graft in all patients. These were consistent with the actual findings of the second-look arthroscopy. We found contrast medium enhancement in the femoral and tibial tunnels in all patients. The effect of enhancement at 9 months after ACL reconstruction was higher than that at 22 months. The graft showed enhancement patterns in the posterior portion of the femoral side and the anterior portion of the tibial side. This study demonstrated that the branches of the middle and inferior genicular arteries provide blood supply to the graft, which may influence the maturation of the graft. The revascularisation of the bone tunnels could play an important role in the healing of the ligament-bone tunnel junction. PMID:18193195
Arai, Yuji; Hara, Kunio; Takahashi, Takeshi; Urade, Hidenori; Minami, Ginjiro; Takamiya, Hisatake; Kubo, Toshikazu
In this paper, a method is presented to evaluate the true values of several optical parameters of the anterior eye segment. These are: the thicknesses of the cornea and lens, the depth of the anterior chamber and the anterior and posterior curvatures of the cornea and lens. First, a photo is taken of each patient’s eye with a Topcon SL-45
T. Kampfer; A. Wegener; V. Dragomirescu; O. Hockwin
The effects of broiler strain and various additives to practical corn-soy diets on the incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) were studied using broiler chicks maintained in battery brooders. At the termination of each experiment, birds were killed and examined for TD by cutting longitudinally along the tibia. No significant difference in the incidence of TD was found among the nine broiler strains compared. While the incidence of twisted legs was higher than TD among the nine strains there was no apparent correlation between the two leg disorders. Studies conducted using the following additives did not significantly increase the incidence of TD in broilers when compared to controls: monensin, sodium chloride, copper sulfate, magnesium sulfate, potassium sulfate, roxarsone, gentian violet, erythromycin, vitamin K, or vitamin D3. However, dietary ammonium chloride (1.5 or 30%) did increase the incidence of TD, whereas adding various fermentation products at levels of 10 and 20% either in the absence or presence of ammonium chloride failed to reduce the incidence of the disease. The incidences of TD among broiler chicks fed high dietary fluoride were nonsignificant; no evidence of the disease was found in Leghorn chicks fed the same diets. Chicks maintained in battery brooders in these studies, generally had a lower incidence of TD than that reported for commercial flocks in the field. Furthermore, manipulation of feed additives or ingredients in practical rations for broiler chickens did not increase the incidence of the disease. PMID:7322972
Veltmann, J R; Jensen, L S
We examined the relationships between the density of the subchondral bone of the proximal end of the tibia and the location and condition of the overlying articular cartilage and menisci. We took coronal sections of the tibial plateaus and of the overlying articular cartilage and menisci from human knee joints that were grossly free of osteoarthritis. The specimens were examined for the presence of cartilage fibrillation using the India-ink technique of Meachim. Bone density was determined using the Quantimet picture-point analyzer. Fibrillation of articular cartilage was observed only in the articular cartilage that was not covered by meniscus and lying mesial to it, which supports the concept that the meniscus confers a protective effect on the articular cartilage. The density of the bone underlying the meniscus was lower, and was inversely related to the thickness of the meniscus and directly related to the thickness of the articular cartilage. In four knees from which the menisci were absent, the bone density was increased at the periphery. We suggest that there is a trinitarian relationship between the meniscus, cartilage, and subchondral bone, in which structural changes in any one of the three causes secondary pathological adaptive changes in the other two. PMID:3881450
Noble, J; Alexander, K
Neurostimulation remains the mainstay of treatment for patients with faecal incontinence who fails to respond to available conservative measures. Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is the main form of neurostimulation that is in use today. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS)--both the percutaneous and the transcutaneous routes--remains a relatively new entry in neurostimulation. Though in its infancy, PTNS holds promise to be an effective, patient friendly, safe and cheap treatment. However, presently PTNS only appears to have a minor role with SNS having the limelight in treating patients with faecal incontinence. This seems to have arisen as the strong, uniform and evidence based data on SNS remains to have been unchallenged yet by the weak, disjointed and unsupported evidence for both percutaneous and transcutaneous PTNS. The use of PTNS is slowly gaining acceptance. However, several questions remain unanswered in the delivery of PTNS. These have raised dilemmas which as long as they remain unsolved can considerably weaken the argument that PTNS could offer a viable alternative to SNS. This paper reviews available information on PTNS and focuses on these dilemmas in the light of existing evidence. PMID:24409042
George, Anil Thomas; Maitra, Rudra Krishna; Maxwell-Armstrong, Charles
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by biallelic mutations in RECQL4, a helicase involved with chromosomal instability and DNA repair. Patients typically present with a poikilodermatous facial rash, photosensitivity, congenital bony abnormalities, short stature, and have a predilection for osteosarcoma and cutaneous malignancies. We present a 34-year-old male RTS patient, previously diagnosed with osteosarcoma of the right forearm which was successfully treated with resection and chemotherapy, who has had multiple tibial fractures and has suffered from chronic nonunion of the proximal tibias bilaterally for greater than 9 years. The patient subsequently developed generalized lower extremity osteopenia with normal calcium homeostasis and calcitriol levels. As the RTS population continues to reach greater ages we must be mindful of other health concerns that may develop. Bone health is one considerable concern with a large portion of patients having congenital bony abnormalities and many receiving chemotherapy for osteosarcoma. We conclude that screening for bone health and supplementation with calcium and vitamin D may be warranted in RTS patients with a history of fractures and osteosarcoma treatment. PMID:22821900
Carlson, Aaron M; Thomas, Kristen B; Kirmani, Salman; Lindor, Noralane M
Purpose We performed two parallel systematic reviews and meta-analyses to determine the association between early migration of tibial components and late aseptic revision. Methods One review comprised early migration data from radiostereometric analysis (RSA) studies, while the other focused on revision rates for aseptic loosening from long-term survival studies. Thresholds for acceptable and unacceptable migration were determined according to that of several national joint registries: < 5% revision at 10 years. Results Following an elaborate literature search, 50 studies (involving 847 total knee prostheses (TKPs)) were included in the RSA review and 56 studies (20,599 TKPs) were included in the survival review. The results showed that for every mm increase in migration there was an 8% increase in revision rate, which remained after correction for age, sex, diagnosis, hospital type, continent, and study quality. Consequently, migration up to 0.5 mm was considered acceptable during the first postoperative year, while migration of 1.6 mm or more was unacceptable. TKPs with migration of between 0.5 and 1.6 mm were considered to be at risk of having revision rates higher than 5% at 10 years. Interpretation There was a clinically relevant association between early migration of TKPs and late revision for loosening. The proposed migration thresholds can be implemented in a phased, evidence-based introduction of new types of knee prostheses, since they allow early detection of high-risk TKPs while exposing only a small number of patients.
The material properties of articular cartilage in the rabbit tibial plateau were determined using biphasic indentation creep tests. Cartilage specimens from matched-pair hind limbs of rabbits approximately 4 months of age and greater than 12 months of age were tested on two locations within each compartment using a custom built materials testing apparatus. A three-way ANOVA was used to determine the effect of leg, compartment, and test location on the material properties (aggregate modulus, permeability, and Poisson's ratio) and thickness of the cartilage for each set of specimens. While no differences were observed in cartilage properties between the left and right legs, differences between compartments were found in each set of specimens. For cartilage from the adolescent group, values for aggregate modulus were 40% less in the medial compartment compared to the lateral compartment, while values for permeability and thickness were greater in the medial compartment compared to the lateral compartment (57% and 30%, respectively). Values for Poisson's ratio were 19% less in the medial compartment compared to the lateral compartment. There was also a strong trend for thickness to differ between test locations. Similar findings were observed for cartilage from the mature group with values for permeability and thickness being greater in the medial compartment compared to the lateral compartment (66% and 34%, respectively). Values for Poisson's ratio were 22% less in the medial compartment compared to the lateral compartment.
Roemhildt, Maria L.; Coughlin, Kathryn M.; Peura, Glenn D.; Fleming, Braden C.; Beynnon, Bruce D.
Diaphyseal fractures of the lower leg have continued to hold a special position in terms of incidence, type, severity, and frequency of typical complications as well as healing disorders. Despite general consensus regarding fracture healing and major factors of influence, there still is discrepancy of opinions and recommendations, in the context of pathophysiology, mechanics, and therapy. All in all, 302 fresh fractures and 134 cases of delayed healing or pseudoarthrosis in the diaphyseal region were treated, between 1971 and 1985. It has been the authors' experience that conservative treatment, according to the classical school, should be applied whenever possible. The trend in surgery, primarily for open fractures, is towards adequately dimensioned fixateur externe. Accurately defined minimum instability and healing with callus formation are nowadays appreciated and preferred. The fibula-ligament-membrane-complex may assume great importance to instable or defective forms of tibial fractures. Experimental and clinical investigations are likely to suggest that, depending on the individual case, the fibula should be included in the overall therapeutic concept, when it comes to impaired or delayed healing and pseudoarthrosis. PMID:2588838
Otto, W; Sander, E; Wöllenweber, H D; Wermann, H; Wawro, W; Fürnberg, P
Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) using Dr. Anwar's big bubble technique was performed for a patient with granular dystrophy. Intraoperatively, a perforation of the Descemet's membrane (DM) was noted inferonasally. Though the surgery was completed, the donor graft appeared to have an intact endothelium, which was inadvertently left behind by the surgeon. Intraoperatively, there was a perforation of inferonasal DM and surgery was completed by inadvertently placing a donor with an intact endothelium. Postoperatively the patient presented with a complete DM detachment and a resultant double anterior chamber (DAC). In spite of two attempts at an air tamponade on the first and fifth post operative days, the DAC still persisted. Surprisingly, during the 6th week follow up visit, there was a complete resolution of the DAC as well as total recovery of vision. This interesting case clearly exemplifies that, in spite of failed attempts at air tamponade, a DM detachment and a DAC due to DM perforation following a DALK procedure can resolve spontaneously with good visual outcome.
[Purpose] Increased femoral anteversion may occur with hip internal rotation and valgus knee alignment upon landing and is considered a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury. We examined the relationship between femoral anteversion and joint motion and muscle activity of the lower extremity in terms of the risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury. [Subjects] Sixteen healthy females were divided on the basis of femoral anteversion into low and high groups. [Methods] Femoral anteversion was assessed using Craig's test. We performed kinematic analysis and measured the electromyography activity of the lower extremity upon left single-leg landing. [Results] The high group had a significantly lower hip flexion angle and higher knee flexion and valgus angles than the low group. The rectus femoris showed significantly greater electromyography activities in the high group than in the low group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that increased femoral anteversion results in lower hip flexion angle, higher knee valgus alignment, and greater rectus femoris muscle activity, leading to anterior tibial displacement upon single-leg landing. Increased femoral anteversion may be a potential risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury.
Kaneko, Masaaki; Sakuraba, Keishoku
[Purpose] Increased femoral anteversion may occur with hip internal rotation and valgus knee alignment upon landing and is considered a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury. We examined the relationship between femoral anteversion and joint motion and muscle activity of the lower extremity in terms of the risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury. [Subjects] Sixteen healthy females were divided on the basis of femoral anteversion into low and high groups. [Methods] Femoral anteversion was assessed using Craig's test. We performed kinematic analysis and measured the electromyography activity of the lower extremity upon left single-leg landing. [Results] The high group had a significantly lower hip flexion angle and higher knee flexion and valgus angles than the low group. The rectus femoris showed significantly greater electromyography activities in the high group than in the low group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that increased femoral anteversion results in lower hip flexion angle, higher knee valgus alignment, and greater rectus femoris muscle activity, leading to anterior tibial displacement upon single-leg landing. Increased femoral anteversion may be a potential risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury. PMID:24259760
Kaneko, Masaaki; Sakuraba, Keishoku
Summary We studied the mechanical properties and structural changes in the monkey tibia with disuse osteoporosis and during subsequent\\u000a recovery. Bone bending stiffness was evaluated in relationship to microscopic changes in cortical bone and Norland bone mineral\\u000a analysis. Restraint in the semireclined position produced regional losses of bone most obviously in the anterior-proximal\\u000a tibiae. Following 6 months of restraint, the greatest
D. R. Young; W. J. Niklowitz; C. R. Steele
Fractures of the distal extremity of the tibia include physeal injuries among teenagers and more complex fractures among adults.\\u000a Displacement causes the compression of the muscles located between the distal tibia and the superior extensor retinaculum\\u000a (SER). Among the muscles of anterior compartment of the leg, the extensor hallucis longus (EHL) is particularly vulnerable\\u000a due to the amount of muscle
T. Haumont; G. C. Gauchard; L. Zabee; J.-M. Arnoux; P. Journeau; P. Lascombes
Surgical reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is technically demanding. Potential challenges include visualization of the tibial footprint and drilling of the tibial tunnel without damaging posterior neurovascular structures, as well as graft selection, deployment, tensioning, and fixation. We present a novel TransMedial all-inside arthroscopic technique (technique designed by A. J. Wilson with support from Arthrex) using a single hamstring tendon graft, fixed with adjustable cortical suspensory devices. The technique simplifies the difficult steps encountered during PCL reconstruction and is safe and reproducible. All arthroscopic viewing is accomplished from the lateral portal, and femoral socket preparation is performed from the medial side with specially contoured instruments, which allow accurate marking, measuring, and anatomic positioning of the graft. The quadrupled semitendinosus graft can be augmented with composite polymer tape for increased strength and initial stability. We use outside-in drilling to create retrograde femoral and tibial sockets. Cortical suspensory fixation on the tibial side can be supplemented with anchor fixation. We use an arthroscopic tibial inlay technique that better approximates native knee anatomy. This also avoids the “killer turn,” a problem seen in transtibial PCL reconstruction techniques, which theoretically induces graft laxity due to abrasion with cyclic loading. This technique can be further adapted to allow a modified double-bundle or TriLink graft (technique designed by A. J. Wilson with support from Arthrex.).
Nancoo, Tamara J.; Lord, Breck; Yasen, Sam K.; Smith, James O.; Risebury, Michael J.; Wilson, Adrian J.
In spite of improvements in cementing technique, migration of tibial component remains a problem in total knee arthroplasty. This study compares the primary stability of tibial components using two different cementing techniques with roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) in vitro. A total of 20 tibia specimens were matched into two groups, 10 specimens per group. Cementing technique was randomized to each group. In the first group only the base and in the second group the base and stem were cemented. The implants and the tibial metaphysis were marked with markers for the RSA analysis. All specimens were tested with an axial load of 2,000 N for 1,000 and 10,000 cycles and RSA analysis was performed. Endpoints for radiosterometric analysis were maximum total point motion, maximum subsidence, lift off, rotation and translation along the x-, y-, and z-axes. After 1,000 and 10,000 cycles, no significant differences could be found, but two tibial components of the surface cementing group showed a migration of more than 2 mm defined as failure compared to six failed tibial components in the full cementing group (P = 0.068). This higher number of failed arthroplasties in the fully cemented prosthesis group demonstrates a disadvantageous load distribution in the tibia apophysis which can cause an early component loosening. PMID:19572121
Skwara, Adrian; Figiel, J; Knott, T; Paletta, J R J; Fuchs-Winkelmann, S; Tibesku, C O
In this study, the force and stress distribution within the anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) bundles of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in response to an anterior tibial load with the knee at full extension was calculated using a validated three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of a human ACL. The interaction between the AM and PL bundles, as well as the contact and friction caused by the ACL wrapping around the bone during knee motion, were included in the model. The AM and PL bundles of the ACL were simulated as incompressible homogeneous and isotropic hyperelastic materials. The multiple-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) knee kinematics of a cadaveric knee were first obtained using a robotic/universal force-moment sensor testing system. These data were used as the boundary conditions for the FEM of the ACL to calculate the forces in the ACL. The calculated forces were compared to the in situ force in the ACL, determined experimentally, to validate the model. The validated FEM was then used to calculate the force and stress distribution within the ACL under an anterior tibial load at full extension. The AM and PL bundles shared the force, and the stress distribution was non-uniform within both bundles with the highest stress localized near the femoral insertion site. The contact and friction caused by the ACL wrapping around the bone during knee motion played the role of transferring the force from the ACL to the bone, and had a direct effect on the force and stress distribution of the ACL. This validated model will enable the analysis of force and stress distribution in the ACL in response to more complex loading conditions and has the potential to help design improved surgical procedures following ACL injuries. PMID:14757458
Song, Yuhua; Debski, Richard E; Musahl, Volker; Thomas, Maribeth; Woo, Savio L-Y
Background Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been presented as a means to more accurately restore the native anatomy of this ligament. This article describes a new method that uses a double bundle to perform ACL reconstruction and to evaluate the clinical outcome. Methods Grafts are tibialis anterior tendon allograft for anteromedial bundle (AMB) and hamstring tendon autograft without detachment of the tibial insertion for posterolateral bundle (PLB). This technique creates 2 tunnels in both the femur and tibia. Femoral fixation was done by hybrid fixation using Endobutton and Rigidfix for AMB and by biointerference screw for PLB. Tibial fixations are done by Retroscrew for AMB and by native insertion of hamstring tendon for PLB. Both bundles are independently and differently tensioned. We performed ACL reconstruction in 63 patients using our new technique. Among them, 47 participated in this study. The patients were followed up with clinical examination, Lysholm scales and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scoring system and radiological examination with a minimum 12 month follow-up duration. Results Significant improvement was seen on Lachman test and pivot-shift test between preoperative and last follow-up. Only one of participants had flexion contracture about 5 degrees at last follow-up. In anterior drawer test by KT-1000, authors found improvement from average 8.3 mm (range, 4 to 18 mm) preoperatively to average 1.4 mm (range, 0 to 6 mm) at last follow-up. Average Lysholm score of all patients was 72.7 ± 8.8 (range, 54 to 79) preoperatively and significant improvement was seen, score was 92.2 ± 5.3 (range, 74 to 97; p < 0.05) at last follow-up. Also IKDC score was normal in 35 cases, near normal in 11 cases, abnormal in 1 case at last follow-up. Conclusions Our new double bundle ACL reconstruction technique used hybrid fixation and Retroscrew had favorable outcomes.
Kim, Doo-Sup; Yi, Chang-Ho; Chung, Hoi-Jung
Introduction: The Circle of Willis is a vascular network formed at the base of skull in the interpeduncular fossa. Its anterior part is formed by the anterior cerebral artery, from either side. Anterior communicating artery connects the right and left anterior cerebral arteries. Posteriorly, the basilar artery divides into right and left posterior cerebral arteries and each joins to ipsilateral internal carotid artery through a posterior communicating artery. Anterior communicating artery, an important component of circle of Willis, acts as collateral channel to stabilize blood flow. In the present study, anatomical variations in the anterior communicating artery were noted. Material and Methods: One hundred apparently normal formalin fixed brain specimens were collected from human cadavers. Normal anatomical pattern and variations of anterior communicating artery were studied. The anterior communicating arteries were then coloured, photographed, numbered and the abnormalities, if any, were noted. Result: Thity eight variant anterior communicating arteries were noted. The most common variation observed in the anterior communicating artery was its duplication in 10 subjects, followed by its absence in 8 subjects. Some variations like plexus formation, median artery were found in adults, because of persistence of embryonic pattern. Conclusion: Knowledge on variations in the anterior communicating artery is of clinical significance, as it is one of the components of circle of Willis which stabilizes cerebral blood flow when principle conduits fail. PMID:24551604
Kardile, Poorwa Baburao; Ughade, Jaideo Manohar; Pandit, Sudhir Vishnupant; Ughade, Manohar Namdeo
Introduction: The Circle of Willis is a vascular network formed at the base of skull in the interpeduncular fossa. Its anterior part is formed by the anterior cerebral artery, from either side. Anterior communicating artery connects the right and left anterior cerebral arteries. Posteriorly, the basilar artery divides into right and left posterior cerebral arteries and each joins to ipsilateral internal carotid artery through a posterior communicating artery. Anterior communicating artery, an important component of circle of Willis, acts as collateral channel to stabilize blood flow. In the present study, anatomical variations in the anterior communicating artery were noted. Material and Methods: One hundred apparently normal formalin fixed brain specimens were collected from human cadavers. Normal anatomical pattern and variations of anterior communicating artery were studied. The anterior communicating arteries were then coloured, photographed, numbered and the abnormalities, if any, were noted. Result: Thity eight variant anterior communicating arteries were noted. The most common variation observed in the anterior communicating artery was its duplication in 10 subjects, followed by its absence in 8 subjects. Some variations like plexus formation, median artery were found in adults, because of persistence of embryonic pattern. Conclusion: Knowledge on variations in the anterior communicating artery is of clinical significance, as it is one of the components of circle of Willis which stabilizes cerebral blood flow when principle conduits fail.
Kardile, Poorwa Baburao; Ughade, Jaideo Manohar; Pandit, Sudhir Vishnupant; Ughade, Manohar Namdeo
A pair of spaced collars are mounted at right angles on a clamp body by retaining rings which enable the collars to rotate with respect to the clamp body. Mounting posts extend through aligned holes in the collars and clamp body. Each collar can be clamped onto the inserted post while the clamp body remains free to rotate about the post and collar. The clamp body is selectively clamped onto each post.
Ramsey, John K. (inventor); Meyn, Erwin H. (inventor)
Very high frequency ultrasound (35–50 MHz) has had a significant impact upon clinical imaging of the anterior segment of the eye, offering an axial resolution as small as 30 ?m. Higher frequencies, while potentially offering even finer resolution, are more affected by absorption in ocular tissues and even in the fluid coupling medium. Our aim was to develop and apply improved transducer technology utilizing frequencies beyond those routinely used for ultrasound biomicroscopy of the eye. A 75-MHz lithium niobate transducer with 2 mm aperture and 6 mm focal length was fabricated. We scanned the ciliary body and cornea of a human eye six years post-LASIK. Spectral parameter images were produced from the midband fit to local calibrated power spectra. Images were compared with those produced using a 35 MHz lithium niobate transducer of similar fractional bandwidth and focal ratio. The 75-MHz transducer was found to have a fractional bandwidth (?6 dB) of 61%. Images of the post-LASIK cornea showed higher stromal backscatter at 75 MHz than at 35 MHz. The improved lateral resolution resulted in better visualization of discontinuities in Bowman’s layer, indicative of microfolds or breaks occurring at the time of surgery. The LASIK surface was evident as a discontinuity in stromal backscatter between the stromal component of the flap and the residual stroma. The iris and ciliary body were visualized despite attenuation by the overlying sclera. Very high frequency ultrasound imaging of the anterior segment of the eye has been restricted to the 35–50 MHz band for over a decade. We showed that higher frequencies can be used in vivo to image the cornea and anterior segment. This improvement in resolution and high sensitivity to backscatter from the corneal stroma will provide benefits in clinical diagnostic imaging of the anterior segment.
Silverman, Ronald H.; Cannata, Jonathan; Shung, K. Kirk; Gal, Omer; Patel, Monica; Lloyd, Harriet O.; Feleppa, Ernest J.; Coleman, D. Jackson
Indentation and histological analysis of the porcine iris were done to assess the relative stiffness of the anterior (stroma) and posterior (dilator and sphincter) layers. The dimensions of the constituent structures were documented histologically by staining with a monoclonal anti-human ?-smooth muscle actin antibody to determine the location of the stroma, sphincter, and dilator. Intact porcine irides (4-8 h post-mortem) were bisected into two equal C-shaped halves to indent both surfaces. Indentation experiments were performed using a 1 mm cylindrical indenter tip. The load-displacement curve for each experiment was used to estimate effective instantaneous and equilibrium moduli for the anterior and posterior surfaces of the tissue. A total of 18 irides (9 pairs) with 3-5 indentations per iris surface was performed. The average thickness of the samples was 550 ?m; the indentation depth was limited to 60-100 ?m depending on the thickness of the sample at each point. Posterior surface indentation gave larger forces than anterior, with the resulting instantaneous modulus of 6.0 ± 0.6 kPa versus 4.0 ± 0.5 kPa (mean ± 95% CI, n = 45, p < 0.001) and equilibrium modulus of 4.4 ± 0.9 versus 2.3 ± 0.3 (p = 0.007). The stress-relaxation analysis revealed that the anterior surface had a shorter relaxation time (121.31 ± 6.84 s) than the posterior surface (210.61 ± 9.41 s, p = 0.03), perhaps due to the permeability of the stroma. Recognizing that our effective modulus calculations in this study did not account for heterogeneity, viscoelasticity, or poroelasticity, we conclude that the posterior components of the iris - dilator, pigment epithelium, and sphincter - are on average stiffer than the stroma and anterior border layer. PMID:21787771
Whitcomb, Julie E; Amini, Rouzbeh; Simha, Narendra K; Barocas, Victor H
A partial tear of the anterior cruciate ligament is a frequent pattern of ACL injury, observed in 10 to 27% of isolated ACL lesions. There are three reasons to preserve these remnants: biomechanical, vascular and proprioceptive advantages for the patient. Good quality fibers work as graft protection during the healing process. Periligamentous and endoligamentous vessels present into the native ACL tissue may enhance the vascularization of the ACL augmentation. Mechanoreceptors still remaining in the residual ACL fibers may have proprioceptive function. Definition is controversial, based on anatomy, on clinical examination, on instrumental laxity assessment or on MRI findings. Continuous remnant ACL fibers bridging the femur and tibia, from native femoral ACL footprint to native tibial ACL footprint seem to be a good definition. Diagnostic is suspected by accumulation of arguments brought by a thorough clinical examination, precise MRI analysis and examination under anesthesia. But the final diagnostic needs an arthroscopic evaluation to confirm the presence of fibers in good position and to validate its good mechanical properties. The treatment of ACL partial tear is a demanding surgery; difficulties to visualize the graft insertion site, especially on the femoral side, require a perfect knowledge of the normal anatomy of the native ACL footprint. Adapted portals, perfect controls of the tunnel drilling process, intercondylar notch space management are the keys of success. The pivot shift test under anesthesia, a hard stop Lachman test, MRI findings, level and type of sport, arthroscopic aspects of the remnants and its mechanical properties, allow the surgeon decide between non operative treatment, ACL augmentation or standard ACL reconstruction. PMID:21056025
Colombet, P; Dejour, D; Panisset, J-C; Siebold, R
The literature has shown that long-term outcomes for both below-knee amputation and reconstruction after type III-B and III-C tibial fracture are poor. Yet, patients often report satisfaction with their treatment and outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between patient outcomes and satisfaction after open tibial fractures via qualitative methodology. Twenty patients who were treated for open tibial fractures at one institution were selected using purposeful sampling and interviewed in-person in a semi-structured manner. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Despite reporting marked physical and psychosocial deficits, participants relayed high satisfaction. We hypothesize that the use of adaptive coping techniques successfully reduces stress, which leads to an increase in coping self-efficacy that results in the further use of adaptive coping strategies, culminating in personal growth. This stress reduction and personal growth leads to satisfaction despite poor functional and emotional outcomes. PMID:20948418
Shauver, Melissa S; Aravind, Maya S; Chung, Kevin C
Highly cross-linked polyethylene has become the gold standard in total hip replacement for its wear resistance. Moderately crosslinked polyethylene is now available for total knee replacement (TKR), although concerns about reduced mechanical strength have prevented widespread adoption. The purpose of this report is to describe an unusual case where a patient underwent cruciate retaining TKR using a moderately crosslinked polyethylene tibial insert that went on to fracture twice in the same location across the primary and first revision surgery. The first tibial insert was 10?mm thick and was implanted for 16 months. The second tibial insert was 15?mm thick and was implanted for 11 months. Both fractured along the posterior aspect of the medial articular surface. The lack of a specific event leading to these fractures and the fact that they occurred twice in the same location in the same patient suggest that caution is still necessary regarding the introduction of crosslinked polyethylene for TKR surgery.
Teeter, Matthew G.; McAuley, James P.; Naudie, Douglas D.
When performing an amputation of the lower limb, the preservation of the knee joint is important to obtain an optimal functional outcome. Many reconstruction procedures are available to cover the amputation defect in order to preserve a sufficient length of the stump, so a prosthesis could be put in place with the best functional results. Local musculocutaneous flaps or free flaps are conventionally described with their advantages and disadvantages. In this report, we describe our experience with a transtibial amputation and stump covering using a fasciocutaneous flap based on tibial posterior perforators. An extensive tibial bone exposure with only posterior skin was viable. It is an efficient and reliable solution for covering tibial stump without microvascular anastomosis. PMID:23102914
Boucher, F; Ho Quoc, C; Pinatel, B; Thiney, P-O; Mojallal, A
Highly cross-linked polyethylene has become the gold standard in total hip replacement for its wear resistance. Moderately crosslinked polyethylene is now available for total knee replacement (TKR), although concerns about reduced mechanical strength have prevented widespread adoption. The purpose of this report is to describe an unusual case where a patient underwent cruciate retaining TKR using a moderately crosslinked polyethylene tibial insert that went on to fracture twice in the same location across the primary and first revision surgery. The first tibial insert was 10?mm thick and was implanted for 16 months. The second tibial insert was 15?mm thick and was implanted for 11 months. Both fractured along the posterior aspect of the medial articular surface. The lack of a specific event leading to these fractures and the fact that they occurred twice in the same location in the same patient suggest that caution is still necessary regarding the introduction of crosslinked polyethylene for TKR surgery. PMID:24511401
Teeter, Matthew G; McAuley, James P; Naudie, Douglas D
OBJECTIVES: To review the epidemiological aspects of fractures of the tibial plateau in a level one hospital. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 239 tibial plateau fractures treated surgically. We took into account age, gender, trauma mechanism, classification of the injuries, associated injuries and affected side. RESULTS: 168 were male, the fifth decade has been the most affected, the mechanism of trauma, car accident was the main causal fator, 128 cases were on the left side and 22,6% had associated injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients were male, in the fifth decade of life, and victim of traffic accidents, and the depression and shear fractures of the tibial plateau are the most frequent. Associated lesions were infrequent in our study. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic Studies. Investigating the Effect of a Patient Characteristic on the Outcome of Disease.
Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires e; Hara, Rafael; Prado, Juliano; Schiavo, Leonardo; Giordano, Vincenzo; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro
The literature has shown that long-term outcomes for both below-knee amputation and reconstruction following type III-B and III-C tibial fracture are poor. Yet, patients often report satisfaction with their treatment and/or outcomes. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between patient outcomes and satisfaction after open tibial fractures via qualitative methodology. Twenty patients who were treated for open tibial fractures at one institution were selected using purposeful sampling and interviewed in-person in a semi-structured manner. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Despite reporting marked physical and psychosocial deficits, participants relayed high satisfaction. We hypothesize that the use adaptive coping techniques successfully reduces stress, which leads to an increase in coping self-efficacy that results in the further use of adaptive coping strategies, culminating in personal growth. This stress reduction and personal growth leads to satisfaction despite poor functional and emotional outcomes.
Shauver, Melissa S.; Aravind, Maya S.; Chung, Kevin C.
OBJECTIVE Peripheral nerve imaging by portable ultrasound (US) may serve as a noninvasive and lower-cost alternative to nerve conduction studies (NCS) for diagnosis and staging of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP). We aimed to examine the association between the size of the posterior tibial nerve (PTN) and the presence and severity of DSP. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a cross-sectional study of 98 consecutive diabetic patients classified by NCS as subjects with DSP or control subjects. Severity was determined using the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score. A masked expert sonographer measured the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the PTN at 1, 3, and 5 cm proximal to the medial malleolus. RESULTS Fifty-five patients had DSP. The mean CSA of the PTN in DSP compared with control subjects at distances of 1 (23.03 vs. 17.72 mm2; P = 0.004), 3 (22.59 vs. 17.69 mm2; P < 0.0001), and 5 cm (22.05 vs. 17.25 mm2; P = 0.0005) proximal to the medial malleolus was significantly larger. Although the area under the curve (AUC) for CSA measurements at all three anatomical levels was similar, the CSA measured at 3 cm above the medial malleolus had an optimal threshold value for identification of DSP (19.01 mm2) with a sensitivity of 0.69 and a specificity of 0.77 by AUC analysis. CONCLUSIONS This large study of diabetic patients confirms that the CSA of the PTN is larger in patients with DSP than in control subjects, and US is a promising point-of-care screening tool for DSP.
Riazi, Sheila; Bril, Vera; Perkins, Bruce A.; Abbas, Sherif; Chan, Vincent W.S.; Ngo, Mylan; Lovblom, Leif E.; El-Beheiry, Hossam; Brull, Richard
Background: Nonunion of long bones is a difficult clinical problem and challenges the clinical acumen of surgeons. Multiple surgical or nonsurgical modalities have been used to treat nonunions. Noninvasive pulsed electromagnetic stimulation is an entity known to affect the piezoelectric phenomenon of bone forming cells. We conducted a study on 45 long-bone fractures of tibia treated by pulsed electromagnetic stimulation, which are analyzed and reported. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 tibial fractures with established atrophic nonunion were enrolled between 1981 and 1988. All the patients had abnormal mobility and no or minimal gap at fracture site with no evidence of callus formation across the fracture site. The patients' age ranged between 24 and 68 years; 40 were men and 5 were women. All patients having evidence of infection, implant in situ, and gap nonunions were excluded from study. Pulsed electromagnetic stimulation was given using above-knee plaster of Paris cast (0.008 Weber/m2 magnetic field was created for 12 h/day). The average duration for pulsed electromagnetic stimulation (PEMS) therapy was 8.35 weeks, with the range being 6–12 weeks. The cases were evaluated at 6 weeks and subsequently every 6-weekly interval for clinical and radiological union. The withdrawal of therapy was decided as per clinicoradiological evidence of union. Results: All but three patients showed evidence of union. About 35% (n = 16) cases showed union in 10 weeks, and 85%(n = 38) cases showed union in 4 months. The average duration of therapy using PEMS was 8.35±0.48 weeks, and the average duration of immobilization was 3.02 ± 0.22 months. Three cases that did not show evidence of union were poorly compliant for the apparatus of PEMS. Conclusion: PEMS is a useful noninvasive modality of treatment for difficult nonunion of long bones.
Gupta, Anil Kumar; Srivastava, Kailash Prasad; Avasthi, Sachin
Aim To determine whether anterior capsule polishing during cataract surgery done by phacoemulsification has any effect on the rate of posterior capsule opacification. Materials and methods We conducted a 3 year retrospective analytical study at our hospital. The medical records of patients who underwent cataract extraction by phacoemulsification with foldable square edge hydrophilic PCIOL between April 2007 and March 2010 were reviewed. The study included 1009 eyes of 950 patients who underwent phacoemulsification with foldable square edge hydrophilic IOL in the bag implantation with anterior capsular polishing. The control group included 981 eyes of 957 patients in whom anterior capsular polishing was not done. Patients in the age group of 45–65 years with well dilating pupils were included in the study. They were evaluated at 1 week, 1 month and 1 year post-operatively. Exclusion criteria included glaucoma, shallow anterior chamber, uveitis, high myopia, pseudoexfoliation, diabetes mellitus, traumatic cataracts, posterior polar cataract, subluxated cataracts, previous ocular surgeries, patients allergic to dilating drops, and steroid intake. Intraoperatively, the exclusion criteria were not achieving the total anterior capsule cover on the IOL optic, sulcus fixated IOL, and any intraoperative complications like posterior capsule rupture. After bimanual irrigation/aspiration, all enrolled patients were randomly assigned to receive either 360 degree anterior capsular polishing or No anterior capsular polishing and results were studied. Results The rate of posterior capsule opacification in the study group and in the control group was not statistically significant. Conclusion Though it was thought that anterior capsular polishing will lead to reduced rate of PCO formation, our study showed that there was no significant difference in PCO formation between the two groups. However, it was seen that the rate of anterior capsule opacification and capsular phimosis showed a significant reduction in cases in which anterior capsular polishing was done.
Baile, Rahul; Sahasrabuddhe, Meghana; Nadkarni, Snehal; Karira, Vasudeo; Kelkar, Juilee
The clinical results after high tibial osteotomy for the treatment of symptomatic varus gonarthrosis are unpredictable. Although preoperative gait analysis has been shown to be useful in predicting successful outcome after high tibial osteotomy, there are no readily available preoperative clinical tests for predicting success. The authors did a study to determine the effects of an offset short-leg walking cast as a potential predictor of clinical success after high tibial osteotomy. Specifically, the authors evaluated the effect of an offset short-leg walking cast on pain relief and changes in the peak external adduction moments in patients with symptomatic varus gonarthrosis indicated for high tibial osteotomy. Nineteen consecutive patients indicated for high tibial osteotomy were enrolled and completed the study. All patients had precast gait analysis to determine baseline parameters. Immediately after gait analysis, a short-leg lateral offset walking cast was applied and worn for 3 days to allow time for adaptation. Gait analysis then was repeated. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index pain scores were obtained before and after the cast was applied. The cast resulted in a mean reduction in pain of 53%, and a mean reduction in the peak external adduction moment of 36% in the 17 of 19 patients who tolerated the cast. The reduction in pain was correlated with the reduction in the peak adduction moment (r = 0.63). The authors conclude that an offset short-leg walking cast results in pain reduction that correlates with changes in external adduction moments about the knee. Therefore, an offset short-leg walking cast may prove to be an effective tool for predicting patients who ultimately will benefit from valgus high tibial osteotomy. PMID:12616061
Cole, Brian J; Freedman, Kevin B; Taksali, Sudeep; Hingtgen, Brooke; DiMasi, Michelle; Bach, Bernard R; Hurwitz, Debra E
Objective To assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability for measuring tibial torsion measurements by a radiographic method using three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction (3D-CT) and to compare the physical measures to those of 3D-CT. Method The study included 33 children who presented with intoeing gait. Tibial torsion was measured by 3D-CT. Distal reference point was the bimalleolar axis. Proximal reference points were the transtibial axis and posterior condylar axis. Physical measurements included thigh-foot angle (TFA) and bimalleolar angle (BMA). 3D-CT measurement and physical measurement were performed twice at both lower extremities by each rater. The intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were calculated by intraclass correlation coefficiency (ICC). The relationship between radiological and physical examination was calculated by Spearman correlation coefficient. Results The 3D-CT measures for tibial torsion were reliable within individual raters and between different raters. However, physical measures for tibial torsion were reliable within an individual rater but not reliable between raters. The 3D-CT measures by any proximal reference axis were more reliable within a rater and between raters than physical measurements. There was no significant impact introduced by the selection of the proximal reference axis. The correlation coefficiency between 3D-CT and physical measurement methods was low. Conclusion Because the 3D-CT measurements for tibial torsion are more reliable than physical measurements, we recommend that accurate diagnosis of internal tibial torsion should be detected by using 3D-CT measurements. Also, considering the disadvantages of radiological measurements, physical measurement may be used for short term follow-up by same raters, as intra-rater reliability is relatively good.
Shin, Sang-yeop; Yoon, Chul Ho; Lee, Eun Shin; Oh, Min-Kyun; Kim, A Ram; Park, Jong Moon; Shin, Jun-Hwa
Objective-To evaluate effects of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) on canine stifle joint biomechanics in a cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifle joint by use of a 3-D computer model simulating the stance phase of gait and to compare biomechanics in TPLO-managed, CrCL-intact, and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. Sample-Computer simulations of the pelvic limb of a Golden Retriever. Procedures-A previously developed computer model of the canine pelvic limb was used to simulate TPLO stabilization to achieve a tibial plateau angle (TPA) of 5° (baseline value) in a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for tibial fragment rotation of 13° to -3°. Ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation were determined and compared with values for CrCL-intact and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. Results-TPLO with a 5° TPA converted cranial tibial translation to caudal tibial translation and increased loads placed on the remaining stifle joint ligaments, compared with results for a CrCL-intact stifle joint. Lateral collateral ligament load was similar, medial collateral ligament load increased, and caudal cruciate ligament load decreased after TPLO, compared with loads for a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Relative tibial rotation after TPLO was similar to that of a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Stifle joint biomechanics were affected by TPLO fragment rotation. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-In the model, stifle joint biomechanics were partially improved after TPLO, compared with CrCL-deficient stifle joint biomechanics, but TPLO did not fully restore CrCL-intact stifle joint biomechanics. Overrotation of the tibial fragment negatively influenced stifle joint biomechanics by increasing caudal tibial translation. PMID:24959728
Brown, Nathan P; Bertocci, Gina E; Marcellin-Little, Denis J
Background Aneurysms infra-patellar region are uncommon. Of them, true aneurysms are very rare and that of posterior tibial artery are extremely rare. The more common, pseudoaneurysms are commonly associated with trauma whereas the true ones are linked with either inflammatory or mycotic origins. Case Presentation We reported another case of true aneurysm of posterior tibial artery without any evident aetiology. This was repaired with resection of aneurysm followed by interposition vein graft. Conclusion Through this report, we discussed the rarity, review of literature and management of this unusual condition.
Open surgical treatment of comminuted tibial pilon fractures is associated with substantial complications in many patients. Indirect reduction and stabilization of fractures by means of distraction using a circular external fixator can be a useful method of achieving satisfactory joint restoration, and employs the principles of closed reduction to realign disrupted bones and joint structures. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with a comminuted tibial pilon fracture treated by means of closed reduction and stabilization using a circular external fixator. PMID:18590893
Bozkurt, Murat; Ocguder, Durmus Ali; Ugurlu, Mahmut; Kalkan, Tughan
Treatment of distal tibial fractures is technically challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of distally locked retrograde Ender nail fixation of axially stable fibular fractures associated with these distal tibia fractures. During a 4-year span, we treated 23 fibular fractures, associated with either distal tibial metaphyseal or articular fractures, with a retrograde 3.5-mm Ender nail. The surgical protocol along with radiographic and clinical outcomes is presented. Using this technique, we have achieved excellent fibular union with minimal complications. PMID:23609789
Stewart, Christopher M; Kiner, Dirk; Nowotarski, Peter
A case of acute, traumatic, lateral dislocation of the posterior tibial tendon is presented as a unique pattern of posterior tibial tendon dislocation. Several attempts at both closed and open reduction were required to relocate the tendon and reduce the fracture-dislocation. This case is being presented to demonstrate the use of cross-sectional imaging to both recognize the initial bony injury and to identify tendon anatomy and pathology that may not be seen in the operating room with limited visualization. PMID:24671259
Trividi, Mitesh; Brown, Elliott; Lese, Andrea; Katz, Lee D
Superior dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint occurred in a 34-year-old woman who sustained a Grade 3B open left tibial fracture. An external fixator was applied to the tibia, and the tibiofibular joint was treated by closed reduction. Two bone graftings were performed, and the patient ultimately required a fibular osteotomy to allow tibial impaction. At 10 months posttrauma, the patient is fully weight-bearing and has no pain either at the tibia or the tibiofibular joint. PMID:1556614
Herscovici, D; Fredrick, R W; Behrens, F
Tibial osteomyelitis, in association with bone loss and a soft tissue defect, poses a significant reconstructive challenge, especially in high-risk patients. We describe a case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus tibial osteomyelitis with intercalary bone loss successfully managed with bifocal Ilizarov compression osteogenesis at the bone resection site and proximal distraction osteogenesis, accompanied by a reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap performed with a delayed technique. When free tissue transfer is not a reconstructive option owing to medical comorbidities or patient refusal, the reverse sural flap combined with bifocal Ilizarov compression and distraction osteogenesis can provide a reconstructive option to achieve limb salvage for these challenging cases. PMID:24534561
We report on a new-born with a congenital mucocele on the anterior dorsal side of the tongue. The presentation as well as the differential diagnosis of congenital oral swellings is discussed. Because of breastfeeding problems the mucinous swelling was incised and drained two days after birth. Immediately after drainage the swelling disappeared. Congenital oral swellings are rare. Most of them are mucoceles. Post-partum treatment is surgically, but spontaneous remission has been described. High incidence of recurrence should be taken into account when (micro-)marsupialization or incision as sole treatment is performed. PMID:24814234
Wong Chung, J E R E; Ensink, R J H; Thijs, H F H; van den Hoogen, F J A
We investigated the in-vivo cartilage contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint in patients after reconstruction of a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). A dual fluoroscopic and MR imaging technique was used to investigate the cartilage contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint during in-vivo weight-bearing flexion of the knee in eight patients six months following clinically successful reconstruction of an acute isolated ACL rupture. The location of tibiofemoral cartilage contact, size of the contact area, cartilage thickness at the contact area, and magnitude of the cartilage contact deformation of the ACL-reconstructed knees were compared with those previously measured in intact (contralateral) knees and ACL-deficient knees of the same subjects. Contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral cartilage after ACL reconstruction were similar to those measured in intact knees. However, at lower flexion, the abnormal posterior and lateral shift of cartilage contact location to smaller regions of thinner tibial cartilage that has been described in ACL-deficient knees persisted in ACL-reconstructed knees, resulting in an increase of the magnitude of cartilage contact deformation at those flexion angles. Reconstruction of the ACL restored some of the in vivo cartilage contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint to normal. Clinically, recovering anterior knee stability might be insufficient to prevent postoperative cartilage degeneration due to lack of restoration of in vivo cartilage contact biomechanics.
Hosseini, Ali; Van de Velde, Samuel K.; Gill, Thomas J.; Li, Guoan
Transverse fractures of the sacrum with anterior displacement are the rarest type of transverse sacral fractures. They usually\\u000a occur at the S1–S2 region in suicide jumpers. A clinical study was performed to evaluate the diagnosis, treatment and outcome\\u000a of transverse sacral fractures with anterior displacement. We present six patients with a transverse fracture of the sacrum\\u000a with anterior displacement. All
George S. Sapkas; Andreas F. Mavrogenis; Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos
Existing data suggest anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a role in autonomic regulation. In persons with post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), autonomic regulation appears impaired and smaller mean ACC volume has been reported. This study examined relationships between ACC volume and the mag- nitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in 77 U.S. combat veterans at rest, 40 of whom met
Steven H. Woodward; Danny G. Kaloupek; Marie Schaer; Stephan Eliez
Objective: To evaluate the validity of the common tangent and conventional tibial plateau angle methods for measuring the patellar tendon angle (PTA) in dogs. Methods: Radiographs of cadaveric stifles (n = 20) placed at 135° in true lateral position were obtained to measure the PTA with both methods. A Kirschner wire was inserted perpendicularly to the patellar tendon at its insertion on the tibia and the stifle was dissected. Two Kirschner wires were then used to identify the anatomical landmarks of the tibial plateau. A digital image was obtained of the proximal tibia in true lateral position. Six blinded observers measured each PTA digitally while the anatomical PTA was determined by an independent blinded observer from the angle between the line representing the tibial plateau and the Kirschner wire representing the perpendicular to the patellar tendon. The agreement between the methods was determined statistically from an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The global ICC for the common tangent method (0.44) and for the conventional method (0.4) indicated that their overall validity is poor. The measurements obtained by common tangentmethod and conventional method were respectively below and above the anatomical measurements. The reproducibility of the PTA measurements based on images of the dissected stifles was very good. Clinical significance: Both the common tangent and conventional methods show poor concordance with the anatomical measurement of PTA. Further studies are needed to determine if errors in measurements affect the clinical outcome. PMID:24763422
Bismuth, C; Ferrand, F X; Millet, M; Labrunie, A; Marin, B; Pillard, P; Deroy, C; Fau, D; Carozzo, C; Cachon, T; Viguier, E
The intraocular correction of aphakia in the anterior chamber currently consists of two options: an angle supported intraocular lens (IOL, Kelman Multiflex) and an iris fixated IOL (Artisan/Verisyse). The angle supported IOL is fixated with four haptic points in the anterior chamber and the iris fixated IOL is enclavated to the anterior iris surface. Acceptable results of both IOLs are reported in the literature; however both IOLs show some long-term complications in some eyes. Alternatives to these anterior chamber IOLs to correct aphakia are the retropupillary fixated Artisan and sclera fixated IOLs. PMID:24706252
Kohnen, T; Hengerer, F H
Object. The implantation of interbody fusion cages allows for the restoration of disc height and the enlargement of the neuroforaminal space. The purpose of this study was to compare the extent of subsidence occurring after conventional cage placement compared to a novel wider cage placement technique. Methods. This study is a retrospective evaluation of radiographs of patients who underwent stand-alone single level anterior lumbar interbody fusion with lordotic titanium cages and rhBMP-2. Fifty-three patients were evaluated: 39 patients had wide cage placement (6?mm interdevice distance) and 14 had narrow cage placement (2?mm interdevice distance). Anterior and posterior intervertebral disc space heights were measured post-operatively and at follow-up imaging. Results. The decrease in anterior intervertebral disc space height was 2.05?mm versus 3.92?mm (P < .005) and 1.08?mm versus 3.06?mm in posterior disc space height for the wide cage placement and the narrow cage placement respectively. The proportion of patients with subsidence greater than 2?mm was 41.0% in the wide cage patients and 85.7% for the narrow cage patients (P < .005). Conclusions. The wider cage placement significantly reduced the amount of subsidence while allowing for a greater exposed surface area for interbody fusion.
Subach, Brian R.; Copay, Anne G.; Martin, Marcus M.; Schuler, Thomas C.
The pathophysiology of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) after intra-articular fractures is poorly understood. Pursuit of a better understanding of this disease is complicated by inability to accurately monitor its onset, progression and severity. Common radiographic methods used to assess PTOA do not provide sufficient image quality for precise cartilage measurements. Double-contrast MDCT is an alternative method that may be useful, since it produces high-quality images in normal ankles. The purpose of this study was to assess this technique’s performance in assessing cartilage maintenance in ankles with an intra-articular fracture. Thirty-six tibial plafond fractures were followed over two years, with thirty-one MDCTs being obtained four months after injury, and twenty-two MDCTs after two years. Unfortunately, clinical results with this technique were unreliable due to pathology (presumed arthrofibrosis) and technical problems (pooling of contrast). The arthrofibrosis that developed in many patients inhibited proper joint access and contrast infiltration, although high-quality images were obtained in eleven patients. In this patient subset, in which focal regions of cartilage degeneration could be visualized, thickness could be measured with a high degree of fidelity. While thus useful in selected instances, double-contrast MDCT was too unreliable to be recommended to assess these particular types of injuries.
Thomas, Thaddeus P.; Van Hofwegen, Christopher J.; Anderson, Donald D.; Brown, Thomas D.; Marsh, J. Lawrence
Anterior knee pain is the most common knee complaint. It may be due to a variety of soft tissue or osseous abnormalities. Knowledge of the radiologic appearance of the abnormalities allows more accurate diagnosis of the cause of the pain including chondral abnormalities, patellar instability and dislocation, femoral trochlear dysplasia, abnormal patellar location, bipartite patella, various tendinopathies, bursal inflammation, traction apophysitis in pediatric and adolescent patients, and miscellaneous diseases including mediopatellar plica syndrome and Hoffa's disease. Radiographs are often obtained to exclude acute osseous abnormalities, such as fractures. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers superior soft tissue contrast resolution and allows for more accurate evaluation of the underlying etiology and therefore may improve treatment and possible surgical planning. PMID:24473994
Samim, Mohammad; Smitaman, Edward; Lawrence, David; Moukaddam, Hicham
OBJECTIVE: The study presents a method allowing the in vivo homogenised characteristics of the tibiae of children to be assessed. DESIGN: Studies have been performed on two groups of children: six normal children, aged from 5 to 16 yr, and on four children, aged from 8 to 11 yr with tibial deformities. We analysed the tibial transverse sections from CT scans performed on the left tibia of each child. BACKGROUND: Most tibial torsion studies have only been based on geometrical parameters. Our study integrated mechanical and geometrical considerations. METHODS: The finite element models and integration of mechanical properties were performed from CT scans. Then homogenised mechanical characteristics (tensile stiffness, flexural stiffness and torsional stiffness) were calculated. RESULTS: The homogenised mechanical characteristics decrease between 20 to 80% of the tibial length. The values increased with age for both groups of children. Children with abnormalities seem to have values of tibial rigidities comparable with those of normal tibiae. CONCLUSIONS: By considering the mechanical and geometrical properties of the tibia in our study, we showed that the bone stiffness of children is not altered with torsional deformities. RELEVANCE: Torsional tibial abnormalities of children are a frequent phenomenon which may have important consequences on gait and joints. The method developed could be used as an objective assessment of bone rigidities for analysing tibial disorders such as torsional abnormalities of varying severity. PMID:11415823
Limbert, G.; Estivalèzes, E.; Hobatho, M.C.; Baunin, C.; Cahuzac, J.P.
Background Lesions located in the area of the tibial spines are rare. In most cases, treatment follows histological diagnosis, but when imaging and clinical data are considered to be "very" characteristic for benign lesions, such as chondroblastoma or osteoid osteoma, treatment may be performed without biopsy. Traditional curettage requires opening the joint, which presents a high risk of contamination of the joint itself and surrounding structures, such as the popliteal area, with possible contamination of the neurovascular bundle when performing curettage with the posterior approach. In this case, the re-excision of a local recurrence would be extremely difficult. Results We describe a technique using arthroscopic guidance for radiofrequency thermoablation of a benign lesion in the tibial spines area. We report on an illustrative case. The patient so treated, reported immediate relief from the pain, and after two weeks, was free of pain. The biopsy performed before the treatment confirmed the radiological diagnosis of chondroblastoma. At one year of follow-up, the patient is without pain, with a 0-130°range of motion, has no activity limitations and is apparently free of disease. Conclusion This technique allows a radiofrequency thermoablation of a lesion in the tibial spines area and in the posterior tibial surface to be performed without opening the joint, monitoring the tibial plateau surface, probably decreasing the risk of cartilage damage. Unfortunately, in the case presented, the high pressure from the arthroscopy's pump broke the tibial plateau surface creating a communication to the tibial tunnel used for thermoablation.
Gait asymmetry may be linked to the tendency for runners to sustain chronic overuse injuries. This paper compares gait asymmetry in female runners who have never sustained a running-related injury to those who have sustained unilateral tibial stress fractures. The symmetry index was used to characterize asymmetry in the kinetics of both subject groups. There were three aims to this
Rebecca Avrin Zifchock; Irene Davis; Joseph Hamill
Intramedullary nailing of proximal tibial fractures can be difficult when using the standard entry portal. We evaluated the suprapatellar portal, using a midline quadriceps tendon incision, to perform intramedullary nailing of the tibia. Seven patients were treated with this adaptation of the standard intramedullary nailing procedure. An arthroscopy was done before and after the nailing procedure. No special equipment was used to perform the intramedullary nailing. We evaluated the handling and necessary modifications of the standard intramedullary technique to introduce the locked tibial nail through the suprapatellar approach. We found this technique not necessarily more difficult than the standard intramedullary nailing of the tibia through the infrapatellar entry portal. Although the patients did not complain of patellofemoral discomfort after the suprapatellar nailing, definitive scuffing of the cartilage in the lower part of the femoral trochlea was visible. Introduction of a locked tibial nail via the suprapatellar approach was found to be possible and even advantageous for some complex upper tibial shaft fractures in compromised limbs. Some possible downsides of this approach need to be taken into account but, in some cases, they can be outweighed by the benefits. PMID:22308632
Jakma, Tijs; Reynders-Frederix, Peter; Rajmohan, Rai
In this study, the results of open-wedge osteotomy with Puddu plate for the treatment of varus gonarthrosis have been evaluated prospectively. This study assessed 65 knees of 60 patients with varus gonarthrosis who underwent high tibial osteotomies. Our study population consisted of 13 male and 47 female patients with a mean age of 54 (range 39–76) years. For the clinical
Mehmet Asik; Cengiz Sen; Bulent Kilic; S. Bora Goksan; Feyyaz Ciftci; Omer F. Taser
Two cases of asymmetrical closure of the proximal tibial epiphysis without a clear aetiological factor were presented. In both cases premature closure of the growth plate resulted in progressive recurvatum and valgus deformity of the knee with leg length discrepancy. The correction of deformity was obtained using Taylor Spatial frame with excellent results at 2 years follow-up. We hypothesize that repetitive
Marcin Domzalski; William Mackenzie
Background: We evaluated the clinical effect of intermittent percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) in patients with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Methods: A total of 15 patients (10 women and 5 men, mean age 60.0 years, range 41–78) with CPP were enrolled in an open prospective clinical trial. The patients had 12 weekly outpatient treatment sessions, each lasting 30 min.
Soo Woong Kim; Jae-Seung Paick; Ja Hyeon Ku
OBJECTIVES: To determine urodynamic changes and predictive factors in patients with voiding dysfunction who underwent 12 percutaneous tibial nerve stimulations. METHODS: Thirty nine patients with chronic voiding dysfunction were enrolled in a prospective multicenter trial in the Netherlands (n = 19) and in Italy (n = 20). A 50% reduction in total catheterised volume per 24 hr was taken as
Vera Vandoninck; Michael R. van Balken; E. Finazzi Agro; John P. F. A. Heesakkers; Frans M. J. Debruyne; Lambertus A. L. M. Kiemeney; Bart L. H. Bemelmans
Mandibular osteoblasts originate from the neural crest and deposit bone intramembranously, mesoderm derived tibial osteoblasts by endochondral mechanisms. Bone synthesized by both cell types is identical in structure, yet functional differences between the two cell types may exist. Thus, both matched juvenile and adult mandibular and tibial osteoblasts were studied regarding their proliferative capacity, their osteogenic potential and the expression of osteogenic and origin related marker genes. Juvenile tibial cells proliferated at the highest rate while juvenile mandibular cells exhibited higher ALP activity depositing more mineralized matrix. Expression of Hoxa4 in tibial cells verified their mesodermal origin, whereas very low levels in mandibular cells confirmed their ectodermal descent. Distinct differences in the expression pattern of bone development